WorldWideScience

Sample records for accidents problemes sanitaires

  1. Health problems raised by the elimination of radioactive wastes and nuclear accidents; Problemes sanitaires poses par l'elimination des dechets radioactifs et par les accidents nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammet, H; Mechali, D; Dousset, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The rapid development of nuclear energy demands an urgent solution to the health problems arising from the discharge into the environment of radioactive residues produced by nuclear installations. - To be able to evaluate the risks run by the population and to fix tolerance limits for waste discharge, it is necessary to possess an exact knowledge of the course taken by the radioelements discharged, from their source until they reach man. The incorporation of radioelements in food cycles is the first risk to take into consideration. The factors involved in all stages of this transmission must be foreseen, whether they concern physical or biological media, because of their continuity and their interdependence. Finally, socio-economic and dietetic data must be collected in order that the risks and tolerance levels estimated are based on concrete and experimental rather than theoretical knowledge. The risk of nuclear accidents in the atomic industry, although very improbable, must be taken into consideration because of the seriousness of their consequences. The health problems arise in the field of professional hygiene on the one hand and in that of public hygiene on the other. In the first field the risk is two-fold and involves irradiation and contamination. The public sphere is reduced essentially to the risk of contamination by radioactive substances accidentally released in the surrounding medium. The health studies to be conducted in this field therefore include research not only on irradiation or contamination therapeutics but also on the transfer of radioelements from the accident site to man, mainly through food cycles, in their physical and in their biological components. Studies of this kind form the basis of decisions in the health field which would have to be taken in the case of an accident. (authors) [French] Le developpement rapide de l'energie nucleaire rend urgente la solution des problemes sanitaires poses par le rejet dans le milieu ambiant des

  2. Health problems raised by the elimination of radioactive wastes and nuclear accidents; Problemes sanitaires poses par l'elimination des dechets radioactifs et par les accidents nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammet, H.; Mechali, D.; Dousset, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The rapid development of nuclear energy demands an urgent solution to the health problems arising from the discharge into the environment of radioactive residues produced by nuclear installations. - To be able to evaluate the risks run by the population and to fix tolerance limits for waste discharge, it is necessary to possess an exact knowledge of the course taken by the radioelements discharged, from their source until they reach man. The incorporation of radioelements in food cycles is the first risk to take into consideration. The factors involved in all stages of this transmission must be foreseen, whether they concern physical or biological media, because of their continuity and their interdependence. Finally, socio-economic and dietetic data must be collected in order that the risks and tolerance levels estimated are based on concrete and experimental rather than theoretical knowledge. The risk of nuclear accidents in the atomic industry, although very improbable, must be taken into consideration because of the seriousness of their consequences. The health problems arise in the field of professional hygiene on the one hand and in that of public hygiene on the other. In the first field the risk is two-fold and involves irradiation and contamination. The public sphere is reduced essentially to the risk of contamination by radioactive substances accidentally released in the surrounding medium. The health studies to be conducted in this field therefore include research not only on irradiation or contamination therapeutics but also on the transfer of radioelements from the accident site to man, mainly through food cycles, in their physical and in their biological components. Studies of this kind form the basis of decisions in the health field which would have to be taken in the case of an accident. (authors) [French] Le developpement rapide de l'energie nucleaire rend urgente la solution des problemes sanitaires poses par le rejet dans le milieu ambiant des

  3. Persepsi Pengusaha Industri Sanitair Terkait Tingkat Literasi Keuangan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Sofiana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to find perception Sanitair industrial central’s businessman associated of financial literacy level, financial literacy pattern, and impact of financial literacy to the people in surrounding. This research is using qualitative and designed for qualitative case study. The research is conducted in sanitair businessman’s community. The researcher did a research before having problems by using interviews and observations. The analysis techniques used are data reducing, data display and conclusion.The conclusion of the research showed that there are 3 levels; well literate, sufficient literate, and less literate. All of them are making a positive pattern and medium level. Financial literacy is not giving impact to the people in surrounding but it is giving impact to the businessman and through the industry it will give an impact to the people in surrounding.

  4. EDITORIAL Road traffic accident: A major public health problem in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Damen Haile Mariam1. One of the articles in this issue demonstrates how road traffic accident is a serious, but neglected, health problem in Ethiopia using secondary data collected by the Amhara National Regional State. Police Commission from 2007-2011 (1). Fatalities due to traffic accidents are reported to be among.

  5. Chernobyl accident: Causes, consequences and problems of radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortov, V.; Ustyantsev, Yu.

    2013-01-01

    General description of Chernobyl accident is given in the review. The accident causes are briefly described. Special attention is paid to radiation situation after the accident and radiation measurements problems. Some data on Chernobyl disaster are compared with the corresponding data on Fukushima accident. It is noted that Chernobyl and Fukushima lessons should be taken into account while developing further measures on raising nuclear industry safety. -- Highlights: ► The short comparative analysis of accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima is given. ► We note the great effect of β-radiation on the radiation situation at Chernobyl. ► We discuss the problems of radiation measurements under these conditions. ► The impact of shelter on the radiation situation near Chernobyl NPS is described

  6. Hydrogen problems related to reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujor, A.

    1993-09-01

    At reactor accidents, the combustion of hydrogen causes pressure and temperature transients which pose supplementary loads in containment. In certain conditions, they could reach hazardous levels and impair the integrity of the containment and the operability of the safety systems. The mechanisms of chemical reactions specific for the hydrogen-oxygen system are presented. Conditions in which combustion can occur and the various combustion modes, including the transition to detonation are also described. The related safety aspects and mitigation methods are discussed. Examples for particular applications and safety approaches for various types of reactors, included those promoted for the advanced reactors are also given. Presentation of the experimental research completed at AECL-Research, Whiteshell Laboratory is given, where the multi-point ignition effects for constant volume and for vented combustion of dry hydrogen-air mixtures in various geometries have been investigated. Various aspects of modelling and simulation of hydrogen combustion are discussed. The adaptations and the new models implemented in the codes VENT and CONTAIN, aimed to widen the simulation capabilities of hydrogen combustion models are described. The capabilities and limitations of the modelling assumptions of these two codes are also evaluated. (EG) (11 tabs., 39 ills., 82 refs.)

  7. Scientific decision of the Chernobyl accident problems (results of 1997)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, E.F.; Rolevich, I.V.

    1998-12-01

    In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1997 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and ground of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; optimisation of the system of measures for preservation of health of the victim population and development of ways for increase of it effectiveness; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, treatment and burial of radioactive wastes; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological monitoring in the republic and scientific methodical ways of it fulfilling; study of effects of low doze irradiation and combined influences, search

  8. Solved and unsolved problems in boiler systems. Learning from accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Mamoru

    2000-01-01

    This paper begins with a brief review on the similarity law of conventional fossil-fuel-fired boilers. The concept is based on the fact that the heat release due to combustion in the furnace is restricted by the furnace volume but the heat absorption is restricted by the heat transfer surface area. This means that a small-capacity boiler has relatively high specific furnace heat release rate, about 10 MW/m 3 , and on the contrary a large-capacity boiler has lower value. The surface-heat-flux limit is mainly dominated by the CHF inside the water-wall tubes of the boiler furnace, about 350 kW/m 2 . This heat-flux limit is almost the same order independently on the capacity of boilers. For the safety of water-walls, it is essential to retain suitable water circulation, i.e. circulation ratio and velocity of water. This principle is a common knowledge of boiler designer, but actual situation is not the case. Newly designed boilers often suffer from similar accidents, especially burnout due to circulation problems. This paper demonstrates recent accidents encountered in practical boilers, and raises problems of rather classical but important two-phase flow and heat transfer. (author)

  9. Material problems in accident analysis of prestressed concrete reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazant, Z.P.

    1977-01-01

    Due to their very high energy absorption capability, as well as their inherent safety advantages, prestressed concrete reactor vessels are presently being keenly studied as the basic barrier to contain hypothetical core disruptive accidents in a fast breeder reactor. One problem investigated is the nonlinear constitutive behavior and failure criteria for concrete. Previously, a comprehensive theory, called endochronic theory, has been shown to satisfy all basic currently known features of test data. Nevertheless uncertainty still exists with regard to non-proportional loading paths, for which good test data are lacking at present. An extension of the endochronic theory which correlates best with general experimental evidence and includes fracturing terms is given, and a comparison with vertex-type hardening in plasticity is made. A second problem which must be analysed in accident situations is the high temperature shock on the concrete walls (due to liquid sodium, up to 850 0 C). Refining a previous crude formulation, a rational model for calculating moisture and heat transfer and pore pressures in concrete subjected to thermal shock is presented. In conclusion, a new design concept, in which the concrete vessel is completely dehydrated and kept hot throughout its service life in order to substantially improve its response to thermal shock as well as liquid sodium contact, is described. (Auth.)

  10. The severe accidents and source term problems approach in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussac, J.; Cogne, F.; Pelce, J.

    1986-01-01

    The French methodology described in this report aims at providing operators with a comprehensive body which should enable them to tackle any situation or type of accident whose occurrence does not appear to be physically unconceivable. It is no longer considered that the early failure of the containment can result from a conceivable accidental sequence and is therefore no longer taken into consideration, except, however, when examining and selecting the site criteria. Prevention measures and relatively inexpensive remedies allow a substantial reduction in the probability of core melting and, if melting occurs, in the probability of loss of leaktightness and the level of possible releases out of the containment. This implies very special attention to accident management and operators' actions, to which great importance is attached. We must not stop research because of the lack of experimental data concerning problems which have not yet been completely settled and there is a real need for an integral check program for the code systems existing or in development

  11. Road Traffic Accidents in Nigeria: A Public Health Problem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    traffic accident as an issue that needs urgent attention aimed at reducing the ... include driver behaviour, visual and auditory acuity, decision making ability and reaction speed. Drug and ... Road traffic accidents have physical, social, emotional.

  12. Chernobyl and the problem of international obligations regarding nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, P.

    1988-01-01

    This paper analyses the way nuclear law was put to the test by the Chernobyl accident - in particular international nuclear law - so as to propose a train of thought which might contribute to adopting and revising the legal system presently in force or even new orientations. It deals only with that part of nuclear law which concerns accidents and their consequences (NEA) [fr

  13. Road traffic accident: The neglected health problem in Amhara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Road traffic accident is a major but neglected public health challenge. There is a paucity of published data on road traffic crashes in Amhara National Regional State. Objective: This study attempts to describe the main causes and consequences of road traffic accidents in the Amhara Region. Methods: This ...

  14. Some problems connected with the Chernobyl NPP Unit 4 Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar'yakhtar, V.G.

    1994-01-01

    The description of the eruption of radionuclides caused by the Chernobyl NPP Unit 4 Accident, including the effective time of the accident, quality and quantity of radio waste, is presented. A particular attention is given to the spotty structure of Chernobyl's contamination. The assumption that the spots distribution may be a consequence of the turbulent processes in the atmosphere is made

  15. The problems of civil defense at the radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojagov, H.O.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A decrease of risk to a possible low level (optimization) is carried out due to the following two circumstances. A lime it of risk of a potential irradiation from all possible sources of radiation is regulated and for each source the boundary of risk is established; under a decrease of potential radiation risk there is the minimum level of risk, below which a risk is considered as negligible and further decrease of risk is inexpedient. The persons attracted for realization of emergency and saving work, are considered on the same footing as the personnel working with ethnogeny sources of ionizing radiation or those who work in conditions under the influence of latter. Main problems and measures of radioprotection are outlined in the appropriate normative documents of the Republic. At different stages of an accident the interference is regulated by zoning of the polluted territories which is based on the value of annual ED which can be received by the inhabitants in absence of measures of irradiation protection. On the territories where an annual ED does not exceed 1 mSv the usual control of radioactive pollution of objects of an environment and agricultural production is made and by its results an irradiation dose of the population on this territory is not restricted by the radiation factor. This territory is not considered as a zone of a radioactive pollution. Applying the security system in all cases the limits are applied to a sum of all appropriate doses from external radiation for an established period of time and half - century doses from receipts for the same time. Based on the stated above principles which are used as guidance at acceptance of the decisions about character of an interference (protective measures) at planning protective measures on a case of radiation accidence the derivative levels of interference: doses and power of radiation doses levels of radioactive pollution and other characteristics RP with reference to concrete radio

  16. Vessel-related problems in severe accidents, International Research Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueras, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes those most relevant aspects of research programmes and projects, on the behavior of vessel during severe accidents with partial or total reactor core fusion, performed during the last twenty years or still on-going projects, by countries or international organizations in the nuclear community, presenting the most important technical aspects, in particular the results achieved, as well as the financial and organisational aspects. The paper concludes that, throughout a joint effort of the international nuclear community, in which Spain has been present via private and public organizations, actually exist a reasonable technical and experimental knowledge of the vessel in case of severe accidents, but still there are aspects not fully solved which are the basis for continuing some programmes and for proposal of new ones. (Author)

  17. Radiobiological problems concerning grazing animals following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prister, B.S.; Lazarev, N.M.; Romanov, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    Chernobyl accident took place on April 26 1986, which was the beginning of the grazing season, when there was not enough fodder on the farms and the cattle was grazed on the open territory. Therefore grazing animal-breeding was the most radioactively affected branch. The consumption of contaminated fodder and surface contamination with radioactive precipitation caused the accumulation of considerable ingested doses in the organisms of animals (up to 1 GY). Radioactive damage caused to the thyroid by the selective accumulation of radioiodine (mainly 131 I) is of particular attention. Cumulative doses of thyroid irradiation in mammals were much higher than for the other organs. Thus, in cows during their grazing on the contaminated pastures outside 30-km zone the ratio of ingested doses of the thyroid and whole body was 130:1 and more, therefore, radiation effects could have a certain negative effect, concerning the agricultural animals in the zone of accidental release influence. Accumulated ingested doses in the thyroid of cows on the contaminated territory in a number of cases caused the complete destruction of the thyroid (doses above 600 Gy), which provided the loss of milk productivity and reproductive qualities of the animals. Lower doses caused the functional disturbances, which in most cases have been levelled during the years after the accident

  18. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobylsk accident in France. Epidemiological surveillance plan, state of knowledge, risks evaluation and perspectives; Evaluation des consequences sanitaires de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France. Dispositif de surveillance epidemiologique, etat des connaissances, evaluation des risques et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verger, P.; Cherie-Challine, L

    2000-12-15

    This report jointly written by IPSN and InVS, reviews the sanitary consequences in France of the Chernobyl accident, which occurred in 1986. The first point is dedicated to a short presentation of the knowledge relative to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the high contaminated countries and to the risk factors of the thyroid cancer. Secondly, this report describes the main systems of epidemiological surveillance of health implemented in France in 1986 and in 1999, as well as the data of the incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer observed in France since 1975. In addition, this report presents an analysis of the risk of thyroid cancer related to radioactive contamination in France, for young people of less than 15 years of age who where living in 1986 in the highest contaminated areas of France (Eastern territories). For this purpose, the theoretical number of thyroid cancers in excess is evaluated for this population, on the basis of different available risk model. Finally starting from the results of risk assessment, there is a discussion about the relevance and the feasibility of different epidemiological methods in view of answering the questions related to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident. In conclusion, this report recommends to reinforce the surveillance of thyroid cancer in France. (author)

  19. Problems of softening the Chernobyl accident consequences. Proceedings of the International seminar. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Proceedings of the International seminar on the Problems to soften the Chernobyl accident consequences held by the International Association of Dissemination of Knowledge and the Russian branch of the Society on the Dissemination of Knowledge in Bryansk in 1993. The proceedings of the seminar deal with the study of scientific and practical activity linked with the elimination of the Chernobyl accident effects. Main theoretical concepts used as the basis of the elaborated regulations are presented, as well; ways and techniques to soften the consequences of the Chernobyl accident to decontaminate the affected territories and to protect the population health are discussed

  20. Problems associated with the organization and planning of medical aid for radiation accident casualties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.P.

    1977-01-01

    Problems associated with the organization and planning of medical treatment for radiation accident casualties are considered for different types of radiation accident: whole-body or partial irradiation, external or internal contamination and small or large numbers of cases. The problems posed are ones of competence, urgency and capacity; on the diagnostic side there is the problem of evaluating the exposure or contamination and assessing the resultant damage, while on the treatment side the questions of first aid, conventional treatment and specialized treatment have to be considered. The solutions envisaged involve organization at the local and national levels and planning of medical treatment by skilled, multidisciplinary medical teams. (author)

  1. Monetary valorization of the sanitary and environmental impacts of a nuclear accident: synthesis of ''ExternE'' studies, interests and limits of complementary developments; Valorisation monetaire des impacts sanitaires et environnementaux d'un accident nucleaire: synthese des etudes externe, interets et limites de developpements complementaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, C.; Schneider, Th

    2002-09-01

    This document constitutes a synthesis of the various available methods for the monetary evaluation of the nuclear accidents impacts in order to reveal the already evaluated impacts, those which need complementary developments and those for which the monetary approach currently seems to come up against limits. It is based primarily on the approach realized by the ''ExternE'' project of the European Commission, consisting in the evaluation of the external costs of the nuclear energy industry. (A.L.B.)

  2. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France: epidemiological monitoring device, state of knowledge, evaluation of risks and perspectives; Evaluation des consequences sanitaires de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France: dispositif de surveillance epidemiologique, etat des connaissances, evaluation des risques et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verger, P.; Champion, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Hubert, Ph.; Joly, J.; Renaud, Ph.; Tirmarche, M.; Vidal, M. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPSN, 92 (France); Cherie-Challine, L.; Boutou, O.; Isnard, H.; Jouan, M.; Pirard, Ph. [Institut National de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France)

    2000-12-01

    The objectives of this document are firstly, to present the situation of knowledge both on the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident and on the risk factors of thyroid cancers, these ones constituting one of the most principal consequences observed in Belarus, in Ukraine and Russia; secondly, the give the principal system contributing to the epidemiological surveillance of effects coming from a exposure to ionizing radiations, in France and to give the knowledge on incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in France; thirdly, to discuss the pertinence and the feasibility of epidemiological approaches that could be considered to answer questions that the public and authorities ask relatively to the sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; fourthly to male a calculation of thyroid cancer risk in relation with Chernobyl fallout in France from works and studies made from 1986 on the consequences of this disaster in terms of radioecology and dosimetry at the national level. Besides, the improvement of thyroid cancer surveillance is also tackled. (N.C.)

  3. Post-Accident Waste Management in Ukraine : Challenges and Steps Needed to Resolve the Accident Waste Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilochytska, T.; Zinkevich, L.; Shybetskyi, I.; Krone, J.

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: • Solving the problem of management of “Chernobyl waste” requires: - a systematic review of the existing norms and regulations with respect to best international practice of radioactive waste management; - improvement of the existing classification / characterization of radioactive waste with a focus on disposal; - improvement of the safety assessment approaches for licensing the disposal of accident waste, taking into account relevant safety features and site specific conditions; - involving of international experience and support to plan and perform safety related activity on the Shelter Object transformation

  4. Sanitary surveillance in France in relation with the Chernobylsk accident. Updated situation on thyroid cancers and epidemiological studies during 2006; Surveillance sanitaire en France en lien avec l'accident de Tchernobyl. Bilan actualise sur les cancers thyroidiens et etudes epidemiologiques en cours en 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belot, A. [Institut de veille sanitaire (InVS), Dept. de Biostatistiques des Hospices civils de Lyon, Dept. Maladies Chroniques et Traumatismes (DMCT), Unite cancer, 69 - Lyon (France); Caserio-Schonemann, C. [Institut de veille sanitaire (InVS), DMCT, unite cancer, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France); Cherie-Challine, M. [Institut de veille sanitaire (InVS), DMCT, unitr cancer, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France); Colonna, M. [Registre du cancer de l' Isere - reseau Francim, 38 - Grenoble (France); Lacour, B. [Registre National des Tumeurs Solides de l' enfant (RNTSE) - reseau Francim, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Lasalle, J.L. [Cellule interregionale d' epidemiologie Sud, Drass Paca, 13 - Marseille (France); Leenhardt, L. [Groupe hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Service central de medecine nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Orgiazzi, J. [Centre hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Service d' endocrinologie, 69 - Lyon (France); Pirard, Ph. [Institut de veille sanitaire (InVS), Dept. sante environnement (DSE), 94 - Saint-Maurice (France); Schvartz, C. [Registre des cancers thyroidiens de Marne Ardennes - reseau Francim, Centre de lutte contre le cancer, 51 - Reims (France)

    2006-07-01

    An increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in children has been reported since 1990 in areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine which have been highly contaminated during the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A similar increase is now observed in young adults in the same areas. In France, thyroid cancer is characterized by low occurrence and good prognosis. However, the incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing for more than 20 years, and in 1986, the Chernobyl cloud of radioactive dust crossed the French territory. Thus, the National institute for public health surveillance (I.n.V.S.) carried out several studies to evaluate whether the incidence increase in thyroid cancer is related to radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident. Since 2000, the I.n.V.S. is in charge of a national multidisciplinary approach involving a wide range of public health actors, including the French network of cancer registries (Francim). Since 2003, the I.n.V.S. has been working on improving the surveillance system according to the actions described in the national cancer plan 2003-2007. The I.n.V.S. has increased its financial contribution to cancer registries including the national registry of solid tumors in children, which was created in 2000. The Institute is also working on the implementation of a multi source system for the national cancer surveillance in link with cancer registries. For the twentieth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident, the I.n.V.S. is publishing updated results from the latest research conducted in close collaboration with the partners. These results do not support the initial hypothesis of a potential 'Chernobyl effect' in France. The increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer is also reported in most of developed countries. Practices in cancer diagnosis and the increased rate of total thyroidectomy for benign lesion may lead pathologists to unexpectedly discover small thyroid tumors. This fact is likely to explain most of the incidence increase

  5. Relationships of working conditions, health problems and vehicle accidents in bus rapid transit (BRT) drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ortiz, Viviola; Cendales, Boris; Useche, Sergio; Bocarejo, Juan P

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate accident risk rates and mental health of bus rapid transit (BRT) drivers based on psychosocial risk factors at work leading to increased stress and health problems. A cross-sectional research design utilized a self-report questionnaire completed by 524 BRT drivers. Some working conditions of BRT drivers (lack of social support from supervisors and perceived potential for risk) may partially explain Bogota's BRT drivers' involvement in road accidents. Drivers' mental health problems were associated with higher job strain, less support from co-workers, fewer rewards and greater signal conflict while driving. To prevent bus accidents, supervisory support may need to be increased. To prevent mental health problems, other interventions may be needed such as reducing demands, increasing job control, reducing amount of incoming information, simplifying current signals, making signals less contradictory, and revising rewards. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Problems of probabilistic safety assessment after Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology to assure nuclear safety is had great expectations of lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident and on the other hand this accident made actualized technical problems of PSA. Effectiveness of current PSA methodology for risk assessment was confirmed by comparing the accident development with accident scenario of PSA and equipment failure rate. From a viewpoint of nuclear safety objective and defense in depth approach of IAEA, technical problems of PSA were (1) extension of PSA for spent fuel pool and waste disposal system as well as level 3PSA for broader environmental contamination and (2) overlapping of accident scenario of plural unit site, balance of high quality plant management and preceding negation, treatment of uncertainty of external events, severe accident measure and human reliability analysis and reflection of disaster prevention capability to level 3PSA. In order to upgrade PSA technology, six proposals were described for nuclear safety and defense in depth, comprehensive evaluation scope and catch-up of latest technology, necessity of strategic preparation of PSA standard, human resources fostering and risk communication. (T. Tanaka)

  7. Human error and the problem of causality in analysis of accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1990-01-01

    , designers or managers have played a major role. There are, however, several basic problems in analysis of accidents and identification of human error. This paper addresses the nature of causal explanations and the ambiguity of the rules applied for identification of the events to include in analysis......Present technology is characterized by complexity, rapid change and growing size of technical systems. This has caused increasing concern with the human involvement in system safety. Analyses of the major accidents during recent decades have concluded that human errors on part of operators...

  8. [Child-pedestrian injuries inflicted in the road traffic accidents as a forensic medical problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenkova, E N; Efimov, A A

    The road traffic accidents are known to make the greatest contribution to the overall structure of pediatric traumatism with the fatal outcome. The problem of pediatric traumatism remains on top of its relevancy despite numerous administrative, legal, technical, and financial measures taken at the government level in an attempt to reduce the mortality rate associated with the child-pedestrian injuries inflicted in the road traffic accidents. The objective of the present study was to summarize and interpret the results published in the scientific literature concerning child-pedestrian injuries inflicted in the road traffic accidents with special reference to the age of the victims and the type of the injury. The analysis of the publications of the domestic and foreign authors has demonstrated that the available data of interest remain to be systematized and that the forensic medical aspects of the problem in question are poorly represented in these materials. It was shown that forensic medical expertises of child-pedestrian injuries inflicted in the road traffic accidents are frequently carried out without taking into consideration the peculiar anatomical and physiological features of the child's organism. The available data concerning the mechanisms and evaluation of severe injuries inflicted to the children in the road traffic accidents are insufficient for the development of the algorithms for the relevant adequate forensic medical expertise. In the light of these findings, the problem of the child-pedestrian injuries inflicted in the road traffic accidents takes on new significance when considered in the context of pediatric traumatism. There is evidently the growing necessity to formulate the universal database containing systematized objective information for the development of new methods of forensic medical expertise for the elucidation of the mechanisms of road traffic injuries inflicted to the children of different age groups depending on the type of the

  9. An investigation of the closure problem applied to reactor accident source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brearley, I.R.; Nixon, W.; Hayns, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    The closure problem, as considered here, focuses attention on the question of when in current research programmes enough has been learned about the source terms for reactor accident releases. Noting that current research is tending to reduce the estimated magnitude of the aerosol component of atmospheric, accidental releases, several possible criteria for closure are suggested. Moreover, using the reactor accident consequence model CRACUK, the effect of gradually reducing the aerosol release fractions of a pressurized water reactor (PWR2) source term (as defined in the WASH-1400 study) is investigated and the implications of applying the suggested criteria to current source term research discussed. (author)

  10. Predictors of children's sleep onset and maintenance problems after road traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Lutz; Zehnder, Daniel; Jenni, Oskar G; Landolt, Markus A

    2012-01-01

    Sleep onset and maintenance problems are a frequent complaint after traumatic events in children. However, the association of traumatic experiences and disturbed sleep remains to be explained. To examine the incidence of sleep onset and maintenance problems in children after road traffic accidents and identify potential predictors of sleep onset and maintenance problems, including putative psychopathological mechanisms as well as stressors affecting the family system. In 33 children treated for injuries after road traffic accidents, sleep and measures of psychopathology were assessed 10 days, 2 months, and 6 months after hospital admission. The predictive value of four clusters of predictor variables for children's sleep onset and maintenance problems was prospectively tested by multiple regression analyses. These clusters included socio-demographic, injury- and accident-related, and psychopathological variable clusters as well as factors reflecting stressors concerning mothers and family. Children suffering from posttraumatic stress reported a prolonged subjective sleep latency. The severity of sleep onset and maintenance problems was predicted by female sex and the child's as well as mothers' posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity. Sleep onset and maintenance problems in children after trauma appear to result from a complex interaction of multiple factors. Our findings support the transactional model of sleep-wake regulation that bears implications for the development of adequate intervention strategies.

  11. Quels Problemes Sanitaires Posent Les Violences Chez Les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During follow-up, medical issues noted were genital infections (35.3%), pregnancy in 4 victims, of which 2 gave birth and 1 had voluntary interruption of the pregnancy. HIV seroconversion occurred in 7 rape victims and severe depression in 8 of which 2 who received psychiatsic support. Amongst the social issues noted ...

  12. The ethics of accident-algorithms for self-driving cars: an applied trolley problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Nyholm, S.R.; Smids, J.

    2016-01-01

    Self-driving cars hold out the promise of being safer than manually driven cars. Yet they cannot be a 100 % safe. Collisions are sometimes unavoidable. So self-driving cars need to be programmed for how they should respond to scenarios where collisions are highly likely or unavoidable. The accident-scenarios self-driving cars might face have recently been likened to the key examples and dilemmas associated with the trolley problem. In this article, we critically examine this tempting analogy....

  13. Ergonomic (human factors) problems in design of NPPs. A review of TMI and Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiangrui; Zheng Fuyu; Gao Jia

    1994-01-01

    The general principle of ergonomic in design of NPPs is given and some causes of TMI and Chernobyl accidents from the view point of human factor engineering are reviewed. The paper also introduces some Ergonomic problems in design, operation and management of earlier NPPs. Some ergonomic principles of man-machine systems design have been described. Some proposals have been suggested for improving human reliability in NPPs

  14. Radiation accidents with global consequences for the population. Problems of risk evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, G.; Doncheva, B.; Stoilova, S.; Miloslavov, V.; Tsenova, T.; Novkirishki, V.

    1987-01-01

    The theoretical problems concerning the delayed impacts as a result of considerable radiation accidents are discussed. The attention is paid to the maximum individual doses which are relatively low but many people are affected. In these cases, the risk evaluation is based on the cancerogenesis, genetic and teratogenetic consequences among the concerned population. The main equation of the linear threshold-free model 'dose effect' is subjected to analysis. Considering the real prognostic importance of this equation the following recommendations are made: further observation on epidemic diseases; investigation of teratogenetic consequences in connection with the radiation doses obtained during the antenatal development; radiation-hygienic standardization of the oral absorbtion of radionuclides for short and long periods of time; effective equivalent dose determination according to the irradiated organ or tissue (mammary glands, lungs, red marrow, gonads, skin); necessity of national system for in time announcement of radiation accidents, as well as suitable control of the internal and the external irradiation

  15. [Morphological verification problems of Chernobyl factor influence on the prostate of coalminers of Donbas--liquidators of Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2013-12-01

    Problem of a diagnostic of Chernobyl factor influences on different organs and systems of Chernobyl accident liquidators are remain actually until now. Though morbidly background which development at unfavorable work conditions in underground coalminers prevents from objective identification features of Chernobyl factor influences. The qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical law of morphogenesis changes in prostate of Donbas's coalminer-non-liquidators Chernobyl accident in comparison with the group of Donbas's coalminers-liquidators Chernobyl accident which we were stationed non determined problem. This reason stipulates to development and practical use of mathematical model of morphogenesis of a prostatic gland changes.

  16. [Morphological verification problems of Chernobyl factor influence on the testis of coal miners of Donbas-liquidators of Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2013-01-01

    Problem of a diagnostic of Chernobyl factor influences on different organs and systems of Chernobyl accident liquidators are remain actually until now. Though morbidly background which development at unfavorable work conditions in underground coalminers prevents from objective identification features of Chernobyl factor influences. The qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical law of morphogenesis changes in testis of Donbas's coalminer - non-liquidators Chernobyl accident in comparison with the group of Donbas's coalminers-liquidators Chernobyl accident, which we were stationed non determined problem. This reason stipulates to development and practical use of mathematical model of morphogenesis of a testis changes.

  17. Problems of demographic development of the Homel region following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlotnikov, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper studies the problems of demographic development of the Gomel region linked with the Chernobyl accident and the results of the social polling of the Gomel region population, as well as, of physicians-experts. It is shown that in the Gomel region during the recent years one can observe unprecedented under peace-time conditions reduction of population resulted from the migration of people and from the reduction of the natural increment of population. The results of the opinion polls demonstrated that migration flows of the population are essentially oriented to the out flow. Recently the refugees from the areas of the national conflict come to the Gomel region. 2 tabs

  18. Health problems raised by the elimination of radioactive wastes and nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.; Mechali, D.; Dousset, M.

    1964-01-01

    The rapid development of nuclear energy demands an urgent solution to the health problems arising from the discharge into the environment of radioactive residues produced by nuclear installations. - To be able to evaluate the risks run by the population and to fix tolerance limits for waste discharge, it is necessary to possess an exact knowledge of the course taken by the radioelements discharged, from their source until they reach man. The incorporation of radioelements in food cycles is the first risk to take into consideration. The factors involved in all stages of this transmission must be foreseen, whether they concern physical or biological media, because of their continuity and their interdependence. Finally, socio-economic and dietetic data must be collected in order that the risks and tolerance levels estimated are based on concrete and experimental rather than theoretical knowledge. The risk of nuclear accidents in the atomic industry, although very improbable, must be taken into consideration because of the seriousness of their consequences. The health problems arise in the field of professional hygiene on the one hand and in that of public hygiene on the other. In the first field the risk is two-fold and involves irradiation and contamination. The public sphere is reduced essentially to the risk of contamination by radioactive substances accidentally released in the surrounding medium. The health studies to be conducted in this field therefore include research not only on irradiation or contamination therapeutics but also on the transfer of radioelements from the accident site to man, mainly through food cycles, in their physical and in their biological components. Studies of this kind form the basis of decisions in the health field which would have to be taken in the case of an accident. (authors) [fr

  19. Mental health and alcohol problems among Estonian cleanup workers 24 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidra, Kaia; Rahu, Kaja; Tekkel, Mare; Aluoja, Anu; Leinsalu, Mall

    2015-11-01

    To study the long-term mental health consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident among cleanup workers from Estonia. In 2010, 614 Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers and 706 geographically and age-matched population-based controls completed a mail survey that included self-rated health, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL), alcohol symptoms (AUDIT), and scales measuring depressive, anxiety, agoraphobia, fatigue, insomnia, and somatization symptoms. Respondents were dichotomized into high (top quartile) and low symptom groups on each measure. Logistic regression analysis detected significant differences between cleanup workers and controls on all measures even after adjustment for ethnicity, education, marital status, and employment status. The strongest difference was found for somatization, with cleanup workers being three times more likely than controls to score in the top quartile (OR = 3.28, 95% CI 2.39-4.52), whereas for alcohol problems the difference was half as large (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.16-1.99). Among cleanup workers, arrival at Chernobyl in 1986 (vs. later) was associated with sleep problems, somatization, and symptoms of agoraphobia. The toll of cleanup work was evident 24 years after the Chernobyl accident among Estonian cleanup workers indicating the need for focused mental health interventions.

  20. Problem of corium melt coolability in passive protection systems against severe accidents in the containment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kalvand

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Paper is devoted to the development of the mathematical model and analysis of the problem of corium melt interaction with low-temperature melting blocks in the passive protection systems against severe accidents at the NPP, which is of high importance for substantiation of the nuclear power safety, for building and successful op-erating of passive protection systems. In the third-generation reactors passive protection systems against severe accidents at the NPP are mandatory, therefore this paper is of importance for the nuclear power safety. A few configurations for the cooling blocks’ distribution have been considered and an analysis of the blocks’ melting and corium’s cooling in the pool under reactor vessel have been done, which can serve more effective for further improvement of the safety current systems and for the development of new ones. The ways for solution of the problems and the methods for their successful elaboration were discussed. The developed mathematical models and the analysis performed in the paper might be helpful for the design of passive protection systems of the cori-um melt retention inside the containment after corium melt eruption from the broken reactor vessel.

  1. Unresolved Bereavement and Other Mental Health Problems in Parents of the Sewol Ferry Accident after 18 Months

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Hyu Jung; Huh, Seung; Lee, So Hee; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study examined the overall mental health consequences of the bereaved parents after the Sewol ferry accident. Methods Eighty-four bereaved parents participated in the study. Self-report scales assessing the severity of psychiatric symptoms and other related psychosomatic problems were used at 18 months following the accident. Univariate descriptive statistics and regression analyses were performed to report the prevalence, severity, and correlates of psychiatric symptoms. Resul...

  2. Systèmes d'information sanitaire ou santé sexuelle et reproductive ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    23 mai 2017 ... Systèmes d'information sanitaire ou santé sexuelle et reproductive des adolescents en Afrique de l'Ouest. Appel. Propositions. Programme(s) ... Sujet(s). Systèmes de santé, ADOLESCENTS, SANTÉ REPRODUCTIVE, DROITS EN MATIERE DE PROCREATION. Durée. 36 à 48 mois. Financée par. CRDI ...

  3. Les systèmes alimentaires alternatifs face aux enjeux sanitaires

    OpenAIRE

    Touzard, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    L’objet de la communication est de montrer comment la coexistence et la combinaison d’une diversité de système alimentaires est un trait de la globalisation et joue sur les enjeux, les pratiques, et les régulations sanitaires.

  4. Mental health problems after the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Shin-ichi

    2012-01-01

    The name of Fukushima has now become well-known worldwide after Hiroshima and Nagasaki as the third place exposed to radiation in Japan. This radiation pollution has severely damaged the chief industries of Fukushima Prefecture, namely agriculture, fishery, and tourist industry. It has also stimulated strong anxious feelings among parents with young children. The accident has caused a critical situation in the psychiatric and mental health services in Fukushima as well. Five hospitals with psychiatric beds within 30 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant were ordered to transfer their inpatients to other hospitals outside the designated 30 km-areas and to close down the hospitals immediately after the nuclear plant accident. In total, more than 800 psychiatric beds disappeared in an instant, and 1,228 persons including psychiatric inpatients and residents of elderly people nursing homes were transferred to other facilities far away. Rational explanation that low-level radiation in Fukushima will not do harm to people did not necessarily relieve existing anxiety among people. The terms 'safety' and 'relief' are usually used in combination; however, 'relief' was separated from 'safety' this time in Fukushima. People gradually began to feel 'relieved', when they themselves got involved in the cleaning work of radiation although its effect remained ambiguous. Now we have the following mental health problems after the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident; recovery and maintenance of treatment systems for psychiatric patients in the affected areas, efforts for early detection and intervention of depression, severe stress disorder, adaptation disorder, and alcohol abuse which are expected to occur due to the earthquake and radiation pollution, prevention of suicides, relief from anxiety resulting from radiation pollution, adequate treatment of mental problems among children with long-term evacuation, prevention of fall in physical and mental

  5. Using a Problem-Solving Strategy to Prevent Work-Related Accidents Due to Unsafe Worker Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martella, Ronald C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A two-stage problem-solving strategy involving cue cards and their gradual withdrawal was used to teach nine sheltered workshop employees how to prevent work-related accidents. Results indicated that participants used the strategy appropriately and generalized their skills to similar and dissimilar situations up to eight weeks after training.…

  6. Road Traffic Accidents in Nigeria: A PublicHealth Problem | Bun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unfortunately,Nigerian highways are arguably one of the worst and most dangerous in the world. CONCLUSION: Road traffic accident in Nigeria has not received the attention warranted. There is need to view road traffic accident as an issue that needs urgent attention aimed at reducing the health, social and economic ...

  7. International Standard Problems and Small Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aksan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Best-estimate thermal-hydraulic system codes are widely used to perform safety and licensing analyses of nuclear power plants and also used in the design of advance reactors. Evaluation of the capabilities and the performance of these codes can be accomplished by comparing the code predictions with measured experimental data obtained on different test facilities. OECD/NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI has promoted, over the last twenty-nine years, some forty-eight international standard problems (ISPs. These ISPs were performed in different fields as in-vessel thermal-hydraulic behaviour, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, fission product release and transport, core/concrete interactions, hydrogen distribution and mixing, containment thermal-hydraulic behaviour. 80% of these ISPs were related to the working domain of principal working group no.2 on coolant system behaviour (PWG2 and were one of the major PWG2 activities for many years. A global review and synthesis on the contribution that ISPs have made to address nuclear reactor safety issues was initiated by CSNI-PWG2 and an overview on the subject of small break LOCA ISPs is given in this paper based on a report prepared by a writing group. In addition, the relevance of small break LOCA in a PWR with relation to nuclear reactor safety and the reorientation of the reactor safety program after TMI-2 accident are shortly summarized. The experiments in four integral test facilities, LOBI, SPES, BETHSY, ROSA IV/LSTF and the recorded data during a steam generator tube rupture transient in the DOEL-2 PWR (Belgium were the basis of the five small break LOCA related ISP exercises, which deal with the phenomenon typical of small break LOCAs in Western design PWRs. Some lessons learned from these small break LOCA ISPs are identified in relation to code deficiencies and capabilities, progress in the code capabilities, possibility of scaling, and various additional aspects

  8. International Standard Problems and Small Break Loss-Of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksan, N.

    2008-01-01

    Best-estimate thermalhydraulic system codes are widely used to perform safety and licensing analyses of nuclear power plants and also used in the design of advance reactors. Evaluation of the capabilities and the performance of these codes can be accomplished by comparing the code predictions with measured experimental data obtained on different test facilities. In this respect, parallel to other national and international programs, OECD/Nea (OECD Nuclear Energy Agency) Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has promoted, over the last twenty-nine years some forty-eight International Standard Problems (ISPs). These ISPs were performed in different fields as in-vessel thermalhydraulic behaviour, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, fission product release and transport, core/concrete interactions, hydrogen distribution and mixing, containment thermalhydraulic behaviour. 80% of these ISPs were related to the working domain of Principal Working Group no. 2 on Coolant System Behaviour (PWG2). The ISPs have been one of the major PWG2 activities for many years. The individual ISP comparison reports include the analysis and conclusions of the specific ISP exercises. A global review and synthesis on the contribution that ISPs have made to address nuclear reactor safety issues was initiated by CSNI-PWG2 and an overview on the subject of small break LOCA ISP's is given in this paper based on a report prepared by a CSNI-PWG2 writing group. In addition, the relevance of small break LOCA in a PWR with relation to nuclear reactor safety and the reorientation of the reactor safety program after TMI-2 accident, specifically small break LOCA, are shortly summarized. Five small break LOCA related ISP's are considered, since these were used for the assessment of the advanced best-estimate codes. The considered ISP's deal with the phenomenon typical of small break LOCAs in Western design PWRs. The experiments in four integral test facilities, LOBI, SPES, BETHSY

  9. Proceedings of the III international workshop 'Actual problems of dosimetry (15 years after the Chernobyl accident)'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milyutin, A.A.; Chudakov, V.A.; Berezhnoj, A.V.

    2001-10-01

    Materials grouped to three main issues: normative, metrological and technical support of dosimetric and radiometric control; biological dosimetry and markers of radiation effects; monitoring and reconstruction of radiation doses at radiation accidents

  10. Analysis of nuclear accidents and associated problems relevant to public perception of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naschi, G.; Petrangeli, G.

    1993-01-01

    The analytical study of nuclear accidents, even if they are limited in number, forms a significant part of the vast discipline of industrial plant risk analysis. The retrospective analysis of the causes and various elements which contributed to the evolution of real accidents, as well as, the evaluation of the consequences and lessons learned, constitute a bank of information which, when suitably elaborated through a process of rational synthesis, can strongly influence the preparation of safety normatives, plant design specifications, environmental impacts assessments, and the perception of risk. This latter aspect is gaining importance today as growing public awareness and sensitivity towards the development and use of new technologies now bear heavily on new plant decision making. This paper examines how the public perception of risk regarding nuclear energy has been influenced by the events surrounding the Chernobyl and Three Mile Island accidents and the way in which information dissemination concerning these accidents was handled by mass media

  11. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels; Effets sanitaires des combustibles fossiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (IN2P3/CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  12. L’expertise des risques sanitaires : entre indépendance et mise sous tutelle ?

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    À la suite de diverses crises sanitaires majeures, la loi du 1er juillet 1998 sur la sécurité et la veille sanitaire a conduit notamment à la création de l’Institut de veille sanitaire (InVS), organisme d’État, chargé d’une mission de service public pour l’évaluation des risques pour la santé. Si observation, surveillance, veille, alerte en étaient les maîtres mots, restait à mettre en œuvre la séparation de l’évaluation et de la gestion des risques pour la santé. After different major med...

  13. To the problem of regulating of software applicability for the analysis of domestic reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, V.V.; Skalozubov, V.I.

    1999-01-01

    Based on consideration and generalization of results of verification/validation researches the necessity of development of an objective evaluation criterions of software applicability (calculated codes) for separate types of domestic reactor accidents is justified. These criterions should be used in a normative position of certification or the application order of calculated codes for the analysis of reactor safety

  14. Nuclear accident response and population protection in The Netherlands: philosophy, solutions, and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baas, J.L.; Bosnjakovic, B.F.M.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is dealt with under the headings: nuclear energy in the Netherlands; the philosophy underlying the existing organization of response to nuclear accidents and population protection; practical experiences and recent developments; dose estimates; data transmission and lines of communication; international cooperation. (U.K.)

  15. Occupational hazards in hospitals: accidents, radiation, exposure to noxious chemicals, drug addiction and psychic problems, and assault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gestal, J.J.

    1987-08-01

    Except for infectious diseases all the main occupational hazards affecting health workers are reviewed: accidents (explosions, fires, electrical accidents, and other sources of injury); radiation (stochastic and non-stochastic effects, protective measures, and personnel most at risk); exposure to noxious chemicals, whose effects may be either local (allergic eczema) or generalised (cancer, mutations), particular attention being paid to the hazards presented by formol, ethylene oxide, cytostatics, and anaesthetic gases; drug addiction (which is more common among health workers than the general population) and psychic problems associated with promotion, shift work, and emotional stress; and assault (various types of assault suffered by health workers, its causes, and the characterisation of the most aggressive patients).

