WorldWideScience

Sample records for accidental radiation exposures

  1. The accidental exposure to ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is divided in three parts, the first one gives the radioactivity sources, the doses and the effects, the second part is devoted to the medical exposures, the third part concerns the accidents and the biological effects of an irradiation the different syndromes ( the acute whole-body irradiation syndrome, the localized irradiation syndrome, the inflammatory syndrome, hematopoietic syndrome,neuro-vascular syndrome) are detailed. (N.C.)

  2. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörr Harald

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  3. Nodular goiter after occupational accidental exposure to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarev, M.A. [Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Human Biochemistry, Uninversity of Buenos Aires, School of Medicine, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Schnitman, M. [Center of Endocrinology and Metabolism, French Hospital C.Milstein, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-07-01

    In the present paper we present the consequences of an accidental occupational radiation exposure at a local hospital in Buenos Aires. Control at a local radiology service showed the lack of correct shielding in the X-ray equipment. The physicians and technicians (14 persons) exposed to radiation during 12 months were examined. The survey shows that: a) In 11 out of 14 radiation-exposed patients nodular goiter developed and an additional patient had diffuse goiter which means a goiter incidence of 85.7%; b) In 5 of the nodular goiter patients an increase in the size or the appearance of new nodules was observed along the follow-up period. No cancer was detected by FNA; c) Hypothyroidism was observed in 3/14 patients, and an additional patient had an abnormal TRH-TSH test, suggesting subclinical hypothyroidism; and d) Increased circulating antithyroid antibodies were found in one of the hypothyroid patients

  4. Clinical study of lesions caused by accidental local exposure to ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last few years the radiopathology service of the Curie Foundation has admitted more than a hundred patients who were followed and treated for irradiation or suspected irradiation after a work accident. Accidents followed by clinical symptoms account for about half the cases examined. Some of these clinical signs were benign whereas others developed very seriously, all possible conditions between these two extremes being represented. This report neglects cases of high total exposure and deals only with those of partial irradiation where local symptoms predominate, usually at the distal extremities of the upper limbs and exceptionally at the root or distal extremity of the lower limbs. Six clinical cases were selected as particularly revealing and are discussed below: accidental exposure of both hands to an iridium-192 source; chronic exposure to X-rays (left hand and right lower half-lip); accidental exposure of the right hand and antero-external face of the right thigh to a iridium-192 source; acute accidental exposure of the left hand to X-rays emitted under 50 kV; accidental exposure of both hands to cobalt-60 radiation; radiolesions of the left lower limb following a critical power excursion (gamma rays and neutrons)

  5. Radiative accidental matter

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra, D Aristizabal; Wegman, D

    2016-01-01

    Accidental matter models are scenarios where the beyond-the-standard model physics preserves all the standard model accidental and approximate symmetries up to a cutoff scale related with lepton number violation. We study such scenarios assuming that the new physics plays an active role in neutrino mass generation, and show that this unavoidably leads to radiatively induced neutrino masses. We systematically classify all possible models and determine their viability by studying electroweak precision data, big bang nucleosynthesis and electroweak perturbativity, finding that the latter places the most stringent constraints on the mass spectra. These results allow the identification of minimal radiative accidental matter models for which perturbativity is lost at high scales. We calculate radiative charged-lepton flavor violating processes in these setups, and show that $\\mu\\to e \\gamma$ has a rate well within MEG sensitivity provided the lepton-number violating scale is at or below $10^6\\,$ GeV, a value (natur...

  6. Radiative accidental matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, D. Aristizabal; Simoes, C.; Wegman, D.

    2016-07-01

    Accidental matter models are scenarios where the beyond-the-standard model physics preserves all the standard model accidental and approximate symmetries up to a cutoff scale related with lepton number violation. We study such scenarios assuming that the new physics plays an active role in neutrino mass generation, and show that this unavoidably leads to radiatively induced neutrino masses. We systematically classify all possible models and determine their viability by studying electroweak precision data, big bang nucleosynthesis and electroweak perturbativity, finding that the latter places the most stringent constraints on the mass spectra. These results allow the identification of minimal radiative accidental matter models for which perturbativity is lost at high scales. We calculate radiative charged-lepton flavor violating processes in these setups, and show that μ → eγ has a rate well within MEG sensitivity provided the lepton-number violating scale is at or below 5×105 GeV, a value (naturally) assured by the radiative suppression mechanism. Sizeable τ → μγ branching fractions within SuperKEKB sensitivity are possible for lower lepton-number breaking scales. We thus point out that these scenarios can be tested not only in direct searches but also in lepton flavor-violating experiments.

  7. Current radiation exposure of man: a comparison between digital imaging and environmental, workplace and accidental radiation burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray imaging in diagnostic radiology is recognized worldwide as an outstanding tool for the early recognition and prevention of diseases. The reverse side is that radiography contributes essentially to the exposure of the public. Mean effective doses, averaged over patients and non-patients, are reaching or exceeding the level of natural radiation. This is particularly the case when digital imaging techniques are utilized, such as CT, coronary angiography and interventional radiology. Individual effective doses for a patient may occur between several mSv and several hundred mSv by one examination or a series of examinations, while individual organ doses of a patient may reach equivalent doses even up to several Sv, such as for the skin. The purpose of this review is to provide information on effective dose levels occurring in diagnostic radiology as compared with individual effective doses achieved from environmental radiation, radiation at workplaces and after major radiation incidents. (author)

  8. Personnel Dosimetry for Radiation Accidents. Proceedings of a Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidents involving the exposure of persons to high levels of radiation have been few in number and meticulous precautions are taken in an effort to maintain this good record. When, however, such an accident does occur, a timely estimate of the dose received can be of considerable help to the physician in deciding whether a particular person requires medical treatment, and in selecting the most appropriate treatment. Individual dosimetry provides the physical basis for relating the observed effects to those in other accident cases, to other human data, and to data from animal experiments, thus providing an important aid to rational treatment and to the accumulation of a meaningful body of knowledge on the subject. It is most important therefore that, where there is a possibility of receiving high-level exposure, methods of personnel dosimetry should be available that would provide the dosimetric information most useful to the physician. Provision of good personnel dosimetry for accidental high-level exposure is in many cases an essential part of emergency planning because the information provided may influence emergency and rescue operations, and can lead to improved accident preparedness. Accordingly, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization jointly organized the Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation for the discussion of such methods and for a critical review of the procedures adopted in some of the radiation accidents that have already occurred. The meeting was attended by 179 participants from 34 countries and from five other international organizations. The papers presented and the ensuing discussions are published in these Proceedings. It is hoped that the Proceedings will be of help to those concerned with the organization and development of wide-range personnel monitoring systems, and with the interpretation of the results provided

  9. Application of the Alkaline Comet Assay and the Analysis of Structural Chromosome Aberrations in Assessment of Genetic Damage After Accidental Exposure to Ionising Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Living with the effects of low-level ionising radiation is one of the normal hazards of life. However, the effects of lower doses may not show up for years after exposure and are due to various changes in DNA molecules and chromosomes. Radiation-induced mutations seem to be brought about by the deletion of small pieces of chromosomes during the process of chromosome breakage and repair. Since chromosome damage is most likely to happen in dividing cells, ionising radiation usually cause cancer in those parts of the body where cells are actively dividing. Ionising radiation kills rapidly dividing cells, blood lymphocytes among them. People are exposed to high doses of ionising radiation when radiation accidents occur. The cytogenetical consequences of accidental exposure to gamma-radiation (radiation dose 221 mSv) were investigated by using alkaline Comet assay and the analysis of structural chromosomal aberrations (CA). Blood samples were repeatedly collected during one-year period after the accident. By using the Comet assay immediately after accidental exposure a high level of DNA damage was recorded. Although this level was decreasing over a one-year period, it was still elevated compared to normal values of DNA damage for unexposed persons. Immediately after the accident prevalence of CA (dicentrics, acentrics) over chromatid aberrations was recorded. However, one year afterwards only a few chromatid breaks were recorded. Our results confirmed usefulness of the alkaline Comet assay as a simple and sensitive technique for the biomonitoring of DNA damages, especially in the cases of accidental exposure to ionising radiation. (author)

  10. The accidental exposure to ionizing radiations; L'exposition accidentelle aux rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This article is divided in three parts, the first one gives the radioactivity sources, the doses and the effects, the second part is devoted to the medical exposures, the third part concerns the accidents and the biological effects of an irradiation the different syndromes ( the acute whole-body irradiation syndrome, the localized irradiation syndrome, the inflammatory syndrome, hematopoietic syndrome,neuro-vascular syndrome) are detailed. (N.C.)

  11. Assessment of risks associated to ionizing radiations: lung cancers after domestic radon exposure and thyroid cancers after accidental exposure to radioactive iodines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to develop a critical analysis of quantitative risk assessment in the field of ionizing radiation and to provide new estimates of attributable risks for particular situations of environmental exposure to ionizing radiation. This work is based on knowledge about dose-response relationships and ionizing radiation exposure of the general population. The work focuses on two different situations that both present an important interest for public health: lung cancer associated with domestic radon exposures (natural situation) and thyroid cancer associated with the Chernobyl accident fallout (accidental situation). The assessment of lung cancer risk associated with domestic radon exposure considers 10 dose-response relationships resulting from miner cohorts and case-control studies in the general population. A critical review of available data on smoking habits has been performed and allowed to consider the interactions between radon and tobacco. The exposure data come from measurements campaigns carried out since the beginning of the 1980 by the Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety and the Health General Directory in France. The French lung cancer mortality data are provided by the I.N.S.E.R.M.. Estimates of the number of attributable cancers are carried out for the whole country, stratified by 8 large regions (Z.E.A.T.) and by 96 departments for the year 1999 allowing to perform a sensibility analysis according to the geographical level of calculation. Uncertainties associated to risk coefficients and exposures have been quantified and it's impact on risk estimates is calculated. The estimated number of deaths attributable to domestic radon exposure ranges from 543 (90% uncertainty interval (U.I.): 75-1,097) to 3,108 (90% U.I.: 2,996-3,221). The corresponding risk fractions range from 2.2% (90% U.I.: 0.3%-4.4%) to 12.4% (90% U.I.: 11.9%-12.8%). The assessment of thyroid cancer risk in the most exposed area of France due to the

  12. Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

    2012-07-01

    Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ≥100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies.

  13. Accidental over-exposure from dental X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of an unusual dental X-ray procedure which resulted in accidental over-exposure both to the dentist and to several of his patients when a short-circuit was present in newly-installed equipment. The short-circuit by-passed the exposure control and energized the tube for certain orientations of the X-ray tube. The dentist left the patients, who wore protective aprons, to initiate the exposure themselves, using the control button. Although the warning lights were on, the dentist was not present in the room during the exposure, and the over-exposures were only detected when the developed X-ray films were found to be completely blackened. A reconstruction of the procedure enabled estimates to be made of the dose equivalents to the dentist's body and to the skin of the head, the eyes and the gonads of the patients. The dentist had overlooked several of basic principles recommended in the Code of Practice for the Protection of Persons against Ionizing Radiations from Medical and Dental Use (1972). It is pointed out that incidents involving failure of dental equipment (usually the timer mechanism) are not infrequent. (U.K.)

  14. Optimizing bone surveys performed for suspected non-accidental trauma with attention to maximizing diagnostic yield while minimizing radiation exposure: utility of pelvic and lateral radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeletal surveys for non-accidental trauma (NAT) include lateral spinal and pelvic views, which have a significant radiation dose. To determine whether pelvic and lateral spinal radiographs should routinely be performed during initial bone surveys for suspected NAT. The radiology database was queried for the period May 2005 to May 2011 using CPT codes for skeletal surveys for suspected NAT. Studies performed for skeletal dysplasia and follow-up surveys were excluded. Initial skeletal surveys were reviewed to identify fractures present, including those identified only on lateral spinal and/or pelvic radiographs. Clinical information and MR imaging was reviewed for the single patient with vertebral compression deformities. Of the 530 children, 223 (42.1%) had rib and extremity fractures suspicious for NAT. No fractures were identified solely on pelvic radiographs. Only one child (<0.2%) had vertebral compression deformities identified on a lateral spinal radiograph. This infant had rib and extremity fractures and was clinically paraplegic. MR imaging confirmed the vertebral body fractures. Since no fractures were identified solely on pelvic radiographs and on lateral spinal radiographs in children without evidence of NAT, nor in nearly all with evidence of NAT, inclusion of these views in the initial evaluation of children for suspected NAT may not be warranted. (orig.)

  15. Learning From Biomarkers in Victims Accidentally Exposed to Ionizing Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Wang; Liqing Du; Chang Xu; Qin Wang; Zhiyi Song; Jianxiang Liu; Xu Su

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers,such as chromosome aberration and micronuclei assays,prove to be reliable for facilitating clinical diagnosis in radiation accidents.In a radiation accident in India,chromosomal aberration,γ-H2AX,as well as other blood markers,were detected in accidentally exposed victims.This multi-parametric approach aided in confirming that individuals had been exposed by ionizing radiation.However,doses were impossible to estimate because of a 30-day delay in accident awareness.Exposure dose for victims was estimated using a dose-response curve previously established.Dose estimation,blood cell depletion kinetics,and no appearance of prodromal symptoms suggested that doses of exposure were low.Hematologic investigation,sampling time,and chromosome aberration scoring were all proposed according to data from the victims exposed to 60Co.Finally,knowledge regarding chromosome aberration analysis and the importance of international co-operation and assistance should be shared from this accident.

  16. Quality control for handling of accidental blood exposures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, P.T. van; Pelk-Jongen, M.; Wijkmans, C.; Voss, A.; Schneeberger, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    A regional counselling service was established to handle all accidental blood exposures using a standardized protocol. Levels of risk were assessed using an algorithm. Accidents that posed a risk for the transmission of hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were

  17. Orofacial manifestations from accidental exposure to caesium 137 in Goiania, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, M A; Wascheck, C de C; Scully, C; Almeida, O de P; Bozzo, L

    1990-08-01

    The accidental close exposure of over 200 adults and children to a caesium-137 (137Cs) source in Goiania, Brazil in 1987 produced significant short-term morbidity in about 50 patients, and four deaths within a few weeks. Some 57% of those maximally exposed to radiation, developed orofacial lesions, notably purpura, spontaneous bleeding, ulcers and/or acute candidiasis. These lesions were probably mainly the consequences of depression of bone marrow elements by the radionuclide. Though the oral lesions that may follow iatrogenic exposure to ionizing radiation are well recognized this appears to be the first report on the oral sequelae of a serious radiation accident.

  18. Accidental exposures in radiotherapy: an history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy accidents are exceedingly rare. However, they may have major negative consequences: for health (and sometimes life) of victims as well as for the trust that patients put in radiotherapy and radiation oncolysis. Each accident must be pointed out, analysed and reported, in order to allow preventive actions, avoiding repetitive accidents. Through examples of majors accidents occurred all over the world in the last decades, affecting professionals, public or patients themselves, the necessity of transparency is demonstrated. The International Commission of Radiobiological Protection has drawn positive lessons from such accidents and insists on following recommendations: necessity of sufficient number and competent professionals, importance of continuous and initial education, information of professionals and, in general, a strict Quality Assurance program. It is clear that each radiotherapy center remains at risk for errors. It is essential to develop preventive procedures to avoid transformation of errors into accidents. In that context, complete and detailed description and reports of each anomaly or incident must be encouraged as it is done for sectors of aviation or nuclear industry. Radiation oncology must develop such a culture of transparency and of systematic report of all incident. (authors)

  19. Food allergy: practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life. PMID:27608473

  20. Food allergy: practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life.

  1. Use of ubiquitous materials for the estimation of accidental exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incidents involving unexpected radiation exposure do take place due to human error, equipment failure or other reasons in spite of regulatory systems being in place. Medical physicists who are also radiation safety officers (RSO) of their institutions in several countries, like India, have the responsibility of radiation protection of the staff, carers and comforters of the patients, visitors and public at large, apart from ensuring patient-specific treatment planning for accurate dose delivery, adoption of optimized practices, and minimization of chances of radiation accidents in radiation therapy, radio-diagnostic, and nuclear medicine practices. Theft and mishandling of 137Cs teletherapy source in 1987 in Goiania (Brazil) in which 28 people suffered radiation burns and five people (three men, one woman, and one child) died and several other incidents demonstrated that mishandling of a source from a place like hospital cannot be ruled out. In the recent times, especially after terrorist attack on World Trade Center, New York, USA (on September 11, 2001), apprehensions of radiation terrorism and other malevolent uses (Dirty Bomb) of radioactive materials have considerably increased all over the world. To meet the situation of any radiation accident (due to external sources or the hospital-based sources), preparedness for dosimetry of the exposed persons in the quickest possible way becomes important for the implementation of the necessary follow-up procedures

  2. Accidental blood exposures among medical residents in Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, O; Adam, J; Veyrie, N; Chousterman, B; Gaillard, R; Gregory, T; Yordanov, Y; Berveiller, P; Loulergue, P

    2011-03-01

    Accidental blood exposure (ABE) exposes healthcare workers, including medical residents, to the risk of occupational infection. We aimed to determine the characteristics of ABEs in residents with an anonymous self-reporting electronic questionnaire. A total of 350 residents (33% from surgical disciplines) entered this survey. One hundred and eighty-five residents (52%) reported at least one ABE during their residency (median, 2; range, 1-25), 53% of which occurred in operating theatres. Sixty-nine per cent of residents followed the current procedures for local disinfection. ABEs were notified to the hospital administration by 62% of residents, but only 51% of residents were referred to the occupational medicine department. The most frequently reported concerns following ABEs were human immunodeficiency virus (52%) and hepatitis C virus infection (39%). In 74% of cases, the serological status of the index patient was investigated. Only 54% of residents were aware of their hepatitis B surface antibody titres. Medical residents behaved inappropriately in 33% of cases in this survey. Further educational programmes should include residents, and not only senior healthcare workers, in order to improve individual behaviours.

  3. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service.

  4. Risk of potential radiation accidental situations at TESLA accelerator installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spasic Jokic, Vesna [TESLA Accelerator Installation, Lab. of Physics, VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia); Orlic, Milan [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Lab. of radioisotopes, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia); Djurovic, Branka [Military Medical Academy, Radiation Protection Dept., Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia)

    2006-07-01

    The main aim of this paper is to recognize some of the numerous risks of potential exposure and to quantify requirements and probability of failure of radiation protection system due to design event tree. Nature of design and construction of Tesla Accelerator Installation (T.A.I.) make possibility of potential exposure as a result of proven design and modification, trade off, human error as well as defense in depth. In the case of potential exposure human risk is the result of two random events: first, the occurrence of the event that causes the exposure, and the second, the appearance of a harmful effect. The highest doses during potential exposure at T.A.I. can be received at the entrance to primary beam space (V.I.N.C.Y. cyclotron vault) as well as in space with target for fluorine production, high energy experimental channels, proton therapy channel and channel for neutron researches. Expected values of prompt radiation equivalent dose rate in the cyclotron vault is considerably high, in order of 10 Sv/h. Serious problem deals with such large research installation is a number of workers, as visiting research workers of different educational levels and people in Institute who are not professionally connected with ionizing radiation. They could cause willing or unwilling opening of the cyclotron vault doors. Considering some possible scenarios we assumed that during 7000 working hours per year it is reasonably to expect 300 unsafe entries per year. It can be concluded that safety system should be designed so that probability of failure of radiation protection system has to be less than 1.9 10{sup -6}. (authors)

  5. Prenatal radiation exposure. Dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unborn child requires special protection. In this context, the indication for an X-ray examination is to be checked critically. If thereupon radiation of the lower abdomen including the uterus cannot be avoided, the examination should be postponed until the end of pregnancy or alternative examination techniques should be considered. Under certain circumstances, either accidental or in unavoidable cases after a thorough risk assessment, radiation exposure of the unborn may take place. In some of these cases an expert radiation hygiene consultation may be required. This consultation should comprise the expected risks for the unborn while not perturbing the mother or the involved medical staff. For the risk assessment in case of an in-utero X-ray exposition deterministic damages with a defined threshold dose are distinguished from stochastic damages without a definable threshold dose. The occurrence of deterministic damages depends on the dose and the developmental stage of the unborn at the time of radiation. To calculate the risks of an in-utero radiation exposure a three-stage concept is commonly applied. Depending on the amount of radiation, the radiation dose is either estimated, roughly calculated using standard tables or, in critical cases, accurately calculated based on the individual event. The complexity of the calculation thereby increases from stage to stage. An estimation based on stage one is easily feasible whereas calculations based on stages two and especially three are more complex and often necessitate execution by specialists. This article demonstrates in detail the risks for the unborn child pertaining to its developmental phase and explains the three-stage concept as an evaluation scheme. It should be noted, that all risk estimations are subject to considerable uncertainties.

  6. Pregnancy and Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... had that might impact the development of their sperm or their eggs (ova) and their risk of ... your concerns with them. Radiation Exposure to the Sperm from Diagnostic X-Ray Studies There are no ...

  7. Adverse events in humans associated with accidental exposure to the livestock brucellosis vaccine RB51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, David A; di Pietra, Jennifer; Lingappa, Jairam; Woods, Christopher; Noll, Heather; Neville, Bridget; Weyant, Robbin; Bragg, Sandra L; Spiegel, Richard A; Tappero, Jordan; Perkins, Bradley A

    2004-09-01

    Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine, is an attenuated live bacterial vaccine that was licensed conditionally by the Center for Veterinary Biologics, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA, on 23 February 1996, for vaccination of cattle in the United States. Accidental human inoculations can occur during vaccination of cattle, and previous live Brucella vaccines designed for cattle have been known to cause brucellosis in humans. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established passive surveillance for accidental inoculation with the RB51 vaccine in the United States to determine if this veterinary vaccine is associated with human disease, to describe the circumstances of accidental inoculation, to evaluate the potential efficacy of post-exposure chemoprophylaxis, and to develop recommendations for post-exposure management following exposure to RB51. Reports were received from 26 individuals. Accidental exposure to RB51 occurred by needle stick injury in 21 people (81%), conjunctival spray exposure in four (15%), and spray exposure of an open wound in one (4%) individual. At least one systemic symptom was reported in 19 (73%) people, including three (12%) who reported persistent local reactions with systemic involvement. One case required surgery, and B. abortus strain RB51 was isolated from the wound of that individual. Seven cases reported no adverse event associated with accidental exposure. Nine cases reported previous exposure to Brucella vaccines, including one case who also reported a previous diagnosis of brucellosis following exposure to S19 vaccine. Accidental needle stick injuries and conjunctival or open wound exposures of humans with the RB51 vaccine are associated with both local and systemic adverse events in the United States that are consistent with brucellosis; however, it remains undetermined if strain RB51 vaccine can cause systemic brucellosis in humans. Early culture attempts on those exposed and

  8. Evaluation of health effects in Sequoyah Fuels Corporation workers from accidental exposure to uranium hexafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.R. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Swint, M.J.; Kathren, R.L. (Hanford Environmental Health Foundation, Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Urine bioassay measurements for uranium and medical laboratory results were studied to determine whether there were any health effects from uranium intake among a group of 31 workers exposed to uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and hydrolysis products following the accidental rupture of a 14-ton shipping cylinder in early 1986 at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation uranium conversion facility in Gore, Oklahoma. Physiological indicators studied to detect kidney tissue damage included tests for urinary protein, casts and cells, blood, specific gravity, and urine pH, blood urea nitrogen, and blood creatinine. We concluded after reviewing two years of follow-up medical data that none of the 31 workers sustained any observable health effects from exposure to uranium. The early excretion of uranium in urine showed more rapid systemic uptake of uranium from the lung than is assumed using the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 30 and Publication 54 models. The urinary excretion data from these workers were used to develop an improved systemic recycling model for inhaled soluble uranium. We estimated initial intakes, clearance rates, kidney burdens, and resulting radiation doses to lungs, kidneys, and bone surfaces. 38 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Evaluation of health effects in Sequoyah Fuels Corporation workers from accidental exposure to uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urine bioassay measurements for uranium and medical laboratory results were studied to determine whether there were any health effects from uranium intake among a group of 31 workers exposed to uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and hydrolysis products following the accidental rupture of a 14-ton shipping cylinder in early 1986 at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation uranium conversion facility in Gore, Oklahoma. Physiological indicators studied to detect kidney tissue damage included tests for urinary protein, casts and cells, blood, specific gravity, and urine pH, blood urea nitrogen, and blood creatinine. We concluded after reviewing two years of follow-up medical data that none of the 31 workers sustained any observable health effects from exposure to uranium. The early excretion of uranium in urine showed more rapid systemic uptake of uranium from the lung than is assumed using the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 30 and Publication 54 models. The urinary excretion data from these workers were used to develop an improved systemic recycling model for inhaled soluble uranium. We estimated initial intakes, clearance rates, kidney burdens, and resulting radiation doses to lungs, kidneys, and bone surfaces. 38 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  10. Assessment of risks associated to ionizing radiations: lung cancers after domestic radon exposure and thyroid cancers after accidental exposure to radioactive iodines; Evaluation des risques associes aux rayonnements ionisants: cancers du poumon apres exposition domestique au radon et cancers de la thyroide apres exposition accidentelle aux iodes radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catelinois, O

    2004-09-15

    The aim of this work is to develop a critical analysis of quantitative risk assessment in the field of ionizing radiation and to provide new estimates of attributable risks for particular situations of environmental exposure to ionizing radiation. This work is based on knowledge about dose-response relationships and ionizing radiation exposure of the general population. The work focuses on two different situations that both present an important interest for public health: lung cancer associated with domestic radon exposures (natural situation) and thyroid cancer associated with the Chernobyl accident fallout (accidental situation). The assessment of lung cancer risk associated with domestic radon exposure considers 10 dose-response relationships resulting from miner cohorts and case-control studies in the general population. A critical review of available data on smoking habits has been performed and allowed to consider the interactions between radon and tobacco. The exposure data come from measurements campaigns carried out since the beginning of the 1980 by the Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety and the Health General Directory in France. The French lung cancer mortality data are provided by the I.N.S.E.R.M.. Estimates of the number of attributable cancers are carried out for the whole country, stratified by 8 large regions (Z.E.A.T.) and by 96 departments for the year 1999 allowing to perform a sensibility analysis according to the geographical level of calculation. Uncertainties associated to risk coefficients and exposures have been quantified and it's impact on risk estimates is calculated. The estimated number of deaths attributable to domestic radon exposure ranges from 543 (90% uncertainty interval (U.I.): 75-1,097) to 3,108 (90% U.I.: 2,996-3,221). The corresponding risk fractions range from 2.2% (90% U.I.: 0.3%-4.4%) to 12.4% (90% U.I.: 11.9%-12.8%). The assessment of thyroid cancer risk in the most exposed area of France due to

  11. Occupational radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray and Radiation Protection Ordinances in the Federal Republic of Germany and Austria were discussed. The demands of protection ordinances can only be met if the monitoring of the radiation dose is ensured to a large extent. This was stated in the lectures on dosimetry, but also in those on the technical know-how and knowledge and the quality control in radiodiagnostics. The leukemia and cancer risk for persons exposed to radiation at work came also up for discussion, and the report on the re-evaluation of data about Hiroshima and Nagasaki showing a statistically recordable rise in cancer mortality has to be seen in connection with the radiation protection laws. A lecture was held on a radiation accident in Brazil in 1987 in order to give an example of an increased radiation exposure with a fatal result. It was an off-plant radiation accident. Since a physical dosimetry naturally cannot take place in such cases, it becomes necessary to inform oneself on the extent of the detriment by means of the detrimental characteristics of the irradiated organism. Also reported was the ''biological dosimetry'' of the radiation accident in Brazil. The 23 contributions have been separately recorded in the data base. (orig./DG) With 43 figs., 41 tabs

  12. Management of individuals accidentally exposed to radiation or radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sources of ionizing radiation are being used with increasing frequency in a wide spectrum of applications in society. These uses are accompanied by the possible occurrence of accidents resulting in persons exposed to radiation and contaminated with radioactivity. These persons pose a risk to facilities and attending personnel upon their arrival at the hospital. This risk can be minimized without compromising the quality of patient care only if careful planning for such patients has been conducted by the hospital. Planning should include identification of a radiation emergency area within the hospital, delineation of a radiation emergency response team of individuals knowledgeable about radiation and radioactivity, and development of protocols for the medical care and decontamination of patients involved in radiation accidents. Various agencies, including the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals, have stressed the need for preparation and periodic testing of radiation emergency response plans for hospitals

  13. Chromosome damage and clinical manifestation in a fetus and the mother after accidental 60Co exposure in Xinzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present the clinical effect and chromosome damage sustained by a fetus and the four months pregnant mother in an accidental 60Co exposure in November of 1992 in Xinzhou, Shanxi Province. The mother suffered from a moderate acute radiation sickness with ratardation of fetal development. After delivery, the infant's body length, body weight and head circumference were all lowered by three percentiles compared with the normals. Four months after the exposure, the assay of the mother's peripheral lymphocytes showed a chromosome aberration rate of 36%, while concomitant examination of the baby failed to reveal any chromosome abnormality although the sister chromatid exchange rate was remarkably higher than that of the mother and the normal control

  14. Doses from radiation exposure

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, H G

    2012-01-01

    Practical implementation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) system of protection requires the availability of appropriate methods and data. The work of Committee 2 is concerned with the development of reference data and methods for the assessment of internal and external radiation exposure of workers and members of the public. This involves the development of reference biokinetic and dosimetric models, reference anatomical models of the human body, and reference anatomical and physiological data. Following ICRP's 2007 Recommendations, Committee 2 has focused on the provision of new reference dose coefficients for external and internal exposure. As well as specifying changes to the radiation and tissue weighting factors used in the calculation of protection quantities, the 2007 Recommendations introduced the use of reference anatomical phantoms based on medical imaging data, requiring explicit sex averaging of male and female organ-equivalent doses in the calculation of effecti...

  15. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1980-December 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Rittmaster, R.S.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report updates, for 1980 through 1982, the results of continuing medical surveillance of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in March 1954. The originally exposed Marshallese population comprised 64 persons on Rongelap Atoll who each received, on the average, an estimated 190 rads of absorbed external gamma radiation, 18 on Ailingnae Atoll who received 110 rads, and 159 on Utirik who received 11 rads. There were, in addition, 3 persons in utero on Rongelap, 1 person in utero on Ailingnae, and 8 persons in utero on Utirik who are considered exposed. The recipients of primary medical care include exposed and comparison populations as well as a rather large number of additional beneficiaries who are seen on a humanitarian basis of practical need and resource availability. In recent years, about 1400 people have been seen annually. This report, however, deals with four clearly defined groups: the remaining individuals who were exposed to radioactive fallout on Rongelap, Ailingnae, and Utirik in 1954 (including those in utero), and a comparison population of individuals from Rongelap who were unexposed. The number of persons now in each exposure category are 51, 12, 116, and 137, respectively. 100 references, 4 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

  16. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1980-December 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report updates, for 1980 through 1982, the results of continuing medical surveillance of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in March 1954. The originally exposed Marshallese population comprised 64 persons on Rongelap Atoll who each received, on the average, an estimated 190 rads of absorbed external gamma radiation, 18 on Ailingnae Atoll who received 110 rads, and 159 on Utirik who received 11 rads. There were, in addition, 3 persons in utero on Rongelap, 1 person in utero on Ailingnae, and 8 persons in utero on Utirik who are considered exposed. The recipients of primary medical care include exposed and comparison populations as well as a rather large number of additional beneficiaries who are seen on a humanitarian basis of practical need and resource availability. In recent years, about 1400 people have been seen annually. This report, however, deals with four clearly defined groups: the remaining individuals who were exposed to radioactive fallout on Rongelap, Ailingnae, and Utirik in 1954 (including those in utero), and a comparison population of individuals from Rongelap who were unexposed. The number of persons now in each exposure category are 51, 12, 116, and 137, respectively. 100 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

  17. Genomic damage in children accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fucic, A; Brunborg, G; Lasan, R;

    2007-01-01

    after the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident in 1986. The present review presents and discusses data collected from papers analyzing genome damage in children environmentally exposed to ionizing radiation. Overall, the evidence from the studies conducted following the Chernobyl accident, nuclear tests...... impact of a radiochemical environment to the development of an adaptive response for genomic damage. Interactive databases should be developed to provide integration of cytogenetic data, childhood cancer registry data and information on environmental contamination. The overall aim is to introduce timely...

  18. Electron paramagnetic resonance technique for radiation dosimetry: emerging trends for laboratory and accidental dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applications of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) for radiation dosimetry are briefly reviewed. In particular, EPR-alanine dosimetry and accidental dosimetry using EPR signals from human tooth enamel have been discussed. The alanine dosimetry was found to be useful from low doses such as 1 Gy to high doses such as 100 kGy. The signals from tooth enamel are found to be invaluable in assessing the absorbed dose of people exposed to radiation accidents and also survivors of atomic bomb explosions. New emerging trends using EPR signals from bones exposed to radiation have also been briefly reviewed. (author)

  19. Retinal photoreceptor focal disruption secondary to accidental Nd:YAG laser exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Paolo; Pierro, Luisa; Pece, Alfredo; Marino, Valerio; Scialdone, Antonio

    2011-10-01

    Retinal injuries caused by accidental laser exposure include retinal or vitreous hemorrhages, macular holes and edema. We describe the imaging of a bilateral macular lesion secondary to accidental Nd:YAG laser exposure. Observational case report. We performed color photography, fluorescein angiography and autofluorescence (AF) with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope, as well as time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). After accidental exposure to a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser, a patient experienced blurred vision in the left eye (LE) with visual acuity of 20/60. Color, fluorescein angiography and OCT imaging showed a retinal hemorrhage in the foveal area of the left eye and in the inferomacular region of the asymptomatic right eye. Steroid therapy was then administered, and 5 days later there was rapid improvement with progressive re-absorption of the hemorrhages and functional recovery. At 6 month follow-up, visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes with unremarkable biomicroscopy, except for focal foveal retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy in the LE. In comparison to previous hemorrhages, OCT could visualize focal disruption of the photoreceptor IS/OS junction in both eyes. Due to different macular pigment distribution and lesion localization, 787 nm near-infrared AF depicted a small hypofluorescent spot in both eyes, whilst at 488 nm AF a black spot became evident in the right eye only. Despite the re-absorption of foveal hemorrhage and the functional recovery, AF and OCT imaging highlighted the persistence of small focal disruptions of the photoreceptor outer segments and RPE. PMID:22002418

  20. Triage and management of accidental laboratory exposures to biosafety level-3 and -4 agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahrling, Peter; Rodak, Colleen; Bray, Mike; Davey, Richard T

    2009-06-01

    The recent expansion of biocontainment laboratory capacity in the United States has drawn attention to the possibility of occupational exposures to BSL-3 and -4 agents and has prompted a reassessment of medical management procedures and facilities to deal with these contingencies. A workshop hosted by the National Interagency Biodefense Campus was held in October 2007 and was attended by representatives of all existing and planned BSL-4 research facilities in the U.S. and Canada. This report summarizes important points of discussion and recommendations for future coordinated action, including guidelines for the engineering and operational controls appropriate for a hospital care and isolation unit. Recommendations pertained to initial management of exposures (ie, immediate treatment of penetrating injuries, reporting of exposures, initial evaluation, and triage). Isolation and medical care in a referral hospital (including minimum standards for isolation units), staff recruitment and training, and community outreach also were addressed. Workshop participants agreed that any unit designated for the isolation and treatment of laboratory employees accidentally infected with a BSL-3 or -4 pathogen should be designed to maximize the efficacy of patient care while minimizing the risk of transmission of infection. Further, participants concurred that there is no medically based rationale for building care and isolation units to standards approximating a BSL-4 laboratory. Instead, laboratory workers accidentally exposed to pathogens should be cared for in hospital isolation suites staffed by highly trained professionals following strict infection control procedures.

  1. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation, January 1983-December 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March 1, 1984, was the 30th anniversary of the Bravo thermonuclear test that resulted in the accidental exposure of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik atolls to radioactive fallout. The chronicling of the medical events resulting from that exposure is continued in this report, which covers the period from January 1983 through December 1984. An updated listing of all relevant publications from the Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, is presented in the Reference Section. Thirty years of observation continue to show no detectable increase in mortality in the exposed population as a result of that exposure. The survival curves of the high-exposure Rongelap group, the low-exposure Utirik population, and an unexposed group of Rongelap people matched by age and sex to the exposed Rongelap group in 1957 continue to be similar. 89 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation, January 1983-December 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, W.H.; Engle, J.R.; Harper, J.A.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    March 1, 1984, was the 30th anniversary of the Bravo thermonuclear test that resulted in the accidental exposure of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik atolls to radioactive fallout. The chronicling of the medical events resulting from that exposure is continued in this report, which covers the period from January 1983 through December 1984. An updated listing of all relevant publications from the Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, is presented in the Reference Section. Thirty years of observation continue to show no detectable increase in mortality in the exposed population as a result of that exposure. The survival curves of the high-exposure Rongelap group, the low-exposure Utirik population, and an unexposed group of Rongelap people matched by age and sex to the exposed Rongelap group in 1957 continue to be similar. 89 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  4. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  5. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work define procedures and controls about ionizing radiations. Between some definitions it found the following topics: radiation dose, risk, biological effects, international radioprotection bodies, workers exposure, accidental exposure, emergencies and radiation protection

  6. DOE 2008 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  7. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  8. DOE 2009 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2009 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  9. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of occupational exposure is presented. Concepts and quantities used for radiation protection are explained as well as the ICRP system of dose limitation. The risks correlated to the limits are discussed. However, the actual exposure are often much lower than the limits and the average risk in radiation work is comparable with the average risk in other safe occupations. Actual exposures in various occupations are presented and discussed. (author)

  10. Medical documentation, bioanalytical evidence of an accidental human exposure to sulfur mustard and general therapy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinritz, Dirk; Striepling, Enno; Rudolf, Klaus-Dieter; Schröder-Kraft, Claudia; Püschel, Klaus; Hullard-Pulstinger, Andreas; Koller, Marianne; Thiermann, Horst; Gandor, Felix; Gawlik, Michael; John, Harald

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent (CWA) that was first used in World War I and in several military conflicts afterwards. The threat by SM is still present even today due to remaining stockpiles, old and abandoned remainders all over the world as well as to its ease of synthesis. CWA are banned by the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) interdicting their development, production, transport, stockpiling and use and are subjected to controlled destruction. The present case report describes an accidental exposure of three workers that occurred during the destruction of SM. All exposed workers presented a characteristic SM-related clinical picture that started about 4h after exposure with erythema and feeling of tension of the skin at the upper part of the body. Later on, superficial blister and a burning phenomenon of the affected skin areas developed. Similar symptoms occurred in all three patients differing severity. One patient presented sustained skin affections at the gluteal region while another patient came up with affections of the axilla and genital region. Fortunately, full recovery was observed on day 56 after exposure except some little pigmentation changes that were evident even on day 154 in two of the patients. SM-exposure was verified for all three patients using bioanalytical GC MS and LC MS/MS based methods applied to urine and plasma. Urinary biotransformation products of the β-lyase pathway were detected until 5 days after poisoning whereas albumin-SM adducts could be found until day 29 underlining the beneficial role of adduct detection for post-exposure verification. In addition, we provide general recommendations for management and therapy in case of SM poisoning.

  11. Medical documentation, bioanalytical evidence of an accidental human exposure to sulfur mustard and general therapy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinritz, Dirk; Striepling, Enno; Rudolf, Klaus-Dieter; Schröder-Kraft, Claudia; Püschel, Klaus; Hullard-Pulstinger, Andreas; Koller, Marianne; Thiermann, Horst; Gandor, Felix; Gawlik, Michael; John, Harald

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent (CWA) that was first used in World War I and in several military conflicts afterwards. The threat by SM is still present even today due to remaining stockpiles, old and abandoned remainders all over the world as well as to its ease of synthesis. CWA are banned by the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) interdicting their development, production, transport, stockpiling and use and are subjected to controlled destruction. The present case report describes an accidental exposure of three workers that occurred during the destruction of SM. All exposed workers presented a characteristic SM-related clinical picture that started about 4h after exposure with erythema and feeling of tension of the skin at the upper part of the body. Later on, superficial blister and a burning phenomenon of the affected skin areas developed. Similar symptoms occurred in all three patients differing severity. One patient presented sustained skin affections at the gluteal region while another patient came up with affections of the axilla and genital region. Fortunately, full recovery was observed on day 56 after exposure except some little pigmentation changes that were evident even on day 154 in two of the patients. SM-exposure was verified for all three patients using bioanalytical GC MS and LC MS/MS based methods applied to urine and plasma. Urinary biotransformation products of the β-lyase pathway were detected until 5 days after poisoning whereas albumin-SM adducts could be found until day 29 underlining the beneficial role of adduct detection for post-exposure verification. In addition, we provide general recommendations for management and therapy in case of SM poisoning. PMID:26321678

  12. Gene expression as a biomarker for human radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaruddin, Romaica A; Roland, Thomas A; Wallace, H James; Chaudhry, M Ahmad

    2013-03-01

    Accidental exposure to ionizing radiation can be unforeseen, rapid, and devastating. The detonation of a radiological device leading to such an exposure can be detrimental to the exposed population. The radiation-induced damage may manifest as acute effects that can be detected clinically or may be more subtle effects that can lead to long-term radiation-induced abnormalities. Accurate identification of the individuals exposed to radiation is challenging. The availability of a rapid and effective screening test that could be used as a biomarker of radiation exposure detection is mandatory. We tested the suitability of alterations in gene expression to serve as a biomarker of human radiation exposure. To develop a useful gene expression biomonitor, however, gene expression changes occurring in response to irradiation in vivo must be measured directly. Patients undergoing radiation therapy provide a suitable test population for this purpose. We examined the expression of CC3, MADH7, and SEC PRO in blood samples of these patients before and after radiotherapy to measure the in vivo response. The gene expression after ionizing radiation treatment varied among different patients, suggesting the complexity of the response. The expression of the SEC PRO gene was repressed in most of the patients. The MADH7 gene was found to be upregulated in most of the subjects and could serve as a molecular marker of radiation exposure. PMID:23446844

  13. Radiation exposure and infant cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical exposures accompanied by an increase in radiation use in the field of pediatrics were described. Basic ideas and countermeasures to radiation injuries were outlined. In order to decrease the medical exposure, it is necessary for the doctor, x-ray technician and manufacturer to work together. The mechanism and characteristics of radio carcinogenesis were also mentioned. Particularly, the following two points were described: 1) How many years does it take before carcinogenesis appears as a result of radiation exposure in infancy 2) How and when does the effect of fetus exposure appear. Radiosensitivity in infants and fetuses is greater than that of an adult. The occurrence of leukemia caused by prenatal exposure was reviewed. The relation between irradiation for therapy and morbidity of thyroid cancer was mentioned. Finally, precautions necessary for infants, pregnant women and nursing mothers when using radioisotopes were mentioned. (K. Serizawa)

  14. Carcinogenesis by internal radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation carcinogenesis is based on the same molecular mechanisms, while spatial and temporal dose distribution in target cells is differed between internal and external radiation exposures. Animal models on dose-carcinogenic response relationships are required to complement an uncertainties in human epidemiological studies and finally to estimate human risk of internal exposures to radionuclides. Several dose response models for experimental carcinogenesis by internally administered radionuclides in laboratory animals were reviewed and discussed in this paper. (J.P.N.)