  16. Occupational hazards in hospitals: accidents, radiation, exposure to noxious chemicals, drug addiction and psychic problems, and assault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gestal, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Except for infectious diseases all the main occupational hazards affecting health workers are reviewed: accidents (explosions, fires, electrical accidents, and other sources of injury); radiation (stochastic and non-stochastic effects, protective measures, and personnel most at risk); exposure to noxious chemicals, whose effects may be either local (allergic eczema) or generalised (cancer, mutations), particular attention being paid to the hazards presented by formol, ethylene oxide, cytostatics, and anaesthetic gases; drug addiction (which is more common among health workers than the general population) and psychic problems associated with promotion, shift work, and emotional stress; and assault (various types of assault suffered by health workers, its causes, and the characterisation of the most aggressive patients). (author)

  17. Status of food and raw milk supply and problem just after the reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakawa, Sachiko; Murakami, Kana; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Takizawa, Mari; Kawai, Masaki; Sato, Osamu; Takagi, Syunji; Nakamura, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Iodine 131 was detected in the environment and the food such as vegetables, raw milk and tap water just after the reactor accident following the East Japan Great Earthquake occurred in March 11, 2011. This article investigated status of refuge of Fukushima residents, their dietary life and food distribution from March 11 to 31 just after the accident so as to reevaluate internal exposure dose with Iodine 131. Investigation results showed most of food taken by refugees was confirmed food stock or relief supplies outside from the disaster area and suggested food contaminated with Iodine 131 was not widely consumed and distributed due to limit to send designated vegetables, restriction of tap water intake, damaged distribution facilities and closing down of retail stores. Restriction of tap water intake was only applied partly, so this might cause internal exposure dose due to tap water. (T. Tanaka)

  18. Human factors implications of unmanned aircraft accidents : flight-control problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    This research focuses on three types of flight control problems associated with unmanned aircraft systems. The : three flight control problems are: 1) external pilot difficulties with inconsistent mapping of the controls to the : movement of the airc...

  19. The radioiodine problem following the Chernobyl accident: ecology, dosimetry and medical effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonova, I.A.

    1991-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident radioisotopes of iodine constituted the main dose-forming factor among the people who stayed on in the radioactively contaminated areas, and in a number of places the effective doses to the thyroid gland were up to two orders of magnitude higher than the whole-body dose stemming from uniform internal and external irradiation. We consider the mechanisms involved in the radioiodine contribution to the doses in the human organism, depending on intake path, life style and social and ecological factors. We illustrate, by means of examples, thyroid gland dose distribution for various age groups in the population, and discuss the medical effects and predict the long-term risks for the population of exposure to radioisotopes of iodine. (author)

  20. Concept for the analysis of hydrogen problems in nuclear power plants after accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PreuBer, G.; Freudenstein, K.F.; Reinders, R.

    1997-01-01

    After accidents in nuclear power plants, which lead to a overheating of the core up to a partial or complete core melting, hydrogen is produced due to the reaction of fuel cladding and other metallic structures of the core with the cooling water. This hydrogen enters the containment through a leak of the primary system or at reactor pressure vessel failure. The danger of fast deflagration or explosions appears which may affect the containment. For the analysis of the containment phenomena two different types of computer codes are used, lumped parameter codes and 3D codes. This paper describes the advantages and the limitations of both methods. The codes used by Siemens KWU are presented with some examples for hydrogen analyses. A prospect of further development is given. (author)

  1. Unresolved Bereavement and Other Mental Health Problems in Parents of the Sewol Ferry Accident after 18 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Hyu Jung; Huh, Seung; Lee, So Hee; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the overall mental health consequences of the bereaved parents after the Sewol ferry accident. Eighty-four bereaved parents participated in the study. Self-report scales assessing the severity of psychiatric symptoms and other related psychosomatic problems were used at 18 months following the accident. Univariate descriptive statistics and regression analyses were performed to report the prevalence, severity, and correlates of psychiatric symptoms. 94% of the participants appeared to suffer from complicated grief based on scores on the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG). Half of the participants were categorized as having severe depression and 70.2% reported clinically significant post-traumatic symptoms according to scores on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and PTSD Check List-5 (PCL-5). No significant differences by gender were observed in the severity of psychiatric symptoms. A higher educational level was associated with more severe psychiatric symptoms in fathers. The loss of a child due to a disaster caused by human error may continue to have a substantial impact on parental mental health at 18 months after the event. A longitudinal study following parents' mental health state would be necessary to investigate the long-term effects of the traumatic experience in the future.

  2. Overdose Problem Associated with Treatment Planning Software for High Energy Photons in Response of Panama's Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attalla, E.M.; Lotayef, M.M.; Khalil, E.M.; El-Hosiny, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify dose distribution errors by comparing actual dose measurements with the calculated values done by the software. To evaluate the outcome of radiation overexposure related to Panama's accident and in response to ensure that the treatment planning systems (T.P.S.) are being operated in accordance with the appropriate quality assurance programme, we studied the central axis and pripheral depth dose data using complex field shaped with blocks to quantify dose distribution errors. Material and Methods: Multi data T.P.S. software versions 2.35 and 2.40 and Helax T.P.S. software version 5.1 B were assesed. The calculated data of the software treatment planning systems were verified by comparing these data with the actual dose measurements for open and blocked high energy photon fields (Co-60, 6MV and 18MV photons). Results: Close calculated and measured results were obtained for the 2-D (Multi data) and 3-D treatment planning (TMS Helax). These results were correct within 1 to 2% for open fields and 0.5 to 2.5% for peripheral blocked fields. Discrepancies between calculated and measured data ranged between 13. to 36% along the central axis of complex blocked fields when normalisation point was selected at the Dmax, when the normalisation point was selected near or under the blocks, the variation between the calculated and the measured data was up to 500% difference. Conclusions: The present results emphasize the importance of the proper selection of the normalization point in the radiation field, as this facilitates detection of aberrant dose distribution (over exposure or under exposure)

  3. Overdose problem associated with treatment planning software for high energy photons in response of Panama's accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attalla, Ehab M; Lotayef, Mohamed M; Khalil, Ehab M; El-Hosiny, Hesham A; Nazmy, Mohamed S

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify dose distribution errors by comparing actual dose measurements with the calculated values done by the software. To evaluate the outcome of radiation overexposure related to Panama's accident and in response to ensure that the treatment planning systems (T.P.S.) are being operated in accordance with the appropriate quality assurance programme, we studied the central axis and pripheral depth dose data using complex field shaped with blocks to quantify dose distribution errors. Multidata T.P.S. software versions 2.35 and 2.40 and Helax T.P.S. software version 5.1 B were assesed. The calculated data of the software treatment planning systems were verified by comparing these data with the actual dose measurements for open and blocked high energy photon fields (Co-60, 6MV & 18MV photons). Close calculated and measured results were obtained for the 2-D (Multidata) and 3-D treatment planning (TMS Helax). These results were correct within 1 to 2% for open fields and 0.5 to 2.5% for peripheral blocked fields. Discrepancies between calculated and measured data ranged between 13. to 36% along the central axis of complex blocked fields when normalisation point was selected at the Dmax, when the normalisation point was selected near or under the blocks, the variation between the calculated and the measured data was up to 500% difference. The present results emphasize the importance of the proper selection of the normalization point in the radiation field, as this facilitates detection of aberrant dose distribution (over exposure or under exposure).

  4. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of radiation accidents over a 50 year period shows that simple cases, where the initiating events were immediately recognised, the source identified and under control, the medical input confined to current handling, were exceptional. In many cases, the accidents were only diagnosed when some injuries presented by the victims suggested the radiological nature of the cause. After large-scale accidents, the situation becomes more complicated, either because of management or medical problems, or both. The review of selected accidents which resulted in severe consequences shows that most of them could have been avoided; lack of regulations, contempt for rules, human failure and insufficient training have been identified as frequent initiating parameters. In addition, the situation was worsened because of unpreparedness, insufficient planning, unadapted resources, and underestimation of psychosociological aspects. (author)

  5. Safety problems, symptomatic oriented accident regulations, influence of nuclear energetic on ecology of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palenikova, M.

    2002-01-01

    IAEA initiated in 1990 the program on help of the countries of Eastern Europe and of the former Soviet Union at evaluating of the safety of their first generation nuclear power reactors of the type WWER 440/223. The main aim of this program was to identify the main design and operational safety problems, to determine international consensus on priorities of safety improvements, to provide the help in the assessment of completeness and adequacy of programs of safety improvements: What are the safety problems; What is the safety importance of problems; What is done for prevention from damage of nuclear power plant; and of three barriers: the tasks MOD V-2 NPP; What is done for reducing of damage consequences; PHP, PASS (post-accidental directives and post-accidental monitoring). (author)

  6. Environmental exposures to electromagnetic fields and health. Opinion note of the Institut de Veille Sanitaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This note states the opinion the French Institute for Health Survey (Institut de Veille Sanitaire, InVS) on the effect of electromagnetic fields (used in mobile phones, television and radio broadcasting, radar and satellite communication, or microwave ovens) on health. While distinguishing extremely low frequency and radio-frequency electromagnetic fields, it proposes an overview of acquired knowledge and commonly acknowledged elements on risks for health. It discusses what is supposed or claimed for these both types of fields in terms of carcinogenic and non carcinogenic effects, and also in the particular case of idiopathic environmental intolerance to electromagnetic fields. A third part presents actions undertaken by the InVS (epidemiological survey and field studies), actions to be pursued or supported

  7. Report of adverse events related to treatments to Institute de Veille sanitaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingon, P.; Simmon-Tellier, S.

    2007-01-01

    The 'code de sante publique' imposes to all health professionals an obligation to declare serious and undesirable events following cares applied during treatment investigations or prevention actions. An experimentation has been installed under the responsibility of the Institut de Veille sanitaire further to the 9 August 2004 bill. It aims to define how to declare undesirable adverse events to test its feasibility, its efficiency and to identify the necessary conditions to widespread its modalities. The field of these experimentations concerns all health professionals, working in public hospital or in private practice. The definition of undesirable adverse events should be clarified. Different ways to declare these events will be discussed with S.F.R.O. (Societe francaise de radiotherapie oncologique) to improve the current management of incidents and adverse events. (authors)

  8. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  9. Stratégie sanitaire mobile pour réduire l'éclampsie ainsi que la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Stratégie sanitaire mobile pour réduire l'éclampsie ainsi que la mortalité chez les mères et les nourrissons en Tanzanie (ISMEA). En Tanzanie, le taux de mortalité maternelle est de 454 décès sur 100 000 naissances vivantes, ce qui signifie que toutes les heures, une femme décède en accouchant. Bon nombre de ces ...

  10. Vécu et représentation de l'ulcère de Buruli dans le district sanitaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ulcère de Buruli et de déterminer le vécu de la maladie. Il s'est agi d'une étude prospective qui s'est déroulée dans le District Sanitaire de Sotouboua d'Août à septembre 2008. Les 35 malades inclus dans l'étude ont été identifiés à partir des ...

  11. Optimisation of information influences on problems of consequences of Chernobyl accident and quantitative criteria for estimation of information actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobaleu, A.

    2004-01-01

    Consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident still very important for Belarus. About 2 million Byelorussians live in the districts polluted by Chernobyl radionuclides. Modern approaches to the decision of after Chernobyl problems in Belarus assume more active use of information and educational actions to grow up a new radiological culture. It will allow to reduce internal doze of radiation without spending a lot of money and other resources. Experience of information work with the population affected by Chernobyl since 1986 till 2004 has shown, that information and educational influences not always reach the final aim - application of received knowledge on radiating safety in practice and changing the style of life. If we take into account limited funds and facilities, we should optimize information work. The optimization can be achieved on the basis of quantitative estimations of information actions effectiveness. It is possible to use two parameters for this quantitative estimations: 1) increase in knowledge of the population and experts on the radiating safety, calculated by new method based on applied theory of the information (Mathematical Theory of Communication) by Claude E. Shannon and 2) reduction of internal doze of radiation, calculated on the basis of measurements on human irradiation counter (HIC) before and after an information or educational influence. (author)

  12. 17 years after the Chernobyl' accident: problems and decisions. Proceedings of the International scientific and practical conference; 17 let posle Chernobylya: problemy i resheniya. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferentsii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevchuk, V E; Gurachevskij, V L; Kolbanov, V V

    2003-04-01

    The book contains proceedings of the scientific conference on difference medical and biological problems of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident, as well as on the problems of rehabilitation of the contaminated territories and ecosystems.

  13. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Accident Tolerant Fuels High Impact Problem: Coordinate Multiscale FeCrAl Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, K. A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hales, J. D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Y. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Andersson, D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Capolungo, L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wirth, B. D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-07-26

    Since the events at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011 significant research has unfolded at national laboratories, universities and other institutions into alternative materials that have potential enhanced ac- cident tolerance when compared to traditional UO2 fuel zircaloy clad fuel rods. One of the potential replacement claddings are iron-chromium-alunimum (FeCrAl) alloys due to their increased oxidation resistance [1–4] and higher strength [1, 2]. While the oxidation characteristics of FeCrAl are a benefit for accident tolerance, the thermal neu- tron absorption cross section of FeCrAl is about ten times that of Zircaloy. This neutronic penalty necessitates thinner cladding. This allows for slightly larger pellets to give the same cold gap width in the rod. However, the slight increase in pellet diameter is not sufficient to compensate for the neutronic penalty and enriching the fuel beyond the current 5% limit appears to be necessary [5]. Current estimates indicate that this neutronic penalty will impose an increase in fuel cost of 15-35% [1, 2]. In addition to the neutronic disadvantage, it is anticipated that tritium release to the coolant will be larger because the permeability of hydrogen in FeCrAl is about 100 times higher than in Zircaloy [6]. Also, radiation-induced hardening and embrittlement of FeCrAl need to be fully characterized experimentally [7]. Due to the aggressive development schedule for inserting some of the potential materials into lead test assemblies or rods by 2022 [8] multiscale multiphysics modeling approaches have been used to provide insight into these the use of FeCrAl as a cladding material. The purpose of this letter report is to highlight the multiscale modeling effort for iron-chromium-alunimum (FeCrAl) cladding alloys as part of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program through its Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) High Impact Problem (HIP). The approach taken throughout the HIP is to

  14. Distribution of hydrogen within the HDR-containment under severe accident conditions. OECD standard problem. Final comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwat, H.

    1992-08-01

    The present report summarizes the results of the International Standard Problem Exercise ISP-29, based on the HDR Hydrogen Distribution Experiment E11.2. Post-test analyses are compared to experimentally measured parameters, well-known to the analysis. This report has been prepared by the Institute for Reactor Dynamics and Reactor Safety of the Technical University Munich under contract with the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) which received funding for this activity from the German Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT) under the research contract RS 792. The HDR experiment E11.2 has been performed by the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in the frame of the project 'Projekt HDR-Sicherheitsprogramm' sponsored by the BMFT. Ten institutions from eight countries participated in the post-test analysis exercise which was focussing on the long-lasting gas distribution processes expected inside a PWR containment under severe accident conditions. The gas release experiment was coupled to a long-lasting steam release into the containment typical for an unmitigated small break loss-of-coolant accident. In lieu of pure hydrogen a gas mixture consisting of 15% hydrogen and 85% helium has been applied in order to avoid reaching flammability during the experiment. Of central importance are common overlay plots comparing calculated transients with measurements of the global pressure, the local temperature-, steam- and gas concentration distributions throughout the entire HDR containment. The comparisons indicate relatively large margins between most calculations and the experiment. Having in mind that this exercise was specified as an 'open post-test' analysis of well-known measured data the reasons for discrepancies between measurements and simulations were extensively discussed during a final workshop. It was concluded that analytical shortcomings as well as some uncertainties of experimental boundary conditions may be responsible for deviations

  15. Distribution of hydrogen within the HDR-containment under severe accident conditions. OECD standard problem. Final comparison report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karwat, H

    1992-08-15

    The present report summarizes the results of the International Standard Problem Exercise ISP-29, based on the HDR Hydrogen Distribution Experiment E11.2. Post-test analyses are compared to experimentally measured parameters, well-known to the analysis. This report has been prepared by the Institute for Reactor Dynamics and Reactor Safety of the Technical University Munich under contract with the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) which received funding for this activity from the German Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT) under the research contract RS 792. The HDR experiment E11.2 has been performed by the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in the frame of the project 'Projekt HDR-Sicherheitsprogramm' sponsored by the BMFT. Ten institutions from eight countries participated in the post-test analysis exercise which was focussing on the long-lasting gas distribution processes expected inside a PWR containment under severe accident conditions. The gas release experiment was coupled to a long-lasting steam release into the containment typical for an unmitigated small break loss-of-coolant accident. In lieu of pure hydrogen a gas mixture consisting of 15% hydrogen and 85% helium has been applied in order to avoid reaching flammability during the experiment. Of central importance are common overlay plots comparing calculated transients with measurements of the global pressure, the local temperature-, steam- and gas concentration distributions throughout the entire HDR containment. The comparisons indicate relatively large margins between most calculations and the experiment. Having in mind that this exercise was specified as an 'open post-test' analysis of well-known measured data the reasons for discrepancies between measurements and simulations were extensively discussed during a final workshop. It was concluded that analytical shortcomings as well as some uncertainties of experimental boundary conditions may be responsible for deviations

  16. Problems of organization of interaction of administrative bodies and the forces engaged in liquidation of after-effects of radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, A.P.; Perevezentsev, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The paper defines the main problems arising in connection with organization of interaction of the administrative bodies and the forces involved in liquidation of after-effects of radiation accident. It is demonstrated that in order to increase the efficiency of interaction of the administrative bodies of various levels it is necessary to make it automatic. The paper revealed the meaning of the levels of relationship between various automatic systems. 4 refs

  17. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  18. Experience in accident liquidation at the Chernobyl' NPP and problems of organization of the emergency-engineering service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, Yu.B.; Samojlenko, Yu.N.

    1989-01-01

    The efficiency of measures realized in order to eliminate the Chernobyl' accident effects is estimated. The principles of organization of the emergency-engineering service for accident elimination in nuclear power engineering are described. The automated information safety system should from the technical basis for this service. The information system structure is determined. The list of main directions of research and design works realized in the emergency-engineering service interests is given. It is noted that all parts of the emergency-engineering service must prepare the plants of works together with the USSR civil defense service, and they should interact in the process of accident elimination basing on coordinated organizational and technical solutions

  19. Dose limit for emergency workers. Application of Fukushima-Daiichi NPP accident and problems for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugai, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Described are details of management for workers' personal exposure dose, of problems raised and of their solutions taken under various complicated conditions of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Accident (Mar. 2011). As the entrance/exit (en/ex) for the NPP site with regular control were impossible due to the hydrogen explosion which expanded the control area to 20 km distance from the site, Japan Football Village (J-Village) localizing at the border and Important Anti-seismic Building in the site were defined to be the bases of en/ex and of their control, respectively. Flooded 5,000 alarm pocket dosimeters (APD) by tsunami were not usable and only 320 APD remained available. At the quite early stage of working at the site, one representative worker in a group had only one APD. Management of internal exposure was also difficult essentially because the power source of the whole body counter was unavailable. At an early emergent stage alone, workers with higher dose than the limit (100 mSv for emergency) were observed, but >90% of workers were exposed to <50 mSv (the limit for the radiation worker). Six male Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) personnel were exposed to 250 mSv (specially defined dose limit) or more with the maximum 678.80 mSv, in whom the internal exposure due to radioiodine largely attributed. They were examined for their health by the expert doctors in National Institute of Radiological Sciences, were found free of abnormality and were to be followed up thereafter. Out of 19 female TEPCO personnel, two had exceeded the dose limit 5 mSv/3 mo and other 2, the annual limit 1 mSv. They received the examination by the industrial doctor, were found free of abnormality, but were decided not to work at the site. Recently, about 5,000 APD have been purchased for personal usage and dose management is conducted by bar-coding of individual workers, and internal exposure is managed with 11 whole body counters by once a month measurement in J

  20. Postulated accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, W.

    1980-01-01

    This lecture on 'Postulated Accidents' is the first of a series of lectures on the dynamic and transient behaviour of nuclear power plants, especially pressurized water reactors. The main points covered will be: Reactivity Accidents, Transients (Intact Loop) and Loss of Cooland Accidents (LOCA) including small leak. This lecture will discuss the accident analysis in general, the definition of the various operational phases, the accident classification, and, as an example, an accident sequence analysis on the basis of 'Postulated Accidents'. (orig./RW)

  1. Dosimetry problems when evaluating radiation effects on the personnel, restoration work participants, and human population due to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, Yu.V.; Osanov, D.P.; Gimadova, T.I.; Gus'kov, V.M.; Kruchkov, V.P.; Pavlov, D.A.; Shaks, A.I.

    1993-01-01

    System of radiation monitoring operations of the Chernobyl NPP personnel is described for the period from the date of accident up to present time as well as of persons worked in the Chernobyl NPP 30 km zone, servicemen, and human population. Unsatisfactory organization of radiation on monitoring is marked and causes of this fact are considered. 8 refs.; 3 figs

  2. Cognitive modeling and dynamic probabilistic simulation of operating crew response to complex system accidents. Part 4: IDAC causal model of operator problem-solving response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.H.J. [Center for Risk and Reliability, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States) and Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)]. E-mail: yhc@umd.edu; Mosleh, A. [Center for Risk and Reliability, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    This is the fourth in a series of five papers describing the Information, Decision, and Action in Crew context (IDAC) operator response model for human reliability analysis. An example application of this modeling technique is also discussed in this series. The model has been developed to probabilistically predicts the responses of a nuclear power plant control room operating crew in accident conditions. The operator response spectrum includes cognitive, emotional, and physical activities during the course of an accident. This paper assesses the effects of the performance-influencing factors (PIFs) affecting the operators' problem-solving responses including information pre-processing (I), diagnosis and decision making (D), and action execution (A). Literature support and justifications are provided for the assessment on the influences of PIFs.

  3. Cognitive modeling and dynamic probabilistic simulation of operating crew response to complex system accidents. Part 4: IDAC causal model of operator problem-solving response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.H.J.; Mosleh, A.

    2007-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of five papers describing the Information, Decision, and Action in Crew context (IDAC) operator response model for human reliability analysis. An example application of this modeling technique is also discussed in this series. The model has been developed to probabilistically predicts the responses of a nuclear power plant control room operating crew in accident conditions. The operator response spectrum includes cognitive, emotional, and physical activities during the course of an accident. This paper assesses the effects of the performance-influencing factors (PIFs) affecting the operators' problem-solving responses including information pre-processing (I), diagnosis and decision making (D), and action execution (A). Literature support and justifications are provided for the assessment on the influences of PIFs

  4. Comparative analysis of a hypothetical coolant loss accident in an LMFB reactor with the use of various calculation models for a common reference problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royl, P.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a comparative analysis of the initial and dismantling stages of a hypothetical loss of flow accident in an LMFB reactor are presented. The analyses were made for a common reference problem with four different calculation models (CARMEN/KADIS, SURDYN, CAPRI/KADIS and FRAX). The reference core is described specifically, as are the differences in its geometrical disposition in the models, the static and transient conditions before and after the start of boiling and during dismantling. The differences in the models used for simulating the boiling and the dismantling are compared. The structure of the core, as well as the calculation conditions and hypotheses, were intentionally designed so that the accident would culminate, in all cases, in an energetic hydrodynamic dismantling stage

  5. Analysis of the problem of forced landing of aircraft on water surface and methods of simulation of aircraft crews at aircraft accidents of this type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Nedilko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to an actual problem of emergency incidents of forced landing of aircraft on the water surface. The main content of the research is the analysis of statistical data and classification splashdown. The article reveals the main reasons that lead to the forced landing of aircraft. Analysis of accidents is interesting for us, as it can reveal the shortcomings and problems in the Rescue and disadvantages of rescue equipment. Considerable attention is paid to the analysis of simulators for flight and cabin crew. Based on the analysis of the problem the need for regular training and exercises is established. To conduct a full-fledged study on the problem of forced landing of airborne vessels on the water surface, the following methods were used: comparison method, generalization method, data analysis method.

  6. Tchernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    First, R.M.B.K type reactors are described. Then, safety problems are dealt with reactor control, behavior during transients, normal loss of power and behavior of the reactor in case of leak. A possible scenario of the accident of Tchernobyl is proposed: events before the explosion, possible initiators, possible scenario and events subsequent to the core meltdown (corium-concrete interaction, interaction with the groundwater table). An estimation of the source term is proposed first from the installation characteristics and the supposed scenario of the accident, and from the measurements in Europe; radiological consequences are also estimated. Radioactivity measurements (Europe, Scandinavia, Western Europe, France) are given in tables (meteorological maps and fallouts in Europe). Finally, a description of the site is given [fr

  7. New approach to the problem of increasing the environmental protection during a severe accident at a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulyukhin, S.A.; Mikheev, N.B.; Kamenskaya, A.N.; Rumer, I.A.; Kazakevich, M.Z.; Novichenko, V.L.

    1996-01-01

    Although the probability of severe accidents is very low (less than 10 -5 ), these accidents have very hazardous consequences and can lead to an extensive contamination of the territory with radioactive compounds (e.g., Chernobyl accident in 1986). To minimize the consequences of such accidents at nuclear power plants (NPP), much attention is being given to operational safety issues. Particular emphasis has been placed on the in-depth protection, i.e., a multilevel protection. In order to increase the efficiency of available systems of environmental protection in both operating and projected NPPs, we have developed a new concept based on the use of man-made hydrophilic aerosols that can form mixed aerosol particles with radio-aerosols. The fundamental investigations performed have shown that the resulting mixed aerosols incorporate radio-aerosols with particle size less that 0.1 μm. These radio-aerosols acquire the properties of the macro-aerosols; i.e., hydrophobic aerosols become hydrophilic. The use of hydrophilic macro-aerosols allows the scrubber efficiency to be increased with respect to hydrophobic cesium aerosols (with particle size less than 0.1μ) by a factor of more than 50. Simultaneously, for operating NPPs supplied with under-containment pressure-relief system, we suggest a decontamination setup of a new type. This setup can work both of the decontamination of the vapor-air flow cesium and iodine radio-aerosols is 10 5 - 10 7 . As to the NPP projects now under development, the use of man-made aerosols under the containment at the time of an accident will allow the sedimentation rate of radio-aerosols to be significantly increased, and this will ensure a rapid removal of radioactivity from under the containment. Our investigations have shown that ammonium chloride increases the sedimentation rate of nano-metric cesium radio-aerosol particles by a factor of more than 100. Thus, an almost complete trapping of radio-aerosols through the use of man

  8. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Scientometric analysis of the means of scientific communication of the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl Nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artamonova, N.O.; Kulyinyich, G.V.; Pavlyichenko, Yu.V.; Gorvan', A.Je.; Zakrut'ko, L.Yi.; Novgorods'ka, L.M.; Byilan, L.G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper evaluation of the structure and trends in the development of the Ukrainian scientific communication tools on the medical consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident using bibliometric methods has been given. The main developers of methodical documents are allocated, the dynamics of the distribution of methodical references, information letters and innovations is estimated. The importance of scientific communications tools in dissemination and use of new medical knowledge is demonstrated

  10. HCTISN - Plenary extraordinary meeting on the 9 March 2012 - General consequences of the earthquake and tsunami; Status of Fukushima-Dai-ichi nuclear installations; The Fukushima accident, one year after: environmental and health situation in Japan; Protective actions undertaken by Japanese authorities; Support by AREVA to Japan after the Fukushima accident; What went on in Fukushima? Implementation of the IAEA nuclear safety action plan; Review of European stress tests by the peers; Opinion of the ASN on complementary safety assessments (CSAs); HCTISN - Reunion pleniere extraordinaire du 9 mars 2012: Consequences generales du seisme et du tusnami; Situation des installations nucleaires de Fukushima Dai-ichi; L'accident de Fukushima 1 an apres: situation environnementale et sanitaire au Japon; Les actions de protection engagees par les autorites japonaises; Aide apportee par AREVA au Japon suite a l'accident de Fukushima; Que s'est-il passe a Fukushima?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, Susumu [Ambassade du Japon en France, 7 Avenue Hoche, 75008 Paris (France); Charles, T.; Champion, Didier [Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire - IRSN, 31, avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Jean-Luc Godet [Autorite de surete nucleaire, 6, place du Colonel Bourgoin, 75012 Paris (France); ASN/DIS, 10, Route du Panorama, 92266 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France); Arnaud GAY [Business Unit Valorisation - AREVA (France); Philippe Jamet [European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group - ENSREG, Autorite de surete nucleaire, 6, place du Colonel Bourgoin, 75012 Paris (France)

    2012-03-09

    This document contains Power Point presentations proposed during a plenary session of the High Committee transparency and information on nuclear safety (HCTISN). The contributions addressed the Fukushima accident (the earthquake and the tsunami, the technical consequences on the plant, the consequences on the environment and on health, the different actions undertaken in Japan to protect the population, the consequences on nuclear safety in other countries with notably the performance of stress tests or the organisation of complementary safety assessments on the French fleet of nuclear reactors

  11. IRSN press briefing on the issue 'Fukushima, one year after': Situation of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear installations; Accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi: briefing on the situation in February 2012; The Fukushima 1 accident one year after: assessment of environmental consequences in Japan; assessment of consequences of the Fukushima accident on the environment in Japan, one year after; Health consequences of the Fukushima Dai-ichi: situation briefing in February 2012; Point presse de l'IRSN sur le theme 'Fukushima, un an apres': Situation des installations nucleaires de Fukushima Dai-ichi; Accident survenu a la centrale de Fukushima Dai-Ichi Point de la situation en fevrier 2012; L'accident de Fukushima 1 an apres: bilan des consequences environnementales au Japon; bilan des consequences de l'accident de Fukushima sur l'environnement au Japon, un an apres l'accident; Les consequences sanitaires de l'accident de Fukushima Dai-ichi: point de situation en fevrier 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, T.; Jourdain, Jean-Rene

    2012-02-28

    This document gathers reports and Power Point presentations (with maps, data tables and graphs) dealing with the Fukushima accident, one year after its occurrence. Different issues are addressed: the status of the nuclear installations, the situation of the installations and of the environment, assessments, measurements and investigations on the effects and consequences of the accident (radioactive releases and fallouts) on the ground and marine environment and on public health

  12. Accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, R.J.; Monty, B.S.; Liparulo, N.J.; Desaedeleer, G.

    1989-01-01

    The foundation of the framework for a Severe Accident Management Program is the contained in the Probabilistic Safety Study (PSS) or the Individual Plant Evaluations (IPE) for a specific plant. The development of a Severe Accident Management Program at a plant is based on the use of the information, in conjunction with other applicable information. A Severe Accident Management Program must address both accident prevention and accident mitigation. The overall Severe Accident Management framework must address these two facets, as a living program in terms of gathering the evaluating information, the readiness to respond to an event. Significant international experience in the development of severe accident management programs exist which should provide some direction for the development of Severe Accident Management in the U.S. This paper reports that the two most important elements of a Severe Accident Management Program are the Emergency Consultation process and the standards for measuring the effectiveness of individual Severe Accident Management Programs at utilities

  13. Unavoidable Accident

    OpenAIRE

    Grady, Mark F.

    2009-01-01

    In negligence law, "unavoidable accident" is the risk that remains when an actor has used due care. The counterpart of unavoidable accident is "negligent harm." Negligence law makes parties immune for unavoidable accident even when they have used less than due care. Courts have developed a number of methods by which they "sort" accidents to unavoidable accident or to negligent harm, holding parties liable only for the latter. These sorting techniques are interesting in their own right and als...

  14. Discussion of the H2 problem connected with possible measures to be taken to reduce the consequences of accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, H.

    1983-01-01

    The German Reactor Safety Commission's guidelines provide for the design of emergency cooling systems that no more than 1% of the zirconium materials are to react with water in a loss-of-coolant incident. If this emergency cooling marginal value is also applied as the maximum value for hydrogen control, such design-related incidents will be technically controllable concerning hydrogen (flow mixing and recombination). This report dealt exclusively with questions arising from temporary excess core temperatures owing to emergency cooling that does not meet the requirements of design and causing substantial zirconium reactions with temporary excess hydrogen generation. In order to distinguish this type of incident from unproblematic design-related incidents for one thing and from cases with complete core meltdown for another thing, the term ''accident'' is applied. (orig./RW) [de

  15. PTSD in post-road traffic accident patients requiring hospitalization in Indian subcontinent: A review on magnitude of the problem and management guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undavalli, Chaitanya; Das, Piyush; Dutt, Taru; Bhoi, Sanjeev; Kashyap, Rahul

    2014-10-01

    Traumatic events after a road traffic accident (RTA) can be physical and/or psychological. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the major psychological conditions which affect accident victims. Psychological issues may not be addressed in the emergency department(ED) immediately. There have been reports about a mismatch between the timely referrals from ED to occupational or primary care services for these issues. If left untreated, there may be adverse effects on quality of life (QOL) and work productivity. Hospital expenses, loss of income, and loss of work could create a never ending cycle for financial difficulties and burden in trauma victims. The aim of our review is to address the magnitude of PTSD in post-RTA hospitalized patients in Indian subcontinent population. We also attempted to emphasis on few management guidelines. A comprehensive search was conducted on major databases with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) term 'PTSD or post-traumatic stress' and Emergency department and vehicle or road or highway or automobile or car or truck or trauma and India. Out of 120 studies, a total of six studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Our interpretation of the problem is that; hospital expenditure due to trauma, time away from work during hospitalization, and reduction in work performance, are three major hits that can lead RTA victims to financial crisis. Proposed management guidelines are; establish a coordinated triage, implementing a screening tool in the ED, and provide psychological counseling.

  16. PTSD in post-road traffic accident patients requiring hospitalization in Indian subcontinent: A review on magnitude of the problem and management guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitanya Undavalli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic events after a road traffic accident (RTA can be physical and/or psychological. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is one of the major psychological conditions which affect accident victims. Psychological issues may not be addressed in the emergency department(ED immediately. There have been reports about a mismatch between the timely referrals from ED to occupational or primary care services for these issues. If left untreated, there may be adverse effects on quality of life (QOL and work productivity. Hospital expenses, loss of income, and loss of work could create a never ending cycle for financial difficulties and burden in trauma victims. The aim of our review is to address the magnitude of PTSD in post-RTA hospitalized patients in Indian subcontinent population. We also attempted to emphasis on few management guidelines. A comprehensive search was conducted on major databases with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH term ′PTSD or post-traumatic stress′ and Emergency department and vehicle or road or highway or automobile or car or truck or trauma and India. Out of 120 studies, a total of six studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Our interpretation of the problem is that; hospital expenditure due to trauma, time away from work during hospitalization, and reduction in work performance, are three major hits that can lead RTA victims to financial crisis. Proposed management guidelines are; establish a coordinated triage, implementing a screening tool in the ED, and provide psychological counseling.

  17. Accidentes en la infancia: una problemática actual en pediatría Accidents in the childhood: a current problem in pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migdalia Torres Márquez

    Full Text Available Las lesiones accidentales constituyen una de las principales causas de amenaza para la vida en la población infantil, por lo cual la prevención de accidentes puede considerarse una emergencia sanitaria y social, tanto por la elevada mortalidad, morbilidad y discapacidad que estos ocasionan como por el elevado costo económico que representan; por tal razón, en el presente estudio se revisó la bibliografía especializada sobre algunos aspectos de interés, tales como: factores de riesgo, causas más frecuentes, condiciones favorecedoras y algunas medidas para prevenirlos, teniendo en cuenta que padres y educadores desempeñan una función primordial en esta tarea.Accidental injuries constitute one of the main life-threatening causes in children population, therefore the prevention of accidents can be considered a social and health emergency due to their high mortality, morbidity, inability and economic high cost. The present study reviewed the specialized literature cited on some interesting aspects, such as risk factors, most frequent causes, favorable conditions and some measures to prevent them, considering that parents and educators play an essential role in this task.

  18. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayer, J.E.; Clark, A.T.; Loysen, P.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Mishima, J.; Owczarski, P.C.; Gregory, W.S.; Nichols, B.D.

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH

  19. Preventing accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    As the most effective strategy for improving safety is to prevent accidents from occurring at all, the Volpe Center applies a broad range of research techniques and capabilities to determine causes and consequences of accidents and to identify, asses...

  20. Accident management for severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.; Pratt, W.T.; Lehner, J.; Leonard, M.; Disalvo, R.; Sheron, B.

    1988-01-01

    The management of severe accidents in light water reactors is receiving much attention in several countries. The reduction of risk by measures and/or actions that would affect the behavior of a severe accident is discussed. The research program that is being conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission focuses on both in-vessel accident management and containment and release accident management. The key issues and approaches taken in this program are summarized. 6 refs

  1. THE ROLE OF RADIATION ACCIDENTS AND INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF IONIZING RADIATION SOURCES IN THE PROBLEM OF RADIATION DAMAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Кіхтенко, Ігор Миколайович

    2016-01-01

    Subject of research – the relevance of radiation damage at modern development of industry and medicine. In the world of radiation sources used in different fields of practice and their application in the future will increase, which greatly increases the likelihood of injury in a significant contingent of people.Research topic – the definition of the role of nuclear energy and the industrial use of ionizing radiation sources in the problem of radiation damage. The purpose of research – identif...

  2. Current status and problems of decontamination by municipalities in Fukushima Prefecture. Records from four and a half years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Kota

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses the current status and problems of decontamination by 52 municipalities out of 59 municipalities in Fukushima Prefecture, four and a half years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, mainly based on the results of a questionnaire survey. The area corresponds to in all municipalities except for the 7 whose entire administrative area has been designated as Special Decontamination Area. This study reveals that (1) the number of municipalities which planned, ordered and implemented decontamination work has peaked although decontamination work of public facilities, housing, roads, farmland and forests has been still carried out in many municipalities, (2) about half of the municipalities have not secured enough temporary storage sites for contaminated soil and waste, (3) many municipalities recognize that construction of interim storage facilities, transfer of contaminated soil and waste from each municipality to interim storage facilities, and maintenance of temporary storage sites are major challenges concerning decontamination work, (4) about half of the municipalities regard efforts concerning decontamination work by the national government and the Fukushima prefectural government office as inadequate, (5) not a few municipalities recognize that residents cannot live their lives with a sense of safety and security unless air radiation dose is reduced to the level before the accident, and (6) most municipalities recognize that safe living environments can be recovered by decontamination work. Finally, based on these results, this study points out early completion of interim storage facilities and development of conditions to maintain and manage temporary storage sites, the end of decontamination work based on the air radiation dose rate, and establishment of decontamination policies concerning forests, rivers and waterways, as main future challenges concerning decontamination work by municipalities. (author)

  3. Simulation of the IAEA's fourth Standard Problem Exercise small-break loss-of-coolant accident using RELAP5/MOD.3.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebull, P.P.; Hassan, Y.A.

    1995-01-01

    A small-break loss-of-coolant accident experiment conducted at the PMK-2 integral test facility in Hungary is analyzed using the RELAP5/MOD3.1 thermal-hydraulic code. The experiment simulated a 7.4% break in the cold leg of a VVER-440/213-type nuclear power plant as part of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Fourth Standard Problem Exercise (SPE-4). Blind calculations of the exercise are presented, and the timing of various events throughout the transient is discussed. A posttest analysis is performed in which the sensitivity of the calculated results is investigated. The code RELAP5 predicts most of the transient events well, although a few problems are noted, particularly the failure of RELAP5 to predict dryout in the core even through the collapsed liquid level fell below the top of the heated portion. A discrepancy between the predicted primary mass inventory distribution and the experimental data is identified. Finally, the primary and secondary pressures calculated by RELAP5 fell too rapidly during the latter part of the transient, resulting in rather large errors in the predicted timing of some pressure-actuated events

  4. Nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

  5. Accidents in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear industry perspective and the public perspective on big nuclear accidents and leukaemia near nuclear sites are discussed. The industry perspective is that big accidents are so unlikely as to be virtually impossible and that leukaemia is not specifically associated with nuclear installations. Clusters of cancer with statistical significance occur in major cities. The public perspective is coloured by a prejudice and myth: the fear of radiation. The big nuclear accident is seen therefore as much more unacceptable than any other big accident. Risks associated with Sizewell-B nuclear station and the liquid gas depot at Canvey Island are discussed. The facts and figures are presented as tables and graphs. Given conflicting interpretations of the leukaemia problem the public inclines towards the more pessimistic view. (author)

  6. Irradiation as a Quarantine Control Measure; Irradiation Comme Mesure de Controle Sanitaire; Obluchenie kak mera po karantinnomu kontrolyu; La Irradiacion Como Sustitutivo de las Medidas de Cuarentena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwell, P. B. [Rentokil Laboratories Ltd., Felcourt, Sussex (United Kingdom)

    1966-11-15

    One hundred and eighty-six million people passed through US borders in 1965. Of 446000 consignments inspected at US ports of entry last year, 32 000 were infested. This vast increase in international travel, exchange of goods in trade and the speed of movement from one part of the world to another, requires strict measures to prevent worldwide dissemination of ''unwanted'' insect species. Once an exotic species is established, quarantine surveys of pest abundance, distribution and jump spread, require great efforts in containment campaigns with a view to eradication. Is ''inspection'' the most economic means of combating the introduction of undesirable insect species? Is the establishment of irradiation facilities for the treatment of certain commodities, at import or export, or interstate collecting centres, a possible answer to this problem? Can irradiation of certain products replace existing techniques of fumigation? Examples are given of the possible use of irradiation to treat passengers' baggage at airports, to prevent the spread of pests of fruit crops across inter-state boundaries and for the treatment of timber at import. Sustained release of sterilized insects as a continuous control operation is considered as a possible replacement for quarantine survey and treatment of pest containment areas. (author) [French] En 1965, 186 millions de personnes ont franchi les frontieres des Etats-Unis. Sur les 446 000 envois de denrees alimentaires inspectes dans les ports d'acces aux Etats-Unis pendant l'annee ecoulee, 32 000 etaient infestes. L'accroissement considerable du tourisme international, des echanges commerciaux et de la rapidite des moyens de transport exige des mesures rigoureuses pour prevenir la dissemination dans le monde entier des especes d'insectes 'indesirables'. Des que la presence d'une espece exotique est constatee, les controles sanitaires visant a determiner l'abondance des insectes en question, leur distribution et leur rayon de dispersion

  7. Medical aspects of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerschmidt, O.

    1990-01-01

    Reactor accidents and nuclear bomb explosions are compared including the release of radioactivity in an accident, results of risk studies, emergency measures of nuclear power plants, and evacuation of the population. The medical aspects refer to the prophylaxies of the thyroid gland, contamination and decontamination of body surfaces, recommendations of the ICRP, radiation injury after total body exposure and medical problems after a reactor accident. (DG)

  8. The IDA cognitive model for the analysis of nuclear power plant operator response under accident conditions. Part I: problem solving and decision making model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smidts, C.; Shen, S.H.; Mosleh, A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is the first of a series of papers describing IDA which is a cognitive model for analysing the behaviour of nuclear power plant operators under accident conditions. The domain of applicability of the model is a relatively constrained environment where behaviour is significantly influenced by high levels of training and explicit requirement to follow written procedures. IDA consists of a model for individual operator behaviour and a model for control room operating crew expanded from the individual model. The model and its derivatives such as an error taxonomy and data collection approach has been designed with ultimate objective of becoming a quantitative method for human reliability analysis (HRA) in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The present paper gives a description of the main components of IDA such as memory structure, goals, and problem solving and decision making strategies. It also identifies factors that are at the origin of transitions between goals or between strategies. These factors cover the effects of external conditions and psychological state of the operator. The description is generic at first and then made specific to the nuclear power plant environment and more precisely to abnormal conditions

  9. [The topical problems of the car accident injury emerging from the materials of the articles published in the journal "Sudebno-meditsinskaya ekspertiza" during the period from 1958 to 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetisov, V A; Smirenin, S A; Nesterov, A V; Khabova, Z S

    2014-01-01

    The authors undertook the scientometric analysis of the articles published in the journal "Sudebno-meditsinskaya ekspertiza" during the last 55 years (from 1958 to 2012) with special reference to the information support of research and practical activities of forensic medical experts in this country concerning the topical problems of the car accident injury. The search for relevant information revealed a total of 111 articles that were categorized into several groups for their further systematization and analysis with the view for improving the effectiveness of research and experimental studies in the framework of the principal activities of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Department of the Russian Federation. This article is an extension of previous publications of the authors concerning the main aspects of the car accident injury. The forthcoming reports to be published in the journal "Sudebno-meditsinskaya ekspertiza" will present the results of the further in-depth scientometric analysis of the data on road accidents in this country.

  10. Les accidents de la route : un problème mondial qui peut être abordé avec succès ! = Road accidents : worldwide a problem that can be tackled successfully !