  15. Radiation Exposure and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiation and was devel- oped by the Health Physics Society. Stabin M, Breitz H. Breast milk excretion of radiopharmaceuticals: Mechanisms, findings, and radiation dosimetry. Continuing Medical Education Article, Journal of Nuclear Medicine 41(5):863-873; 2000. U.S. Nuclear ...

  16. Radiation Exposure and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Compensation Programs for People Exposed to Radiation as Part of Nuclear Weapons Testing Between 1945 and 1962, several countries tested nuclear weapons in the open air. The US government has passed several laws to ... radiation as part of nuclear testing programs who later develop certain ...

  17. Malignant mesothelioma following radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesothelioma developed in proximity to the field of therapeutic radiation administered 10-31 years previously in four patients. In three, mesothelioma arose within the site of prior therapeutic radiation for another cancer. Mesothelioma in the fourth patient developed adjacent to the site of cosmetic radiation to a thyroidectomy scar. None of these four patients recalled an asbestos exposure or had evidence of asbestosis on chest roentgenogram. Lung tissue in one patient was negative for ferruginous bodies, a finding considered to indicate no significant asbestos exposure. Five other patients with radiation-associated mesothelioma have been reported previously, suggesting that radiation is an uncommon cause of human mesothelioma. Problems in the diagnosis of radiation-associated mesotheliomas are considered

  18. Sarcoma risk after radiation exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrington de Gonzalez Amy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sarcomas were one of the first solid cancers to be linked to ionizing radiation exposure. We reviewed the current evidence on this relationship, focusing particularly on the studies that had individual estimates of radiation doses. There is clear evidence of an increased risk of both bone and soft tissue sarcomas after high-dose fractionated radiation exposure (10 + Gy in childhood, and the risk increases approximately linearly in dose, at least up to 40 Gy. There are few studies available of sarcoma after radiotherapy in adulthood for cancer, but data from cancer registries and studies of treatment for benign conditions confirm that the risk of sarcoma is also increased in this age-group after fractionated high-dose exposure. New findings from the long-term follow-up of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors suggest, for the first time, that sarcomas can be induced by acute lower-doses of radiation (

  19. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The Office of Analysis within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past five-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information has been analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  20. Cardiovascular complications of radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, William; Shamsa, Kamran; Lee, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    The cardiovascular sequelae of radiation exposure are an important cause of morbidity and mortality following radiation therapy for cancer, as well as after exposure to radiation after atomic bombs or nuclear accidents. In the United States, most of the data on radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) come from patients treated with radiation therapy for Hodgkin disease and breast cancer. Additionally, people exposed to radiation from the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, and the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear accident have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The total dose of radiation, as well as the fractionation of the dose, plays an important role in the development of RIHD. All parts of the heart are affected, including the pericardium, vasculature, myocardium, valves, and conduction system. The mechanism of injury is complex, but one major mechanism is injury to endothelium in both the microvasculature and coronary arteries. This likely also contributes to damage and fibrosis within the myocardium. Additionally, various inflammatory and profibrotic cytokines contribute to injury. Diagnosis and treatment are not significantly different from those for conventional cardiovascular disease; however, screening for heart disease and lifelong cardiology follow-up is essential in patients with past radiation exposure. PMID:25290729

  1. Report on international round table conference 'Accidental radiation contamination of food of animal origin'. Vol. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The World Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (WAVFH) held an international round table conference in Stockholm, Sweden, January 26-29, 1987. The topic of the conference was 'Accidental Radiation Contamination of Food of Animal Origin'. The agenda was divided into three major topic areas: 1. Ecological Science; 2. Veterinary Science - Live Animals; and 3. Veterinary Science - Food of Animal Origin. Experts and delegates from member countries presented papers, participated in discussions and workshops and produced a multidisciplinary report covering the topic areas. The recent accidental release of radioactive substances into the environment from the Chernobyl accident, demonstrated the need for veterinary, ecological, physical and medical sciences to be prepared to respond to an incident in order to protect the environment, food chain, other agricultural assets and humans from the adverse effects of radionuclides. Several presentations suggested that even with the best technologies, national and regional commitment, and relatively unrestricted resource levels, nuclear incidents can cross international boundaries and can contaminate the environment to the extent that the integrity of various food and water supplies can be at risk. Speakers and subsequent discussers tended to concentrate on the issues associated with lessening future environmental impacts if similar types of incidents should occur again

  2. Psychiatric disorders after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)

  3. Psychiatric disorders after radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokai, Masahiro [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Soejima, Toshinori; Wang, Shangdong; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2001-04-01

    This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)

  4. Monitoring of occupational radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most widely used tool for occupational radiation exposure monitoring is a badge worn on the trunk to measure Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) of photon radiation. Monitoring of exposure to beta and neutron radiations is performed for about 20% and 5%, respectively, of the workers occupationally exposed to radiation. Monitoring for internal deposition of radionuclides is, in general, less well regulated, and the results of internal dosimetry programmes are scarcely available. Dose to workers can also be determined from the results of workplace monitoring. In the case of aircrews, dose is normally computed on the basis of data on cosmic radiation fields and flight profiles. New techniques are emerging for the individual monitoring of external radiation. Active and passive electronic dosimeter systems are providing new dimensions for dosimetry and data handling, including direct dose readout capabilities and application of modern data networks. A number of problems remain to be solved. Neutron and beta dosimeters are not yet fully satisfactory. Internal dosimetry, still the subject of major research activities, has a need for more standardized routine programmes and systematic reporting. Monitoring for naturally occurring radioactive materials has to be improved and included in existing programmes. For global exchange, standards on dose record formats, and most particularly, unique quantities and units, are indispensable. (author)

  5. Personnel Monitoring of External Exposures Resulting from Radiation Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part I. A brief review of methods and techniques for estimating the doses received from external sources in radiation accidents with emphasis on research and the development of improved methods is presented. Dosimetry methods such as film badges, ionization chambers, radio photoluminescence, radio thermoluminescence, conductivity, electronexoemission, track and activation detectors and individual alarm systems are discussed. Comparisons are made between their operational characteristics and the overall impression is broadly summarized. Part II. The mechanical model for expressing rems in connection with the present-day practice of personnel monitoring of external exposures is discussed. The necessary precision of dosimeters, the estimation of the exposure dose from dosimeter readings, the estimation of absorbed dose from exposure dose and, finally, dose-equivalent transformations are analysed. All necessary aspects of such transformations are mentioned. The role of the time estimation of the dose received and recovery during protracted accidental exposures are discussed. (author)

  6. Diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic and therapeutic radiology were studied as possible contaminants in the evaluations of A-bomb survivors in the ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study for radiation effects. Hiroshima and Nagasaki subjects received X-ray examinations elsewhere within three months of their ABCC visits at rates of 23 and 12%, respectively. Medical X-ray examinations were more frequent among survivors than comparison subjects. Hiroshima and Nagasaki radiologic practice steadily increased since 1948, and differed markedly by city. From 1946-70 the Hiroshima and Nagasaki X-ray bone marrow doses were 2,300 and 1,000 g-rads, respectively. By 1970, cumulated medical X-ray doses approximated A-bomb doses at distances from the hypocenters of 2,000 m in Hiroshima and 2,800 m in Nagasaki. ABCC X-ray examination doses per subject are routinely updated for comparison with A-bomb doses. Each subject's reported fluoroscopy, photofluorography and radiation therapy exposure elsewhere are for future reference. Dental radiography, though increasing, was not currently an important contributor to survivors' overall exposure. Radiation therapy exposures of 137 subjects were confirmed, and doses estimated for most. Two-thirds the treatments were for malignancies; therapy differed markedly by city; and five cancers possibly arose from earlier radiation therapy. This underscores the importance of considering diagnostic and therapeutic radiology when attributing diseases to the atomic bombs. (auth.)

  7. Blood biomarkers in metal scrap workers accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M L; Srivastava, N N; Dutta, S; Shukla, S K; Dutta, A; Verma, S; Devi, M

    2013-12-01

    The detrimental effect of nuclear accidents due to localized or whole body radiation exposure results in severe cellular damage. The current study was carried out to evaluate radiation-mediated variability in blood components of metal scrap workers exposed accidently to cobalt-60 source. Blood samples collected initially from five hospitalized patients, coded P1-P5, were processed for total leukocyte counts (TLC), platelet (PLT) counts, haemoglobin, estimation of DNA double strand breaks by measuring phosphorylated form of H2AX (γ-H2AX) and chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics). Blood cells count (TLC), in all the patients except P2, was found decreased. Dicentrics increased in all the five patients. γ-H2AX was found significantly elevated in patients P2 and P4. After 3 days, 21 subjects working in close vicinity of accident site were evaluated for the above-mentioned markers to confirm their possibility of radiation exposure; however, all the parameters in these subjects were found within normal limits. Blood from patients P1-P5 was collected again after 11 days. Studies revealed exorbitant increase in γ-H2AX in lymphocytes and monocytes of patients P1, P4 and P5. TLC and PLT count in these patients had fallen further. Dicentrics declined with time in all the five patients. Based on the studied blood biomarkers, we conclude that the five subjects showed signs of radiation exposure. Measurement on radiation dose could not be performed in the current study; however, the generated data particularly on dicentrics provide ample evidence of radiation exposure.

  8. Radiation exposure in diagnostic medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume includes the manuscripts of the papers read at the conference as well as a summary and assessment of its results. The scientific discussions were centred upon the following issues: - International surveys and comparisons of rdiation exposures in diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine, frequency of the individual diagnostic procedures and age distribution of patients examined; - policies and regulations for the radiation protection of patients, charcteristic dosimetric values and practical usefulness of the effective dose concept during medical examinations; - assessments of the relative benefits and risks and measures to reduce the radiation exposure in the light of quality assurance aspects. The main objective of this conference not only was to evaluate the risks from diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine but also to encourgage a critical analysis and adjustment of examination routines followed in everyday practice. Among the measures recommended were quality assurance, maintenace of international standards, development of guidelines, introduction of standard doses, improved training and professional education of personnel as well as surveys and analyses of certain examination procedures associated with substantial radiation exposure. (orig./MG)

  9. Radiation exposure in coronary intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Motomu [Kokura Memorial Hospital, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) based on plain old balloon angioplasty is the representative surgery in cardiac interventional radiography, which, with accompanying the increase of patients, causing the serious exposure problem to patients and staff. Recent progress in PTCA practice owes to the development of new devices like the stent with which reduction of exposure dose has been somewhat attained due to the short operation time. Further, standardization of the operation procedure helps to shorten the time. In author`s facility, the pulse fluoroscopy stands from four modes: low-dose, normal, high-quality and slow ones. In these modes, the exposure dose, not the irradiation dose, is taken into consideration according to the FDA concept. The respective modes resulted in the reduction to 33, 70, 70 and 50% of the ordinary fluoroscopy skin dose (12.96 mGy/min: 1.49 R/min). As for exposure to operating staff, the scattering radiation was measured with the DIGITEX 2400 CX apparatus, WAC water phantom and VICTOREEN 450 ionization chamber survey meters and with shielding curtains and lead-acryl board. Shielding was found important for reduction of exposure to the staff. (K.H.)

  10. Rapid assessment of accidental exposures (RACE) in environment using ultra-sensitive LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP-N) thermoluminescent detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of this work is to demonstrate a concept and first results of a new system for Rapid Assessment of Accidental Exposures (RACE) which is based on a new generation of ultra sensitive thermoluminescent detectors LiF:Mg, Cu, P. The RACE system is envisaged to be able to monitor environmental radiation doses at a large number of locations within a few days. The RACE will further be able to work as a standard detector system for routine environmental monitoring, but the major innovation is its capability to perform a rapid, short-term (ca. 24-48 hours) in situ dose assessment in case of any type of nuclear accidents, radiocontamination of environment or restoration works. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs

  11. Occupational radiation exposures in Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time ever the occupational radiation exposure data of all the radiation workers of Cyprus, as obtained by the personnel monitoring service of the Dosimetry Laboratory of the Medical Physics Department of the Ministry of Health, is published and compared with that of other countries. The presented data shows a systematic trend of improvement both with regards to the methodology of monitoring and data recording. The efforts of the past few years in educating and training the users of ionising radiation with regards to the importance of the personnel monitoring service and the hazards of ionising radiation, has paid off and this is evident from the doses recorded in the past three years which are compared favourably with those of other countries, as given by the UNSCEAR 1993 report. The introduction of extremity monitoring, promises even better improvement in the methodology of monitoring the doses received by personnel working in Interventional Radiology, as well as other groups whose hands, unavoidably, come close to radiation sources. (authors)

  12. New approaches to reduce radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kevin D; Einstein, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is associated with a long-term risk of health effects, including cancer. Radiation exposure to the U.S. population from cardiac imaging has increased markedly over the past three decades. Initiatives to reduce radiation exposure have focused on the tenets of appropriate study "justification" and "optimization" of imaging protocols. This article reviews ways to optimally reduce radiation dose across the spectrum of cardiac imaging.

  13. Ferrofluid-associated Cutaneous Dyschromia: Discoloration of Hand and Fingers Following Accidental Exposure to Ferromagnetic Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Philip R; Arfa, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ferrofluid is a colloidal suspension that usually consists of surfactant-coated nanoparticles of magnetite (Fe3O4) in a carrier liquid. Ferromagnetic fluid forms spikes when the liquid is exposed to a magnetic field. Purpose: The authors describe a man who developed temporary discoloration of his right palm and fingers after accidental cutaneous contact with ferrofluid and discuss some of the current and potential applications of this unique liquid. Methods: A 28-year-old man was ...

  14. Clinical study of fetal liver transplantation in treatment of four cases of accidental or therapeutic acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarized the clinical experience of fetal liver transplantation (FLT) in the medical handling of accidental (case 1) or therapeutic (cases 2-4) acute radiation sickness of severe haemopoietic form. In addition to receiving 80 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide, cases 2, 3 and 4 were exposed to total body single irradiation of 5.5, 5.0 and 5.0 Gy, respectively; while case 1 was exposed to whole body irradiation of 5.2 Gy only. The total number of nucleated fetal liver cells transplanted was 2.26-4.1 x 108/kg. Only 2-5% of peripheral blood cells of cases 2, 3 and 4 were found to have allogeneic marker. The author points out that FLT may be beneficial in those cases of accidental irradiation or patients with acute leukemia when there were no HLA-identical bone marrow donors available

  15. Newspaper: Files. Radiotherapy and accidental radiation protection. Scientific management between I.G.R. and I.P.S.N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gustave-Roussy Institute (I.G.R.), the biggest european center of cancer treatment, and the Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (I.P.S.N.) that lead important researches and expertise in accidental radiation protection have established an agreement for a research program for six years. The objective is to speed up the researches in radio-pathology and radiobiology to improve the techniques used to treat the irradiated persons, for therapeutic or accidental reasons. Three principal themes have been chosen as starting point: Diagnosis and prognosis bio-indicators of irradiation effects on the digestive system, biological dosimetry and long term effects of a high dose irradiation. New themes will be tackled in function of the results or new needs. (N.C.)

  16. Guidelines on the medical therapy of persons accidentally overexposed to ionizing radiations. External contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document represents a guide for the external decontamination of persons accidentally radio contaminated due to the use, production or transport of radioactive materials. The general conditions, from the medical point of view, to be kept in mind, in the event of accidental overexposures as decontamination treatment and the handling of samples are detailed throughout report. The external contamination without injury in skin or with wound its considered. The distribution of measures and responsibilities for the therapy of the irradiated patients with radioactive materials are enumerated. The preparations of decontaminate solutions are detailed in this work. Moreover, forms for the reception, physical evaluation of the patient and external contamination are presented. (author)

  17. Ambient radiation exposure: measurements and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of the available literature, data and reports of various radiation exposure and protection studies and various measurements techniques are presented. A linear quadratic model has been given illustrating the validity of radiation hormesis

  18. Radiation Worker Protection by Exposure Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Blankenbecler, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of the protective adaptive response of cells to a low dose of radiation suggests applications to radiation worker/first responder protection. Its use in cancer radiotherapy has been discussed in a separate publication. This paper describes simple changes in scheduling that can make use of these beneficial adaptive effects for protection. No increase in total exposure is necessary, only a simple change in the timing of radiation exposure. A low dose of radiation at a sufficient d...

  19. Urban "accidental" wetlands mediate water quality and heat exposure for homeless populations in a desert city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, M.

    2015-12-01

    In urban settings where humans interact in complex ways with ecosystems, there may be hidden or unanticipated benefits (services) or harm (disservices) conferred by the built environment. We examined interactions of a highly vulnerable population, the homeless, with urban waterways and wetlands in the desert city of Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.A. Climate change models project increases in heat, droughts, and extreme floods for the southwestern U.S. These projected changes pose a number of problems for sustainability and quality of future water supply, and the ability of human populations to mitigate heat stress and avoid fatalities. Urban wetlands that are created "accidentally" (by water pooling in abandoned areas of the landscape) have many structural (e.g., soils and hydrology) and functional (e.g., high denitrification) elements that mimic natural, unaltered aquatic systems. Accidental wetland systems in the dry bed of the Salt River, fed by storm and waste water from urban Phoenix, are located within economically depressed sections of the city, and show the potential for pollutant and heat mitigation. We used a mixed-method socio-ecological approach to examine wetland ecosystem functions and the ways in which homeless populations utilize Salt River wetlands for ecosystem services. Interviews and trash surveys indicated that homeless people are accessing and utilizing the wetlands as a source of running water, for sanitary and heat mitigation services, and for recreation and habitation. Environmental monitoring demonstrated that the wetlands can provide a reliable source of running water, nutrient and pathogen removal, heat mitigation, and privacy, but they may also pose a health risk to individuals coming in contact with the water through drinking or bathing. Whether wetlands provided a net benefit vs. harm varied according to site, season, and particular service, and several tradeoffs were identified. For example, heat is highest during the summer storm season

  20. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1988 through December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to disseminate information concerning the medical status of 253 Marshallese exposed to fallout radiation in 1954. This report discusses the medical care provided and the medical findings for the years 1988-1991. Details of the BRAVO thermonuclear accident that caused the exposure have been published, and a 1955 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association describing the acute medical effects in the exposed population remains a definitive and relevant description of events. Participation in the Marshall Islands Medical Program by the exposed Marshallese is voluntary. In the spring and fall of each year, medical surveillance is provided to exposed and unexposed cohorts. Examinations performed include: a cancer-related examination as defined by the American Society, an annual thyroid examination and thyroid function testing, serum prolactin testing looking for pituitary tumors, annual blood counts to include platelets, and evaluation for paraneoplastic evidence of neoplasms. This report details the medical program, medical findings, and thyroid surgery findings. Deaths (4 exposed and 10 nonexposed) that occurred during the reporting period are discussed. There is a mild but relatively consistent depression of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet concentrations in the blood of the exposed population. This depression appears to be of no clinical significance. Thyroid hypofunction, either clinical or biochemical, has been documented as a consequence of radiation exposure in 14 exposed individuals. Previously, one other exposed person was diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma. During this reporting period, a thyroid nodule was identified in an individual who was in utero during the exposure. Upon pathologic review, the nodule was diagnosed as occult papillary carcinoma

  1. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1988 through December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.E.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.; Adams, W.H.

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to disseminate information concerning the medical status of 253 Marshallese exposed to fallout radiation in 1954. This report discusses the medical care provided and the medical findings for the years 1988-1991. Details of the BRAVO thermonuclear accident that caused the exposure have been published, and a 1955 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association describing the acute medical effects in the exposed population remains a definitive and relevant description of events. Participation in the Marshall Islands Medical Program by the exposed Marshallese is voluntary. In the spring and fall of each year, medical surveillance is provided to exposed and unexposed cohorts. Examinations performed include: a cancer-related examination as defined by the American Society, an annual thyroid examination and thyroid function testing, serum prolactin testing looking for pituitary tumors, annual blood counts to include platelets, and evaluation for paraneoplastic evidence of neoplasms. This report details the medical program, medical findings, and thyroid surgery findings. Deaths (4 exposed and 10 nonexposed) that occurred during the reporting period are discussed. There is a mild but relatively consistent depression of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet concentrations in the blood of the exposed population. This depression appears to be of no clinical significance. Thyroid hypofunction, either clinical or biochemical, has been documented as a consequence of radiation exposure in 14 exposed individuals. Previously, one other exposed person was diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma. During this reporting period, a thyroid nodule was identified in an individual who was in utero during the exposure. Upon pathologic review, the nodule was diagnosed as occult papillary carcinoma.

  2. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  3. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-12-31

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  4. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities

  5. Medical exposure and the effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation gives cracks to genes. The influence is divided into deterministic effect with a threshold value, and the stochastic effect (tumor and genetic effect) which increases according to the exposure amount. Although we are put to various non-artificial radiations, which we cannot be avoided, on the earth, the contamination by artificial radiation can be defended. Artificial radioactive exposure includes medical exposure and non-medical exposure for example by nuclear power plant. As to medical examinations using radiation, the inquiry about the radiation exposure is increasing after the occurrence of the first nuclear power plant disaster of Fukushima. While concern about non-medical radioactive exposure increases, the uneasiness to medical irradiation is also increasing. The dose limit by artificial radioactive exposure other than medical exposure is set up in order to prevent the influence on the health. While the dose limit of the public exposure is set to the lower value than the total dose of non-artificial exposure concerning of a safety margin for all people, the dose limit of medical exposure is not defined, since it is thought that medical irradiation has a benefit for those who receive irradiation. Making an effort to decrease the radiation dose in performing the best medical treatment is the responsibility with which we are burdened. (author)

  6. Influences on radiation exposure in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1,553 single examinations of 25 roentgendiagnostic procedures and measurements of interventional radiology, the patients' doses were determined. Influence of patient features and training of the radiologist for average radiation exposure were examined. Special control measurements examinations with highest radiation exposures showed up to 20% diminishing of dose. (orig.)

  7. Acute radiation enteritis caused by dose-dependent radiation exposure in dogs: experimental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenda; Chen, Jiang; Xu, Liu; Li, Hongyu; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2014-12-01

    Accidental or intended radiation exposure in mass casualty settings presents a serious and on-going threat. The development of mitigating and treating agents requires appropriate animal models. Unfortunately, the majority of research on radiation enteritis in animals has lacked specific assessments and targeted therapy. Our study showed beagle dogs, treated by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for abdominal irradiation, were administered single X-ray doses of 8-30 Gy. The degree of intestinal tract injury for all of the animals after radiation exposure was evaluated with regard to clinical syndrome, endoscopic findings, histological features, and intestinal function. The range of single doses (8 Gy, 10-14 Gy, and 16-30 Gy) represented the degree of injury (mild, moderate, and severe, respectively). Acute radiation enteritis included clinical syndrome with fever, vomiting, diarrhea, hemafecia, and weight loss; typical endoscopic findings included edema, bleeding, mucosal abrasions, and ulcers; and intestinal biopsy results revealed mucosal necrosis, erosion, and loss, inflammatory cell infiltration, hemorrhage, and congestion. Changes in serum diamine oxides (DAOs) and d-xylose represented intestinal barrier function and absorption function, respectively, and correlated with the extent of damage (P enteritis, thus obtaining a relatively objective evaluation of intestinal tract injury based on clinical performance and laboratory examination. The method of assessment of the degree of intestinal tract injury after abdominal irradiation could be beneficial in the development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies for acute radiation enteritis.

  8. DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure, 2001 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2001-12-31

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its operations, including radiological, to ensure the safety and health of all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures to levels that are “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA). The 2001 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides a summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE, and energy research.

  9. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2006 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored individuals associated with DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  10. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2005 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2005-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Offi ce of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored individuals associated with the DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  11. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2007 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2007-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The annual DOEOccupational Radiation Exposure 2007 Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and ALARA process requirements. In addition the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  12. Minimizing radiation exposure during percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T T; Preminger, G M; Lipkin, M E

    2015-12-01

    Given the recent trends in growing per capita radiation dose from medical sources, there have been increasing concerns over patient radiation exposure. Patients with kidney stones undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) are at particular risk for high radiation exposure. There exist several risk factors for increased radiation exposure during PNL which include high Body Mass Index, multiple access tracts, and increased stone burden. We herein review recent trends in radiation exposure, radiation exposure during PNL to both patients and urologists, and various approaches to reduce radiation exposure. We discuss incorporating the principles of As Low As reasonably Achievable (ALARA) into clinical practice and review imaging techniques such as ultrasound and air contrast to guide PNL access. Alternative surgical techniques and approaches to reducing radiation exposure, including retrograde intra-renal surgery, retrograde nephrostomy, endoscopic-guided PNL, and minimally invasive PNL, are also highlighted. It is important for urologists to be aware of these concepts and techniques when treating stone patients with PNL. The discussions outlined will assist urologists in providing patient counseling and high quality of care.

  13. Minimizing radiation exposure during percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T T; Preminger, G M; Lipkin, M E

    2015-12-01

    Given the recent trends in growing per capita radiation dose from medical sources, there have been increasing concerns over patient radiation exposure. Patients with kidney stones undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) are at particular risk for high radiation exposure. There exist several risk factors for increased radiation exposure during PNL which include high Body Mass Index, multiple access tracts, and increased stone burden. We herein review recent trends in radiation exposure, radiation exposure during PNL to both patients and urologists, and various approaches to reduce radiation exposure. We discuss incorporating the principles of As Low As reasonably Achievable (ALARA) into clinical practice and review imaging techniques such as ultrasound and air contrast to guide PNL access. Alternative surgical techniques and approaches to reducing radiation exposure, including retrograde intra-renal surgery, retrograde nephrostomy, endoscopic-guided PNL, and minimally invasive PNL, are also highlighted. It is important for urologists to be aware of these concepts and techniques when treating stone patients with PNL. The discussions outlined will assist urologists in providing patient counseling and high quality of care. PMID:26354615

  14. Prenatal radiation exposure. Dose calculation; Praenatale Strahlenexposition. Dosisermittlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharwaechter, C.; Schwartz, C.A.; Haage, P. [University Hospital Witten/Herdecke, Wuppertal (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Roeser, A. [University Hospital Witten/Herdecke, Wuppertal (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology

    2015-05-15

    The unborn child requires special protection. In this context, the indication for an X-ray examination is to be checked critically. If thereupon radiation of the lower abdomen including the uterus cannot be avoided, the examination should be postponed until the end of pregnancy or alternative examination techniques should be considered. Under certain circumstances, either accidental or in unavoidable cases after a thorough risk assessment, radiation exposure of the unborn may take place. In some of these cases an expert radiation hygiene consultation may be required. This consultation should comprise the expected risks for the unborn while not perturbing the mother or the involved medical staff. For the risk assessment in case of an in-utero X-ray exposition deterministic damages with a defined threshold dose are distinguished from stochastic damages without a definable threshold dose. The occurrence of deterministic damages depends on the dose and the developmental stage of the unborn at the time of radiation. To calculate the risks of an in-utero radiation exposure a three-stage concept is commonly applied. Depending on the amount of radiation, the radiation dose is either estimated, roughly calculated using standard tables or, in critical cases, accurately calculated based on the individual event. The complexity of the calculation thereby increases from stage to stage. An estimation based on stage one is easily feasible whereas calculations based on stages two and especially three are more complex and often necessitate execution by specialists. This article demonstrates in detail the risks for the unborn child pertaining to its developmental phase and explains the three-stage concept as an evaluation scheme. It should be noted, that all risk estimations are subject to considerable uncertainties.

  15. Cross-sectional study on accidental occupational exposures amongst urban slum-based private medical practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha A. Malgaonkar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This cross-sectional, complete enumeration study was conducted in an urban slum to determine the frequency of occupational exposure of private medical practitioners to patient body fluids and the remedial measures adopted following such events and also to examine their high-risk practices, personal protective measures, immunisation and training status in relation to occupational exposures. Methods: After Institutional Ethics Committee approval, private medical practitioners practising for and #8805; 1 year in the locality who gave written informed consent were interviewed in their own clinics using a pre-tested formatted questionnaire. Results: Of the 108 respondents interviewed, the majority were non-allopathic, male practitioners. The speciality-wise and gender-wise differences in training in occupational exposure were not significant (p=0.135. Prior to disposal, 10.18% cut needles while 26.85% disinfected needles with 1% hypochlorite solution (p=0.0001. 50.93% never bent or recapped needles (p=0.0008. Only 19.44% regularly used gloves while examining patients (p=0.0039. 41.66% were completely unimmunised against Hepatitis B (p=0.004, while only one female non-allopathic practitioner (0.92% had taken complete immunisation against tetanus (p<0.05. Of the 7.41% respondents who had history of needle stick injuries, only one female non-allopathic practitioner had reported occupational exposure. Those unaware about the need for post-exposure prophylaxis for occupational exposure and that anti-retroviral therapy was part of post-exposure prophylaxis constituted 87.96% and 95.37%, respectively. Conclusions: Reporting of occupational exposure, complete immunisation against hepatitis B and tetanus and use of personal protection was inadequate. Specialised hands-on training ought to be an integral component of continuing medical education for private medical practitioners. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3708-3713

  16. Assessment of internal radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Young; Chang, S. Y.; Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. S.; Song, M. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-05-01

    This report describes the contents and results for implementation of internal radiation monitoring programme, measurement of uranium lung deposition by lung counter and assessment of committed effective dose for radiation workers of KNFC. The aim of radiation protection was achieved by implementing this activity. 9 refs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  17. Guidelines on the medical therapy of persons accidentally overexposed to ionizing radiations. Internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work represent a guide for the treatment of accidental intakes of radionuclides. The different phases of radioactive contamination, the transfer and non-transfer of radioisotopes, the general principles in the treatment of internal contamination and the follow-up are determined. The in vivo monitoring and the evaluation of activity level are specified in this document. The applied treatment depends on the via of intake, that is: inhalation, ingestion, and through skin. The decontamination procedures that reduce the radionuclide transfer are specified. The different drugs, used to enhance radionuclides elimination, are enumerated in this work. Considerations about the iodine prophylaxis in radiologic als accidents are considered. (author)

  18. Importance of reducing medical radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical exposure primarily refers to intentional irradiation of patients for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Among the man-made sources, diagnostic radiology is the major contributor of radiation dose to the public. This article (1) reviews the recommendations of International Commission of Radiological Protection pertaining to medical exposures, (2) stresses the importance of reducing exposure, (3) deals with the present status of medical exposure in India and (4) discusses the methodology for achieving reduction of medical exposure. Awareness, good equipment, safe work practices, discipline, trained personnel and continuing education will go a long way in achieving the goal of reduction of medical exposure. (author)

  19. Monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief overview is presented of methods of monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation together with reasons for such monitoring and maintaining dose histories of radiation occupationally exposed persons. The various Australian providers of external radiation monitoring services and the types of dosemeters they supply are briefly described together with some monitoring results. Biological monitoring methods, are used to determine internal radiation dose. Whole body monitors, used for this purpose are available at Australian Radiation Lab., ANSTO and a few hospitals. Brief mention is made of the Australian National Radiation Dose Register and its objectives

  20. Health risks associated with environmental radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much is known about health effects associated with exposure to ionising radiation. Numerous epidemiologic studies of populations exposed to radiation under a variety of circumstances have been conducted. These studies have clearly shown that radiation exposure can result in an increased risk of many types of cancer, and the findings are supported by a substantial body of literature from experimental studies. Despite the fact that radiation exposures from environmental sources comprise a relatively minor component of total population exposure, this type of exposure is often the most feared by the public. An accident like Chernobyl or a natural disaster like that at Fukushima provides a unique opportunity to learn more about the health risks from environmental radiation exposures. However, establishing the infrastructure and expertise required to design and conduct all aspects of a complex field study presents formidable challenges. This paper summarises the principal findings from the main studies of environmental radiation exposure that have been successfully undertaken. Although such studies are often exceedingly difficult to conduct, and may be limited by an ecologic design, they can be informative in assessing risk. Any new environmental study that is initiated should focus on special circumstances; additional ecological studies are not recommended. (note)

  1. Occupational radiation exposure in Austria in 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute for Radiation Protection at the Research Center Seibersdorf operates since over three years an automatic TLD-personnel monitoring service comprising some 13000 radiation workers all over Austria who are generally monitored during monthly periods according to radiation legislation. All dose readings obtained by the system are stored on computer in a central dose register. Electronic data handling techniques can easily be used to obtain statistical information on radiation exposure for different user branches. The following data include distribution of monthly dose values for different branches, average monthly dose readings and occupational exposure of different groups of age. Due to the very large number of individual dose readings a statistically significant view of the occupational radiation exposure in Austria during 1979 can be obtained. (author)

  2. Radioactivity in water and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation exposure of man via waters is outlined. Natural as well as man-made radionuclides are taken into account, also considering the influence by man on the activity distribution in the environment. Relations between air and water pollution are treated. The measured values in hand do not indicate a significant increase of radiation exposure of man by man-made radionuclides in drinking water. The importance is discussed of international agreements in order to overcome environmental problems. (orig.)

  3. Radiation effects after exposure during prenetal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The embryo and fetus are very radiosensitive during the total prenatal development period. The quality and extent of radiation effects depend strongly on the developmental stage at which the exposure occurs. During the preimplantation period radiation exposure can cause death of the embryo after radiation doses of 0.2 Gy and higher. Malformations are only observed in very rare cases when genetic predispositions exist. Macroscopic-anatomical malformations are induced only after irradiation during the major organogenesis. On the basis of experimental data with mammals it is assumed that a radiation dose of about 0.2 Gy doubles the malformation risk. Studies in humans give rise to the assumption that the human embryo is more radioresistant than the embryos of mice and rats. Radiation exposure during the major organogenesis and the early fetal period lead to disturbances in the growth and developmental processes. During early fetogenesis (week 8-15 post coruption) high radiosensitity exists for the development of the central nervous system. Radiation doses of 1 Gy cause severe mental retardation in about 50% of exposed fetuses. Analysis of the dose-effect curves shows that there is probably a dose-effect curve with a threshold for this effect. It must be taken into account that radiation exposure during the fetal period also induces cancer. The studies, however, do not allow quantitative estimate of this radiation risk at present. It is therefore generally assumed that the risk is about the same level as for children. (orig.)

  4. Report on international round table conference 'Accidental radiation contamination of food of animal origin'. Vol.II (Working papers)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The World Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (WAVFH) held an international round table conference in Stockholm, Sweden, January 26-29, 1987. The topic of the conference was 'Accidental Radiation Contamination of Food of Animal Origin'. The agenda was divided into three major topic areas: 1. Ecological Science; 2. Veterinary Science - Live Animals; and 3. Veterinary Science - Food of Animal Origin. Experts and delegates from member countries presented papers, participated in discussions and workshops and produced a multidisciplinary report covering the topic areas. Two volumes were produced; one a collection of all papers presented, and the other a compilation of the proceedings from each of the topic workshops. In order to rapidly distribute the Association's information to members, papers and other information were collated and disseminated as presented to the conference participants

  5. Visits to Australia by nuclear powered or armed vessels: contingency planning for the accidental release of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adequacy of current contingency planning by Federal and State authorities to deal with the accidental release of ionizing radiation from visiting nuclear powered or armed vessels in Australian waters and ports is reported on and 39 recommendations are made. After introductory chapters, the remainder of the report consists of two parts. Chapters 3 to 10 deal with the main issues relating to nuclear powered warship (NPW) visits and the adequacy of current contingency plans. Chapters 11 to 13 deal with the question whether any specific planning is required for visits by nuclear weapons capable warships. In part one the present emergency arrangements and criticisms of the current plans are reviewed. The NPWs' reactors, safety records and visit arrangements in other countries are discussed. The validity of the reference accident on which current NPW emergency planning is based is assessed. In part two nuclear weapons and their accidents are reviewed. The dissenting report of one of the Senators is included

  6. Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiations: myths and truths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In utero exposures to ionising radiation are a very important subject in radiological protection concerning not only the prevention but also the estimation of the associated risks. In these situations the perception of risks by the pregnant woman and the involved professionals could not always be correlated with their objective magnitude. In this communication we describe the effects of prenatal exposure to ionising, the thresholds and their relation with the gestational age, taking into account occupationally exposed women, patients undergoing medical procedures and public members. The dose estimation, the evaluation of the potential associated risks and the relation with the spontaneous incidence of the considered effects are analyzed in the framework of the basic principles of radiological protection. Most of diagnostic procedures properly done do not imply induction of deterministic effects in embryo/fetus. Therapeutical procedures and accidental overexposures could associated with significant risks of deterministic effects. Childhood cancer induction is an stochastic effect without threshold and every in utero exposure will increase their probability. (Author) 13 refs

  7. Radiation Exposure According to Radiation Technologist' Working Departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation dose to radiologists working at three hospitals in Seoul was investigated from Jan 1, 2006 to Dec. 31, 2006. The results are as follows. First, radiation dose to radiologists at a cardiac angiography room was measured as 1.41 mSv, the highest while radiation dose to radiologists at a department of radiation oncology was measured as 0.64 mSv, the lowest. Second, radiation dose proves to be in direct proportion to the number of X-ray treatment. Third, as for the radiation dose in X-ray treatments, radiologists in cardiac angiography room are exposed to the largest amount of radiation while radiologists in diagnostic radiology department are exposed to the smallest amount of radiation. Last, radiation dose at a cardiac angiography room is the largest and is followed by nuclear medicine, diagnostic radiology, and radiation oncology departments in order. According to ICRP, exposure less than 20 mSv per year is highly recommended while radiation dose is allowed as long as it is ranged less than 50 mSv per year or 100 mSv within a 5-year period. Taking into account the results, radiation exposure does not do any harm to radiologists at any related departments in Korean hospitals because the dose per year is less than 1.60 mSv.

  8. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the third in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The decrease in the overall average doses established over the last 20 years appears to be changing. In some occupational categories a consistent upward trend is observed

  9. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the fifth in a series of annual reports in Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which contains dose records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included, and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded

  10. Radiation exposure in the moon environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Matthiae, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    During a stay on the moon humans are exposed to elevated radiation levels due to the lack of substantial atmospheric and magnetic shielding compared to the Earth's surface. The absence of magnetic and atmospheric shielding allows cosmic rays of all energies to impinge on the lunar surface. Beside the continuous exposure to galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which increases the risk of cancer mortality, exposure through particles emitted in sudden nonpredictable solar particle events (SPE) may occur. SPEs show an enormous variability in particle flux and energy spectra and have the potential to expose space crew to life threatening doses. On Earth, the contribution to the annual terrestrial dose of natural ionizing radiation of 2.4 mSv by cosmic radiation is about 1/6, whereas the annual exposure caused by GCR on the lunar surface is roughly 380 mSv (solar minimum) and 110 mSv (solar maximum). The analysis of worst case scenarios has indicated that SPE may lead to an exposure of about 1 Sv. The only efficient measure to reduce radiation exposure is the provision of radiation shelters. Measurements on the lunar surface performed during the Apollo missions cover only a small energy band for thermal neutrons and are not sufficient to estimate the exposure. Very recently some data were added by the Radiation Dose Monitoring (RADOM) instrument operated during the Indian Chandrayaan Mission and the Cosmic Ray Telescope (CRaTER) instrument of the NASA LRO (Lunar Reconnaisance Orbiter) mission. These measurements need to be complemented by surface measurements. Models and simulations that exist describe the approximate radiation exposure in space and on the lunar surface. The knowledge on the radiation exposure at the lunar surface is exclusively based on calculations applying radiation transport codes in combination with environmental models. Own calculations are presented using Monte-Carlo simulations to calculate the radiation environment on the moon and organ doses on the

  11. Routine medicare and radiation exposure. Introductory remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an introduction of the title series, outlines of radiation in physics, chemistry, biochemistry, biological effect and protection are explained from the clinical doctors' aspect of routine medicare, and of radiation exposure in which people's interest is raised after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident in 2011. For physics, ionizing effects of radiation are described in relation to its quantum energy transfer and its medical utilization like imaging and radiotherapy. Then mentioned in brief is the radiation from elements consisting of human body, cosmic ray and background radiation from the earth, with reference to natural and standardized limits of exposure doses. Radiations from 226Rn and 40K are explained as an instance of environmental natural sources together with the concepts of radioactive decay series/scheme, of internal exposure, of hazard like double strand break (DSB) and of medical use such as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). For an artifact radiation source, shown are fission products of 235U by neutron, first yielded in 1945. Evidence of evolution in biochemical repair mechanisms of DSB is explained with a comparison of irradiated drosophila mutation where linear non-threshold (LNT) hypothesis is proposed, and human non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination. Historical process of occupational, medical, public exposures and their protection is finally described from the discovery of X-ray in 1895 to the first ICRP publication in 1958 via the A-bomb explosion in 1945. (T.T.)