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. Holló, P. Lundebeye, S. Smith, G. & Werring, L.

    1996-01-01

    The present road safety situation is reviewed for Europe, Australia, Canada, Japan, and the developing countries. Every year, there are about 500,000 road accident fatalities worldwide. Although increasing traffic would lead to an increase in fatalities and injuries, in the absence of effective road

  11. Evaluation des Connaissances-Attitudes-Pratiques des populations des districts sanitaires de Benoye, Laoukassy, Moundou et N?Djam?na Sud sur la rage canine au Tchad

    OpenAIRE

    Mindekem, Rolande; Lechenne, Monique; Alfaroukh, Idriss Oumar; Moto, Daugla Doumagoum; Zinsstag, Jakob; Ouedraogo, Laurent Tinoaga; Salifou, Sahidou

    2017-01-01

    Introduction La rage canine demeure une pr?occupation en Afrique comme au Tchad. La pr?sente ?tude vise ? ?valuer les Connaissances-Attitudes-Pratiques des populations pour la prise en charge appropri?e des personnes expos?es et une lutte efficace. M?thodes C??tait une ?tude transversale descriptive r?alis?e en juillet et septembre dans quatre districts sanitaires au Tchad en 2015. Les donn?es ont ?t? collect?es ? l?aide d?un questionnaire aupr?s des m?nages recrut?s suivant un sondage al?ato...

  12. Comparative analysis of a hypothetical loss-of-flow accident in an irradiated LMFBR core using different computer models for a common benchmark problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wider, H.U.; Devos, J.; Nguyen, H.; Goethem, G. Van.; Miles, K.J.; Tentner, A.M.; Pizzica, P.

    1989-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of an international exercise to compare whole-core accident calculations of the initiation phase of an unprotected LOF accident in a large irradiated LMFBR. The results for the accident phase before pin failure are in rather good agreement except for the fuel pin mechanics predictions. There are also some differences in the sodium boiling calculations but the voiding rates which are of key importance are very similar. The post - failure fuel motion and sodium voiding predictions show significant differences. However, the majority of these calculations agree that temporary fuel accumulations occur which increase the power beyond that caused by sodium voiding alone

  13. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  15. Proceedings of the CSNI workshop on International Standard Problem 48 - Analysis of 1:4-scale prestressed concrete containment vessel model under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    At the CSNI meeting in June 2002, the proposal for an International Standard Problem on containment integrity (ISP 48) based on the NRC/NUPEC/Sandia test was approved. Objectives were to extend the understanding of capacities of actual containment structures based on results of the recent PCCV Model test and other previous research. The ISP was sponsored by the USNRC, and results had been made available thanks to NUPEC and to the USNRC. Sandia National Laboratory was contracted to manage the technical aspects of the ISP. At the end of the ISP48, a workshop was organized in Lyon, France on April 6-7, 2005 hosted by Electricite de France. Its overall objective was to present results obtained by participants in the ISP 48 and to assess the current practices and the state of the art with respect to the calculation of concrete structures under severe accident conditions. Experience from other areas in civil engineering related to the modelling of complex structures was greatly beneficial to all. Information obtained as a result of this assessment were utilized to develop a consensus on these calculations and identify issues or 'gaps' in the present knowledge for the primary purpose of formulating and prioritizing research needs on this topic. The ISP48 exercise was published in the report referenced NEA/CSNI/R(2005)5 in 3 volumes. Volume 1 contains the synthesis of the exercise; Volumes 2 and 3 contain individual contributions of participating organizations. The CSNI Working Group on the Integrity and Ageing and in particular its sub-group on the behaviour of concrete structures has produced extensive material over the last few years. The complete list of references is given in this document. These proceedings gather the papers and presentations given by the participants at the Lyon workshop

  16. Sports Accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    Kiebel

    1972-01-01

    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  17. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplavskij, K.K.; Smorodintseva, G.I.

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of a critical analysis of the available data on causes and consequences of radiation accidents (RA), a classification of RA by severity (five groups of accidents) according to biomedical consequences and categories of exposed personnel is proposed. A RA is defined and its main characteristics are described. Methods of RA prevention are proposed, as is a plan of specific measures to deal with RA in accordance with the proposed classification

  18. Radiation accidents and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagstuen, E.; Theisen, H.; Henriksten, T.

    1982-12-01

    On September 2nd 1982 one of the employees of the gamma-irradiation facility at Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway entered the irradiation cell with a 65.7 kCi *sp60*Co- source in unshielded position. The victim received an unknown radiation dose and died after 13 days. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy, the radiation dose in this accident was subsequently determined based on the production of longlived free radicals in nitroglycerol tablets borne by the operator during the accident. He used nitroglycerol for heart problems and free radical are easily formed and trapped in sugar which is the main component of the tablets. Calibration experiments were carried out and the dose given to the tablets during the accident was determined to 37.2 +- 0.5 Gy. The general use of free radicals for dose determinations is discussed. (Auth.)

  19. Use of accident experience in developing criteria for teleoperator equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallario, E.J.; Selby, J.M.

    1985-10-01

    The 1961 SL-1 reactor accident in Idaho and the Recuplex accident at Hanford are reviewed to identify problems common to emergency situations, lessons learned from accidents, criteria for emergency equipment, and recommendations for using robotics to solve problems during emergencies. Teleoperator equipment could be used to assess the extent of the damage and the condition of the reactor, retrieve dosimeters, evacuate and treat accident victims, clean up debris and decontaminate accident areas. 2 refs., 9 figs

  20. Criticality accident:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavese, Susana I.

    2000-01-01

    A criticality accident occurred at 10:35 on September 30, 1999. It occurred in a precipitation tank in a Conversion Test Building at the JCO Tokai Works site in Tokaimura (Tokai Village) in the Ibaraki Prefecture of Japan. STA provisionally rated this accident a 4 on the seven-level, logarithmic International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). The September 30, 1999 criticality accident at the JCO Tokai Works Site in Tokaimura, Japan in described in preliminary, technical detail. Information is based on preliminary presentations to technical groups by Japanese scientists and spokespersons, translations by technical and non-technical persons of technical web postings by various nuclear authorities, and English-language non-technical reports from various news media and nuclear-interest groups. (author)

  1. Organization of accident medical service in emergency situations in the system of Federal administration board for medical-biological and emergency problems at the Ministry of public health and medical industry of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfenova, L.N.

    1995-01-01

    Federal Administration Board for medical-biological problems at the Ministry of Public Health and Medical Industry of Russia, in accordance with the entrusted functions, provides medical-sanitary service for the workers of the branches of industry with especially dangerous labour conditions. For these purpose, there is functioning in its system a network of therapeutic-prophylactic, sanitary, scientific-research, educational and other establishments. A high degree of accident danger of the attended industrial plants determines the state policy of organizations and administrations as well as scientific-practical establishments of the Federal Administration Board in respect of elaboration and introduction of a complex of measures which would enable to guarantee the safe functioning of the plants. All sub-administration establishments have the necessary structures, settle the questions of liquidation of medical-sanitary after-effects of accidents at the attended plants, and are regarded to be the organizations of specialized emergency medical aid of the Federal Administration Board

  2. Twenty years of the Chernobyl accident: Results and problems in eliminating its consequences in Russia 1986-2006. Russian national report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimova, N.V.; Marchenko, T.A.; Shoigu, S.K.; Bolshov, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident, above 1.5 million people in 14 subjects of the Russian Federation continue to live in the area of radioactive contamination. More than 180,000 of the Russians were affected by radiation, when participating in elimination of the accident and its consequences. Since the first days of the accident, the public health service faced a task to develop and implement the measures on minimization of medical effects of the accident and public provision with medical assistance, including the employees of the nuclear power plant and the participants in mitigation of the accident. The health of the liquidators and the public living in the contaminated areas is the most socially significant issue being solved in the process of elimination of the Chernobyl consequences. Radiological effects have been the focus of attention for the overall 20-year period. The radiation protection system was based on performance of the two conditions, namely: absolute prevention of acute (deterministic) effects and reduction in the risk of remote (stochastic) effects to acceptable (justified) levels. As early as in 1986, a decision was made to create the unified system of medical observation for the individuals affected by radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The Russian State Medical and Dosimetry Register (RSMDR) was established on the basis of the Medical Radiological Research Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The two most suffered public groups were defined as a result of research activity of the Register. These are the children (at the moment of the accident) living in the highly contaminated areas and the liquidators who have obtained the exposure dose above 150 mGy. According to the Register's data, 122 cases (54%) out of 226 thyroid cancers revealed during the years 1991-2003 among the children (at the moment of the Chernobyl catastrophe) from the Bryansk region can be considered as radiation-stipulated. Hygienic

  3. Sanitary impact of the particulate atmospheric urban pollution; Impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine particulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentissi, M.

    1999-03-22

    The pollution of particulates origin is one of the principle actual problem relative to air quality. In France, the fine particulates come from industry and automobile traffic, especially, the diesel vehicles. The most worrying characteristic is their fineness, that allow them to stay in suspension during a long time and penetrate into pulmonary alveoli, with toxic elements at their surface such metals, acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The objective of this work is to take stock of epidemiology and toxicology studies evaluating the sanitary impact of particulates in suspension. (N.C.)

  4. Contributing factors in construction accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, R A; Hide, S A; Gibb, A G F; Gyi, D E; Pavitt, T; Atkinson, S; Duff, A R

    2005-07-01

    This overview paper draws together findings from previous focus group research and studies of 100 individual construction accidents. Pursuing issues raised by the focus groups, the accident studies collected qualitative information on the circumstances of each incident and the causal influences involved. Site based data collection entailed interviews with accident-involved personnel and their supervisor or manager, inspection of the accident location, and review of appropriate documentation. Relevant issues from the site investigations were then followed up with off-site stakeholders, including designers, manufacturers and suppliers. Levels of involvement of key factors in the accidents were: problems arising from workers or the work team (70% of accidents), workplace issues (49%), shortcomings with equipment (including PPE) (56%), problems with suitability and condition of materials (27%), and deficiencies with risk management (84%). Employing an ergonomics systems approach, a model is proposed, indicating the manner in which originating managerial, design and cultural factors shape the circumstances found in the work place, giving rise to the acts and conditions which, in turn, lead to accidents. It is argued that attention to the originating influences will be necessary for sustained improvement in construction safety to be achieved.

  5. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Accident Tolerant Fuels High Impact Problem: Coordinate Multiscale U3Si2 Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, K. A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hales, J. D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Miao, Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Andersson, D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zhang, Y. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-07-26

    Since the events at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011 significant research has unfolded at national laboratories, universities and other institutions into alternative materials that have potential enhanced accident tolerance when compared to traditional \\uo~fuel zircaloy clad fuel rods. One of the potential replacement fuels is uranium silicide (\\usi) for its higher thermal conductivity and uranium density. The lower melting temperature is of potential concern during postulated accident conditions. Another disadvantage for \\usi~ is the lack of experimental data under power reactor conditions. Due to the aggressive development schedule for inserting some of the potential materials into lead test assemblies or rods by 2022~\\cite{bragg-sitton_2014} multiscale multiphysics modeling approaches have been used to provide insight into these materials. \\\\ \

  6. Safety climate and accidents at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Jeppe; Dastjerdi, Efat Lali; Dyreborg, Johnny

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Occupational safety climate is utilized as a way to measure the risk of accidents and injuries at work. This study investigates which factors are associated with safety climate and accidents at work. Methods: In the 2012 round of the Danish Work Environment and Health Study, 15,144 workers...... from the general working population of Denmark replied to questions about safety climate and accidents at work. Mutually adjusted logistic regression analyses determined the association between variables. Results: Within the last year, 5.7% had experienced an accident resulting in sickness absence....... The number of safety climate problems was progressively associated with the odds ratio (OR) for accidents. For one safety climate problem the OR for accidents was 2.01 (95% CI 1.67–2.42), for four or more safety climate problems the OR was 4.57 (95% CI 3.64–5.74). Young workers (18–24 years) had higher odds...

  7. Accident: Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

  8. Les politiques visant la couverture sanitaire universelle et les perceptions de la qualité des soins de santé

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier , Lara; Ridde , Valery

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Le début de la décennie 2010 a été marqué par l’avènement sur la scène internationale de la couverture sanitaire universelle (CSU) comme politique de santé mondiale. La consécration, en 2015, de la CSU comme sous-objectif du nouveau programme de développement mondial – les Objectifs de développement durable 2016-2030 – invite les acteurs de la santé mondiale à se mobiliser en faveur de l’atteinte des trois volets phares de la CSU : assurer la protection du risque finan...

  9. Developments in sanitary techniques 2011-2012. Important progress through studies in 2011; Ontwikkelingen sanitaire technieken 2011-2012. Belangrijke vorderingen door studies in 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffer, W.

    2011-12-15

    In 2011, new laws and regulations were the main theme in sanitary techniques (ST). Libraries have been updated in the areas of tap water installations and sewer systems of buildings. Some important progress was made in the framework of several ST preliminary studies conducted by TVVL and Uneto-VNI. Still, the start-up of new ST studies and projects in 2012 is lagging behind compared to previous years. [Dutch] Het vakgebied van sanitaire technieken (ST) stond in 2011 vooral in het teken van nieuwe wet- en regelgeving. Zowel op het gebied van leidingwaterinstallaties als riolering van bouwwerken zijn de bibliotheken geactualiseerd. In het kader van enkele ST-voorstudies, uitgevoerd door TVVL en Uneto-VNI zijn belangrijke vorderingen gemaakt. De opstart van nieuwe ST-studies en -projecten in 2012 blijft echter achter ten opzichte van voorgaande jaren.

  10. Prevention of pedestrian accidents.

    OpenAIRE

    Kendrick, D

    1993-01-01

    Child pedestrian accidents are the most common road traffic accident resulting in injury. Much of the existing work on road traffic accidents is based on analysing clusters of accidents despite evidence that child pedestrian accidents tend to be more dispersed than this. This paper analyses pedestrian accidents in 573 children aged 0-11 years by a locally derived deprivation score for the years 1988-90. The analysis shows a significantly higher accident rate in deprived areas and a dose respo...

  11. PROBLEMS OF RISK COMMUNICATION ON RADIATION SAFETY. ANALYSIS OF MATERIALS ON THE INTERNET AFTER THE 2013 RADIATION ACCIDENT AT THE ELECTROSTAL HEAVY ENGINEERING WORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Biblin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Presumably in the first days of April 2013, the smelting of scrap metal occurred on the territory of the Electrostal Heavy Engineering Works without the use of radiation input control. An unspecified source of ionizing radiation, containing 137Cs in an unknown quantity, was melted. As a result of smelting, contamination of the territory of the plant and the adjacent territory of Elektrostal city occurred. The relevance of the study is due to the high social significance of this accident, which is confirmed by a large number of materials published in both federal and regional mass media. In total, for the period from 12.04.2013 to 12.05.2013, 129 materials were identified. In addition, the total number of video views on this accident on the YOUTUBE website exceeds the population of Electrostal city. The purpose of the study was to analyze the practice of crisis risk communication, used by various officials and specialists in connection with the radiation accident in the territory of the Electrostal Heavy Engineering Works in 2013. The study analyzed publications in the mass media, messages on official websites of departments, organizations and authorities involved in the emergency response, video materials on the YOUTUBE website, messages on Internet forums. In order to record, analyze and store publications, an automated information system for the analysis of publications, developed by specialists of the Rospotrebnadzor Information and Analytical Center for Radiation Safety of the Population was used. The analysis of crisis risk communication with the population conducted by government bodies and representatives of various departments in the liquidation of the consequences of a radiation accident on the territory of the Electrostal Heavy Engineering Works revealed a discrepancy between the real risk communication practices in the case of the radiation accident in Elektrostal with modern scientific recommendations for radiation risk communication

  12. Metabolic syndrome X as a clinical outcome of hormonal changes on the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences (the problem analysis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, A.N.

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of hormonal changes in the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences, which promote the metabolic syndrome X development, was carried out on the base of clinical and experimental data. The system insulin-glucose, the mechanisms of insulinresistance and gyperinslinemia forming, the pathogenetical role of hyperinsulinemia interaction with others hormomes, some aspects of hormone - receptor interaction, an interconnection of hyperinsulinemia and vascular pathology, peculiarities of radiobiological stress as a non-classic adaptive reaction, which frequently resulting with a pathology, were discussed in the article

  13. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenger, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity

  14. Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar'yakhtar, V.G.

    1995-01-01

    The monograph contains the catastrophe's events chronology, the efficiency assessed of those measures assumed for their localization as well as their environmental and socio-economic impact. Among materials of the monograph the results are presented of research on the radioactive contamination field forming as well as those concerning the investigation of biogeochemical properties of Chernobyl radionuclides and their migration process in the environment of the Ukraine. The data dealing with biological effects of the continued combined internal and external radioactive influence on plants, animals and human health under the circumstances of Chernobyl accident are of the special interest. In order to provide the scientific generalizing information on the medical aspects of Chernobyl catastrophe, the great part of the monograph is allotted to appraise those factors affecting the health of different population groups as well as to depict clinic aspects of Chernobyl events and medico-sanitarian help system. The National Programme of Ukraine for the accident consequences elimination and population social protection assuring for the years 1986-1993 and this Programme concept for the period up to the year 2000 with a special regard of the world community participation there

  15. International aspects of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, K.

    1989-09-01

    The accident at Chernobyl revealed that there were shortcomings and gaps in the existing international mechanisms and brought home to governments the need for stronger measures to provide better protection against the risks of severe accidents. The main thrust of international co-operation with regard to nuclear safety issues is aimed at achieving a uniformly high level of safety in nuclear power plants through continuous exchanges of research findings and feedback from reactor operating experience. The second type of problem posed in the event of an accident resulting in radioactive contamination of several countries relates to the obligation to notify details of the circumstances and nature of the accident speedily so that the countries affected can take appropriate protective measures and, if necessary, organize mutual assistance. Giving the public accurate information is also an important aspect of managing an emergency situation arising from a severe accident. Finally, the confusion resulting from the unwarranted variety of protective measures implemented after the Chernobyl accident has highlighted the need for international harmonization of the principles and scientific criteria applicable to the protection of the public in the event of an accident and for a more consistent approach to emergency plans. The international conventions on third party liability in the nuclear energy sector (Paris/Brussels Conventions and the Vienna Convention) provide for compensation for damage caused by nuclear accidents in accordance with the rules and jurisdiction that they lay down. These provisions impose obligations on the operator responsible for an accident, and the State where the nuclear facility is located, towards the victims of damage caused in another country

  16. Neural network of Gaussian radial basis functions applied to the problem of identification of nuclear accidents in a PWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Carla Regina; Canedo Medeiros, Jose Antonio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • It is presented a new method based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) developed to deal with accident identification in PWR nuclear power plants. • Obtained results have shown the efficiency of the referred technique. • Results obtained with this method are as good as or even better to similar optimization tools available in the literature. - Abstract: The task of monitoring a nuclear power plant consists on determining, continuously and in real time, the state of the plant’s systems in such a way to give indications of abnormalities to the operators and enable them to recognize anomalies in system behavior. The monitoring is based on readings of a large number of meters and alarm indicators which are located in the main control room of the facility. On the occurrence of a transient or of an accident on the nuclear power plant, even the most experienced operators can be confronted with conflicting indications due to the interactions between the various components of the plant systems; since a disturbance of a system can cause disturbances on another plant system, thus the operator may not be able to distinguish what is cause and what is the effect. This cognitive overload, to which operators are submitted, causes a difficulty in understanding clearly the indication of an abnormality in its initial phase of development and in taking the appropriate and immediate corrective actions to face the system failure. With this in mind, computerized monitoring systems based on artificial intelligence that could help the operators to detect and diagnose these failures have been devised and have been the subject of research. Among the techniques that can be used in such development, radial basis functions (RBFs) neural networks play an important role due to the fact that they are able to provide good approximations to functions of a finite number of real variables. This paper aims to present an application of a neural network of Gaussian radial basis

  17. Fukushima and Chernobyl. A first comparison of health hazards; Fukushima et Tchernobyl. Une 1. comparaison des risques sanitaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, R.

    2011-07-15

    After having evoked the heavy consequences of the Fukushima accident as an industrial disaster (destructions and reconstruction, dismantling costs), the author discusses the classification of this accident in comparison with that of Chernobyl in terms of radioactive releases and levels. He outlines the quality of decisions regarding emergency response regarding population rescue, protection and care. He discusses the medical and health consequences. He outlines the differences with the situation met on the Chernobyl site, comments the results of different health and epidemiological surveys performed about Chernobyl

  18. Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capra, D.; Facchini, U.; Gianelle, V.; Ravasini, G.; Bacci, P.

    1988-01-01

    The radioactive cloud released during the Chernobyl accident reached the Padana plain and Lombardy in the night of April 30th 1986; the cloud remained in the northern Italian skies for a few days and then disappeared either dispersed by winds and washed by rains. The evidence in atmosphere of radionuclides as Tellurium, Iodine, Cesium, was promptly observed. The intense rain, in first week of may, washed the radioactivity and fall-out contamined the land, soil, grass. The present work concerns the overall contamination of the Northern Italy territory and in particular the radioactive fall-out in the Lakes region. Samples of soil have been measured at the gamma spectroscope; a correlation is found between the radionuclides concentration in soil samples and the rain intensity, when appropriate deposition models are considered. A number of measurements has been done on the Como'lake ecosystem: sediments, plankton, fishes and the overall fall-out in the area has been investigated

  19. Self-reported accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2016-01-01

    The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....

  20. Accident Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripputi, Ivo; Lund, Ingemar

    2002-01-01

    There is a general feeling that decommissioning is an activity involving limited risks, compared to NPP operation, and in particular risks involving the general public. This is technically confirmed by licensing analysis and evaluations, where, once the spent fuel has been removed from the plant, the radioactivity inventory available to be released to the environment is very limited. Decommissioning activities performed so far in the world have also confirmed the first assumptions and no specific issue has been identified, in this field, to justify a completely new approach. Commercial interests in international harmonization, which could drive an in-depth discussion about the bases of this approach, are weak at the moment. However, there are several reasons why a discussion in an international framework about the Safety Case for decommissioning (and, in particular, about Accident Assessment) may be considered necessary and important, and why it may show some specific and peculiar aspects. An effort for a comprehensive and systematic D and D accident safety assessment of the decommissioning process is justified. It is necessary also to explore in a holistic way the aspects of industrial safety, and develop tools for the decision-making process optimization. The expected results are the implementation of appropriate and optimized protective measures in any event and of adequate on/off-site emergency plans for optimal public and workers protection. The experience from other decommissioning projects and large-scale industrial activities is essential to balance provisions and an Operating Experience review process (specific for decommissioning) should help to focus on real issues

  1. Underreporting of maritime accidents to vessel accident databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Martin; Asbjørnslett, Bjørn Egil; Hole, Lars Petter

    2011-11-01

    Underreporting of maritime accidents is a problem not only for authorities trying to improve maritime safety through legislation, but also to risk management companies and other entities using maritime casualty statistics in risk and accident analysis. This study collected and compared casualty data from 01.01.2005 to 31.12.2009, from IHS Fairplay and the maritime authorities from a set of nations. The data was compared to find common records, and estimation of the true number of occurred accidents was performed using conditional probability given positive dependency between data sources, several variations of the capture-recapture method, calculation of best case scenario assuming perfect reporting, and scaling up a subset of casualty information from a marine insurance statistics database. The estimated upper limit reporting performance for the selected flag states ranged from 14% to 74%, while the corresponding estimated coverage of IHS Fairplay ranges from 4% to 62%. On average the study results document that the number of unreported accidents makes up roughly 50% of all occurred accidents. Even in a best case scenario, only a few flag states come close to perfect reporting (94%). The considerable scope of underreporting uncovered in the study, indicates that users of statistical vessel accident data should assume a certain degree of underreporting, and adjust their analyses accordingly. Whether to use correction factors, a safety margin, or rely on expert judgment, should be decided on a case by case basis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Jovanovic

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical services, physicians and nurses play an essential role in the plant safety program through primary treatment of injured workers and by helping to identify workplace hazards. The physician and nurse should participate in the worksite investigations to identify specific hazard or stresses potentially causing the occupational accidents and injuries and in planning the subsequent hazard control program. Physicians and nurses must work closely and cooperatively with supervisors to ensure the prompt reporting and treatment of all work related health and safety problems. Occupational accidents, work related injuries and fatalities result from multiple causes, affect different segments of the working population, and occur in a myriad of occupations and industrial settings. Multiple factors and risks contribute to traumatic injuries, such as hazardous exposures, workplace and process design, work organization and environment, economics, and other social factors. With such a diversity of theories, it will not be difficult to understand that there does not exist one single theory that is considered right or correct and is universally accepted. These theories are nonetheless necessary, but not sufficient, for developing a frame of reference for understanding accident occurrences. Prevention strategies are also varied, and multiple strategies may be applicable to many settings, including engineering controls, protective equipment and technologies, management commitment to and investment in safety, regulatory controls, and education and training. Research needs are thus broad, and the development and application of interventions involve many disciplines and organizations.

  3. Nuclear accidents and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biocanin, R.; Amidzic, B.

    2005-01-01

    The numerous threats are our cruel reality. There is a great arsenal of nuclear weapons. Nuclear terrorism and nuclear accidents are always possible, especially during the transport and handling different nuclear material. Terrorist organisation also goes for coming into the possession of the nuclear means. Specific and important problem is human radioactive contamination in using nuclear energy for peaceful and military purpose. So, realisation of the universal and united system of NBCD gives us a possibility by using the modern communication equipment and very effective mobile units to react in a real time and successfully perform monitoring, alarming, protection and decontamination. (author) [sr

  4. Experience and lessons learned from emergency disposal of Fukushima nuclear power station accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiegu; Zhen Bei; Yang Xiaoming; Chen Xiaohua

    2012-01-01

    After Fukushima nuclear accident, we visited the related medical aid agencies for nuclear accidents and conducted investigations in disaster-affected areas in Japan. This article summarizes the problems with emergency disposal of Fukushima nuclear accident while disclosing problems should be solved during the emergency force construction for nuclear accidents. (authors)

  5. The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and the problem of estimating the consequences of radioactive contamination of natural and agricultural ecological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexakhin, R.M.; Geraskin, S.A.; Fesenko, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    Heavy radiation accidents cause long-term low-dose biota irradiation on large territories. In this situation of great importance is a correct estimation of danger of low-dose irradiation. Approaches now in use to assess the genetic consequences of irradiation are based on linear extrapolation of biological effects induced by high and medium doses to the region of low doses. However, models based on the linear non threshold hypothesis lack strong biological justification and come into conflict with the experimental data available. Our experiments with agricultural crops aimed at studying regularities in the induction cytogenetic damages using test-systems have demonstrated that the form of the dose-effect curve in the domain of low exposure values shows a pronounced linearity and the presence of a dose-independent region. A comparison of the experimentally revealed form of the empirical curve with results obtained for other objects (human lymphocytes, fibroblasts of Chinese hamster, seedlings of horse beans, etc.) allows a conclusion to be made that the relationship between the yield of radiation induced cytogenetic disturbances and dose is non-linear and universal in character, varying for different objects only in dose values at which changes in the relationship nature occur. So, the observed genetic effects in the region of low doses result from peculiarities in the cellular response to weak external action rather than damaging impact of ionising radiation or other factors of physical or chemical nature

  6. Evolution du système national d’information sanitaire de la république démocratique du Congo entre 2009 et 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhemedi, Saleh; Kabangu, Yakim; Mpeli, Faustin; Salumu, Salomon; Kabeya, Philippe; Okitolonda, Emile

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Lancé en 1987, le Système national d'information sanitaire (SNIS) de la République Démocratique du Congo (DR Congo) a été évalué en 2009 et 2015 moyennant l'outil HMN (Health metrics network). L'objectif de cette étude était d'estimer les progrès réalisés entre ces deux évaluations. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une analyse des données secondaires des évaluations du SNIS, qui a consisté à comparer le degré de satisfaction par rapport aux six composantes de cet outil entre 2009 et 2015, à savoir; les ressources, les indicateurs, les sources de données, la gestion des données, les produits de l'information, la diffusion et l'utilisation des données. Résultats Entre 2009 et 2015, le degré de satisfaction des répondants a évolués de la manière suivante: 49% contre 61% pour les ressources; 73% vs 88% pour les indicateurs; 52% vs 61% pour les sources de données; 41% vs 45% pour la gestion des données; 74% contre 77% pour les produits de l'information et enfin 51% vs 51% pour la diffusion et l'utilisation des données. Dans l'ensemble, le score moyen est passé de 59% à 64% avec une mention « satisfaisante ». Conclusion Notre étude a montré que le SNIS de la RD Congo n'a pas significativement évolué entre 2009 et 2015, et n'était pas en mesure de fournir en temps réel l'information sanitaire fiable pour la prise de décision et la planification des programmes de santé. PMID:29629011

  7. Return on experience on nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand

    2015-09-01

    After a presentation of the International Nuclear and radiological Events Scale (INES scale), of its levels and criteria, this article proposes brief recalls of some nuclear accidents which occurred in nuclear reactors: Chalk River in Canada (1952), Windscale in England (1957), the universal Canadian reactor (NRU in 1958), the SL1 reactor of the Idaho National Laboratory in the USA (1961), the Swiss Lucens reactor (1969), Saint-Laurent des Eaux in France (1969 and 1980). More detailed descriptions are then given for the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, the Chernobyl accident in 1986, and the Fukushima accident in 2011. The main causes of these accidents are identified: loss of control of chain reaction, cooling defect on a stopped reactor, cooling defect on an operated reactor. Some lessons are drawn from these facts, and some characteristics of the EPR are outlined with respect with problems encountered in these accidents

  8. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

  9. Accident information needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

    1992-01-01

    A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information

  10. Accident information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

    1992-12-31

    A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information.

  11. Accident information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

    1992-01-01

    A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information.

  12. Severe accident phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokiniemi, J.; Kilpi, K.; Lindholm, I.; Maekynen, J.; Pekkarinen, E.; Sairanen, R.; Silde, A.

    1995-02-01

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  13. Accident proneness, does it exist? A review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, Ellen; Pijl, Ysbrand J.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Neeleman, Jan; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Accident related health problems have been suggested to cluster within persons. This phenomenon became known as accident proneness and has been a subject of many discussions. This study provides an overview of accident proneness. Therefore, 79 articles with empirical data on accident rates were identified from databases Embase, Medline, and Psychinfo. First, definitions of accidents varied highly, but most studies focused on accidents resulting in injuries requiring medical attention. Second,...

  14. Exploring Environmental Effects of Accidents During Marine Transport of Dangerous Goods by Use of Accident Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, Hans Gottberg; Haastrup, P.; Petersen, H J Styhr

    1996-01-01

    On the basis of 1776 descriptions of water transport accidents involving dangerous goods, environmental problems in connection with releases of this kind are described and discussed. It was found that most detailed descriptions of environmental consequences concerned oil accidents, although most...... longer than broad. Gravity scales used to describe and evaluate environmental consequences were discussed....

  15. A review of severe accident assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Kei

    2000-01-01

    One of the most difficult problems on evaluation of external costs on nuclear power generation is value on a severe accident risk. Once forming a severe accident, its effect is very important and extends to a wide range, to give a lot of damages. It is a main area of study on externality of energy to compare various risks by means of price conversion at unit kWh. Here was outlined on research examples on main severe accident risks before then. A common fact on estimation cost such research examples is to limit it to direct cost (mainly to health damage) at accident phenomenon. As an actual problem, it is very difficult to substantially quantify such parameters because of basically belonging to social psychology. It is due to no finding out decisive evaluation method on this problem to be adopted conventional EED (Expert Expected Damages) approach in the ExternE Phase III, either. (G.K.)

  16. Health consequences of the Fukushima accident. A review of the situation in February 2012; Les consequences sanitaires de l'accident de Fukushima. Point de la situation en fevrier 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-28

    This document discusses an assessment of doses which have been potentially received by the Japanese population due to external exposure to gamma radiation emitted by the radioactive plume, to internal exposure by inhalation of radionuclides present in the air, and to external exposure to gamma radiation emitted by the radioactive deposit progressively formed depending on rainfalls and on the radioactive plume trajectory. It presents the different epidemiological studies which have been implemented since the end of June 2011, and comments their progress and their first results (dosimetric questionnaire, assessment of thyroid dysfunctions for exposed children). It comments and discussed the situation of workers involved in operations carried out in the Fukushima-Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (noticed effects, health monitoring). It finally outlines the IRSN involvement in UNSCEAR works

  17. Accident proneness, does it exist? A review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Ellen; Pijl, Ysbrand J.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Neeleman, Jan; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    Accident related health problems have been suggested to cluster within persons. This phenomenon became known as accident proneness and has been a subject of many discussions. This study provides an overview of accident proneness. Therefore, 79 articles with empirical data on accident rates were

  18. The effect of vehicle characteristics on road accidents

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, I S

    2016-01-01

    The Effect of Vehicle Characteristics on Road Accidents investigates whether vehicle characteristics related to handling and stability contribute to road accidents. Using multiple regression analysis, this book addresses driver and vehicle effects separately in order to define both the magnitude of the handling/accident causation problem as well as the relative importance of the various performance measures. This monograph is comprised of six chapters and begins with detailed studies of accidents to determine the circumstances which lead to loss of control or overturning of a car on the road, and which accidents are likely to be influenced by the handling and stability characteristics of cars. Accident rates for these types of accident are then examined for the more popular models of car. Measures of vehicle handling and stability related to accident rates are also discussed. This text will be a useful resource for motorists and road engineers as well as transportation officials.

  19. Nuclear accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The film presents statistical data on criticality accidents. It outlines past IAEA activities on criticality accident dosimetry and the technical documents that resulted from this work. The film furthermore illustrates an international comparison study on nuclear accident dosimetry conducted at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, United Kingdom

  20. Nuclear accident dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-12-31

    The film presents statistical data on criticality accidents. It outlines past IAEA activities on criticality accident dosimetry and the technical documents that resulted from this work. The film furthermore illustrates an international comparison study on nuclear accident dosimetry conducted at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, United Kingdom

  1. Research investigation report on Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-03-01

    This report was issued in February 2012 by Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation's Independent Investigation Commission on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, which consisted of six members from the private sector in independent positions and with no direct interest in the business of promoting nuclear power. Commission aimed to determine the truth behind the accident by clarifying the various problems and reveal systematic problems behind these issues so as to create a new starting point by identifying clear lessons learned. Report composed of four chapters; (1) progression of Fukushima accident and resulting damage (accident management after Fukushima accident, and effects and countermeasure of radioactive materials discharged into the environment), (2) response against Fukushima accident (emergency response of cabinet office against nuclear disaster, risk communication and on-site response against nuclear disaster), (3) analysis of historical and structural factors (technical philosophy of nuclear safety, problems of nuclear safety regulation of Fukushima accident, safety regulatory governance and social background of 'Safety Myth'), (4) Global Context (implication in nuclear security, Japan in nuclear safety regime, U.S.-Japan relations for response against Fukushima accident, lessons learned from Fukushima accident - aiming at creation of resilience). Report could identify causes of Fukushima accident and factors related to resulting damages, show the realities behind failure to prevent the spread of damage, and analyze the overall structural and historical background behind the accidents. (T. Tanaka)

  2. MELCOR analysis of the TMI-2 accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucheron, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of the Three Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) standard problem that was performed with MELCOR. The MELCOR computer code is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of analyzing severe accident in nuclear power plants. The primary role of MELCOR is to provide realistic predictions of severe accident phenomena and the radiological source team. The analysis of the TMI-2 standard problem allowed for comparison of the model predictions in MELCOR to plant data and to the results of more mechanistic analyses. This exercise was, therefore valuable for verifying and assessing the models in the code. The major trends in the TMI-2 accident are reasonably well predicted with MELCOR, even with its simplified modeling. Comparison of the calculated and measured results is presented and, based on this comparison, conclusions can be drawn concerning the applicability of MELCOR to severe accident analysis. 5 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Supervisor's accident investigation handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    This pamphlet was prepared by the Environmental Health and Safety Department (EH and S) of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to provide LBL supervisors with a handy reference to LBL's accident investigation program. The publication supplements the Accident and Emergencies section of LBL's Regulations and Procedures Manual, Pub. 201. The present guide discusses only accidents that are to be investigated by the supervisor. These accidents are classified as Type C by the Department of Energy (DOE) and include most occupational injuries and illnesses, government motor-vehicle accidents, and property damages of less than $50,000

  4. Standby after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The report is an investigation concerning strandby and actions by SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) and SSI (National Institute of Radiation Protection) due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. It consists of a final report and two appendices. The final report is divided into two parts: 'I: Facts' and 'II: Analyzes'. 'Facts': The Swedish model for information: radio, press. Basic knowledge about ionizing radiation in the society. Resources for information. Need for information. Message forms for information. Announcements from the authorities in TV, radio, press, meeting, advertisements. Statements concerning the reactor accident and its consequences in Swedish mass media. How did the public recieve the information? 'Analyzis': Information responsibilities and policies. SSI information activities concerning radiologic accidents, conditions, methods and resources. Ditto for SKI, Swedish National Food Administration and the National Board of Agriculture. Appendix I: Information from authorities in the press three weeks after the Chernobyl accident: The material and the methods. The acute phase, the adoptation phase, the extension of the persective. What is said about the authorities in connection with Chernobyl? Appendix II: The fallout from Chernobyl, the authorities and the media coverage: The nationwide, regional and local coverage from radio and television. Ditto from the press. Topic and problem areas in reporting. Instructions from the authorities in media. Contribution in the media from people representing the authorities. Fallout in a chronologic perspective. (L.F.)

  5. Plutonium in the environment - bibliographic study and quantification; Impacts environnemental et sanitaire des isotopes du plutonium, etude bibliographique et quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guetat, Ph; Monfort, M; Ansoborlo, E [CEA Marcoule, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire, 30 (France); Bion, L; Moulin, V; Reiller, P; Vercouter, Th [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Boucher, L; Jourdain, F; Van Dorpe, F [CEA Cadarache, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Comte, A; Flury Heard, A; Fritsch, P; Menetrier, F [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dir. des Sciences du Vivant, 92 (France)

    2008-07-01

    This document deals with the different isotopes of plutonium. It intends to summarize the main features of plutonium behaviour from sources inside installation to the environment and man, and is expected to report the current knowledge about the different parameters used in the models for environmental and radiological impact assessment. The objective is to gather scientific information useful for deciders in case of accident or for regulation purposes. It gives main information on radiological and chemical characteristics which are necessary to understand transfers between compartments. Then it reports information on normal and accidental historical sources and present releases. The next part deals with transfer parameters in the installations and in environment. Parameters that influence its behaviour are examined, inside installations (physico-chemical forms and events that lead to releases), and outside in the environment for deposition to soils and transfer to plants, and animal products. A full chapter is dedicated to presentation of typical assessments, for each isotope and for mixture, and correspondence between activity, mass and dose reference levels are presented and discussed. Transfer and behaviour in man and effects on health are finally presented. (author)

  6. Analysis of traffic accidents in Romania, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Călinoiu, Geovana; Minca, Dana Galieta; Furtunescu, Florentina Ligia

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to underline the main consequences of traffic accidents in Romania 2009 and their associated causes or circumstances. We identified some problematic geographic areas, some critical months or moments of the day and also the most frequent causes; all these should become targets for the future planning. The current analysis provides some priority criteria for public health interventions. So, the future national road safety strategy should be in line with the EU objectives, but also with the national priorities. Romania is far away from the average EU target for 2010 of halving the death by traffic accidents registered in 2001. To describe the circumstances and the consequences related to traffic accidents registered in Romania, for the year 2009. An ecological study was conducted. The traffic accidents circumstances were analyzed in terms of magnitude, geographic space, time and cause. The consequences were analyzed as affected people and damaged cars. A total of 28,627 traffic accidents were registered in Romania during the year 2009. 2,796 people were killed and 27,968 were hospitalized and 42,443 cars were damaged. 3 of 4 accidents were caused by violations on behalf of the car drivers. Most common violations in car drivers were excess of speed and priority violations (52.4%). Among the pedestrians, 7 of 10 accidents were caused by illegal crossing. A higher number of accidents occurred during the summer months and during the evening hours (from 5.00 pm till 8.00 pm). The traffic accidents represent a real public health problem in Romania and a serious burden for the health system. The gap between Romania and the other EU member states needs to be diminished in the next decade. In this purpose, the future national road safety strategy should be in line with the EU objectives, but also with the national priorities. Research is needed to understand the causes and the socio-economical impact of traffic accidents and to define appropriate national

  7. The management of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelce, J.; Brignon, P.

    1987-01-01

    In considering severe accidents in water power reactors, a major problem that arises is how to manage them in such a way that the situation can be controlled as well as possible, from the aspects both of preventing serious damage to the core of limiting the discharge of radioactivity. A number of countries have announced provisions in the field of accident management, some already set up, others planned, but these mainly apply to preventing damage to the core. Part of this report deals with this aspect, to show that there is a fairly wide consensus on how problems should be approached. Attitudes vary, on the other hand, in the approach to mitigate radioactive release. In fact, few countries have proposed concrete steps to manage severe accidents in the final stages when the core is seriously damaged. Since it is difficult to compare different approaches, only the French approach is described. This description is however very brief, because in the five or six years since it was defined, the approach has been presented many times. The stress is placed more on the comments which this type of approach suggests, to make the subsequent general discussion easier

  8. Psychological aspects of accident prevention in mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukestikova, M

    1981-04-01

    This paper duscusses ways of preventing work accidents and increasing work safety in underground black coal mines. Specific conditions of underground operations in coal mines are stressed. Elements of work accident prevention are analyzed: reducing hazards by introducing safer technology, automation and mechanization of operations associated with hazards, introducing special measures within the framework of safety engineering. Dependence of accident rate on such factors as personnel training, age, motivation, qualifications, and labor discipline is discussed. Investigations indicate that miner motivation plays a significant role in accident prevention. A high degree of labor motivation successfully reduces accident rate and a low degree of motivation increases accident rate. Role of labor collective in labor motivation as well as a correct system of wage incentives are evaluated. Methods of personnel training aimed at reducing accident rate are described. Role of a technique by which a group of miners attempts to find a solution to a work safety problem by amassing all ideas spontaneously contributed by participants is stressed.

  9. The Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  10. Radiation, accidents, society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This book is meant to be used as a reference book for information officers at the event of a nuclear accident. The main part is edited in alphabetical order to facilitate use under stress. The book gives a short review of the health risks of radiation, and descriptions of accidents that have occured. The index words that have been chosen for the main part of the book have been selected due to experiences in connection with incidents and accidents. (L.E.)

  11. The detection of criticality accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigent, R.; Renard, C.

    It is necessary to shield the personnel from the radiological consequences of a criticality accident. In the past ten years the study programmes have highlighted fresh data which have led to new thinking on the detection philosophy and as a consequence the design of detection equipment. Concurrently, new recommendations have been drawn up by the Safety Criticality Committee. The new detection equipment was developed by the CEA on the basis of the CRAC and SILENE experiments. Its industrialization was entrusted to the Intertechnique Company and the first network installed dates back to 1976. An examination is made of the problem of accident detection, dealing in turn with detection, the characteristics of the equipment and the installation rules. To clarify the various points discussed, a parallel has been drawn between the equipment existing up to 1975 and the new generation developed since then [fr

  12. Reactivity insertion accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.M.L.; Nakata, H.; Yorihaz, H.

    1990-04-01

    The correct prediction of postulated accidents is the fundamental requirement for the reactor licensing procedures. Accident sequences and severity of their consequences depend upon the analysis which rely on analytical tools which must be validated against known experimental results. Present work presents a systematic approach to analyse and estimate the reactivity insertion accident sequences. The methodology is based on the CINETHICA code which solves the point-kinetics/thermohydraulic coupled equations with weighted temperature feedback. Comparison against SPERT experimental results shows good agreement for the step insertion accidents. (author) [pt

  13. Nuclear accidents and epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A consultation on epidemiology related to the Chernobyl accident was held in Copenhagen in May 1987 as a basis for concerted action. This was followed by a joint IAEA/WHO workshop in Vienna, which reviewed appropriate methodologies for possible long-term effects of radiation following nuclear accidents. The reports of these two meetings are included in this volume, and cover the subjects: 1) Epidemiology related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident. 2) Appropriate methodologies for studying possible long-term effects of radiation on individuals exposed in a nuclear accident. Figs and tabs

  14. Accidents (FARS) (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Accident - (1975-current): This data file (NTAD) contains information about crash characteristics and environmental conditions at the time of the crash. There is one...

  15. Risk assessment of complex accident scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluegel, Jens-Uwe

    2012-01-01

    The use of methods of risk assessment in accidents in nuclear plants is based on an old tradition. The first consistent systematic study is considered to be the Rasmussen Study of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NRC, WASH-1400. Above and beyond the realm of nuclear technology, there is an extensive range of accident, risk and reliability research into technical-administrative systems. In the past, it has been this area of research which has led to the development of concepts of safety precautions of the type also introduced into nuclear technology (barrier concept, defense in depth, single-failure criterion), where they are now taken for granted as trivial concepts. Also for risk analysis, nuclear technology made use of methods (such as event and fault tree analyses) whose origins were outside the nuclear field. One area in which the use of traditional methods of probabilistic safety analysis is encountering practical problems is risk assessment of complex accident scenarios in nuclear technology. A definition is offered of the term 'complex accident scenarios' in nuclear technology. A number of problems are addressed which arise in the use of traditional PSA procedures in risk assessment of complex accident scenarios. Cases of complex accident scenarios are presented to demonstrate methods of risk assessment which allow robust results to be obtained even when traditional techniques of risk analysis are maintained as a matter of principle. These methods are based on the use of conditional risk metrics. (orig.)

  16. Emergency Response to Radioactive Material Transport Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-shinawy, R.M.K.

    2009-01-01

    Although transport regulations issued by IAEA is providing a high degree of safety during transport opertions,transport accidents involving packages containing radioactive material have occurred and will occur at any time. Whenever a transport accident involving radioactive material accurs, and many will pose no radiation safety problems, emergency respnose actioms are meeded to ensure that radiation safety is maintained. In case of transport accident that result in a significant relesae of radioactive material , loss of shielding or loss of criticality control , that consequences should be controlled or mitigated by proper emergency response actions safety guide, Emergency Response Plamming and Prepardness for transport accidents involving radioactive material, was published by IAEA. This guide reflected all requirememts of IAEA, regulations for safe transport of radioactive material this guide provide guidance to the publicauthorites and other interested organziation who are responsible for establishing such emergency arrangements

  17. Evaluation des Connaissances-Attitudes-Pratiques des populations des districts sanitaires de Benoye, Laoukassy, Moundou et N’Djaména Sud sur la rage canine au Tchad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindekem, Rolande; Lechenne, Monique; Alfaroukh, Idriss Oumar; Moto, Daugla Doumagoum; Zinsstag, Jakob; Ouedraogo, Laurent Tinoaga; Salifou, Sahidou

    2017-01-01

    Introduction La rage canine demeure une préoccupation en Afrique comme au Tchad. La présente étude vise à évaluer les Connaissances-Attitudes-Pratiques des populations pour la prise en charge appropriée des personnes exposées et une lutte efficace. Méthodes C’était une étude transversale descriptive réalisée en juillet et septembre dans quatre districts sanitaires au Tchad en 2015. Les données ont été collectées à l’aide d’un questionnaire auprès des ménages recrutés suivant un sondage aléatoire à 3 degrés. Résultats C’était 2428 personnes enquêtées avec un niveau maximum primaire (54,12%). L’âge moyen était de 36 ± 13,50 ans. Ils étaient cultivateurs (35,17%), commerçants (18,04%), ménagères (12,81%). La rage était définie comme une maladie transmise du chien à l’homme (41,43%), une altération du cerveau (41,27%), une sous-alimentation (10,26%). Le chat était faiblement connu réservoir (13,84%) et vecteur (19,77%) ainsi que la griffure comme moyen de transmission (4,61%) et la vaccination du chat comme mesure préventive (0,49%). Les premiers soins en cas de morsure à domicile étaient les pratiques traditionnelles (47,69%), le lavage des plaies (19,48%) ou aucune action entreprise (20,43%). Les ménages consultaient la santé humaine (78,50%), la santé animale (5,35%) et les guérisseurs traditionnels (27%). Conclusion La communication en rapport avec des premiers soins à la maison en cas de morsure, la connaissance du chat comme réservoir et vecteur, celle de la griffure comme moyen de transmission et la promotion de la consultation des services vétérinaires en cas de morsure sont nécessaires. PMID:28761600

  18. Bayes classifiers for imbalanced traffic accidents datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujalli, Randa Oqab; López, Griselda; Garach, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Traffic accidents data sets are usually imbalanced, where the number of instances classified under the killed or severe injuries class (minority) is much lower than those classified under the slight injuries class (majority). This, however, supposes a challenging problem for classification algorithms and may cause obtaining a model that well cover the slight injuries instances whereas the killed or severe injuries instances are misclassified frequently. Based on traffic accidents data collected on urban and suburban roads in Jordan for three years (2009-2011); three different data balancing techniques were used: under-sampling which removes some instances of the majority class, oversampling which creates new instances of the minority class and a mix technique that combines both. In addition, different Bayes classifiers were compared for the different imbalanced and balanced data sets: Averaged One-Dependence Estimators, Weightily Average One-Dependence Estimators, and Bayesian networks in order to identify factors that affect the severity of an accident. The results indicated that using the balanced data sets, especially those created using oversampling techniques, with Bayesian networks improved classifying a traffic accident according to its severity and reduced the misclassification of killed and severe injuries instances. On the other hand, the following variables were found to contribute to the occurrence of a killed causality or a severe injury in a traffic accident: number of vehicles involved, accident pattern, number of directions, accident type, lighting, surface condition, and speed limit. This work, to the knowledge of the authors, is the first that aims at analyzing historical data records for traffic accidents occurring in Jordan and the first to apply balancing techniques to analyze injury severity of traffic accidents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comprendre l'influence des facteurs contextuels sur la participation communautaire à la santé : une étude de cas dans le district sanitaire de Tenkodogo, au Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sombié, Issa; Ilboudo, David O S; Soubeiga, André Kamba; Samuelsen, Helle

    2017-09-01

    Le Burkina Faso met en œuvre depuis plusieurs années la stratégie de la participation communautaire. Des comités de gestion (CoGes) ont été mis en place dans les centres de santé de la première ligne et doivent participer aux prises de décisions. L'objectif principal de cette stratégie est de favoriser l'utilisation des services de santé et une adhésion massive des communautés aux activités de promotion de la santé. Seulement, on constate que les résultats escomptés par les autorités sanitaires tardent à se réaliser. Le présent article convoque les facteurs liés au contexte socioculturel du district sanitaire, pour analyser le phénomène de la participation communautaire. L'étude s'est déroulée dans le district sanitaire de Tenkodogo, situé dans la région administrative du Centre-est, à environ 190 km de la capitale. Cette étude exclusivement qualitative, a utilisé deux méthodes de collecte : les entretiens individuels et les focus groups. Les participants à l'étude sont les chefs de ménage ( n = 48), les membres des CoGes ( n = 10), les agents de santé ( n = 8) et les agents de santé communautaire ( n = 24). La méthode de l'analyse de contenu a été utilisée pour l'analyse des données. Les résultats de l'étude montrent que plusieurs facteurs socioculturels influencent la dynamique de la participation communautaire dans le district. Ce sont les conditions économiques, la perception négative des services de santé, les inégalités sociales de sexe et d'âge, le faible ancrage social des organisations communautaires, les rivalités inter-villages et les conflits coutumiers. L'étude relève également que les communautés ne perçoivent pas leur implication dans le processus décisionnel des services de santé comme une priorité. Leurs principales attentes s'orientent vers la disponibilité de soins de qualité et à coût réduit.

  20. Domino effect in chemical accidents: main features and accident sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Casal Fàbrega, Joaquim; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria

    2010-01-01

    The main features of domino accidents in process/storage plants and in the transportation of hazardous materials were studied through an analysis of 225 accidents involving this effect. Data on these accidents, which occurred after 1961, were taken from several sources. Aspects analyzed included the accident scenario, the type of accident, the materials involved, the causes and consequences and the most common accident sequences. The analysis showed that the most frequent causes a...

  1. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  2. Criticality accident in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.R. de.

    1984-01-01

    A recent criticality type accident, ocurred in Argetina, is commented. Considerations about the nature of the facility where this accident took place, its genesis, type of operation carried out on the day of the event, and the medical aspects involved are done. (Author) [pt

  3. Chernobyl accident and Danmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  4. Communication and industrial accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the

  5. Chapter 6: Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    Th chapter 6 presents the accidents of: 1) Stimos (Italy - May, 1975); 2) San Salvador (El Salvador - February 5, 1989); 3) Soreq (Israel - June 21, 1990); 4) Nesvizh (Belarus - October 26, 1991); 5) Illinois (USA - February, 1965); 6)Maryland (EUA - December 11, 1991); 7)Hanoi (Vietnam -November 17, 1992); 8)Fleurus (Belgium - March 11, 2006) and final remarks on accidents.

  6. Radiological accidents in medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Different radiological accidents that may occur in medical practice are shown. The following topics are focused: accident statistics for medical exposure, accidental medical exposures, radiotherapy accidents and potential accidental scenarios [es

  7. JCO criticality accident as POST-LOCA: Poor structure induced loss of organizational control accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuhama, Yutaka

    2000-01-01

    Some problems in operation and business management of JCO (Japan Nuclear Fuel Conversion Co.) have been studied as background factors of the criticality accident. Open information about business conditions of JCO suggests that the cause of the accident is not so simple as to be attributed only to economic pressure, but includes immanent problems in JCO. We investigate the problems from five viewpoints, organization of safety management, system of operation management, activities for business improvement, risk awareness, and restructuring of business, and discuss the effects and causality of background factors as well as remedies for them. (author)

  8. Accident analysis and DOE criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, J.M.; Elder, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    In analyzing the radiological consequences of major accidents at DOE facilities one finds that many facilities fall so far below the limits of DOE Order 6430 that compliance is easily demonstrated by simple analysis. For those cases where the amount of radioactive material and the dispersive energy available are enough for accident consequences to approach the limits, the models and assumptions used become critical. In some cases the models themselves are the difference between meeting the criteria or not meeting them. Further, in one case, we found that not only did the selection of models determine compliance but the selection of applicable criteria from different chapters of Order 6430 also made the difference. DOE has recognized the problem of different criteria in different chapters applying to one facility, and has proceeded to make changes for the sake of consistency. We have proposed to outline the specific steps needed in an accident analysis and suggest appropriate models, parameters, and assumptions. As a result we feed DOE siting and design criteria will be more fairly and consistently applied

  9. [Accidents and injuries at work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standke, W

    2014-06-01

    In the case of an accident at work, the person concerned is insured by law according to the guidelines of the Sozialgesetzbuch VII as far as the injuries have been caused by this accident. The most important source of information on the incident in question is the accident report that has to be sent to the responsible institution for statutory accident insurance and prevention by the employer, if the accident of the injured person is fatal or leads to an incapacity to work for more than 3 days (= reportable accident). Data concerning accidents like these are sent to the Deutsche Gesetzliche Unfallversicherung (DGUV) as part of a random sample survey by the institutions for statutory accident insurance and prevention and are analyzed statistically. Thus the key issues of accidents can be established and used for effective prevention. Although the success of effective accident prevention is undisputed, there were still 919,025 occupational accidents in 2011, with clear gender-related differences. Most occupational accidents involve the upper and lower extremities. Accidents are analyzed comprehensively and the results are published and made available to all interested parties in an effort to improve public awareness of possible accidents. Apart from reportable accidents, data on the new occupational accident pensions are also gathered and analyzed statistically. Thus, additional information is gained on accidents with extremely serious consequences and partly permanent injuries for the accident victims.

  10. Les méthodes de quantification économique des coûts sanitaires de la pollution atmosphérique : application à l’Ile-de-France

    OpenAIRE

    Géniaux, Ghislain; Rabl, Ari

    2007-01-01

    Cet article passe en revue les méthodes de quantification économique des coûts sanitaires de la pollution atmosphérique. Ces méthodes sont appliquées à l’Ile-de-France, à partir de l’étude épidémiologique ERPURS sur les effets aiguës de la pollution sur la santé, et d’autres études internationales. La plus grande partie des coûts est imputable aux effets chroniques des particules sur la mortalité. This pape reviews the methods that can be used for evaluating the costs of health damages due...

  11. ASSESSING ACCIDENT HOTSPOTS BY USING VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnoosh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ever-increasing number of vehicles, transportation issues, especially transportation safety have gained great importance. One of the social problems in the world, and particularly in developing countries, which each year imposes great casualties, and economic, social and cultural costs on society, is traffic accidents. Traffic accidents cause waste of time and assets and loss of human resources in society, therefore studies and measures to reduce accidents and damage caused by them, particularly in recent decades, has become important. One of the suggested ways to deal with the problem of car accidents is the modeling of accident-prone points, as by identifying these points, factors affecting accidents can be identified, and elimination of these factors leads to a reduction in accidents. Numerous studies have been conducted in this respect, using official police data to identify these points and performing necessary analysis on them. Official data has gaps and shortcomings. Using Volunteered Geographic Information to determine accident-prone venues can be a suitable answer to the problems of using official data. The aim of this study is the use of volunteered geographic information in relation to the accidents and their causes. By taking into account factors affecting traffic accidents in the study area, and determining the importance of each factor, as well as the severity-of-accidents parameter, and using the Expert Choice software, a decision-making software based on the hierarchical analysis, high-risk venues are determined, and the accident-prone points of the study area are specified.

  12. [Psychosocial aspects and accidents in land transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Soto, Nelson; Alfaro-Basso, Daniel; Gálvez-Rivero, Wilfredo

    2010-06-01

    Road traffic accidents are a public health problem in Peru, having caused 35 596 deaths in Peru between 1998 and 2008. Lima is the most affected region, presenting 61.7% of the accidents, the annual cost reached one thousand million dollars, equivalent to a third part of the investment in health. Available studies give emphasis to the protagonists--the drivers, the pedestrians--or to equipment and roads; the laws have been modified and containment plans for accidents have been implemented, but the incidence remains the same. We raise the possibility of exploring behavioral and social factors that could be relevant in the genesis of the problem, revising those related to current disorder in transport, the behaviors of drivers and pedestrians and the permissiveness of society in general particularly of the authority. We propose research and a multidisciplinary and intersectoral intervention.

  13. Mapping patterns of pedestrian fatal accidents in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    This study intends to provide insight into pedestrian accidents by uncovering their patterns in order to design preventive measures and to allocate resources for identified problems. Kohonen neural networks are applied to a database of pedestrian fatal accidents occurred during the four-year peri...

  14. Incidence of road traffic accidents and pattern of injury among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: Motorcyclists are at high risk of road traffic accidents and the attendant injuries, but few community-based studies have investigated the problem in Nigeria. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the incidence of accidents and patterns of non-fatal injury among commercial motorcyclists ...

  15. Causes of Accidents among Commercial Motorcyclists (Okada) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motor cycle accidents have become the most serious problem threatening the entire Nigerian population. It is against this background that this study attempted to investigate the causes of accidents among commercial motorcyclists in Borno State, Nigeria. The population of the study consisted of all the commercial ...

  16. ACCOUNT OF ROAD CONDITIONS WHILE INVESTIGATING TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Selioukov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems on better traffic safety at government, authority, engineering and driver activity levels, account of road conditions while investigating traffic accidents. The paper also provides road defects mentioned in forensic transport examinations of traffic accidents.

  17. The Host-Agent-Environment Concept of Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Don

    Background information is presented to indicate that accidents are an environmental health problem. While accidents are seldom thought to be a disease process, in many ways there are remarkable similarities--not only in terms of causal relationships, but also in preventive aspects. These parallels are described in terms of host-agent-environment…

  18. Modelling Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, Jason Dean [Idaho National Laboratory; Gamble, Kyle Allan Lawrence [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-05-01

    The catastrophic events that occurred at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011 have led to widespread interest in research of alternative fuels and claddings that are proposed to be accident tolerant. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) through its Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program has funded an Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) High Impact Problem (HIP). The ATF HIP is a three-year project to perform research on two accident tolerant concepts. The final outcome of the ATF HIP will be an in-depth report to the DOE Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) giving a recommendation on whether either of the two concepts should be included in their lead test assembly scheduled for placement into a commercial reactor in 2022. The two ATF concepts under investigation in the HIP are uranium silicide fuel and iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloy cladding. Utilizing the expertise of three national laboratory participants (Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Argonne National Laboratory), a comprehensive multiscale approach to modeling is being used that includes atomistic modeling, molecular dynamics, rate theory, phase-field, and fuel performance simulations. Model development and fuel performance analysis are critical since a full suite of experimental studies will not be complete before AFC must prioritize concepts for focused development. In this paper, we present simulations of the two proposed accident tolerance fuel systems: U3Si2 fuel with Zircaloy-4 cladding, and UO2 fuel with FeCrAl cladding. Sensitivity analyses are completed using Sandia National Laboratories’ Dakota software to determine which input parameters (e.g., fuel specific heat) have the greatest influence on the output metrics of interest (e.g., fuel centerline temperature). We also outline the multiscale modelling approach being employed. Considerable additional work is required prior to preparing the recommendation report for the Advanced

  19. Fatal accidents analysis in Peruvian mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candia, R. C.; Hennies, W. T.; Azevedo, R. c.; Almeida, I.G.; Soto, J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Although reductions in the tax of injuries and accidents have been observed in recent years, Mining is still one of the highest risks industries. The basic causes for occurrence of fatalities can be attributed to unsafe conditions and unsafe acts. In this scene is necessary to identify safety problems and to aim the effective solutions. On the other hand, the developing countries dependence on primary industries as mining is evident. In the Peruvian economy, approximately 16% of the GNP and more than 50% of the exportations are due to the mining sector, detaching its competitive position in the worldwide mining. This paper presents fatal accidents analysis in the Peruvian mining industry, having as basis the register of occurred fatal accidents since year 2000 until 2007, identifying the main types of accidents occurred. The source of primary information is the General Mining Direction (DGM) of the Peruvian Mining and Energy Ministry (MEM). The majority of victims belongs to tertiary contractor companies that render services for mine companies. The results of the analysis show also that the majority of accidents happened in the underground mines, and that it is necessary to propose effective solutions to manage risks, aiming at reducing the fatal accidents taxes. (Author)

  20. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Masahide; Koriyama, Tamio

    2012-09-01

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating

  1. Management of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The definition and the multidimensionality aspects of accident management have been reviewed. The suggested elements in the development of a programme for severe accident management have been identified and discussed. The strategies concentrate on the two tiered approaches. Operative management utilizes the plant's equipment and operators capabilities. The recovery managment concevtrates on preserving the containment, or delaying its failure, inhibiting the release, and on strategies once there has been a release. The inspiration for this paper was an excellent overview report on perspectives on managing severe accidents in commercial nuclear power plants and extending plant operating procedures into the severe accident regime; and by the most recent publication of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) considering the question of risk reduction and source term reduction through accident prevention, management and mitigation. The latter document concludes that 'active development of accident management measures by plant personnel can lead to very large reductions in source terms and risk', and goes further in considering and formulating the key issue: 'The most fruitful path to follow in reducing risk even further is through the planning of accident management.' (author)

  2. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  3. Management of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    The definition and the multidimensionality aspects of accident management have been reviewed. The suggested elements in the development of a programme for severe accident management have been identified and discussed. The strategies concentrate on the two tiered approaches. Operative management utilizes the plant's equipment and operators capabilities. The recovery management concentrates on preserving the containment, or delaying its failure, inhibiting the release, and on strategies once there has been a release. The inspiration for this paper was an excellent overview report on perspectives on managing severe accidents in commercial nuclear power plants and extending plant operating procedures into the severe accident regime; and by the most recent publication of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) considering the question of risk reduction and source term reduction through accident prevention, management and mitigation. The latter document concludes that active development of accident management measures by plant personnel can lead to very large reductions in source terms and risk, and goes further in considering and formulating the key issue: The most fruitful path to follow in reducing risk even further is through the planning of accident management

  4. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  5. Nuclear accident evacuee bullying and structural violence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujiuchi, Takuya

    2018-01-01

    Nuclear accident sufferers should be now referred to as nuclear accident victims. The authors discuss why nuclear accident victims receive not only psychological bullying where no peculiar causes exist, but also corporal and physical bullying and mental suffering, based on the results of questionnaire survey conducted by the authors from January to February 2017, the 'survey on bullying problems related to evacuation from the nuclear accident.' The reasons why the nuclear power evacuation bullying has become a problem at present can be largely classified to the following three categories: (1) opinion that 'bullying' that originally existed just after the nuclear accident became surfaced recently, (2) opinion that latent problems exist as background, and (3) opinion that socially underlying issues are involved in the generation of bullying. Thus, various factors existing under nuclear power evacuation bullying were structurally clarified. In the background of children's nuclear evacuation bullying, adult nuclear power evacuation bullying exists, and there are 'lack of understanding, prejudice, and discrimination against nuclear power and Fukushima' under that. The author thought that 'structural violence' to create the disparity, discrimination, inequality, and injustice of society exists as the basis of such lack of understanding, prejudice, and discrimination, and discussed the 'structural violence' as the basis of bullying. As the upper structure of structural violence associated with nuclear accidents, there are two big phenomena: (1) setting of evacuation/return area not based on reasonable radiation dose standards and (2) fabricated safety and carefreeness myth. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology's report on nuclear bullying could give an impression that 'nuclear power evacuation bullying' is 'not so big problem'. (A.O.)

  6. Proposal optimization in nuclear accident emergency decision based on IAHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin Jing

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of establishing the multi-layer structure of nuclear accident emergency decision, several decision objectives are synthetically analyzed, and an optimization model of decision proposals for nuclear accident emergency based on interval analytic hierarchy process is proposed in the paper. The model makes comparisons among several emergency decision proposals quantified, and the optimum proposal is selected out, which solved the uncertain and fuzzy decision problem of judgments by experts' experiences in nuclear accidents emergency decision. Case study shows that the optimization result is much more reasonable, objective and reliable than subjective judgments, and it could be decision references for nuclear accident emergency. (authors)

  7. Social impact of accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Isao

    1997-01-01

    There is the quite big difference between technological risk and social risk feeling. Various biases of social and sensational factors on accidents must be considered to recognize this difference. 'How safe is safe enough' is the perpetual thema concerning with not only technology but also sociology. The safety goal in aircraft design and how making effort to improve the present safety status in civil jet aircrafts is discussed as an example of social risk allowance. INSAG under IAEA started to discuss the safety culture after Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident on 1986. Safety culture and risk communication are the most important procedures to relieve the social impact for accidents. (author)

  8. Severe accident behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denning, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of severe accident behavior. The term source term is defined and a brief history of the regulatory use of source term is presented. The processes in severe accidents in light water reactors are described with particular emphasis on the relationships between accident thermal-hydraulics and chemistry. Those factors which have the greatest impact on predicted source terms are identified. Design differences between plants that affect source term estimation are also described. The principal unresolved issues are identified that are the focus of ongoing research and debate in the technical community

  9. Management of accident risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compes, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    The example of the Chernobyl accident and the statistics of the occurrence of accidents make clear the threat to humanity, if one cannot guarantee successful accident prevention in the use and distribution of the projects aimed at. The science of safety, as it is known in the Wuppertal model, makes its contribution to this vital task for the human community. It makes it necessary to create the essential dates and concepts, the methods, principles and techniques based on them and the associated instrumentation. (DG) [de

  10. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. The event at the accident site, the release and dispersal of radioactive substances into the atmosphere and over Europe, is described. A discussion of the Danish organisation for nuclear emergencies, how it was activated and adapted to the actual situation, is given. A comprehensive description of the radiological contamination in Denmark following the accident and the estimated health effects, is presented. The situation in other European countries is mentioned. (author)

  11. Epidemiology of road traffic accidents in adults. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Goniewicz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Road accidents are a serious problem of the modern world. They are one of the main causes of injuries and are the third most numerous cause of death. Every year, about one million people, adults and children, die on the roads and several millions are injured. Mortality rate due to injuries from road accidents amounts to 2,2% of all deaths in the world. The research presents a mechanism of traffic accidents, pathophysiology of injury, partition of car accidents and characterized the insults of victims in various types of automobile accidents. Injuries resulting from road accidents have numerous substantial consequences as they are related with releasing large amounts of kinetic energy which must be absorbed. Kinetic energy absorbing is the basic mechanism of injury arising during road accidents. In apprising an automobile accident should take into consideration the type of the car accident and the extent of damage to the vehicle People participating in road accidents of high energy are especially endangered with substantial injuries. There is a close relationship between the rate of vehicle damages and seriousness of casualties' injuries.

  12. Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.

    1986-01-01

    It summarizes the consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident, describes the emergency response, the basis for decisions and countermeasures, the measurement strategies, the activity levels and doses and countermeasures and action levels used. Past and remaining problems are discussed and the major investigations and improvements are given. (author)

  13. Accident Prevention: A Workers' Education Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Devoted to providing industrial workers with a greater knowledge of precautionary measures undertaken and enforced by industries for the protection of workers, this safety education manual contains 14 lessons ranging from "The Problems of Accidents during Work" to "Trade Unions and Workers and Industrial Safety." Fire protection, safety equipment…

  14. On the weighting of accident probabilities for evident emotive factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukes, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Problems in risk management of the additive property of; accident risk costs, the special case of the infrequent disaster, and the correct amount to spend on accident prevention, are considered. The need for weighting by additional emotive factors is discussed. Such factors here considered are; the scale factor relating to the number of people who as a result of the accident are killed, the age factor which takes into account the novelty of the situation against the background of common human experience, and the comprehension factor which is a weighting associated with the extent to which the 'man in the street' may be expected to understand the mechanism of the accident. A table shows how these factors combine for a set of accident scenarios including radioactive spills and a loss of coolant reactor accident. (U.K.)

  15. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  16. Accident resistant transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.; Cole, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident

  17. Big nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.; Billingon, D.E.; Cameron, R.F.; Curl, S.J.

    1983-09-01

    Much of the debate on the safety of nuclear power focuses on the large number of fatalities that could, in theory, be caused by extremely unlikely but just imaginable reactor accidents. This, along with the nuclear industry's inappropriate use of vocabulary during public debate, has given the general public a distorted impression of the risks of nuclear power. The paper reviews the way in which the probability and consequences of big nuclear accidents have been presented in the past and makes recommendations for the future, including the presentation of the long-term consequences of such accidents in terms of 'loss of life expectancy', 'increased chance of fatal cancer' and 'equivalent pattern of compulsory cigarette smoking'. The paper presents mathematical arguments, which show the derivation and validity of the proposed methods of presenting the consequences of imaginable big nuclear accidents. (author)

  18. Boating Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  19. Occupational Accidents And Preventive Measures

    CERN Document Server

    Fassnacht, V

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the 2005 statistics concerning occupational accidents involving members of the CERN personnel and contractors' personnel. It sets out the accident frequency and severity rates and provides a breakdown of accidents by cause and injury. It also contains a summary analysis of the most serious accidents and the associated recommendations.

  20. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eigh...

  1. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.O.; Christensen, G.; Lingjaerde, R.; Smidt Olsen, H.; Wethe, P.I.

    1986-10-01

    In connection with the Chernobyl accident the report gives a description of the technical features of importance to the accident, the course of events, and the estimated health hazards in the local environment. Dissimilarities in western and Sovjet reactor safety philosophy are dealt with, as well as conceivable concequences in relation to technology and research in western nuclear power programmes. Results of activity level measurements of air and foodstuff, made in Norway by Institute for Energy Technology, are given

  2. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant

  3. Accident and emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, V.; Moellenbach, K.; Heinonen, R.; Jakobsson, S.; Kukko, T.; Berg, Oe.; Larsen, J.S.; Westgaard, T.; Magnusson, B.; Andersson, H.; Holmstroem, C.; Brehmer, B.; Allard, R.

    1988-06-01

    There is an increasing potential for severe accidents as the industrial development tends towards large, centralised production units. In several industries this has led to the formation of large organisations which are prepared for accidents fighting and for emergency management. The functioning of these organisations critically depends upon efficient decision making and exchange of information. This project is aimed at securing and possibly improving the functionality and efficiency of the accident and emergency management by verifying, demonstrating, and validating the possible use of advanced information technology in the organisations mentioned above. With the nuclear industry in focus the project consists of five main activities: 1) The study and detailed analysis of accident and emergency scenarios based on records from incidents and rills in nuclear installations. 2) Development of a conceptual understanding of accident and emergency management with emphasis on distributed decision making, information flow, and control structure sthat are involved. 3) Development of a general experimental methodology for evaluating the effects of different kinds of decision aids and forms of organisation for emergency management systems with distributed decision making. 4) Development and test of a prototype system for a limited part of an accident and emergency organisation to demonstrate the potential use of computer and communication systems, data-base and knowledge base technology, and applications of expert systems and methods used in artificial intelligence. 5) Production of guidelines for the introduction of advanced information technology in the organisations based on evaluation and validation of the prototype system. (author)

  4. Accident management information needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R.

    1990-04-01

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs

  5. Accident management information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-04-01

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Development of a severe accident training simulator using a MELCOR code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ko Ryu; Jeong, Kwang Sub; Ha, Jae Joo; Jung, Won Dae

    2002-03-01

    Nuclear power plants' severe accidents are, despite of their rareness, very important in safety aspects, because of their huge damages when occurred. For the appropriate execution of severe accident strategy, more information for decision-making are required because of the uncertainties included in severe accidents. Earlier NRC raised concerns over severe accident training in the report NUREC/CR-477, and accordingly, developing effective training tools for severe accident were emphasized. In fact the training tools were requested from industrial area, nevertheless, few training tools were developed due to the uncertainties in severe accidents, lacks of analysis computer codes and technical limitations. SATS, the severe accident training simulator, is developed as a multi-purpose tools for severe accident training. SATS uses the calculation results of MELCOR, an integral severe accident analysis code, and with the help of SL-GMS graphic tools, provides dynamic displays of severe accident phenomena on the terminal of IBM PC. It aimed to have two main features: one is to provide graphic displays to represent severe accident phenomena and the other is to process and simulate severe accident strategy given by plant operators and TSC staffs. Severe accident strategies are basically composed of series of operations of available pumps, valves and other equipments. Whenever executing strategies with SATS, the trainee should follow the HyperKAMG, the on line version of the recently developed severe accident guidance (KAMG). Severe accident strategies are closely related to accidents scenarios. TLOFW and LOCA , two representative severe accident scenarios of Uljin 3,4, are developed as a built-in scenarios of SATS. Although SATS has some minor problems at this time, we expect SATS will be a good severe accident training tool after the appropriate addition of accident scenarios. Moreover, we also expect SATS will be a good advisory tool for the severe accident research

  7. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Masahide; Koriyama, Tamio

    2013-11-01

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to this issue, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for the latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. In this report the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2011 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2012 database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2012 revised database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 shows the followings. The trend of the 2012 database changes little as compared to the last year's report. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The number of commercial aircraft accidents is 4 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 58 for small fixed-wing aircraft, 5 for large bladed aircraft and 99 for small bladed aircraft. The relevant accidents

  8. Medical aspects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    From 11 to 13 May 1988, the All-Union Scientific Centre of Radiation Medicine convened a Conference on Medical Aspects of the Chernobyl Accident in Kiev. This was the first conference on this subject with international participation held in the Soviet Union. There were 310 specialists representing Soviet scientific establishments and over 60 experts from 23 other countries and international organizations participated in the Conference. Participants at the Conference discussed medical aspects of accident mitigation, including therapeutic, psychological, demographic, epidemiological and dosimetric problems. These proceedings include 29 reports presented by Soviet scientists during the four sessions as well as summaries of discussions and opening addresses. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Historical aspects of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Ricks, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation accidents are extremely rare events; however, the last two years have witnessed the largest radiation accidents in both the eastern and western hemispheres. It is the purpose of this chapter to review how radiation accidents are categorized, examine the temporal changes in frequency and severity, give illustrative examples of several types of radiation accidents, and finally, to describe the various registries for radiation accidents

  10. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P L [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  11. Accidents in nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10 -3 per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  12. The Development of Marine Accidents Human Reliability Assessment Approach: HEART Methodology and MOP Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ludfi Pratiwi Bowo; Wanginingastuti Mutmainnah; Masao Furusho

    2017-01-01

    Humans are one of the important factors in the assessment of accidents, particularly marine accidents. Hence, studies are conducted to assess the contribution of human factors in accidents. There are two generations of Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) that have been developed. Those methodologies are classified by the differences of viewpoints of problem-solving, as the first generation and second generation. The accident analysis can be determined using three techniques of analysis; sequen...

  13. Overview of severe accident research at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Jun

    1999-01-01

    Severe accident research at JAERI aims at the confirmation of the safety margin, the quantification of the associated risk, and the evaluation of the effectiveness of the accident management measures of the nuclear power reactors, in accordance with the government five-year nuclear safety research program. JAERI has been conducting a wide range of severe accident research activities both in experiment and analysis, such as melt coolant interactions, fission product behaviors in coolant system, containment integrity and assessment of accident management measures. Molten core/coolant interaction and in-vessel molten coolability have been investigated in ALPHA Program. MUSE experiments in ALPHA Program has been conducted for the precise energy measurement due to steam explosion in melt jet and stratified geometries. In VEGA Program, which aims at FP release from irradiated fuels at high temperature and high pressure under various atmospheric conditions, the facility construction is almost completed. In WIND Program the revaporization of aerosols due to decay heating and also the integrity of the piping from this heat source are being investigated. Code development activities are in progress for an integrated source term analysis with THALES, fission product behaviors with ART, steam explosion with JASMINE, and in-vessel debris behaviors with CAMP. The experimental analyses and reactor application have made progress by participating international standard problem and code comparison exercises, along with the use of introduced codes, such as SCDAP/RELAP5 and MELCOR. The outcome of the severe accident research will be utilized for the evaluation of more reliable severe accident scenarios, detailed implementation of the accident management measures, and also for the future reactor development, basically through the sophisticated use of verified analytical tools. (author)

  14. Risques sanitaires en Arctique russe

    OpenAIRE

    Vaguet, Yvette

    2013-01-01

    La grande diversité géographique de l’Arctique complique l’approche globale. Néanmoins, ses habitants partagent l’expérience d’un milieu naturel extrême inscrit dans un environnement socio-économique récemment entré dans la modernité. À ce titre, l’Arctique russe présente l’originalité d’être la région circumpolaire la plus peuplée et la plus industrielle de toutes. L’article aborde dans une vision dynamique, l’équilibre homme/milieu en interrogeant trois concepts clefs autour du risque : le ...

  15. School accidents in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalamon, Johannes; Eberl, Robert; Ainoedhofer, Herwig; Singer, Georg; Spitzer, Peter; Mayr, Johannes; Schober, Peter H; Hoellwarth, Michael E

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain information about the mechanisms and types of injuries in school in Austria. Children between 0 and 18 years of age presenting with injuries at the trauma outpatient in the Department of Pediatric Surgery in Graz and six participating hospitals in Austria were evaluated over a 2-year prospective survey. A total of 28,983 pediatric trauma cases were registered. Personal data, site of the accident, circumstances and mechanisms of accident and the related diagnosis were evaluated. At the Department of Pediatric Surgery in Graz 21,582 questionnaires were completed, out of which 2,148 children had school accidents (10%). The remaining 7,401 questionnaires from peripheral hospitals included 890 school accidents (12%). The male/female ratio was 3:2. In general, sport injuries were a predominant cause of severe trauma (42% severe injuries), compared with other activities in and outside of the school building (26% severe injuries). Injuries during ball-sports contributed to 44% of severe injuries. The upper extremity was most frequently injured (34%), followed by lower extremity (32%), head and neck area (26%) and injuries to thorax and abdomen (8%). Half of all school related injuries occur in children between 10 and 13 years of age. There are typical gender related mechanisms of accident: Boys get frequently injured during soccer, violence, and collisions in and outside of the school building and during craft work. Girls have the highest risk of injuries at ball sports other than soccer.

  16. Trend of elevator-related accidents in tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaji, Ali; Ghodsi, Syyed Mohammad

    2014-06-01

    Elevator-related accidents are uncommon, but can cause significant injury. However, little data exist on these types of accidents. To compile and analyze accident data involving elevators in an effort to eliminate or at least significantly reduce such accidents. In this retrospective study we investigated 1,819 cases of elevator-related accidents during a four-year period (1999-2003) in Tehran. The data were obtained from the Tehran Safety Services & Fire Fighting Organization (TSFO) that is officially and solely responsible to conduct rescue missions of civilians in Tehran. The number of elevator accidents has increased steadily during the four year study period. During these four years there was a positive upward trend for serious injuries and mortality resulting from elevator accidents. Technical problems were the main cause with 74.5%, followed by power loss and overcapacity riding with 11.5% and 7.9% respectively. Sixty-three individuals sustained serious injury and 15 people died as a result of elevator accidents. The number of accidents was significantly higher in summer (x2=18.32, P=0.032) and a considerable proportion of incidences (54%, 947 cases out of 1819) occurred between 5 and 12 pm. Establishment of an organization to inspect the settings, maintenance, and repair of elevators is necessary.

  17. Trend of Elevator-Related Accidents in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khaji

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:   Elevator-related accidents are uncommon, but can cause significant injury. However, little data exist on these types of accidents. To compile and analyze accident data involving elevators in an effort to eliminate or at least significantly reduce such accidents. Methods: In this retrospective study we investigated 1,819 cases of elevator-related accidents during a four-year period (1999-2003 in Tehran. The data were obtained from the Tehran Safety Services & Fire Fighting Organization (TSFO that is officially and solely responsible to conduct rescue missions of civilians in Tehran. Results: The number of elevator accidents has increased steadily during the four year study period. During these four years here was a positive upward trend for serious injuries and mortality resulting from elevator accidents. Technical problems were the main cause with 74.5%, followed by power loss and overcapacity riding with 11.5% and 7.9%respectively. Sixty-three individuals sustained serious injury and 15 people died as a result of elevator accidents. The number of accidents was significantly higher in summer (x2=18.32, P=0.032 and a considerable proportion of incidences (54%, 947 cases out of 1819 occurred between 5 and 12 pm. Conclusions: Establishment of an organization to inspect the settings, maintenance, and repair of elevators is necessary

  18. A modular structure to accident identification using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duque Estrada, Cassius Rodrigo

    2005-01-01

    This work uses the accident identification method based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) as basic blocks of a modular structure, allowing the inclusion of new accidents to be identified without modifying the ANN already trained. This structure comprises several modules for accident identification and one module for analysis. Each identification module follows the structure of the basic block. The identification modules are responsible for the recognition of an accident belonging to the specific set of events for which it were trained. The analysis module processes the output from the identification module to determine the system response. In order to test this structure it was proposed a transient identification problem comprising fifty accidents distributed in five identification modules. The results have demonstrated that the accident identification method used as basic block of a modular structure allows the inclusion of new sets of accidents, or variations of a same accident, without modifying the ANN already trained. For this, it is enough to include into the system an specific module for this new set of accidents. (author)

  19. Health consequences [of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramoutar, S.

    1996-01-01

    The World Health Organisation Conference on the Health Consequences of the Chernobyl and Other Radiological Accidents, held in Geneva last November, is reported. The lack of representation from the civil nuclear industry led often to one-sided debates instigated by the anti-nuclear lobbies present. Thyroid cancer in children as a result of the Chernobyl accident received particular attention. In Belarus, 400 cases have been noted, 220 in Ukraine and 60 in the Russian Federation. All have been treated with a high degree of success. The incidence of this cancer would be expected to follow the fallout path as the main exposure route was ingestion of contaminated foods and milk products. It was noted that the only way to confirm causality was if those children born since the accident failed to show the same increased incidence. Explanations were offered for the particular susceptibility of children to thyroid cancer following exposure to radiation. Another significant cause of concern was the health consequences to clean-up workers in radiological accidents. The main factor is psychological problems from the stress of knowing that they have received high radiation doses. A dramatic increase in psychological disorders has occurred in the Ukraine over the past ten years and this is attributed to stress generated by the Chernobyl accident, compounded by the inadequacy of the public advice offered at the time and the socio-economic uncertainties accompanying the breakup of the former USSR. (UK)

  20. Lifestyle and accidents among young drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, N P; Berg, H Y

    1994-06-01

    This study covers the lifestyle component of the problems related to young drivers' accident risk. The purpose of the study is to measure the relationship between lifestyle and accident risk, and to identify specific high-risk and low-risk groups. Lifestyle is measured through a questionnaire, where 20-year-olds describe themselves and how often they deal with a large number of different activities, like sports, music, movies, reading, cars and driving, political engagement, etc. They also report their involvement in traffic accidents. With a principal component analysis followed by a cluster analysis, lifestyle profiles are defined. These profiles are finally correlated to accidents, which makes it possible to define high-risk and low-risk groups. The cluster analysis defined 15 clusters including four high-risk groups with an average overrisk of 150% and two low-risk groups with an average underrisk of 75%. The results are discussed from two perspectives. The first is the importance of theoretical understanding of the contribution of lifestyle factors to young drivers' high accident risk. The second is how the findings could be used in practical road safety measures, like education, campaigns, etc.

  1. Stressful life events and occupational accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Dias, Adriano

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between stressful life events and occupational accidents. This was a population-based case-control study, carried out in the city of Botucatu, in southeast Brazil. The cases consisted of 108 workers who had recently experienced occupational accidents. Each case was matched with three controls. The cases and controls answered a questionnaire about recent exposure to stressful life events. Reporting of "environmental problems", "being a victim of assault", "not having enough food at home" and "nonoccupational fatigue" were found to be risk factors for work-related accidents with estimated incidence rate ratios of 1.4 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1-1.7], 1.3 (95% CI 1.1-1.7), 1.3 (95% CI 1.1-1.6), and 1.4 (95% CI 1.2-1.7) respectively. The findings of the study suggested that nonwork variables contribute to occupational accidents, thus broadening the understanding of these phenomena, which can support new approaches to the prevention of occupational accidents.

  2. Application of FFTBM to severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosek, A.; Leskovar, M.

    2005-01-01

    In Europe an initiative for the reduction of uncertainties in severe accident safety issues was initiated. Generally, the error made in predicting plant behaviour is called uncertainty, while the discrepancies between measured and calculated trends related to experimental facilities are called the accuracy of the prediction. The purpose of the work is to assess the accuracy of the calculations of the severe accident International Standard Problem ISP-46 (Phebus FPT1), performed with two versions of MELCOR 1.8.5 for validation purposes. For the quantitative assessment of calculations the improved fast Fourier transform based method (FFTBM) was used with the capability to calculate time dependent code accuracy. In addition, a new measure for the indication of the time shift between the experimental and the calculated signal was proposed. The quantitative results obtained with FFTBM confirm the qualitative conclusions made during the Jozef Stefan Institute participation in ISP-46. In general good agreement of thermal-hydraulic variables and satisfactory agreement of total releases for most radionuclide classes was obtained. The quantitative FFTBM results showed that for the Phebus FPT1 severe accident experiment the accuracy of thermal-hydraulic variables calculated with the MELCOR severe accident code is close to the accuracy of thermal-hydraulic variables for design basis accident experiments calculated with best-estimate system codes. (author)

  3. Big nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.

    1983-01-01

    Much of the debate on the safety of nuclear power focuses on the large number of fatalities that could, in theory, be caused by extremely unlikely but imaginable reactor accidents. This, along with the nuclear industry's inappropriate use of vocabulary during public debate, has given the general public a distorted impression of the safety of nuclear power. The way in which the probability and consequences of big nuclear accidents have been presented in the past is reviewed and recommendations for the future are made including the presentation of the long-term consequences of such accidents in terms of 'reduction in life expectancy', 'increased chance of fatal cancer' and the equivalent pattern of compulsory cigarette smoking. (author)

  4. Care of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renz, K.

    1983-01-01

    The small probability of a serious radiation accident happening dispenses neither the plants where radiation exposure occurs nor the employers' liability insurance associations from their obligation to make provision for such cases. On the other hand, the efforts involved in such preventive measures must be kept within reasonable limits. As a result of these considerations a concept for taking care of radiation accidents was developed that is based on already existing institutions. The most attention was demanded by questions of organization, logistics, communication and information. The syndrome appearing after acute whole-body irradiation is known. This syndrome in its different stages and the relative therapeutic measures form the basis for the organization of the care of radiation accidents. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Approaches of health risk assessment in air pollution; Les approches de l'evaluation des risques sanitaires lies a la pollution atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Festy, B. [Paris-5 Univ., 75 (France). Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques de Paris-Luxembourg

    1997-07-01

    The relationships between health and environment are often difficult to establish due to the large number of contaminants and routes of absorption, the low doses involved, the type of effects (acute or chronic), the lack of specificity, the time before the effects are observed and the low individual risks. A great deal of knowledge is required, beginning with the source of emission and ending up with the effect on health, passing by the quality of the environments, the exposure for the individual and the groups and their perception of the phenomena in pedagogical, social and (dis)comfort terms. The North-American approach to assess the risk tries to understand these different problems by means of an approach that is as scientific, coherent and clear as possible: identification of the danger, estimate of its probability, evaluation of the exposure (populations, conditions) and synthetic characterization of the risk. This procedure comes before the difficult management of the risk and is absolutely necessary to determine the reference values and the standards. The chemical aspects of air pollution (A.P.) raise difficult problems in this area. In practice, the assessment of the risk involves environmental and biological phenomena. The environmental approach involves products (ex. fuels), processes and sources of emissions and, above all, the quality of the atmospheric environments ('immissions') due to the characterization and quantification of more or less classic physico-chemical indicators (SO{sub 2}, particles, NO{sub x}, O{sub 3}, metals, hydrocarbons, etc.) measured on the sites (monitoring networks) or in the laboratory, or more rarely, (eco)-toxicological, measured in the laboratory (cell models) or in the field (bio-indicators). The former provide a fairly exact idea of the external collective exposure of populations. The latter provide a more or less global and biological assessment of the quality of the air consisting of (geno)toxic potentialities

  6. Review of nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connelly, J.W.; Storr, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    Two types of severe reactor accidents - loss of coolant or coolant flow and transient overpower (TOP) accidents - are described and compared. Accidents in research reactors are discussed. The 1961 SL1 accident in the US is used as an illustration as it incorporates the three features usually combined in a severe accident - a design flaw or flaws in the system, a circumvention of safety circuits or procedures, and gross operator error. The SL1 reactor, the reactivity accident and the following fuel-coolant interaction and steam explosion are reviewed. 3 figs

  7. Criticality accident alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The American National Standard ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986, Criticality Accident Alarm System provides guidance for the establishment and maintenance of an alarm system to initiate personnel evacuation in the event of inadvertent criticality. In addition to identifying the physical features of the components of the system, the characteristics of accidents of concern are carefully delineated. Unfortunately, this ANSI Standard has led to considerable confusion in interpretation, and there is evidence that the ''minimum accident of concern'' may not be appropriate. Furthermore, although intended as a guide, the provisions of the standard are being rigorously applied, sometimes with interpretations that are not consistent. Although the standard is clear in the use of absorbed dose in free air of 20 rad, at least one installation has interpreted the requirement to apply to dose in soft tissue. The standard is also clear in specifying the response to both neutrons and gamma rays. An assembly of uranyl fluoride enriched to 5% 235 U was operated to simulate a potential accident. The dose, delivered in a free run excursion 2 m from the surface of the vessel, was greater than 500 rad, without ever exceeding a rate of 20 rad/min, which is the set point for activating an alarm that meets the standard. The presence of an alarm system would not have prevented any of the five major accidents in chemical operations nor is it absolutely certain that the alarms were solely responsible for reducing personnel exposures following the accident. Nevertheless, criticality alarm systems are now the subject of great effort and expense. 13 refs

  8. Accident at Harrisburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    The course of events during the accident on 28 March 1979 at Three Mile Island-2 Reactor at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, is described in detail. The effects (in the environment and within the safety containment) are described. The following points are then discussed: the possibility of a comparable accident occurring in the nuclear power stations in the German Federal Republic; the possibility of any point having been overlooked in the design of nuclear power stations in the Federal Republic; whether previous risk analyses are still valid; and how near the Three Mile Island reactor was to a core meltdown. Some conclusions are drawn. (U.K.)