  12. Risks and management of radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Loren G

    2013-09-01

    High-energy ionizing radiation is harmful. Low-level exposure sources include background, occupational, and medical diagnostics. Radiation disaster incidents include radioactive substance accidents and nuclear power plant accidents. Terrorism and international conflict could trigger intentional radiation disasters that include radiation dispersion devices (RDD) (a radioactive dirty bomb), deliberate exposure to industrial radioactive substances, nuclear power plant sabotage, and nuclear weapon detonation. Nuclear fissioning events such as nuclear power plant incidents and nuclear weapon detonation release radioactive fallout that include radioactive iodine 131, cesium 137, strontium 90, uranium, plutonium, and many other radioactive isotopes. An RDD dirty bomb is likely to spread only one radioactive substance, with the most likely substance being cesium 137. Cobalt 60 and strontium 90 are other RDD dirty bomb possibilities. In a radiation disaster, stable patients should be decontaminated to minimize further radiation exposure. Potassium iodide (KI) is useful for iodine 131 exposure. Prussian blue (ferric hexacyanoferrate) enhances the fecal excretion of cesium via ion exchange. Ca-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) and Zn-DTPA form stable ionic complexes with plutonium, americium, and curium, which are excreted in the urine. Amifostine enhances chemical and enzymatic repair of damaged DNA. Acute radiation sickness ranges in severity from mild to lethal, which can be assessed by the nausea/vomiting onset/duration, complete blood cell count findings, and neurologic symptoms. PMID:24201986

  13. Bases for establishing radiation exposure limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is an essential requirement of good radiation protection that all unnecessary exposure of people should be avoided and that any necessary exposure, whether of workers or of members of the general public, should be minimized. It is, however, an additional requirement that such necessary exposures should not exceed certain stated limits. These principles are based on the possibility that even the smallest exposures may involve some risk of harm, that any risk of harm should be justifiable by the circumstances necessitating it, and that risk should always be limited to an appropriately low level. The bases for establishing exposure limits must therefore involve an assessment of the risk involved in any form of radiation exposure, and an opinion as to the degree of safety that should be ensured in circumstances which necessitate any occupational or public exposure to radiation. There is increasing quantitative evidence on the frequency on which harm, and particularly the induction of malignancies, may be caused in people exposed to radiation at high doses; and somewhat clearer bases than previously for inferring the possible frequencies at low doses. It is therefore easier to assess the degree of safety ensured by restricting radiation exposure to particular levels. It is clear also that a comparable degree of safety should be ensured whether the radiation exposure involves the whole body more of less uniformly, or individual tissues or organs selectively. The ''weighting'' factors appropriate to irradiation of particular tissues from internal emitters can thus be defined in terms of their likely individual contributions to the harm of whole-body irradiation. In this way the limits for different modes of exposure by external or internal radiation can be related so as to ensure that protection should be equally effective for different distributions of absorbed dose in the body. In particular, the over-simplified concept of a single critical organ determining the

  14. US Transuranium and Uranium Registries case study on accidental exposure to uranium hexafluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtandilashvili, Maia; Puncher, Matthew; McComish, Stacey L; Tolmachev, Sergei Y

    2015-03-01

    d(-1) and a median of 0.000 31 d(-1). The effective dose per unit intake calculated using the dissolution parameters derived from the maximum likelihood and the Bayesian analyses was higher than the current ICRP dose coefficient for type F uranium by a factor of 2 or 7, respectively; the higher value of the latter was due to use of the revised respiratory tract model. The dissolution parameter values obtained here may be more appropriate to use for radiation protection purposes when individuals are exposed to a UF6 mixture that contains an insoluble uranium component. PMID:25580579

  15. Radiation risk due to occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to ionizing radiation occurs in many occupations. Workers can be exposed to both natural and artificial sources of radiation. Any exposure to ionizing radiation incurs some risk, either to the individual or to the individual's progeny. This dissertation investigated the radiation risk due to occupational exposure in industrial radiography. Analysis of the reported risk estimates to occupational exposure contained in the UNSCEAR report of 2008 in industrial radiography practice was done. The causes of accidents in industrial radiography include: Lack of or inadequate regulatory control, inadequate training, failure to follow operational procedures, human error, equipment malfunction or defect, inadequate maintenance and wilful violation have been identified as primary causes of accidents. To minimise radiation risks in industrial radiography exposure devices and facilities should be designed such that there is intrinsic safety and operational safety ensured by establishing a quality assurance programme, safety culture fostered and maintained among all workers, industrial radiography is performed in compliance with approved local rules, workers engaged have appropriate qualifications and training, available safe operational procedures are followed, a means is provided for detecting incidents and accidents and an analysis of the causes and lessons learned. (author)

  16. Biological effects and hazards of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis form the main risk to health from exposure to low levels of radiation. This risk effects can be at least qualitatively understood by considering the effects of radiation on cell DNA. Whilst exposure to high levels of radiation results in a number of identifiable effects, exposure to low levels of radiation may result in effects which only manifest themselves after many years. Risk estimates for low levels of radiation have been derived on the basis of a number of assumptions. In the case of uranium mine workers a major hazard arises from the inhalation of radon daughters. Whilst the correlation between radon daughter exposure and lung cancer incidence is well established, the numerical value of the risk factor is the subject of controversy. ICRP 50 gives a value of 10 cases per 106 person-years at risk per WLM (range 5-15 x 10-6 PYR-1 WLM-1). The effect of smoking on lung cancer incidence rates amongst miners is also controversial. Nevertheless, smoking by miners should be discouraged

  17. Tissues may adapt to radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-01

    French scientists discovered radioactivity and developed vaccination, so it is perhaps appropriate that a prominent French cancer specialist should be promoting the idea of a radiation vaccination effect - or radiation adaptation, as he prefers to call it. Raymond Latarjet, of the Institut Curie in Paris, maintains that recent studies at the gene level are showing evidence that with low doses of radiation, there is time for a cell repair mechanism to take effect, and that this seems to provide some protection against subsequent exposure to high doses. He cited experiments in his laboratory in which exposure to a dose of 4 Gy (400 rad) had, predictably, produced a large number of gene mutations in a specimen, but the number of mutations was less than half that number in a specimen that had been exposed to a dose of 0.02 Gy some six hours before exposure to the 4 Gy.

  18. Disaster medicine. Present status of medicine for emergent radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global and Japanese medical networks organized for the accidental emergent exposure are outlined, actual measures at Japanese accidents are summarized, and their present tasks/problems are discussed. ICRP issues comments concerning radiation protection based on scientific findings verified by UNSCEAR, where there are such international organizations for the emergent network as WHO Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network (REMPAN) and IAEA Response Assistance Network (RANET). Two Japanese facilities (National Institute of Radiological Sciences: NIRS, and Nagasaki University) are in REMPAN and 3 (NIRS, Japan Atomic Energy Agency and Hiroshima Univ.), in RANET. The Radiation Emergency Medicine Network Council (REMNC, founded in NIRS, 1997) plays the central role in Japanese networks, consisting from medical facilities in prefectures having the nuclear facility and in their neighboring areas. Those facilities are responsible for the primary, secondary and tertiary medicare of the emergent exposure: id est (i.e.), respectively; in/near the nuclear facility, in its infirmary and in the emergency evacuation site; for hospitalization; and for hospitalization with expertized treatment. At Tokai JCO criticality accident in Ibaraki prefecture (1999), 3 workers exposed to the high dose of neutron flux were rapidly carried into the tertiary facility NIRS according to the treatment planning by REMNC. At Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident in 2011, the tertiary NIRS, Hiroshima Univ., and secondary Fukushima Medical Univ. in REMNC mainly intervened various kinds of medicare as early as at the first stage. Hospitals in Tochigi prefecture neighboring to Fukushima had to face the emergency derived from the radioactive plume. Present tasks/problems posed by these accidents are two: reconsideration of disaster measures for the network like REMNC to spread defined areas and facilities in wider regions and smaller hospitals; and importance of 3 risk

  19. European study of occupational radiation exposure (ESOREX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Study of Occupational Radiation Exposure (ESOREX) project was initiated by the general directive EC DG XI and carried out by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Germany (BfS). It consists of surveys carried out in the 28 European states. The study provides comparable description of the national administrative structures used to monitor and register individual occupational radiation exposure and the national dose statistics. It will establish the basis for identifying differences between the states and assessing the possibilities for European harmonisation. (author)

  20. Radiation exposure from radium-226 ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution of radium to total radiation exposure resulting from the consumption of natural levels of 226Ra in several public water supplies in an Oklahoma county was determined. A pilot-level study of total dietary intake indicated that the culinary use of water anomalously high in radium and the consumption of water-based beverages contributed significantly to radiation exposure. The mean dietary intake of 226Ra was 20.6 pCi/day in one community and resulted in an estimated bone dose of 310 mrem/year

  1. Case of child abuse by radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 2 May 1974, a father was convicted of castrating his 13-year-old son by exposing him to a 1-curie source of 137Cs to be used for oil gas well logging. The child was subjected to perhaps eight exposures or attempted exposures over a six-month period. A brief discussion of the medical descriptions of the radiation effects upon the skin and testes and the chromosomal system is included

  2. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the seventeenth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The information is derived from the National Dose Registry of the Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada. As in the past, this report presents the following data by occupation: average yearly whole body doses by region, dose distributions, and variations of the average doses with time. (author). 17 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  3. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its radiological operations to ensure the health and safety of all DOE employees including contractors and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures and releases to levels that are ``As Low As Reasonably Achievable`` (ALARA). The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 provides summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE and precursor agency sites, and energy research. Collective exposure at DOE has declined by 80% over the past decade due to a cessation in opportunities for exposure during the transition in DOE mission from weapons production to cleanup, deactivation and decommissioning, and changes in reporting requirements and dose calculation methodology. In 1996, the collective dose decreased by 10% from the 1995 value due to decreased doses at five of the seven highest-dose DOE sites. For 1996, these sites attributed the reduction in collective dose to the completion of several decontamination and decommissioning projects, reduced spent fuel storage activities, and effective ALARA practices. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for managers in their management of radiological safety programs and commitment of resources.

  4. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its radiological operations to ensure the health and safety of all DOE employees including contractors and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures and releases to levels that are ''As Low As Reasonably Achievable'' (ALARA). The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 provides summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE and precursor agency sites, and energy research. Collective exposure at DOE has declined by 80% over the past decade due to a cessation in opportunities for exposure during the transition in DOE mission from weapons production to cleanup, deactivation and decommissioning, and changes in reporting requirements and dose calculation methodology. In 1996, the collective dose decreased by 10% from the 1995 value due to decreased doses at five of the seven highest-dose DOE sites. For 1996, these sites attributed the reduction in collective dose to the completion of several decontamination and decommissioning projects, reduced spent fuel storage activities, and effective ALARA practices. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for managers in their management of radiological safety programs and commitment of resources

  5. Natural radiation exposure modified by human activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are now living in the radiation environment modified by our technology. It is usually called 'Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation' and have been discussed in the UNSCEAR Reports as an important source of exposure. The terrestrial radionuclide concentrations as well as the intensity of cosmic rays are considered to have been constant after our ancestors came down from trees and started walking on their two feet. However, we have been changing our environment to be more comfortable for our life and consequently ambient radiation levels are nomore what used to be. In this paper exposures due to natural radiation modified by our following activities are discussed: housing, balneology, cave excursion, mountain climbing, skiing, swimming, smoking and usage of mineral water, well water, coal, natural gas, phosphate rocks and minerals. In the ICRP Publication No. 39, it is clearly mentioned that even natural radiation should be controlled as far as it is controllable. We have to pay more attention to our activities not to enhance the exposure due to unnecessary, avoidable radiation. (author)

  6. Aircrew radiation exposure assessment for Yugoslav airlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented study shows that the crews of the intercontinental flights can receive significant annual effective doses (1.5-2.0 mSv). The exposure of the crews is comparable with natural radiation level on the ground level (it can be up to 5 times higher for some air crew members in the intercontinental flights), but smaller than maximum permissible dose for general population. The annual exposures of the passengers are generally smaller than the exposures of tile air crews. because the passengers have a limited number of flights per year compared with the members of the air-crews. (author)

  7. Radiation exposure in interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, N.G.V. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE-UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Rio de Janeiro 21945-970 (Brazil)], E-mail: nivia@lin.ufrj.br; Braz, D. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE-UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Rio de Janeiro 21945-970 (Brazil); Vallim, M.A. [Department of Radioprotection, IEN-UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Filho, L.G.P.; Azevedo, F.S. [Clementino Fraga Filho Universitary Hospital, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro 21941-590 (Brazil); Barroso, R.C. [Physics Institute, University of Rio de Janeiro State, Rio de Janeiro 20559-900 (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE-UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Rio de Janeiro 21945-970 (Brazil)

    2007-09-21

    The aim of this study is to evaluate dose values in patients and staff involved in some interventional radiology procedures. Doses have been measured using thermoluminescent dosemeters for single procedures (such as renal and cerebral arteriography, transjungular intrahepatic portasystemic shunt (TIPS) and chemoembolization). The magnitude of doses through the hands of interventional radiologists has been studied. Dose levels were evaluated in three points for patients (eye, thyroid and gonads). The dose-area product (DAP) was also investigated using a Diamentor (PTW-M2). The dose in extremities was estimated for a professional who generally performed one TIPS, two chemoembolizations, two cerebral arteriographies and two renal arteriographies in a week. The estimated annual radiation dose was converted to effective dose as suggested by the 453-MS/Brazil norm The annual dose values were 137.25 mSv for doctors, 40.27 mSv for nurses and 51.95 mSv for auxiliary doctors, and all these annual dose values are below the limit established. The maximum values of the dose obtained for patients were 6.91, 10.92 and 15.34 mGy close to eye, thyroid and gonads, respectively. The DAP values were evaluated for patients in the same interventional radiology procedures. The dose and DAP values obtained are in agreement with values encountered in the literature.

  8. Radiation exposure in interventional radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, N. G. V.; Braz, D.; Vallim, M. A.; Filho, L. G. P.; Azevedo, F. S.; Barroso, R. C.; Lopes, R. T.

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate dose values in patients and staff involved in some interventional radiology procedures. Doses have been measured using thermoluminescent dosemeters for single procedures (such as renal and cerebral arteriography, transjungular intrahepatic portasystemic shunt (TIPS) and chemoembolization). The magnitude of doses through the hands of interventional radiologists has been studied. Dose levels were evaluated in three points for patients (eye, thyroid and gonads). The dose-area product (DAP) was also investigated using a Diamentor (PTW-M2). The dose in extremities was estimated for a professional who generally performed one TIPS, two chemoembolizations, two cerebral arteriographies and two renal arteriographies in a week. The estimated annual radiation dose was converted to effective dose as suggested by the 453-MS/Brazil norm The annual dose values were 137.25 mSv for doctors, 40.27 mSv for nurses and 51.95 mSv for auxiliary doctors, and all these annual dose values are below the limit established. The maximum values of the dose obtained for patients were 6.91, 10.92 and 15.34 mGy close to eye, thyroid and gonads, respectively. The DAP values were evaluated for patients in the same interventional radiology procedures. The dose and DAP values obtained are in agreement with values encountered in the literature.

  9. Factors Affecting the Medical Management and Care of Persons Accidentally Overexposed to Ionising Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All establishments where acute external radiation overexposure or significant intake of radioactive materials may occur have to make plans to deal with such situations. This paper describes the various stages in such plans and covers selection, early care and, where necessary, transfer of exposed persons for more specialised care. The factors influencing decisions on these matters are discussed, and the necessary degrees of urgency and precision at various stages of the process are reviewed. All emergency schemes have the objective of guarding against deterioration in the condition of the patient and of preparing him for further definitive treatment. In this respect, the approach to cases of internal contamination is different from that applicable to extemal radiation cases. These differences are reviewed and an outline emergency drill is described for each category of incident. Occupational radiation incidents can be considered as a specialised aspect of occupational health but the planning attention devoted to them has been more detailed than that thought appropriate in other fields of industrial hygiene and safety. The need for a clear distinction in the approach to procedures carried out for the benefit of the patient and those carried out for radiological reasons or research purposes is discussed. (author)

  10. Rapid assessment of accidental exposures (RACE) with MCP-N (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system is based on a new generation of ultra-sensitive thermoluminescent dosemeters and is able to monitor environmental radiation doses at a large number of locations within few days and to perform rapid (24 - 48 hours) in situ dose assessment in the event of any nuclear or radiation accident. Technical specifications of the instrumentation and procedures of the system are given. The linearity of the detector response for doses within the range of 1 μGy to 1 Gy is better than 2%. All the detectors investigated demonstrated a good stability in long-term exposure. The detectors are fully comparable with active detectors in short-term and daily routine dose rate measurements. (M.D.)

  11. Radiation exposure in CT-guided interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate radiation exposure in computed tomography (CT)-guided interventions, to establish reference levels for exposure, and to discuss strategies for dose reduction. Materials and methods: We analyzed 1576 consecutive CT-guided procedures in 1284 patients performed over 4.5 years, including drainage placements; biopsies of different organs; radiofrequency and microwave ablations (RFA/MWA) of liver, bone, and lung tumors; pain blockages, and vertebroplasties. Data were analyzed with respect to scanner settings, overall radiation doses, and individual doses of planning CT series, CT intervention, and control CT series. Results: Eighy-five percent of the total radiation dose was applied during the pre- and post-interventional CT series, leaving only 15% applied by the CT-guided intervention itself. Single slice acquisition was associated with lower doses than continuous CT-fluoroscopy (37 mGy cm vs. 153 mGy cm, p < 0.001). The third quartile of radiation doses varied considerably for different interventions. The highest doses were observed in complex interventions like RFA/MWA of the liver, followed by vertebroplasty and RFA/MWA of the lung. Conclusions: This paper suggests preliminary reference levels for various intervention types and discusses strategies for dose reduction. A multicenter registry of radiation exposure including a broader spectrum of scanners and intervention types is needed to develop definitive reference levels

  12. Radiation exposure in CT-guided interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloeckner, Roman, E-mail: Roman.Kloeckner@unimedizin-mainz.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Santos, Daniel Pinto dos; Schneider, Jens [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Kara, Levent [Department of Radiology, Inselspital Bern, Freiburgstraße 18, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Dueber, Christoph; Pitton, Michael B. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate radiation exposure in computed tomography (CT)-guided interventions, to establish reference levels for exposure, and to discuss strategies for dose reduction. Materials and methods: We analyzed 1576 consecutive CT-guided procedures in 1284 patients performed over 4.5 years, including drainage placements; biopsies of different organs; radiofrequency and microwave ablations (RFA/MWA) of liver, bone, and lung tumors; pain blockages, and vertebroplasties. Data were analyzed with respect to scanner settings, overall radiation doses, and individual doses of planning CT series, CT intervention, and control CT series. Results: Eighy-five percent of the total radiation dose was applied during the pre- and post-interventional CT series, leaving only 15% applied by the CT-guided intervention itself. Single slice acquisition was associated with lower doses than continuous CT-fluoroscopy (37 mGy cm vs. 153 mGy cm, p < 0.001). The third quartile of radiation doses varied considerably for different interventions. The highest doses were observed in complex interventions like RFA/MWA of the liver, followed by vertebroplasty and RFA/MWA of the lung. Conclusions: This paper suggests preliminary reference levels for various intervention types and discusses strategies for dose reduction. A multicenter registry of radiation exposure including a broader spectrum of scanners and intervention types is needed to develop definitive reference levels.

  13. Cosmic radiation exposure and persistent cognitive dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Vipan K.; Allen, Barrett D.; Caressi, Chongshan; Kwok, Stephanie; Chu, Esther; Tran, Katherine K.; Chmielewski, Nicole N.; Giedzinski, Erich; Acharya, Munjal M.; Britten, Richard A.; Baulch, Janet E.; Limoli, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars mission will result in an inevitable exposure to cosmic radiation that has been shown to cause cognitive impairments in rodent models, and possibly in astronauts engaged in deep space travel. Of particular concern is the potential for cosmic radiation exposure to compromise critical decision making during normal operations or under emergency conditions in deep space. Rodents exposed to cosmic radiation exhibit persistent hippocampal and cortical based performance decrements using six independent behavioral tasks administered between separate cohorts 12 and 24 weeks after irradiation. Radiation-induced impairments in spatial, episodic and recognition memory were temporally coincident with deficits in executive function and reduced rates of fear extinction and elevated anxiety. Irradiation caused significant reductions in dendritic complexity, spine density and altered spine morphology along medial prefrontal cortical neurons known to mediate neurotransmission interrogated by our behavioral tasks. Cosmic radiation also disrupted synaptic integrity and increased neuroinflammation that persisted more than 6 months after exposure. Behavioral deficits for individual animals correlated significantly with reduced spine density and increased synaptic puncta, providing quantitative measures of risk for developing cognitive impairment. Our data provide additional evidence that deep space travel poses a real and unique threat to the integrity of neural circuits in the brain. PMID:27721383

  14. Review of medical findings in a Marshallese population twenty-six years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 1954, radioactive debris from a thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll deviated from predicted trajectories and contaminated several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. As a result, 239 native inhabitants of these islands along with 28 American servicemen and 23 Japanese fishermen received variably severe exposures to diverse ionizing radiations. Fallout material consisted largely of mixed fission products with small amounts of neutron-induced radionuclides and minimal amounts of fissionable elements, producing a complex spectrum of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Individuals were exposed to deeply penetrating, whole-body gamma irradiation, to internal radiation emitters assimilated either by inhalation or by ingestion of contaminated water and food, and to direct radiation from material accumulating on body surfaces. That accident initiated a cascade of events, medical, social and political, which continue in varying forms to this day. Most of these have been discussed in the open medical literature and in periodic reports issued by the medical team headquartered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report attempts to summarize some of the principal findings of medical significnce that have been observed during the subsequent 26 years with particular emphasis on the last six years

  15. Review of medical findings in a Marshallese population twenty-six years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.; Paglia, D.E.; Larsen, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    In March 1954, radioactive debris from a thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll deviated from predicted trajectories and contaminated several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. As a result, 239 native inhabitants of these islands along with 28 American servicemen and 23 Japanese fishermen received variably severe exposures to diverse ionizing radiations. Fallout material consisted largely of mixed fission products with small amounts of neutron-induced radionuclides and minimal amounts of fissionable elements, producing a complex spectrum of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Individuals were exposed to deeply penetrating, whole-body gamma irradiation, to internal radiation emitters assimilated either by inhalation or by ingestion of contaminated water and food, and to direct radiation from material accumulating on body surfaces. That accident initiated a cascade of events, medical, social and political, which continue in varying forms to this day. Most of these have been discussed in the open medical literature and in periodic reports issued by the medical team headquartered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report attempts to summarize some of the principal findings of medical significnce that have been observed during the subsequent 26 years with particular emphasis on the last six years.

  16. Radiation exposure mitigation through food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Yukawa, Masae; Watanabe, Yoshito; Shiraishi, Kunio; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Uchida, Shigeo [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Watabe, Teruhisa; Miyazaki, Taeko [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki (Japan). Lab. for Radioecology

    2001-12-01

    {sup 137}CsCl{sub 2} was incorporated into plants (tomyao and broccoli) and these homogenized solutions were administered to rats. The whole-body retention was determined with an Armac counter. The whole body retention patterns of {sup 137}Cs incorporated into the plants were not significantly different from that of the {sup 137}CsCl{sub 2} solution. Chitosan is derived from chitin, which is a cellulose-like biopolymer distributed widely in nature, especially in crustaceans, insects, fungi and yeast. The present study was to investigate whether chitosan can be applied to animal and human bodies in order to reduce the bioavailability of radio-iron and -zinc in food. Chitosan inhibits dietary iron absorption only when rats eat on iron-deficient diet. The effectiveness of phytate (myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis dihydrogen phosphate) and chitosan in reducing the bioavailability of radio-zinc depend on the concentration of phytate and chitosan. Recently, the share of imported foods increased ca. 40% of Japanese total food consumption. Radioactivities in imported foods must be checked from the viewpoints of internal radiation for Japanese subjects. Concentrations of {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U in some imported mineral waters were higher than domestic waters. However, internal doses of portable waters are negligible. Individual foodstuffs in major food groups (fish and shellfish, meats, mushrooms, root vegetables and so on), which contributed to some radionuclide intakes in Japanese, were also analyzed to clarify the critical pathway in Japanese subjects. (author)

  17. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2004 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors, as well as members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  18. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2002 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2002-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  19. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1999 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1999-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safety and Health publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  20. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in their management of radiological safety programs and to assist them in the prioritization of resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside the DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of collective data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  1. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1997 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  2. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1998 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1998-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health with support from Environment Safety and Health Technical Information Services publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  3. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2003 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2003-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  4. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2000 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safety and Health publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE in making this report most useful to them. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  5. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the second in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers in Canada. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The 1979 data indicate that the gradually decreasing trend of the last two decades may be changing. In a number of areas the overall average doses and the averages for some job categories have increased over the corresponding values for 1977 and 1978

  6. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the fourth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes those records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The decrease in the overall average doses established over the last 20 years appears to have resumed after an interruption during 1979 to 1980. A brief summary of extremity dose data is also included

  7. Radiation exposure of the UK population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man is continuously exposed to radiation from many sources, both natural and man-made. The man-made sources include medical irradiation, exposure from radioactive waste disposal, fallout from nuclear weapons tests and various 'miscellaneous sources' which include consumer products. The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) keeps these contributions to the radiation exposure of the population under continuous review and publishes reports on the subject periodically. This is the second such report and contains considerably more information than the first published in 1974. The balance of the report reflects the availability of data and the advice given in the sixth report of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. The conclusions are: (a) that the major contribution to the dose to the population is from natural background radiation; (b) that the largest man-made contribution is from medical uses of radiation; (c) that the largest contribution from environmental contamination is still from the residual effects of fallout from nuclear weapons testing; (d) that occupational exposure and irradiation from miscellaneous sources, considered as contributions to the per caput dose to the population, are the next largest components; (e) that radioactive waste disposal is the smallest contributor to the per caput dose to the population. It was also felt useful to review the past trends in the doses resulting from the various sources and the authors have attempted to make some tentative predictions of doses up to the year 2000. (author)

  8. Radiation exposure and radiation risk of the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major scientifically founded results concerning the assessment of the radiation exposure and the analysis and evaluation of the radiationhazards for the population, particularly in the range of low doses, are presented. As to the risk analysis special attention is paid to the rays with low ionization density (X-, γ-, β- and electronrays). Contents: 1) Detailed survey of the results and conclusions; 2) Data on the radiation load of the population; 3) Results to epidemiological questioning on the risk of cancer; 4) Genetical radiation hazards of the population. For quantification purposes of the risk of cancer by γ-radiation the observations with the a-bomb survivors in Japan are taken as a basis, as the available dosimetrical data have to be revised. Appendices: 1) German translation of the UNSCEAR-Report (1977); 2) BEIR-Report (1980); 3) Comments from the SSK on the comparability of the risks of natural-artificial radiation exposure; 4) Comments from the SSK on the importance of synergistical influences for the radiation protection (23.9.1977). (HP)

  9. Exposure assessment of aluminum arc welding radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-yu; Lan, Cheng-hang; Juang, Yow-jer; Tsao, Ta-ho; Dai, Yu-tung; Liu, Hung-hsin; Chen, Chiou-jong

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the non-ionizing radiation (NIR) exposure, especially optical radiation levels, and potential health hazard from aluminum arc welding processes based on the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) method. The irradiance from the optical radiation emissions can be calculated with various biological effective parameters [i.e., S(lambda), B(lambda), R(lambda)] for NIR hazard assessments. The aluminum arc welding processing scatters bright light with NIR emission including ultraviolet radiation (UVR), visible, and infrared spectra. The UVR effective irradiance (Eeff) has a mean value of 1,100 microW cm at 100 cm distance from the arc spot. The maximum allowance time (tmax) is 2.79 s according to the ACGIH guideline. Blue-light hazard effective irradiance (EBlue) has a mean value of 1840 microW cm (300-700 nm) at 100 cm with a tmax of 5.45 s exposure allowance. Retinal thermal hazard effective calculation shows mean values of 320 mW cm(-2) sr(-1) and 25.4 mW (cm-2) (380-875 nm) for LRetina (spectral radiance) and ERetina (spectral irradiance), respectively. From this study, the NIR measurement from welding optical radiation emissions has been established to evaluate separate types of hazards to the eye and skin simultaneously. The NIR exposure assessment can be applied to other optical emissions from industrial sources. The data from welding assessment strongly suggest employees involved in aluminum welding processing must be fitted with appropriate personal protection devices such as masks and gloves to prevent serious injuries of the skin and eyes upon intense optical exposure.

  10. Justification of novel practices involving radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of 'justification' of practices has been one of the three basic principles of radiation protection for many decades. The principle is simple in essence - that any practice involving radiation exposure should do more good than harm. There is no doubt that the many uses of radiation in the medical field and in industry generally satisfy this principle, yielding benefits that could not be achieved using other techniques; examples include CT scanning and industrial radiography. However, even in the early period after the introduction of the justification principle, there were practices for which the decision on justification was not clear and for which different decisions were made by the authorities in different countries. Many of these involved consumer products such as luminous clocks and watches, telephone dials, smoke detectors, lightning preventers and gas mantles. In most cases, these practices were relatively small scale and did not involve large exposures of either individual workers or members of the public. Decisions on justification were therefore often made by the regulator without extensive national debate. Over recent years, several practices have been proposed and undertaken that involve exposure to radiation for purposes that were generally not envisaged when the current system of radiation protection was created. Some of these practices were reviewed during a recent symposium held in Dublin, Ireland and involve, for example, the x-raying of people for theft detection purposes, for detection of weapons or contraband, for the prediction of physical development of young athletes or dancers, for age determination, for insurance purposes and in cases of suspected child abuse. It is particularly in the context of such novel practices that the need has emerged for clearer international guidance on the application of the justification principle. This paper reviews recent activities of the IAEA with respect to these issues, including the

  11. Radiation exposure during air and ground transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a one year study program of radiation exposure experienced on both domestic and international flights of the China Airline and the Far East Airline in the Pacific, Southeast Asia and Taiwan areas and on trains and buses on Taiwan island are reported. CaSO4:Dy thermoluminescent dosimeters were used. It has been shown that transit exposures may amount to 10 times that on the ground with an altitude varying from 3,050 to 12,200 m. (U.K.)

  12. Modeling Impaired Hippocampal Neurogenesis after Radiation Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao, Eliedonna; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2016-03-01

    Radiation impairment of neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus is one of several factors associated with cognitive detriments after treatment of brain cancers in children and adults with radiation therapy. Mouse models have been used to study radiation-induced changes in neurogenesis, however the models are limited in the number of doses, dose fractions, age and time after exposure conditions that have been studied. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel predictive mathematical model of radiation-induced changes to neurogenesis using a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to represent the time, age and dose-dependent changes to several cell populations participating in neurogenesis as reported in mouse experiments exposed to low-LET radiation. We considered four compartments to model hippocampal neurogenesis and, consequently, the effects of radiation treatment in altering neurogenesis: (1) neural stem cells (NSCs), (2) neuronal progenitor cells or neuroblasts (NB), (3) immature neurons (ImN) and (4) glioblasts (GB). Because neurogenesis is decreasing with increasing mouse age, a description of the age-related dynamics of hippocampal neurogenesis is considered in the model, which is shown to be an important factor in comparisons to experimental data. A key feature of the model is the description of negative feedback regulation on early and late neuronal proliferation after radiation exposure. The model is augmented with parametric descriptions of the dose and time after irradiation dependences of activation of microglial cells and a possible shift of NSC proliferation from neurogenesis to gliogenesis reported at higher doses (∼10 Gy). Predictions for dose-fractionation regimes and for different mouse ages, and prospects for future work are then discussed. PMID:26943452

  13. Wireless Phones Electromagnetic Field Radiation Exposure Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Usman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Inadequate knowledge of electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones and increased usage at close proximity, created a lot of skepticism and speculations among end users on its safety or otherwise. Approach: In this study, near field electromagnetic field radiation measurements were conducted on different brand of mobile phones in active mode using a tri-axis isotropic probe and electric field meter. Results: The highest electromagnetic field exposure was recorded when the mobile phones are at outgoing call mode and backing the probe, which is higher in comparison to ICNIRP guidelines for exposure to general public. Conclusion: According to this finding, some mobile phones electromagnetic field radiation were found to be lower than the ICNIRP guidelines while some were far above the guidelines. Electromagnetic field intensity however, depends on the mode of operation and proximity of the mobile phones to the end user; hence it is safer to use mobile phones at SMS mode.

  14. Population exposure to ionising radiation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of exposure from various radiation sources to Indian population are given. The per caput dose from all the identifiable sources, both natural and man-made is estimated to be 2490 μSv per year to the present population of India. 97.9% of this dose is contributed by natural sources which include cosmic and terrestrial radiations, 1.93% by medical sources used for diagnostic and treatment purpose, 0.3% by exposures due to activities related nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear tests and nuclear accidents, and 0.07% by miscellaneous sources such as industrial applications, consumer products, research activities, air travel etc. The monograph is written for the use of the common man. (M.G.B.). 25 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs

  15. Hematologic consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainiak, Nicholas

    2002-06-01

    From the early 1900s, it has been known that ionizing radiation (IR) impairs hematopoiesis through a variety of mechanisms. IR exposure directly damages hematopoietic stem cells and alters the capacity of bone marrow stromal elements to support and/or maintain hematopoiesis in vivo and in vitro. Exposure to IR induces dose-dependent declines in circulating hematopoietic cells not only through reduced bone marrow production, but also by redistribution and apoptosis of mature formed elements of the blood. Recently, the importance of using lymphocyte depletion kinetics to provide a "crude" dose estimate has been emphasized, particularly in rapid assessment of large numbers of individuals who may be exposed to IR through acts of terrorism or by accident. A practical strategy to estimate radiation dose and triage victims based upon clinical symptomatology is presented. An explosion of knowledge has occurred regarding molecular and cellular pathways that trigger and mediate hematologic responses to IR. In addition to damaging DNA, IR alters gene expression and transcription, and interferes with intracellular and intercellular signaling pathways. The clinical expression of these disturbances may be the development of leukemia, the most significant hematologic complication of IR exposure among survivors of the atomic bomb detonations over Japan. Those at greatest risk for leukemia are individuals exposed during childhood. The association of leukemia with chronic, low-dose-rate exposure from nuclear power plant accidents and/or nuclear device testing has been more difficult to establish, due in part to lack of precision and sensitivity of methods to assess doses that approach background radiation dose. Nevertheless, multiple myeloma may be associated with chronic exposure, particularly in those exposed at older ages. PMID:12063018

  16. Radiation exposure monitoring in civil aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrewe, Ulrich J.

    1999-02-01

    Based on the 1990 Recommendation of the ICRP (ICRP Publication 60, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1991) a European Directive [Official J. Eur. Communities 19 (1996) L159, 1-114] commits the European Union (EU) member states to revise their national radiation protection laws by the year 2000 such that the exposure of aircrews to the increased cosmic radiation prevailing at aviation flight altitudes will be treated as occupational risks. A consequence will be that employers must assess the aircrew exposure. The ACREM (Air Crew Radiation Exposure Monitoring) research project intends to investigate practically methods for aircraft dose equivalent determination. The in-flight measurements were carried out on cargo aircraft. Field calibrations were performed using Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counters (TEPC) as the reference instrument. Various monitors were used to investigate the spatial doserate distribution. The measured data were collated according to the different altitudes and geomagnetic latitudes. The results obtained from various in-flight measurements are reported and a concept for a future routine dose assessment for aircrew is proposed.

  17. Description of the SAFRAN Models for Evaluation of Worker Exposure Resulting from Accidental Release of Airborne Radioactive Materials snd User’s Guide. Annex I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the method used in the SAFRAN tool for the calculation of exposure arising from accidental release of airborne radioactive materials. Models can be used for evaluation of occupational exposure to allow comparison with the relevant dose limiting criteria. Presently, four models are available to address different exposure conditions. The first three are ‘no dilution’ model, ‘gradual mixing’ model and ‘complete mixing’ model. The fourth combined ‘gradual mixing / complete mixing’ model is a combination of the two last models and allows the user to run subsequently the ‘gradual mixing and ‘complete mixing’ models. Each of the models are created using Ecolego. Each of the models is described and their practical use is explained

  18. Occupational radiation exposure. Twelfth annual report, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that is maintained in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Radiation Exposure Information and Reports System (REIRS). This report is usually published on an annual basis and is available at all NRC public document rooms. The bulk of the information contained in the report was extracted from annual statistical reports submitted by all NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.407. Four categories of licensees - operating nuclear power reactors, fuel fabricators and reprocessors, industrial radiographers, and manufacturers and distributors of specified quantities of byproduct materials - also submit personal identification and exposure information for terminating employees pursuant to 10 CFR 20.408, and some analysis of this data is also presented in this report

  19. The global assessment of medical radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World Health Organization (WHO) is the United Nations specialized agency which acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. It was established in 1948. It has 147 Country Offices, 6 Regional Offices and 193 Member States Ministries of Health Its headquarters is in Geneva. The World Health Assembly (WHA) requested WHO to study the optimum use of ionizing radiation in medicine and the risks to health of excessive or improper use. (WHA, 1971) International Basic Safety Standards BSS) The (BSS) mark the culmination of efforts towards global harmonization of radiation safety requirements. However, the involvement of the health sector in the BSS implementation is still weak and scant. There is a need to mobilize the health sector towards safer and effective use of radiation in medicine. Radiation in Health Care The use of radiation in health care is by far the largest contributor to the exposure of the general population from artificial sources. Annually worldwide there are 3,600 million X-ray exams (> 300 million in children), 37 million nuclear medicine procedures and 7.5 million radiation oncology treatments [UNSCEAR Report 2008]. WHO Global Initiative on Radiation Safety in Health Care Settings Was launched in December 2008 It involved the following:- There was involvement of international organizations and professionals bodies, national health and radiation protection authorities, etc. Its aim is to improve the protection of patients and health care workers through better implementation of the BSS. It complements the International Action Plan for Radiological Protection of Patients established by the IAEA 7 UNSCEAR's medical exposure survey Objectives of UNSCEAR's survey were to facilitate evaluation of: - Global estimates of frequency and levels of exposures, with break-downs by medical procedure, age, sex, health care level, and country; - Trends in practice (including those relatively fast-changing); with supporting contextual

  20. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 1978 report is the first in a series of annual reports on occupational radiation exposures in Canada. The data are derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers in Canada. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of overexposures are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The 1978 data indicate that the gradually decreasing trend of the last two decades may have changed. In a number of areas the overall average doses and the averages for some job categories have increasd over the corresponding values for 1977

  1. Ionizing Radiation Environments and Exposure Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M. H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Space radiation environments for historically large solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are simulated to characterize exposures to radio-sensitive organs for missions to low-Earth orbit (LEO), moon, near-Earth asteroid, and Mars. Primary and secondary particles for SPE and GCR are transported through the respective atmospheres of Earth or Mars, space vehicle, and astronaut's body tissues using NASA's HZETRN/QMSFRG computer code. Space radiation protection methods, which are derived largely from ground-based methods recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) or International Commission on Radiological Protections (ICRP), are built on the principles of risk justification, limitation, and ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). However, because of the large uncertainties in high charge and energy (HZE) particle radiobiology and the small population of space crews, NASA develops distinct methods to implement a space radiation protection program. For the fatal cancer risks, which have been considered the dominant risk for GCR, the NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model has been developed from recommendations by NCRP; and undergone external review by the National Research Council (NRC), NCRP, and through peer-review publications. The NSCR model uses GCR environmental models, particle transport codes describing the GCR modification by atomic and nuclear interactions in atmospheric shielding coupled with spacecraft and tissue shielding, and NASA-defined quality factors for solid cancer and leukemia risk estimates for HZE particles. By implementing the NSCR model, the exposure risks from various heliospheric conditions are assessed for the radiation environments for various-class mission types to understand architectures and strategies of human exploration missions and ultimately to contribute to the optimization of radiation safety and well-being of space crewmembers participating in long-term space missions.

  2. Enzyme diagnostics following radiation exposure. Usefulness and limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the results of animal studies and a literature survey, recommendations are given for the application of enzyme diagnostics in the following fields of radiation protection medicine: (1) pre-employment medical examinations and health supervision of radiation workers, (2) medical examinations following chronic radiation exposure, and (3) medical examinations following acute radiation exposure. (author)

  3. Late health effects of chronic radiation exposure of bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarmoshenko, Ilia V.; Malinovsky, Georgy P.; Konshina, Lidia G.; Zhukovsky, Michael V. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, 620219, 20, Sophy Kovalevskoy St., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Tuzankina, Irina A. [Institute of Immunology and Physiology UB RAS, 620049, 106, Pervomayskaya St., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Accidental explosion of waste storage tank at former soviet plutonium production plant 'Mayak' in 1957 resulted in emission of considerable amount of radioactive substances to the atmosphere. Atmospheric transfer and fallout caused contamination of the environment by Sr-90 and short-lived radionuclides (East-Ural Radioactive Trace, EURT). Due to consumption of contaminated food and milk some internal organs were affected to relatively high radiation exposure. Archive data of causes of deaths of rural population of EURT northern part for period 1957-2000 were used to create the Register on causes of deaths. Register records related to the settlements where initial surface contamination by Sr-90 was above and below 3.7 kBq/m2 were included to exposed (4 844 records) and unexposed (6 158 records) group respectively. Basing on the Register the analysis of cancer and non-cancer health effects of radiation exposure was conducted. By estimating proportionate mortality ratios statistically significant excess mortality due to the groups of causes of death as follow was observed in exposed population: stomach, liver and cervix cancers; group consisted only of stomach cancer; non-cancer deceases of infectious etiology. Non-significant but remarkably high risk was observed for the following groups of causes of death: bone cancer; leukemia; liver cancer; cervix cancer. Insignificant, virtually zero risk was found for: non-gastrointestinal solid cancers; colon and lung cancers; non-infectious non-cancer deceases. At the same time, considerable radiation doses were absorbed in bone (mean bone surface dose about 0.1 Gy) and colon (mean dose about 0.07 Gy). Doses absorbed in other organs and tissues were negligible and amounted less than 0.01 Gy for most tissues. It can be seen that some disagreement between observed effects and absorbed doses is revealed. Most remarkable is the high excess risks of stomach, liver and cervix cancers as well as non-cancer deceases of

  4. DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. As an indicator of the overall amount of radiation dose received during the conduct of operations at DOE, the report includes information on collective total effective dose (TED). The TED is comprised of the effective dose (ED) from external sources, which includes neutron and photon radiation, and the internal committed effective dose (CED), which results from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The collective ED from photon exposure decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2012, while the neutron dose increased by 5%. The internal dose components of the collective TED decreased by 7%. Over the past 5-year period, 99.99% of the individuals receiving measurable TED have received doses below the 2 roentgen equivalent in man (rems) (20 millisievert [mSv]) TED administrative control level (ACL), which is well below the DOE regulatory limit of 5 rems (50 mSv) TED annually. The

  5. Some radiation exposure problems in hysterosalpingography procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While stressing the diagnostic usefulness of hysterosalpingography in gynecological practice, the authors point out that generally much unjustified radiation exposure occurs during the procedure, affecting both the subjects investigated - usually women of reproductive age - and the attending personnel. Common faults in this respect are: disregard to preliminaries (team-work coordination, information on patient's condition), inadequate adaptation, roentgenoscopic examinations small in number but of long duration, a tendency to follow on the screen some aspects of the filling of genital tract sections that are of no particular relevance to diagnostic, quite unsatisfactory limitation of diaphragm aperture resulting in a 4 to 5 and even more times larger field than necessitated by the object of the investigation, either in roentgenoscopy or roentgenography, etc. The authors have measured the times of individual hysterosalpingography phases and present an analysis of a number of end-points: mean duration of the procedure, relative roentgenoscopic time, number of roentgenoscopic examinations, scopy-to-film ratio, failure to use maximum diaphragm-aperture constriction, etc. To achieve higher reliability, data were collected from 100 patient examinations involving one radiologist and three gynecologists. Finally, recommendations are given for a reasonable hysterosalpingography procedure aimed at reducing radiation exposure to female patients of reproductive age as well as medical personnel and providing permanent records by means of a larger number of films obtained under routine conditions instead of resorting to roentgenoscopic examinations of long duration associated with appreciable amounts of excessive exposure. (author)

  6. Microwave radiation: biological effects and exposure standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, I.R.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal effects of microwave radiation are well recognized and are discussed with particular reference to cataractogenesis; the possibility of an association cannot be questioned. Postulated nonthermal effects comprise an asthenic syndrome, and for the most part the disturbances lie within clinical norms and tolerances, and are reversible. World opinion on safe exposure levels for microwave radiation is varied, and this had led to national standards disparate by three to four orders of magnitude. The US and UK exposure standard of 10 mW/cm/sup 2/ was determined over two decades ago; the possibility of a change to a more restrictive level, in line with other countries, in the near future is examined. It is concluded that such a change, without scientific rationale, is not justified. Some biological implications of the microwave radiation from the solar power satellite are considered in terms of precautions to be taken by personnel working in the vicinity of the rectenna, effects on cardiac pacemakers, and any potential effects on birds. 14 references.