  9. Mortal radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenez, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    After defining the concept of 'Radiological accident', statistical data from Radiation Emergency Assistance Center of ORNL (United States of America) are given about the deaths caused by acute irradiation between 1944 and April 24, 1986 -ie, the day before Chernobyl nuclear accident- as well as on the number of deaths caused by the latter. Next the different clinical stages of the Acute Irradiation Syndrome (AIS) as well as its possible treatment are described, and finally the different physical, clinical and biological characteristics linked to the AIS and to its diagnosis and prognosis are discussed. (M.E.L.) [es

  10. The TMI-2 accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    A critical study about the technical and man-related facts in order to establish what is considered the worst commercial nuclear power accident until 1986. Radiological consequences and stress to the public are considered in contrast to antinuclear groups. This descriptive and technical study has the purpose to document written and oral opinions obtained abroad and then explain to the public in an easy language terminology. Preliminary study describing safety related systems fails and the accident itself with minute to minute description, conduct to the consequences and then, to learned lessons

  11. Domino effect in chemical accidents: main features and accident sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbra, R M; Palacios, Adriana; Casal, Joaquim

    2010-11-15

    The main features of domino accidents in process/storage plants and in the transportation of hazardous materials were studied through an analysis of 225 accidents involving this effect. Data on these accidents, which occurred after 1961, were taken from several sources. Aspects analyzed included the accident scenario, the type of accident, the materials involved, the causes and consequences and the most common accident sequences. The analysis showed that the most frequent causes are external events (31%) and mechanical failure (29%). Storage areas (35%) and process plants (28%) are by far the most common settings for domino accidents. Eighty-nine per cent of the accidents involved flammable materials, the most frequent of which was LPG. The domino effect sequences were analyzed using relative probability event trees. The most frequent sequences were explosion→fire (27.6%), fire→explosion (27.5%) and fire→fire (17.8%). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. REAC/TS radiation accident registry. Update of accidents in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricks, R.C.; Berger, M.E.; Holloway, E.C.; Goans, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Serious injury due to ionizing radiation is a rare occurrence. From 1944 to the present, 243 US accidents meeting dose criteria for classification as serious are documented in the REAC/TS Registry. Thirty individuals have lost their lives in radiation accidents in the United States. The Registry is part of the overall REAC/TS program providing 24-hour direct or consultative assistance regarding medical and heath physics problems associated with radiation accidents in local, national, and international incidents. The REAC/TS Registry serves as a repository of medically important information documenting the consequences of these accidents. Registry data are gathered from various sources. These include reports from the World Heath Organization (WHO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC), state radiological health departments, medical/health physics literature, personal communication, the Internet, and most frequently, from calls for medical assistance to REAC/TS, as part of our 24-hour medical assistance program. The REAC/TS Registry for documentation of radiation accidents serves several useful purposes: 1) weaknesses in design, safety practices, training or control can be identified, and trends noted; 2) information regarding the medical consequences of injuries and the efficacy of treatment protocols is available to the treating physician; and 3) Registry case studies serve as valuable teaching tools. This presentation will review and summarize data on the US radiation accidents including their classification by device, accident circumstances, and frequency by respective states. Data regarding accidents with fatal outcomes will be reviewed. The inclusion of Registry data in the IAEA's International Reporting System of Radiation Events (RADEV) will also be discussed. (author)

  13. Statistical modelling of the frequency and severity of road accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira Hyldekær

    -reporting. The problem of under-reporting is not unique for traffic accidents as severe under-reporting is a challenge in many other fields of incident reporting. In other incidents fields with intended or unintended harm, research has investigated the behavioural reasons for why people choose to report an incident......Under-reporting of traffic accidents is a well-discussed subject in traffic safety and it is well-known that the degree of under-reporting of traffic accidents is quite high in many countries. Nevertheless, very little literature has been made to investigate what causes the high degree of under...... on the service quality within the police none have looked at the service quality specific for the handling of traffic accidents.The objective of this Ph.D. thesis is to investigate the extent of under-reporting of traffic accidents in Denmark and trace the under-reporting systematically. As something new...

  14. [Drugs and occupational accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratzke, H; Albers, C

    1996-02-01

    In a case of a fatal occupational accident (construction worker, fall from roof, urine test positive for cocaine and THC, e.g. cannabis) the question arised to what extent those drug-related occupational accidents occur. In the literature only few cases, mainly dealing with cannabis influence, have been reported, however, a higher number is suspected. Cocaine and other stimulating drugs (amphetamine) are more often used to increase physical fitness. By direct or indirect interference with vigilance these compounds may provoke accidents. Due to the lack of a legal basis proving of the influence of drugs at the working place is still very limited, although highly sensitive chemical-toxicological assay procedures are available to detect even the chronic abuse (in hair). In the general conditions of accident insurances a compensation is excluded when alcohol is involved, but drugs are not mentioned. It is indeed difficult to establish a concentration limit for drugs like that existing for alcohol (1.1%). In each case the assay of the drug involved and exact knowledge of its specific effects is in an essential prerequisite to prove the causal relationship.

  15. Note nuclear accidents combat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In this document the starting points are described which underlie the new framework for the nuclear-accident combat in the Netherlands. All the elaboration of this is indicated in main lines. The juridical consequences of the proposed structure are enlightened and the sequel activities are indicated. (H.W.). 6 figs.; 8 tabs

  16. Measures against nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A select committee appointed by the Norwegian Ministry of Social Affairs put forward proposals concerning measures for the improvement of radiation protection preparedness in Norway. On the basis on an assessment of the potential radiation accident threat, the report examines the process of response, and identifies the organizational and management factors that influence that process

  17. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP) [de

  18. Development of an accident diagnosis system using a dynamic neural network for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2004-01-01

    In this work, an accident diagnosis system using the dynamic neural network is developed. In order to help the plant operators to quickly identify the problem, perform diagnosis and initiate recovery actions ensuring the safety of the plant, many operator support system and accident diagnosis systems have been developed. Neural networks have been recognized as a good method to implement an accident diagnosis system. However, conventional accident diagnosis systems that used neural networks did not consider a time factor sufficiently. If the neural network could be trained according to time, it is possible to perform more efficient and detailed accidents analysis. Therefore, this work suggests a dynamic neural network which has different features from existing dynamic neural networks. And a simple accident diagnosis system is implemented in order to validate the dynamic neural network. After training of the prototype, several accident diagnoses were performed. The results show that the prototype can detect the accidents correctly with good performances

  19. Reactor accidents and nuclear catastrophes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchhoff, R.; Linde, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    Assuming some preliminary knowledge of the fundamentals of atomic physics, the book describes the effects of ionizing radiation on the human organism. In order to assess the potential hazards of reactor accidents and the extent of a nuclear catastrophe, the technology of power generation in nuclear power stations is presented together with its potential dangers as well as the physical and medical processes occurring during a nuclear weapons explosion. The special medical aspects are presented which range from first aid in the case of a catastrophe to the accute radiation syndrome, the treatment of burns to the therapy of late radiolesions. Finally, it is confirmed that the treatment of radiation injured persons does not give rise to basically new medical problems. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Thermohydraulic accident behavior of reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horche, W.; Kirmse, R.; Reichenbach, D.; Weber, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    GRS, on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, conducted an assessment of the technical safety of the Greifswald nuclear generating units of the Soviet WWER-440/W-230 and W-213 reactor lines, respectively. The evaluation of existing accident analyses and the execution of some first calculations by GRS added to the know-how of GRS. This is reflected in the increased participation by GRS in international expert bodies investigating safety problems of WWER-440 plants. The contributions made towards international WWER projects within the framework of IAEA missions or as a result of bilateral consultations strengthen international partnership in the field of reactor safety in Central and Eastern Europe. (orig.) [de

  1. Lessons learned from accidents investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga-Bello, P. [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT), Mexico City (Mexico); Croft, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Glenn, J

    1997-12-31

    Accidents from three main practices: medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the described accidents are approached by subjects covering: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  2. Overview of core disruptive accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchaterre, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the analysis of core-disruptive accidents is given. These analyses are for the purpose of understanding and predicting fast reactor behavior in severe low probability accident conditions, to establish the consequences of such conditions and to provide a basis for evaluating consequence limiting design features. The methods are used to analyze core-disruptive accidents from initiating event to complete core disruption, the effects of the accident on reactor structures and the resulting radiological consequences are described

  3. Lessons learned from accident investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuniga-Bello, P.; Croft, J.R.; Glenn, J.

    1998-01-01

    Accidents in three main practices - medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators - are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned from them. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the accidents described are approached bearing in mind: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  4. OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS AS INDICATORS OF INADEQUATE WORK CONDITIONS AND WORK ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Petar Babović

    2009-01-01

    Occupational accidents due to inadequate working conditions and work environment present a major problem in highly industrialised countries, as well as in developing ones. Occupational accidents are a regular and accompanying phenomenon in all human activities and one of the main health related and economic problems in modern societies.The aim of this study is the analysis of the connections of unfavourable working conditions and working environment on occupational accidents. Occurrence of oc...

  5. EPRI research on accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlberg, R.N.; Chao, J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper discusses Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) efforts regarding severe reactor accident management and the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMAEX), activities. (EPRI) Electric Power Research Institute accident management program consists of the two products just mentioned plus one related to severe accident plant status information and the MAAP 4.0 computer code. These are briefly discussed

  6. Accident management on french PWRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, D.

    1990-06-01

    After a brief recall of French safety rationale, the reactor operation and severe accident management is given. The research and development aimed at developing accident management procedures and emergency organization in France for the case of a NPP accident are also given

  7. An accident diagnosis algorithm using long short-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaemin Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Accident diagnosis is one of the complex tasks for nuclear power plant (NPP operators. In abnormal or emergency situations, the diagnostic activity of the NPP states is burdensome though necessary. Numerous computer-based methods and operator support systems have been suggested to address this problem. Among them, the recurrent neural network (RNN has performed well at analyzing time series data. This study proposes an algorithm for accident diagnosis using long short-term memory (LSTM, which is a kind of RNN, which improves the limitation for time reflection. The algorithm consists of preprocessing, the LSTM network, and postprocessing. In the LSTM-based algorithm, preprocessed input variables are calculated to output the accident diagnosis results. The outputs are also postprocessed using softmax to determine the ranking of accident diagnosis results with probabilities. This algorithm was trained using a compact nuclear simulator for several accidents: a loss of coolant accident, a steam generator tube rupture, and a main steam line break. The trained algorithm was also tested to demonstrate the feasibility of diagnosing NPP accidents. Keywords: Accident Diagnosis, Long Short-term Memory, Recurrent Neural Network, Softmax

  8. Consideration of the Harrisburg accident has begun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korbmann, R.

    1980-01-01

    At the 'Kerntechnik '80' annual conference in Berlin, current problems of nuclear power were discussed. The determining factor of the accident in the U.S. nuclear power plant Three Mile Island, near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, was faulty interaction between man and plant. Since 1975, 789 safety-related incidents have been reported from West German nuclear power plants. For the present, West Germany is keeping all its options open with regard to radwaste disposal. (orig.) [de

  9. Macro Data Analysis of Traffic Accidents in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Jusuf

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a macro data analysis of Indonesian road accidents in the form of statistical data. Traffic accidents and their subsequent fatalities bring enormous social and economic consequences. A good understanding of the problem is expected to initiate major action toward the improvement of road and vehicle safety. One important milestone is the collection and analysis of road accident data. The results from this study portray the ‘tangled threads’ problem of traffic in Indonesia. The population number and number of vehicles have increased steadily, as has been accurately predicted by experts. Meanwhile, there is not enough infrastructure growth. Motorcycles are the main contributor to traffic accidents and fatalities due to their popularity as an effective vehicle to jump traffic jams. The ‘tangled threads’ need an extremely creative and comprehensive solution.

  10. Casebook on electric safety accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This book gives concentration on electric safety accidents in domestic and abroad, which introduces general electrical safety with property of electricity, safe equipment and maintenance and protection of electric shock. It lists the cases of accident caused of electricity in domestic like accident in power substation, utilization equipment, load system and another accident by electricity like death in electric shock another by electricity like death in electric shock in new building construction, the cases caused of electricity in abroad like damage in electric shock by high voltage electric transformer, electric shock in summer and earth fault accident by fault cooling tower.

  11. Radiological accidents balance in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    This work deals with the radiological accidents in medicine. In medicine, the radiation accidents on medical personnel and patients can be the result of over dosage and bad focusing of radiotherapy sealed sources. Sometimes, the accidents, if they are unknown during a time enough for the source to be spread and to expose a lot of persons (in the case of source dismantling for instance) can take considerable dimensions. Others accidents can come from bad handling of linear accelerators and from radionuclide kinetics in some therapies. Some examples of accidents are given. (O.L.). 11 refs

  12. Incinerators and health. Recommendations relative to the epidemiological studies in order to improve the knowledge on sanitary impacts of incinerators; Incinerateurs et sante. Recommandations concernant les etudes epidemiologiques visant a ameliorer la connaissance sur les impacts sanitaires des incinerateurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-15

    The Institut de Veille Sanitaire gathered a group of experts to put forward the main epidemiologic research issues of health impacts on populations living near municipal waste incineration plants (MWIPs). The study concentrated on the health effects for which a response to the social demand and the public powers is the most difficult due to the fact of continued scientific uncertainty. The health effects are identified as such: - cancers: in adults and children, solid tumours (specifically liver, soft tissues, skin) and hematologic malignancies (specifically leukemia, Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma); - their effects on reproduction (specifically congenital anomalies). Specific recommendations are made to put in place a multi-faceted study on cancers and follow up on work regarding congenital anomalies from MWIPs. Prospects for other projects are also identified (studies on the sexual maturation process, studies on the work environment). Specific recommendations are made regarding the direction that ought to be taken for putting into place a surveillance system of populations living alongside MWIPs. (author)

  13. About the causes and circumstances of the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shteynberg, N.

    1992-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident is the product of unsatisfactory solutions to scientific-technical, socio-economic and human problems. The documentarily recorded power excursion of the reactor and its rise velocity as well as the quick pressure rise in the separator drum admit the conclusion that the cause of the accident was the rapid power excursion of the reactor and not some external influence. (DG) [de

  14. Ten years after: the legacy of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1996-01-01

    In order to take the emotional edge out of debates about the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident, it is opportune to confront the sometimes completely exaggerated figures published by the mass media with the mere facts available to date. Recent, reliable information and data have confirmed that, put into relation with the psychologic, social and economic problems arising in the wake of the breakup of the Soviet Union, the radiological consequences of the reactor accident appear relatively mild. (orig.) [de

  15. Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Olivier, E.; Roux, J.P.; Pelle, P.

    2010-01-01

    Deluded by equivocal instrumentation signals, operators at TMI-2 (Three Mile Island - unit 2) misunderstood what was going on in the reactor and for 2 hours were taking inadequate decisions that turned a reactor incident into a major nuclear event that led to the melting of about one third of the core. The TMI accident had worldwide impacts in the domain of nuclear safety. The main consequences in France were: 1) the introduction of the major accident approach and the reinforcement of crisis management; 2) the improvement of the reactor design, particularly that of the pressurizer valves; 3) the implementation of safety probabilistic studies; 4) a better taking into account of the feedback experience in reactor operations; and 5) a better taking into account of the humane factor in reactor safety. (A.C.)

  16. The ultimate nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdus Salam, A.

    1988-01-01

    The estimated energy equivalent of Chernobyl explosion was the 1/150 th of the explosive energy equivalent of atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima; while the devastation that could be caused by the world's stock pile of nuclear weapons, could be equivalent to 160 millions of Chernobyl-like incidents. As known, the number of nuclear weapons is over 50,000 and 2000 nuclear weapons are sufficient to destroy the world. The Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been blamed on human factors but also the human element, particularly in the form of psychological stresses on those operating the nuclear weapons, could accidentally bring the world to a nuclear catastrophe. This opinion is encouraged by the London's Sunday Times magazine which gave a graphic description of life inside a nuclear submarine. So, to speak of nuclear reactor accidents and not of nuclear weapons is false security. (author)

  17. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinauskas, A.P.; Buchanan, J.R.; Lorenz, R.A.; Yamashita, T.

    1986-01-01

    On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred at the newest of four operating nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl site in the USSR. The accident initiated an international technical exchange of almost unprecedented magnitude; this exchange was climaxed with a meeting at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. The meeting was attended by more than 540 official representatives from 51 countries and 20 international organizations. Information gleaned from that technical exchange is presented in this report. A description of the Chernobyl reactor, which differs significantly from commercial US reactors, is presented, the accident scenario advanced by the Russian delegation is discussed, and observations that have been made concerning fission product release are described

  18. Nuclear ship accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-05-01

    In this report available information on 28 nuclear ship accident and incidents is considered. Of these 5 deals with U.S. ships and 23 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions and sea water leaks into the submarines are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that much of the available information is of a rather dubious nature. consequently some of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  19. Progress in methodology for probabilistic assessment of accidents: timing of accident sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanore, J.M.; Villeroux, C.; Bouscatie, F.; Maigret, N.

    1981-09-01

    There is an important problem for probabilistic studies of accident sequences using the current event tree techniques. Indeed this method does not take into account the dependence in time of the real accident scenarios, involving the random behaviour of the systems (lack or delay in intervention, partial failures, repair, operator actions ...) and the correlated evolution of the physical parameters. A powerful method to perform the probabilistic treatment of these complex sequences (dynamic evolution of systems and associated physics) is Monte-Carlo simulation, very rare events being treated with the help of suitable weighting and biasing techniques. As a practical example the accident sequences related to the loss of the residual heat removal system in a fast breeder reactor has been treated with that method

  20. [Interventions for mental health sequelae of accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angenendt, J

    2014-06-01

    Emergency psychology and psychotraumatology deal with the psychological sequelae of traumatic experiences, i.e., the prevention and early intervention of posttraumatic mental health disorders. Accidents are the most prevalent traumatic events in the general population that may result in a range of severe trauma and adjustment disorders. Accidents happen suddenly, unexpectedly, and can gravely threaten health, personal integrity, and life. The prevalence of intermittent and chronic psychiatric disorders in the aftermath of severe accidents varies between 5 and 30 %. Victims suffer from unknown and frightening posttraumatic symptoms, often irreversible handicaps as a consequence of their injuries, impairments in everyday functioning, and negative impact on the quality of life. The direct and indirect burden for society is high. Comprehensive secondary prevention, starting with early detection and early intervention of post-accident disorders, is not well established in clinical care. In case of severe accidental injuries, emergency and medical treatment has absolute priority. But all too often, severe mental health problems remain undetected in later treatment phases and therefore cannot be addressed adequately. In primary care, knowledge of specific psychodiagnostic and treatment options is still insufficient. Prejudices, denial, and fear of stigmatization in traumatized victims as well as practical constraints (availability, waiting time) in the referral to special evidence-based interventions limit the access to adequate and effective support. This overview presents the objectives, concepts, and therapeutic tools of a stepped-care model for psychological symptoms after accidental trauma, with reference to clinical guidelines.

  1. The Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqua, M.; Stueck, R.

    2012-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Tohoku earthquake and the subsequent tsunami hit the Japanese east coast, causing more than 15,000 fatalities. To this date, 3,000 people are still missing. The Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP was the nuclear installation that was most affected by the tsunami. The earthquake cut off the NPP from the national grid. About 45 minutes later, the tsunami flooded units 1-4 and led to core meltdown events with large releases for units 1, 2 and 3. Unit 4 had been in refuelling outage at that time and lost the cooling of the spent fuel pool for several days. Considerable hydrogen explosions occurred in units 1, 3 and 4. Shortly after the accident, TEPCO started to mitigate the consequences of the accident by providing external cooling to the reactors and by removing the radioactive debris from the site. Great emphasis was laid on effective radiation protection measures for the clean-up workers. Thus, up to now there has been no fatality due to the radiation caused by the Fukushima accident. The main steps of the accident sequences are described, taking into account the latest findings of investigations performed by TEPCO or on behalf of the regulatory body. The presentation focuses on the description of the status of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant and the future steps for cleaning-up the site. In the presentation, the major phases of the roadmap that TEPCO has developed for the clean-up are highlighted. The risks associated with the current plant status and the clean-up phases are described. Abstract the content of the manuscript in a few lines.

  2. Severe accident management guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhle, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The events at Fukushima Daiichi have highlighted the importance of Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMGs). As the world has learned from the catastrophe and countries are considering changes to their nuclear regulatory programs, the content of SAMGs and their regulatory control are being evaluated. This presentation highlights several factors that are being addressed in the United States as rulemaking is underway pertaining to SAMGs. The question of how to be prepared for the unexpected is discussed with specific insights gleaned from Fukushima. (author)

  3. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassow, J.

    1986-01-01

    The documentation aims at giving a clearly arranged account of facts, interrelations and comparative evaluations of general interest. It deals with the course of events, atmospheric dispersion and fallout of the substances released and discusses the basic principles of the metering of radioactive radiation, the calculation of body doses and comparative evaluations with the radioactive exposure and risks involved by other sources. The author intends to contribute to an objective discussion about the Chernobyl reactor accident and nuclear energy as such. (DG) [de

  4. Radiation accident in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatley, J.

    1994-01-01

    In November 1992 a Vietnamese research physicist was working with a microtron accelerator when he received a radiation overexposure that required the subsequent amputation of his right hand. A team from the International Atomic Energy Agency visited Hanoi in March 1993 to carry out an investigation. It was concluded that the accident occurred primarily because of a lack of safety systems, although the lack of both written procedures and training in basic radiation safety were also major contributors. (author)

  5. Radiological accident of Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Elias; Gimenez, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The accident of Goiania that took place in September, 1987, was the consequence of the dismantlement of the teletherapy equipment containing a Cs 137 source. The activity of the source was of about 5,2.10 13 Bq(1.400 Ci) and was made up by 1.10 -1 Kg of ClCs. This is one of the worst accidents, involving medical or industrial source, which happened up to the moment. The accident and the criteria adopted to face the emergency are described. The characteristics of the irradiation and superficial and internal contamination of the persons affected caused any dosimetric evaluation to be particularly difficult. The emergency control managed by capable persons was carried out with the expected difficulties in some areas within the Goiania city. About 90 % of the material could be recovered, in the removal works, in order to be treated as radioactive waste. Conclusions that should be taken into account in Argentina are reached. The authors of the article took part in the emergency by helping the brazilian Authorities within the Mutual Assistance Agreement between Argentina and Braxil. (M.E.L.) [es

  6. Thule accident 1968

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melgaard, L.; Moeller Kristensen, H.

    1987-01-01

    On January 21, 1968 an American B-52 bomber crashed on the ice at Thule in Nothern Greenland. The bomber carried 4 nuclear weapons that were destroyed. The radioactive material of the bombs was spread over a large area of the ice. About 850 Danes stayed at the Thule base in 1968 for a shorter or longer period. Out of these 850 probably between 70 and 170 men took part in the clearing after the accident. Danish and American authorities establised that the radioactive contamination from the accident was too small to cause any health effects. For that reason the Danish authorities did not follow the Danish workers in order to show late effects, if any. In defiance of the authorities' very cocksure attitude towards possible late effets parts of the Danish press in the Summer 1986 started to be interested in the matter and to search for previous Thule-workers. Up till January 1987 aboput 600 workers have been contacted by the press, trade unions, and private persons. About 500 out of the 600 workers report on illness, cancers and deaths. This report tries to compile the accessible informations on the matter, to descibe the possible radioactive and chemical effects, to compare the Thule accident with a similar incident in Spain in 1966, and to propose a comprehensive health examination of all the workers. (LN)

  7. Radioactive iodine and environmental and sanitary effects - bibliographic study and quantification; Iodes radioactifs et impacts environnemental et sanitaire - etude bibliographique et quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guetat, Ph.; Armand, P.; Monfort, M.; Fritsch, P. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France); Flury Herard, A. [CEA, Dir. des Sciences du Vivant, 75 - Paris (France); Menetrier, F. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dir. des Sciences du Vivant, 92 (France); Bion, L. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Schoech, C.; Masset, S. [Societe EX-IN - Expertise et Ingenierie, 92 - Le Plessis-Robinson (France)

    2004-07-01

    This document is intended to a large public. It reviews the different parameters needed to evaluate the potential act o radioactive releases from the emission to public. Its objectives are to evaluate the importance of different exposure pathways and to assess efficiency of the possible interventions for large public. The main conclusions are summarised hereafter: The radioactive decay chains have to be taken into account to evaluate the iodine source term in the nuclear plants in the case of fission accidents. The physico-chemical forms of iodine are important in order to determine the released activity and deposited activity on the soil. The isotopes to be taken into account are mainly iodine 131 for radiological assessments and also iodine 133 for the nuclear reactor accidents, and the chain Tellurium-Iodine 132 when no particulate filtration exists. Iodine 129 in French reprocessing plant cannot lead to significant accidents. The dominant exposure pathways are related to the consumption of contaminated food products (vegetable, milk) for the inorganic iodine. The iodine transfer to goat and sheep milk is greater than the one to cow milk. The meat production of herbivores at field is the most sensitive. The interest to remove rapidly herbivore from pasture appears relatively clearly. The banning of consumption of local contaminated food products (vegetables and meats) may reduce by about a factor of thirteen the impact due to iodine 131. The youngest the population is, the greatest are the thyroid radiosensitivity and variability within the population. Oral administration of stable iodine limits transfers to maternal milk and foetal thyroid. Ingestion of stable iodine is complementary to consumption banning of local contaminated food products. The earliest the ingestion is, the greatest is the efficiency. 0,1 TBq of 131 iodine released at a low height involves only limited and local actions whereas the release of 10 TBq involves direct and immediate protection

  8. Accidents and human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Y.; Kawai, H.; Morishima, H.; Terano, T.; Sugeno, M.

    1984-01-01

    When the TMI accident occurred it was 4 a.m., an hour when the error potential of the operators would have been very high. The frequency of car and train accidents in Japan is also highest between 4 a.m. and 6 a.m. The error potential may be classified into five phases corresponding to the electroencephalogramic pattern (EEG). At phase 0, when the delta wave appears, a person is unconscious and in deep sleep; at phase I, when the theta wave appears, he is very tired, sleepy and subnormal; at phase II, when the alpha wave appears, he is normal, relaxed and passive; at phase III, when the beta wave appears, he is normal, clear-minded and active; at phase IV, when the strong beta or epileptic wave appears, he is hypernormal, excited and incapable of normal judgement. Should an accident occur at phase II, the brain condition may jump to phase IV. At this phase the error or accident potential is maximum. The response of the human brain to different types of noises and signals may vary somewhat for different individuals and for different groups of people. Therefore, the possibility that such differences in brain functions may influence the mental structure would be worthy of consideration in human factors and in the design of man-machine systems. Human reliability and performance would be affected by many factors: medical, physiological and psychological, etc. The uncertainty involved in human factors may not necessarily be probabilistic, but fuzzy. Therefore, it would be important to develop a theory by which both non-probabilistic uncertainties, or fuzziness, of human factors and the probabilistic properties of machines can be treated consistently. From the mathematical point of view, probabilistic measure is considered a special case of fuzzy measure. Therefore, fuzzy set theory seems to be an effective tool for analysing man-machine systems. To minimize human error and the possibility of accidents, new safety systems should not only back up man and make up for his

  9. Radiation accident/disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kida, Yoshiko; Hirohashi, Nobuyuki; Tanigawa, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Described are the course of medical measures following Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) Accident after the quake and tsunami (Mar. 11, 2011) and the future task for radiation accident/disaster. By the first hydrogen explosion in FNPP (Mar. 12), evacuation of residents within 20 km zone was instructed, and the primary base for measures of nuclear disaster (Off-site Center) 5 km afar from FNPP had to work as a front base because of damage of communicating ways, of saving of injured persons and of elevation of dose. On Mar. 13, the medical arrangement council consisting from stuff of Fukushima Medical University (FMU), National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Safety Research Association and Prefectural officers was setup in residents' hall of Fukushima City, and worked for correspondence to persons injured or exposed, where communication about radiation and between related organizations was still poor. The Off-site Center's head section moved to Prefectural Office on Mar. 15 as headquarters. Early in the period, all residents evacuated from the 20 km zone, and in-hospital patients and nursed elderly were transported with vehicles, >50 persons of whom reportedly died mainly by their base diseases. The nation system of medicare for emergent exposure had consisted from the network of the primary to third facilities; there were 5 facilities in the Prefecture, 3 of which were localized at 4-9 km distance from FNPP and closed early after the Accident; and the secondary facility of FMU became responsible to all exposed persons. There was no death of workers of FNPP. Medical stuff also measured the ambient dose at various places near FNPP, having had risk of exposure. At the Accident, the important system of command, control and communication was found fragile and measures hereafter should be planned on assumption of the worst scenario of complete damage of the infrastructure and communication. It is desirable for Disaster Medical Assistance Team which

  10. Multidisciplinary perspective on accident investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basnyat, S.; Chozos, N.; Palanque, P.

    2006-01-01

    The increasing complexity of many computer-controlled application processes is placing increasing demands on the investigation of adverse events. At the same time, there is a growing realisation that accident investigators must consider a wider range of contributory and contextual factors that help to shape human behaviour in the causes of safety-related incidents. A range of techniques have been developed to address these issues. For example (as we show in this paper), task modelling techniques have been extended from human computer interaction and systems design to analyse the causes and consequences of operator 'error'. Similarly, barrier analysis has been widely used to identify the way in which defences either protected or failed to protect a target system from potential hazards. Many barriers fail from common causes, including misconceptions that can be traced back to early stages in the development of a safety-critical system. For instance, unwarranted assumptions can be made about the impact of training on operator behaviour in emergency situations. Similarly, barrier analysis can also be used before a system has been designed to inform the system model and make it more tolerant to errors by incorporating human and technical barriers into the design. Task models often uncover deep-rooted problems, for instance, in workload allocation across many different aspects of an interactive control system. It can be difficult to use barrier and task analysis to trace these common causes that lie behind the failure of many different defences. In order to deal with this complex combination of contributory factors and systems, we promote the use of abstraction (via models) as a way of representing these components and their interrelations whether it is design, construction or investigation. We use, to formally model an abstraction of the system. Additionally, the system model (described using a dialect of high-level Petri-nets) allows to reason about the system and to

  11. Strategy-oriented display concept to assist severe accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwangsub; Ha, Jaejoo

    2000-01-01

    The Critical Function Monitoring System (CFMS) is a typical Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) to assist the operation of Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants during normal and emergency operation, and SPDS for severe accident is being developed in Korea. When the existing CFMS is used under a severe accident situation, some problems are expected from: (1) different design basis, i.e. prevention of core melt vs. protection of radiation release to environment, (2) different parameters for decision-making, and (3) different domain and depth of information to restore the plant. To resolve the above problems, a concept, 'Strategy-Oriented Information Display' concept, for displaying information for severe accident management is developed in this paper. Whereas the existing SPDS structure is based on the critical safety function, the developed concept is based on the severe accident management strategy. The display for each strategy includes the plant parameters to check the status of plant and component with the logical or graphical views necessary for executing the strategy. As the application of the proposed concept, KAERI is developing a display system, the prototype severe accident SPDS, Severe Accident Management Display System (SAMDIS), to assist plant personnel for executing Korean Severe Accident Management Guidelines. CFMS is developed for a general display suitable to all situations with various displays. On the contrary, SAMDIS provides all the relevant information on one screen based on the proposed concept. The SAMDIS screen shows more extensive area than CFMS and thus plant personnel can recognize the overall plant status at a glance. This concept is quite effective when used with severe accident management guidelines because of the relatively macroscopic characteristics of a severe accident management strategy. (author)

  12. Traffic accidents on expressways: new threat to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinbao; Deng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    As China is building one of the largest expressway systems in the world, expressway safety problems have become serious concerns to China. This article analyzed the trends in expressway accidents in China from 1995 to 2010 and examined the characteristics of these accidents. Expressway accident data were obtained from the Annual Report for Road Traffic Accidents published by the Ministry of Public Security of China. Expressway mileage data were obtained from the National Statistics Yearbook published by the National Bureau of Statistics of China. Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted based on these data. Expressway deaths increased by 10.2-fold from 616 persons in 1995 to 6300 persons in 2010, and the average annual increase was 17.9 percent over the past 15 years, and the overall other road traffic deaths was -0.33 percent. China's expressway mileage accounted for only 1.85 percent of highway mileage driven in 2010, but expressway deaths made up 13.54 percent of highway traffic deaths. The average annual accident lethality rate [accident deaths/(accident deaths + accident injuries)] for China's expressways was 27.76 percent during the period 1995 to 2010, which was 1.33 times higher than the accident lethality rate of highway traffic accidents. China's government should pay attention to expressway construction and safety interventions during the rapid development period of expressways. Related causes, such as geographic patterns, speeding, weather conditions, and traffic flow composition, need to be studied in the near future. An effective and scientific expressway safety management services system, composed of a speed monitoring system, warning system, and emergency rescue system, should be established in developed and underdeveloped provinces in China to improve safety on expressway.

  13. A GIS Approach to Evaluate Infrastructure Variables Influencing the Occurrence of Traffic Accidents in Urban Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Selim Çepni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies worldwide have been developed that seek to explain the occurrence of traffic accidents from different perspectives. The analyses have addressed legal perspectives, technical attributes of vehicles and infrastructure as well as the psychological, behavioral and socio-economic components of the road system users. Recently, some analysis techniques based on the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS have been used, which allow the generation of spatial distribution maps, models and risk estimates from a spatial perspective. Sometimes analyses of traffic accidents are performed using quantitative statistical techniques, which place significant importance on the evolution of accidents. Studies such as those in references have shown that conventional statistical models are sometimes inadequate to model the frequency of traffic accidents, as they may provide erroneous inferences. GIS approach has been used to explore different spatial and temporal visualization technologies to reveal accident patterns and significant factors relating to vehicle crashes, or as a management system for accident analysis and the determination of hot spots. This paper examines the relationship between urban road accidents and variables related to road infrastructure, environment and traffic volumes. Some accident-prone sections in the city of Kocaeli are specifically identified by GIS tools. Urban road accidents in Kocaeli are a serious problem and it is believed that accidents can be related to infrastructure characteristics. The study aimed to establish the relationship between urban road accidents and the road infrastructure variables and revealed some possible accident prone locations for the period of 2013 and 2015 in Kocaeli city

  14. Severe accident analysis methodology in support of accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesmans, B.; Auglaire, M.; Snoeck, J.

    1997-01-01

    The author addresses the implementation at BELGATOM of a generic severe accident analysis methodology, which is intended to support strategic decisions and to provide quantitative information in support of severe accident management. The analysis methodology is based on a combination of severe accident code calculations, generic phenomenological information (experimental evidence from various test facilities regarding issues beyond present code capabilities) and detailed plant-specific technical information

  15. Cannabis, alcohol and fatal road accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jean-Louis; Gadegbeku, Blandine; Wu, Dan; Viallon, Vivian; Laumon, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    decade separates the present study from a similar one previously conducted in France, and there have been numerous developments in the intervening years. Even so, the prevalence of drivers responsible for causing fatal accidents under the influence of alcohol or narcotics has stayed remarkably stable, as have the proportion of fatal accidents which could in theory be prevented if no drivers ever exceeded the legal limits. The overall number of deaths from traffic accidents has dropped sharply during this period, and the number of victims attributable to alcohol and/or cannabis declined proportionally. Alcohol remains the main problem in France. It is just as important to note that one in two drivers considered to be under the influence of cannabis was also under the influence of alcohol. With risks cumulating between the two, it is particularly important to point out the danger of consuming them together.

  16. Cannabis, alcohol and fatal road accidents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Martin

    .Almost a decade separates the present study from a similar one previously conducted in France, and there have been numerous developments in the intervening years. Even so, the prevalence of drivers responsible for causing fatal accidents under the influence of alcohol or narcotics has stayed remarkably stable, as have the proportion of fatal accidents which could in theory be prevented if no drivers ever exceeded the legal limits. The overall number of deaths from traffic accidents has dropped sharply during this period, and the number of victims attributable to alcohol and/or cannabis declined proportionally. Alcohol remains the main problem in France. It is just as important to note that one in two drivers considered to be under the influence of cannabis was also under the influence of alcohol. With risks cumulating between the two, it is particularly important to point out the danger of consuming them together.

  17. Stress in accident and post-accident management at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, P.; Dubreuil, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the psychology of the affected population have been much discussed. The psychological dimension has been advanced as a factor explaining the emergence, from 1990 onwards, of a post-accident crisis in the main CIS countries affected. This article presents the conclusions of a series of European studies, which focused on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. These studies show that the psychological and social effects associated with the post-accident situation arise from the interdependency of a number of complex factors exerting a deleterious effect on the population. We shall first attempt to characterise the stress phenomena observed among the population affected by the accident. Secondly, we will be presenting an anlysis of the various factors that have contributed to the emerging psychological and social features of population reaction to the accident and in post-accident phases, while not neglecting the effects of the pre-accident situation on the target population. Thirdly, we shall devote some initial consideration to the conditions that might be conducive to better management of post-accident stress. In conclusion, we shall emphasise the need to restore confidence among the population generally. (Author)

  18. Cernavoda CANDU severe accident evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negut, G.; Marin, A.

    1997-01-01

    The papers present the activities dedicated to Romania Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant first CANDU Unit severe accident evaluation. This activity is part of more general PSA assessment activities. CANDU specific safety features are calandria moderator and calandria vault water capabilities to remove the residual heat in the case of severe accidents, when the conventional heat sinks are no more available. Severe accidents evaluation, that is a deterministic thermal hydraulic analysis, assesses the accidents progression and gives the milestones when important events take place. This kind of assessment is important to evaluate to recovery time for the reactor operators that can lead to the accident mitigation. The Cernavoda CANDU unit is modeled for the of all heat sinks accident and results compared with the AECL CANDU 600 assessment. (orig.)

  19. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may...... be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... aboard. Relative risks for notified accidents and accidents causing permanent disability of 5% or more were calculated in a multivariate analysis including ship type, occupation, age, time on board, change of ship since last employment period, and nationality. Foreigners had a considerably lower recorded...

  20. Insomnia and accidents: cross-sectional study (EQUINOX) on sleep-related home, work and car accidents in 5293 subjects with insomnia from 10 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Damien; Bayon, Virginie; Ohayon, Maurice M; Philip, Pierre; Ement, Philippe; Metlaine, Arnaud; Chennaoui, Mounir; Faraut, Brice

    2014-04-01

    The link between sleepiness and the risk of motor vehicle accidents is well known, but little is understood regarding the risk of home, work and car accidents of subjects with insomnia. An international cross-sectional survey was conducted across 10 countries in a population of subjects with sleep disturbances. Primary care physicians administered a questionnaire that included assessment of sociodemographic characteristics, sleep disturbance and accidents (motor vehicle, work and home) related to sleep problems to each subject. Insomnia was defined using the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-10) criteria. A total of 5293 subjects were included in the study, of whom 20.9% reported having had at least one home accident within the past 12 months, 10.1% at least one work accident, 9% reported having fallen asleep while driving at least once and 4.1% reported having had at least one car accident related to their sleepiness. All types of accident were reported more commonly by subjects living in urban compared to other residential areas. Car accidents were reported more commonly by employed subjects, whereas home injuries were reported more frequently by the unemployed. Car accidents were reported more frequently by males than by females, whereas home accidents were reported more commonly by females. Patients with insomnia have high rates of home accidents, car accidents and work accidents related to sleep disturbances independently of any adverse effects of hypnotic treatments. Reduced total sleep time may be one factor explaining the high risk of accidents in individuals who complain of insomnia. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  1. ROAD ACCIDENT AND SAFETY STUDY IN SYLHET REGION OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. BANIK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Roads, highways and streets are fundamental infrastructure facilities to provide the transportation for passenger travel and goods movement from one place to another in Sylhet, north–eastern division of Bangladesh with rapid growth of road vehicle, being comparatively developed economic tourist prone area faces severe road traffic accident. Such severe road accidents cause harsh safety hazards on the roads of Sylhet area. This research work presents an overview of the road traffic accident and degraded road safety situation in Sylhet zone which in particular, discusses the key road accident problem characteristics identifying the hazardous roads and spots, most responsible vehicles and related components, conditions of drivers and pedestrians, most victims of accident, effects of accident on society, safety priorities and options available in Sylhet. In this regard, a comprehensive questionnaire survey was conducted on the concerned groups of transportation and detailed accident data was collected from a popular local newspaper. Analysis of the study reveals that Dhaka- Sylhet highway is the most hazardous in road basis and Sylhet Sador thana is the most vulnerable in thana basis in Sylhet region.

  2. Risk Analysis of Fukushima Accident using MACCS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seunghee; Kim, Juyoul; Kim, Sukhoon; Kim, Juyub [FNC Technology Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    It has been three years since Fukushima Daiichi accident had occurred. Many efforts have been done for a restoration, however, radioactive materials are still released resulting in a crucial additional damage to a human health and economics and the scale of damage is not much evaluated. Therefore, an estimation of damage degree caused by the released radioactive materials right after a nuclear accident is essential to cope with additional radioactive problems. Here, we report the risk analysis of Fukushima Dai-ichi accident using MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System 2 (MACCS2), which is the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) code for evaluating off-site consequences. It is used in level-3 Probabilistic Risk Analyses (PRA), for planning purposes, for cost-benefit analyses and so on. The purpose of this study is to estimate radiological doses and health risks of Fukushima Daiichi accident through short- and long-term of lifetime using MACCS2. In summary, the health risk for inhabitants near Fukushima Daiichi NPP has been evaluated by considering the long term radiation effect using MACCS2 code. The result indicates that the occurrence and death rate of the cancer have been increased by the radioactive materials released from Fukushima Daiichi accident. The result obtained in this study may provide new insights for taking action after the nuclear reactor accident to mitigate the released radioactive materials and to prepare the countermeasure.

  3. The Development of Marine Accidents Human Reliability Assessment Approach: HEART Methodology and MOP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludfi Pratiwi Bowo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans are one of the important factors in the assessment of accidents, particularly marine accidents. Hence, studies are conducted to assess the contribution of human factors in accidents. There are two generations of Human Reliability Assessment (HRA that have been developed. Those methodologies are classified by the differences of viewpoints of problem-solving, as the first generation and second generation. The accident analysis can be determined using three techniques of analysis; sequential techniques, epidemiological techniques and systemic techniques, where the marine accidents are included in the epidemiological technique. This study compares the Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART methodology and the 4M Overturned Pyramid (MOP model, which are applied to assess marine accidents. Furthermore, the MOP model can effectively describe the relationships of other factors which affect the accidents; whereas, the HEART methodology is only focused on human factors.

  4. Accident management insights after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degueldre, Didier; Viktorov, Alexandre; Tuomainen, Minna; Ducamp, Francois; Chevalier, Sophie; Guigueno, Yves; Tasset, Daniel; Heinrich, Marcus; Schneider, Matthias; Funahashi, Toshihiro; Hotta, Akitoshi; Kajimoto, Mitsuhiro; Chung, Dae-Wook; Kuriene, Laima; Kozlova, Nadezhda; Zivko, Tomi; Aleza, Santiago; Jones, John; McHale, Jack; Nieh, Ho; Pascal, Ghislain; ); Nakoski, John; Neretin, Victor; Nezuka, Takayoshi; )

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, that took place on 11 March 2011, initiated a significant number of activities at the national and international levels to reassess the safety of existing NPPs, evaluate the sufficiency of technical means and administrative measures available for emergency response, and develop recommendations for increasing the robustness of NPPs to withstand extreme external events and beyond design basis accidents. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is working closely with its member and partner countries to examine the causes of the accident and to identify lessons learnt with a view to the appropriate follow-up actions to be taken by the nuclear safety community. Accident management is a priority area of work for the NEA to address lessons being learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP following the recommendations of Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), and Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH). Considering the importance of these issues, the CNRA authorised the formation of a task group on accident management (TGAM) in June 2012 to review the regulatory framework for accident management following the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The task group was requested to assess the NEA member countries needs and challenges in light of the accident from a regulatory point of view. The general objectives of the TGAM review were to consider: - enhancements of on-site accident management procedures and guidelines based on lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident; - decision-making and guiding principles in emergency situations; - guidance for instrumentation, equipment and supplies for addressing long-term aspects of accident management; - guidance and implementation when taking extreme measures for accident management. The report is built on the existing bases for capabilities to respond to design basis

  5. CANDU severe accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negut, Gheorghe; Catana, Alexandru; Prisecaru, Ilie; Dupleac, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Romania is a EU member since January first 2007. This country faces now new challenges which imply also the nuclear power reactors now in operation. Romania operates since 1996 a CANDU nuclear power reactor and soon will start up a second unit. In EU PWR reactors are mostly operated, so that the Romania's reactors have to meet EU standards. Safety analysis guidelines require to model severe accidents for reactors of this type. Starting from previous studies a thermal-hydraulic model for a degraded CANDU core was developed. The initiating event is assumed to be a LOCA with simultaneous loss of moderator and coolant and the failure of emergency core cooling system (ECCS). This type of accident is likely to modify the reactor geometry and will lead to a severe accident development. When the coolant temperatures inside a pressure tube reaches 1000 deg. C, a contact between pressure tube and calandria tube occurs and the decay heat is transferred to the moderator. Due to the lack of cooling, the moderator eventually begins to boil and is expelled, through the calandria vessel relief ducts, into the containment. Therefore the calandria tubes (fuel channels) uncover, then disintegrate and fall down to the calandria vessel bottom. All the quantity of calandria moderator is vaporized and expelled, the debris will heat up and eventually boil. The heat accumulated in the molten debris will be transferred through the calandria vessel wall to the shield water tank surrounding the calandria vessel. The thermal hydraulics phenomena described above are modeled, analyzed and compared with the existing data. (authors)

  6. Traffic accidents: an econometric investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Tito Moreira; Adolfo Sachsida; Loureiro Paulo

    2004-01-01

    Based on a sample of drivers in Brasilia's streets, this article investigates whether distraction explains traffic accidents. A probit model is estimated to determine the predictive power of several variables on traffic accidents. The main conclusion drawn from this study is that the proxies used to measure distraction, such as the use of cell phones and cigarette smoking in a moving vehicle, are significant factors in determining traffic accidents.

  7. Accident management approach in Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazaryan, K.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture the accident management approach in Armenian NPP (ANPP) Unit 2 is described. List of BDBAs had been developed by OKB Gydropress in 1994. 13 accident sequences were included in this list. The relevant analyses had been performed in VNIIAES and the 'Guidelines on operator actions for beyond design basis accident (BDBA) management at ANPP Unit 2' had been prepared. These instructions are discussed

  8. The accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed [fr

  9. Psychological response of accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, V.S.; Nikiforov, A.M.; Cheprasov, V.Yu.

    1996-01-01

    The psychological status of rescuers of consequences of Chernobyl[s accidents, having planned stationary examination and treatment of common somatic diseases, has been examined. THe age of men represented the study group was 35-54 years old. The results of medical-psychological examination showed the development in rescuers of common dysadaptation and stress state, characterized by depressive-hypochondriac state with high anxiety. The course of psychotherapeutic activities made possible to improve essentionally the psychological status of the patients. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Reactor accident in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokalski, A.; Kowalski, A.

    1990-11-01

    The bibliography contains 1568 descriptions of papers devoted to Chernobylsk accident and recorded in ''INIS Atomindex'' to 30 June 1990. The descriptions were taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and are presented in accordance with volumes of this journal (chronology of recording). Therefore all descriptions have numbers showing first the number of volume and then the number of record. The bibliography has at the end the detailed subject index consisting of 465 main headings and a lot of qualifiers. Some of them are descriptors taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and some are key words taken from natural language. The index is in English as descriptions in the bibliography. (author)

  11. Accident prevention programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This study by the Steel Industry Safety and Health Commission was made within the context of the application by undertakings of the principles of accident and disease prevention previously adopted by the said Commission. It puts forward recommendations for the effective and gradual implementation of a programme of action on occupational health and safety in the various departments of an undertaking and in the undertaking as a whole. The methods proposed in this study are likely to be of interest to all undertakings in the metallurgical industry and other industrial sectors

  12. Serious accident in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    A peruvian man, victim of an important accidental irradiation arrived on the Saturday twenty ninth of may 1999 to the centre of treatment of serious burns at the Percy military hospital (Clamart -France). The accident spent on the twentieth of February 1999, on the site of a hydroelectric power plant, in construction at 300 km at the East of Lima. The victim has picked up an industrial source of iridium devoted to gamma-graphy operations and put it in his back pocket; of trousers. The workman has serious radiation burns. (N.C.)

  13. Additional investigations on the consequences of accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, J.; Bayer, A.; Burkart, K.

    1982-01-01

    As a first step to improve the accident consequence model of the German Risk Study within the Phase B, additional investigations on special problems and questions were performed. In detail attention is given to the following topics: emergency protective actions in the vicinity of the site; latent cancer fatalities - allocated to the population living during the nuclear accident and to persons born afterwards, within and beyond a distance of 540 km from the site, caused by radiation doses below the dose limits of the German radiation protection regulations estimated assuming a nonlinear dose response function; risk assessments of nuclear power plants with lower capacities; loss of life expectancy after accidental radiation exposure. All results are presented separately for the 8 release categories of the German Risk Study. (orig.) [de

  14. Iodine Prophylaxis and Nuclear Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.

    1998-01-01

    widespread nuclear accident is as much a social problem as well as a medical or scientific one, requiring rapid organization of large number of people and facilities. In USA, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) recently decided (summer 1998) that NRC would financially support the stockpiling of the KI pills, if federal states decide to stockpile them. Previously, NRC recommended that potassium iodine be available mainly for emergency workers, but not stored for general public. In order to protect the general public in the case of a nuclear accident, The Republic of Croatia should consider the optimal way of KI prophylaxis and implement the detailed procedure in emergency plans. It would be recommended to identify those persons with iodine sensitivity, which could be achieved through a public health care system. (author)

  15. Credible investigation of air accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, K.

    2004-01-01

    Within the United Kingdom the Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB) has been used as a model for the other transport modes accident investigation bodies. Government Ministers considered that the AAIB's approach had established the trust of the public and the aviation industry in its ability to conduct independent and objective investigations. The paper will examine the factors that are involved in establishing this trust. They include: the investigation framework; the actual and perceived independence of the accident investigating body; the aviation industry's safety culture; the qualities of the investigators and the quality of their liaison with bereaved families those directly affected by the accidents they investigate

  16. Guidance on accidents involving radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This annex contains advice to Health Authorities on their response to accidents involving radioactivity. The guidance is in six parts:-(1) planning the response required to nuclear accidents overseas, (2) planning the response required to UK nuclear accidents a) emergency plans for nuclear installations b) nuclear powered satellites, (3) the handling of casualties contaminated with radioactive substances, (4) background information for dealing with queries from the public in the event of an accident, (5) the national arrangements for incident involving radioactivity (NAIR), (6) administrative arrangements. (author)

  17. Post-accident core coolability of light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michio, I.; Teruo, I.; Tomio, Y.; Tsutao, H.

    1983-01-01

    A study on post-accident core coolability of LWR is discussed based on the practical fuel failure behavior experienced in NSRR, PBF, PNS and others. The fuel failure behavior at LOCA, RIA and PCM conditions are reviewed, and seven types of fuel failure modes are extracted as the basic failure mechanism at accident conditions. These are: cladding melt or brittle failure, molten UO 2 failure, high temperature cladding burst, low temperature cladding burst, failure due to swelling of molten UO 2 , failure due to cracks of embrittled cladding for irradiated fuel rods, and TMI-2 core failure. The post-accident core coolability at each failure mode is discussed. The fuel failures caused actual flow blockage problems. A characteristic which is common among these types is that the fuel rods are in the conditions violating the present safety criteria for accidents, and UO 2 pellets are in melting or near melting hot conditions when the fuel rods failed

  18. Accident statistics and the human-factor element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuckburgh, J S

    1975-01-01

    The number of fatal accidents involving public transport aircraft has increased significantly in recent years and, because more and more "wide-bodied" aircraft have been coming into service, this has resulted in a rapid increase in the number of fatalities. A combined attack on the problem by all concerned with flight safety is required to improve the situation. The collection and analysis of aircraft accident data can contribute to safety in two ways; by giving an indication of where to concentrate future effort and by showing how successful past efforts have been. An analysis of worldwide accident statistics by phase of flight and causal factor show that the largest percentage of accidents occurs in the approach and landing phase and are caused by "pilot error". Further research is needed to find out why pilots make errors and how such errors can be eliminated.

  19. The health effects of the accident at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    The major healt effect of the accident at Three Mile Island was that of a pronounced demoralizing effect on the general population living in the Three Mile Island area, including teenagers and mothers of preschool children, and the nuclear plant workers. However, this effect has proved transient in all groups studied except the nuclear workers, who continued to show relatively high levels of demoralization some months after the accident. Moreover, the groups in the general population and the workers, in their differen ways, had continuing problems of trust that stemmed directly from the Three Mile Island accident. For both the nuclear workers and general population, the mental health and behavioral effects are understandable in terms of the objective realities of the threats they faced during the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island

  20. The Tchernobyl enigma or: the human factors in severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llory, M.

    1988-01-01

    Using the analysis of many documents published after the Tchernobyl accident, we attempt to distinguish the main human factors aspects in severe accidents that come out, and the causes the most frequently quoted to ''explain'' it. But the Tchernobyl accident keeps its ''enigmatic'' feature, like any other accident. The need to make a deeper investigation concerning safety leads to look for various research paths that go beyond the usual normative positions, based on a too much mechanistic model of man. It is to the functioning of groups in work situations that we suggest to devote part of the research and thinking effort. We attempt to show briefly how two theories, the theory of ''groupthink'' and the theory of ''trade defensive ideologies'', can throw a light on the problem of human factors in nuclear power plants [fr

  1. Agricultural problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickerton, George E.

    1997-01-01

    Although there were not reasons to deplore against major activity release from any of the 110 industrial reactors authorized to operate in US, the nuclear incident that occurred at the Three Mile Island Plant in 1979 urged the public conscience toward the necessity of readiness to cope with events of this type. The personnel of the Emergency Planning Office functioning in the frame of US Department of Agriculture has already participated in around 600 intervention drillings on a federal, local or state scale to plan, test or asses radiological emergency plans or to intervene locally. These exercises allowed acquiring a significant experience in elaborating emergency plans, planning the drillings, working out scenarios and evaluation of the potential impact of accidents from the agricultural point of view. We have also taken part in different international drillings among which the most recent are INEX 1 and RADEX 94. We have found on these occasions that the agricultural problems are essential preoccupations in most of the cases no matter if the context is international, national, local or of state level. The paper poses problems specifically related to milk, fruits and vegetables, soils, meat and meat products. Finally the paper discusses issues like drilling planning, alarm and notification, sampling strategy, access authorizations for farmers, removing of contamination wastes. A number of social, political and economical relating problems are also mentioned

  2. Evironmental health policy in ukraine after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, G.W.; Bobyleva, O.A.; Naboka, M.V.

    1995-01-01

    The 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine produced severe environmental health problems. This paper reports on the environmental health conditions in Ukraine after the accident and the health policy approaches employed to respond to the environmental conditions and health problems. Crisis conditions and a period of rapid change in Ukraine contributed to the difficulties of developing and implementing policy to address serious environmental health problems. Despite these difficulties, Ukraine is taking effective action. The paper describes the primary environmental health problem areas and the efforts taken to solve them. The effect of intense public fear of radiation on policymaking is described. The paper discusses the ability of public fear to distort health policy towards certain problems, leaving problems of greater importance with fewer resources. 35 refs., 1 fig

  3. 1976 Hanford americium accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heid, K.R.; Breitenstein, B.D.; Palmer, H.E.; McMurray, B.J.; Wald, N.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents the 2.5-year medical course of a 64-year-old Hanford nuclear chemical operator who was involved in an accident in an americium recovery facility in August 1976. He was heavily externally contaminated with americium, sustained a substantial internal deposition of this isotope, and was burned with concentrated nitric acid and injured by flying debris about the face and neck. The medical care given the patient, including the decontamination efforts and clinical laboratory studies, are discussed. In-vivo measurements were used to estimate the dose rates and the accumulated doses to body organs. Urinary and fecal excreta were collected and analyzed for americium content. Interpretation of these data was complicated by the fact that the intake resulted both from inhalation and from solubilization of the americium embedded in facial tissues. A total of 1100 μCi was excreted in urine and feces during the first 2 years following the accident. The long-term use of diethylenetriaminepentate (DTPA), used principally as the zinc salt, is discussed including the method, route of administration, and effectiveness. To date, the patient has apparently experienced no complications attributable to this extensive course of therapy, even though he has been given approximately 560 grams of DTPA. 4 figures, 1 table

  4. Serious reactor accidents reconsidered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The chance is determined for damage of the reactor core and that sequel events will cause excursion of radioactive materials into the environment. The gravity of such an accident is expressed by the source term. It appears that the chance for such an accident varies with the source term. In general it is valid that how larger the source term how smaller the chance is for it and vice versa. The chance for excursion is related to two complexes of events: serious damage (meltdown) of the reactor core, and the escape of the liberated radionuclides into the environment. The results are an order of magnitude consideration of the relation between the extent of the source term and the chance for it. From the spectrum of possible source terms three representative ones have been chosen: a large, a medium and a relative small source term. This choice is in accordance with international considerations. The hearth of this study is the estimation of the chance for occurrence of the three chosen source terms for new light-water reactors. refs.; figs.; tabs

  5. Assessment of accident energetics in LMFBR core-disruptive accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauske, H.K.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of accident energetics in LMFBR core-disruptive accidents is given with emphasis on the generic issues of energetic recriticality and energetic fuel-coolant interaction events. Application of a few general behavior principles to the oxide-fueled system suggests that such events are highly unlikely following a postulated core meltdown event

  6. Accident analysis. A review of the various accidents classifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Martin, L.; Figueras, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the accident analysis, in relation with the safety evaluation, environmental impact and emergency planning, should be to identify the total risk to the population and workers from potential accidents in the facility, analizing it over full spectrum of severity. (auth.)

  7. Automobile Accidents Attended by Mobile Emergency Care Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Virgínia Gomes Barros

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Automobile accidents are increasing every day and are becoming a serious public health problem due to the high morbidity and mortality rate. The goal of the current study was to characterise the traffic accidents attended by the Mobile Emergency Care Service (MECS in Ibiara, PB. Methods: This exploratory, descriptive, documentary study adopted a quantitative approach and analysis of data. The population consisted of all victims of traffic accidents attended by MECS in the city of Ibiara, PB, from June 2015 to June 2016. The following variables were studied: age, gender, time and day of the week the accident occurred, nature of the incident, substance ingested by the victim, wearing personal protective equipment (PPE or not, the anatomical lesions on the victim and the body regions hit during the accident. Results: The sample consisted of 49 accident victims, and the majority (81.6% were male, predominately 30 to 59 years. Events occurring at night (63.3% and during the week (65.3% predominated. The most frequent type of accident was motorcycle fall (71.4%, with almost half having consumed alcohol (46.9% and most not wearing PPE (77.6%. The regions of the body most affected were the lower limbs (67.3% and upper limbs (53.1%. Conclusion: The main factor/cause of these accidents was due to imprudence and violation of traffic laws, highlighting the need to invest in traffic education policies, to direct campaigns for the prevention of traffic accidents, as well as expand the surveillance of traffic laws by authorities.

  8. CarSim: Automatic 3D Scene Generation of a Car Accident Description

    OpenAIRE

    Egges, A.; Nijholt, A.; Nugues, P.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of generating a 3D simulation of a car accident from a written description can be divided into two subtasks: the linguistic analysis and the virtual scene generation. As a means of communication between these two system parts, we designed a template formalism to represent a written accident report. The CarSim system processes formal descriptions of accidents and creates corresponding 3D simulations. A planning component models the trajectories and temporal values of every vehicle ...

  9. [Accident cause masculinity?--Gender-related issues of accident victims between prevention and coping in Kaiserreich and Weimarer Republik].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll-Jung, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Occupational accidents in industrial workplaces are a specific health problem for man. Therefore it seems adequate to use masculinities as a category of research in this field. For the Kaiserreich and the Weimarer Republik it shows that male workers relating to their danger awareness and behavior, prevention, accident causes and coping strategies are settled in an area of conflict between a hard workplace environment and the family. On the basis of health practices of the accident victims it appears that there are different forms of labor masculinities. They have an important influence on all levels of an occupational accident from the endangerment to the success of the treatment. Through a critical use of the category academic void can be shown and alternative explanatory models can be offered.

  10. Epidemiology of Occupational Accidents in Iran Based on Social Security Organization Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrdad, Ramin; Seifmanesh, Shahdokht; Chavoshi, Farzaneh; Aminian, Omid; Izadi, Nazanin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Background: Today, occupational accidents are one of the most important problems in industrial world. Due to lack of appropriate system for registration and reporting, there is no accurate statistics of occupational accidents all over the world especially in developing countries. Objectives: The aim of this study is epidemiological assessment of occupational accidents in Iran. Materials and Methods: Information of available occupational accidents in Social Security Organization was extracted from accident reporting and registration forms. In this cross-sectional study, gender, age, economic activity, type of accident and injured body part in 22158 registered accidents during 2008 were described. Results: The occupational accidents rate was 253 in 100,000 workers in 2008. 98.2% of injured workers were men. The mean age of injured workers was 32.07 ± 9.12 years. The highest percentage belonged to age group of 25-34 years old. In our study, most of the accidents occurred in basic metals industry, electrical and non-electrical machines and construction industry. Falling down from height and crush injury were the most prevalent accidents. Upper and lower extremities were the most common injured body parts. Conclusion: Due to the high rate of accidents in metal and construction industries, engineering controls, the use of appropriate protective equipment and safety worker training seems necessary. PMID:24719699

  11. Causal Analysis to a Subway Accident: A Comparison of STAMP and RAIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Accident investigation and analysis after the accident, vital to prevent the occurrence of similar accident and improve the safety of the system. Different methods led to a different understanding of the accident. In this paper, a subway accident was analysed with a systemic accident analysis model – STAMP (System-Theoretic Accident Modelling and Processes. The hierarchical safety control structure was obtained, and the system-level safety constraints were obtained, controllers of the physical layer were analysed one by one, and put forward the relevant safety requirements and constraints, the dynamic analysis of the structure of the safety control is carried out, and the targeted recommendations are pointed out. In comparison with the analysis results obtained by the Rail Accident Investigation Branch (RAIB. Some useful findings have been concluded. STAMP treats safety as a control problem and reduces or eliminates causes of the accident from the controlling perspective. Whereas RAIB obtains causes of the accident by analysing the sequence of events related to the accident and reasons of these events, then chooses one(or moreevent(s as the immediate cause and some of the key events as causal factors. RAIB analysis is based on the sequential event models, but STAMP analysis provides us with a holistic, dynamic way to control system to maintain safety.

  12. Epidemiology of occupational accidents in iran based on social security organization database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrdad, Ramin; Seifmanesh, Shahdokht; Chavoshi, Farzaneh; Aminian, Omid; Izadi, Nazanin

    2014-01-01

    Today, occupational accidents are one of the most important problems in industrial world. Due to lack of appropriate system for registration and reporting, there is no accurate statistics of occupational accidents all over the world especially in developing countries. The aim of this study is epidemiological assessment of occupational accidents in Iran. Information of available occupational accidents in Social Security Organization was extracted from accident reporting and registration forms. In this cross-sectional study, gender, age, economic activity, type of accident and injured body part in 22158 registered accidents during 2008 were described. The occupational accidents rate was 253 in 100,000 workers in 2008. 98.2% of injured workers were men. The mean age of injured workers was 32.07 ± 9.12 years. The highest percentage belonged to age group of 25-34 years old. In our study, most of the accidents occurred in basic metals industry, electrical and non-electrical machines and construction industry. Falling down from height and crush injury were the most prevalent accidents. Upper and lower extremities were the most common injured body parts. Due to the high rate of accidents in metal and construction industries, engineering controls, the use of appropriate protective equipment and safety worker training seems necessary.

  13. Estimation of the collective sanitary impact of the land contamination by the radioactivity found at Gif sur Yvette; Estimation de l'impact sanitaire collectif de la contamination des terrains par la radioactivite presente a Gif sur Yvette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    The company 'Societe Nouvelle du Radium' extracted radium and produced radium needles in Gif-sur-Yvette (Essonne) from 1904 to 1957. In 1959, this site was converted into a habitable zone. Since then, this district called the 'Petite Coudraie' has been going through several radioactivity measurements and decontamination works. In 2000, the detection of very high levels of radon above sanitary recommendations in one house encouraged the local authorities to launch a systematic investigation and risk analysis in order to take the necessary measures against radiological risks for the whole concerned district. The 'Direction Departementale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales' (D.D.A.S.S.), the French Institute of Public Health (InVS) and the Institute of Nuclear Protection and Security (I.P.S.N.) conducted a health impact assessment of the pollution in this area. The Office for the Protection against Ionizing Radiations (O.P.R.I.) and the I.P.S.N. first measured the radioactivity found on the surface area. The I.P.S.N. then conducted a dosimetric study based on the measurement results and realistic exposure scenarios of adults and children present in the area. Finally, on the base of these results, the InVs did a quantitative risk assessment of cancer due to exposure to the radioactive residuals from the past industrial activities which is the subject of this report. This assessment allows to estimate the extent of this potential health impact due to the contamination of the area with the current scientific knowledge. It assesses the contribution of the various sources ways of exposure to risk and therefore directs the measures of management priority. Finally, it also allows to appreciate the relevance of an epidemiological study on the population who was present in this area. (author)

  14. Chernobyl accident: causes and consequences (expert conclusion). Part 3. Chernobyl accident effect on Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterenko, V.B.

    1992-01-01

    Expert conclusion is presented on the Chernobyl accident effect on Belarus. Problems of ground and food contamination, medical and biological radiation effects on the population are considered. Attention is paid to the radiation monitoring and radiometric gages. Scale of the damage for forestry and agriculture is described and recommendations on the agriculture is described and recommendations on the agricultural production and forest utilization at contaminated areas are given. 24 refs.; 4 figs.; 24 tabs

  15. Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)

  16. Expert software for accident identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobnikar, M.; Nemec, T.; Muehleisen, A.

    2003-01-01

    Each type of an accident in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) causes immediately after the start of the accident variations of physical parameters that are typical for that type of the accident thus enabling its identification. Examples of these parameter are: decrease of reactor coolant system pressure, increase of radiation level in the containment, increase of pressure in the containment. An expert software enabling a fast preliminary identification of the type of the accident in Krsko NPP has been developed. As input data selected typical parameters from Emergency Response Data System (ERDS) of the Krsko NPP are used. Based on these parameters the expert software identifies the type of the accident and also provides the user with appropriate references (past analyses and other documentation of such an accident). The expert software is to be used as a support tool by an expert team that forms in case of an emergency at Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) with the task to determine the cause of the accident, its most probable scenario and the source term. The expert software should provide initial identification of the event, while the final one is still to be made after appropriate assessment of the event by the expert group considering possibility of non-typical events, multiple causes, initial conditions, influences of operators' actions etc. The expert software can be also used as an educational/training tool and even as a simple database of available accident analyses. (author)

  17. Fukushima accident - reasons and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.

    2011-01-01

    The Fukushima accident influenced dramatically the current view on safety of nuclear facilities. Consideration about possible impacts of natural catastrophe in design of nuclear facilities seems to be much more important than before. European commission is focused on the stress-tests at nuclear power plants. His paper will go more in details having in mind reasons and impacts of Fukushima accident (Author)

  18. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  19. Occupational accidents among mototaxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Camila Rego; de Araújo, Edna Maria; de Araújo, Tânia Maria; de Oliveira, Nelson Fernandes

    2012-03-01

    The use of motorcycles as a means of work has contributed to the increase in traffic accidents, in particular, mototaxi accidents. The aim of this study was to estimate and characterize the incidence of occupational accidents among the mototaxis registered in Feira de Santana, BA. This is a cross-sectional study with descriptive and census data. Of the 300 professionals registered at the Municipal Transportation Service, 267 professionals were interviewed through a structured questionnaire. Then, a descriptive analysis was conducted and the incidence of accidents was estimated based on the variables studied. Relative risks were calculated and statistical significance was determined using the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test, considering p accidents were observed in 10.5% of mototaxis. There were mainly minor injuries (48.7%), 27% of them requiring leaves of absence from work. There was an association between the days of work per week, fatigue in lower limbs and musculoskeletal complaints, and accidents. Knowledge of the working conditions and accidents involved in this activity can be of great importance for the adoption of traffic education policies, and to help prevent accidents by improving the working conditions and lives of these professionals.

  20. Barriers to learning from incidents and accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dechy, N.; Dien, Y.; Drupsteen, L.; Felicio, A.; Cunha, C.; Roed-Larsen, S.; Marsden, E.; Tulonen, T.; Stoop, J.; Strucic, M.; Vetere Arellano, A.L.; Vorm, J.K.J. van der; Benner, L.

    2015-01-01

    This document provides an overview of knowledge concerning barriers to learning from incidents and accidents. It focuses on learning from accident investigations, public inquiries and operational experience feedback, in industrial sectors that are exposed to major accident hazards. The document

  1. Probability of spent fuel transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.

    1981-07-01

    The transported volume of spent fuel, incident/accident experience and accident environment probabilities were reviewed in order to provide an estimate of spent fuel accident probabilities. In particular, the accident review assessed the accident experience for large casks of the type that could transport spent (irradiated) nuclear fuel. This review determined that since 1971, the beginning of official US Department of Transportation record keeping for accidents/incidents, there has been one spent fuel transportation accident. This information, coupled with estimated annual shipping volumes for spent fuel, indicated an estimated annual probability of a spent fuel transport accident of 5 x 10 -7 spent fuel accidents per mile. This is consistent with ordinary truck accident rates. A comparison of accident environments and regulatory test environments suggests that the probability of truck accidents exceeding regulatory test for impact is approximately 10 -9 /mile

  2. 29 CFR 1960.29 - Accident investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reflective of the seriousness of the accident. (b) In any case, each accident which results in a fatality or... evidence uncovered during accident investigations which would be of benefit in developing a new OSHA...

  3. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...... of accidents in normally Danish winter seasons are remarkable alike the amount of salt used in praxis in the winter 2011/2012. • 2.7 ton NaCl/km when using brine spread with nozzles • 5 ton NaCl/km when using pre wetted salt. • 5.7 ton NaCl/km when using kombi spreaders The explanation is that spreading...

  4. Accident sequence quantification with KIRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Un; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kil You; Yang, Jun Eon; Jeong, Won Dae; Chang, Seung Cheol; Sung, Tae Yong; Kang, Dae Il; Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Hwang, Mi Jeong.

    1997-01-01

    The tasks of probabilistic safety assessment(PSA) consists of the identification of initiating events, the construction of event tree for each initiating event, construction of fault trees for event tree logics, the analysis of reliability data and finally the accident sequence quantification. In the PSA, the accident sequence quantification is to calculate the core damage frequency, importance analysis and uncertainty analysis. Accident sequence quantification requires to understand the whole model of the PSA because it has to combine all event tree and fault tree models, and requires the excellent computer code because it takes long computation time. Advanced Research Group of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) has developed PSA workstation KIRAP(Korea Integrated Reliability Analysis Code Package) for the PSA work. This report describes the procedures to perform accident sequence quantification, the method to use KIRAP's cut set generator, and method to perform the accident sequence quantification with KIRAP. (author). 6 refs

  5. Accident sequence quantification with KIRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Un; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kil You; Yang, Jun Eon; Jeong, Won Dae; Chang, Seung Cheol; Sung, Tae Yong; Kang, Dae Il; Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Hwang, Mi Jeong

    1997-01-01

    The tasks of probabilistic safety assessment(PSA) consists of the identification of initiating events, the construction of event tree for each initiating event, construction of fault trees for event tree logics, the analysis of reliability data and finally the accident sequence quantification. In the PSA, the accident sequence quantification is to calculate the core damage frequency, importance analysis and uncertainty analysis. Accident sequence quantification requires to understand the whole model of the PSA because it has to combine all event tree and fault tree models, and requires the excellent computer code because it takes long computation time. Advanced Research Group of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) has developed PSA workstation KIRAP(Korea Integrated Reliability Analysis Code Package) for the PSA work. This report describes the procedures to perform accident sequence quantification, the method to use KIRAP`s cut set generator, and method to perform the accident sequence quantification with KIRAP. (author). 6 refs.

  6. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.

    2004-01-01

    method could be used in all of the companies without revisions. The evaluation of accident cost showed that 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in the Danish corporate accounting systems reviewed while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents......The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...... occupational costs of companies for use by occupational health and safety professionals. The method was tested in nine Danish companies within three different industry sectors and the costs of 27 selected occupational accidents in these companies were calculated. One of the main conclusions is that the SACA...

  7. Dose assessment in radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donkor, S.

    2013-04-01

    The applications of ionizing radiation bring many benefits to humankind, ranging from power generation to uses in medicine, industry and agriculture. Facilities that use radiation source require special care in the design and operation of equipment to prevent radiation injury to workers or to the public. Despite considerable development of radiation safety, radiation accidents do happen. The purpose of this study is therefore to discuss how to assess doses to people who will be exposed to a range of internal and external radiation sources in the event of radiological accidents. This will go a long way to complement their medical assessment thereby helping to plan their treatment. Three radiological accidents were reviewed to learn about the causes of those accidents and the recommendations that were put in place to prevent recurrence of such accidents. Various types of dose assessment methods were discussed.(au)

  8. Severe accidents in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohai, Dumitru; Dumitrescu, Iulia; Tunaru, Mariana

    2004-01-01

    The likelihood of accidents leading to core meltdown in nuclear reactors is low. The consequences of such an event are but so severe that developing and implementing of adequate measures for preventing or diminishing the consequences of such events are of paramount importance. The analysis of major accidents requires sophisticated computation codes but necessary are also relevant experiments for checking the accuracy of the predictions and capability of these codes. In this paper an overview of the severe accidents worldwide with definitions, computation codes and relating experiments is presented. The experimental research activity of severe accidents was conducted in INR Pitesti since 2003, when the Institute jointed the SARNET Excellence Network. The INR activity within SARNET consists in studying scenarios of severe accidents by means of ASTEC and RELAP/SCDAP codes and conducting bench-scale experiments

  9. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, Masashi

    2001-12-01

    On September 30 at around 10:35 AM, criticality accident occurred at the JCO's conversion building in Tokai-mura. Since criticality accident had not been anticipated, neither devices for termination of criticality accident nor neutron detectors were available. Immediately after the information of the accident, our emergency staff (Japan Nuclear Cycle development institute staff) went to JCO site, to measure the intensity of neutrons and gammas. There were four main tasks, first one was to measure the radiation intensity, second one was to terminate the criticality accident, third one is to alert the residents surrounding the JCO site, fourth one is to evacuate the employees in the site. These tasks were successfully performed until October 1. This paper describes about how these operations were performed by the relevant staffs. (author)

  10. Homocysteine and cerebrovascular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Saikat; Pal, Salil K; Mazumdar, Hirak; Bhandari, Biswanath; Bhattacherjee, Sharmistha; Pandit, Sudipta

    2009-06-01

    Hyperhomocysteinaemia is rapidly emerging as an important risk factor for coronary artery disease, possibly because of its propensity to accelerate atherosclerosis. Whether it is also a risk factor for cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) is a matter of debate till now, as there are conflicting results of the various prospective studies. The present study was performed to correlate the levels of plasma homocysteine levels with that of ischaemic and haemorrhagic CVA. Forty-two cases of CVA were randomly selected over a period of one year, and their risk factors were assessed. It was observed that serum homocysteine levels were significantly raised in those with intracerebral infarcts when compared to those with intracerebral haemorrhage, although homocysteine levels didn't prove to be prognostically significant.

  11. Severe accident management. Prevention and Mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Effective planning for the management of severe accidents at nuclear power plants can produce both a reduction in the frequency of such accidents as well as the ability to mitigate their consequences if and when they should occur. This report provides an overview of accident management activities in OECD countries. It also presents the conclusions of a group of international experts regarding the development of accident management methods, the integration of accident management planning into reactor operations, and the benefits of accident management

  12. The Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loria Meneses, Luis Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    The accident happened on March 11, 2011 in the nuclear reactors at the Fukushima plant, Japan, is described. The reactors of the Fukushima plant have been power reactors. The electrical energy is produced by use of the heat released in the fission. Nuclear reactors were affected after of the power outage as a result of the earthquake and the tsunami, and this has kept in operation the refrigeration systems. The japanese reactors have been fission reactors and have used uranium 235 or plutonium 239 as fissionable material. The nuclear reactions of fission are explained. The control of the nuclear reactions at Fukushima was complicated by the decreased of the neutrons absorption and has produced more reactions, generating great amounts of heat. The steam contaminated with the products of fission is produced by to cool the reactor with water. The fissionable material released is dragged until the atmosphere. Radioactive contamination at sites near the reactor was covered in a zone of exclusion with a radius of 30 km. The effects of radioactive contamination in the zone of exclusion are mentioned. The radioactive material from Japan has traveled with the wind in direction toward the north pole. The radioactive cloud has continued until to reach the north Africa and south of Europe. The cloud has approximated to Costa Rica, but the activity of the material found has been less of 0,01 Bq/m3. The Centro de Investigacion en Ciencias Atomicas, Nucleares y Moleculares (Cicanum) has initiated the collection of soil samples, water and earth products to detect part of the radioactive material from the cloud. The Cicanum has had modern equipments to quantify the specific concentrations of radioactive isotope, alpha emitters, beta and gamma, in food, water and milk. The Cicanum has maintained the radiological surveillance of foods after the Chernobyl accident [es

  13. Coupled simulation of steam line break accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, E.; Raimond, E.; Caruge, D.

    2000-01-01

    The steam line break is a PWR type reactor design accident, which concerns coupled physical phenomena. To control these problems simulation are needed to define and validate the operating procedures. The benchmark OECD PWR MSLB (Main Steam Line Break) has been proposed by the OECD to validate the feasibility and the contribution of the multi-dimensional tools in the simulation of the core transients. First the benchmark OECD PWR MSLB is presented. Then the analysis of the three exercises (system with pinpoint kinetic, three-dimensional core and whole system with three-dimensional core) are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  14. Nuclear aerosol behavior during reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.

    1990-01-01

    Some early reactor accidents are recalled together with their associated environmental consequences. One such consequence is the generation of radioactive aerosol. We described the various physical processes that such an aerosol cloud undergoes within the secondary containment building. These physical processes are then brought together quantitatively in a balance equation for the aerosol size spectrum as a function of position and time. Methods for solving this equation are discussed and illustrated by the method of moments based upon log-normal and modified gamma distributions. Current problems are outlined and directions for future work into aerosol behavior are suggested. (author)

  15. Three Mile Island accident technical support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, R.L.; Crimmins, T.M.; Lowe, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    A large number of technical support personnel were required to respond to the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident of March 28, 1979. Under the leadership of General Public Utilities personnel, onsite (round-the-clock shift) technical support began the evening of March 29 and within a week the TMI Recovery Organization incorporated all of the essential technical capability to implement the Base Plan for Cooldown, manage the radioactive waste problem, and begin the steps toward long-range plant recovery. These steps toward recovery are described in some detail. 1 refs

  16. The expert assistant in accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, A.J.H.; Cannell, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident in proximity to an urban area, the consequences resulting from the complex processes of environmental transport of radioactivity would require complex countermeasures. Emphasis has been placed on either modelling the potential effects of such an event on the population, or on attempting to predict the geographical evolution of the release. Less emphasis has been placed on the development of accident management aids with a in-built data acquisition capability. Given the problems of predicting the evolution of an accidental release of activity, more emphasis should be placed on the development of small regional systems specifically engineered to acquire and display environmental data in the most efficaceous form possible. A wealth of information can be obtained from appropriately-sited outstations which can aid those responsible for countermeasures in their decision making processes. The substantial volume of data which would arrive within the duration and during the aftermath of an accident requires skilled interpretation under conditions of considerable stress. It is necessary that a management aid notonly presents these data in a rapidly assimilable form, but is capable of making intelligent decisions of its own, on such matters as information display priority and the polling frequency of outstations. The requirement is for an expert assistant. The XERSES accident management aid has been designed with the foregoing features in mind. Intended for covering regions up to approximately 100 kms square, it links with between 1 and 64 outstations supplying a variety of environmental data. Under quiescent conditions the system will operate unattended, raising alarms remotely only when detecting abnormal conditions. Under emergency conditions, the system automatically adjusts such operating parameters as data acquisition rate

  17. Multidisciplinary perspective on accident investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basnyat, S. [LIIHS-IRIT, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118, route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)]. E-mail: basnyat@irit.fr; Chozos, N. [Dept. of Computing Science, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: nick@dcs.gla.ac.uk; Palanque, P. [LIIHS-IRIT, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118, route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)]. E-mail: palanque@irit.fr

    2006-12-15

    The increasing complexity of many computer-controlled application processes is placing increasing demands on the investigation of adverse events. At the same time, there is a growing realisation that accident investigators must consider a wider range of contributory and contextual factors that help to shape human behaviour in the causes of safety-related incidents. A range of techniques have been developed to address these issues. For example (as we show in this paper), task modelling techniques have been extended from human computer interaction and systems design to analyse the causes and consequences of operator 'error'. Similarly, barrier analysis has been widely used to identify the way in which defences either protected or failed to protect a target system from potential hazards. Many barriers fail from common causes, including misconceptions that can be traced back to early stages in the development of a safety-critical system. For instance, unwarranted assumptions can be made about the impact of training on operator behaviour in emergency situations. Similarly, barrier analysis can also be used before a system has been designed to inform the system model and make it more tolerant to errors by incorporating human and technical barriers into the design. Task models often uncover deep-rooted problems, for instance, in workload allocation across many different aspects of an interactive control system. It can be difficult to use barrier and task analysis to trace these common causes that lie behind the failure of many different defences. In order to deal with this complex combination of contributory factors and systems, we promote the use of abstraction (via models) as a way of representing these components and their interrelations whether it is design, construction or investigation. We use, to formally model an abstraction of the system. Additionally, the system model (described using a dialect of high-level Petri-nets) allows to reason about the

  18. Licensing decisions and safety research related to LMFBR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denise, R.P.; Speis, T.P.; Kelber, C.N.; Curtis, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    The licensing approach which ensures adequate protection of the public health and safety against serious accidents is described. This paper describes the role of core melt and core disruptive accidents in the design, safety research, and licensing processes, using the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) as a focal point. Major design attention is placed on the prevention of these accidents so that the probability of core melt accidents is reduced to a sufficiently low level that they are not treated as design basis accidents. Additional requirements are placed upon the design to further reduce residual risk. This licensing process is supported by a confirmatory research program designed to provide an independent basis for licensing judgements. It has as a goal the resolution of generic safety issues prior to the establishment of a commercial LMFBR industry. The program includes accident analysis, experiments in materials interactions, aerosol transport and system integrity and planning for new safety test facilities. The problems are approached in a multi-disciplinary functional manner that identifies key safety issues and centralizes efforts to resolve them. The near term objectives of the program support the licensing of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) and the proposed Prototype Large Breeder Reactor (PLBR). The long term objectives of the program support the licensing of commercial LMFBRs during the late 1980's and beyond. This safety research is designed to provide an independent basis for the licensing judgements which must be made by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  19. Severe accidents and operator training - discussion of potential issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidard, Michel

    1997-01-01

    R and D programs developed throughout the world allowed significant progress in the understanding of physical phenomena and Severe Accident Management (SAM) programs started in many OECD countries. Basically, the common denominator to all these SAM programs was to provide utility operators with procedures or guidelines allowing to deal with complex situations not formally considered in the Design Basis, including accidents where a significant portion of the core had molten. These SAM procedures or guidelines complement the traditional accident management procedures (event, symptom or physical-state oriented) and should allow operators to deal with a reasonably bounding set of situations. Dealing with operator or crisis team training, it was recognized that training would be beneficial but that training programs were lagging, i.e. though training sessions were either organized or contemplated after implementation of SAM programs, they seemed to be somewhat different from more traditional training sessions on Accident Management. After some explanations on the differences between Design Basis Accidents (DBAs) and Beyond Design Basis Accidents (BDBAs), this paper underlines some potential difficulties for training operators and discuss problems to be addressed by organisms contemplating SAM training sessions consistent with similar activities for less complex events

  20. Construction industry accidents in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino López, Miguel A; Ritzel, Dale O; Fontaneda, Ignacio; González Alcantara, Oscar J

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzed industrial accidents that take place on construction sites and their severity. Eighteen variables were studied. We analyzed the influence of each of these with respect to the severity and fatality of the accident. This descriptive analysis was grounded in 1,630,452 accidents, representing the total number of accidents suffered by workers in the construction sector in Spain over the period 1990-2000. It was shown that age, type of contract, time of accident, length of service in the company, company size, day of the week, and the remainder of the variables under analysis influenced the seriousness of the accident. IMPACT ON INJURY PREVENTION: The results obtained show that different training was needed, depending on the severity of accidents, for different age, length of service in the company, organization of work, and time when workers work. The research provides an insight to the likely causes of construction injuries in Spain. As a result of the analysis, industries and governmental agencies in Spain can start to provide appropriate strategies and training to the construction workers.

  1. OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS WITH BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS IN CLINICAL ANALYSIS LABORATORY: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Azevedo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accidents involving biological material can cause diseases to the professional healthcare and also bring psychosocial effects. The aim of this study was to characterize the accidents occurring with biological material with professional of clinical laboratories of Sinop-MT. Data were collected by a questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic and health variables. 21 (87.5% of respondents stated that they never suffered any kind of accident. One of the injured workers reported that there was involvement in your emotional life. It is observed underreporting of occupational accidents by employees affected, making it difficult to increase research on the subject and actions about the problem.

  2. Development of the methodology and approaches to validate safety and accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmolov, V.G.

    1997-01-01

    The article compares the development of the methodology and approaches to validate the nuclear power plant safety and accident management in Russia and advanced industrial countries. It demonstrates that the development of methods of safety validation is dialectically related to the accumulation of the knowledge base on processes and events during NPP normal operation, transients and emergencies, including severe accidents. The article describes the Russian severe accident research program (1987-1996), the implementation of which allowed Russia to reach the world level of the safety validation efforts, presents future high-priority study areas. Problems related to possible approaches to the methodological accident management development are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Lessons learned and evaluation of the impact from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigna, A.