  7. Exposure of Finnish population to ultraviolet radiation and radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is based on a survey of the literature on radiation risks involved in sunbathing and the use of solaria. The purpose of the report is to provide background information for the development of regulations on solaria and for informing the public about the risks posed by solaria and the sun. The report gives an overview of the properties and biological effects of ultraviolet radiation. The most important regulations and recommendations issued in various countries are presented. The connection between ultraviolet radiation and the risks of skin cancer is examined both on a general level and in reference to information obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry. In Finland, the incidence of melanomas nearly tripled between 1960 and 1980. The most important cause is considered to be the population's increased exposure to the su's ultraviolet radiation. There are no reliable data on the connection between the use of solaria and the risks of skin cancer. It is estimated, however, that solaria account for less than 10 per cent of the skin cancer risk of the whole population. There are some difficult physical problems associated with the measurement of ultraviolet radiation emitted by both natural sources and solaria. A preliminary study of these problems has been undertaken by means of a survey of the available literature, supplemented by a review of measurements performed by the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety. The estimated inaccuracy of the Optronic 742 spectroradiometer used by the Centre in the measurement of ultraviolet radiation emitted by the sun and solaria is about +-14%

  8. Exposure to natural radiation and its regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural radiation exists everywhere from the birth of the earth and the main component is cosmic ray and terrestrial γray. The natural radioactive nuclides are of the uranium series, thorium series, potassium 40 and others. The average uranium content is 1 g/t (id est (i.e.) 0.01 Bq/g) order in the crust and the content of thorium is one order higher than uranium content. In Japan the average annual external exposure is 0.76 mSv (0.3 mSv from cosmic ray, 0.44 mSv from terrestrial γray) and the exposure to radon and thoron progeny is 0.56 mSv, and the exposure by intake of food is 0.8 mSv. Japanese takes much sea food and therefore the exposure to Po-210 is pretty high. Japanese government does not yet regulate the NORM and radon, and the risks of other materials and events, the clearance level and the dose after the period for active control of radioactive waste should be considered on the legislation. (author)

  9. DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security

    2009-10-01

    A major priority of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to ensure the health, safety, and security of DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) provides the corporate-level leadership and strategic vision necessary to better coordinate and integrate health, safety, environment, security, enforcement, and independent oversight programs. One function that supports this mission is the DOE Corporate Operating Experience Program that provides collection, analysis, and dissemination of performance indicators, such as occupational radiation exposure information. This analysis supports corporate decision-making and synthesizes operational information to support continuous environment, safety, and health improvement across the DOE complex.

  10. Predicted Radiation Exposure from Mining at Kvanefjeld

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Roos, Per; Andersson, Kasper Grann

    the presence of large uranium and thorium deposits in Kvanefjeld. These deposits are also the reason that radon in outdoor air show elevated concentrations in Narsaq and in the project area. It is recommended that future monitoring of external exposure and radon should be based on measurement techniques using...... from uranium mines in other developed countries such as Australia and Canada. From a radiation dose perspective Kvanefjeld operations are not expected to be any worse than current uranium mining operations elsewhere as the uranium content is significantly lower. DTU was engaged by GMEL...

  11. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures

  12. European studies on occupational radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The E.S.O.R.E.X. project was initiated by the European Commission in 1997. The objectives of this European study are: 1) to provide the European Commission and the national competent radiation protection authorities with reliable information on how personal radiation monitoring, reporting and recording of dosimetric results is organised in European countries. 2)To collect reliable and directly comparable data on individual and collective radiation exposure in all occupational sectors where radiation workers are employed. Recently the project continues with the name 'E.S.O.R.E.X. 2005' and managed under the responsibility of the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic (S.U.J.B.). The study is performed in close co-operation with the German B.f.S., which was leading the three previous E.S.O.R.E.X. studies: E.S.O.R.E.X. West, E.S.O.R.E.X. East and E.S.O.R.E.X. 2000. E.S.O.R.E.X. 2005 is scheduled for the next three years and the main goals will be to finalize the updating of the country reports by describing the current situation on the field of occupational exposure control, evaluation and registration of personal doses of radiation workers and as a second part of the study, to collect dosimetric data for the period of the years 2001- 2005. In the beginning of the E.S.O.R.E.X. 2005 study the 3. E.S.O.R.E.X. workshop has been organised in the year 2004. The meeting was aimed to present and discus the actual problems identified during the performance of E.S.O.R.E.X. studies and also to establish the ground for an European network that sets up personal contacts and encourages to mutual information exchange in the field of occupational exposure evaluation, regulation and registration and of another related problems. For this purpose a special web site www.esorex.cz has been created where also the discussing forum for certain problems is open. The poster will present the main feedback, highlights and results from the recent and also previous studies and from

  13. Creation of a crystalline lens radiation exposure defense cover and the effect of radiation exposure decrease on neuro-interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of radiation hazards resulting from interventional radiology (IVR) have been reported in recent years. Particularly affected are the skin and the crystalline lens, with their high radiation sensitivity. During neurological interventions, the radiological technologist should consider decreasing radiation exposure. We found exposure projections where the exposure dose became a radiation hazard for the crystalline lens, and examined an efficient method of cover for the exposure projections used for neurological interventions. The exposure projection for maximum crystalline lens radiation exposure was a lateral projection. In the crystalline lens the maximum exposure to radiation was on the X-ray tube side. The method of defense adopted was that of installing a lead plate of the appropriate shape on the surface of the X-ray tube collimator. In other exposure projections, this cover did not become a redundant shadow. With the cover that was created, the X-ray side crystalline lens lateral projection could be defended effectively. (author)

  14. Breast cancer induced by protracted radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience at Hiroshima/Nagasaki demonstrated that breast cancer can be induced by single doses of ionizing radiation following latencies of 10-40 years. Several epidemiological studies, usually involving ancillary low-LET radiation to the breast, have demonstrated that breast cancer can be induced by protracted exposures, with similar latencies, and with similar dependencies on dose. Radiobiologically these results suggest that the target cells involved were deficient in repair of low-LET damage even when the protraction was over months to years. Since three-quarters of breast tumors originate in the ducts where their proliferation is controlled by menstrual-cycle timed estrogen/progesterone secretions, these cells periodically were in cycle. Thus, the two main elements of a conceptual model for radon-induced lung cancer -- kinetics and deficient repair -- are satisfied. The model indicates that breast cancer could be the cumulative effect of protracted small exposures, the risk from any one of which ordinarily would be quite small. (author)

  15. Radiation exposures for DOE and DOE contractor employees, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is one of series of annual reports provided by the US Department of Energy (DOE) summarizing occupational radiation exposures received by DOE and DOE contractor employees. These reports provide an overview of radiation exposures received each year, as well as identification of trends in exposures being experienced over the years. 5 figs., 30 tabs

  16. GPU Nuclear Corporation's radiation exposure management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GPU Nuclear Corporation has developed a central main frame (IBM 3081) based radiation exposure management system which provides real time and batch transactions for three separate reactor facilities. The structure and function of the data base are discussed. The system's main features include real time on-line radiation work permit generation and personnel exposure tracking; dose accountability as a function of system and component, job type, worker classification, and work location; and personnel dosemeter (TLD and self-reading pocket dosemeters) data processing. The system also carries the qualifications of all radiation workers including RWP training, respiratory protection training, results of respirator fit tests and medical exams. A warning system is used to prevent non-qualified persons from entering controlled areas. The main frame system is interfaced with a variety of mini and micro computer systems for dosemetry, statistical and graphics applications. These are discussed. Some unique dosemetry features which are discussed include assessment of dose for up to 140 parts of the body with dose evaluations at 7,300 and 1000 mg/cm2 for each part, tracking of MPC hours on a 7 day rolling schedule; automatic pairing of TLD and self-reading pocket dosemeter values, creation and updating of NRC Forms 4 and 5, generation of NRC required 20.407 and Reg Guide 1.16 reports. As of July 1983, over 20 remote on-line stations were in use with plans to add 20-30 more by May 1984. The system provides response times for on-line activities of 2-7 seconds and 23 1/2 hours per day ''up time''. Examples of the various on-line and batch transactions are described

  17. Accidental Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Robert D.; Devin, Lee; Sullivan, Erin E.

    2012-01-01

    Historical accounts of human achievement suggest that accidents can play an important role in innovation. In this paper, we seek to contribute to an understanding of how digital systems might support valuable unpredictability in innovation processes by examining how innovators who obtain value from...... they incorporate accidents into their deliberate processes and arranged surroundings. By comparing makers working in varied conditions, we identify specific factors (e.g., technologies, characteristics of technologies) that appear to support accidental innovation. We show that makers in certain specified...... conditions not only remain open to accident but also intentionally design their processes and surroundings to invite and exploit valuable accidents. Based on these findings, we offer advice for the design of digital systems to support innovation processes that can access valuable unpredictability....

  18. Occupational exposure to natural radiation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mining, milling and processing of uranium and thorium bearing minerals may result in radiation doses to workers. A preliminary survey pilot program, that included six mines in Brazil (two coal mines, one niobium mine, one nickel mine, one gold mine and one phosphate mine), was launched in order to determine the need to control the radioactive exposure of the mine-workers. Our survey consisted of the collection and analysis of urine samples, complemented by feces and air samples. The concentrations of uranium, thorium and polonium were measured in these samples and compared to background data from family members of the workers living in the same dwelling and from residents from the general population of Rio de Janeiro. The results from the coal mines indicated that the inhalation of radon progeny may be a source of occupational exposure. The workers from the nickel, gold and phosphate mines that were visited do not require a program to control internal radiological doses. The niobium mine results showed that in some areas of the industry exposure to thorium and uranium might occur. (author)

  19. Criteria for radiological protection against exposure to natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of humans to natural sources of radiation has been a continuous and inevitable feature of life on earth. This exposure exceeds all due to artificial sources combined for most people. Many exposures to natural radiation sources are modified by human action. In particular, natural radionuclides are released into the environment in mineral processing and in activities such as the production of phosphate fertilizers and the use of fossil fuels. An increase of exposures to this natural radiation is caused. The relevance of exposure to natural radiation is confirmed by the fact that, for most people, the exposures to natural background radiation have been much more significant than exposures to artificial sources, with exceptions. Among these exceptions have been noted: medical exposures, accidents with release of radionuclides and some specific workplaces. In all cases, however, the natural background radiation has formed the basis on which all the others exposures are added and is a common level serving as compared to other exposures. Regulations and instructions have begun to establish in some countries to regulate natural radiation, countries like Spain, have already incorporated into its regulations on health protection against ionizing radiation the subject of natural radiation. (author)

  20. Cell/Tissue Culture Radiation Exposure Facility Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a Cell/Tissue Culture Radiation Exposure Facility (CTC-REF) to enable radiobiologists to investigate the real-time radiation effects on...

  1. Occupational radiation exposures in research laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaccari, S.; Papotti, E. [Parma Univ., Health Physics (Italy); Pedrazzi, G. [Parma Univ., Dept. of Public Health (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Radioactive sources are widely used in many research activities at University centers. In particular, the activities concerning use of sealed form ({sup 57}Co in Moessbauer application) and unsealed form ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 32}P in radioisotope laboratories) are analyzed. The radiological impact of these materials and potential effective doses to researchers and members of the public were evaluated to show compliance with regulatory limits. A review of the procedures performed by researchers and technicians in the research laboratories with the relative dose evaluations is presented in different situations, including normal operations and emergency situations, for example the fire. A study of the possible exposure to radiation by workers, restricted groups of people, and public in general, as well as environmental releases, is presented. (authors)

  2. Radiation exposures in the nuclear maintenance and service industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent experience of the Energy Systems Service Division of Westinghouse Electric Corporation indicates that the general trend of radiation exposures in the nuclear maintenance and service industry is favorable and on the edge of a long-sought downward trend. Exposure data obtained over the past six-year period (1980-1986) has been analyzed. Annual exposure for a variety of service job categories shows the positive effect of increased training of service workers and enhancement of service equipment in the reduction of radiation exposure. Service Resource Planning is required to ensure the continuation of radiation exposure reduction in the industry

  3. WORKSHOP REPORT: MOLECULAR & CELLULAR BIOLOGY OF MODERATE DOSE (1-10 GY) RADIATION & POTENTIAL MECHANISMS OF RADIATION PROTECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARYNormal tissue response and injury after exposure to ionizing radiation are of great importance to patients with cancer, populations potentially subjected to military, accidental or intentional exposure including bioterrorism, and workers in the nuclear po...

  4. Candidate gene biodosimeters of mice and human exposure to ionizing radiation by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Rezaeejam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of cellular responses to ionizing radiation (IR is essential for the development of predictive markers useful for assessing human exposure. Biological markers of exposure to IR in human populations are of great interest for assessing normal tissue injury in radiation oncology and for biodosimetry in nuclear incidents and accidental radiation exposures. Traditional radiation exposure biomarkers based on cytogenetic assays (biodosimetry, are time-consuming and do not provide results fast enough and requires highly trained personnel for scoring. Hence, the development of rapid biodosimetry methods is one of the highest priorities. Exposure of cells to IR activates multiple signal transduction pathways, which result in complex alterations in gene-expression. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR has become the benchmark for the detection and quantification of RNA targets and is being utilized increasingly in monitoring the specific genes with more accurately and sensitively. This review evaluates the RT-qPCR as a biodosimetry method and we investigated the papers from 2000 up to now, which identified the genes-expression related the DNA repair, cell cycle checkpoint, and apoptosis induced by ionization radiation in peripheral blood and determined as biodosimeters. In conclusion, it could be say that RT-qPCR technique for determining the specific genes as biodosimeters could be a fully quantitative reliable and sensitive method. Furthermore, the results of the current review will help the researchers to recognize the most expressed genes induced by ionization radiation.

  5. Occupational Radiation Exposure During Endovascular Aortic Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailer, Anna M., E-mail: anni.sailer@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Schurink, Geert Willem H., E-mail: gwh.schurink@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Bol, Martine E., E-mail: m.bol@maastrichtuniversity.nl; Haan, Michiel W. de, E-mail: m.de.haan@mumc.nl; Zwam, Willem H. van, E-mail: w.van.zwam@mumc.nl; Wildberger, Joachim E., E-mail: j.wildberger@mumc.nl; Jeukens, Cécile R. L. P. N., E-mail: cecile.jeukens@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeThe aim of the study was to evaluate the radiation exposure to operating room personnel and to assess determinants for high personal doses during endovascular aortic repair.Materials and MethodsOccupational radiation exposure was prospectively evaluated during 22 infra-renal aortic repair procedures (EVAR), 11 thoracic aortic repair procedures (TEVAR), and 11 fenestrated or branched aortic repair procedures (FEVAR). Real-time over-lead dosimeters attached to the left breast pocket measured personal doses for the first operators (FO) and second operators (SO), radiology technicians (RT), scrub nurses (SN), anesthesiologists (AN), and non-sterile nurses (NSN). Besides protective apron and thyroid collar, no additional radiation shielding was used. Procedural dose area product (DAP), iodinated contrast volume, fluoroscopy time, patient’s body weight, and C-arm angulation were documented.ResultsAverage procedural FO dose was significantly higher during FEVAR (0.34 ± 0.28 mSv) compared to EVAR (0.11 ± 0.21 mSv) and TEVAR (0.06 ± 0.05 mSv; p = 0.003). Average personnel doses were 0.17 ± 0.21 mSv (FO), 0.042 ± 0.045 mSv (SO), 0.019 ± 0.042 mSv (RT), 0.017 ± 0.031 mSv (SN), 0.006 ± 0.007 mSv (AN), and 0.004 ± 0.009 mSv (NSN). SO and AN doses were strongly correlated with FO dose (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between FO dose and procedural DAP (R = 0.69, p < 0.001), iodinated contrast volume (R = 0.67, p < 0.001) and left-anterior C-arm projections >60° (p = 0.02), and a weak correlation with fluoroscopy time (R = 0.40, p = 0.049).ConclusionAverage FO dose was a factor four higher than SO dose. Predictors for high personal doses are procedural DAP, iodinated contrast volume, and left-anterior C-arm projections greater than 60°.

  6. New Approaches to Radiation Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Eliot M.; Day, Regina; Singh, Vijay K.

    2015-01-01

    Radioprotectors are compounds that protect against radiation injury when given prior to radiation exposure. Mitigators can protect against radiation injury when given after exposure but before symptoms appear. Radioprotectors and mitigators can potentially improve the outcomes of radiotherapy for cancer treatment by allowing higher doses of radiation and/or reduced damage to normal tissues. Such compounds can also potentially counteract the effects of accidental exposure to radiation or delib...

  7. Simulation of equivalent dose due to accidental electron beam loss in Indus-1 and Indus-2 synchrotron radiation sources using FLUKA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indus-1 and Indus-2 are two Synchrotron radiation sources at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), India. Stored electron energy in Indus-1 and Indus-2 are 450MeV and 2.5GeV respectively. During operation of storage ring, accidental electron beam loss may occur in addition to normal beam losses. The Bremsstrahlung radiation produced due to the beam losses creates a major radiation hazard in these high energy electron accelerators. FLUKA, the Monte Carlo radiation transport code is used to simulate the accidental beam loss. The simulation was carried out to estimate the equivalent dose likely to be received by a trapped person closer to the storage ring. Depth dose profile in water phantom for 450MeV and 2.5GeV electron beam is generated, from which percentage energy absorbed in 30cm water phantom (analogous to human body) is calculated. The simulation showed the percentage energy deposition in the phantom is about 19% for 450MeV electron and 4.3% for 2.5GeV electron. The dose build up factor in 30cm water phantom for 450MeV and 2.5GeV electron beam are found to be 1.85 and 2.94 respectively. Based on the depth dose profile, dose equivalent index of 0.026Sv and 1.08Sv are likely to be received by the trapped person near the storage ring in Indus-1 and Indus-2 respectively. (author)

  8. Radiation exposure of nurses in a coronary care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to increasing awareness of radiation as a possible occupational hazard, nursing personnel staffing a hospital CCU were monitored over a 3-year period to determine occupational exposure. Portable x-ray machines, fluoroscopic units, and patients injected with radiopharmaceuticals were all potential radiation sources on such a unit. Whole-body TLD badges, exchanged monthly, indicated no cumulative exposures over 80 mR during the entire study period. The minimal exposures reported do not justify regular use of dosimeters. Adherence to standard protective measures precludes most exposure to machine-produced radiation. Close, prolonged contact with a patient after an RVG study that utilizes /sup 99m/Tc may account for some exposure. The data indicate that radiation is not a significant occupational hazard for CCU nurses at this hospital; similar minimal exposures would be expected of other nonoccupationally exposed nursing personnel in like environments

  9. DOE occupational radiation exposure. Report 1992--1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of the DOE's performance in protecting its workers from radiation. Occupational radiation exposure at DOE has been decreasing over the past 5 years. In particular, doses in the higher dose ranges are decreasing, including the number of doses in excess of the DOE limits and doses in excess of the 2 rem Administrative Control Level (ACL). This is an indication of greater attention being given to protecting these individuals from radiation in the workplace

  10. DOE occupational radiation exposure. Report 1992--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of the DOE`s performance in protecting its workers from radiation. Occupational radiation exposure at DOE has been decreasing over the past 5 years. In particular, doses in the higher dose ranges are decreasing, including the number of doses in excess of the DOE limits and doses in excess of the 2 rem Administrative Control Level (ACL). This is an indication of greater attention being given to protecting these individuals from radiation in the workplace.

  11. Maintenance hemodialysis patients have high cumulative radiation exposure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, Sinead M

    2010-10-01

    Hemodialysis is associated with an increased risk of neoplasms which may result, at least in part, from exposure to ionizing radiation associated with frequent radiographic procedures. In order to estimate the average radiation exposure of those on hemodialysis, we conducted a retrospective study of 100 patients in a university-based dialysis unit followed for a median of 3.4 years. The number and type of radiological procedures were obtained from a central radiology database, and the cumulative effective radiation dose was calculated using standardized, procedure-specific radiation levels. The median annual radiation dose was 6.9 millisieverts (mSv) per patient-year. However, 14 patients had an annual cumulative effective radiation dose over 20 mSv, the upper averaged annual limit for occupational exposure. The median total cumulative effective radiation dose per patient over the study period was 21.7 mSv, in which 13 patients had a total cumulative effective radiation dose over 75 mSv, a value reported to be associated with a 7% increased risk of cancer-related mortality. Two-thirds of the total cumulative effective radiation dose was due to CT scanning. The average radiation exposure was significantly associated with the cause of end-stage renal disease, history of ischemic heart disease, transplant waitlist status, number of in-patient hospital days over follow-up, and death during the study period. These results highlight the substantial exposure to ionizing radiation in hemodialysis patients.

  12. Radiation exposure: Cytogenetic tests. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty test subjects who, either during or after the reactor accident of Chernobyl (26th April 1986), stayed at a building site at Shlobin 150 km away, were examined for spontaneously occurring as well as mitomycin C-induced Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCE). The building site staff, who underwent a whole-body radionuclide count upon their return to Austria (June through September 1986), were used for the cytogenetic tests. The demonstration of the SCE was made from whole-blood cultures by the fluorescence/Giemse technique. At last 20 Metaphases of the 2nd mitotic cycle were evaluated per person. The radiation doses of the test subjects were calculated by adding the external exposure determined on the building site, the estimated thyroid dose through I-131, and the measured incorporation of Cs-134 and Cs-137. The subjects were divided into two groups for statistical analysis: One was a more exposed group (proven stay at Shlobin between 26th April and 31st May 1986, mostly working in the open air) and the other a less exposed group for comparison (staying at Shlobin from 1st Juni 1986 and working mainly indoors). (orig.)

  13. DOE Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure_2011 pamphlet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORAU

    2012-08-08

    This pamphlet focusses on two HSS activities that help ensure radiation exposures are accurately assessed and recorded, namely: 1) the quality and accuracy of occupational radiation exposure monitoring, and 2) the recording, reporting, analysis, and dissemination of the monitoring results. It is intended to provide a short summary of two specific HSS programs that aid in the oversight of radiation protection activities at DOE. The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) is in place to ensure that radiation exposure monitoring at all DOE sites is precise and accurate, and conforms to national and international performance and quality assurance standards. The DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems (REMS) program provides for the collection, analysis, and dissemination of occupational radiation exposure information. The annual REMS report is a valuable tool for managing radiological safety programs and for developing policies to protect individuals from occupational exposure to radiation. In tandem, these programs provide DOE management and workers an assurance that occupational radiation exposures are accurately measured, analyzed, and reported.

  14. Radiation exposure in gastroenterology: improving patient and staff protection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ho, Immanuel K H

    2014-08-01

    Medical imaging involving the use of ionizing radiation has brought enormous benefits to society and patients. In the past several decades, exposure to medical radiation has increased markedly, driven primarily by the use of computed tomography. Ionizing radiation has been linked to carcinogenesis. Whether low-dose medical radiation exposure will result in the development of malignancy is uncertain. This paper reviews the current evidence for such risk, and aims to inform the gastroenterologist of dosages of radiation associated with commonly ordered procedures and diagnostic tests in clinical practice. The use of medical radiation must always be justified and must enable patients to be exposed at the lowest reasonable dose. Recommendations provided herein for minimizing radiation exposure are based on currently available evidence and Working Party expert consensus.

  15. Accidental exposure to biological material in healthcare workers at a university hospital: Evaluation and follow-up of 404 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Eliana Battaggia; Lopes, Marta Heloísa; Yasuda, Maria Aparecida Shikanai

    2005-01-01

    The care and follow-up provided to healthcare workers (HCWs) from a large teaching hospital who were exposed to biological material between 1 August 1998 and 31 January 2002 is described here. After exposure, the HCW is evaluated by a nurse and doctor in an emergency consultation and receives follow-up counselling. The collection of 10 ml of blood sample from each HCW and its source patient, when known, is made for immunoenzymatic testing for HIV, HBV and HCV. Evaluation and follow-up of 404 cases revealed that the exposures were concentrated in only a few areas of the hospital; 83% of the HCWs exposed were seen by a doctor responsible for the prophylaxis up to 3 h after exposure. Blood was involved in 76.7% (309) of the exposures. The patient source of the biological material was known in 80.7% (326) of the exposed individuals studied; 80 (24.5%) sources had serological evidence of infection with 1 or more agents: 16.2% were anti-HCV positive, 3.8% were HAgBs positive and 10.9% were anti-HIV positive. 67% (273) of the study population completed the proposed follow-up. No confirmed seroconversion occurred. In conclusion, the observed adherence to the follow-up was quite low, and measures to improve it must be taken. Surprisingly, no difference in adherence to the follow-up was observed among those exposed HCW at risk, i.e. those with an infected or unknown source patient. Analysis of post-exposure management revealed excess prescription of antiretroviral drugs, vaccine and immunoglobulin. Infection by HCV is the most important risk of concern, in our hospital, in accidents with biological material. PMID:15804666

  16. The treatment progress of radiation dermatitis from external exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation dermatitis is often seen and is often a complication of radiation therapy of tumors. It is characterized by poor healing, stubborn relapse, and carcinogenesis.. The treatment include drug, physical therapy and surgery. This article describes the treatment progress of radiation dermatitis from external exposure. (authors)

  17. Criteria for radiological protection against exposure to natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation includes natural radiation which has been part cosmic radiation. Radon in homes, irradiation, gamma, among others, they have also been part of ionizing radiation. The activities that have lead to natural radiation materials are: mining and processing of uranium, radio application and thorium, phosphate industry, mining and smelting of metals, oil and gas extraction, coal mining and power generation, rare earth industry and titanium, zirconium and ceramics, building materials, waste water purification. Therefore, different criteria for radiation protection have had to create against exposure to natural radiation. Distinct rules and regulations to control were created in that sense

  18. Pregnancy and exposure to ionizing radiations; Femme enceinte et exposition aux rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topsoba, T.L. [Ouagadougou-Burkina Faso Univ., Lab. de Biophysique UFR/SDS (Burkina Faso); Tapsoba, T.L.; Cisse, R.; Lougue Sorgho, L.C.; Bamouni, Y.A. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yo, Service de Radiologie et d' Imagerie Medicale (Burkina Faso); Gassama Seck, S. [Faculte de Medecine - UCAD, Dakar (Senegal)

    2006-06-15

    The sensitivity of the embryo and foetus varies during pregnancy. Recent studies confirm that the principal damage is mental retardation. It is generally admitted that the risk is negligible for a dose < 100 milli-sieverts (mSv). A possible termination of pregnancy will be considered for an exposure > 200 mSv.The objective of this work is to provide precise information on the various risks related to the irradiation for the foetus, according to the age of gestation and delivered dose, and the action to be taken in case of accidental irradiation. The medical use of ionizing radiation in pregnant women can only be considered within the framework of precise information. (author)

  19. Variation of space radiation exposure inside spherical and hemispherical geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Z.W. [Department of Physics, East Carolina University, C-209 Howell Science Complex, Greenville, NC 27858-4353 (United States); National Space Science and Technology Center, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)], E-mail: linz@ecu.edu; Baalla, Y. [University of Tennessee Space Institute, Tullahoma, TN 37388 (United States); Townsend, L.W. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee at Knoxville, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    We calculate the space radiation exposure to blood-forming organs everywhere inside a hemispherical dome that represents a lunar habitat. We derive the analytical pathlength distribution from any point inside a hemispherical or a spherical shell. Because the average pathlength increases with the distance from the center, the center of the hemispherical dome on the lunar surface has the largest radiation exposure while locations on the inner surface of the dome have the lowest exposure. This conclusion differs from an earlier study on a hemispherical dome but agrees with another earlier study on a spherical-shell shield. We also find that the reduction in the radiation exposure from the center to the inner edge of the dome can be as large as a factor of 3 or more for the radiation from solar particle events while being smaller for the radiation from galactic cosmic rays.

  20. Radiation exposure due to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This information brochure contains 12 earlier papers of leading experts on the radiation hazard the population incurs during normal operation of nuclear facilities and the radiation-biological fundamentals of the effects of ionizing radio humans. (HP)

  1. DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure November 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Analysis

    2011-11-11

    This report discusses radiation protection and dose reporting requirements, presents the 2010 occupational radiation dose data trended over the past 5 years, and includes instructions to submit successful ALARA projects.

  2. Gene Expression Profiling of Biological Pathway Alterations by Radiation Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kuei-Fang; Weng, Julia Tzu-Ya; Hsu, Paul Wei-Che; Chi, Yu-Hsiang; Chen, Ching-Kai; Liu, Ingrid Y.; CHEN, YI-CHENG; Wu, Lawrence Shih-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Though damage caused by radiation has been the focus of rigorous research, the mechanisms through which radiation exerts harmful effects on cells are complex and not well-understood. In particular, the influence of low dose radiation exposure on the regulation of genes and pathways remains unclear. In an attempt to investigate the molecular alterations induced by varying doses of radiation, a genome-wide expression analysis was conducted. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from...

  3. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation: recommendations for cosmetic use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beginning of the so-called tanning industry made possible the acquisition of a tanned skin independently of the available solar radiation. The tan is produced by ultraviolet radiation and, as well as in solar exposure, there are additional risks on the use of the so-called sun-beds. The damaging effects of ultraviolet exposure are well documented and reasonably quantified. The objective of this paper is to inform the potential effects of ultraviolet radiation exposure in sun-beds and to provide recommendations in order to reduce the associated risks. These recommendations are adapted for cosmetics use only (author)

  4. Medical management of accidentally exposed individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow aplasia is one of the main syndromes following a high dose accidental radiation exposure. Whilst transfusion and bone marrow transplantation have been used with some success starting with the first treatments of accident victims, other therapeutic strategies are needed. With the development of experimental and clinical haematology, promising new approaches to the treatment of aplasia have appeared. New trends for the treatment of haemopoietic injury based on bone marrow transplantation rely on new sources of compatible donor cells, such as cord blood, on the selection of immature haemopoietic cells and on new transplant regimens. Haemopoietic growth factors stimulate the proliferation and/or differentiation of haemopoietic progenitors and, possibly, stem cells. Furthermore, they act on the functions of mature cells. Currently, they have specific uses in haematology related to their role in the regulation of growth and in the differentiation of haemopoietic progenitor cells. Growth factors have already been used for the treatment of accidental radiation induced aplasia and lessons have been learned from their medical management and followup. (author)

  5. 47 CFR 2.1093 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: portable devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation... Procedures Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure § 2.1093 Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: portable... Cellular Radiotelephone Service, the Personal Communications Service (PCS), the Satellite...

  6. Estimated population exposure from nuclear power production and other radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates are given of the total radiation dose from all forms of ionizing radiation resulting from nuclear power reduction. A power consumption of 1kW per head of population, derived entirely from nuclear energy, would increase the average radiation exposure of the whole population from 100mrem per year from natural sources (plus about 40mrem per year from medical procedures and other artificial causes) by about 6mrem per year. The genetically signifificant component of this increase would be about 4mrem per year. Available estimates of harm from radiation would indicate that this would give a risk per year per million of population of about 1 fatal induced malignancy, about the same number of malignancies fully treatable by operation, and, after many generations, about the same number of inherited defects, of greater or less severity, per year. Accidental injuries, particularly in constructional and mining work, would cause an estimated 1 fatality and 50 other accidents annually. Indications are given of the number of fatalities and accidents involved in equal power production by alternative methods, and of the value and limitations of such numerical comparisons in reaching decisions on the development of future power programmes

  7. Operational accidents and radiation exposure experience within the United States Atomic Energy Commission, 1943--1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occupational injury and fatality experience during 32 years of the development of the atomic energy industry under the direction of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and its predecessor, the Manhattan Engineering District, is reviewed. Data are included on the cause of all accidents, including fires and transportation accidents, and the cost of AEC property damage. Fatalities of AEC and contractor personnel from all causes during the 32-year period totaled 321, of which 184 occurred in construction; 121 in AEC operations such as production, research, and services; and 16 in Government functions. There were 19,225 lost-time injuries attributable to all accidental causes, or a 32-year frequency rate of 2.75 based on the number of injuries per million man-hours. There were six deaths attributable to nuclear causes, thee of which were due to blast and flying missiles and three caused by whole-body radiation exposure. Forty-one workers were involved in lost-time radiation accidents, of whom 26 showed clinical manifestations attributable to radiation, resulting in permanent partial-disability of three workers and the loss of a digit by four workers, while the others did not develop evidence of radiation injury

  8. Taste aversions conditioned with partial body radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced taste aversion was compared in rats which received partial body exposure to the head or abdomen with rats receiving whole body irradiation. Exposure levels ranged from 25 to 300 roentgens (R). In additional groups, saccharin aversion to partial body gamma ray exposures of the abdomen were conditioned in animals which had prior experience with the saccharin solution. Aversion was measured with a single-bottle short-term test, a 23-hour preference test and by the number of days taken to recover from the aversion. Whole-body exposure was most effective in conditioning the aversion, and exposure of the abdominal area was more effective than exposure to the head. Also, the higher the exposure, the stronger the aversion. Rats receiving prior experience with the saccharin did not condition as well as control rats with no prior saccharin experience. The possible role of radiation-induced taste aversion in human radiotherapy patients was discussed. (author)

  9. Gene Expression Profiling of Biological Pathway Alterations by Radiation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuei-Fang Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though damage caused by radiation has been the focus of rigorous research, the mechanisms through which radiation exerts harmful effects on cells are complex and not well-understood. In particular, the influence of low dose radiation exposure on the regulation of genes and pathways remains unclear. In an attempt to investigate the molecular alterations induced by varying doses of radiation, a genome-wide expression analysis was conducted. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from five participants and each sample was subjected to 0.5 Gy, 1 Gy, 2.5 Gy, and 5 Gy of cobalt 60 radiation, followed by array-based expression profiling. Gene set enrichment analysis indicated that the immune system and cancer development pathways appeared to be the major affected targets by radiation exposure. Therefore, 1 Gy radioactive exposure seemed to be a critical threshold dosage. In fact, after 1 Gy radiation exposure, expression levels of several genes including FADD, TNFRSF10B, TNFRSF8, TNFRSF10A, TNFSF10, TNFSF8, CASP1, and CASP4 that are associated with carcinogenesis and metabolic disorders showed significant alterations. Our results suggest that exposure to low-dose radiation may elicit changes in metabolic and immune pathways, potentially increasing the risk of immune dysfunctions and metabolic disorders.

  10. Reducing medical exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the dangers of indiscriminate and uninformed use of medical x-ray facilities. He points out a lack of effective standards, controls, and practices to minimize exposures to x ray and to prevent the excessive use of diagnostic x-ray examinations. A list of practices whereby an individual can minimize his possible exposures to x rays is presented. Several approaches to the question of acceptable exposure levels are considered. (U.S.)

  11. 10例60Co源辐射事故受照者眼晶状体的随访观察%Follow-up observation of eye lens in ten victims accidentally exposed to 60Co radiation source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵风玲; 陈玉浩; 刘金星; 吕玉民; 傅宝华

    2015-01-01

    target organ of radiation exposure in long-term follow-up of victims accidentally exposed to radiation source.Severity of the lens opacity induced by ionizing radiation is closely associated with radiation doses.

  12. Exposure of the Spanish population to radiation from natural sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Talavera, M.; Suarez, E.; Matarranz, J.L.; Salas, R.; Ramos, L. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear. Justo Dorado, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    We have assessed the exposure of the Spanish population to natural radiation sources. The annual average effective dose is estimated to be 2.38 mSv, taking into account contributions from cosmic radiation (13.8%), terrestrial gamma radiation (39%), radon and thoron inhalation (34%) and ingestion (13.2%). Cosmic radiation doses were calculated from town altitude data. Terrestrial gamma ray exposure outdoors was derived from the M.A.R.N.A. (natural gamma radiation map of Spain). Indoor gamma ray exposure was calculated by multiplying the corresponding outdoor value conversion factor, which was obtained by a linear least-squares fit of experimental measurements. Radon doses were estimated from national surveys carried out throughout the country. To assess doses by ingestion of water and foodstuffs we considered the results from a detailed study on consumption habits by age and geographical area in Spain, promoted by C.S.N., and average radioactivity values from UNSCEAR. (authors)

  13. Monitoring of radiation exposure and registration of doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and working conditions and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently organizing it. In addition, instructions are given for reporting doses to the Dose Register of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Also the procedures are described for situations leading to exceptional exposures. (10 refs., 1 tab.).

  14. ''Notifiable events'': Only small impact on the radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1994, a total of 50 ''notifable events'' in the handling or transport of radioactive materials were reported to the BMU. The article presents a survey of the causes of these events in Germany and an analysis of their effects with regard to exceptional radiation exposure. The data given show that at least in the reporting year the notifiable events contributed an only very small share to the overall occupational radiation exposure. (orig.)

  15. Intraoperative Radiation Exposure During Revision Total Ankle Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roukis, Thomas S; Iceman, Kelli; Elliott, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative C-arm image intensification is required for primary total ankle replacement implantation. Significant radiation exposure has been linked to these procedures; however, the radiation exposure during revision total ankle replacement remains unknown. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the radiation exposure encountered during revision total ankle replacement. The data from 41 patients were retrospectively analyzed from a prospective database: 19 Agility(™) to Agility(™); 4 Agility(™) to Custom Agility(™); 9 Agility(™) to INBONE(®) II; 5 Agility(™) to Salto Talaris(®) XT; 2 Scandinavian Total Ankle Replacement Prosthesis to Salto Talaris(®) XT; and 2 INBONE(®) I to INBONE(®) II revision total ankle replacements were performed. Two broad categories were identified: partial revision (Agility(™) to Agility(™), Agility(™) to Custom Agility(™), INBONE(®) I to INBONE(®) II) and complete conversion (Agility(™) to INBONE(®) II, Agility(™) to Salto Talaris(®) XT, Scandinavian Total Ankle Replacement Prosthesis to Salto Talaris(®) XT). The mean radiation exposure per case was significant at 3.49 ± 2.21 mGy. Complete conversions, specifically Agility(™) to INBONE(®) II, exhibited the greatest radiation exposure and C-arm time. Revision implant selection and revision type (complete or partial) directly contributed to radiation exposure. Accordingly, revision systems requiring less radiation exposure are preferable. Surgeons should strive to minimize intraoperative complications and limit additional procedures to those necessary, because both lead to additional radiation exposure.

  16. Dose-effect relationship in radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberhausen, E.

    1983-01-01

    As criterion for the evaluation of risk in connection with nuclear accidents the diminishing of life expectance is assumed. This would allow a better weighting of the different detriments. The possible dose-effect relations for the different detriments caused by radiation are discussed. Some models for a realistic evaluation of the different radiation detriments are proposed.

  17. Radiation exposure during travelling in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorbed dose rates in vehicles during travelling by different modes of transport in Malaysia were measured. Radiation levels measured on roads in Peninsular Malaysia were within a broad range, i.e. between 36 and 1560 nGy h-1. The highest reading, recorded while travelling near monazite and zircon mineral dumps, was 13 times the mean environmental radiation level of Malaysia. It is evident that radioactive material dumps on the roadsides can influence the radiation level on the road. The absorbed dose rates measured while travelling on an ordinary train were between 60 and 350 nGy h-1. The highest reading was measured when the train passed a tunnel built through a granite rock hill. The measurement during sea travelling by ferries gave the lowest radiation level owing to merely cosmic radiation at the sea level. (authors)

  18. Management of radio frequency radiation exposures in telecom Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telecom Australia is the largest non-military user of radio frequency radiation (RFR) in Australia and the management of risks to health from RFR exposure are discussed. The Australian RFR Exposure Standard forms that basis of risk assessment. Risk assessment and control procedures including the health surveillance of workers, other special occupational groups and members of the general public are outlined. (author)

  19. Radiation exposure of the crew in commercial air traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The routine radiation exposure of the crews in Yugoslav Airlines (JAT) has been studied and some previous results are presented. The flights of four selected groups of pilots (four aircraft types) have been studied during one year. Annual exposures and dose equivalents are presented. Some additional results and discussions are given. (1 fig., 4 tabs.)

  20. Systematic for assessment of occupational exposure to ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approval of Royal Decree 486/2010 of 23 April on the protection of health and safety of workers from risks related to exposure to artificial optical radiation, moves to state law a framework of protection against the radiation. This should involve a significant intensification of control at work is conducted in this radiation. Despite the complexity of the issue and limit values ??difficult to apply (for incoherent ultraviolet radiation enters the bounding box up to 5 different values ??may apply), requires a systematic analysis of the problem well done. In this paper we consider the ultraviolet radiation generated by artificial sources.

  1. Radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging among patients with gastrointestinal disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Desmond, Alan N

    2012-03-01

    There are concerns about levels of radiation exposure among patients who undergo diagnostic imaging for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), compared with other gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. We quantified imaging studies and estimated the cumulative effective dose (CED) of radiation received by patients with organic and functional GI disorders. We also identified factors and diagnoses associated with high CEDs.

  2. A specific case: Cosmic radiation exposures of flight crew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The average annual effective dose due to occupational cosmic radiation exposure is 3.0 mSv (about 60% neutrons), which is higher than that due to other enhanced natural sources such as coal mining, non-coal mining or mineral processing according to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2000 Report. Individual variability in annual exposures can be up to 25 fold (0.25 mSv/a), depending on the routes flown, which are often related to seniority in the profession. The collective dose for aircrew is 320 man Sv/a (UNSCEAR 1993 Report). In the specific case of cosmic radiation exposure of aircrew, the radiation control options include rotation of staff for reduction in individual hours worked, reduction in aircraft altitudes, reduction in flight route latitudes and postponement or rerouting of flights during known solar particle events. In the classic occupational hygiene exposure control paradigm, these measures would be categorized as administrative controls: reducing the time exposed or increasing the distance to source. Clearly, there are no feasible engineering controls or personal protective controls such as aircraft or personal shielding. International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 60 (1991) provided international recommendations that practices involving radiation exposures be justified by benefit to individuals or society, that protection be optimized by constraining individual doses or risks, and that limits be set for individual doses and risks. Additionally, proposed interventions should do more harm than good and the cost benefit should be maximized. However, from a regulatory standpoint, differences exist between countries in the approach taken. In the United States of America, aircrew are not yet considered radiation workers and occupational exposures to cosmic radiation are still treated as unregulated natural background radiation. The US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA

  3. Occupational radiation exposure monitoring among radiation workers in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepal was accepted as a member of the IAEA in 2007. Nepal is one of the world's least developed countries and is defined in Health Level IV. The population counted 26.4 millions in 2007. The health care sector increases with new hospitals and clinics, however, Nepal has no radiation protection authority or radiation protection regulation in the country until now. The radiation producing equipment in the health sector includes conventional X-ray and dental X-ray equipment, fluoroscopes, mammography, CT, catheterization laboratory equipment, nuclear medicine facilities, a few linear accelerators, Co60 teletherapy and High Dose Rate brachytherapy sources. The situation regarding dosimetry service for radiation workers is unclear. A survey has been carried out to give an overview of the situation. The data collection of the survey was performed by phone call interviews with responsible staff at the different hospitals and clinics. Data about different occupationally exposed staff, use of personal radiation monitoring and type of dosimetry system were collected. In addition, it was asked if dosimetry reports were compiled in files or databases for further follow-up of staff, if needed. The survey shows that less of 25% of the procedures performed on the surveyed hospitals and clinics are performed by staff with personnel radiation monitoring. Radiation monitoring service for exposed staff is not compulsory or standardized, since there is no radiation protection authority. Nepal has taken a step forward regarding radiation protection, with the IAEA membership, although there are still major problems that have to be solved. An evaluation of the existing practice of staff dosimetry can be the first helpful step for further work in building a national radiation protection authority. (author)

  4. Radiation exposure for human Mars exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, L C; Wilson, J W; Kim, M H; Cucinotta, F A

    2000-11-01

    One major obstacle to human space exploration is the possible limitations imposed by the adverse effects of long-term exposure to the space environment. Even before human space flight began, the potentially brief exposure of astronauts to the very intense random solar energetic particle events was of great concern. A new challenge appears in deep-space exploration from exposure to the low-intensity heavy-ion flux of the galactic cosmic rays since the missions are of long duration, and accumulated exposures can be high. Because cancer induction rates increase behind low to moderate thicknesses of aluminum shielding, according to available biological data on mammalian exposures to galactic cosmic ray-like ions, aluminum shield requirements for a Mars mission may be prohibitively expensive in terms of mission launch costs. Alternative materials for vehicle construction are under investigation to provide lightweight habitat structures with enhanced shielding properties. In the present paper, updated estimates for astronaut exposures on a Mars mission are presented and shielding properties of alternative materials are compared with aluminum. PMID:11045525

  5. Occupational radiation exposure and mortality study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An epidemiological cohort study of some 300,000 Canadians enrolled in the National Dose Registry (NDR) is being undertaken to determine if there is excess cancer or other causes of mortality among those workers who are occupationally exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. The results of this study may provide better understanding of the dose-response relationship for low doses of ionizing radiation and aid in the verification of risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer mortality. The Department of National Health and Welfare (DNHW) is responsible for the Registry; this study is being carried out by the Bureau of Radiation and Medical Devices (BRMD) with financial assistance and co-operation of various agencies including Statistics Canada and the Atomic Energy Control Board

  6. Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiations: myths and truths; Exposicion Prenatal a Radiaciones Ionizantes: Mitos y Verdades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, M. R.; Trano, L.; Gisone, P.