    1990-07-01

    The impact on society of the Chernobyl accident is assessed. The situation prior to Chernobyl with respect to regulations of radiation protection against the consequences of a major accident is considered. The development of the recommendations and regulations issued by the CEC for the Maximum Permitted Levels of different reactions to the accident are examined and some data on the average individual effective dose equivalents estimated in a number of countries are reported. Finally some main problems concerning the information of the public and the preparedness for possible future accidents are also summarized. (author)

  4. Impact of the Three Mile Island accident on research and development programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zammite, R.

    1989-10-01

    The influence of the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident, on the evolution of the nuclear safety engineering concepts, are analyzed. An overview of the nuclear safety studies performed before and after the accident is presented. Before the TMI accident, the research programs were mainly centered on dimensional problems involving factors, such as explosions and earthquakes. The TMI accident demonstrated that the fusion of the reactor's core could actually hoppen. It was also realized that the safety of nuclear power plants depended on accurate research programs, also extended to factors beyond dimensional analysis [fr

  5. Lessons learned and evaluation of the impact from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cigna, A [ENEA - Area Energia, Ambiente e Salute, Centro Ricerche Energia, Saluggia, Vercelli (Italy)

    1990-07-15

    The impact on society of the Chernobyl accident is assessed. The situation prior to Chernobyl with respect to regulations of radiation protection against the consequences of a major accident is considered. The development of the recommendations and regulations issued by the CEC for the Maximum Permitted Levels of different reactions to the accident are examined and some data on the average individual effective dose equivalents estimated in a number of countries are reported. Finally some main problems concerning the information of the public and the preparedness for possible future accidents are also summarized. (author)

  6. Pattern Recognition and Classification of Fatal Traffic Accidents in Israel A Neural Network Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    on 1,793 fatal traffic accidents occurred during the period between 2003 and 2006 and applies Kohonen and feed-forward back-propagation neural networks with the objective of extracting from the data typical patterns and relevant factors. Kohonen neural networks reveal five compelling accident patterns....... Feed-forward back-propagation neural networks indicate that sociodemographic characteristics of drivers and victims, accident location, and period of the day are extremely relevant factors. Accident patterns suggest that countermeasures are necessary for identified problems concerning mainly vulnerable...

  7. Lessons learned and evaluation of the impact from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigna, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    The impact on society of the Chernobyl accidents is assessed. The situation prior to Chernobyl with respect to regulations of radiation protection against the consequences of a major accident is considered. The development of the recommendations and regulations issued by the Commission of the European Communities for the Maximum Permitted Levels of different groups of radionuclides in foodstuffs is reviewed. The different reactions to the accident are examined and some data on the average individual effective dose equivalents estimated in a number of countries are also reported. Finally some main problems concerning the information of the public and the preparedness for possible future accidents are also summarized

  8. Reconstruction of the Chernobyl emergency and accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schinner, F.; Andreev, I.; Andreeva, I.; Fritsche, F.; Hofer, P.; Lettner, E.; Seidelberger, E.; Kromp-Kolb, H.; Kromp, W.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1986 the most serious civil technological accident in the history of mankind occurred of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the former Soviet Union. As a direct result of the accident, the reactor was severely destroyed and large quantities of radionuclides were released. Some 800000 persons, also called 'liquidators' - including plant operators, fire-fighters, scientists, technicians, construction workers, emergency managers, volunteers, as well as medical and military personnel - were part of emergency measurements and accident management efforts. Activities included measures to prevent the escalation of the accident, mitigation actions, help for victims as well as activities in order to provide a basic infrastructure for this unprecedented and overwhelming task. The overall goal of the 'Project Chernobyl' of the Institute of Risk Research of the University of Vienna was to preserve for mankind the experience and knowledge of the experts among the 'liquidators' before it is lost forever. One method used to reconstruct the emergency measures of Chernobyl was the direct cooperation with liquidators. Simple questionnaires were distributed among liquidators and a database of leading accident managers, engineers, medical experts etc. was established. During an initial struggle with a number of difficulties, the response was sparse. However, after an official permit had been issued, the questionnaires delivered a wealth of data. Furthermore a documentary archive was established, which provided additional information. The multidimensional problem in connection with the severe accident of Chernobyl, the clarification of the causes of the accident, as well as failures and successes and lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl emergency measures and accident management are discussed. (authors)

  9. Accident Analysis and Highway Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Noorliyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, Federal Route FT050 (Jalan Batu Pahat-Kluang has undergone many changes, including the improvement of geometric features (i.e., construction of median, dedicated U-turns and additional lanes and upgrading the quality of the road surface. Unfortunately, even with these enhancements, accidents continue to occur along this route. This study covered both accident analysis and blackspot study. Accident point weightage was used to identify blackspot locations. The results reveal hazardous road locations and blackspot ranking along the route.

  10. Medical care of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Isamu

    1986-02-01

    This monograph, divided into six chapters, focuses on basic knowledge and medical strategies for radiation accidents. Chapters I to V deal with practice in emergency care for radiation exposure, covering 1) medical strategies for radiation accidents, 2) personnel dosimetry and monitoring, 3) nuclear facilities and their surrounding areas with the potential for creating radiation accidents, and emergency medical care for exposed persons, 4) emergency care procedures for radiation exposure and radioactive contamination, and 5) radiation hazards and their treatment. The last chapter provides some references. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Judicial autopsy of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses issues regarding the judicial autopsy of radiation accidents. In the litigation which follows a radiation accident, a claimant calls on the legal system to adjudicate a dispute. Scientific questions are thrust upon the court. The legal system (through attorneys for the parties) then invites scientists to assist the court in resolving such questions. The invitation, however, does not allow the scientist to bring along his full kit. Experimentation, such as repeating the accident with dosimeters to gather more accurate data, is generally not allowed. Also, the scientist must give up his practice of choosing which questions he will pursue

  12. A review of criticality accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, W.R.; Smith, D.R.

    1989-03-01

    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Forty-one accidental power transients are reviewed. In each case where available, enough detail is given to help visualize the physical situation, the cause or causes of the accident, the history and characteristics of the transient, the energy release, and the consequences, if any, to personnel and property. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this study, except that some information on the major accident at the Chernobyl reactor in April 1986 is provided in the Appendix. 67 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs

  13. The handling of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The symposium was attended by 204 participants from 39 countries and 5 international organizations. Forty-two papers were presented in 8 sessions. The purpose of the meeting was to foster an exchange of experiences gained in establishing and exercising plans for mitigating the effects of radiation accidents and in the handling of actual accident situations. Only a small number of accidents were reported at the symposium, and this reflects the very high standards of safety that has been achieved by the nuclear industry. No accidents of radiological significance were reported to have occurred at commercial nuclear power plants. Of the accidents reported, industrial radiography continues to be the area in which most of the radiation accidents occur. The experience gained in the reported accident situations served to confirm the crucial importance of the prompt availability of medical and radiological services, particularly in the case of uptake of radioactive material, and emphasized the importance of detailed investigation into the causes of the accident in order to improve preventative measures. One of the principal themes of the symposium involved emergency procedures related to nuclear power plant accidents, and several papers defining the scope, progression and consequences of design base accidents for both thermal and fast reactor systems were presented. These were complemented by papers defining the resultant protection requirements that should be satisfied in the establishment of plans designed to mitigate the effects of the postulated accident situations. Several papers were presented describing existing emergency organizational arrangements relating both to specific nuclear power plants and to comprehensive national schemes, and a particularly informative session was devoted to the topic of training of personnel in the practical conduct of emergency arrangements. The general feeling of the participants was one of studied confidence in the competence and

  14. Embitterment and bereavement: The Sewol ferry accident example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jeong-Ho; Huh, Hyu Jung; Choi, Won Joon

    2018-01-01

    On Wednesday, April 16, 2014, 261 high school students on a field trip died in the sinking of the Sewol ferry. The bereaved family of the Sewol ferry accident experienced one of the most painful traumatic losses such as the sudden death of one's child through an accident. This article reviewed and discussed embitterment related to traumatic loss through the example of the Sewol ferry accident. Embitterment-related issues and problems in coping with the accident that is caused by societal factors were described. In addition, embitterment-related findings of several previous studies based on bereaved families' mental health cohort study were reviewed. Traumatic loss of the human-made ferry accident was accompanied with feelings of being cheated, injustice, incompetence, wrongdoing by a perpetrator, and the destruction of one's belief and value system, causing severe embitterment. Embitterment was related to other mental health problems including depression, anxiety, and complicated grief. Social support and positive individual resource including optimism and wisdom can be helpful for recovery from posttraumatic embitterment. The goal of grief is to remember the decedent, understand the changes created by the loss, and determine how to reinvest in life. Embitterment may disturb the process of grief. Without the management of the embitterment, true grief may not be possible. The breakdown of value systems and severe embitterment should get more attention in future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The post-accidents exploitation of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    Problems facing the Chernobyl NPP personnel since its commissioning and during its post-accident operation are considered. The accomplished measures on improving the power units safety, normalization of the radiation situation as well as the impact of psychological factor at the safety culture level are discussed

  16. Radiocontamination of agricultural workers due to nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, B.; Smelcerovic, M.; Djuric, G.; Popovic, D.

    1989-01-01

    In the radiocontamination of the environment due to nuclear accidents, agricultural workers should be considered as a critical group of population. The presented paper discusses this problem from the aspects of folder production. The values of the effective dose equivalent are estimated for different phases of the production process and certain procedures aimed to reduce the radiation risk are proposed (author)

  17. Radiocontamination of agricultural workers due to nuclear accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, B [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beograd, (Serbia and Montenegro); Smelcerovic, M; Djuric, G; Popovic, D [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1989-07-01

    In the radiocontamination of the environment due to nuclear accidents, agricultural workers should be considered as a critical group of population. The presented paper discusses this problem from the aspects of folder production. The values of the effective dose equivalent are estimated for different phases of the production process and certain procedures aimed to reduce the radiation risk are proposed (author)

  18. Analysis and decision making method for radiation accident situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.; Hamard, J.

    1975-01-01

    Decisions on the application of countermeasures for accident situations must take into account the cost of these countermeasures and the feasibility of reducing the exposure. A contribution to the solution of this problem, rested on the application of the principle of choice rationalization and optimization of decision making method, is presented [fr

  19. Truck Drivers' Experiences and Perspectives Regarding Factors Influencing Traffic Accidents: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Ranjbar, Hossein; Heydari, Abbas; Scurlock-Evans, Laura

    2015-08-01

    Traffic accidents are a major public health problem, leading to death and disability. Although pertinent studies have been conducted, little data are available in Iran. This study explored the experiences of truck drivers and their perspectives regarding factors contributing to traffic accidents. Eighteen truck drivers, purposively sampled, participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. A main theme, lack of ability to control stress, emerged as a factor influencing the incidence of traffic accidents. This main theme was found to have three subthemes: poor organization of the job, lack of workplace facilities and proper equipment, and unsupportive environment. Although several factors were found to contribute to traffic accidents, their effects were not independent, and all were considered significant. Identifying factors that contribute to traffic accidents requires a systematic and holistic approach. Findings could be used by the transportation industry and community health centers to prevent traffic accidents. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. Exploring the potential of data mining techniques for the analysis of accident patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Bekhor, Shlomo; Galtzur, Ayelet

    2010-01-01

    Research in road safety faces major challenges: individuation of the most significant determinants of traffic accidents, recognition of the most recurrent accident patterns, and allocation of resources necessary to address the most relevant issues. This paper intends to comprehend which data mining...... and association rules) data mining techniques are implemented for the analysis of traffic accidents occurred in Israel between 2001 and 2004. Results show that descriptive techniques are useful to classify the large amount of analyzed accidents, even though introduce problems with respect to the clear...... importance of input and intermediate neurons, and the relative importance of hundreds of association rules. Further research should investigate whether limiting the analysis to fatal accidents would simplify the task of data mining techniques in recognizing accident patterns without the “noise” probably...

  1. Accident response in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.; L'Homme, A.; Queniart, D.

    1988-07-01

    French PWR power plant design relies basically on a deterministic approach. A probabilistic approach was introduced in France in the early seventies to define safety provisions against external impacts. In 1977 an overall safety objective was issued by the safety authority in terms of an upper probability limit for having unacceptable consequences. Additional measures were taken (the ''H'' operating procedures) to complement the automatic systems normally provided by the initial design, so as to safisfy the safety objective. The TMI-2 accident enhanced the interest in confused situations in which possible multiple equipment failure and/or unappropriate previous actions of the operators impede the implementation of any of the existing event-oriented procedures. In such situations, the objective becomes to avoid core-melt by any means available: this is the goal of the Ul symptom-oriented procedure. Whenever a core-melt occurs, the radioactive releases into the environment must be compatible with the feasibility of the off-site emergency plans; that means that for some hypothetical, but still conceivable scenarios, provisions have to be made to delay and limit the consequences of the loss of the containment: the U2, U4 and U5 ultimate procedures have been elaborated for that purpose. For the case of an emergency, a nationwide organization has been set up to provide the plant operator with a redundant technical expertise, to help him save his plant or mitigate the radiological consequences of a core-melt

  2. RENEB accident simulation exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowska, Beata; Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Baert, Annelot; Beaton-Green, Lindsay; Barrios, Leonardo; Barquinero, Joan Francesc; Bassinet, Celine; Beinke, Christina; Benedek, Anett; Beukes, Philip; Bortolin, Emanuela; Buraczewska, Iwona; Burbidge, Christopher; De Amicis, Andrea; De Angelis, Cinzia; Della Monaca, Sara; Depuydt, Julie; De Sanctis, Stefania; Dobos, Katalin; Domene, Mercedes Moreno; Domínguez, Inmaculada; Facco, Eva; Fattibene, Paola; Frenzel, Monika; Monteiro Gil, Octávia; Gonon, Géraldine; Gregoire, Eric; Gruel, Gaëtan; Hadjidekova, Valeria; Hatzi, Vasiliki I; Hristova, Rositsa; Jaworska, Alicja; Kis, Enikő; Kowalska, Maria; Kulka, Ulrike; Lista, Florigio; Lumniczky, Katalin; Martínez-López, Wilner; Meschini, Roberta; Moertl, Simone; Moquet, Jayne; Noditi, Mihaela; Oestreicher, Ursula; Orta Vázquez, Manuel Luis; Palma, Valentina; Pantelias, Gabriel; Montoro Pastor, Alegria; Patrono, Clarice; Piqueret-Stephan, Laure; Quattrini, Maria Cristina; Regalbuto, Elisa; Ricoul, Michelle; Roch-Lefevre, Sandrine; Roy, Laurence; Sabatier, Laure; Sarchiapone, Lucia; Sebastià, Natividad; Sommer, Sylwester; Sun, Mingzhu; Suto, Yumiko; Terzoudi, Georgia; Trompier, Francois; Vral, Anne; Wilkins, Ruth; Zafiropoulos, Demetre; Wieser, Albrecht; Woda, Clemens; Wojcik, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    The RENEB accident exercise was carried out in order to train the RENEB participants in coordinating and managing potentially large data sets that would be generated in case of a major radiological event. Each participant was offered the possibility to activate the network by sending an alerting email about a simulated radiation emergency. The same participant had to collect, compile and report capacity, triage categorization and exposure scenario results obtained from all other participants. The exercise was performed over 27 weeks and involved the network consisting of 28 institutes: 21 RENEB members, four candidates and three non-RENEB partners. The duration of a single exercise never exceeded 10 days, while the response from the assisting laboratories never came later than within half a day. During each week of the exercise, around 4500 samples were reported by all service laboratories (SL) to be examined and 54 scenarios were coherently estimated by all laboratories (the standard deviation from the mean of all SL answers for a given scenario category and a set of data was not larger than 3 patient codes). Each participant received training in both the role of a reference laboratory (activating the network) and of a service laboratory (responding to an activation request). The procedures in the case of radiological event were successfully established and tested.

  3. Accident risk. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Following a historical introduction in which WASH-740, WASH-1400, Swedish, Finnish, Scandinavian, Netherlands and West German analyses are briefly presented, the concept of risk itself is discussed, distinguishing between objective and subjective aspects, and between voluntary and involuntary risk. Risk analysis is briefly described and an attempt made to define acceptable risk. In treating the safety philosophy of nuclear power plants the engineered safety precautions are presented. The numerical results of the analysis made for Norwegian conditions are presented and discussed. Underground siting, which has been much discussed in Norway is also treated, and emergency planning briefly discussed. The probability and consequences of core meltdown in a light water reactor are then discussed, and the possible faults leading to this, both internal, human errors and external impacts are analysed. The failure mechanisms in the containment building which could lead to the release of activity are discussed, followed by the dispersion of the activity and the health and economic consequences. The accidents at Wuergassen and Brown's Ferry are briefly described as examples. A brief discussion of nuclear insurance and nuclear law in Norway form the concluding sections. (JIW)

  4. Radioactivity control after Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, D.; Mitrovic, R.; Vicentijevic, M.; Pantelic, G.

    2011-01-01

    Fukushima nuclear accident has influence on more attention when radioactivity of fish were controlled. Sea fish, freshwater fish, fish products and fish flour were analysed ( 95 samples). All products were safe for use with radiation-hygienic aspects. [sr

  5. The Goiania accident - environmental survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, J.M.; Moreira, M.C.F.; Fonseca, E.S. da

    1997-01-01

    The survey methods applied during the Goiania accident could be considered complementary one to the other, and were able to give a clear picture about the contamination in the city to guide the further decontamination works. (author)

  6. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, W.; Højerup, C.F.; Lindholm, I.

    2001-01-01

    with all three codes. The core initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality-both super-prompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power......Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies......, which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal g(-1), was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding rate of 2000 kg s(-1). In most cases, however, the predicted energy deposition was smaller, below...

  7. Multidisciplinary accident investigation : volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    The Task II final report for 1974 of the Multidisciplinary Accident Investigation : Team of the Maryland Medical-Legal Foundation, Inc. is presented. This report describes some preliminary findings emanating from a series of comprehensive, multivaria...

  8. Multidisciplinary accident investigation : volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    The final report of the Multidisciplinary Accident Investigation Team of the Maryland Medical-Legal Foundation, Inc. is presented. The report describes the methodology, results, discussions, conclusions and recommendations pertaining to the investiga...

  9. [Early management of cerebrovascular accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libot, Jérômie; Guillon, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    A cerebrovascular accident requires urgent diagnosis and treatment.The management of a stroke must be early and adapted in order to improve the overall clinical outcome and lower the risk of mortality.

  10. HANARO thermal hydraulic accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chul; Kim, Heon Il; Lee, Bo Yook; Lee, Sang Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    For the safety assessment of HANARO, accident analyses for the anticipated operational transients, accident scenarios and limiting accident scenarios were conducted. To do this, the commercial nuclear reactor system code. RELAP5/MOD2 was modified to RELAP5/KMRR; the thermal hydraulic correlations and the heat exchanger model was changed to incorporate HANARO characteristics. This report summarizes the RELAP/KMRR calculation results and the subchannel analyses results based on the RELAP/KMRR results. During the calculation, major concern was placed on the integrity of the fuel. For all the scenarios, the important accident analysis parameters, i.e., fuel centerline temperatures and the minimum critical heat flux ratio(MCHFR), satisfied safe design limits. It was verified, therefore, that the HANARO was safely designed. 21 tabs., 89 figs., 39 refs. (Author) .new.

  11. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  12. Preparedness against nuclear power accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This booklet contains information about the organization against nuclear power accidents, which exist in the four Swedish counties with nuclear power plants. It is aimed at classes 7-9 of the Swedish schools. (L.E.)

  13. 49 CFR 195.50 - Reporting accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting accidents. 195.50 Section 195.50 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.50 Reporting accidents. An accident...

  14. 28 CFR 301.106 - Repetitious accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Repetitious accidents. 301.106 Section 301.106 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ACCIDENT COMPENSATION General § 301.106 Repetitious accidents. If an inmate worker is involved in successive accidents...

  15. 32 CFR 644.532 - Reporting accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reporting accidents. 644.532 Section 644.532... and Improvements § 644.532 Reporting accidents. Immediately upon receipt of information of an accident... that an accident has occurred, the former using command should be requested to send qualified explosive...

  16. 22 CFR 102.8 - Reporting accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting accidents. 102.8 Section 102.8... Accidents Abroad § 102.8 Reporting accidents. (a) To airline and Civil Aeronautics Administration... probably be the first to be informed of the accident, in which event he will be expected to report the...

  17. Prevention of radiation accidents and their consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khiski, J.

    1976-01-01

    Clearing out reasons for nuclear accidents enables to take effective measures to minimize them. The number of accidents in 1957 - 1974 is given. The frequency of accidents at various working places, while operating with various radioisotopes is presented. The analysis of accidents and the confirmation of these estimates can lead to the generalization of data and to the formulation of preventive measures [ru

  18. Accidents in making fireworks. Tapaturmat polttopuun teossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solmio, H

    1991-01-01

    The accidents and the trends in the number of accidents and their causes were analyzed in a study conducted by the Forestry Department of the Work Efficiency Institute. The study was funded by the Finnish Agricultural Enterpreneurs' Pension Fund (MELA). The study material was selected from MELA's accident stage work and cause code. Altogether, the material comprised the following accidents that occurred while making and using firewood: 671 accidents in 1987 and 596 accidents in 1988. The amount of accidents caused by the working environment and hand tools was clearly higher in 1987 than in 1988. The number of accidents occurred while chopping wood was 20 % higher in 1987 than in 1988. April was the most accident-prone month both in 1987 and in 1988. Chopping of firewood was the most dangerous work stage in terms of the number of accidents. In 1988, the number of accidents in chopping firewood was 336, in sawing using circular saw 97 cases and other mechanized chopping led to 93 accidents. Heating with wood caused 33 accidents. In 1988 there were 10 (2 %) accidents involving loss of limbs and 9 of them occurred in the mechanized chopping of firewood. Nine accidents of these involved the loss of one or more fingers. Serious accidents, leading to inability to work for more than 3 months, were most frequent in chopping and in storing firewood.

  19. Accidents at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The accidents which accurred at Wuergassen, Browns Ferry and Three Mile Island are each briefly described and discussed. The last is naturally treated in much more detail than the first two. Damage to the fuel elements is briefly considered and the release of fission products, radiation doses to the population and their expected consequences are discussed. The accidents are evaluated and related to risk evaluations, especially in WASH-1400. (JIW)

  20. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    OpenAIRE

    金盛 正至

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, we summarized the circumstances surrounding termination of the JCO criticality accident based on testimony in the Mito District Court on December 17, 2001. JCO was the company for uranium fuels production in Japan. That document was assembled based on actual testimony in the belief that a description of the work involved in termination of the accident would be useful in some way for preventing nuclear disasters in the future. This year is the tenth year of the JCO criticality acciden...

  1. Nuclear laws and radiologic accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, Fernanda

    1997-01-01

    Some aspects of the nuclear activities in Brazil, specially concerning the Goiania s accident are demonstrated using concepts from environmental and nuclear law. Nuclear and environmental competence, the impossibility of the states of making regional laws, as the lack of regulation about the nuclear waste, are discussed. The situation of Goiania when the accident happened, the present situation of the victims and the nuclear waste provisionally stored in Abadia de Goias is reported

  2. Problems of environment pollution in energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyberk, Oe.

    2000-01-01

    This publication relates to nuclear fuel cycle and environment, nuclear accidents, risk analysis, test of nuclear weapon, security problems of nuclear power plants, advantages and disadvantages of energy sources, climate variation due to environment pollution

  3. The IAEA Accident Management Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabanov, L.; Jankowski, M.; Mauersberger, H.

    1993-01-01

    Accident prevention and mitigation programmes and the Emergency Response System (ERS) are important elements of the Agency's activities in the area of nuclear power plant (NPP) safety. Safety Codes and Guides on siting, design, quality assurance and the operation of NPPs have been produced and are used by NPP operating organizations. Nuclear safety evaluation services are provided by the IAEA. The Emergency Response System and the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) have been developed. The framework for the development of an accident management programme has been set up. The main goal is to develop an Accident Management Manual to provide a systematic, structured approach to the development and implementation of an accident management programme at NPPs. An outline of the Manual has been distributed and the first draft is available. The component parts are: Co-ordinated research programmes (CRPs) on severe accident management and containment behaviour; the use of vulnerability analysis; mitigation of the effects of hydrogen, and generic symptom oriented emergency operating procedures. The IAEA provides guidance by the dissemination of information on methods for accident management; collates information on approaches in this field in different organizations and countries; and arranges exchange of experience and the promulgation of knowledge through the training of NPP managers and senior technical staff. (orig.)

  4. [Fatal occupational accidents in Lombardy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianosi, G

    1995-01-01

    All fatal occupational accidents compensated in Lombardy from 1984 to 1989 were analyzed (1259 cases): significant differences between geographical distribution of fatal occupational accidents and workers were observed. Males accounted for about 95% of fatalities; an excess of cases was shown in both young and elderly workers. Death was the consequence of injuries involving most frequently the head, thorax and spinal cord. An excess of fatalities was observed in agriculture and, at a lower level, in manufacturing industries; small enterprises were involved in approximately 25% of fatalities occurring in the manufacturing industries and services. Employers were the victims of fatal accidents in 50% of cases in agriculture and in 70% of cases in craft industries. Construction, agriculture and transport accounted for about 50% of all fatalities. About 50% of fatal occupational accidents were related to vehicle use: the victim was the driver in the majority of cases, sometimes the victim was run over by a vehicle or fell from a vehicle. The results agree with some previous observations (e.g.: sex and age distribution; construction, agriculture and transport as working activities at high accident risk); but some original observations have emerged, in particular about the frequency of employers as victims and the role of vehicles in the genesis of fatal occupational accidents. If further studies confirm these latter observations, important developments could follow in preventive action design and implementation.

  5. CARNSORE: Hypothetical reactor accident study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walmod-Larsen, O.; Jensen, N.O.; Kristensen, L.; Meide, A.; Nedergaard, K.L.; Nielsen, F.; Lundtang Petersen, E.; Petersen, T.; Thykier-Nielsen, S.

    1984-06-01

    Two types of design-basis accident and a series of hypothetical core-melt accidents to a 600 MWe reactor are described and their consequences assessed. The PLUCON 2 model was used to calculate the consequences which are presented in terms of individual and collective doses, as well as early and late health consequences. The site proposed for the nucelar power station is Carnsore Point, County Wexford, south-east Ireland. The release fractions for the accidents described are those given in WASH-1400. The analyses are based on the resident population as given in the 1979 census and on 20 years of data from the meteorological stations at Rosslare Harbour, 8.5 km north of the site. The consequences of one of the hypothetical core-melt accidents are described in detail in a meteorological parametric study. Likewise the consequences of the worst conceivable combination of situations are described. Finally, the release fraction in one accident is varied and the consequences of a proposed, more probable ''Class 9 accident'' are presented. (author)

  6. The IAEA Accident Management Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabanov, L.; Jankowski, M.; Mauersberger, H. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria))

    1993-02-01

    Accident prevention and mitigation programmes and the Emergency Response System (ERS) are important elements of the Agency's activities in the area of nuclear power plant (NPP) safety. Safety Codes and Guides on siting, design, quality assurance and the operation of NPPs have been produced and are used by NPP operating organizations. Nuclear safety evaluation services are provided by the IAEA. The Emergency Response System and the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) have been developed. The framework for the development of an accident management programme has been set up. The main goal is to develop an Accident Management Manual to provide a systematic, structured approach to the development and implementation of an accident management programme at NPPs. An outline of the Manual has been distributed and the first draft is available. The component parts are: Co-ordinated research programmes (CRPs) on severe accident management and containment behaviour; the use of vulnerability analysis; mitigation of the effects of hydrogen, and generic symptom oriented emergency operating procedures. The IAEA provides guidance by the dissemination of information on methods for accident management; collates information on approaches in this field in different organizations and countries; and arranges exchange of experience and the promulgation of knowledge through the training of NPP managers and senior technical staff. (orig.).

  7. Reactor accidents and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beattie, J.R.; Griffiths, R.F.; Kaiser, G.D.; Kinchin, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    This is a condensed version of a paper, entitled 'The Environmental Impact of Radioactive Releases from Accidents in Nuclear Power Reactors', by the authors, presented to the Nuclear Energy Panel of the International Atomic Energy Agency/United Nations Environmental Programme. Headings include - Effects of ionising radiation on man; number of deaths expected from leukaemia and other cancers; risk estimates for incidence of benign nodules and thyroid cancer; maximum permissible levels and emergency levels of radiation and radioactivity; ICRP recommended dose limits for members of the general public; atmospheric dispersion and modelling; ICRP emergency reference levels for 1 131 , Cs 137 , Ru 106 and Sr 90 ; environmental consequences of accidental releases from nuclear power reactors; environmental impact of accidents to Magnox gas-cooled reactors; environmental impact of accidents to advanced gas-cooled reactors; environmental impact of accidents to fast reactors; and nature of risks. consequences are examined in terms of early and late biological effects on man, and contamination of land areas. Serious accidents are of low probability of occurrence, and the risk of accidents to nuclear power reactors is estimated to be very small. 43 references. (U.K.)

  8. Learning from nuclear accident experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaurio, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    Statistical procedures are developed to estimate accident occurrence rates from historical event records, to predict future rates and trends, and to estimate the accuracy of the rate estimates and predictions. Maximum likelihood estimation is applied to several learning models, and results are compared to earlier graphical and analytical estimates. The models are based on (1) the cumulative number of operating years, (2) the cumulative number of plants built, and (3) accidents (explicitly), with the accident rate distinctly different before and after an accident. The statistical accuracies of the parameters estimated are obtained in analytical form using the Fisher information matrix. Using data on core damage accidents in electricity producing plants, it is estimated that the probability for a plant to have a serious flaw has decreased from 0.1 to 0.01 during the developmental phase of the nuclear industry. At the same time the equivalent frequency of accidents has decreased from 0.04 per reactor year to 0.0004 per reactor year, partly due to the increasing population of plants. 10 references, 7 figures, 2 tables

  9. JAERI's activities in JCO accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-09-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was actively involved in a variety of technical supports and cooperative activities, such as advice on terminating the criticality condition, contamination checks of the residents and consultation services for the residents, as emergency response actions to the criticality accident at the uranium processing facility operated by the JCO Co. Ltd., which occurred on September 30, 1999. These activities were carried out in collaborative ways by the JAERI staff from the Tokai Research Establishment, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Oarai Research Establishment, and Headquarter Office in Tokyo. As well, the JAERI was engaged in the post-accident activities such as identification of accident causes, analyses of the criticality accident, and dose assessment of exposed residents, to support the Headquarter for Accident Countermeasures of the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Accident Investigation Committee and the Health Control Committee of the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (NSC). This report compiles the activities, that the JAERI has conducted to date, including the discussions on measures for terminating the criticality condition, evaluation of the fission number, radiation monitoring in the environment, dose assessment, analyses of criticality dynamics. (author)

  10. RESEARCH OF VEHICLE’S BRAKING DYNAMICS AT TRAFFIC ACCIDENT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Turenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of vehicles braking process after the road accident is reviewed. The inaccuracies are analyzed for the purpose of deceleration determination occurance at the application of out-of-date statistical database by experts.

  11. A thermo mechanical benchmark calculation of a hexagonal can in the BTI accident with INCA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchini, A.

    1988-01-01

    The thermomechanical behaviour of an hexagonal can in a benchmark problem (simulating the conditions of a BTI accident in a fuel assembly) is examined by means of the INCA code and the results systematically compared with those of ADINA

  12. Radiological accidents: education for prevention and confrontation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, Juan; Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to train and inform on radiological accidents as a preventive measure to improve the people life quality. Radiological accidents are part of the events of technological origin which are composed of nuclear and radiological accidents. As a notable figure is determined that there have been 423 radiological accidents from 1944 to 2005 and among the causes prevail industrial accidents, by irradiations, medical accidents and of laboratories, among others. Latin American countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Peru are some where most accidents have occurred by radioactivity. The radiological accidents can have sociological, environmental, economic, social and political consequences. In addition, there are scenarios of potential nuclear accidents and in them the potential human consequences. Also, the importance of the organization and planning in a nuclear emergency is highlighted. Finally, the experience that Cuba has lived on the subject of radiological accidents is described [es

  13. Large population center and core melt accident considerations in siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarinopoulos, L.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of providing suitable demographic siting criteria in the presence of a very large population center in an otherwise sparsely populated region is addressed. Simple calculations were performed making maximum use of pretabulated results of studies where core melt accidents are considered. These show that taking into consideration the air flow patterns in the region can lower the expected population doses from core melt accidents more effectively than distance alone. Expected doses are compared to the annual background radiation dose. A simple siting criterion combining geographical considerations with the probability of a release reaching the large population center is proposed

  14. The evolution of computerized displays in accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBor, J.

    1988-01-01

    Key regulations implemented by the NRC in 1982, which included requirements such as upgraded emergency operating procedures, detailed control room design reviews, the addition of a safety parameter display system, and the inclusion of a degreed shift technical advisor as part of the operating staff, have enabled the use of computerized displays to evolve as an integral part of accident management within each of the four main vendor groups. Problems, however, remain to be resolved in the area of technical content, information reliability, and rules for use in order to achieve the goal of more reliable accident management in nuclear power plants

  15. A comparative study of road traffic accidents in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J F

    1978-11-01

    The problem of road traffic accidents in developing countries is now becoming a cause for concern. This is more so as preventive measures have not kept pace with economic progress and development. This paper reviews the present situation in West Malaysia, one of the better developed countries of the East, during the period 1970 to 1975. A comparative study has been made between the United States and Malaysia. To enable the urgency of the problem in developing countries to be appreciated the increases in the country's population and in the number of vehicles in use and their relation to the lesser increase in road mileage over the period of study have been discussed. The study has considered every aspect of the causative factors leading to traffic accidents, such as the effects of weather, seasonal variation, and road and lighting conditions. The common human errors leading to accidents have been discussed. Other factors, such as the ethnic distribution in Malaysia, and their relation to road accidents have shown the effect of the social structure on the problems. The data evaluated in this study make it clear that preventive measures are very necessary in underdeveloped as well as in developed countries.

  16. Reactivity Insertion Accident (RIA) Capability Status in the BISON Fuel Performance Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, Richard L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Folsom, Charles Pearson [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pastore, Giovanni [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Veeraraghavan, Swetha [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-05-01

    One of the Challenge Problems being considered within CASL relates to modelling and simulation of Light Water Reactor LWR) fuel under Reactivity Insertion Accident (RIA) conditions. BISON is the fuel performance code used within CASL for LWR fuel under both normal operating and accident conditions, and thus must be capable of addressing the RIA challenge problem. This report outlines required BISON capabilities for RIAs and describes the current status of the code. Information on recent accident capability enhancements, application of BISON to a RIA benchmark exercise, and plans for validation to RIA behavior are included.

  17. The cost of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Proposed by a technical section of the SFEN, and based on a meeting with representatives of different organisations (OECD-NEA, IRSN, EDF, and European Nuclear Energy Forum), this publication addresses the economic consequences of a severe accident (level 6 or 7) within an electricity producing nuclear power plant. Such an assessment essentially relies on three pillars: release of radio-elements outside the reactor, the scenario of induced consequences, and the method of economic quantification. After a recall and a comment of safety arrangements, and of the generally admitted probability of such an accident, this document notices that several actors are concerned by nuclear energy and are trying to assess accident costs. The issue of how to assess a cost (or costs) of a nuclear accident is discussed: there are in fact several types of costs and consequences. Thus, some costs can be rather precisely quantified when some others can be difficult to assess or with uncertainty. The relevance of some cost categories appears to be a matter of discussion and one must not forget that consequences can occur on a long term. The need for methodological advances is outlined and three categories of technical objectives are identified for the assessment (efficiency of safety measures to be put forward to mitigate the risk via a better accident management, compensation of victims and nuclear civil responsibility, and comparison of electricity production sectors and assessment of externalisation to guide public choices). It is outlined that the impact of accidents depend on several factors, that the most efficient mean to limit consequences of accidents is of course to limit radioactive emissions

  18. Multiscale Multiphysics Developments for Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, K. A.; Hales, J. D.; Yu, J.; Zhang, Y.; Bai, X.; Andersson, D.; Patra, A.; Wen, W.; Tome, C.; Baskes, M.; Martinez, E.; Stanek, C. R.; Miao, Y.; Ye, B.; Hofman, G. L.; Yacout, A. M.; Liu, W.

    2015-01-01

    U 3 Si 2 and iron-chromium-aluminum (Fe-Cr-Al) alloys are two of many proposed accident-tolerant fuel concepts for the fuel and cladding, respectively. The behavior of these materials under normal operating and accident reactor conditions is not well known. As part of the Department of Energy's Accident Tolerant Fuel High Impact Problem program significant work has been conducted to investigate the U 3 Si 2 and FeCrAl behavior under reactor conditions. This report presents the multiscale and multiphysics effort completed in fiscal year 2015. The report is split into four major categories including Density Functional Theory Developments, Molecular Dynamics Developments, Mesoscale Developments, and Engineering Scale Developments. The work shown here is a compilation of a collaborative effort between Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory and Anatech Corp.

  19. Accident prevention in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyrer, H.

    Large thermal power plants are insured to a great extent at the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institute of Instrument and Electric Engineering. Approximately 4800 employees are registered. The accident frequency according to an evaluation over 12 months lies around 79.8 per year and 1000 employees in fossil-fired power plants, around 34.1 per year and 1000 employees in nuclear power plants, as in nuclear power plants coal handling and ash removal are excluded. Injuries due to radiation were not registered. The crucial points of accidents are mechanical injuries received on solid, sharp-edged and pointed objects (fossil-fired power plants 28.6%, nuclear power plants 41.5%), stumbling, twisting or slipping (fossil-fired power plants 21.8%, nuclear power plants 19.5%) and injuries due to moving machine parts (only nuclear power plants 12.2%). However, accidents due to burns or scalds obtain with 4.2% and less a lower portion than expected. The accident statistics can explain this fact in a way that the typical power plant accident does not exist. (orig./GL) [de

  20. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A CANDU Severe Accident Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negut, Gheorghe; Catana, Alexandru; Prisecaru, Ilie

    2006-01-01

    As interest in severe accident studies has increased in the last years, we have developed a set of simple models to analyze severe accidents for CANDU reactors that should be integrated in the EU codes. The CANDU600 reactor uses natural uranium fuel and heavy water (D2O) as both moderator and coolant, with the moderator and coolant in separate systems. We chose to analyze accident development for a LOCA with simultaneous loss of moderator cooling and the loss of emergency core cooling system (ECCS). This type of accident is likely to modify the reactor geometry and will lead to a severe accident development. When the coolant temperatures inside a pressure tube reaches 10000 deg C, a contact between pressure tube and calandria tube occurs and the residual heat is transferred to the moderator. Due to the lack of cooling, the moderator eventually begins to boil and is expelled, through the calandria vessel relief ducts, into the containment. Therefore the calandria tubes (fuel channels) will be uncovered, then will disintegrate and fall down to the calandria vessel bottom. After all the quantity of moderator is vaporized and expelled, the debris will heat up and eventually boil. The heat accumulated in the molten debris will be transferred through the calandria vessel wall to the shield tank water, which normally surrounds the calandria vessel. The phenomena described above are modelled, analyzed and compared with the existing data. The results are encouraging. (authors)

  2. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, B; Groenberg, C D

    1997-03-01

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs.

  3. The radiological accident in Cochabamba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    In April 2002 an accident involving an industrial radiography source containing 192 Ir occurred in Cochabamba, Bolivia, some 400 km from the capital, La Paz. A faulty radiography source container had been sent back to the headquarters of the company concerned in La Paz together with other equipment as cargo on a passenger bus. This gave rise to a potential for serious exposure for the bus passengers as well as for the company employees who were using and transporting the source. The Government of Bolivia requested the assistance of the IAEA under the terms of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. The IAEA in response assembled and sent to Bolivia a team composed of senior radiation safety experts and radiation pathology experts from Brazil, the United Kingdom and the IAEA to investigate the accident. The IAEA is grateful to the Government of Bolivia for the opportunity to report on this accident in order to disseminate the valuable lessons learned and help prevent similar accidents in the future

  4. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, B.; Groenberg, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs

  5. The Youth and Experience of Traffic Accidents (Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed-Muhammad-Hossein Javadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traffic accidents are among major causes of death all over the world. In Iran, it has become a social problem, with lots of people involved in; and the youth include the most victims of traffic accidents. Objectives: The main objective of this research is to review the experience of the youth (18–24 years old in Tehran, Iran with traffic accidents, and to develop a model to specify the factors. Methods: This study is based on Grounded Theory, in which a sample group of 50 young people, 18–24 years old, in Tehran, Iran, were selected and interviewed, using stratified purposive and snowball sampling method. Data is mainly collected by interviewing the youth in 7 key topics. To analyze the data, Grounded Theory is used through production of themes, components and concepts. Results: There are 11 general components for traffic accidents according to the ideas of the youth which will come in 3 categories including: individual factors (emotions, sensory-motor skills, and physical-mental health; environmental factors (road and traffic problems, a companion, using cellphone, or front individual, including carless drivers or passersby; and underlying factors (gender, legal and cultural infrastructures. And finally, the core category of carelessness, which is the leading cause in traffic accidents.    Conclusion: The findings indicate that a chain of various factors may cause traffic accidents with lots of devastating consequences. It is therefore necessary to modify driving culture, to internalize the attitude of caution, to use polyhedral strategies, and to apply them all correctly.

  6. Accidents in the school environment: perspectives of staff concerned with data collection and reporting procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, W R; Latif, A H; Cater, L

    2003-05-01

    School-accident reports document incidents that have resulted in children requiring assistance from staff in the education and healthcare sectors. This study was undertaken to investigate the collection and use of data by agencies concerned with the school-accident problem. Our aim was to determine if the annual collection and use of such a large body of data might be improved through better management procedures. Interviews were conducted with primary and secondary school staff in one education authority. Interviewees completed a questionnaire on accident activity and accident reporting in their school. In the healthcare sector, staff from the Schools' Office and the ambulance unit servicing the schools provided information on their collection and use of data. Our survey found that accident activity is usually a private matter for individual schools, shared to varying degrees with the education authority. Playgrounds, children's behaviour and footwear carried much of the blame for the injuries sustained. Staff generally accepted the current accident rates. The compilation of accident data by the Schools' Office, accident and emergency department, and ambulance service were compromised by deficiencies in computerization and computer software. The management and utilization of school-accident data could be improved by better collaboration within and between the education and healthcare agencies.

  7. Road accident rates: strategies and programmes for improving road traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, K; Goniewicz, M; Pawłowski, W; Fiedor, P

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the problem of road accident rates is one of the most important health and social policy issues concerning the countries in all continents. Each year, nearly 1.3 million people worldwide lose their life on roads, and 20-50 million sustain severe injuries, the majority of which require long-term treatment. The objective of the study was to identify the most frequent, constantly occurring causes of road accidents, as well as outline actions constituting a basis for the strategies and programmes aiming at improving traffic safety on local and global levels. Comparative analysis of literature concerning road safety was performed, confirming that although road accidents had a varied and frequently complex background, their causes have changed only to a small degree over the years. The causes include: lack of control and enforcement concerning implementation of traffic regulation (primarily driving at excessive speed, driving under the influence of alcohol, and not respecting the rights of other road users (mainly pedestrians and cyclists), lack of appropriate infrastructure and unroadworthy vehicles. The number of fatal accidents and severe injuries, resulting from road accidents, may be reduced through applying an integrated approach to safety on roads. The strategies and programmes for improving road traffic should include the following measures: reducing the risk of exposure to an accident, prevention of accidents, reduction in bodily injuries sustained in accidents, and reduction of the effects of injuries by improvement of post-accident medical care.

  8. Substance use among Iranian drivers involved in fatal road accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin eAssari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the problem of substance use among drivers is not limited to a special part of the world, most published epidemiological reports on this topic is from industrial world.Aim: To determine drug use among Iranian adults who were imprisoned for vehicle accidents with fatality. Methods: This study enrolled 51 Iranian adults who were imprisoned for vehicle accidents with fatality. This sample came from a national survey of prisoners. Data was collected at entry to prisons during the last 4 months of 2008 in 7 prisons in different parts of the country. Self reported drug use was registered. Commercial substance use screening tests were also done. Results: Drug test was positive for opioids, cannabis and both in 37.3%, 2.0% and 13.7%, respectively. 29.4% tested positive for benzodiazepines. Using test introduced 23.5% of our sample as drug users, who had declined to report any drug use. Conclusion: Opioids are the most used illicit drug in the case of vehicle accidents with fatality, however, 20% of users do not declare their use. This high rate of drug use in vehicle accidents with fatality reflects the importance of drug use control as a part of injury prevention in Iran. There might be a need for drug screening after severe car accidents.

  9. Historical update of past and recent skin damage radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.C.; Fry, S.A.; Ricks, R.C.; Hubner, K.F.; Burr, W.W.