    2001-07-01

    In utero exposures to ionising radiation are a very important subject in radiological protection concerning not only the prevention but also the estimation of the associated risks. In these situations the perception of risks by the pregnant woman and the involved professionals could not always be correlated with their objective magnitude. In this communication we describe the effects of prenatal exposure to ionising, the thresholds and their relation with the gestational age, taking into account occupationally exposed women, patients undergoing medical procedures and public members. The dose estimation, the evaluation of the potential associated risks and the relation with the spontaneous incidence of the considered effects are analyzed in the gramework of the basic principles of radiological protection. Most of diagnostic procedures properly done do not imply induction of deterministic effects in embryo/fetus. Therapeutical procedures and accidental overexposures could associated with significant risks of deterministic effects. Childhood cancer induction is an stochastic effect without threshold and every in utero exposure will increase their probability. (Author) 13 refs.

  7. Fitness of equipment used for medical exposures to ionising radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The advice in this guidance note is aimed at employers in control of equipment used for medical exposures to ionising radiation and ancillary equipment. This includes NHS trusts, health authorities or boards, private hospitals, clinics, surgeries, medical X-ray facilities in industry, dentists and chiropractors. The guidance should also be useful to radiation protection advisers appointed by such employers. The guidance provides advice on the requirements of regulation 33 of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 (IRR85). In particular, it covers: (a) the selection, installation, maintenance, calibration and replacement of equipment to ensure that it is capable of restricting, so far as reasonably practicable, the medical exposure of any person to the extent that this is compatible with the intended diagnostic or therapeutic purpose; (b) recommended procedures for the definitive calibration of radiotherapy treatment; and (c) the need to investigate incidents involving a malfunction or defect in any 'radiation equipment' which result in medical exposures much greater than intended and to notify the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). 'Medical exposure' is defined in IRR85 as exposure of a person to ionising radiation for the purpose of his or her medical or dental examination or treatment which is conducted under the direction of a suitably qualified person and includes any such examination or treatment conducted for the purposes of research. For convenience, people undergoing medical exposure will be referred to as 'patients' in this guidance. Nothing in this publication is intended to indicate whether or not patients should be informed of any incident resulting from malfunction or defect in equipment used for medical exposure and the possible consequences of that exposure. As stated above, this guidance concerns medical exposures much greater than intended and although exposures much lower than intended can also have serious

  8. Fitness of equipment used for medical exposures to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advice in this guidance note is aimed at employers in control of equipment used for medical exposures to ionising radiation and ancillary equipment. This includes NHS trusts, health authorities or boards, private hospitals, clinics, surgeries, medical X-ray facilities in industry, dentists and chiropractors. The guidance should also be useful to radiation protection advisers appointed by such employers. The guidance provides advice on the requirements of regulation 33 of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 (IRR85). In particular, it covers: (a) the selection, installation, maintenance, calibration and replacement of equipment to ensure that it is capable of restricting, so far as reasonably practicable, the medical exposure of any person to the extent that this is compatible with the intended diagnostic or therapeutic purpose; (b) recommended procedures for the definitive calibration of radiotherapy treatment; and (c) the need to investigate incidents involving a malfunction or defect in any 'radiation equipment' which result in medical exposures much greater than intended and to notify the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). 'Medical exposure' is defined in IRR85 as exposure of a person to ionising radiation for the purpose of his or her medical or dental examination or treatment which is conducted under the direction of a suitably qualified person and includes any such examination or treatment conducted for the purposes of research. For convenience, people undergoing medical exposure will be referred to as 'patients' in this guidance. Nothing in this publication is intended to indicate whether or not patients should be informed of any incident resulting from malfunction or defect in equipment used for medical exposure and the possible consequences of that exposure. As stated above, this guidance concerns medical exposures much greater than intended and although exposures much lower than intended can also have serious consequences, the incident would not

  9. Health Effects of Exposure to Low Dose of Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human beings are exposed to natural radiation from external sources include radionuclides in the earth and cosmic radiation, and by internal radiation from radionuclides, mainly uranium and thorium series, incorporated into the body. Living systems have adapted to the natural levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources enhance these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Biological effects of ionizing radiation are the outcomes of physical and chemical processes that occur immediately after the exposure, then followed by biological process in the body. These processes will involve successive changes in the molecular, cellular, tissue and whole organism levels. Any dose of radiation, no matter how small, may produce health effects since even a single ionizing event can result in DNA damage. The damage to DNA in the nucleus is considered to be the main initiating event by which radiation causes damage to cells that results in the development of cancer and hereditary disease. It has also been indicated that cytogenetic damage can occur in cells that receive no direct radiation exposure, known as bystander effects. This paper reviews health risks of low dose radiation exposure to human body causing stochastic effects, i.e. cancer induction in somatic cells and hereditary disease in genetic cells. (author)

  10. Radiation exposure to personnel in diagnostic nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations under routine conditions concerning the following points; were undertaken. External radiation exposure by Tc-99m to the whole body and to the hands or finger tips of nuclear technicians, physicians and radiochemists; external exposure by Tc-99m to whole body and gonads of nurses in a neurologic intensive care unit with a high frequency of patients who undergo nuclear medicine investigations; the risk to incorporate I-125 in a radioimmunoassay laboratory and in a labelling laboratory. The data show that external radiation exposure from Tc-99m to personnel working in diagnostic nuclear medicine where a total dose of 50 Ci of Tc-99m is applied per year remains far below the maximum permissible doses if the following measures are strictly fullfilled: - Elution, labelling and filling of Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals only in shielded vials and using long distance working tools. - Application of Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals using exclusively shielded syringes. - Time of staying next to Tc-99m containing patients as short as possible. Under these conditions, it is unnecessary that personnel who nurses patients with diagnostic nuclear medicine procedure in an intensive care unit are put under radiation control by personnel radiation dosimetry. The internal radiation exposure by inhalation of I-125 which evaporates from radioimmunoassay test tubes is negligible. But there is a risk of external and internal radiation exposure from labelling procedures with radionuclides of iodine, if special protective measures are not carefully considered

  11. Understanding of radiation protection in medicine. Pt. 2. Occupational exposure and system of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a questionnaire we investigated whether radiation protection is correctly understood by medical doctors (n=140) and nurses (n=496). Although medical exposure is usually understood by medical doctors and dentists, their knowledge was found to be insufficient. Sixty-eight percent of medical doctors and 50% of dentists did not know about the system of radiation protection. Dose monitoring was not correctly carried out by approximately 20% of medical staff members, and medical personnel generally complained of anxiety about occupational exposure rather than medical exposure. They did not receive sufficient education on radiation exposure and protection in school. In conclusion, the results of this questionnaire suggested that they do not have adequate knowledge about radiation exposure and protection. The lack of knowledge about protection results in anxiety about exposure. To protect oneself from occupational exposure, individual radiation doses must be monitored, and medical practice should be reconsidered based on the results of monitoring. To eliminate unnecessary medical and occupational exposure and to justify practices such as radiological examinations, radiation protection should be well understood and appropriately carried out by medical doctors and dentists. Therefore, the education of medical students on the subject of radiation protection is required as is postgraduate education for medical doctors, dentists and nurses. (author)

  12. Tissue response after radiation exposure. Intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastrointestinal syndrome followed by 'gut death' is due to intestinal disorders. This syndrome is induced by high-dose (>10 Gy) of ionizing radiation. Recovery from the gastrointestinal syndrome would depend on the number of survived clonogens and regeneration capability of crypts. These tissue alterations can be observed by high-dose radiation, however, cellular dynamics in crypts can be affected by low-dose radiation. For example, Potten et al. found that low-dose radiation induce apoptosis of intestinal stem cells, which produce all differentiated function cells. Recently, intestinal stem cells are characterized by molecular markers such as Lgr5. Since intestinal adenomas can be induced by deletion of Apc gene in Lgr5+ stem cells, it is widely recognized that Lgr5+ stem cells are the cell-of-origin of cancer. Duodenal Lgr5+ stem cells are known as radioresistant cells, however, we found that ionizing radiation significantly induces the turnover of colonic Lgr5+ stem cells. Combined with the knowledge of other radioresistant markers, stem-cell dynamics in tissue after irradiation are becoming clear. The present review introduces the history of gastrointestinal syndrome and intestinal stem cells, and discusses those future perspectives. (author)

  13. Operational Prototype Development of a Global Aircraft Radiation Exposure Nowcast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher; Kress, Brian; Wiltberger, Michael; Tobiska, W. Kent; Bouwer, Dave

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles (SEP) are the primary sources of human exposure to high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in the atmosphere. High-LET radiation is effective at directly breaking DNA strands in biological tissue, or producing chemically active radicals in tissue that alter the cell function, both of which can lead to cancer or other adverse health effects. A prototype operational nowcast model of air-crew radiation exposure is currently under development and funded by NASA. The model predicts air-crew radiation exposure levels from both GCR and SEP that may accompany solar storms. The new air-crew radiation exposure model is called the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model. NAIRAS will provide global, data-driven, real-time exposure predictions of biologically harmful radiation at aviation altitudes. Observations are utilized from the ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the NCEP Global Forecast System), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations characterize the overhead mass shielding and the ground-and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the incident GCR and SEP particle flux distributions for transport and dosimetry calculations. Radiation exposure rates are calculated using the NASA physics-based HZETRN (High Charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport) code. An overview of the NAIRAS model is given: the concept, design, prototype implementation status, data access, and example results. Issues encountered thus far and known and/or anticipated hurdles to research to operations transition are also discussed.

  14. Factors Related to Radiation Exposure during Lumbar Spine Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Moon Hyung; Choi, Byung Gil; Jung, Seung Eun; Byun, Jae Young

    2016-02-01

    Fluoroscopy guidance is useful to confirm anatomical landmark and needle location for spine intervention; however, it can lead to radiation exposure in patients, physicians, and medical staff. Physicians who used fluoroscopy should be cognizant of radiation exposure and intend to minimize radiation dose. We retrospectively reviewed three lumbar spine intervention procedures (nerve root block, medial branch block, and facet joint block) at our institution between June and December, 2014. We performed 268 procedures on 220 patients and found significant difference in radiation dose between two groups classified by performing physicians. The physician who controlled the fluoroscopy unit directly used significantly shorter fluoroscopy (6 seconds) that resulted in a smaller radiation dose (dose area product [DAP] 0.59 Gy∙cm(2)) than the physician supervising the radiographer controlling the fluoroscopy unit (72 seconds, DAP 5.31 Gy∙cm(2), P radiographer controls the fluoroscopy unit. PMID:26908989

  15. Risk assessment and management of radiofrequency radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabala, Dana [Railways Medical Clinic Cluj-Napoca, Occupational Medicine Department, 16-20 Bilascu Gheorghe St., 400015 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile; Neamtu, Camelia [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath St., 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) industry managers, occupational physicians, security department, and other practitioners must be advised on the basic of biophysics and the health effects of RF electromagnetic fields so as to guide the management of exposure. Information on biophysics of RFR and biological/heath effects is derived from standard texts, literature and clinical experiences. Emergency treatment and ongoing care is outlined, with clinical approach integrating the circumstances of exposure and the patient's symptoms. Experimental risk assessment model in RFR chronic exposure is proposed. Planning for assessment and monitoring exposure, ongoing care, safety measures and work protection are outlining the proper management.

  16. Risk assessment and management of radiofrequency radiation exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabala, Dana; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile; Neamtu, Camelia

    2013-11-01

    Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) industry managers, occupational physicians, security department, and other practitioners must be advised on the basic of biophysics and the health effects of RF electromagnetic fields so as to guide the management of exposure. Information on biophysics of RFR and biological/heath effects is derived from standard texts, literature and clinical experiences. Emergency treatment and ongoing care is outlined, with clinical approach integrating the circumstances of exposure and the patient's symptoms. Experimental risk assessment model in RFR chronic exposure is proposed. Planning for assessment and monitoring exposure, ongoing care, safety measures and work protection are outlining the proper management.

  17. Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

  18. Retrospective internal radiation exposure assessment in occupational epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiologic studies of workers at U.S. Department of Energy facilities are being conducted by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to evaluate the health risk associated with exposure to sources of external and internal ionizing radiation. While exposure to external sources of radiation can be estimated from personal dosimeter data, reconstruction of exposure due to internally deposited radioactivity is more challenging because bioassay monitoring data is frequently less complete. Although comprehensive monitoring was provided for workers with the highest internal exposures, the majority of workers were monitored relatively infrequently. This monitoring was conducted to demonstrate compliance with regulations rather than to evaluate exposure for use in epidemiologic studies. Attributes of past internal monitoring programs that challenge accurate exposure assessment include: incomplete characterization of the workplace source term; a lack of timely measurements; insensitive and/or nonspecific bioassay measurements; and the presence of censored data. In spite of these limitations, many facilities have collected a large amount of worker and workplace monitoring information that can be used to evaluate internal exposure while minimizing worker misclassification. This paper describes a systematic approach for using the available worker and workplace monitoring data that can lead to either a qualitative or quantitative retrospective assessment of internal exposures. Various aspects of data analysis will be presented, including the evaluation of minimum detectable dose, the treatment of censored data, and the use of combinations of bioassay and workplace data to characterize exposures. Examples of these techniques applied to a cohort study involving chronic exposure scenarios to uranium are provided. A strategy for expressing exposure or dose in fundamental, unweighted units related to the quantity of radiation delivered to an organ will also

  19. Some problem of emergency exposure medical system and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima nuclear accident was a complex disaster and then clarified some problem of emergency exposure medical system. This article described such problem and introduced nuclear emergency preparedness guidelines focusing on exposure medical matter. At the initial stage of the accident, 5 initial exposure medical organizations like the off-site center could not work at all. Secondary exposure medical organization was regional core hospital and had excessive medical loads. Third organizations dispatched exposure medical support teams to the site to rebuild the emergency exposure medical system. Emergency evacuation of patients and preventive use of stabilized iodine tablets should be well prepared. At radiation accidents, radiation protection measures should be chosen for exposure path and accident stage such as emergency exposure situation or existing exposure situation. Comprehensive standards for deterministic and probabilistic effects with relevant measure to prevent or minimize effects or reduce probabilistic risks were tabulated from IAEA documents for the reference. Emergency Action Level (EAL) and Operation Intervention Level (OIL) should be predetermined to start protective measures. Emergency was classified into three categories: Alert, site emergency and general emergency. Assuming general emergency, protective measures were considered for respective zones of PAZ (Precautionary Active Zone), UPZ (Urgent Protective action Planning Zone) and PPA (Plume Protection Planning Area, under consideration). (T. Tanaka)

  20. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure and cancer in airline cabin crew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmic radiation dose rates are considerably higher at cruising altitudes of airplanes than at ground level. Previous studies have found increased risk of certain cancers among aircraft cabin crew, but the results are not consistent across different studies. Despite individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment is important for evaluating the relation between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk, only few previous studies have tried to develop an exposure assessment method. The evidence for adverse health effects in aircrews due to ionizing radiation is inconclusive because quantitative dose estimates have not been used. No information on possible confounders has been collected. For an occupational group with an increased risk of certain cancers it is very important to assess if the risk is related to occupational exposure. The goal of this thesis was to develop two separate retrospective exposure assessment methods for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. The methods included the assessment based on survey on flight histories and based on company flight timetables. Another goal was to describe the cancer incidence among aircraft cabin crew with a large cohort in four Nordic countries, i.e., Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Also the contribution of occupational as well as non-occupational factors to breast and skin cancer risk among the cabin crew was studied with case-control studies. Using the survey method of cosmic radiation exposure assessment, the median annual radiation dose of Finnish airline cabin crew was 0.6 milliSievert (mSv) in the 1960s, 3.3 mSv in the 1970s, and 3.6 mSv in the 1980s. With the flight timetable method, the annual radiation dose increased with time being 0.7 mSv in the 1960 and 2.1 mSv in the 1995. With the survey method, the median career dose was 27.9 mSv and with the timetable method 20.8 mSv. These methods provide improved means for individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment compared to studies where cruder

  1. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure and cancer in airline cabin crew.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, K.

    2013-03-15

    Cosmic radiation dose rates are considerably higher at cruising altitudes of airplanes than at ground level. Previous studies have found increased risk of certain cancers among aircraft cabin crew, but the results are not consistent across different studies. Despite individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment is important for evaluating the relation between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk, only few previous studies have tried to develop an exposure assessment method. The evidence for adverse health effects in aircrews due to ionizing radiation is inconclusive because quantitative dose estimates have not been used. No information on possible confounders has been collected. For an occupational group with an increased risk of certain cancers it is very important to assess if the risk is related to occupational exposure. The goal of this thesis was to develop two separate retrospective exposure assessment methods for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. The methods included the assessment based on survey on flight histories and based on company flight timetables. Another goal was to describe the cancer incidence among aircraft cabin crew with a large cohort in four Nordic countries, i.e., Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Also the contribution of occupational as well as non-occupational factors to breast and skin cancer risk among the cabin crew was studied with case-control studies. Using the survey method of cosmic radiation exposure assessment, the median annual radiation dose of Finnish airline cabin crew was 0.6 milliSievert (mSv) in the 1960s, 3.3 mSv in the 1970s, and 3.6 mSv in the 1980s. With the flight timetable method, the annual radiation dose increased with time being 0.7 mSv in the 1960 and 2.1 mSv in the 1995. With the survey method, the median career dose was 27.9 mSv and with the timetable method 20.8 mSv. These methods provide improved means for individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment compared to studies where cruder

  2. Assessment of occupational radiation exposure in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the eighties, the doses received by the workers of the nuclear industry system in China have been below 5 mSv, excluding uranium miners. Workers involved in the radioisotope and radiation applications received doses in the range of 1∼2 mSv. Stringent and effective measures are required to be taken for the radioisotope and radiation applications due to high accident possibility. Average annual effective doses to underground workers in variety of occupations such as uranium, coal and non-ferrous metal mines are 19.3, 8.3 and 33.2 mSv respectively on the rough estimate basis. The nuclear industry contributes only 0.17% to collective dose. Contributions by coal and non-ferrous metal mining to collective dose account for 85.15 % and 14.3% of the total respectively. The data available from coal and non-ferrous mines are less, associated with high uncertainty. (author)

  3. Radiation monitoring systems as a tool for assessment of accidental releases at the Chernobyl and Fukushima NPPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shershakov, Vjacheslav; Bulgakov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    The experience gained during mitigation of the consequences of the accidents at the Chernobyl and Fukushima NPPs has shown that what makes different the decision-making in case of nuclear accidents is that the greatest benefit from decision-making can be achieved in the early phase of an accident. Support to such process can be provided only by a real-time decision-making support system. In case of a nuclear accident the analysis of the situation and decision-making is not feasible without an operational radiation monitoring system, international data exchange and automated data processing, and the use of computerized decision-making support systems. With this in mind, in the framework of different international programs on the Chernobyl-related issues numerous projects were undertaken to study and develop a set of methods, algorithms and programs providing effective support to emergency response decision-making, starting from accident occurrence to decision-making regarding countermeasures to mitigate effects of radioactive contamination of the environment. The presentation focuses results of the analysis of radiation monitoring data and, on this basis, refining or, for many short-lived radionuclides, reconstructing the source term, modeling dispersion of radioactivity in the environment and assessing its impacts. The obtained results allowed adding and refining the existing estimates and in some cases reconstructing doses for the public on the territories contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The activities were implemented in two stages. In the first stage, several scenarios for dispersion of Chernobyl-related radioactivity were developed. For each scenario cesium-137 dispersion was estimated and these estimates were compared with measurement data. In the second stage, the scenario which showed the best agreement of calculations and measurements was used for modeling the dispersion of iodine-131and other short-lived radionuclides. The described

  4. Basis for limiting exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the uncertainty about the size of the risk from radiation, it is assumed that all doses are potentially harmful with the probability of harm proportional to the dose, without threshold. Canada participates in the work of UNSCEAR, and the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board follows the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in setting its dose limits, encouraging the application of the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) concept through its licensing and compliance activities

  5. Radiation exposure dose on persons engaged in radiation-related industries in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the status of radiation exposure doses since the establishment of the 'Regulations on Safety Management of Diagnostic Radiation Generation Device' in January 6, 1995. The level of radiation exposure in people engaged or having been engaged in radiation-related industries of inspection organizations, educational organization, military units, hospitals, public health centers, businesses, research organizations or clinics over a 5 year period from Jan. 1, 2000 to Dec. 31, 2004 was measured. The 149,205 measurement data of 57,136 workers registered in a measurement organization were analysed in this study. Frequency analysis, a Chi-square test, Chi-square trend test, and ANOVA was used for data analysis. Among 57,136 men were 40,870 (71.5%). 50.3% of them were radiologic technologists, otherwise medical doctors (22.7%), nurse (2.9%) and others (24.1%). The average of depth radiation and surface radiation during the 5-year period were found to decrease each year. Both the depth radiation and surface radiation exposure were significantly higher in males, in older age groups, in radiological technologists of occupation. The departments of nuclear medicine had the highest exposure of both depth and surface radiation of the divisions of labor. There were 1.98 and 2.57 per 1,000 person-year were exposed more than 20 mSv (limit recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection) in depth and surface radiation consequently. The total exposure per worker was significantly decreased by year. But Careful awareness is needed for the workers who exposed over 20 mSv per year. In order to minimize exposure to radiation, each person engaged in a radiation-related industry must adhere to the individual safety management guidelines more thoroughly. In addition, systematic education and continuous guidance aimed at increasing the awareness of safety must be provided

  6. Cumulative radiation exposure in children with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Reilly, R

    2010-02-01

    This retrospective study calculated the cumulative radiation dose for children with cystic fibrosis (CF) attending a tertiary CF centre. Information on 77 children with a mean age of 9.5 years, a follow up time of 658 person years and 1757 studies including 1485 chest radiographs, 215 abdominal radiographs and 57 computed tomography (CT) scans, of which 51 were thoracic CT scans, were analysed. The average cumulative radiation dose was 6.2 (0.04-25) mSv per CF patient. Cumulative radiation dose increased with increasing age and number of CT scans and was greater in children who presented with meconium ileus. No correlation was identified between cumulative radiation dose and either lung function or patient microbiology cultures. Radiation carries a risk of malignancy and children are particularly susceptible. Every effort must be made to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure in these patients whose life expectancy is increasing.

  7. The effects of acute radiation exposure on the serum components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blood samples were collected from the experimental animals 24 hrs after irradiation of gamma doses upto 80 Gy. Native PAGE showed a decreasing trend in gamma globulin fraction of serum from the irradiated group compared to control, while SDS PAGE indicated an enhanced tendency in protein of molecular weight 30,000 to 40,000. Serum albumin slightly decreased with radiation doses as a result of decrease in total protein amount. Radiation exposure had little or no effects on such lipid related components as phospholipid, triglyceride, and cholesterol, respectively. Among others, glutamic pyryvic transaminase (GPT) showed a drastic decrease in its amount 24 hrs after radiation exposure, which can be applied to the health care program for radiation workers. (Author)

  8. A relational database for personnel radiation exposure management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-house utility personnel developed a relational data base for personnel radiation exposure management computer system during a 2 1/2 year period. The (PREM) Personnel Radiation Exposure Management System was designed to meet current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements related to radiological access control, Radiation Work Permits (RWP) management, automated personnel dosimetry reporting, ALARA planning and repetitive job history dose archiving. The system has been operational for the past 18 months which includes a full refueling outage at Clinton Power Station. The Radiation Protection Department designed PREM to establish a software platform for implementing future revisions to 10CFR20 in 1993. Workers acceptance of the system has been excellent. Regulatory officials have given the system high marks as a radiological tool because of the system's ability to track the entire job from start to finish

  9. Radiation exposure and human species survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information available from scientific sources without vested interests in the use of radiation is examined in the hope of elucidating the probable long-term effects on the human species of widespread radionuclide contamination. Distinguishing between problems of nuclear war, catastrophic accident in a nuclear industry, waste disposal, terrorist action, periodic accident situations and routine so-called normal pollution seems fruitless as these differ only in degree of pollution per time period. If there is indeed a species death process involved, the rate of deterioration will depend on the rate of pollution, but the result will be the same

  10. Bio dosimetric tools for a fast triage of people accidentally exposed to ionising radiation. Statistical and computational aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration of statistical methodology is essential for the application of cytogenetic and other bio dosimetry techniques to triage for mass casualty situations. This is because the requirement for speed and accuracy in bio dosimetric triage necessarily introduces greater uncertainties than would be acceptable in day-to-day bio dosimetry. Additionally, in a large scale accident type situation, it is expected that a large number of laboratories from around the world will assist and it is likely that each laboratory will use one or more different dosimetry techniques. Thus issues arise regarding combination of results and the associated errors. In this article we discuss the statistical and computational aspects of radiation bio dosimetry for triage in a large scale accident-type situation. The current status of statistical analysis techniques is reviewed and suggestions are made for improvements to these methods which will allow first responders to estimate doses quickly and reliably for suspected exposed persons.

  11. Reduction in radiation exposure and volume using asphalt solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solidification of liquid and solid radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants with an extruder-evaporator using an asphalt binder minimizes both volume and radiation exposure. The automatic evaporation of water in liquid radwastes prior to incorporation into asphalt reduces the volume to be transported and disposed. In turn, the numbers of drums requiring handling is reduced 5 to 10 times thereby lessening the chances for radiation exposure. Also, the extruder-evaporator is self-shielded and contains only about one gallon of the radwaste. Dose rates at the surface of the equipment and filled containers from commercially operating systems for the past 10 years in Europe are given

  12. Radiation exposures for DOE and DOE contractor employees, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the 23rd in a series of annual radiation exposure reports published by the Department of Energy (DOE) or its predecessors. This report summarizes the radiation exposures received by both employees and visitors at DOE and DOE contractor facilities during 1990. Trends in radiation exposures are evaluated by comparing the doses received in 1990 to those received in previous years. The significance of the doses is addressed by comparing them to the DOE limits and by correlating the doses to health risks based on risk estimated from expert groups. This report is the third that is based on detailed exposure data for each individual monitored at a DOE facility. Prior to 1988, only summarized data from each facility were available. This report contains information on different types of radiation doses, including total effective, internal, penetrating, shallow, neutron, and extremity doses. It also contains analysis of exposures by age, sex, and occupation of the exposed individuals. This report also continues the precedent established in the Twenty-First (1988) Annual Report by conducting a detailed, one-time review and analysis of a particular topic of interest. The special topic for this report is a comparison of total effective, internal, and extremity dose equivalent values against penetrating dose equivalent values

  13. Exposure of pregnant women to ionizing radiation in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occupational health physicians often face the problem of whether to keep pregnant women at work in hospitals where they risk exposure to ionizing radiation. Current legislation requires that doctors ensure a certain level of safety for the embryo and the fetus. The current rules are unsatisfactory, however, because women are not obliged to declare that they are pregnant until the third month, which is one month past the period when he fetus is most sensitive to ionizing radiation. (author). 15 refs

  14. State Register of Sources of Ionizing Radiation and Occupational exposure

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    One of main tasks of Radiation Protection Centre is to collect, process, systematize, store and provide the data on sources of ionizing radiation and occupational exposures. The number of sources in 2002 is provided and compared with previous year. Distribution of workers according to the type of practice is compared with previous year. Distribution of sealed sources and x-ray machines according their use is presented.

  15. Evaluation and mitigation of accidental releases of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One result of the workshop was, that even in the case of severe accident sequences in modern nuclear power plants (other facilities were not discussed), there will be enough time to take active measures in order to lower the emissions and to diminish the consequences inside and outside of the plant. On the whole, new evidence from Harrisburg show that previously estimated accidental emissions, especially of radiologically relevant nuclides, have been rather conservative and that much lower emissions are possible, if the above measures are considered. Under accident conditions, models to predict radiation exposure must be applied under the event of a short-term release. (orig./DG)

  16. Evaluation of medical radiation exposure in pediatric interventional radiology procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Valeria Coelho Costa; Navarro, Marcus Vinicius Teixeira; Oliveira, Aline da Silva Pacheco, E-mail: vccnavarro@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Maia, Ana Figueiredo [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Oliveira, Adriano Dias Dourado [Sociedade Brasileira de Hemodinamica e Cardiologia Intervencionista, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Objective: To evaluate pediatric radiation exposure in procedures of interventional radiology in two hospitals in the Bahia state, aiming at contributing to delineate the scenario at the state and national levels. The knowledge of exposure levels will allow an evaluation of the necessity of doses optimization, considering that peculiarities of radiology and pediatrics become even more significant in interventional radiology procedures which involve exposure to higher radiation doses. Materials and Methods: A total of 32 procedures were evaluated in four rooms of the two main hospitals performing pediatric interventional radiology procedures in the Bahia state. Air kerma rate and kerma-area product were evaluated in 27 interventional cardiac and 5 interventional brain procedures. Results: Maximum values for air kerma rate and kerma-area product and air kerma obtained in cardiac procedures were, respectively, 129.9 Gy.cm{sup 2} and 947.0 mGy; and, for brain procedures were 83.3 Gy.cm{sup 2} and 961.0 mGy. Conclusion: The present study results showed exposure values up to 14 times higher than those found in other foreign studies, and approximating those found for procedures in adults. Such results demonstrate excessive exposure to radiation, indicating the need for constant procedures optimization and evaluation of exposure rates. (author)

  17. Environmental radiation exposure: Regulation, monitoring, and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive releases to the environment from nuclear facilities constitute a public health concern. Protecting the public from such releases can be achieved through the establishment and enforcement of regulatory standards. In the United States, numerous standards have been promulgated to regulate release control at nuclear facilities. Most recent standards are more restrictive than those in the past and require that radioactivity levels be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Environmental monitoring programs and radiological dose assessment are means of ensuring compliance with regulations. Environmental monitoring programs provide empirical information on releases, such as the concentrations of released radioactivity in environmental media, while radiological dose assessment provides the analytical means of quantifying dose exposures for demonstrating compliance

  18. Protection of DNA damage by radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SOS response of Escherichia coli is positively regulated by RecA. To examine the effects of polyamines on The SOS response of E. Coli, we investigated the expression of recA gene in polyamine-deficient mutant and wild type carrying recA'::lacZ fusion gene. As a result, recA expression by mitomycin C is higher in wild type than that of polyamine-deficient mutant, but recA expression by UV radiation is higher in wild type than of mutant. We also found that exogenous polyamines restored the recA expression in the polyamine-deficient mutant to the wild type level. These results proposed that polyamines play an important role in mechanism of intracellular DNA protection by DNA damaging agents

  19. Radiation exposure through recently developed diagnostic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six years after the Chernobyl reactor accident up-to-date information has been made available on the contamination of affected regions in the Ukraine, White Russia and Russia that was obtained in connection with various measuring programmes. Initial reports on the increased incidence of thyroid carcinomas in children from White Russia and the Ukraine were subjected to careful scrutiny. At the Radiation Protection Meeting held at Vienna participants were made familiar with cytogenetic assays, the micronucleus test, determinations of thymidine kinase and blood cell changes as well as immunological parameters. At the same meeting, experts provided surveys of the effective doses received by patients subjected to more recently developed diagnostic procedures, among them computerized tomography, digital luminescence radiography, mammography, bone density measurements, single photon emission computerized tomography and positron emission tomography. (orig./DG)

  20. Protection of DNA damage by radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Ho; Kim, In Gyu; Lee, Kang Suk; Kim, Kug Chan; Oh, Tae Jung

    1998-12-01

    The SOS response of Escherichia coli is positively regulated by RecA. To examine the effects of polyamines on The SOS response of E. Coli, we investigated the expression of recA gene in polyamine-deficient mutant and wild type carrying recA'::lacZ fusion gene. As a result, recA expression by mitomycin C is higher in wild type than that of polyamine-deficient mutant, but recA expression by UV radiation is higher in wild type than of mutant. We also found that exogenous polyamines restored the recA expression in the polyamine-deficient mutant to the wild type level. These results proposed that polyamines play an important role in mechanism of intracellular DNA protection by DNA damaging agents.

  1. Monitoring Of Radiation Exposure Source In PPTA Serpong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation exposure in the of P PTA Serpone was measured by means of MCA micro nomad. The computer codes NAGABAT was used for analyzing the contribution of natural gamma rays to the exposure rate in the measuring locations. Measurement was taken for 14 locations, under conditions that the nuclear facilities are not in operation. The result showed that the exposure varieties, dependently on potassium, uranium and thorium contents in the environment matrix. The maximum of thorium, uranium and potassium are in amount of 5,269 ppm; 1,650 ppm; and respectively 0,72 %

  2. Radiation Exposure of Abdominal Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailer, Anna M., E-mail: anni.sailer@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Schurink, Geert Willem H., E-mail: gwh.schurink@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Wildberger, Joachim E., E-mail: j.wildberger@mumc.nl; Graaf, Rick de, E-mail: r.de.graaf@mumc.nl; Zwam, Willem H. van, E-mail: w.van.zwam@mumc.nl; Haan, Michiel W. de, E-mail: m.de.haan@mumc.nl; Kemerink, Gerrit J., E-mail: gerrit.kemerink@mumc.nl; Jeukens, Cécile R. L. P. N., E-mail: cecile.jeukens@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo evaluate patients radiation exposure of abdominal C-arm cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).MethodsThis prospective study was approved by the institutional review board; written, informed consent was waived. Radiation exposure of abdominal CBCT was evaluated in 40 patients who underwent CBCT during endovascular interventions. Dose area product (DAP) of CBCT was documented and effective dose (ED) was estimated based on organ doses using dedicated Monte Carlo simulation software with consideration of X-ray field location and patients’ individual body weight and height. Weight-dependent ED per DAP conversion factors were calculated. CBCT radiation dose was compared to radiation dose of procedural fluoroscopy. CBCT dose-related risk for cancer was assessed.ResultsMean ED of abdominal CBCT was 4.3 mSv (95 % confidence interval [CI] 3.9; 4.8 mSv, range 1.1–7.4 mSv). ED was significantly higher in the upper than in the lower abdomen (p = 0.003) and increased with patients’ weight (r = 0.55, slope = 0.045 mSv/kg, p < 0.001). Radiation exposure of CBCT corresponded to the radiation exposure of on average 7.2 fluoroscopy minutes (95 % CI 5.5; 8.8 min) in the same region of interest. Lifetime risk of exposure related cancer death was 0.033 % or less depending on age and weight.ConclusionsMean ED of abdominal CBCT was 4.3 mSv depending on X-ray field location and body weight.

  3. Radiation exposure of U.S. military individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Paul K; Komp, Gregory R

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. military consists of five armed services: the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard. It directly employs 1.4 million active duty military, 1.3 million National Guard and reserve military, and 700,000 civilian individuals. This paper describes the military guidance used to preserve and maintain the health of military personnel while they accomplish necessary and purposeful work in areas where they are exposed to radiation. It also discusses military exposure cohorts and associated radiogenic disease compensation programs administered by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, the U.S. Department of Justice, and the U.S. Department of Labor. With a few exceptions, the U.S. military has effectively employed ionizing radiation since it was first introduced during the Spanish-American War in 1898. The U.S military annually monitors 70,000 individuals for occupational radiation exposure: ~2% of its workforce. In recent years, the Departments of the Navy (including the Marine Corps), the Army, and the Air Force all have a low collective dose that remains close to 1 person-Sv annually. Only a few Coast Guard individuals are now routinely monitored for radiation exposure. As with the nuclear industry as a whole, the Naval Reactors program has a higher collective dose than the remainder of the U.S. military. The U.S. military maintains occupational radiation exposure records on over two million individuals from 1945 through the present. These records are controlled in accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974 but are available to affected individuals or their designees and other groups performing sanctioned epidemiology studies.Introduction of Radiation Exposure of U.S. Military Individuals (Video 2:19, http://links.lww.com/HP/A30). PMID:24378502

  4. Influence of materials choice on occupational radiation exposure in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty, C. B. A.; Firth, J. D.; Butterworth, G. J.

    1998-10-01

    In fission reactor plant,the radiation doses associated with inspection and maintenance of the primary cooling circuit account for a substantial fraction of the collective occupational radiation exposure (ORE). Similarly, it is anticipated that much of the ORE occurring during normal operation of ITER will arise from active deposits in the cooling loop. Using a number of calculation steps ranging from neutron activation analysis, mobilisation and transport modelling and Monte Carlo simulation, estimates for the gamma photon flux and radiation dose fields around a typical `hot-leg' cooling pipe have been made taking SS316,OPTSTAB, MANET-II and F-82H steels as alternative candidate loop materials.

  5. Radiological protection for medical exposure to ionizing radiation. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When ionizing radiation was discovered more than 100 years ago its beneficial uses were quickly discovered by the medical profession. Over the years new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques have been developed and the general level of health care has improved. This has resulted in medical radiation exposures becoming a significant component of the total radiation exposure of populations. Current estimates put the worldwide annual number of diagnostic exposures at 2500 million and therapeutic exposures at 5.5 million. Some 78% of diagnostic exposures are due to medical X rays, 21% due to dental X rays and the remaining 1% due to nuclear medicine techniques. The annual collective dose from all diagnostic exposures is about 2500 million man Sv, corresponding to a worldwide average of 0.4 mSv per person per year. There are, however, wide differences in radiological practices throughout the world, the average annual per caput values for States of the upper and lower health care levels being 1.3 mSv and 0.02 mSv, respectively. It should, however, be noted that doses from therapeutic uses of radiation are not included in these averages, as they involve very high doses (in the region of 20-60 Gy) precisely delivered to target volumes in order to eradicate disease or to alleviate symptoms. Over 90% of total radiation treatments are conducted by teletherapy or brachytherapy, with radiopharmaceuticals being used in only 7% of treatments. Increases in the uses of medical radiation and the resultant doses can be expected following changes in patterns of health care resulting from advances in technology and economic development. For example, increases are likely in the utilization of computed tomography (CT), digital imaging and, with the attendant potential for deterministic effects, interventional procedures; practice in nuclear medicine will be driven by the use of new and more specific radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy, and there will be an increased demand for

  6. Radiation exposures to technologists from nuclear medicine imaging procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation exposures incurred by nuclear medicine technologists during diagnostic imaging and gamma camera quality control (QC) were measured on a procedural basis over a three-month period using a portable, low-range, self-reading ion chamber. A total of more than 400 measurements were made for 15 selected procedures. From these, mean procedural exposures and standard deviations were calculated. The results show that daily flood phantom QC, at 0.58 mR, and gated cardiac studies, at 0.45 mR, were the two greatest sources of exposure. Other procedures resulted in exposures varying roughly from 0.10 to 0.20 mR. Difficult patients were responsible for a doubling of technologist exposure for many procedures. Standard deviations were large for all procedures, averaging 65% of the mean values. Comparison of technologist exposure inferred from the procedural measurements with the time coincident collective dose equivalent recorded by the TLD service of the Radiation Protection Bureau indicates that approximately half of the collective technologist exposure arose from patient handling and flood QC

  7. Occupational radiation exposure experience: Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for significant uranium exposure in gaseous diffusion plants is very low. The potential for significant radiation exposure in uranium hexafluoride manufacturing is very real. Exposures can be controlled to low levels only through the cooperation and commitment of facility management and operating personnel. Exposure control can be adequately monitored by a combination of air analyses, urinalyses, and measurements of internal deposition as obtained by the IVRML. A program based on control of air-borne uranium exposure has maintained the internal dose of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant workman to less than one-half the RPG dose to the lung (15 rem/year) and probably to less than one-fourth that dose

  8. Long-term effects of radiation exposure on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kenji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Akiba, Suminori; Niwa, Ohstura; Kodama, Kazunori; Takamura, Noboru; Zaharieva, Elena K; Kimura, Yuko; Wakeford, Richard

    2015-08-01

    Late-onset effects of exposure to ionising radiation on the human body have been identified by long-term, large-scale epidemiological studies. The cohort study of Japanese survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (the Life Span Study) is thought to be the most reliable source of information about these health effects because of the size of the cohort, the exposure of a general population of both sexes and all ages, and the wide range of individually assessed doses. For this reason, the Life Span Study has become fundamental to risk assessment in the radiation protection system of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and other authorities. Radiation exposure increases the risk of cancer throughout life, so continued follow-up of survivors is essential. Overall, survivors have a clear radiation-related excess risk of cancer, and people exposed as children have a higher risk of radiation-induced cancer than those exposed at older ages. At high doses, and possibly at low doses, radiation might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and some other non-cancer diseases. Hereditary effects in the children of atomic bomb survivors have not been detected. The dose-response relation for cancer at low doses is assumed, for purposes of radiological protection, to be linear without a threshold, but has not been shown definitively. This outstanding issue is not only a problem when dealing appropriately with potential health effects of nuclear accidents, such as at Fukushima and Chernobyl, but is of growing concern in occupational and medical exposure. Therefore, the appropriate dose-response relation for effects of low doses of radiation needs to be established. PMID:26251392

  9. Cancer risk estimation caused by radiation exposure during endovascular procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Y. H.; Cho, J. H.; Yun, W. S.; Park, K. H.; Kim, H. G.; Kwon, S. M.

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the radiation exposure dose of patients, as well as staff caused by fluoroscopy for C-arm-assisted vascular surgical operation and to estimate carcinogenic risk due to such exposure dose. The study was conducted in 71 patients (53 men and 18 women) who had undergone vascular surgical intervention at the division of vascular surgery in the University Hospital from November of 2011 to April of 2012. It had used a mobile C-arm device and calculated the radiation exposure dose of patient (dose-area product, DAP). Effective dose was measured by attaching optically stimulated luminescence on the radiation protectors of staff who participates in the surgery to measure the radiation exposure dose of staff during the vascular surgical operation. From the study results, DAP value of patients was 308.7 Gy cm2 in average, and the maximum value was 3085 Gy cm2. When converted to the effective dose, the resulted mean was 6.2 m Gy and the maximum effective dose was 61.7 milliSievert (mSv). The effective dose of staff was 3.85 mSv; while the radiation technician was 1.04 mSv, the nurse was 1.31 mSv. All cancer incidences of operator are corresponding to 2355 persons per 100,000 persons, which deemed 1 of 42 persons is likely to have all cancer incidences. In conclusion, the vascular surgeons should keep the radiation protection for patient, staff, and all participants in the intervention in mind as supervisor of fluoroscopy while trying to understand the effects by radiation by themselves to prevent invisible danger during the intervention and to minimize the harm.

  10. Modelling of aircrew radiation exposure during solar particle events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Anid, Hani Khaled

    In 1990, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recognized the occupational exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation. In Canada, a Commercial and Business Aviation Advisory Circular was issued by Transport Canada suggesting that action should be taken to manage such exposure. In anticipation of possible regulations on exposure of Canadian-based aircrew in the near future, an extensive study was carried out at the Royal Military College of Canada to measure the radiation exposure during commercial flights. The radiation exposure to aircrew is a result of a complex mixed-radiation field resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs). Supernova explosions and active galactic nuclei are responsible for GCRs which consist of 90% protons, 9% alpha particles, and 1% heavy nuclei. While they have a fairly constant fluence rate, their interaction with the magnetic field of the Earth varies throughout the solar cycles, which has a period of approximately 11 years. SEPs are highly sporadic events that are associated with solar flares and coronal mass ejections. This type of exposure may be of concern to certain aircrew members, such as pregnant flight crew, for which the annual effective dose is limited to 1 mSv over the remainder of the pregnancy. The composition of SEPs is very similar to GCRs, in that they consist of mostly protons, some alpha particles and a few heavy nuclei, but with a softer energy spectrum. An additional factor when analysing SEPs is the effect of flare anisotropy. This refers to the way charged particles are transported through the Earth's magnetosphere in an anisotropic fashion. Solar flares that are fairly isotropic produce a uniform radiation exposure for areas that have similar geomagnetic shielding, while highly anisotropic events produce variable exposures at different locations on the Earth. Studies of neutron monitor count rates from detectors sharing similar geomagnetic shielding properties

  11. The effects of exposure of {sup 60}Co on the oxidant/antioxidant status among radiation victims

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demir, Mustafa E-mail: mmdemir@e-kolay.net; Konukoglu, Dildar; Kabasakal, Levent; Yelke, Hakan Kadir; Ergen, Kadir; Ahmed, Sabbir

    2002-07-01

    This retrospective study has been performed with radiation victims who were accidentally exposed to a {sup 60}Co source and its release into the environment. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of elevated radiation exposures on plasma level, on erythrocyte thio barbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) level and on erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) levels. Patients were treated in different hospitals with different symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, along with severe anemia in some patients. Blood samples were collected 3-5 days following the radiation accident. Increases in plasma (6.25{+-}0.90 nmol ml{sup -1}) and erythrocyte TBARS levels (330.5{+-}30.5 {mu}mol gHb{sup -1}) were found in comparison to a healthy group (3.72{+-}0.68 nmol ml{sup -1} and 150.7{+-}20.5 {mu}mol gHb{sup -1}, respectively) at a significant level (p<0.001). Erythrocyte GSH levels (5.2{+-}0.30 {mu}mol gHb{sup -1}) were found to be decreased among the victims (healthy group: 10.2{+-}0.7 {mu}mol gHb{sup -1}) at the same significance level (p<0.001). These observations confirm a significant change induced by radiation in the oxidant/antioxidant status among the victims. It is suggested here that antioxidant supplementation therapy might be effective in preventing the harmful effects of {sup 60}Co radiation among radiation victims.

  12. Explanation of diagnosis criteria for radiation sickness from internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A revised edition of the Diagnostic Criteria for Radiation Sickness from Internal Exposure has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. It is necessary to research the internal radiation sickness to adapt to the current serious anti-terrorism situation. This standard was enacted based on the extensive research of related literature, from which 12 cases with internal radiation sickness and screened out were involving 7 types of radionuclide. The Development of Emergency Response Standard Extension Framework: Midterm Evaluation Report is the main reference which approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency and World Health Organization. This amendment contains many new provisions such as internal radiation sickness effects models and threshold dose, and the appendix added threshold dose of serious deterministic effects induced by radionuclide intake and radiotoxicology parameters of some radionuclides. In order to understand and implement this standard, and to diagnose and treat the internal radiation sickness correctly, the contents of this standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  13. Explanation of nurse standard of external exposure acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National occupational health standard-Nurse Standard of External Exposure Acute Radiation Sickness has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. Based on the extensive research of literature, collection of the previous nuclear and radiation accidents excessive exposed personnel data and specific situations in China, this standard was enacted according to the current national laws, regulations, and the opinions of peer experts. It is mainly used for care of patients with acute radiation sickness, and also has directive significance for care of patients with iatrogenic acute radiation sickness which due to the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation pretreatment. To correctly carry out this standard and to reasonably implement nursing measures for patients with acute radiation sickness, the contents of this standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  14. Evaluation on Reproducibility of Space Radiation Generator and on Biodosimetry of Exposure to Space Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with references. And second part is establishment of biodosimetry for space radiation exposure using cellular transformation activity and micronuclei production. These data may give the direction to future research fields in space radiation biology

  15. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures

  16. Understanding of radiation protection in medicine. Pt. 1. Knowledge about radiation exposure and anxiety about radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a questionnaire we investigated whether radiation exposure in correctly understood by medical doctors (n=140), nurses (n=496) and the general public (n=236). Thirty-three percent of medical doctors, 53% of nurses and the general public did not know who is legally allowed to irradiate the human body. Forty-five percent of doctors, 63% of nurses and 48% of the general public complained of anxiety about radiation injury. Fifty-six percent of patients did not ask medical doctors or nurses for an explanation of the risk of exposure. Moreover, 64% of doctors did not explain the risk to patients. In addition, 21% of doctors, 46% of nurses and the general public incorrectly understood that x-rays remain in the examination room. Twenty-seven percent of doctors, 49% of nurses and 80% of the general public did not know the ten-day rule. In conclusion, the results of this questionnaire indicated that basic knowledge about radiation exposure was not adequate. To protect against medical radiation exposure, personnel who are licensed to irradiate to the human body should be well recognized by medical staff and the general public. It is also important that informed consent for radiological examinations be based on fundamental knowledge about radiation exposure. Therefore, to reach a general consensus on radiological examinations and to reduce individual exposure, general public education regarding radiation protection is required. Postgraduate education on radiation protection for medical doctors and nurses is also strongly recommended. (author)

  17. Metallic implants and exposure to radiofrequency radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is increasing use of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) in industry for communications, welding, security, radio, medicine, navigation etc. It has been recognised for some years that RFR may interact with cardiac pacemakers and steps have been taken to prevent this interference. It is less well recognised that other metallic implants may also act as antennas in an RFR field and possibly cause adverse health effects by heating local tissues. There are a large and increasing number of implants having metal components which may be found in RFR workers. These implants include artificial joints, rods and plates used in orthopaedics, rings in heart valves, wires in sutures, bionic ears, subcutaneous infusion systems and (external) transdermal drug delivery patches1. The physician concerned with job placement of such persons requires information on the likelihood of an implant interacting with RFR so as to impair health. The following outlines the approach developed in Telecom Australia, beginning with the general principles and then presenting a specific example discussion of a specific example

  18. Measurement of man's exposure to external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After outlining briefly the rationale for personnel radiation monitoring with integrating detectors, a review is presented of some developments which have taken place in personnel and environmental dosimetry during the past 3.5 years. The results of a pilot field experiment concerning the stability of film and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) in four Latin-American countries are summarized. It shows that film dosimeters should be used only with caution, and in locations with a moderate climate. A survey is being conducted on the current status and trends in personnel monitoring, involving detailed questioning of over 150 laboratories in about forty countries to obtain information on the type of service and detectors, evaluation and recordkeeping, additional applications, problem and development areas, intercomparisons, practical experiences with different systems, administrative and legal aspects, etc. According to the preliminary results, the trend is away from photographic film and towards mostly automatic TLD systems, not only in the industrialized countries but also in several of the larger and more advanced developing countries. The need for higher quality standards and frequent performance tests under realistic conditions is emphasized. Differences in the requirements for personnel and

  19. Evaluation of illnesses associated with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective study by the Institute of Occupational Medicine is presented of all cases of pathological indications of ionizing radiation exposure during the period 1990-1995. It describes the incidence of theses diseases and their relationship with other factors. It has shown the predominance of pathologies of the haemolymphopoietic system in individuals who work in radiological diagnostics

  20. Radiation exposure of fertile women in medical research studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertile women may be exposed to ionizing radiation as human subjects in medical research studies. If the woman is pregnant, such exposures may result in risk to an embryo/fetus. Fertile women may be screened for pregnancy before exposure to ionizing radiation by interview, general examination, or pregnancy test. Use of the sensitive serum pregnancy test has become common because it offers concrete evidence that the woman is not pregnant (more specifically, that an embryo is not implanted). Evidence suggests that risk to the embryo from radiation exposure before organogenesis is extremely low or nonexistent. Further, demonstrated effects on organogenesis are rare or inconclusive at fetal doses below 50 mSv (5 rem). Therefore, there may be some level of radiation exposure below which risk to the fetus may be considered essentially zero, and a serum pregnancy test is unnecessary. This paper reviews the fetal risks and suggests that consideration be given to establishing a limit to the fetus of 0.5 mSv (50 mrem), below which pregnancy screening need not include the use of a serum pregnancy test

  1. DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) Data Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nimi; Hagemeyer, Derek

    2012-05-05

    This slide show presents the 2011 draft data for DOE occupational radiation exposure.Clarification is given on Reporting Data regarding: reporting Total Organ Dose (TOD); reporting Total Skin Dose (TSD), and Total Extremity Dose (TExD) ; and Special individuals reporting.

  2. Radiation Exposure Alters Expression of Metabolic Enzyme Genes in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotring, V. E.; Mangala, L. S.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, H.

    2011-01-01

    Most administered pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver. The health of the liver, especially the rate of its metabolic enzymes, determines the concentration of circulating drugs as well as the duration of their efficacy. Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver, and clinically-used medication doses are given with normal liver function in mind. A drug overdose can result in the case of a liver that is damaged and removing pharmaceuticals from the circulation at a rate slower than normal. Alternatively, if liver function is elevated and removing drugs from the system more quickly than usual, it would be as if too little drug had been given for effective treatment. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism, we want to understand the effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver and exposure to cosmic radiation is one aspect of spaceflight that can be modeled in ground experiments. Additionally, it has been previous noted that pre-exposure to small radiation doses seems to confer protection against later and larger radiation doses. This protective power of pre-exposure has been called a priming effect or radioadaptation. This study is an effort to examine the drug metabolizing effects of radioadaptation mechanisms that may be triggered by early exposure to low radiation doses.

  3. Administration of ON 01210.Na after exposure to ionizing radiation protects bone marrow cells by attenuating DNA damage response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation-induced hematopoietic injury could occur either due to accidental exposure or due to diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Currently there is no approved drug to mitigate radiation toxicity in hematopoietic cells. This study investigates the potential of ON 01210.Na, a chlorobenzylsulfone derivative, in ameliorating radiation-induced hematopoietic toxicity when administered after exposure to radiation. We also investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying this activity. Male C3H/HeN mice (n = 5 mice per group; 6-8 weeks old) were exposed to a sub-lethal dose (5 Gy) of γ radiation using a 137Cs source at a dose rate of 0.77 Gy/min. Two doses of ON 01210.Na (500 mg/kg body weight) were administered subcutaneously at 24 h and 36 h after radiation exposure. Mitigation of hematopoietic toxicity by ON 01210.Na was investigated by peripheral white blood cell (WBC) and platelet counts at 3, 7, 21, and 28 d after radiation exposure. Granulocyte macrophage colony forming unit (GM-CFU) assay was done using isolated bone marrow cells, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) was performed on bone marrow sections at 7 d post-exposure. The DNA damage response pathway involving ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and p53 was investigated by Western blot in bone marrow cells at 7 d post-exposure. Compared to the vehicle, ON 01210.Na treated mice showed accelerated recovery of peripheral WBC and platelet counts. Post-irradiation treatment of mice with ON 01210.Na also resulted in higher GM-CFU counts. The mitigation effects were accompanied by attenuation of ATM-p53-dependent DNA damage response in the bone marrow cells of ON 01210.Na treated mice. Both phospho-ATM and phospho-p53 were significantly lower in the bone marrow cells of ON 01210.Na treated than in vehicle treated mice. Furthermore, the Bcl2:Bax ratio was higher in the drug treated mice than the vehicle treated groups. ON 01210.Na treatment significantly

  4. Radiation exposure to the surgeon during closed interlocking intramedullary nailing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, P.E.; Schoen, R.W. Jr.; Browner, B.D.

    1987-06-01

    During interlocking intramedullary nailing of twenty-five femoral and five tibial fractures, the primary surgeon wore both a universal film badge on the collar of the lead apron and a thermoluminescent dosimeter ring on the dominant hand to quantify the radiation that he or she received. When distal interlocking was performed, the first ring was removed and a second ring was used so that a separate recording could be made for this portion of the procedure. At the conclusion of the study, all of the recorded doses of radiation were averaged. The average amount of radiation to the head and neck during the entire procedure was 7.0 millirems of deep exposure and 8.0 millirems of shallow exposure. The average dose of radiation to the dominant hand during insertion of the intramedullary nail and the proximal interlocking screw was 13.0 millirems, while the average amount during insertion of the distal interlocking nail was 12.0 millirems. Both of these averages are well within the government guidelines for allowable exposure to radiation during one-quarter (three months) of a year. Precautions that are to be observed during this procedure are recommended.

  5. Characterization and simulation of hourly exposure series of global radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Lopez, L. [Universidad de Malaga (Spain). Dpto. Lenguajes y C. Computacion; Sidrach-de-Cardona, M. [Universidad de Malaga (Spain). Dpto. Fisica Aplicada

    1997-06-01

    A statistical model which captures the main features of hourly exposure series of global radiation is proposed. This model is used to obtain a procedure to generate radiation series without imposing, a priori, any restriction on the form of the probability distribution function of the series. The statistical model was taken from the stationary stochastic processes theory. Data were obtained from ten different Spanish locations. As monthly hourly exposure series of global radiation are not stationary, they are modified in order to remove the observed trends. A multiplicative autoregressive moving average model with regular and seasonal components was used. It is statistically accepted that this is the true model which generates most of the analyzed sequences. However, the underlying parameters of the model vary from one location to another and from one month to another. Therefore, it is necessary to examine further the relationship between the parameters of the model and the available data from most locations. (author)

  6. Occupational radiation protection: Protecting workers against exposure to ionizing radiation. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, in mining and milling, in medical institutions, in educational and research establishments and in nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The term 'occupational exposure' refers to the radiation exposure incurred by a worker which is attributable to the worker's occupation and received or committed during a period of work. According to the latest (2000) Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), an estimated 11 million workers worldwide are monitored for exposure to ionizing radiation. They incur radiation doses which range from a small fraction of the global average background exposure to natural radiation up to several times that value. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), which are co-sponsored by, amongst others, the IAEA, the International Labour Organization (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO), establish a system of radiation protection of which the provisions for occupational exposure are a substantial component. Guidance supporting the requirements of the BSS for occupational protection is provided in three Safety Guides, jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the ILO, and describing, for example, the implications for employers in discharging their main responsibilities (such as setting up appropriate radiation protection programmes) and similarly for workers (such as properly using the radiation monitoring devices provided to them). It should be noted, however, that radiation protection is only one factor that must be addressed in order to protect the worker's overall health and safety. The occupational radiation protection programme should be established and managed in co-ordination with other health and safety disciplines. Less than half of the occupationally exposed workers are exposed to

  7. A reassessment of Galileo radiation exposures in the Jupiter magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier particle experiments in the 1970's on Pioneer-10 and -11 and Voyager-1 and -2 provided Jupiter flyby particle data, which were used by Divine and Garrett to develop the first Jupiter trapped radiation environment model. This model was used to establish a baseline radiation effects design limit for the Galileo onboard electronics. Recently, Garrett et al. have developed an updated Galileo Interim Radiation Environment (GIRE) model based on Galileo electron data. In this paper, we have used the GIRE model to reassess the computed radiation exposures and dose effects for Galileo. The 34-orbit 'as flown' Galileo trajectory data and the updated GIRE model were used to compute the electron and proton spectra for each of the 34 orbits. The total ionisation doses of electrons and protons have been computed based on a parametric shielding configuration, and these results are compared with previously published results. Published by Oxford Univ. Press. All right reserved. (authors)

  8. Occupational exposure to microwave radiation in diathermia units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.A.; Ubeda, A. [Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Servicio de Investigacion-BEM, Madrid (Spain); Tellez, M.; Santa Olalla, I. [Hospital La Paz, Servicio de Radiofisica y Radioproteccion, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The present study summarizes preliminary data addressed to complete the present knowledge on the microwave (M.V.)-exposure doses and conditions in workers exposed chronically to relatively high, though nonthermal, levels of that non ionizing radiations (N.I.R.). The obtained data are of direct application to radiation protection in occupational media provided that: 1) help to detect and eradicate practices and situations that result in overexposure; 2) they constitute a basis for the design and development of strategies for exposure control and minimization, and 3) they represent a dosimetric support necessary to properly interpret past and future epidemiologic and experimental data on potential health effects of chronic exposures to M.W. radiation at work. The described results will be extended through additional dosimetric recordings in other hospitals. The dosimetric data will be compared to the results of questionnaires among the electro-therapists working at the units studied. The objective is to identify potential relationships between exposure doses and specific diseases or level of risk perception among the investigated professional group. (authors)

  9. Occupational radiation exposure of Kolar mining workers in Karnataka State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon and its short lived decay products in dwellings and in atmosphere represent the main source of public exposure from the natural radiation. Radon, thoron and their progeny present in air contribute to nearly 50% of the average effective dose received by human beings from the natural radiation environment. Radon is a radioactive noble gas produced by the decay of uranium and thorium bearing minerals in rocks, soils and building materials having half life 3.82 days. UNSCEAR reported recently indicates that there is a remarkable coherence between the risk estimates developed from epidemiological studies from miners and residential case-control radon studies. The study area is around BGML at K.G.F. The study on the natural background radiation levels from the natural sources is important to evaluate the distribution of terrestrial radionuclides and radiation doses received by the population inhabitating around the study area. The data obtained from such study may be used locally to establish it and where the controls are needed. In the present study the most accurate Solid State Track Detector (SSNTD) method is used to determine the concentration of radon, thoron and their progeny. The maximum concentration of radon of 116.4 Bq.m-3 and gamma exposure rate of 765 n Gyh-1 have been observed in the dwellings at Champion place. The low concentration of radon and gamma exposure have been observed at Robersonpet and BGML nagar. (author)

  10. Radiation exposure to anesthesiologist and nurse in the orthopedic room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the radiation exposure dose received by the anesthesiologist and nurse in the orthopaedic operating room, when a fluoroscopic image intensifier is in use. This study was done in 12 femoral neck fracture operations performed from January to May 1995. Radiation was monitored with the MYDOSE MINIX PDM 107 made by Aloka Co. which were attached in front and behind the nurse's lead apron, in front of the lead apron of the anesthesiologist. The average imaging time was 9.78 min. The average radiation dose in front of the anesthesiologist is lead apron was 2.08μSV, and in front and behind the nurse's lead apron were 5.67μSV, 0.08μSV respectively. This study and review of the literature indicate that the operating room anesthesiologist and nurse receive a lower exposure than the orthopaedist. We can disregard the problem of radiation exposure to the anesthesiologist and nurse during an orthopaedic operation when they wear lead aprons and stand far from the patient. (author)

  11. Studies of effects of radiation exposure on children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review describes the title subject from the aspect of age difference in humans and experimental animals. Epidemiological studies on A-bomb survivors have revealed that the effects are dependent on the dose, sex, age at exposure and attained age after the exposure. Analysis of the survivor cohort shows that the younger is the age at exposure, the higher the risk of cancer death at an attained age. However, the risk is suggested small and insignificant regardless to the age of exposure at the low dose 0.005-0.5 Gy. The risk of carcinogenesis at the attained age 50 y of exposed children is 1.7 while that of exposed fetuses, 0.42. There are no confounding factors in animal experiments. Risks of carcinogenesis and life-span reduction have been found the highest in the exposed mouse neonate (0-7 days old). In authors' studies with gamma-ray, it is shown that females are more susceptible, the risk is the highest in 1 week old infants and is the lowest in fetuses at 17 days after gestation at <1 Gy dose. That the susceptible age to cancer formation differs on the organ is also shown, where at exposure to the late phase fetuses/neonates/infants, increased incidence of cancers thereafter is seen in the brain, kidney, liver, mammary gland, lung, gut and T-lymphocytes in contrast to adults in which the lung cancer and marrow leukemia are major. Carcinogenic radiation response of infant seems different from that of adult: after exposure, adult gut cells die due to the apoptosis through p53-Noxa-caspase pathway but at the developing age, p53-p21 pathway is activated leading to the arrest of cell cycle, resulting in survival of DNA-injured cells. Studies on the age difference of cancer formation is conceivably important for elucidation of radiation carcinogenesis for radiation protection and risk reduction. (T.T.)

  12. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany in 2012. Report of the radiation protection register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany, persons who are occupationally exposed to ionising radiation are monitored by several official dosimetry services that transmit the dose records about individual radiation monitoring to the Radiation Protection Register of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The purpose of the Radiation Protection Register is to supervise the keeping of the dose limits and to monitor the compliance with the radiation protection principle ''Optimisation'' by performing detailed annual statistical analyses of the monitored persons and their radiation exposure. The annual report of the Radiation Protection Register provides information about status and development of occupational radiation exposure in Germany. In 2012, about 350,000 workers were monitored with dosemeters for occupational radiation exposure. The number increased continuously by totally 10 % into the past five years. 19 % of the monitored persons received measurable personal doses. The average annual dose of these exposed workers was 0.52 mSv corresponding to 2.6 % of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv for radiation workers. In total, 2 persons exceeded the annual dose limit of 20 mSv, i.e. less than one case per 100,000 monitored persons. The collective dose of the monitored persons decreased to 27.9 Person-Sv, the lowest value since the last fifty years of occupational dose monitoring. 45 airlines calculated the route doses of 40,000 aircraft crew members by using certified computer programmes for dose calculation and sent the accumulated monthly doses via the Federal Office for Civil Aviation (''Luftfahrt-Bundesamt, LBA'') to the BfS. The collective dose of the aircraft crew personnel is 78.5 person- Sv, and thus significantly higher than the total collective dose of the workers monitored with personal dosemeters. The annual average dose of aircraft crew personnel was 1.96 mSv and decreased compared to 2011 (2.12 mSv) due to solar cycle. In 2012, about

  13. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany in 2013-2014. Report of the radiation protection register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany, persons who are occupationally exposed to ionising radiation are monitored by several official dosimetry services that transmit the dose records about individual radiation monitoring to the Radiation Protection Register of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The purpose of the Radiation Protection Register is to supervise the keeping of the dose limits and to monitor the compliance with the radiation protection principle ''Optimisation'' by performing detailed annual statistical analyses of the monitored persons and their radiation exposure. The annual report of the Radiation Protection Register provides information about status and development of occupational radiation exposure in Germany. In 2014, about 358,000 workers were monitored with dosemeters for occupational radiation exposure. The number increased continuously by totally 5 % into the past five years. 15 % of the monitored persons received measurable personal doses. The average annual dose of these exposed workers was 0.50 mSv corresponding to less than 3 % of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv for radiation workers. In total, two persons exceeded the annual dose limit of 20 mSv, i.e. less than one case per 100,000 monitored persons. The collective dose of the monitored persons decreased to 26.0 Person-Sv, the lowest value since the last fifty years of occupational dose monitoring. 45 airlines calculated the route doses of 39,500 aircraft crew members by using certified computer pro-grammes for dose calculation and sent the accumulated monthly doses via the Federal Office for Civil Aviation (''Luftfahrt-Bundesamt, LBA'') to the BfS. The collective dose of the aircraft crew personnel is 74.8 person-Sv, and thus significantly higher than the total collective dose of the workers monitored with personal dosemeters. The annual average dose of aircraft crew personnel was 1.89 mSv in 2014. In 2014, about 58,500 outside-workers were in possession of

  14. Evaluation of radiation exposure from a consumer product. A pillow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation exposure from a pillow was analyzed. According to an advertisement of the pillow, this radioactive consumer product contains enough amounts of radioactive materials to induce radiation hormesis effects. The pillow consists of the filling chips made from kneading mineral ores and the polynosic linings contains natural radioactive ores. A γ-ray analysis of the pillow using pure Ge-MCA reveals that there exist radioactivities of thorium and uranium series mixtures in it at concentration of 0.58% by the weight. The observations of a chip surface by a scanning electron microscope show that the shapes of two sides are different each other. There are lots of sharp protuberances on the outside of the chip. To determine the direct external exposures from the pillow, film badges were placed on the pillow for 210 h and 2555 h. The dose equivalents of 210 h exposure was under 0.1 mSv which is a detection limit of a γ-ray by the film badges. However, that of 2555 h exposure was over 0.1 mSv less than 0.15 mSv. Quantities of internal exposures from inhalation of the vaporized Rn were measured by a Lucas Cell. It was 79 Bq/m3. There is no necessity for anxious about being broken in health inhaling the Rn-gass. (author)

  15. Radiation exposures in reprocessing facilities at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two large reprocessing facilities have been operating at the Savannah River Plant since 1955. The plant, which is near Aiken, South Carolina, is operated for the US Department of Energy by the Du Pont Company. The reprocessing facilities have a work force of approximately 1,800. The major processes in the facilities are chemical separations of irradiated material, plutonium finishing, and waste management. This paper presents the annual radiation exposure for the reprocessing work force, particularly during the period 1965 through 1978. It also presents the collective and average individual annual exposures for various occupations including operators, mechanics, electricians, control laboratory technicians, and health physicists. Periodic and repetitive work activities that result in the highest radiation exposures are also described. The assimilation of radionuclides, particularly plutonium, by the work force is reviewed. Methods that have been developed to minimize the exposure of reprocessing personnel are described. The success of these methods is illustrated by experience - there has been no individual worker exposure of greater than 3.1 rems per year and only one plutonium assimilation greater than the maximum permissible body burden during the 24 years of operation of the facilities

  16. Risk from exposure to natural and artificial ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association between exposure to ultraviolet (UV) and damage to the skin and eyes is today generally accepted. Exposure to UV radiation may occur in several ways. Apart from the sun, there is a wide range of artificial sources used in different fields of industry, research and medicine, the exposure to which adds to the total exposure of an individual during his life-span. The potential effects of ozone layer depletion on the increase of the solar UV radiation at earth's surface, and therefor on human health, have recently been emphasized. Moreover, great attention has been devoted to the often uncontrolled use of UV lamps for tanning. This report shows the basis on which short and long term UV risk is assessed, and indicates some parameters necessary to its evaluation. The UV effects, both at molecular and cellular levels and on humans, are described together with their respective action spectra. The most common UV sources are then analyzed and their use in different fields is shown. Finally, some methods in dosimetry, which are useful for the correct measurement of exposure values, are described

  17. Study Regarding Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure Generated By Mobile Phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Number of mobile phone users reached to 5 billion subscribers in 2010 [ABI Research, 2010]. A large number of studies illustrated the public concern about adverse effects of mobile phone radiation and possible health hazards. Position of mobile phone use in close proximity to the head leads the main radiation between the hand and the head. Many investigations studying the possible effects of mobile phone exposure, founded no measurable effects of short-term mobile phone radiation, and there was no evidence for the ability to perceive mobile phone EMF in the general population. In this study, field radiation measurements were performed on different brand and different models of mobile phones in active mode, using an EMF RF Radiation Field Strength Power Meter 1 MHz-8 GHz. The study was effectuated on both the 2G and 3G generations phones connected to the providers operating in the frequency range 450 MHz-1800 MHz. There were recorded values in outgoing call and SMS mode, incoming call and SMS mode. Results were compared with ICNIRP guidelines for exposure to general public.

  18. Influence of radiation exposure on our society and epidemiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief epidemiological review of risk assessment of radiation was discussed with respect to two periods; before and after the establishment of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Selected topics were the studies of atomic bomb survivors and people living in the contaminated areas due to Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. An ethical view to ensure that potential social benefits of epidemiology are maximized was emphasized as well as a scientific view. On the other hand it should be recognized that there are the limitations of epidemiological studies on the basis of the observations on man in which the animal-experimental setting generally cannot be controlled over. Informing people about the professional confidence and caution of radiation exposure is needed to resolve social concern associated with low dose, low dose rate of radiation. Also there are guidelines for the investigation of clusters of adverse health events. In the future an appropriate strategy for decontamination might be expected to unusual radiation exposure as a consequence of a nuclear power plant accident. Justification for the implementations can be determined only through the assessment of the effects both on the environment and health of humans after the accident. (author)

  19. Study Regarding Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure Generated By Mobile Phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marica, Lucia; Moraru, Luminita

    2011-12-01

    Number of mobile phone users reached to 5 billion subscribers in 2010 [ABI Research, 2010]. A large number of studies illustrated the public concern about adverse effects of mobile phone radiation and possible health hazards. Position of mobile phone use in close proximity to the head leads the main radiation between the hand and the head. Many investigations studying the possible effects of mobile phone exposure, founded no measurable effects of short-term mobile phone radiation, and there was no evidence for the ability to perceive mobile phone EMF in the general population. In this study, field radiation measurements were performed on different brand and different models of mobile phones in active mode, using an EMF RF Radiation Field Strength Power Meter 1 MHz-8 GHz. The study was effectuated on both the 2G and 3G generations phones connected to the providers operating in the frequency range 450 MHz-1800 MHz. There were recorded values in outgoing call and SMS mode, incoming call and SMS mode. Results were compared with ICNIRP guidelines for exposure to general public.

  20. Follow-up of delayed health consequences of acute radiation exposure. Lessons to be learned from their medical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    surveillance in the event of accidental overexposure. As part of the co-operative arrangements between the IAEA and WHO, a joint IAEA-WHO technical meeting (TM) was held on 1-3 October 2001 at WHO Headquarters. Ten radiation medicine experts, who had been responsible for providing medical assistance to victims of radiation accidents, and four members of the Joint IAEA-WHO Secretariat, attended the meeting. The objectives of the TM were to review the delayed health consequences of acute exposure to radiation consecutive to a number of recent radiation accidents and to analyse lessons to be learned in their diagnosis and treatment. Eight papers were presented and discussed. These form the basis of this joint IAEA-WHO publication

  1. Radiation epidemiological analysis of late effects of population exposure at northern part of east ural radioactive trace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarmoshenko, I.V.; Konshina, L.G.; Lezhnin, V.L.; Zhukovsky, M.V.; Pavlyuk, A.V. [V.N. Chukanov Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    Population residing in the northern part of the Chelyabinsk oblast and the south eastern part of the Sverdlovsk oblast of Russia affected to accidental exposure since 1957. The territory (East Ural Radioactive Trace - EURT) was contaminated after explosion of container with highly radioactive wastes at the Mayak Production Association. Studies of health effects of exposure in the southern, head part of EURT are conducted in the Ural Research and Practical Center of Radiation Medicine (U.R.P.R.M.). In the 1990's U.R.P.C.R.M. formed a cohort of EURT within Chelyabinsk oblast (14,500 cases and 19,400 external controls). The cohort was followed in 1957-1987 and the results of the study are discussed by Crestinina et al. First results of study on exposure late health effects among rural population in the northern part of the EURT are presented in this paper. Firstly, or the period 1958-2000 a statistically significant increase in cancer mortality associated with accidental exposure at EURT area was observed in the critical group of population of the Kamensky district, Sverdlovsk Region (65 cancer deaths among 691 cases, 90% CI 18-144). The finding is in agreement with the results of a radiation epidemiological study in the southern head part of EURT and model radiation risk assessments. E.R.R. normalized to colon dose is 1.3 Gy-1 (90 % CI 0.36-2.9 Gy-1). Secondly, analysis of the age and temporal factors influence on solid cancers radiation risk allows conclusion on decline of radiation risk in time. At present considerable number of additional radiation-induced cancer deaths are unlikely to appear. Radiation risk of solid cancers realizes at most during 30 post-accident years. Radiation risk declines with age at first exposure and not appeared in the age group >60. Derived age and time dependencies generally agree with results of other radiation epidemiological studies. Thirdly, continuation and development of radiation epidemiological study of the population

  2. Radiation epidemiological analysis of late effects of population exposure at northern part of east ural radioactive trace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Population residing in the northern part of the Chelyabinsk oblast and the south eastern part of the Sverdlovsk oblast of Russia affected to accidental exposure since 1957. The territory (East Ural Radioactive Trace - EURT) was contaminated after explosion of container with highly radioactive wastes at the Mayak Production Association. Studies of health effects of exposure in the southern, head part of EURT are conducted in the Ural Research and Practical Center of Radiation Medicine (U.R.P.R.M.). In the 1990's U.R.P.C.R.M. formed a cohort of EURT within Chelyabinsk oblast (14,500 cases and 19,400 external controls). The cohort was followed in 1957-1987 and the results of the study are discussed by Crestinina et al. First results of study on exposure late health effects among rural population in the northern part of the EURT are presented in this paper. Firstly, or the period 1958-2000 a statistically significant increase in cancer mortality associated with accidental exposure at EURT area was observed in the critical group of population of the Kamensky district, Sverdlovsk Region (65 cancer deaths among 691 cases, 90% CI 18-144). The finding is in agreement with the results of a radiation epidemiological study in the southern head part of EURT and model radiation risk assessments. E.R.R. normalized to colon dose is 1.3 Gy-1 (90 % CI 0.36-2.9 Gy-1). Secondly, analysis of the age and temporal factors influence on solid cancers radiation risk allows conclusion on decline of radiation risk in time. At present considerable number of additional radiation-induced cancer deaths are unlikely to appear. Radiation risk of solid cancers realizes at most during 30 post-accident years. Radiation risk declines with age at first exposure and not appeared in the age group >60. Derived age and time dependencies generally agree with results of other radiation epidemiological studies. Thirdly, continuation and development of radiation epidemiological study of the population residing

  3. Doctrinal elements for the post-accidental management of a nuclear accident - Final version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines and defines the objectives, principles and main actions for the post-accidental management of a nuclear accident. It defines the emergency phase and the post-accidental phase, three basic objectives (to protect the population against the hazards of ionizing radiations, to support populations affected by the accident consequences, to restore affected territories), management principles, key issues for post-accidental management. It defines actions to be undertaken: post-accidental zoning, monitoring of deposited radioactivity, early actions for the protection and taking charge of population, information. It addresses the different aspects of post-accidental management planning in a period of transition: reception of population, reduction of population exposure to deposited radioactivity, treatment of public health problems, improvement of the knowledge on the radiological situation of the environment, improvement of the radiological quality of the different environments, dealing with wastes, empowerment of stakeholders through an adequate governance, support and redeployment of economic activity, help and compensation, information. Appendices more deeply discuss actions to be undertaken just after the emergency phase, for the management of the transition period, and for the management of the long-term period

  4. Strategies for protection against exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiations are known to be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cyto-lethal depending on the total dose, dose rate, quality of radiation and many other factors related to the person exposed. Therefore strategies for protection against exposure to ionizing radiations have to be accordingly planned. Radioprotection, though remains prophylactic in principle, includes mitigating and therapeutic modalities also. Initially, the central theme of biological radioprotection has been to protect against radiation-induced lethality and to optimize radiotherapy of tumours; the emphasis has now extended to cover many more situations of planned and unplanned nature. The central dogma of radioprotection work has been antioxidant action, which is relevant indeed against low LET radiation. The increasing understanding of the mechanism of radiation damage, however, permitted the advent of newer agents of both synthetic and natural origin. Sulfhydryl compounds like cysteamine, AET, Amifostine and endogenous molecules like GSH, SOD etc have been very important agents. Molecules like cytokines, immunomodulators, anti-inflammatory agents, angiotensin converting enzymes, metallo-elements and metallothionins, DNA ligands and Calcium antagonists have also been investigated recently. Unfortunately, no single agent could yield desired results especially due to toxicity at their radioprotective concentration. This led to the emergence of combinational modality where two or more agents working with different mechanisms could synergistically complement radioprotective action.. Recently, herbal extracts and dietary agents, which are the natural combinations of a large number of compounds that have important attributes to counter the damaging effects of ionizing radiations, have gained world-wide interest.. These agents have been found to be less toxic. Decorporation of radionuclei and protection against low dose chronic exposures like space flights and long haul inter-continental flights need to be

  5. Patterns of ionizing radiation exposure among women veterinarians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation detection devices (film badges) were distributed to a random sample of 118 women in Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan, who had graduated from a US veterinary school between 1970 and 1980, inclusive. Ionizing radiation exposure exceeded 15 mrem/mo in 17% of the women monitored. The maximal recorded whole-body dose was 44.2 mrem/quarter-year, which was well below the maximal permissible doses of 1,250 mrem/quarter-year for nonpregnant women and 500 mrem/quarter-year for pregnant women. Associations between the women's safety beliefs or behaviors and recorded exposure were not observed; however, the school from which the women graduated was an important determinant of safety behavior

  6. Childhood exposure to ionizing radiation and brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain has been categorized into the low risk group of radiogenic tumors. However, recent epidemiologic studies on the cancer risks among children who received repeated CT scans, radiotherapies and A-bomb have revealed that low-to-moderate dose of ionizing radiation is effective to induce brain tumors. Ionizing radiation is more strongly associated with risk for meningiomas and schwannomas compared to gliomas. While risk of meningiomas is independent of age at the time of exposure, that of gliomas is profoundly high after neonatal and infantile exposures. Inherited susceptibility to brain tumors is suggested by family history or cancer prone syndromes. People with certain gene mutations such as RB, NF1 or PTCH1 are associated with enhanced cancer risk after radiotherapies. Genetic polymorphism of cancer-related genes on brain tumor risk deserves further investigation. (author)

  7. Geothermal energy probes. Increasing the radiation exposures of the population?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Baden-Wuerttemberg 10 private geothermal drilling projects in geologically interesting areas have been accompanied by measurements. During the drillings samples of the excavated earth were taken to determine the concentration of natural nuclides in the bored strata. Before and after finishing the geothermal construction works the airborne radon concentration of surrounding dwellings was measured. On the basis of the obtained measuring data the maximum expected additional effective annual doses received by individuals as a result of geothermal drilling were calculated. The exposure pathways were observed, i.e. air, water, sold - plant - human and terrestrial gamma radiation. In spite of conservative accounts in each case that should be considered as worst case scenario no relevant increase of radiation exposure could be detected. (orig.)

  8. Predictive modeling of terrestrial radiation exposure from geologic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Daniel A.

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are an important tool for national security, scientific, and industrial interests in determining locations of both anthropogenic and natural sources of radioactivity. There is a relationship between radioactivity and geology and in the past this relationship has been used to predict geology from an aerial survey. The purpose of this project is to develop a method to predict the radiologic exposure rate of the geologic materials in an area by creating a model using geologic data, images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), geochemical data, and pre-existing low spatial resolution aerial surveys from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Survey. Using these data, geospatial areas, referred to as background radiation units, homogenous in terms of K, U, and Th are defined and the gamma ray exposure rate is predicted. The prediction is compared to data collected via detailed aerial survey by our partner National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), allowing for the refinement of the technique. High resolution radiation exposure rate models have been developed for two study areas in Southern Nevada that include the alluvium on the western shore of Lake Mohave, and Government Wash north of Lake Mead; both of these areas are arid with little soil moisture and vegetation. We determined that by using geologic units to define radiation background units of exposed bedrock and ASTER visualizations to subdivide radiation background units of alluvium, regions of homogeneous geochemistry can be defined allowing for the exposure rate to be predicted. Soil and rock samples have been collected at Government Wash and Lake Mohave as well as a third site near Cameron, Arizona. K, U, and Th concentrations of these samples have been determined using inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laboratory counting using radiation detection equipment. In addition, many sample locations also have

  9. Novel Human Radiation Exposure Biomarker Panel Applicable for Population Triage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To identify a panel of radiation-responsive plasma proteins that could be used in a point-of-care biologic dosimeter to detect clinically significant levels of ionizing radiation exposure. Methods and Materials: Patients undergoing preparation for hematopoietic cell transplantation using radiation therapy (RT) with either total lymphoid irradiation or fractionated total body irradiation were eligible. Plasma was examined from patients with potentially confounding conditions and from normal individuals. Each plasma sample was analyzed for a panel of 17 proteins before RT was begun and at several time points after RT exposure. Paired and unpaired t tests between the dose and control groups were performed. Conditional inference trees were constructed based on panels of proteins to compare the non-RT group with the RT group. Results: A total of 151 patients (62 RT, 41 infection, 48 trauma) were enrolled on the study, and the plasma from an additional 24 healthy control individuals was analyzed. In comparison with to control individuals, tenascin-C was upregulated and clusterin was downregulated in patients receiving RT. Salivary amylase was strongly radiation responsive, with upregulation in total body irradiation patients and slight downregulation in total lymphoid irradiation patients compared with control individuals. A panel consisting of these 3 proteins accurately distinguished between irradiated patients and healthy control individuals within 3 days after exposure: 97% accuracy, 0.5% false negative rate, 2% false positive rate. The accuracy was diminished when patients with trauma, infection, or both were included (accuracy, 74%-84%; false positive rate, 14%-33%, false negative rate: 8%-40%). Conclusions: A panel of 3 proteins accurately distinguishes unirradiated healthy donors from those exposed to RT (0.8-9.6 Gy) within 3 days of exposure. These findings have significant implications in terms of triaging individuals in the case of nuclear or other

  10. Novel Human Radiation Exposure Biomarker Panel Applicable for Population Triage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan, Jose G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Chang, Polly; Balog, Robert; D' Andrea, Annalisa; Shaler, Thomas; Lin, Hua; Lee, Shirley; Harrison, Travis [SRI International, Menlo Park, California (United States); Shura, Lei; Schoen, Lucy; Knox, Susan J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Cooper, David E., E-mail: david.cooper@sri.com [SRI International, Menlo Park, California (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To identify a panel of radiation-responsive plasma proteins that could be used in a point-of-care biologic dosimeter to detect clinically significant levels of ionizing radiation exposure. Methods and Materials: Patients undergoing preparation for hematopoietic cell transplantation using radiation therapy (RT) with either total lymphoid irradiation or fractionated total body irradiation were eligible. Plasma was examined from patients with potentially confounding conditions and from normal individuals. Each plasma sample was analyzed for a panel of 17 proteins before RT was begun and at several time points after RT exposure. Paired and unpaired t tests between the dose and control groups were performed. Conditional inference trees were constructed based on panels of proteins to compare the non-RT group with the RT group. Results: A total of 151 patients (62 RT, 41 infection, 48 trauma) were enrolled on the study, and the plasma from an additional 24 healthy control individuals was analyzed. In comparison with to control individuals, tenascin-C was upregulated and clusterin was downregulated in patients receiving RT. Salivary amylase was strongly radiation responsive, with upregulation in total body irradiation patients and slight downregulation in total lymphoid irradiation patients compared with control individuals. A panel consisting of these 3 proteins accurately distinguished between irradiated patients and healthy control individuals within 3 days after exposure: 97% accuracy, 0.5% false negative rate, 2% false positive rate. The accuracy was diminished when patients with trauma, infection, or both were included (accuracy, 74%-84%; false positive rate, 14%-33%, false negative rate: 8%-40%). Conclusions: A panel of 3 proteins accurately distinguishes unirradiated healthy donors from those exposed to RT (0.8-9.6 Gy) within 3 days of exposure. These findings have significant implications in terms of triaging individuals in the case of nuclear or other

  11. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany in 2011. Report of the radiation protection register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany, persons who are occupationally exposed to ionising radiation are monitored by several official dosimetry services that transmit the dose records about individual radiation monitoring to the Radiation Protection Register of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The purpose of the Radiation Protection Register is to supervise the keeping of the dose limits and to monitor the compliance with the radiation protection principle ''Optimisation'' by performing detailed annual statistical analyses of the monitored persons and their radiation exposure. The annual report of the Radiation Protection Register provides information about status and development of occupational radiation exposure in Germany. In 2011, about 350,000 workers were monitored with dosemeters for occupational radiation exposure. The number increased during the past five years continuously by 10 %. Only 19 % of the monitored persons received measurable personal doses. The average annual dose of these exposed workers was 0.58 mSv corresponding to 3 % of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv for radiation workers. In total, 7 persons exceeded the annual dose limit of 20 mSv, i.e. two cases per 100,000 monitored persons. The collective dose of the monitored persons decreased to 38.5 Person-Sv, the lowest value since the last fifty years of occupational dose monitoring. In 2010, 45 airlines calculated the route doses of 39,000 members of the aircraft crew personnel by using certified computer programmes for dose calculation and sent the accumulated monthly doses via the Federal Office for Civil Aviation (''Luftfahrt-Bundesamt, LBA'') to the BfS. The collective dose of the aircraft crew personnel is 83 person-Sv, and thus significantly higher than the total collective dose of the workers monitored with personal dosemeters (38.5 person-Sv). The annual average dose of aircraft crew personnel was 2.12 mSv and decreased compared to 2010 (2,30 mSv). In 2011, about 70,000 outside-workers were in

  12. Optimization of radiation protection in the control of occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the three main principles on which protection against ionizing radiation is based is the principle of the optimization of radiological protection. The principle of the optimization of protection was first enunciated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in the 1960s. A principal requirement for the optimization of protection and safety has been incorporated into the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (Basic Safety Standards) from the first edition in 1962 up to the current (1996) edition. The principle of optimization, that all reasonable efforts be made to reduce doses (social and economic factors being taken into account), necessitates considerable effort to apply in practice. The requirement of the Basic Safety Standards to apply the principle of optimization applies to all categories of exposure: occupational, public and medical. The categories of public and medical exposure are rather specific and are covered in other publications; this Safety Report concentrates on the application of the principle to what is probably the largest category, that of occupational exposure. This Safety Report provides practical information on how to apply the optimization of protection in the workplace. The emphasis throughout is on the integration of radiation protection into the more general system of work management, and on the involvement of management and workers in setting up a system of radiation protection and in its implementation. This Safety Report was drafted and finalized in three consultants meetings held in 1999 and 2000. The draft was sent for review and comment to a number of experts, which yielded valuable comments from a number of reviewers whose names are included in the list of contributors to drafting and review

  13. KREAM: Korean Radiation Exposure Assessment Model for Aviation Route Dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J.; Dokgo, K.; Choi, E. J.; Kim, K. C.; Kim, H. P.; Cho, K. S. F.