    1986-01-01

    Records of radiation accidents worldwide since 1944 are maintained at the Radiation Accident Registry of the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) in Oak Ridge. These records show that in 263 major radiation accidents there have been 150 severe local radiation injuries, of which 117 have been exposure to sealed radioactive sources. Most lesions resulted from the unsafe handling of 192 Ir radiography sources. Recent redesign of these devices, used for testing the integrity of welds, promises to eliminate these accidents. However, many other kinds of irradiators used in industry and scientific research still remain in the public domain, capable of causing irreparable dermal damage. Registry records reveal many unsolved physical and medical problems whose solution is urgently needed to improve the prognosis and therapy of such lesions. Pathologically, radiation-induced skin lesions are well described and an approximate dose-response relationship is univerally accepted even though the actual 'dose' is rarely known at first. Radiation dose is estimated biologically after the lesion has run its pathological course or after a medical physicist has prepared a retrospective 'mock-up' of the accident. (author)

  10. The yellow cake accident at the Ezeiza Airport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.E.; Puntarulo, L.J.; Canibano, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    In January 1987 several drums containing yellow cake fell from about six meters during the loading operation of a Boeing 747 T-100 cargo aircraft. As a result of the accident, about 50% of the 38 drums involved lost their lids and a fraction of the radioactive content was released on an area of about 200 meters squared. Small amounts of yellow cake were dispersed down wind until about 100 meters from the accident place. The shipment was prepared for transport in standard 200 liter steel drums fulfilling the applicable Transport Regulations and the accident was the consequence of an erroneous operation during the cargo associated with a mechanical failure of the cargo lift. In order to avoid human contamination, immediate action was taken by the airport emergency team and in the meantime, the specialized groups of the National Atomic Energy Commission and the Federal Fire Brigades, were convened to take care of the decontamination and radiological evaluation problems. This paper describes the accidental sequences, the accident scenery, the countermeasures taken, the recovery and decontamination actions, and finally, as a conclusion, a brief description of the toxic and radiological aspects of the accident's mode

  11. Prevention of criticality accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavese, S.I.

    1982-01-01

    These notes used in the postgraduate course on Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety discuss macro-and microscopic nuclear constants for fissile materials systems. Critical systems: their definition; criteria to analyze the critical state; determination of the critical size; analysis of practical problems about prevention of criticality. Safety of isolated units and of sets of units. Application of standards. Conception of facilities from the criticality control view point. (author) [es

  12. Scuba diving accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembert, M L

    1977-08-01

    The principal scuba diving medical problems of barotrauma, air embolism and decompression sickness have as their pathophysiologic basis the Ideal Gas Law and Boyle's Law. Hyperbaric chamber recompression therapy is the only definitive treatment of air embolism and decompression sickness. However, with a basic knowledge of diving medicine, the family physician can provide effective supportive care to the patient prior to initiation of hyperbaric therapy.

  13. The Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebroski, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    It is important that the causes of this accident (and other, similar accidents but with less dramatic consequences) are completely understood and that the role of every contributing factor is exactly determined in order to discuss modifications and to judge their relative importance and schedule in an objective way. If the role of the various factors contributing to an accident is not fully understood, there will always be a 'mythology' of prejudiced and highly simplified assumptions. The experience of failure analysis shows that the causes first assumed are hardly ever the right ones, and that in some major and complex cases even the second or third generation of assumed causes is wrong. (orig.) [de

  14. Severe accident management guidelines tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Varela, Javier; Tanarro Onrubia, Augustin; Martinez Fanegas, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Severe Accident is addressed by means of a great number of documents such as guidelines, calculation aids and diagnostic trees. The response methodology often requires the use of several documents at the same time while Technical Support Centre members need to assess the appropriate set of equipment within the adequate mitigation strategies. In order to facilitate the response, TECNATOM has developed SAMG TOOL, initially named GGAS TOOL, which is an easy to use computer program that clearly improves and accelerates the severe accident management. The software is designed with powerful features that allow the users to focus on the decision-making process. Consequently, SAMG TOOL significantly improves the severe accident training, ensuring a better response under a real situation. The software is already installed in several Spanish Nuclear Power Plants and trainees claim that the methodology can be followed easier with it, especially because guidelines, calculation aids, equipment information and strategies availability can be accessed immediately (authors)

  15. Severe accident simulation at Olkiuoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirkkonen, H.; Saarenpaeae, T. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), Olkiluoto (Finland); Cliff Po, L.C. [Micro-Simulation Technology, Montville, NJ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A personal computer-based simulator was developed for the Olkiluoto nuclear plant in Finland for training in severe accident management. The generic software PCTRAN was expanded to model the plant-specific features of the ABB Atom designed BWR including its containment over-pressure protection and filtered vent systems. Scenarios including core heat-up, hydrogen generation, core melt and vessel penetration were developed in this work. Radiation leakage paths and dose rate distribution are presented graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an 486 DX2-66, PCTRAN-TVO achieves a speed about 15 times faster than real-time. A convenient and user-friendly graphic interface allows full interactive control. In this paper a review of the component models and verification runs are presented.

  16. Containment integrity analysis under accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chengge; Zhao Ruichang; Liu Zhitao

    2010-01-01

    Containment integrity analyses for current nuclear power plants (NPPs) mainly focus on the internal pressure caused by design basis accidents (DBAs). In addition to the analyses of containment pressure response caused by DBAs, the behavior of containment during severe accidents (SAs) are also evaluated for AP1000 NPP. Since the conservatism remains in the assumptions,boundary conditions and codes, margin of the results of containment integrity analyses may be overestimated. Along with the improvements of the knowledge to the phenomena and process of relevant accidents, the margin overrated can be appropriately reduced by using the best estimate codes combined with the uncertainty methods, which could be beneficial to the containment design and construction of large passive plants (LPP) in China. (authors)

  17. Patient treatment in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanum, G.; Bruland, Oe.S.; Hjelle, D.; Reitan, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    Accidental human injury due to ionizing radiation is rare. Industrial accidents are comparatively the most common. Life saving procedures should always have priority to any concern about radiation injury or contamination. The personal risks for emergency medial personnel is negligible when simple measures are taken. Repeated clinical examinations and blood lymphocyte counts should be performed on all patients with suspected radiation injury to allow a diagnosis. The radiation syndrome develops within days or weeks depending on total radiation dose, dose rate and dose distribution. Damage to the bone marrow and gut are the most important. Local radiation injuries to the hands are common in industrial accidents. The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority should always be called when a potential ionizing radiation accident takes place within Norway

  18. Action in case of accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matijasic, A.

    1961-01-01

    This report describes the radiation accidents that occurred in the Institute, causes of these accidents and actions undertaken to eliminate the consequences as well as losses and cost estimated. The accidents were as follows: explosion of the uranium mixture; contamination due to spill of P 32 ; contamination due to spilling of Sr 89 solution; spilling of I 131 in the cell for radioactive iodine production; contamination of the floor by P 32 ; contamination of the platform below the water shield at the RA reactor and during cleaning of the vertical channels; contamination due to spilling of Sr 89 solution; contamination of cells for I 131 and P 32 and the cell for isotopes packaging; contamination of the floor by non-identified isotope mixture; contamination of the cell for I'1 31 production by irradiated Tl powder; contamination by La 140 powder; contamination of the cell for isotopes packaging

  19. Nuclear law and radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, F.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear activities in Brazil, and particularly the radiological accident of Goiania, are examined in the light of the environmental and nuclear laws of Brazil and the issue of responsibility. The absence of legislation covering radioactive wastes as well as the restrictions on Brazilian States to issue regulations covering nuclear activities are reviewed. The radiological accident and its consequences, including the protection and compensation of the victims, the responsibility of the shareholders of the Instituto Goiano de Radioterapia, operator of the radioactive source, the provisional storage and the final disposal at Abadia de Goias of the radioactive waste generated by the accident are reviewed. Finally, nuclear responsibility, the inapplicability of the Law 6453/77 which deals with nuclear damages, and the state liability regime are analysed in accordance with the principles of the Brazilian Federal Constitution. (author)

  20. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, Masashi

    2010-07-01

    In 2001, we summarized the circumstances surrounding termination of the JCO criticality accident based on testimony in the Mito District Court on December 17, 2001. JCO was the company for uranium fuels production in Japan. That document was assembled based on actual testimony in the belief that a description of the work involved in termination of the accident would be useful in some way for preventing nuclear disasters in the future. The description focuses on the witness' own behavior, and what he saw and heard, and thus is written from the perspective of action by one individual. This was done simply because it was easier for the witness to write down his memories as he remembers them. Description of the activities of other organizations and people is provided only as necessary, to ensure that consistency in the descriptive approach is not lost. The essentials of this report were rewritten as a third-person objective description in the summary of the report by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). Since then, comments have been received from sources such as former members of the Nuclear Safety Commission (Dr. Kenji Sumita and Dr. Akira Kanagawa), concerned parties from the former Science and Technology Agency, and reports from the JCO Criticality Accident Investigation Committee of the AESJ, and thus this report was rewritten to correct incorrect information, and add material where that was felt to be necessary. This year is the tenth year of the JCO criticality accident. To mark this occasion we have decided to translate the record of what occurred at the accident site into English so that more people can draw lessons from this accident. This report is an English version of JAEA-Technology 2009-073. (author)

  1. Severe accident source term reassessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazzan, M.J.; Gardner, R.; Warman, E.A.; Jacobs, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status of the reassessment of severe reactor accident source terms, which are defined as the quantity, type, and timing of fission product releases from such accidents. Concentration is on the major results and conclusions of analyses with modern methods for both pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs), and the special case of containment bypass. Some distinctions are drawn between analyses for PWRs and BWRs. In general, the more the matter is examined, the consequences, or probability of serious consequences, seem to be less. (author)

  2. Civil liability concerning nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    France and the USA wish to cooperate in order to promote an international regime of civil liability in order to give a fair compensation to victims of nuclear accidents as it is recommended by IAEA. On the other hand the European Commission has launched a consultation to see the necessity or not to harmonize all the civil liability regimes valid throughout Europe. According to the Commission the potential victims of nuclear accidents would not receive equal treatment at the European scale in terms of insurance cover and compensation which might distort competition in the nuclear sector. (A.C.)

  3. The nature of reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domaratzki, Z.; Campbell, F.R.; Atchison, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Reactor accidents are events which result in the release of radioactive material from a nuclear power plant due to the failure of one or more critical components of that plant. The failures, depending on their number and type, can result in releases whose consequences range from negligible to catastrophic. By way of examples, this paper describes four specific accidents which cover this range of consequence: failure of a reactor control system, loss of coolant, loss of coolant with impaired containment, and reactor core meltdown. For each a possible sequence of events and an estimate of the expected frequency are presented

  4. Computerized accident management support system: development for severe accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, V.; Saiz, J.; Gomez, C.

    1998-01-01

    The activities involved in the international Halden Reactor Project (HRP), sponsored by the OECD, include the development of a Computerized Accident Management Support System (CAMS). The system was initially designed for its operation under normal conditions, operational transients and non severe accidents. Its purpose is to detect the plant status, analyzing the future evolution of the sequence (initially using the APROS simulation code) and the possible recovery and mitigation actions in case of an accident occurs. In order to widen the scope of CAMS to severe accident management issues, the integration of the MAAP code in the system has been proposed, as the contribution of the Spanish Electrical Sector to the project (with the coordination of DTN). To include this new capacity in CAMS is necessary to modify the system structure, including two new modules (Diagnosis and Adjustment). These modules are being developed currently for Pressurized Water Reactors and Boiling Water REactors, by the engineering of UNION FENOSA and IBERDROLA companies (respectively). This motion presents the characteristics of the new structure of the CAMS, as well as the general characteristics of the modules, developed by these companies in the framework of the Halden Reactor Project. (Author)

  5. [Diving accidents. Emergency treatment of serious diving accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, S; Lier, H; Wiese, S

    2004-11-01

    Decompression injuries are potentially life-threatening incidents mainly due to a rapid decline in ambient pressure. Decompression illness (DCI) results from the presence of gas bubbles in the blood and tissue. DCI may be classified as decompression sickness (DCS) generated from the liberation of gas bubbles following an oversaturation of tissues with inert gas and arterial gas embolism (AGE) mainly due to pulmonary barotrauma. People working under hyperbaric pressure, e.g. in a caisson for general construction under water, and scuba divers are exposed to certain risks. Diving accidents can be fatal and are often characterized by organ dysfunction, especially neurological deficits. They have become comparatively rare among professional divers and workers. However, since recreational scuba diving is gaining more and more popularity there is an increasing likelihood of severe diving accidents. Thus, emergency staff working close to areas with a high scuba diving activity, e.g. lakes or rivers, may be called more frequently to a scuba diving accident. The correct and professional emergency treatment on site, especially the immediate and continuous administration of normobaric oxygen, is decisive for the outcome of the accident victim. The definitive treatment includes rapid recompression with hyperbaric oxygen. The value of adjunctive medication, however, remains controversial.

  6. The effect of road characteristics on motorcycle accident in Batu east Java Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusini, Sobri

    2013-09-01

    Safe of transportation on road is global problem with not only transportation problem, but also social teritory problem in sosial life. WHO pay attention to safe transportation on road to decide healthy day in the world 2004 with caption: Road Safety is no Accident. WHO is clariafy that road accident level in the world have to reach 1.2 mellion victim death and over 30 mellion injuries every year. As much 85% sacrifice death are accident in develop state, where vehicle number only 32% from vehicle number in the world. That becouse as the objective is to decide influence road charakteristics geometrics for motorcycle accident in Batu East Java Indonesia. Using some statistical analysis it is found that the best-fit motorcycle accident model is: Acc = 0,009F0,703exp(-0,334SW-0,361G+0.077S) Where: Acc = number of accident, F = Flow, pcu/hr, SW = shoulder width (m), S = speed, km/hr, G = Gradient (0,1) The model shows that the affecting factors are flow, shoulder width and speed, therefore local government should improve some related factor (flow, shoulder width, Gradient and speed) that can reduce the number of motorcycle accident at crossing road in Batu.

  7. Ten years after the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, E.; Moberg, L.; Brasch, A.; Bengtsson, Aa.; Johansson, J.Aa.; Holmgren, S.

    1996-01-01

    About 5 percent of the total amount of cesium released from the Chernobyl reactor accident deposited in Sweden. The middle part of Sweden received the highest fallout. During the first period after the accident, cows in these areas were not allowed to graze. Due to the time of the year there were very few problems with cultivated crops, even during the first summer. Game, reindeer, fresh water fish, wild berries and mushrooms, however, were contaminated to a great extent and still after 10 years high concentrations of 137 Cs can be found in these animals and in mushrooms, but to a lesser extent in wild berries. Intensive controls of the Cs content are still being carried out in reindeer at the time of slaughtering. During the last few years, hand instruments for estimation of the Cs content of live animals (reindeer mostly) has been available. This makes it possible to slaughter only animals estimated to have levels of Cs below the limit value. When offered for sale, the limit value for 137 Cs is 300 Bq/kg for the 'basic foodstuffs' and for meat from game, reindeer, fresh water fish, nuts, wild berries and mushrooms 1500 Bq/kg. High levels of 137 Cs will be found in reindeer and fresh water fish from some areas for many years in the future. 8 refs, 11 figs

  8. Accident consequence assessment and siting criteria development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollas, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    The methodology developed is based on assessing the average over a large spectrum of meteorological conditions whole body collective dose resulting from a severe reference accident. The assessment of this dose is performed by code CRAC.GAEC, the Greek A.E.C. version of code CRAC2. The collective dose, which is chosen as a measure of the social radiation risk, is compared to the dose corresponding to a level of social risk encountered historically in energy production as a whole. The outcome of the comparison can be the determination of one or more sectors of acceptable sites for a set of specific conditions considered, such as the reactor characteristics. The present approach was aimed to deal with the problems stemming from the demographic idiomorphy of Greece, where one third of the country's population is concentrated in Athens, with the rest of the country exhibiting small population densities. One of the applications of the methodology developed concerned the identification of acceptable sites near Athens. For these sites the risk from the reference severe accident of a standard reactor to the over three millions inhabitants of Athens is less tan the risk corresponding to the same population that is due to energy production

  9. The mental care after a radioactive accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minoshita, Seiko

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge which will be useful for the care of future contamination was summarized on the basis of the investigation after a JCO criticality accident, experiences of a resident care, and literature researches. After a contamination accident, the same reaction at the time of a natural disaster as well as a different reaction may occur. Furthermore, in addition to the feature of a large-scale man-caused disaster, it has the feature of invisible contamination, and the feature of a radiation incident added to it. As to the invisible contamination, the feature of uneasiness which spreads spatially, in time, and mentally is remarkable, and the distrust in information further raises the uneasiness. The features after a radiation incidence include a reckless run of complication on larger areas, long-term effect, fear of ill effects on hormone and genes, vulnerability of children and prenatal babies to radioactivity, disagreements in specialists' views, difficulties in measuring radioactive contamination, harmful rumors, complications of information, and reckless feedback cognition of coping behaviors. The care after radioactive disasters was divided into the collective care for information addressers and residents, and the individual care. The males of their prime were also considered to be a risk-factor which is common to a leader, and the aged victims contribute another high risk problem. (author)

  10. Medical basis for radiation accident preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, K.F.; Fry, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    The International Conference on The Medical Basis for Radiation Accident Preparedness was organized by the staff of the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) of the Medical and Health Sciences Division of Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU). The philosophical importance of relating, through investigation and education, the intellectual resources of higher education to the important social problems associated with energy, health, and the environment was the foundation of the meeting. The symposium, held under the auspices of the US Department of Energy, was the ninth since 1960 of a series of international conferences addressing the various aspects of radiation accidents. The approach of this most recent conference differed somewhat from that of those preceding it, in that it sought an international review of the gamut of the medical aspects of radiation injury, not only for the experts in the field, but also for other physicians and scientists who, in view of current events, have had the need to know thrust upon them. Individual entries were made for the separate papers

  11. Features of the traffic accidents happened in the province of Aydın between 2005 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirlik, Musa; Bostancıoğlu, Başak Çakır; Elbek, Tülay; Korkmaz, Bedir; Çallak Kallem, Füsun; Gün, Berk

    2014-09-01

    In this study, it was aimed to analyze the traffic accidents with postmortem examinations and autopsies. From the one thousand eight hundred and fifteen forensic autopsies, reports of 334 traffic accidents were searched. Features such as the scene of the accident, type of the accident, type of the vehicles involved in the accident, the year, season, day and hour of the accident, the positions of the victims in the traffic, concomitant orthopedic injuries, whether autopsy was performed, and cause of death were investigated. Among the one thousand eight hundred and fifteen forensic death cases, observed cause of death was determined to be traffic accidents in 334 (18.4%) cases. Male cases accounted 84.1%, and male to female ratio was 5.3 to 1. From the reports, 32.6% of the accidents happened in summer and most commonly during holidays (33%). The rate of the accidents happened in the city center was 35.3% and 32.9% of these cases died due to pedestrian collision. Moreover, it was determined that the most injured person was the driver. Automobiles took the lead in the causes of the traffic accidents. It is realized that traffic accident-related deaths have a substantial place among forensic deaths and continue to be an important public health problem. It is conspicuous that improving public education on traffic safety, increasing traffic management and control measures are of great significance.

  12. URBAN TRAFFIC ACCIDENT ANALYSIS BY USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem SAPLIOĞLU

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, traffic accidents that cause more social and economic losses than that of natural disasters,have become a national problem in Turkey. To solve this problem and to reduce the casualties, road safety programs are tried to be developed. It is necessary to develop the most effective measures with low investment cost due to limited budgets allocated to such road safety programs. The most important program is to determine dangerous locations of traffic accidents and to improve these sections from the road safety view point. New Technologies are driving a cycle of continuous improvement that causes rapid changes in the traffic engineering and any engineering services within it. It is obvious that this developed services will be the potential for forward-thinking engineering studies to take a more influence role. In this study, Geographic Information System (GIS was used to identify the hazardous locations of traffic accidents in Isparta. Isparta city map was digitized by using Arcinfo 7.21. Traffic accident reports occurred between 1998-2002 were obtained from Directory of Isparta Traffic Region and had been used to form the database. Topology was set up by using Crash Diagrams and Geographic Position Reference Systems. Tables are formed according to the obtained results and interpreted.

  13. Report from the Special Committee on Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Mamoru

    2012-01-01

    The Special Committee on Fukushima Nuclear Accident was established in April 2011 under the Heat Transfer Society of Japan (HTSJ) and discussed (1) how had evolved heat transfer research in progress of nuclear technology, (2) role of expert group in the area of heat transfer academy and technology and (3) energy prospect in Japan after the Fukushima nuclear accident. This report was described by the chairman of the special committee summarizing one year discussions as (1) background of heat transfer research progress, (2) progression of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, (3) energy problem in Japan after the Fukushima accident and (4) social role of the HTSJ. This HTSJ was a unique, nonprofit association in Japan of the people engaged in heat transfers research or in various engineering aspects related to heat transfer, which meant interdisciplinary or common platform of heat transfer as elementary technologies. Such actual complex problems could be discussed in the HTSJ from an overlooking viewpoint in order for the HTSJ to play a social role. (T. Tanaka)

  14. Opportunities for international cooperation in nuclear accident preparedness and management: Procedural and organizational measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathrop, J.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we address a difficult problem: How can we create and maintain preparedness for nuclear accidents? Our research has shown that this can be broken down into two questions: (1) How can we maintain the resources and expertise necessary to manage an accident once it occurs? and (2) How can we develop plans that will help in actually managing an accident once it occurs? It is apparently beyond the means of ordinary human organizations to maintain the capability to respond to a rare event. (A rare event is defined as something like an accident that only happens once every five years or so, somewhere in the world.) Other more immediate pressures tend to capture the resources that should, in a cost/benefit sense, be devoted to maintaining the capability. This paper demonstrates that some of the important factors behind that phenomenon can be mitigated by an international body that promotes and enforces preparedness. Therefore this problem provides a unique opportunity for international cooperation: an international organization promoting and enforcing preparedness could help save us from our own organizational failings. Developing useful accident management plans can be viewed as a human performance problem. It can be restated: how can we support and off-load the accident managers so that their tasks are more feasible? This question reveals the decision analytic perspective of this paper. That is, we look at the problem managing a nuclear accident by focusing on the decision makers, the accident managers: how do we create a decision frame for the accident managers to best help them manage? The decision frame is outlined and discussed. 9 refs

  15. Mathematical simulation in problems on Chernobyl accident consequence mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batij, V.G.; Kochnev, N.A.; Kuz'menko, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    Computer programmes were created for determination of fuel concentration in fuel containing masses, unhomogenities in their distribution and for modeling contamination of soils. Basing on gamma-spectra important information was obtained which will be used for decontamination works

  16. Traffic Accidents And Destiny Relation -In Contex Prayers, Cha-rity And Resignation-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman ORAL

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There are established rules to avoid traffic Chaos. Failure to do so may result in traffic accidents which are sad events. God tied everything in this world to some reasons. Even though the humans fulfill these reasons, God creates them in accordance with the free will of the person. This is a divine law, that is, fate. Are traffic accidents fate? How much do our will and precautions affect this? With prayer and charity, can we prevent accidents that could happen to us? Do people die in traffic accidents because their life-spans expired? Such questions in people's minds may be a problem. This article will offer solutions to the discussions concerning traffic accidents and fate, within the fra-mework of Islamic theology and creed.

  17. An Evidential Reasoning-Based CREAM to Human Reliability Analysis in Maritime Accident Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Yan, Xinping; Wang, Yang; Soares, C Guedes

    2017-10-01

    This article proposes a modified cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) for estimating the human error probability in the maritime accident process on the basis of an evidential reasoning approach. This modified CREAM is developed to precisely quantify the linguistic variables of the common performance conditions and to overcome the problem of ignoring the uncertainty caused by incomplete information in the existing CREAM models. Moreover, this article views maritime accident development from the sequential perspective, where a scenario- and barrier-based framework is proposed to describe the maritime accident process. This evidential reasoning-based CREAM approach together with the proposed accident development framework are applied to human reliability analysis of a ship capsizing accident. It will facilitate subjective human reliability analysis in different engineering systems where uncertainty exists in practice. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. The effect of Chernobyl accident on the development of non malignant diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zonenberg, A.; Leoniak, M.; Zarzycki, W.

    2006-01-01

    The early medical complications of Chernobyl accident include post radiation disease, which were diagnosed in 134 subjects affected by ionizing radiation. 28 persons died during the first 100 days after the event. The increase occurrence of coronary heart disease, endocrine, haematological, dermatological and other diseases were observed after disaster in the contaminated territories. We also discussed the impact of ionizing radiation from Chernobyl accident on pregnancy and congenital defects occurrence. Changes following the Chernobyl accident, as the inhabitants migration from contaminated regions, political and economic conversions, led to depression, anxiety, and even to '' epidemic '' of mental diseases. Increased suicide rate, car accidents, alcohol and drug abuse have been observed in this population. Nowadays vegetative neurosis is more often diagnosed in Ukrainian children. Epidemiological studies were conducted on the ionising radiation effect on the health and on the dose of received radiation after Chernobyl accident face numerous problems as the absence of reliable data regarding diseases in the contaminated territories.(authors)

  19. How to reduce the number of accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Among the safety objectives that the Director-General has established for CERN in 2012 is a reduction in the number of workplace accidents.   The best way to prevent workplace accidents is to learn from experience. This is why any accident, fire, instance of pollution, or even a near-miss, should be reported using the EDH form that can be found here. All accident reports are followed up. The departments investigate all accidents that result in sick leave, as well as all the more common categories of accidents at CERN, essentially falls (slipping, falling on stairs, etc.), regardless of whether or not they lead to sick leave. By studying the accident causes that come to light in this way, it is possible to take preventive action to avoid such accidents in the future. If you have any questions, the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. HSE Unit

  20. Pedestrian injury causation study (pedestrian accident typing)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    A new computerized pedestrian accident typing procedure was tested on 1,997 cases from the Pedestrian Injury Causation Study (PICS). Two coding procedures were used to determine the effects of quantity and quality of information on accident typing ac...

  1. Lessons of the radiological accident in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, R.N.; Xavier, A.M.; Heilbron, P.F.L.

    1998-01-01

    On the basis of the lessons teamed from the radiological accident of Goiania, actions are described which a nuclear regulatory body should undertake while responding to an accident of this nature. (author)

  2. Socioeconomic consequences of nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawil, J.J.; Callaway, J.W.; Coles, B.L.; Cronin, F.J.; Currie, J.W.; Imhoff, K.L.; Lewis, P.M.; Nesse, R.J.; Strenge, D.L.

    1984-06-01

    This report identifies and characterizes the off-site socioeconomic consequences that would likely result from a severe radiological accident at a nuclear power plant. The types of impacts that are addressed include economic impacts, health impacts, social/psychological impacts and institutional impacts. These impacts are identified for each of several phases of a reactor accident - from the warning phase through the post-resettlement phase. The relative importance of the impact during each accident phase and the degree to which the impact can be predicted are indicated. The report also examines the methods that are currently used for assessing nuclear reactor accidents, including development of accident scenarios and the estimating of socioeconomic accident consequences with various models. Finally, a critical evaluation is made regarding the use of impact analyses in estimating the contribution of socioeconomic consequences to nuclear accident reactor accident risk. 116 references, 7 figures, 15 tables

  3. Trucks involved in fatal accidents factbook 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This document presents aggregate statistics on trucks involved in traffic accidents in 2008. The : statistics are derived from the Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Instit...

  4. Buses involved in fatal accidents factbook 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This document presents aggregate statistics on buses involved in traffic accidents in 2007. The : statistics are derived from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Institut...

  5. Trucks involved in fatal accidents factbook 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This document presents aggregate statistics on trucks involved in traffic accidents in 2007. The : statistics are derived from the Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Instit...

  6. Road Accident Trends in Africa and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N O

    1997-01-01

    The paper decribes trends and suggests prediction models for accident risks in African and European countries......The paper decribes trends and suggests prediction models for accident risks in African and European countries...

  7. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.

    1990-10-01

    A collection of three papers about the fallout in Austria from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident is given: 1. An overview of the research projects in Austria; 2. On the transfer into and uptake by crops and animal fodder; 3. On the reduction of cesium concentration in food. 18 tabs., 21 figs., 69 refs

  8. Probabilistic studies of accident sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villemeur, A.; Berger, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    For several years, Electricite de France has carried out probabilistic assessment of accident sequences for nuclear power plants. In the framework of this program many methods were developed. As the interest in these studies was increasing and as adapted methods were developed, Electricite de France has undertaken a probabilistic safety assessment of a nuclear power plant [fr

  9. The Physics of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Shows how physics can be used to analyze and prevent traffic accidents by determining critical speeds on curves, the behavior of motor cycles and stability of articulated vehicles, and the visibility that is needed to make a minor road junction safe. (MLH)

  10. CINETHICA - Core accident analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, H.

    1989-10-01

    A computer program for nuclear accident analysis has been developed based on the point-kinetics approximation and one-dimensional heat transfer model for reactivity feedback calculation. Hansen's method/1/ were used for the kinetics equation solution and explicit Euler method were adopted for the thermohidraulic equations. The results were favorably compared to those from the GAPOTKIN Code/2/. (author) [pt

  11. Accident consequence assessment code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, T.; Togawa, O.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the new computer code system, OSCAAR developed for off-site consequence assessment of a potential nuclear accident. OSCAAR consists of several modules which have modeling capabilities in atmospheric transport, foodchain transport, dosimetry, emergency response and radiological health effects. The major modules of the consequence assessment code are described, highlighting the validation and verification of the models. (author)

  12. Reactor accidents of four decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, Z.

    1982-11-01

    The report covers the period between 1942 and June 30, 1982. A detailed description and a comparative analysis of reactor accidents and chemical-processing-plant excursions are presented. The analysis takes into account the following points: causes (design, maintenance, operation); events (initiating event and sequence of events); consequences (environmental impacts, personnel effects and equipment damages). (author)

  13. Crime, accidents and social control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junger, Marianne; Terlouw, Gert-Jan; van der Heijden, Peter G.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses to questions. (1) Is there a demonstrable relation between accidents and crime, does this relation hold for each type of crime and each means of transport, and does it subsist after controlling for age and gender? (2) Can social control theory explain involvements in both

  14. Accident considerations in LMFBR design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, D.E.; Alter, H.; Fauske, H.K.; Hikido, K.; Keaten, R.W.; Stevenson, M.G.; Strawbridge, L.

    1975-12-01

    LMFBR safety design criteria are discussed from the standpoints of accident severity classification and damage criteria, and the following design events are considered: fuel failure propagation, reactivity addition faults, heat transport system events, steam generator faults, sodium spills, fuel handling and storage faults, and external events

  15. New technology for accident prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byne, P. [Shiftwork Solutions, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This power point presentation examined the effects of fatigue in the workplace and presented 3 technologies designed to prevent or monitor fatigue. The relationship between mental fatigue, circadian rhythms and cognitive performance was explored. Details of vigilance related degradations in the workplace were presented, as well as data on fatigue-related accidents and a time-line of meter-reading errors. It was noted that the direct cause of the Exxon Valdez disaster was sleep deprivation. Fatigue related accidents during the Gulf War were reviewed. The effects of fatigue on workplace performance include impaired logical reasoning and decision-making; impaired vigilance and attention; slowed mental operations; loss of situational awareness; slowed reaction time; and short cuts and lapses in optional or self-paced behaviours. New technologies to prevent fatigue-related accidents include (1) the driver fatigue monitor, an infra-red camera and computer that tracks a driver's slow eye-lid closures to prevent fatigue related accidents; (2) a fatigue avoidance scheduling tool (FAST) which collects actigraphs of sleep activity; and (3) SAFTE, a sleep, activity, fatigue and effectiveness model. refs., tabs., figs.

  16. The radiological accident in Istanbul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The use of radioactive materials offers a wide range of benefits throughout the world in medicine, research and industry. Precautions are, however, necessary in order to limit the exposure of persons to the radiation that is emitted. Where the amount of radioactive material is substantial, as in the case of radiotherapy sources or industrial radiography sources, extreme care is necessary to prevent accidents which may have severe consequences. Nevertheless, in spite of the precautions taken, accidents with radiation sources continue to occur, albeit infrequently. As part of its subprogramme on the safety of radiation sources, the IAEA conducts follow-up reviews of such serious accidents to give an account of their circumstances and of the medical aspects, from which organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection and the safety of sources may learn. A serious radiological accident occurred in Istanbul, Turkey, in December 1998 and January 1999 when two packages used to transport 60 Co teletherapy sources were sold as scrap metal. The persons who purchased the two packages opened them and broke open the shielded containers, thereby unknowingly exposing themselves and several others to radiation from at least one unshielded 60 Co source. The persons who dismantled the containers suffered from acute radiation syndrome. The accident came to the attention of the relevant national authority when a doctor who had examined the victims reported that he suspected the possibility of radiation exposure. The national authorities identified other individuals who might have undergone acute radiation exposures, and a total of 18 persons (including seven children) were admitted to hospital. Of these, ten adults exhibited clinical signs and symptoms of acute radiation exposure. Under the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, the Turkish authorities requested assistance from the IAEA in terms of advice on the medical

  17. Did liberalising bar hours decrease traffic accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Colin P; Heywood, John S; Navarro, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Legal bar closing times in England and Wales have historically been early and uniform. Recent legislation liberalised closing times with the object of reducing social problems thought associated with drinking to "beat the clock." Indeed, using both difference in difference and synthetic control approaches we show that one consequence of this liberalisation was a decrease in traffic accidents. This decrease is heavily concentrated among younger drivers. Moreover, we provide evidence that the effect was most pronounced in the hours of the week directly affected by the liberalisation: late nights and early mornings on weekends. This evidence survives a series of robustness checks and suggests at least one socially positive consequence of extending bar hours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Emergency room management of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, R.; Mettler, F.A. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Emergency room management of radioactively contaminated patients who have an associated medical injury requiring immediate attention must be handled with care. Radioactive contamination of the skin of a worker is not a medical emergency and is usually dealt with at the plant. Effective preplanning and on-the-scene triage will allow the seriously injured and contaminated patients to get the medical care they need with a minimum of confusion and interference. Immediate medical and surgical priorities always take precedence over radiation injuries and radioactive contamination. Probably the most difficult aspect of emergency management is the rarity of such accidents and hence the unfamiliarity of the medical staff with the appropriate procedures. The authors discuss how the answer to these problems is preplanning, having a simple and workable procedure and finally having 24-h access to experts

  19. The Monju accident. Causes and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marth, W.

    1996-01-01

    On December 8, 1995, the Japanese prototype fast breeder reactor, Monju, suffered an accident which aroused considerable national and international attention. A thermocouple in a pipe carrying sodium in the secondary plant system had broken, causing some 700 kg of non-radioactive sodium to be spilled. The safety of the reactor, of the plant crew, and of the environment was not jeopardized. However, as a consequence of some badly handled public relations, rather negative reactions of the public authorities and of the public at large were encountered. One member of the investigating committee, facing a conflict of loyalities not uncommon in Japan, even committed suicide. According to current estimates, Monju will be down for at least two years, thus causing major financial problems to the operator, PNC. On the political level, more difficulties are expected to arise in the introduction of plutonium recycling. (orig.) [de

  20. Trismus: An unusual presentation following road accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Jagdeep

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Trismus due to trauma usually follows road accidents leading to massive faciomaxillary injury. In the literature there is no report of a foreign body causing trismus following a road accident, this rare case is an exception. We present a case of isolated presentation of trismus following a road accident. This case report stresses on the thorough evaluation of patients presenting with trismus following a road accident.

  1. Assessment of Mobile Accident Response Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    This report presents the results of a DOE-sponsored assessment of nuclear accident response resources. It identifies the mobile resources that could be required to respond to different types of nuclear accidents including major ones like TMI-2, identifies the resources currently available and makes recommendations for the design and construction of additional mobile accident response resources to supplement those already in existence. This project is referred to as the Mobile Accident Response Capability (MARC) program

  2. Feedback from practical experience with large sodium fire accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luster, V.P.; Freudenstein, K.F.

    1996-01-01

    contact with the concrete floor and walls. Sodium concrete reactions and concrete destruction were the consequence. The Almeria accident had previously drawn attention to the potential problem of Na aerosol release into the environment. As consequence the local environment protection group took samples of the air around the Bensberg facility during the accident. No noxious fall out has been found although post accident analyses have shown that the amount of released aerosols was about 1000 kg. The accident confirmed also that severe damage was limited to the immediate fire zone. Neither the Almeria spray fire accident nor the ILONA sodium concrete reactions would have endangered the nuclear safety if they would have occurred at a reactor plant (not speaking of investment losses). The ILONA building was cleaned. After repair the building was ready for another use. (author)

  3. The radiological accident in Lilo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The use of radioactive materials offers a wide range of benefits throughout the world in medicine, research and industry. Precautions are, however, necessary in order to limit the exposure of persons to the radiation that is emitted. Where the amount of radioactive material is substantial, such as with sources used in radiotherapy or industrial radiography, extreme care is necessary to prevent accidents that may result in severe consequences for the affected individuals. Nevertheless, in spite of the precautions taken, accidents with radiation sources continue to occur, albeit infrequently. As part of its activities dealing with the safety of radiation sources, the IAEA follows up severe accidents with a view to providing an account of their circumstances and the medical aspects from which those organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection and the safety of sources may learn. A serious radiological accident occurred in Peru in February 1999 when a welder picked up an 192 Ir industrial radiography source and put it in his pocket for several hours. This resulted in his receiving a high radiation dose that necessitated the amputation of one leg. His wife and children were also exposed, but to a much lesser extent. The Peruvian authorities requested assistance from the IAEA in obtaining advice on medical treatment. They also agreed to assist the IAEA with the subsequent review of the circumstances surrounding the accident. The IAEA is grateful to the Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear for its willingness to assist in the reparation of this report and, thereby, share its experience with other Member States

  4. Planning for large-scale accidents: learning from the Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Decision-making issues raised at the Three Mile Island nuclear accident in Pennsylvania are explored. The organizations involved, their interconnections, and decisions are described. The underlying issues bearing on allocation of effort to pre-accident planning and actual accident responses are also noted. Finally, a framework from this effort is used for guiding the planning of operations for future accidents. (author)

  5. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures

  6. Use of PSA to support accident management at NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cobo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following: Overview of PSA level 2; Introduction: Framework; Accident Progression Phenomena in the Confinement/containment; Severe Accident Sequences; Examples; Results and Insights. Accident Management: Concepts; Process; Use of PSA to support Accident; Management

  7. Simulation of a loss of coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    An essential component of nuclear safety activities is the analysis of postulated accidents which are taken as a design basis for a facility. This analysis is usually carried out by using complex computer codes to simulate the behaviour of the plant and to calculate vital plant parameters, which are then compared with the design limits. Since these simulations cannot be verified at the plant itself, computer codes must be validated by comparing the results of calculations with experimental data obtained in test facilities. With this objective in mind, the Central Research Institute for Physics (CRIP) of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences designed and constructed the PMK-NVH (Paks Model Circuit) test facility, a scaled down model of the WWER-440 Paks nuclear power plant. Hungary with the aim of strengthening the international co-operation on nuclear safety, made the PMK-NVH facility available to the IAEA to conduct a standard problem exercise. In this exercise, experimental data from the simulation of a 7.4% break loss of coolant accident were compared with analytical predictions of the behaviour of the facility calculated with computer codes. This document presents a complete overview of the Standard Problem Exercise, including description of the facility, the experiment, the codes and models used by the participants and a detailed intercomparison of calculated and experimental results. It is recognized that code assessment is a long process which involves many inter-related steps, therefore, no general conclusion on optimum code or best model was reached. However, the exercise was recognized as an important contributor to code validation

  8. Intersection layout, traffic volumes and accidents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the accident research carried out as a part of a large project started in 1983. For this accident research an inventory was made of a large number of intersections.Recorded were layout features, accident data and estimates of traffic volumes. Attention will be given to the

  9. Nuclear accidents. Three mile Island (United States)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the accident of Three Miles Island power plant which occurred the 28 march 1979 in the United States. The accident scenario, the consequences and the reactor core and vessel, after the accident, are analyzed. (A.L.B.)

  10. Report about the radiological accident in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrimer, H.P.; Gomes, C.A.; Recio, J.C.A.

    1997-01-01

    This work reports the activities developed by the technical groups who worked during the radiological accident in Goiania, held on September 1997. Several aspects of the accident are described. The final solution for the disposal of the radioactive wastes generated during the accident is presented, according to the Brazilian waste management policy. (author)

  11. School Bus Accidents and Driver Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Judith

    The study examines the rates and types of school bus accidents according to the age of the school bus driver. Accident rates in North Carolina for the school year 1971-72 were analyzed using three sources of data: accident reports, driver and mileage data, and questionnaires administered to a sample of school bus drivers. Data were obtained on…

  12. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.513 Accident... solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the clause at FAR 52.236-13, Accident Prevention. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836...

  13. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.513 Accident prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, in... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36...

  14. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13...

  15. Accidents in chemical industry: are they foreseeable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnemans, P.J.M.; Körvers, P.M.W.

    2006-01-01

    Accidents recur,’ which is what Kletz [Kletz T. (1993). Lessons from disasters, how organisations have no memory and accidents recur. UK: Institution of Chemical Engineers] wrote in 1993. Indeed, despite all measures taken accidents may re-occur, but ‘disruptions’ in a process reoccur much more

  16. Epidemiology o.f· Traffic Accidents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accidents. An analysis of some 2 100 fatal traffic accidents gave the following results: males-79%; females-21%; a ratio of 4: 1. The high proportion of males to females killed in traffic accidents may be due to the fact that (a) more males commute daily in private and commercial vehicles;. (b) more females commute daily in ...

  17. Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korol, N.; Shibata, Yoshisada; Nakane, Yoshibumi

    1998-01-01

    Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

  18. Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korol, N. [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine); Shibata, Yoshisada; Nakane, Yoshibumi

    1998-12-01

    Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

  19. A review of accidents, prevention and mitigation options related to hazardous gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fthenakis, V.M.

    1993-05-01

    Statistics on industrial accidents are incomplete due to lack of specific criteria on what constitutes a release or accident. In this country, most major industrial accidents were related to explosions and fires of flammable materials, not to releases of chemicals into the environment. The EPA in a study of 6,928 accidental releases of toxic chemicals revealed that accidents at stationary facilities accounted for 75% of the total number of releases, and transportation accidents for the other 25%. About 7% of all reported accidents (468 cases) resulted in 138 deaths and 4,717 injuries ranging from temporary respiratory problems to critical injuries. In-plant accidents accounted for 65% of the casualties. The most efficient strategy to reduce hazards is to choose technologies which do not require the use of large quantities of hazardous gases. For new technologies this approach can be implemented early in development, before large financial resources and efforts are committed to specific options. Once specific materials and options have been selected, strategies to prevent accident initiating events need to be evaluated and implemented. The next step is to implement safety options which suppress a hazard when an accident initiating event occurs. Releases can be prevented or reduced with fail-safe equipment and valves, adequate warning systems and controls to reduce and interrupt gas leakage. If an accident occurs and safety systems fail to contain a hazardous gas release, then engineering control systems will be relied on to reduce/minimize environmental releases. As a final defensive barrier, the prevention of human exposure is needed if a hazardous gas is released, in spite of previous strategies. Prevention of consequences forms the final defensive barrier. Medical facilities close by that can accommodate victims of the worst accident can reduce the consequences of personnel exposure to hazardous gases

  20. Road accidents caused by sleepy drivers: Update of a Norwegian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Ross Owen; Sagberg, Fridulv

    2013-01-01

    The current study tests, updates and expands a model of factors associated with sleepy driving, originally based on a 1997 survey of accident-involved Norwegian drivers (Sagberg, F., 1999. Road accidents caused by drivers falling asleep. Accident Analysis & Prevention 31, 639-649). The aim is to establish a robust model to inform measures to tackle sleepy driving. The original questions on (i) tiredness-related accidents and (ii) incidents of sleep behind the wheel in the last 12 months were again posed in 2003 and 2008, in independent surveys of Norwegian drivers involved in accidents reported to a large insurance company. According to those drivers at-fault for the accident, tiredness or sleepiness behind the wheel contributed to between 1.9 and 3.9 per cent of all types of accident reported to the insurance company across these years. Accident-involved drivers not at fault for the accident reported a reduction in the incidence of sleep behind the wheel for the preceding year, decreasing from 8.3 per cent in 1997 to 2.9 per cent in 2008. The reasons for this are not clear. According to logistic regression analysis of survey responses, the following factors were robustly associated with road accidents involving sleepy driving: driving off the road; good road conditions; longer distance driven since the start of the trip; and fewer years with a driving licence. The following factors are consistently associated with reports of sleep behind the wheel, whether or not it leads to an accident: being male; driving further per year; being younger; and having sleep-related health problems. Taken together these findings suggest that young, inexperienced male drivers who drive long distances may be a suitable target for road safety campaigns aimed at tackling sleepy driving. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.