    2014-12-01

    Since Korean Air has begun to use the polar route from Seoul/ICN airport to New York/JFK airport on August 2006, there are explosive needs for the estimation and prediction against cosmic radiation exposure for Korean aircrew and passengers in South Korea from public. To keep pace with those needs of public, Korean government made the law on safety standards and managements of cosmic radiation for the flight attendants and the pilots in 2013. And we have begun to develop our own Korean Radiation Exposure Assessment Model (KREAM) for aviation route dose since last year funded by Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). GEANT4 model and NRLMSIS 00 model are used for calculation of the energetic particles' transport in the atmosphere and for obtaining the background atmospheric neutral densities depending on altitude. For prediction the radiation exposure in many routes depending on the various space weather effects, we constructed a database from pre-arranged simulations using all possible combinations of R, S, and G, which are the space weather effect scales provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). To get the solar energetic particles' spectrum at the 100 km altitude which we set as a top of the atmospheric layers in the KREAM, we use ACE and GOES satellites' proton flux observations. We compare the results between KREAM and the other cosmic radiation estimation programs such as CARI-6M which is provided by the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA). We also validate KREAM's results by comparison with the measurement from Liulin-6K LET spectrometer onboard Korean commercial flights and Korean Air Force reconnaissance flights.

  14. Establishment of database for radiation exposure and safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear electric energy in our country plays a major role for the national industrial development as well as for the secure living of the peoples. It is, however, considered as a socially dreadful elements because of the radiation materials exposed into the environment. In effect, the DB is intended to serve for the reference to the epidemical study upon the low-level radiation exposure involving the nuclear facilities, radio-isotope business enterprises, and the related workers at the radiation sites. In connection with the development of nuclear energy, the low-level radiation, associated with the radioisotope materials exposed into our environment out of nuclear facilities, is believed to possibly raise significant hazardous effects toward human persons. Therefor, it is necessary to take a positive counter measures by means of comprehensive quantitative estimates on its possibilities. In consequence, the low-level radiation effects do not bring about the immediate hazard cases, however, appear to possibly pose the lately caused diseases such as cancer cause, life reduction, and creation of mutation, etc. Therefore, it is intended to set up the social security with the secure safety, by conducting an advanced safety study on the low-level radiation

  15. General Principles of Radiation Protection in Fields of Diagnostic Medical Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Kyung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    After the rapid development of medical equipment including CT or PET-CT, radiation doses from medical exposure are now the largest source of man-made radiation exposure. General principles of radiation protection from the hazard of ionizing radiation are summarized as three key words; justification, optimization, and dose limit. Because medical exposure of radiation has unique considerations, diagnostic reference level is generally used as a reference value, instead of dose limits. In Korea, ...

  16. Assessment of risks from occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of health effects from occupational exposure to radiation presents a variety of problems resulting from the time dependent nature of the exposure data, the more favorable health frequently experienced by working populations, and limits imposed by the size of the populations and the magnitudes of the exposures received. A proportional hazards model is used to derive tests for determining if statistically significant effects are present and is also considered for point estimation. Because effects of the size expected from current estimates are unlikely to be detected in occupationally exposed groups, methods of calculating upper confidence limits are considered. Data from the Hanford plant are used to illustrate many of the problems and procedures

  17. Loss of lifetime due to radiation exposure-averaging problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raicević, J J; Merkle, M; Ehrhardt, J; Ninković, M M

    1997-04-01

    A new method is presented for assessing a years of life lost (YLL) due to stochastic effects caused by the exposure to ionizing radiation. The widely accepted method from the literature uses a ratio of means of two quantities, defining in fact the loss of life as a derived quantity. We start from the real stochastic nature of the quantity (YLL), which enables us to obtain its mean values in a consistent way, using the standard averaging procedures, based on the corresponding joint probability density functions needed in this problem. Our method is mathematically different and produces lower values of average YLL. In this paper we also found certain similarities with the concept of loss of life expectancy among exposure induced deaths (LLE-EID), which is accepted in the recently published UNSCEAR report, where the same quantity is defined as years of life lost per radiation induced case (YLC). Using the same data base, the YLL and the LLE-EID are calculated and compared for the simplest exposure case-the discrete exposure at age a. It is found that LLE-EID overestimates the YLL, and that the magnitude of this overestimation reaches more than 15%, which depends on the effect under consideration. PMID:9119679

  18. Risk of breast cancer following low-dose radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk of breast cancer following radiation exposure was studied, based on surveys of tuberculosis patients who had multiple fluoroscopic examinations of the chest, mastitis patients given radiotherapy, and atomic bomb survivors. Analysis suggests that the risk is greatest for persons exposed as adolescents, although exposure at all ages carries some risk. The dose-response relationship was consistent with linearity in all studies. Direct evidence of radiation risk at doses under 0.5 Gy (50 rad) is apparent among A-bomb survivors. Fractionation does not appear to diminish risk, nor does time since exposure (even after 45 years of observation). The interval between exposure and the clinical appearance of radiogenic breast cancer may be mediated by hormonal or other age-related factors but is unrelated to dose. Age-specific absolute risk estimtes for all studies are remarkably similar. The best estimate of risk among American women exposed after age 20 is 6.6 excess cancers/104 WY-Gy

  19. Occupational radiation Exposure at Agreement State-Licensed Materials Facilities, 1997-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    2012-07-07

    The purpose of this report is to examine occupational radiation exposures received under Agreement State licensees. As such, this report reflects the occupational radiation exposure data contained in the Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) database, for 1997 through 2010, from Agreement State-licensed materials facilities.

  20. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures. (ACR)

  1. Understanding the risk coming from the radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1972, the National Academy has published a series of reports on the biological effects of ionizing radiation (BEIR) in relation to the health effects of the low level radiation. The Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Energy and the Academy of Sciences of US, began in 1996 the first phase of the BEIR VII report about the health risks associated to the exposure to low level ionizing radiation. The purpose of the first phase of the study is to revise the literature and to decide if enough novel information existed to guarantee the complete study. The National Academies concluded that enough information existed with an appropriate time to carry out the reanalysis. Among the conclusions of BEIR VII are that the current scientific evidence is concordant with the hypothesis of the existence of a linear model without threshold (LSU) in the dose-response relationship among the exposure to ionizing radiation and the cancer development in humans. This implies that very low dose even has the potential of causing deleterious effects in the health, although the risk to low dose is very small. (Author)

  2. Patient radiation exposure during coronary angiography and intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransson, S.G.; Persliden, J. [Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden). Dept. of Thoracic Radiology

    2000-03-01

    Purpose: To prospectively register fluoroscopic and cine times in a random fashion, and to measure patient radiation exposure from routine coronary angiography and coronary balloon angioplasty. We also evaluated an optional dose reduction system used during interventions. Material and methods: The incident radiation to the patient was measured as kerma area product (KAP) in Gycm{sup 2}, obtained from an ionisation chamber mounted on the undercouch tube during 65 coronary angiography procedures and another 53 percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasties, mostly directly following complete coronary angiography. Results and conclusion: The values from coronary angiography were comparable to other reports with a mean fluoroscopic time of 4.4 min and a mean KAP value of 62.6 Gy/cm{sup 2}. The corresponding figures from coronary balloon angioplasty without stenting were lower than otherwise reported, with 8.2 min and 47.9 Gycm{sup 2}, respectively. The use of coronary stents did prolong the mean fluoroscopic time (10.5 min) but did not significantlyenhance the patient mean radiation dose (51.4 Gycm{sup 2}). The dose reduction technique resulted in a significant KAP value reduction of 57%. In conclusion, with regard to radiation exposure, coronary angiography and balloon angioplasty are considered safe procedures.

  3. Radiation exposure from nuclear medicine studies in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear medical examinations of children have to be performed with special regard to the problems of radiation protection because of the high radiation sensitivity esp. of infants and young children. The present contribution describes how any unnecessary radiation exposure can be avoided by the correct choice and planning of a nuclear medical study, by using the appropriate radiopharmaceutical as well as by the exact calculation of the amount of activity applied, depending on body surface resp. body weight of the child. A technically optimized method which employs the best technical equipment and personnel, being specially trained for working with children, are important conditions to achieve optimal results of nuclear medical tests. Due to the difficulties of direct dose measurements, large variations in the biokinetic behaviour of radiopharmaceuticals and the restriction to standard phantoms, individual dose calculations or dose estimations in pediatrics cause great problems. This is reflected by often large variations of dosimetrical data given in the literature. (orig.)

  4. Assessing risks from occupational exposure to low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, several epidemiological studies of workers who have been exposed occupationally to radiation are being conducted. These include workers in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada, involved in the production of both defense materials and nuclear power. A major reason for conducting these studies is to evaluate possible adverse health effects that may have resulted because of the radiation exposure received. The general subject of health effects resulting from low levels of radiation, including these worker studies, has attracted the attention of various news media, and has been the subject of considerable controversy. These studies provide a good illustration of certain other aspects of the statistician's role; namely, communication and adequate subject matter knowledge. A competent technical job is not sufficient if these other aspects are not fulfilled

  5. Radiation-induced stress effects following low dose exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Recent advances in our understanding of effects of radiation on living cells suggest that fundamentally different mechanisms are operating at low doses compared with high doses. Also, acute low doses appear to involve different response mechanisms compared with chronic low doses. Both genomic instability and so called 'bystander effects' show many similarities with well known cellular responses to oxidative stress. These predominate following low dose exposures and are maximally expressed at doses as low as 5mGy. At the biological level this is not surprising. Chemical toxicity has been known for many years to show these patterns of dose response. Cell signaling and coordinated stress mechanisms appear to dominate acute low dose exposure to chemicals. Adaptation to chemical exposures is also well documented although mechanisms of adaptive responses are less clear. In the radiation field adaptive responses also become important when low doses are protracted or fractionated. Recent data from our group concerning bystander effects following multiple low dose exposures suggest that adaptive responses can be induced in cells which only receive signals from irradiated neighbours. We have data showing delayed and bystander effects in humans, rodents 3 fish species and in prawns following in vitro and/or in vivo irradiation of haematopoietic tissues and, from the aquatic groups, gill and skin/fin tissue. Bystander signals induced by radiation can be communicated from fish to fish in vivo and are detectable as early as the eyed egg stage, i.e. as soon as tissue starts to develop. Using proteomic approaches we have determined that the bystander and the direct irradiation proteomes are different. The former show significant upregulation of 5 proteins with anti-oxidant, regenerative and restorative functions while the direct radiation proteome has 2 upregulated proteins both involved in proliferation. These data have implications for

  6. Radiation Exposure in Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Creation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miraglia, Roberto, E-mail: rmiraglia@ismett.edu; Maruzzelli, Luigi, E-mail: lmaruzzelli@ismett.edu; Cortis, Kelvin, E-mail: kelvincortis@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Radiology Service, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services (Italy); D’Amico, Mario, E-mail: mdamico@ismett.edu [University of Palermo, Department of Radiology (Italy); Floridia, Gaetano, E-mail: gfloridia@ismett.edu; Gallo, Giuseppe, E-mail: ggallo@ismett.edu; Tafaro, Corrado, E-mail: ctafaro@ismett.edu; Luca, Angelo, E-mail: aluca@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Radiology Service, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    PurposeTransjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation is considered as being one of the most complex procedures in abdominal interventional radiology. Our aim was twofold: quantification of TIPS-related patient radiation exposure in our center and identification of factors leading to reduced radiation exposure.Materials and methodsThree hundred and forty seven consecutive patients underwent TIPS in our center between 2007 and 2014. Three main procedure categories were identified: Group I (n = 88)—fluoroscopic-guided portal vein targeting, procedure done in an image intensifier-based angiographic system (IIDS); Group II (n = 48)—ultrasound-guided portal vein puncture, procedure done in an IIDS; and Group III (n = 211)—ultrasound-guided portal vein puncture, procedure done in a flat panel detector-based system (FPDS). Radiation exposure (dose-area product [DAP], in Gy cm{sup 2} and fluoroscopy time [FT] in minutes) was retrospectively analyzed.ResultsDAP was significantly higher in Group I (mean ± SD 360 ± 298; median 287; 75th percentile 389 Gy cm{sup 2}) as compared to Group II (217 ± 130; 178; 276 Gy cm{sup 2}; p = 0.002) and Group III (129 ± 117; 70; 150 Gy cm{sup 2}p < 0.001). The difference in DAP between Groups II and III was also significant (p < 0.001). Group I had significantly longer FT (25.78 ± 13.52 min) as compared to Group II (20.45 ± 10.87 min; p = 0.02) and Group III (19.76 ± 13.34; p < 0.001). FT was not significantly different between Groups II and III (p = 0.73).ConclusionsReal-time ultrasound-guided targeting of the portal venous system during TIPS creation results in a significantly lower radiation exposure and reduced FT. Further reduction in radiation exposure can be achieved through the use of modern angiographic units with FPDS.

  7. Delayed effects of external radiation exposure: a brief history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R W

    1995-11-01

    Within months of Roentgen's discovery of X rays, severe adverse effects were reported, but not well publicized. As a result, over the next two decades, fluoroscope operators suffered lethal skin carcinomas. Later, case reports appeared concerning leukemia in radiation workers, and infants born with severe mental retardation after their mothers had been given pelvic radiotherapy early in pregnancy. Fluoroscopy and radiotherapy for benign disorders continued to be used with abandon until authoritative reports were published on the adverse effects of ionizing radiation by the U.S. NAS-NRC and the UK MRC in 1956. Meanwhile, exposure to the atomic bombs in Japan had occurred and epidemics of delayed effects began to be recognized among the survivors: cataracts (1949), leukemia (1952) and severe mental retardation among newborn infants after intrauterine exposure (1952). No statistically significant excess of germ-cell genetic effects was detected by six clinical measurements (1956), the F1 mortality (1981), cytogenetic studies (1987) or biochemical genetic studies (1988). Somatic cell effects were revealed by long-lasting chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes (1968), and somatic cell mutations were found at the glycophorin A locus in erythrocytes (1992). Molecular biology is a likely focus of new studies based on the function of the gene for ataxia telangiectasia (1995), a disorder in which children have severe, even lethal acute radiation reactions when given conventional doses of radiotherapy for lymphoma, to which they are prone. Also, obligate heterozygote female relatives can be studied for increased susceptibility to radiation-induced breast cancer, as suggested by clinical studies. The tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki now provide incidence data that show the extent of increases in eight common cancers and no increase in eight others (1994). The possibility of very late effects of A-bomb exposure is suggested by recent reports of increased

  8. Radiation exposure for DOE and DOE contractor employees, 1979. Twelfth annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the data submitted by DOE and DOE contractors for 1979 for 104,986 employees, representing 81% of all DOE and DOE contractor employees. Of all employees monitored, 47.6% received a dose equivalent that was less than measurable, 50.8% a measurable exposure less than 1 rem, and 1.6% an exposure greater than 1 rem. Only three DOE contractor employees at three separate facilities received whole-body dose equivalents greater than 5 rem during 1979. The two reported cases of internal depositions were both less than the annual dose-equivalent standard and resulted from accidental exposures

  9. Ionizing Radiation Exposure and Basal Cell Carcinoma Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changzhao; Athar, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    This commentary summarizes studies showing risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) development in relationship to environmental, occupational and therapeutic exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). BCC, the most common type of human cancer, is driven by the aberrant activation of hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Ptch, a tumor suppressor gene of Hh signaling pathway, and Smoothened play a key role in the development of radiation-induced BCCs in animal models. Epidemiological studies provide evidence that humans exposed to radiation as observed among the long-term, large scale cohorts of atomic bomb survivors, bone marrow transplant recipients, patients with tinea capitis and radiologic workers enhances risk of BCCs. Overall, this risk is higher in Caucasians than other races. People who were exposed early in life develop more BCCs. The enhanced IR correlation with BCC and not other common cutaneous malignancies is intriguing. The mechanism underlying these observations remains undefined. Understanding interactions between radiation-induced signaling pathways and those which drive BCC development may be important in unraveling the mechanism associated with this enhanced risk. Recent studies showed that Vismodegib, a Smoothened inhibitor, is effective in treating radiation-induced BCCs in humans, suggesting that common strategies are required for the intervention of BCCs development irrespective of their etiology. PMID:26930381

  10. Harmonization of risk management approaches: radiation and chemical exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of occupational and public risk from the environmental pollutants like chemicals, radiation, etc demands that the effects be considered not only from each individual pollutant, but from the combination of all the pollutants. An integrated risk assessment system needs to be in place to have an overall risk perspective for the benefit of policy makers and decision takers to try to achieve risk reduction in totality. The basis for risk-based radiation dose limits is derived from epidemiological studies, which provide a rich source of data largely unavailable to chemical risk assessors. In addition, use of the principle of optimization as expressed in the ALARA concept has resulted in a safety culture, which is much more than just complying with stipulated limits. The conservative hypothesis of no-threshold dose-effect relation (ICRP) is universally assumed. The end-points and the severity of different classes of pollutants and even different pollutants in a same class vary over a wide range. Hence, it is difficult to arrive at a quantitative value for the net detriment that weighs the various types of end-points and various classes of pollutants. Once the risk due to other pollutants is quantified by some acceptable methodology, it can be expressed in terms of the Risk Equivalent Radiation Dose (R.E.R.D.) for easy comparison with options involving radiation exposure. This paper is an effort to use to quantify and present the risk due to exposure to chemicals and radiation in a common scale for the purpose of easy comparison to facilitate decision taking. (authors)

  11. Harmonization of risk management approaches: radiation and chemical exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, P. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Radiation Safety Systems Div., Mumbai (India)

    2006-07-01

    Assessment of occupational and public risk from the environmental pollutants like chemicals, radiation, etc demands that the effects be considered not only from each individual pollutant, but from the combination of all the pollutants. An integrated risk assessment system needs to be in place to have an overall risk perspective for the benefit of policy makers and decision takers to try to achieve risk reduction in totality. The basis for risk-based radiation dose limits is derived from epidemiological studies, which provide a rich source of data largely unavailable to chemical risk assessors. In addition, use of the principle of optimization as expressed in the ALARA concept has resulted in a safety culture, which is much more than just complying with stipulated limits. The conservative hypothesis of no-threshold dose-effect relation (ICRP) is universally assumed. The end-points and the severity of different classes of pollutants and even different pollutants in a same class vary over a wide range. Hence, it is difficult to arrive at a quantitative value for the net detriment that weighs the various types of end-points and various classes of pollutants. Once the risk due to other pollutants is quantified by some acceptable methodology, it can be expressed in terms of the Risk Equivalent Radiation Dose (R.E.R.D.) for easy comparison with options involving radiation exposure. This paper is an effort to use to quantify and present the risk due to exposure to chemicals and radiation in a common scale for the purpose of easy comparison to facilitate decision taking. (authors)

  12. Exposure Risks Among Children Undergoing Radiation Therapy: Considerations in the Era of Image Guided Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Clayton B; Thompson, Holly M; Benedict, Stanley H; Seibert, J Anthony; Wong, Kenneth; Vaughan, Andrew T; Chen, Allen M

    2016-04-01

    Recent improvements in toxicity profiles of pediatric oncology patients are attributable, in part, to advances in the field of radiation oncology such as intensity modulated radiation (IMRT) and proton therapy (IMPT). While IMRT and IMPT deliver highly conformal dose to targeted volumes, they commonly demand the addition of 2- or 3-dimensional imaging for precise positioning--a technique known as image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). In this manuscript we address strategies to further minimize exposure risk in children by reducing effective IGRT dose. Portal X rays and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) are commonly used to verify patient position during IGRT and, because their relative radiation exposure is far less than the radiation absorbed from therapeutic treatment beams, their sometimes significant contribution to cumulative risk can be easily overlooked. Optimizing the conformality of IMRT/IMPT while simultaneously ignoring IGRT dose may result in organs at risk being exposed to a greater proportion of radiation from IGRT than from therapeutic beams. Over a treatment course, cumulative central-axis CBCT effective dose can approach or supersede the amount of radiation absorbed from a single treatment fraction, a theoretical increase of 3% to 5% in mutagenic risk. In select scenarios, this may result in the underprediction of acute and late toxicity risk (such as azoospermia, ovarian dysfunction, or increased lifetime mutagenic risk) in radiation-sensitive organs and patients. Although dependent on variables such as patient age, gender, weight, body habitus, anatomic location, and dose-toxicity thresholds, modifying IGRT use and acquisition parameters such as frequency, imaging modality, beam energy, current, voltage, rotational degree, collimation, field size, reconstruction algorithm, and documentation can reduce exposure, avoid unnecessary toxicity, and achieve doses as low as reasonably achievable, promoting a culture and practice of "gentle IGRT

  13. Mars Radiation Risk Assessment and Shielding Design for Long-term Exposure to Ionizing Space Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Nealy, John E.

    2007-01-01

    NASA is now focused on the agency's vision for space exploration encompassing a broad range of human and robotic missions including missions to Moon, Mars and beyond. As a result, there is a focus on long duration space missions. NASA is committed to the safety of the missions and the crew, and there is an overwhelming emphasis on the reliability issues for space missions and the habitat. The cost-effective design of the spacecraft demands a very stringent requirement on the optimization process. Exposure from the hazards of severe space radiation in deep space and/or long duration missions is a critical design constraint and a potential 'show stopper'. Thus, protection from the hazards of severe space radiation is of paramount importance to the agency's vision. It is envisioned to have long duration human presence on the Moon for deep space exploration. The exposures from ionizing radiation - galactic cosmic radiation and solar particle events - and optimized shield design for a swing-by and a long duration Mars mission have been investigated. It is found that the technology of today is inadequate for safe human missions to Mars, and revolutionary technologies need to be developed for long duration and/or deep space missions. The study will provide a guideline for radiation exposure and protection for long duration missions and career astronauts and their safety.

  14. Orally administered fructose increases the numbers of peripheral lymphocytes reduced by exposure of mice to gamma or SPE-like proton radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Weaver, A. L.; Ni, J.; Lin, L.; Kennedy, A. R.

    2014-07-01

    Exposure of the whole body or a major portion of the body to ionizing radiation can result in Acute Radiation Sickness (ARS), which can cause symptoms that range from mild to severe, and include death. One of the syndromes that can occur during ARS is the hematopoietic syndrome, which is characterized by a reduction in bone marrow cells as well as the number of circulating blood cells. Doses capable of causing this syndrome can result from conventional radiation therapy and accidental exposure to ionizing radiation. It is of concern that this syndrome could also occur during space exploration class missions in which astronauts could be exposed to significant doses of solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Of particular concern is the reduction of lymphocytes and granulocytes, which are major components of the immune system. A significant reduction in their numbers can compromise the immune system, causing a higher risk for the development of infections which could jeopardize the success of the mission. Although there are no specific countermeasures utilized for the ARS resulting from exposure to space radiation(s), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been proposed as a countermeasure for the low number of neutrophils caused by SPE radiation, but so far no countermeasure exists for a reduced number of circulating lymphocytes. The present study demonstrates that orally administered fructose significantly increases the number of peripheral lymphocytes reduced by exposure of mice to 2 Gy of gamma- or SPE-like proton radiation, making it a potential countermeasure for this biological end-point.

  15. Study of radiation exposure profiles in interventional radiology professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interventional Radiology is the radiology area that provides the highest dose values to the medical staff. Recent surveys show that personal dosimeters may underestimate the radiation dose values in interventional physicians, especially in the extremities and crystalline. The objective of this work was to study the exposure levels to radiation from medical staff in different interventional radiology procedures. Therefore, thermoluminescent dosimeters type LiF: Mg, Ti (TLD-100) were used positioned in the main interventional physician and an assistant in the following locations: some inches below the crystalline, thyroid, chest, gonads, hand and foot. By comparing the values obtained with the annual reference dose levels in workers, maximum numbers of annual procedures were found. Altogether, there were 23 procedures evaluated: 10 diagnostics, 9 angioplasties and 4 stents. The maximum number of annual procedures were estimated by discounting the percentages of attenuation of radiological protection. For procedures of the type diagnosis, angioplasty and stent for the main interventionist, the maximum number of annual procedures were 641, 445 and 113 respectively, while for the interventionists assistants were 930, 1202 and 215 respectively. As each interventionist body region is subject to different levels of exposure, detailed studies of exposure in each region provide better conclusions about what actions are necessary to ensure radiological protection professionals

  16. Exposure to radiation from the natural radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation exposure of members of the public can be increased appreciably by the use of building materials containing above-normal levels of natural radioactivity. This phenomenon has attracted attention in recent years, and in this review, an attempt is made to the quantify exposures incurred under various circumstances. The second section of the review is a general survey of those building materials, mostly industrial wastes, that have aroused interest in Member countries. The probability that environmental pressures may cause such wastes to be used more and more by building industries may lead to similar situations in the future. Other review material of a relevant nature is described in the third section. Primordial radionuclides only are considered here. They are: potassium-40 (K-40); radium-226 (Ra-226) and its decay products; the series headed by thorium-232 (Th-232). The important radiological consequences of the natural radioactivity in building materials are two-fold, irradiation of the body by gamma rays and irradiation of the lung tissues by radon-222 (Rn-222) decay products or daughters. These consequences cannot be explored quantitatively except in relation to the specific activities of the nuclides of interest, and the approach adopted in this review is to assess the consequences in terms of the incremental radiation exposures that would be incurred by occupants of substantial dwellings entirely constructed of materials with various specific activities or combinations thereof. Gamma rays are dealt with in the fourth section and radon daughters in the fifth

  17. Titanium-Water Thermosyphon Gamma Radiation Exposure and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzi, James, L.A; Jaworske, Donald, A.; Goodenow, Debra, A.

    2012-01-01

    Titanium-water thermosyphons are being considered for use in heat rejection systems for fission power systems. Their proximity to the nuclear reactor will result in some gamma irradiation. Noncondensable gas formation from radiation-induced breakdown of water over time may render portions of the thermosyphon condenser inoperable. A series of developmental thermosyphons were operated at nominal operating temperature under accelerated gamma irradiation, with exposures on the same order of magnitude as that expected in 8 years of heat rejection system operation. Temperature data were obtained during exposure at three locations on each thermosyphon: evaporator, condenser, and condenser end cap. Some noncondensable gas was evident; however, thermosyphon performance was not affected because the noncondensable gas was compressed into the fill tube region at the top of the thermosyphon, away from the heat rejecting fin. The trend appeared to be an increasing amount of noncondensable gas formation with increasing gamma irradiation dose. Hydrogen is thought to be the most likely candidate for the noncondensable gas and hydrogen is known to diffuse through grain boundaries. Post-exposure evaluation of one thermosyphon in a vacuum chamber and at temperature revealed that the noncondensable gas diffused out of the thermosyphon over a relatively short period of time. Further research shows a number of experimental and theoretical examples of radiolysis occurring through gamma radiation alone in pure water.

  18. Cognitive deficits induced by 56Fe radiation exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, B.; Casadesus, G.; Cantuti-Castelvetri, I.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Exposing rats to particles of high energy and charge (e.g., 56Fe) disrupts neuronal systems and the behaviors mediated by them; these adverse behavioral and neuronal effects are similar to those seen in aged animals. Because cognition declines with age, and our previous study showed that radiation disrupted Morris water maze spatial learning and memory performance, the present study used an 8-arm radial maze (RAM) to further test the cognitive behavioral consequences of radiation exposure. Control rats or rats exposed to whole-body irradiation with 1.0 Gy of 1 GeV/n high-energy 56Fe particles (delivered at the alternating gradient synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory) were tested nine months following exposure. Radiation adversely affected RAM performance, and the changes seen parallel those of aging. Irradiated animals entered baited arms during the first 4 choices significantly less than did controls, produced their first error sooner, and also tended to make more errors as measured by re-entries into non-baited arms. These results show that irradiation with high-energy particles produces age-like decrements in cognitive behavior that may impair the ability of astronauts to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  19. Cognitive deficits induced by 56Fe radiation exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, B.; Casadesus, G.; Cantuti-Castelvetri, I.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.

    Exposing rats to particles of high energy and charge (e.g., 56Fe) disrupts neuronal systems and the behaviors mediated by them; these adverse behavioral and neuronal effects are similar to those seen in aged animals. Because cognition declines with age, and our previous study showed that radiation disrupted Morris water maze spatial learning and memory performance, the present study used an 8-arm radial maze (RAM) to further test the cognitive behavioral consequences of radiation exposure. Control rats or rats exposed to whole-body irradiation with 1.0 Gy of 1 GeV/n high-energy 56Fe particles (delivered at the alternating gradient synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory) were tested nine months following exposure. Radiation adversely affected RAM performance, and the changes seen parallel those of aging. Irradiated animals entered baited arms during the first 4 choices significantly less than did controls, produced their first error sooner, and also tended to make more errors as measured by re-entries into non-baited arms. These results show that irradiation with high-energy particles produces age-like decrements in cognitive behavior that may impair the ability of astronauts to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere.

  20. Virtual reality application for simulating and minimizing worker radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To plan work and preclude unexpected radiation exposures in a nuclear power plant, a virtual nuclear plant is a good solution. For this, there are prerequisites such as displaying real time radiation exposure data onto an avatar and preventing speed reduction caused by multiple users on the net-based system. The work space is divided into several sections and radiation information is extracted section by section. Based on the simulation algorithm, real time processing is applied to the events and movements of the avatar. Because there are millions of parts in a nuclear power plant, it is almost impossible to model all of them. Several parts of virtual plant have been modeled using 3D internet virtual reality for the model development. Optimum one-click Active-X is applied for the system, which provides easy access to the virtual plant. Connection time on the net is 20-30 sec for initial loading and 3-4 sec for the 2nd and subsequent times

  1. Radiation exposures of medical employes and its management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the five years period from April, 1976, to March, 1981, the usage of film badges at the hospital of Chiba University is described as follows: the number of personnel using film badges, the distribution of radiation exposure dose, and the employes exposed beyond 500 mrem yearly in respective years, departments and professional types. The cumulative number of personnel was 2,476 (yearly average was 495). Professional types were physician, nurse, radiation technician, researcher, etc. The number of personnel using film badges has been increasing year after year; of which about 500, 70% are physicians. A cumulative total of the employes exposed exceeding 500 mrem yearly was 11, ten being physicians; the highest dose was 1,840 mrem. The average yearly exposure dose per person was the highest in radiation technicians (100 - 30 mrem/person/year), followed by physicians (50 - 24 mrem) and nurses (9 - 1 mrem). As a whole, the value was 45 - 20 mrem/person/year. (J.P.N.)

  2. Diagnostic medical exposures: advice on exposure to ionising radiation during pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The NRPB offers advice on exposure to ionizing radiation during pregnancy, based on data published since 1985. In providing this advice the Board has considered risks to the developing embryo and fetus of death, malformation, mental impairment, cancer (solid tumours and leukaemias) and genetic damage from irradiation after the first missed menstrual period. The possible risks from irradiation of the early (up to 3-4 weeks) conceptus and from gonodal irradiation of patients is also covered in the present advice. (Author).

  3. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany in 2005. Report of the radiation protection register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany, occupationally radiation exposed workers are monitored by numerous official dosimetric services who transmit their records about individual radiation doses to the Radiation Protection Register of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. The number of dose recordings reported to the Radiation Protection Register has annually increased to more than three million records per year and thus accumulated to more than 30 million dose records at the end of 2005. The purpose of the Radiation Protection Register is to supervise the keeping of the dose limits by each radiation worker and to monitor the compliance with the radiation protection principle 'Optimisation' by performing detailed annual statistical analyses of the monitored persons and their radiation exposure. Amongst others, the annual report of the Radiation Protection Register provides information about status and development of occupational radiation exposure in Germany. In 2005, about 313,000 workers were monitored with dosemeters for occupational radiation exposure. This number remained nearly unchanged during the last six years. About 16% of the monitored persons received a measurable personal dose. The average annual dose of these exposed workers was 0.8 mSv and remained unchanged compared to the previous year. This value is the lowest average annual dose since dose monitoring for occupational worker was introduced. It remains below the dose limit of one Milli-Sievert (1 mSv) for the general public and amounts only 4% of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv for radiation workers. Particularly striking is the decrease in the number of persons who exceeded the annual dose limit. During the recent years the number of workers with annual personal doses higher than 20 mSv declined from 101 in 1999 to 7 in 2005. Workers who execute tasks in foreign radiation controlled areas, (so called 'outside-workers' who e.g. perform maintenance work in different nuclear power plants) must have a valid radiation

  4. How do we face low-dose radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio-contamination caused by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident has spread to wide areas of the Prefecture and the present radiation level even in its capital Fukushima City is around 1 micro-Sv/h, 20 times as high as the past before the Accident. Japanese Government defines that the level <20 mSv/y is not hazardous to human health but residents always feel uneasiness. This paper describes about radiation problems present in administrative guidance from the scientific view. There are 3 different opinions about the health hazard of low dose exposure of <100 mSv/y: no influence, lower risk corresponding to lower dose (linear no threshold theory), and not always lower risk corresponding to lower dose. These are scientifically uncertain, and safety for radiation cannot be easily defined. Additional dose limit defined by Administration is 1 mSv/y for general public, to which compliance should be thought to be a prerequisite condition. The project of Fukushima Health Management Survey should be conducted in order to lessen the unnecessary exposure dose of residents as one of its aims. The most effective decontamination means are unknown at present, and therefore, whether the level of <1 mSv/y is attainable by decontamination of areas exceeding this is unknown. As seeable in easily declared safety of rice, people should not be overconfident in systems for monitoring urgently established after the accident. Three risk advisers invited by the Prefecture are saying that unnecessary exposure should be avoided, despite that they have the opinion of null risk at <100 mSv/y. The author comments that as the limited, insufficient information is said to lead the public to anxiety, confusion and finally panic, the Administration should not take a willful attitude tending to safety. (T.T.)

  5. Delayed effects of external radiation exposure: A brief history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within months of Roentgen's discovery of X rays, severe adverse effects were reported, but not well publicized. As a result, over the next two decades, fluoroscope operators suffered lethal skin carcinomas. Later, case reports appeared concerning leukemia in radiation workers, and infants born with severe mental retardation after their mothers had been given pelvic radiotherapy early in pregnancy. Fluoroscopy and radiotherapy for benign disorders continued to be used with abandon until authoritative reports were published on the adverse effects of ionizing radiation by the U.S. NAS-NRC and the UK MRC in 1956. Meanwhile, exposure to the atomic bombs in Japan had occurred and epidemics of delayed effects began to be recognized among the survivors: cataracts, leukemia and severe mental retardation among newborn infants after intra-uterine exposure. No statistically significant excess of germ-cell genetic effects was detected by six clinical measurements, the F1 mortality, cytogenetic studies or biochemical genetic studies. Somatic cell effects were revealed by long-lasting chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes, and somatic cell mutations were found at the glycophorin A locus in erythrocytes. Molecular biology is a likely focus of new studies based on the function of the gene for ataxia telangiectasia, a disorder in which children have severe, even lethal acute radiation reactions when given conventional doses of radiotherapy for lymphoma, to which they are prone. The tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki now provide incidence data that show the extent of increases in eight common cancers and no increase in eight others. The possibility of very late effects of A-bomb exposure is suggested by recent reports of increased frequencies of hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid cancers and certain causes of death other than cancer. 88 refs., 1 fig

  6. Thyroid tissue and its reaction to radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroid gland is one of the major endocrine organs that secrete thyroid hormones. It is composed of spheroid structures called thyroid follicles, which absorb iodine from the blood and store iodinated thyroglobulin. The proliferation rate of thyroid follicular cells is significantly higher before birth, while the maximum tissue weight was observed after puberty. An association between radiation exposure and thyroid cancer was suggested as early as 1950, and thyroid cancer was the first solid cancer that showed significant increase on A-bomb survivors. An excess incidence of childhood thyroid cancers, which were caused by internal exposure through the consumption of contaminated milk, was observed after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. In this article recent scientific reports were reviewed in order to obtain the better insights into the mechanisms of tissue reaction in the thyroid glands. (author)

  7. Agricultural versus uranium industry regarding the exposure to natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential exposure of the critical group is to be evaluated against national and international recommendation regarding the impact of general nuclear facilities. In Brazil, an agricultural industry together with uranium mining and milling facilities take place at an elevated natural radioactivity region. It was performed a dose and risk assessment to the local and remote population due to these two man made activities. This paper will present some data on dose and radiological risk to the local population (rural workers and their families) living at that region for occupational reasons. The non significant increase on the radiation dose exposure to a critical group due to the uranium industry will be pointed out. Problems associated in applying the ICRP dose limitation system to such situations will be discussed. (author)

  8. [Exposure to noise, vibration and radiation in Cracow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, A; Zołdak, M

    1990-01-01

    The problems are discussed connected with exposure to noise, vibration and ionizing radiation. In Cracow traffic and industrial noise is particularly troublesome. The greatest intensity of traffic noise is in the old part of the city and noise level caused by city transport is from 65 to 85 dB/A. Among the industrial sources of noise the highest intensity is in the Lenin Steel Plant, Leg Electrothermal Plant, and Solway Soda Works. Vibration and ionizing radiation resulting from the industrial activities are a considerable risk for human health in the Cracow area. The building materials in construction (including apartment houses) have sometimes a high radioactivity, e.g. dust-slag hollow bricks. The need is stressed for solving, if possible, the problem of noise, especially traffic noise, which is connected with considerable financial costs; the question of using materials of high radioactivity for building purposes should be also resolved.

  9. Radiation exposure inside reinforced concrete buildings at Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoades, W.A.; Childs, R.L.; Ingersoll, D.T.

    1989-05-01

    The biological effects on the residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki due to initial-irradiation exposure during the nuclear attacks of World War II was recognized immediately as an important source of information. After the war, an extensive effort gathered data concerning the locations of individuals at the time of the attack and their subsequent medical histories. The data from personnel located in reinforced concrete buildings are particularly significant, since large groups of occupants received radiation injury without complications due to blast and thermal effects. In order to correlate the radiation dose with physiological effects, the dose to each individual must be calculated. Enough information about the construction of the buildings was available after the war to allow a radiation transport model to be constructed, but the accurate calculation of penetration into such large, thick-walled three dimensional structures was beyond the scope of computing technology until recently. Now, the availability of Cray vector computers and the development of a specially-constructed discrete ordinates transport code, TORT, have combined to allow the successful completion of such a study. This document describes the radiation transport calculations and tabulates the resulting doses by source component and individual case location. An extensive uncertainty analysis is also included. These data are to be used in another study as input to a formal statistical analysis, resulting in a new value for the LD50 dose, i.e., the dose at which the mortality risk is 50%. 55 refs., 67 figs., 70 tabs.

  10. Saeteilyn kaeyttoe ja muu saeteilytoiminta. Vuosiraportti 1999; Radiation usage and other radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantanen, E. [ed.

    2000-05-01

    At the end of 1999, there were 1,753 valid safety licenses in Finland for the use of radiation. In addition, there were 2,054 responsible parties for dental x-ray diagnostics. The registry of STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority listed 13,687 radiation sources and 278 radionuclide laboratories. The import of radioactive substances amounted to 7 448,000 GBq and export to 18,300 GBq. Short-lived radionuclides produced in Finland amounted to 52,500 GBq. In the year 1999 there were 10,601 workers monitored for radiation exposure at 1,187 work sites. Of these employees, 21% received an annual dose exceeding the recording level. The annual effective dose limit was not exceeded. The total dose recorded in the dose registry (sum of the individual dosemeter readings) was 4.7 Sv in 1999. During the year radon was monitored at 300 companies.

  11. Radiation exposure from anthropogenic actinides in the northern Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, a large area of the northern Ukraine has been contaminated with many different radioactive substances to such an extent that the population hat to be evacuated. Officially, this exclusion still persists today. Meanwhile, people started returning to their dwellings without permission, and they continue living today within the contaminated area. This raises the question of how severe the radiation exposure to the illegal resettlers really is and of whether the restrictions are still justified. Currently, the radiation exposure is mainly being caused by 137Cs and 90Sr. But in the long-term, the influence of the long-living man-made actinoids will become important. In this study, their portion of the contamination of the evacuated area and the resulting contribution to the radiation exposure were examined in detail by considering the situation of the village Khristinovka as an example. For these purposes, many different environmental samples from Khristinovka (e.g. soil, food) have been analysed. The determination of the activity concentration of the actinoids was carried out by α-spectrometric measurements after radiochemical separations. Among the different man-made actinoids, only the nuclides 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am are of immediate relevance. The most important actinoid is plutonium because of its slow migration in soil. Therefore, the long-living plutonium nuclides will contribute to the radiation exposure even when 90Sr and 137Cs will have decayed nearly completely. The observed deposition densities of (126 ± 7) Bq m-2 239, 240Pu and (38.7 ± 3.4) Bq m-2 238Pu are comparable to the official statements for this area. Thereby it is possible to distinguish between the contributions which originate from Chernobyl and the nuclear weapons fallout by means of the activity ratios between various radionuclides present. The additional annual dose to the general public of Khristinovka caused by man-made actinoids is

  12. Effects of Radiation Exposure From Cardiac Imaging: How Good Are the Data?

    OpenAIRE

    Einstein, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about medical exposure to ionizing radiation have become heightened in recent years due to rapid growth in procedure volumes and the high radiation doses incurred from some procedures. This article summarizes the evidence base undergirding concerns about radiation exposure in cardiac imaging. After classifying radiation effects, explaining terminology used to quantify the radiation received by patients, and describing typical doses from cardiac imaging procedures, I address the major...

  13. Effects in Plant Populations Resulting from Chronic Radiation Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geras' kin, Stanislav A.; Volkova, Polina Yu.; Vasiliyev, Denis V.; Dikareva, Nina S.; Oudalova, Alla A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249032, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    environment activates genetic mechanisms, changing a population's resistance to exposure. However, there are ecological situations in which enhanced resistance has not evolved or has not persisted. Consequently, there are good theoretical and practical reasons for more attention being paid to the mechanisms by which populations becomes more radioresistant and to those situations where radio-adaptation appears not to be taking place. Since radio-adaptation plays an important role in response of populations on radiation exposure, this process needs to be incorporated into management programmes. To this very day, the effects of chronic exposure on living organisms and populations remain poorly explored, and represent a much needed field of research. In spite of the long history of the research, we are still far from complete understanding underlying processes in exposed populations. Neglecting field-collected data in favour of simplified short-term experiments that tend to overestimate adverse effects will obviously have detrimental effect for understanding, predicting, and mitigating consequences of the radiation impact on the environment. Much more is to be elucidated in our understanding before we will be able to give an objective and comprehensive assessment of the biological consequences of chronic, low-level radiation exposures to natural plant and animal populations. (authors)

  14. Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about radiation risks?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendry, Jolyon H; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Burkart, Werner [Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Simon, Steven L [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Wojcik, Andrzej [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Cardis, Elisabeth [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar) and CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica - CIBERESP, Barcelona (Spain); Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot [Radiobiology and Epidemiology Department, Radiological and Human Health Division, Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Hayata, Isamu [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)], E-mail: jhendry2002uk@yahoo.com

    2009-06-01

    Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of {sup 222}Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations living in high natural background radiation (HNBR) areas (Guarapari, Brazil; Kerala, India; Ramsar, Iran; Yangjiang, China), including radon-prone areas, to low dose risk estimation. Much of the direct information about risk related to HNBR comes from case-control studies of radon and lung cancer, which provide convincing evidence of an association between long-term protracted radiation exposures in the general population and disease incidence. The success of these studies is mainly due to the careful organ dose reconstruction (with relatively high doses to the lung), and to the fact that large-scale collaborative studies have been conducted to maximise the statistical power and to ensure the systematic collection of information on potential confounding factors. In contrast, studies in other (non-radon) HNBR areas have provided little information, relying mainly on ecological designs and very rough effective dose categorisations. Recent steps taken in China and India to establish cohorts for follow-up and to conduct nested case-control studies may provide useful information about risks in the future, provided that careful organ dose reconstruction is possible and information is collected on potential confounding factors.

  15. The impact of education on occupational radiation exposure reduction in a diagnostic radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patient load, number of radiographic exams, complexity of some exams, and associated potential occupational radiation exposure of medical personnel have increased significantly in the past decade. Efforts to reduce exposure through employee education and awareness have resulted in significant reduction in occupational exposure for most diagnostic radiographic areas at Mayo Clinic. This paper reviews trends in occupational radiation exposure from diagnostic x- rays at Mayo Clinic over the past ten years. Changes in employee radiation dose equivalents are correlated with patient workload, complexity of exams, increased interventional radiology and cardiology, and efforts to reduce employee radiation exposure

  16. Biological effects of low level exposures to chemicals and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 1990 a group of scientists representing several federal agencies, the International Society of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, the private sector, and academia met to develop a strategy to encourage the study of the biological effects of low level exposures (BELLE) to chemical agents and radioactivity. A workshop was held in 1991 with seven invited speakers focusing on the toxicological implications of biological adaptations. The selection of topics and speakers was designed to consider critically the concept of hormesis, not only in a broad, conceptual manner, but also at the molecular and biochemical levels. These presentations offered a complementary perspective on the diverse range of molecular mechanisms that can become activated at low levels of toxicant exposure. In addition to chemical toxicology research, an overview of current research on 'Effects of low-dose radiation on the immune response' was presented as well as 'Cellular adaptation as an important response during chemical carcinogenesis'. The final presentation was devoted to biostatistical considerations when designing studies that address issues associated with the biological responses to low doses of chemicals and radiation, as well as issues in interpretation of the findings from such studies

  17. Occupational exposure to external ionising radiation in Poland, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1999 about 6208 radiation workers from 389 departments were monitored by CLOR in Poland. The distribution of annual personal doses shows that 85% of controlled workers received doses below the MDL (0.4 mSv) and about 97% controlled workers received doses below 5 mSv. Doses higher than 50 mSv were received by three operators of industrial radiography units. The radiation workers under control are divided into four main work sectors: nuclear industry, research and education, medicine, and general industry. The average annual dose for all workers in each particular sector was 0.22 mSv, 0.22 mSv, 0.30 mSv and 0.80 mSv, respectively. The average annual dose for the entire monitored population was 0.47 mSv. The average annual dose in each particular sector for number of workers receiving E>0, i.e. Hp(10) (0.4 mSv, amounted to 1.78 mSv, 2.03 mSv, 1.88 mSv and 4.85 mSv, respectively. The average annual dose for the full number of workers receiving E>0 was 3.21 mSv. This paper contains the detailed analysis of occupational exposure. The distributions of annual occupational exposure in different work sectors are also given. (author)

  18. Radiation exposure due to agricultural uses of phosphate fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khater, Ashraf E.M. [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Physics Department, College of Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 1145 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: khater_ashraf@yahoo.com; AL-Sewaidan, H.A. [Physics Department, College of Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 1145 (Saudi Arabia)

    2008-09-15

    Radiological impacts of phosphate rocks mining and manufacture could be significant due to the elevated radioactivity contents of the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), such as {sup 238}U series, {sup 232}Th series and {sup 40}K, in some phosphate deposits. Over the last decades, the land reclamation and agriculture activities in Saudi Arabia and other countries have been widely expanded. Therefore, the usage of chemical fertilizers is increased. Selected phosphate fertilizers samples were collected and the specific activities of NORM were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer based on a hyper pure germanium detector and alpha spectrometer based on surface barrier detector. The obtained results show remarkable wide variations in the radioactivity contents of the different phosphate fertilizer samples. The mean (ranges) of specific activities for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Po, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, and radium equivalent activity are 75 (3-283), 25 (0.5-110), 23 (2-74), 2818 (9-6501) Bq/kg and 283 (7-589) Bq/kg, respectively. Based on dose calculations, the increment of the public radiation exposure due to the regular agricultural usage of phosphate fertilizers is negligible. Its average value 1 m above the ground is about 0.12 nGy/h where the world average value due to the NORM in soil is 51 nGy/h. Direct radiation exposures of the farmers due to phosphate fertilizers application was not considered in our study.

  19. Cognitive function and prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schull, W J; Otake, M

    1999-04-01

    It is clear from the many studies of the prenatally exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki that exposure to ionizing radiation during gestation has harmful effects on the developing human brain, particularly if that exposure occurs at critical stages in the development of the neocortex. Data on a variety of measures of cognitive function, including the occurrence of severe mental retardation as well as variation in the intelligence quotient (IQ) and school performance, show significant effects on those survivors exposed 8-15 weeks and 16-25 weeks after ovulation. Studies of seizures, primarily those without known precipitating cause, also exhibit a radiation effect on those individuals exposed in the first 16 weeks after ovulation. The cellular and molecular events that subtend these abnormalities are still largely unknown although some progress toward an understanding has occurred. For example, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain of some of the mentally retarded survivors has revealed a large region of abnormally situated gray matter, suggesting an abnormality in neuronal migration, but cell killing could also contribute importantly to the effects on cognitive function that have been seen. The retardation of growth in stature observed in individuals exposed in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy suggests that the development of an atypically small head size, without conspicuously impaired cognitive function, may reflect a generalized retardation of growth. PMID:10331523

  20. Total Risk Management for Low Dose Radiation Exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our civilization is witnessing about century of nuclear age mixed with enormous promises and cataclysmic threats. Nuclear energy seems to encapsulate both potential for pure good and evil or at least we humans are able to perceive that. These images are continuously with us and they are both helping and distracting from making best of nuclear potentials for civilization. Today with nuclear use significantly present and with huge potential to further improve our life with energy and medical use it is of enormous importance to try to have calmed, rational, and objective view on potential risks and certain benefits. Because all use of nuclear energy proved that their immediate risks are negligible (i.e., Three Mile Island and Fukushima) or much smaller than from the other alternatives (i.e., Chernobyl) it seems that the most important issue is the amount of risk from the long term effects to people from exposure to small doses of radiation. A similar issue is present in the increased use of modern computational tomography and other radiation sources use in medicine for examination and therapy. Finally, extreme natural exposures are third such potential risk sources. Definition of low doses varies depending on the way of delivery (i.e., single, multiple or continuous exposures), and for this paper usual dose of 100 mSv is selected as yearly upper amount. There are three very different scientifically supported views on the potential risks from the low doses exposure. The most conservative theory is that all radiation is harmful, and even small increments from background levels (i.e., 2-3 mSv) present additional risk. This view is called linear no threshold theory (LNT) and it is accepted as a regulatory conservative simple approach which guarantees safety. Risk is derived from the extrapolation of the measured effects of high levels of radiation. Opposite theory to LNT is hormesis which assumes that in fact small doses of radiation are helpful and they are improving our

  1. Internal exposure by natural radiation and decontamination of swimming pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This explanation concerns the scientific knowledge and finding of the title subjects for general public to understand their present radiation environment, id est (i.e.), at about 1 year after the Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant Accident (FDPPA). The first described is the world history of radiation exposure, where A-bomb explosion in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Three Mile Island Power Plant Accident and Chernobyl Accident are told about their teachings and about internal nuclides at FDPPA: the author points out the natural high abundance of K-40 in contrast to the release of I-131, and Cs-137/-134 in the accident. The second is described about the effect of radiations on human cells, where characteristics, measurements, unit and their derived radionuclides of alpha, beta and gamma rays are explained together with their biological influences. Also explained are hydroxy-radical formation by alpha and beta rays in the internal exposure, and comparison of external photons, gamma and more risky ultraviolet rays. Third, the author mentions about man's natural functions to protect radiation hazard. Presented are an easy calculation and a comparison of K-40 and Cs-137 contents (weight and Bq) in the body and in the swimming pool with reference to Chernobyl standards. Internal exposure by natural radionuclides like K-40 and others, is also calculated, which is found equivalent to 0.29 mSv/y based on about 5,630 Bq/60 kg body weight. Finally, explained are the knowledge and practice of decontamination, where various adsorbents like zeolite (molecular sieve), ion exchanger, charcoal and natural zeolites (alumino-silicate) are compared and the last agent, clay easily and economically available, is recommended for decontamination. Clay material is said to adsorb 87% of Cs-137 at as low level as 750 mg/L and the author has an experience to use it successfully for decontamination of the pool. Importantly, the radioactivity of the resultant sludge should not exceed 8,000 Bq/kg. (T.T.)

  2. Optimization of costs versus radiation exposures in decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimated worth of decommissioning optimization planning during each phase of the reactor's life cycle is dependent on many variables. The major variables are tabulated and relatively ranked. For each phase, optimization qualitative values (i.e., cost, safety, maintainability, ALARA, and decommissioning considerations) are estimated and ranked according to their short-term and long-term potential benefits. These estimates depend on the quality of the input data, interpretation of that data, and engineering judgment. Once identified and ranked, these considerations form an integral part of the information data base from which estimates, decisions, and alternatives are derived. The optimization of costs and the amount of occupational radiation exposure reductions are strongly interrelated during decommissioning. Realizing that building the necessary infrastructure for decommissioning will take time is an important first step in any decommissioning plan. In addition, the following conclusions are established to achieve optimization of costs and reduced occupational radiation exposures: the assignment of cost versus man-rem is item-specific and sensitive to the expertise of many interrelated disciplines; a commitment to long-term decommissioning planning by management will provide the conditions needed to achieve optimization; and, to be most effective, costs and exposure reduction are sensitive to the nearness of the decommissioning operation. For a new plant, it is best to start at the beginning of the cycle, update continually, consider innovations, and realize full potential and benefits of this concept. For an older plant, the life cycle methodology permits a comprehensive review of the plant history and the formulation of an orderly decommissioning program based on planning, organization, and effort

  3. Assessment of leukemia caused deaths due to internal radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A problem of finding the number of cancers, which are developed due to internal exposure to radioactive material, is not a trivial task. This problem is generally rather complex, because in case of protracted exposures, latency period may exceed the time of an individual's natural death, i.e. the age at death due to 'natural causes'. In this paper the model for calculating risk caused by an internal exposure (inhalation or ingestion of radioactive material) is modeled as a continuous irradiation till the end of an individual's life, taking into account natural deaths in the observed population. The basic tool in constructing the model were risk coefficients per unit dose, developed earlier [1]. Since an important role in radiation exposure of the people in South Serbia may play internal exposure to depleted uranium (DU), which was extensively used during the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, the leukemia was chosen as a stochastic effect which is to be considered. For this purpose, some different (artificial) amounts of DU intake were assumed. In order to present the continuous exposure of the whole population living on the contaminated area, the model separately considers those born after the environmental contamination. Therefore, the overall population is divided into two parts: the one which was alive at the time of the release, (LG-Living Generation), and the second one, born after that (FG- Following Generations). The paper primarily intends to present the model for risk calculation for the LG part of population. However, just for the purpose of demonstration of the overall risk model, the contribution of the FG is added to get an overall risk assessment for the case of leukaemia's deaths. Besides cumulative number of cases, which are usually calculated by other models, this model is able to assess differential values, what means it is able to predict the number of cases within a certain specified age and/or time intervals. According to results obtained by the

  4. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany in 2006. Report of the radiation protection register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany, persons occupationally exposed to radiation are monitored by several official dosimetric services who transmit their records about individual radiation doses to the Radiation Protection Register of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The number of dose recordings reported to the Radiation Protection Register has annually increased to more than three million records per year and thus accumulated to more than 34 million dose records at the end of 2006. In 2006, about 312,000 workers were monitored with dosimeters for occupational radiation exposure. About 18 % of the monitored persons received a measurable personal dose. The average annual dose of these exposed workers was 0.75 mSv. This value is the lowest average annual dose since dose monitoring for occupational worker was introduced. It remains below the dose limit of one Milli-Sievert (1 mSv) for the general public and amounts only 4 % of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv for radiation workers. Since Aug. 2003 aircraft crew personnel is subject to dose monitoring if it is employed in accordance with the German employment act and likely to receive an effective dose of at least 1 mSv per year from cosmic radiation during flight operation. This accounts for about 33.000 pilots and flight attendants. 45 air lines report the monthly accumulated dose values of their personnel via the Federal Office for Civil Aviation (''Luftfahrt-Bundesamt, LBA'') to the BfS. The collective dose of the aircraft crew personnel is 71 Person-Sv and thus significant higher than the total collective dose of all workers at terrestrial work places (41 Person-Sv). The annual average dose of aircraft crew personnel was 2.2 mSv. Workers who execute tasks in foreign radiation controlled areas, (so called ''outside-workers'' who e.g. perform maintenance work in different nuclear power plants) must have a valid radiation passport. In 2006, about 62,000 outside-workers had a valid radiation passport. The average annual dose

  5. Detriment calculations resulting from occupational radiation exposures in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of the nominal probability coefficient to evaluate the detriment after the annual occupational exposures of workers from radiation sources and radioactive material have been calculated for workers in medical practices, industrial applications, atomic energy activities and those involved in exploration and mining of radioactive ores and phosphates. The aim of detriment calculations is to provide a foresight for the future occurrence of stochastic effects among the exposed workers. The calculated detriment can be classified into three classes. The first includes workers in diagnostic radiology and atomic energy activities who received the higher doses and consequently represent the higher detriment. The second class comprises workers in radiotherapy and nuclear medicine whose detriment is for times lesser than that of the first class. The third one concerns workers in industrial applications and in exploration and mining of radioactive ores and phosphates, their detriments ten times lesser than that of the second class. The occupational radiation doses are endorsed by the united nation scientific committee on efects of atomic radiation (UNSCEAR) for the period january 1995 to december 1998

  6. Epidemiological studies of groups with occupational exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exposure of man to radiation and the resulting risk of carcinogenesis continues to be of concern to the public. In this context, there is often a tendency to carry out epidemiological studies concerning the induction of cancer in radiation workers and members of the public which are not supported by a statistically valid data base or whose results are misinterpreted or misused. To assist national authorities in evaluating radiological risks, the Nuclear Energy Agency has sponsored a critical review of the methodologies for, and the limitations of, these epidemiological studies, and of the precautions to be adopted in interpreting their results. Prepared by a consultant, Dr. Joan M. Davies, the review focuses on the problems encountered when carrying out epidemiological studies on groups of workers occupationally exposed to radiations, and using their results for radiological protection purposes. It is published under the responsibility of the Secretary General of the OECD, and does not necessarily reflect the views of Member Governments. The primary objective is to provide background material to be used by national authorities that have responsibilities in the field of radiological protection as well as by other persons interested in this subject

  7. Fetal radiation exposure induces testicular cancer in genetically susceptible mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunapala Shetty

    Full Text Available The prevalence of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT, a common solid tissue malignancy in young men, has been annually increasing at an alarming rate of 3%. Since the majority of testicular cancers are derived from germ cells at the stage of transformation of primordial germ cell (PGC into gonocytes, the increase has been attributed to maternal/fetal exposures to environmental factors. We examined the effects of an estrogen (diethylstilbestrol, DES, an antiandrogen (flutamide, or radiation on the incidence of testicular germ cell tumors in genetically predisposed 129.MOLF-L1 (L1 congenic mice by exposing them to these agents on days 10.5 and 11.5 of pregnancy. Neither flutamide nor DES produced noticeable increases in testis cancer incidence at 4 weeks of age. In contrast, two doses of 0.8-Gy radiation increased the incidence of TGCT from 45% to 100% in the offspring. The percentage of mice with bilateral tumors, weights of testes with TGCT, and the percentage of tumors that were clearly teratomas were higher in the irradiated mice than in controls, indicating that irradiation induced more aggressive tumors and/or more foci of initiation sites in each testis. This radiation dose did not disrupt spermatogenesis, which was qualitatively normal in tumor-free testes although they were reduced in size. This is the first proof of induction of testicular cancer by an environmental agent and suggests that the male fetus of women exposed to radiation at about 5-6 weeks of pregnancy might have an increased risk of developing testicular cancer. Furthermore, it provides a novel tool for studying the molecular and cellular events of testicular cancer pathogenesis.

  8. How to identify partial exposures to ionizing radiation? Proposal for a cytogenetic method; Como identificar exposicoes parciais as radiacoes ionizantes? Proposta de um metodo citogenetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, T.S.; Silva, E.B.; Pinto, M.M.P.L.; Amaral, A., E-mail: thiagosalazar@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (LAMBDA/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Lab. de Modelagem e Biodosimetria Aplicada; Lloyd, David [Health Protection Agency, Oxford (United Kingdom). Radiation Protection Division

    2013-08-15

    In cases of radiological incidents or in occupational exposures to ionizing radiation, the majority of exposures are not related to the total body, but only partial. In this context, if the cytogenetic dosimetry is performed, there will be an underestimation of the absorbed dose due to the dilution of irradiated cells with non-irradiated cells. Considering the norms of NR 32 - Safety and Health in the Work of Health Service - which recommends cytogenetic dosimetry in the investigation of accidental exposures to ionizing radiations, it is necessary to develop of a tool to provide a better identification of partial exposures. With this aim, a partial body exposure was simulated by mixing, in vitro, 70% of blood irradiated with 4 Gy of X-rays with 30% of unirradiated blood from the same healthy donor. Aliquots of this mixture were cultured for 48 and 72 hours. Prolonging the time of cell culture from 48 to 72 hours produced no significant change in the yield of dicentrics. However, when only M1 (first division cells) were analyzed, the frequency of dicentrics per cell was increased. Prolonging the time of cell culture allowed cells in mitotic delay by irradiation to reach metaphase, and thus provides enough time for the damage to be visualized. The results of this research present the proposed method as an important tool in the investigation of exposed individuals, allowing associating the cytogenetic analysis with the real percentage of irradiated cells, contributing significantly for the decision making in terms of occupational health. (author)

  9. Health effects of radiation exposure and protection from radiation through an industrial health management angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines fundamental knowledge, health risks, and protection related to radiation in order to carry out appropriate industrial health management to reduce great public anxiety caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident developed by the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011. Radiation generally causes damage to DNA such as generation of reactive oxygen species in cells, which are also created by exposures of various kinds of physical and chemical factors. This suggests that as well as applying 5 basic measures for industrial health management in the work place, common public health measures and disease prevention, such as keeping good sanitary conditions, healthy lifestyles, home discipline, social supports, efficient health education, etc. are important for us to prevent radiation-related cancer manifestation. Improvement of early detection and treatment for cancer is also important to eliminate the public anxiety. (A.O.)

  10. Management study of light water reactor radiation exposure. Final report, June 1979-September 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sources of radiation exposure are discussed and a model showing the growth of radiation fields is presented. Representative tasks where exposure is received are identified for both a PWR and a BWR. The relationship of radiation exposure and plant operations is discussed and an attempt to develop correlations between exposure data and operating data is presented. Methods of reducing occupational radiation exposure by contamination prevention, contamination removal and reducing the time in radiation areas are described. Current projects developing these methods are identified. The methods are evaluated for potential exposure reduction achievable by their implementation. Five methods are determined to have high exposure reduction potential. Two areas of advance technology are also identified as having significant potential. Schedules and costs are developed for implementation of the high potential methods. Possible influence by the DOE on these schedules is considered. Schedules for the development of the advanced technologies are projected both with and without work sponsored by the government

  11. Efficacy of serotonin in lessening radiation damage to mouse embryo depending on time of its administration following radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our earlier studies demonstrated that serotonin lessons radiation damage to an 8-day mouse embryo. Moreover, this biogenic amine was equally effective when administered before and after intrauterine exposure of the embryo to ionizing radiation. The radiotherapeutic effect of serotonin was manifested by disorders in the embryo growth of various intensity, within the range of the studied radiation doses (1.31, 1.74, and 2.18 Gy). The therapeutic effect of serotonin in the embryos exposed to various doses of radiation depended on the amount of serotonin administered. The effective doses of this substance were determined by the severity of the damage inflicted. In this series of experiments, serotonin was administered immediately after exposure to ionizing radiation. The object of the present study was to determine whether or not the radiotherapeutic effect of serotonin depends on the time that elapses between the end of radiation exposure and the administration of serotonin to pregnant mice. It was established that serotonin produces a radiotherapeutic effect during 24 h following the intrauterine exposure of the fetus to ionizing radiation on the 8th day of gestation. The best therapeutic effect is attained with the administration of serotonin immediately after radiation exposure. The effect is slightly lower is serotonin is administered within 5 or 24 h following radiation exposure

  12. Changes in Liver Metabolic Gene Expression after Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C. P.; Wotring, Virginia E.

    2012-01-01

    The health of the liver, especially the rate of its metabolic enzymes, determines the concentration of circulating drugs as well as the duration of their efficacy. Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver, and clinically-used medication doses are given with normal liver function in mind. A drug overdose can result in the case of a liver that is damaged and removing pharmaceuticals from the circulation at a rate slower than normal. Alternatively, if liver function is elevated and removing drugs from the system more quickly than usual, it would be as if too little drug had been given for effective treatment. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism, we want to understand any effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver. Exposure to cosmic radiation is one aspect of spaceflight that can be modeled in ground experiments.

  13. Human exposure to ionizing radiation for medical reasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central issue in this debate is not whether there is a threshold dose below which deleterious effects in humans occur nor whether the dose-effect relationship is linear or curvilinear. The central issue is whether there is merit in a continuing effort to reduce radiation exposures to patients no matter at what level. This should be determined by a careful balancing of potential risks against expected benefits. It is this element of risk-benefit analysis that is absent in Morgan's philosophy. A good example of the changing nature on the risk-benefit balance is that of the use of mass radiography programs to diagnose tuberculosis. Before the Second World War this disease was a terrible scourge of the poor who could ill-afford adequate medical care. The use of mass radiography programs have played a large part in the elimination of this disease

  14. Review of photokeratitis: Corneal response to ultraviolet radiation (UVR exposure*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L A. Moore

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of photokeratitis in response to natural solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR is prevalent in individuals participating in outdoor recreational activities in environments with high reflective surfaces, such as beach activities, water sports and snow skiing. Eye care practitioners (ECPs are frequently encouraged by manufacturers and researchers to recommend UVR-blocking eyewear in the form of sunglasses and contact lenses. However, little is known about the precise nature of the corneal tissue response in the development of photokeratitis. This paper reviews the mechanisms responsible for the development of photokeratitis. Clinical signs and symptoms of photokeratitis, UVR corneal threshold and action spectra, corneal cellular changes and ocular protection from corneal UVR exposure are discussed. The content of this article will be useful to ECPs in making appropriate recommendations when prescribing UVR-protec-tive eyewear. (S Afr Optom 2010 69(3 123-131

  15. Adaptive response induced by occupational exposures to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have found a significant decreased sensitivity to the cytogenetic effects of ionizing radiation (IR) and bleomycin (BLM) in lymphocytes from individuals occupationally exposed to IR when compared with a control population. These results suggest that occupational exposures to IR can induce adaptive response that can be detected by a subsequent treatment by IR or by BLM. However, no correlation between the results obtained with both treatments was observed. A great heterogeneity in the frequencies of chromatid aberrations induced by BLM was observed. The study of the influence of different harvesting times showed that there was no correlation with the frequencies of chromatid breaks. Our results indicate that the use of BLM to detect adaptive response has several difficulties at the individual level. (author)

  16. A comparative analysis of exposure doses between the radiation workers in dental and general hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Nam Hee; Chung, Woon Kwan; Dong, Kyung Rae; Ju, Yong Jin; Song, Ha Jin [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Jin [Dept. of Public Health and Medicine, Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Research and investigation is required for the exposure dose of radiation workers to work in the dental hospital as increasing interest in exposure dose of the dental hospital recently accordingly, study aim to minimize radiation exposure by making a follow-up study of individual exposure doses of radiation workers, analyzing the status on individual radiation exposure management, prediction the radiation disability risk levels by radiation, and alerting the workers to the danger of radiation exposure. Especially given the changes in the dental hospital radiation safety awareness conducted the study in order to minimize radiation exposure. This study performed analyses by a comparison between general and dental hospital, comparing each occupation, with the 116,220 exposure dose data by quarter and year of 5,811 subjects at general and dental hospital across South Korea from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2012. The following are the results obtained by analyzing average values year and quarter. In term of hospital, average doses were significantly higher in general hospitals than detal ones. In terms of job, average doses were higher in radiological technologists the other workers. Especially, they showed statistically significant differences between radiological technologists than dentists. The above-mentioned results indicate that radiation workers were exposed to radiation for the past 5 years to the extent not exceeding the dose limit (maximum 50 mSv y{sup -1}). The limitation of this study is that radiation workers before 2008 were excluded from the study. Objective evaluation standards did not apply to the work circumstance or condition of each hospital. Therefore, it is deemed necessary to work out analysis criteria that will be used as objective evaluation standard. It will be necessary to study radiation exposure in more precise ways on the basis of objective analysis standard in the future. Should try to minimize the radiation individual dose of

  17. Assessment of health consequences of steel industry welders′ occupational exposure to ultraviolet radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zamanian

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that the time period of UV exposure in welders is higher than the permissible contact threshold level. Therefore, considering the outbreak of the eye and skin disorders in the welders, decreasing exposure time, reducing UV radiation level, and using personal protective equipment seem indispensable. As exposure to UV radiation can be linked to different types of skin cancer, skin aging, and cataract, welders should be advised to decrease their occupational exposures.

  18. ENHANCEMENT OF HYGIENIC REQUIREMENTS TO THE LIMITATION OF THE POPULATION EXPOSURE FROM NATURAL RADIATION SOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    I. K. Romanovich; I. P. Stamat

    2016-01-01

    The article addresses the issues of regulation system development for the population radiation protection due to the exposurefrom natural radiation. Justification of necessity of separate requirements introduction for population radiation protection from exposure due to natural and artificial radiation sources is done.

  19. Routine medicare and radiation exposure (6) Radiation death and disaster medicare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The death by acute radiation syndrome (ARS) and practical disaster medicine are easily explained. Dose-lethality relationship generally exhibits the sigmoidal curve: human LD50/30 (50% lethal dose within 30 days after acute exposure) is about 4 Gy (4 J/kg), equivalent to only 67 Cal. The reason why such a small energy can give a serious biological effect is because the target of the quantum energy is the stem cell. The cells are capable of dividing and their proportion relative to mature functional cells in an organ decides its radiation sensitivity. The sensitivity is also decided by the tissue types according to their dynamics of the cell proliferation. When a body trunk is acutely exposed to >1 Gy, ARS clinical process follows 4 phases of the prodromal (manifesting systemic inflammatory response syndrome: SIRS), latent (equilibrium of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses), symptomatic (compensatory anti-inflammatory syndrome: CARS) and recovering (or dyeing) periods. Dependent on the dose, major symptoms include disorders of central nervous/circulatory systems, digestive tract, blood/bone marrow, and skin. For pathology of major organs in ARS leading to death, described and considered are characteristics of injuries in the lung, liver, kidney and thyroid. For practical disaster medicare of ARS, outlined is the clinical process of Tokai Criticality Accident (1999), where 2 workers exposed to neutron flux of 6-20 GyEq (Eq: gamma-ray equivalent) died and one, 2-3 GyEq, was saved. For internal exposure in other disaster, described are cases of a fatal possible internal exposure to 210Po of A. Litvienko, a Russian journalist (2006), and of 131I exposure to residents in Chernobyl Accident. Residents of Fukushima are now under investigation of their health in Japan. Dose-effect relationship is important for understanding ARS, and radiation injuries of each organ are under the determinatve effect. (T.T.)

  20. Limitations on cost-benefit analyses involving low radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to examine some limitations on cost-benefit analyses related to activities involving individual exposures below ∼0.1 to 1 Sv. Previous papers have presented evidence showing the likelihood that there is no purely linear dose-response component at low radiation levels that most dose-response functions where the response is the induction of an initial cancer cell are likely to be curvilinear (concave) upward at the lowest exposure levels. There is also considerable evidence that hormetic effects in this dose region, including those that can repair or kill initiated cancer cells as well as those that might provide beneficial health effects, are likely to be superimposed on any dose-response functions for the carcinogenic process alone. These phenomena impose such large uncertainties in response at low doses that current risk factors obtained by extrapolation of linear-quadratic models fitted to human cancer data at high dose levels are inapplicable for use in low-dose cost-benefit analyses; this is true at least insofar as such analyses cannot be expected in themselves to necessarily result in optimum choices between alternative actions. The influence of these uncertainties on cost-benefit analysis has been examined using methods for such analyses as given in Ref. 5

  1. Dose estimation of radiation exposure from hormesis cosmetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmetics claiming hormesis effects are available through Internet. Although the hormesis effect is explained in each product of cosmetics, there is no explanation about the radiation source. The existence of the progeny nuclides of Th and U series (RI) was confirmed by the γ-ray spectroscopy using a HPGe detector. The highest radioactivity densities were 68 Bq/g of the Th-series included in the hormesis powder. Because the particle containing RI were of the size of 1-10 micrometer by observing and analyzing SEM-EDX, there is a risk of inhaling the powder to the deep into the lungs. Furthermore, as about 1% RI was dissolved in water, the uptake of the RI to the body would be possible. The highest value of the evaluation of uniform radiation exposure to some organs by the continuous usage for 10 years was 5.5 mSv/y of the hormesis powder inhalation to the lung. Furthermore, the calculated quantity of the radioactivity of progeny of 222Rn deposited in the body after continuous use of the hormesis cream every day for one year becomes 24 Bq. The possibility of accumulation of the radioactivity in the body from the hormesis cosmetics cannot be denied. The addition of the radioisotope to cosmetics is prohibited in some EU countries by the regulation. It's proposed in this paper that the legitimacy of the addition of the radioisotope should be seriously re-examined. (author)

  2. Scientifically insecure criteria for DD ampersand ER radiation exposure guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contractors having the responsibility for the decontamination, decommissioning, and environmental restoration (DD ampersand ER) at a nuclear facility, formerly used or active, must be prepared to administer their operation under radiation exposure guidelines established by the U.S. regulatory agencies. These organizations, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), are very closely tied to each other in this arena. Current guideline levels, based on the premise that all radiation is harmful to health, are unfounded scientifically. Leonard Sagan, chairman of an international panel on low-level health effects at the winter 1994 American Nuclear Society (ANS) meeting, stated that the linear nonthreshold model is based on open-quotes politics and social concerns, not science.close quotes In society's desire to live with no risk, this perhaps is the most simplistic approach. Unfortunately, the cost and burden of carrying out these safety guidelines can hinder progress and may lead to greater health risk

  3. Cumulation in the exposure to sources of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dutch National Institute of Public health and Environmental protection (RIVM) has investigated if the maximum permissible risk of 10-6 a-1 for a single source and 10-5a-1 for all sources of ionizing radiation, as defined in the framework of BNS (policy notice regarding the regulation of ionizing radiation), are exceeded in the Dutch population due to the exposure by one single source or all sources respectively. The following sources were considered: radionuclide laboratories, nuclear installations, nuclear waste, sources and devices, conventional energy plants, phosphate fertilizer plants, other non-nuclear industries, transport of radioactive sources and consumer goods. A distinction was made between 'critical' groups due to geographical factors and due to behaviour, such as consumption of special food-stuffs. For risk assessment a uniform risk factor of 0.025 Sv-1 was used, as proposed in BNS. This factor is based on the life-time risk of women and includes the higher risk factors for children. (author). 15 refs.; 4 figs.; 9 tabs

  4. The radiation exposure compensation act: what is fair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugge, Doug; Goble, Rob

    2003-01-01

    In 1990 the U.S. Congress passed a law providing compensation to former uranium miners who became ill while the U.S. Government was the sole purchaser of uranium. Ten years later, in 2000, the law was amended to correct widely perceived problems. We reviewed the content of the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA) laws and regulations, cataloged complaints about the 1990 law, compared the law to the scientific knowledge base in 1990 and in the present, reviewed the 2000 amendments to RECA, and drew lessons about how such compensation programs might be better structured. We concur with popular sentiment that the 1990 law had numerous flaws, the central one being that it failed to compensate many miners who by most other standards would have been deemed deserving. This problem arose through setting exposure criteria very high (at six to 15 times elevated risk), with a disproportionate burden placed on miners who had smoked. The additional burden on smokers was exacerbated by a very stringent definition of smokers (one pack-year in a lifetime). Federal compensation laws should prioritize payment to deserving claimants rather than excluding un-deserving claimants. Thus, a doubling of risk should be an upper limit for setting an eligibility threshold and a lower "significant contributory effect" standard could be considered more appropriate. Uncertainties in exposure and in dose response should be considered and resolved with a bias toward compensation. Beyond setting appropriate criteria, an active effort is needed to inform potentially eligible people and to assist them in qualifying; the eligibility criteria and the requirements for documentation should be appropriate for Native Americans and other cultural groups. Built-in evaluation mechanisms are needed for all compensation programs to assess whether they are meeting their stated objectives. PMID:17208740

  5. Solid cancer risks from radiation exposure for the Australian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates are made of the risks to the Australian population as a function of age and gender for mortality or morbidity for all solid cancers after exposure to radiation. Excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) models are used. The model coefficients are re-evaluated for radiation doses expressed as effective dose using data from the Japanese Life Span Study. Life-table methods are used throughout and the risk measures studied are: the risk of exposure related death, RERD and the risk of exposure related cancer, RERC. Australian life-table data and the age-specific cancer incidence and mortality rates of Australian males and females are taken from recent published tables. No dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor is applied. Sources of uncertainty used to calculate the confidence regions for the estimated risks include the statistical uncertainties of the model parameters and of the extrapolation of the risks beyond the period supported by the epidemiological data. Summary values of the risks are reported as averages of those calculated from the ERR and the EAR models. For males, the mortality risks per sievert range from 14% for 0-9 year age group, 7% at 30-39 years and 4% at 50-59 years. Corresponding values for females are 20%, 10% and 6%. Incidence risks are higher: for males the estimates are 32% for the 0-9 year group, 12% at 30-39 and 5% at 50-59. Corresponding values for females are 56%, 20% and 8%. The 90% confidence regions are about ± 50% of these values. Estimates are given for the risks from CT whole-body scanning or virtual colonoscopy which could be used for cancer screening. If used at 3 year intervals and the effective dose per procedure is 10 mSv, then the RERD for males beginning screening at 40, 50 and 60 years is 0.4%, 0.3% and 0.1%, respectively and for females, 0.6%, 0.4% and 0.2%, respectively. RERD estimates for a 5 year interval between screens are about one-third smaller. Copyright (2003) Australasian College of

  6. Radiation exposure in nuclear medicine: real-time measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Sylvain

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available French regulations have introduced the use of electronic dosimeters for personal monitoring of workers. In order to evaluate the exposure from diagnostic procedures to nuclear medicine staff, individual whole-body doses were measured daily with electronic (digital personal dosimeters during 20 consecutive weeks and correlated with the work load of each day. Personal doses remained always below 20 µSv/d under normal working conditions. Radiation exposure levels were highest to tech staff, nurses and stretcher-bearers. The extrapolated annual cumulative doses for all staff remained less than 10 % of the maximum legal limit for exposed workers (2 mSv/yr. Electronic dosimeters are not technically justified for routine survey of staff. The high sensitivity and immediate reading of electronic semiconductor dosimeters may become very useful for exposure control under risky working conditions. It may become an important help for optimising radiation protection.A legislação francesa introduziu o uso de dosímetros eletrônicos para monitoração da exposição do trabalhador. Afim de avaliar a exposição do trabalhador proveniente de exames diagnósticos em medicina nuclear, doses individuais do corpo inteiro foram medidas diariamente com dosímetros eletrônicos (digitais durante 20 semanas consecutivas e correlatas com as atividades de trabalho de cada dia. As doses foram sempre inferiores à 20 µSv por dia em condições normais de trabalho. Os níveis de exposição de radiação mais elevados foram para os enfermeiros, manipuladores e maqueiros. A extrapolação da dose anual para todos os trabalhadores foi menos que 10 % do limite máximo legal para os trabalhadores expostos (2 mSv/ano. Dosímetros eletrônicos não são tecnicamente justificados para a o controle de rotina da exposição dos trabalhadores, mas a alta sensibilidade e a leitura imediata desses dosímetros podem vir a serem muito úteis para o controle da exposição em condi

  7. Measures to reduce occupational radiation exposure in PET facilities from nurses' point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In parallel with the increase in the number of institutions having PET facilities, the number of nurse working in these facilities has also increased, and the issue of occupational radiation exposure has assumed ever greater importance. In our clinic, since nurses have started to administer FDG intravenous injections, their annual radiation exposure has amounted to 4.8 - 7.1 mSv. To reduce their annual radiation exposure to less than 5 mSv, we identified sources of increased exposure and considered countermeasures based on this information. By implementing countermeasures such as improvements in daily working conditions and ways to avoid various troubles, it was possible to reduce the annual radiation exposure of all nurses to less than 5 mSv. Our experience demonstrates that to provide a working environment with a minimum of occupational radiation exposure, educational training and enhancement of knowledge and technical skills are vital. (author)

  8. Radiation protection textbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This textbook of radiation protection presents the scientific bases, legal and statutory measures and technical means of implementation of the radioprotection in the medical and industrial sectors, research and nuclear installations. It collects the practical information (organization, analysis of post, prevention, evaluation and risks management, the controls, the training and the information) usually scattered and the theoretical knowledge allowing every person using ionizing radiation: To analyze jobs in controlled areas, to watch the respect for the current regulations, to participate in the training and in the information of the staffs exposed to intervene in accidental situation. This third edition is widely updated and enriched by the most recent scientific and legal data concerning, notably, the human exposure, the dosimetry, the optimization of the radiation protection and the epidemiological inquiries. The contents is as follows: physics of ionizing radiation, ionizing radiation: origin and interaction with matter, dosimetry and protection against ionizing radiation, detection and measurement of ionizing radiation, radiobiology, legal measures relative to radiation protection, human exposure of natural origin, human exposure of artificial origin, medical, dental and veterinarian radiology, radiotherapy, utilization of unsealed sources in medicine and research, electronuclear industry, non nuclear industrial and aeronautical activities exposing to ionizing radiation, accidental exposures. (N.C.)

  9. Probabilistic safety analysis of radiation treatments with linear accelerator (Spanish Ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication addresses the issue of accidental exposures of radiotherapy patients and how to avoid them. More proactive approaches are required to anticipate and thus avoid situations that could lead to accidental exposures. In this context, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Ibero American Forum of Radiation and Nuclear and Safety Regulatory Agencies (the FORO) have applied proactive methods, such as probabilistic safety assessment to radiotherapy treatments with accelerators. The methodology and results of this exercise are described in this publication.

  10. REMIT, Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: The Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal (REMIT) system is designed to assist U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees in meeting the reporting requirements of the Revised 10 CFR Part 20 and in agreement with the guidance contained in Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, Instructions for Recording and Reporting Occupational Exposure Data. REMIT is a personal computer (PC) -based menu driven system that facilitates the manipulation of data base files to record and report radiation exposure information. REMIT is designed to be user-friendly and contains the full text of Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, on-line as well as context-sensitive help throughout the program. The user can enter data directly from NRC Form 5s or Form 4s. REMIT allows the user to view the individual's exposure in relation to regulatory or administrative limits and will alert the user to exposures in excess of these limits. The system also provides for the calculation and summation of dose from intakes and the determination of the dose to the maximally exposed extremity for the monitoring year. REMIT can produce NRC Form 5s and 4s in paper and electronic format and can import/export data from ASCII and data base files. 2 - Method of solution: REMIT makes use of the dose conversion factors from EPA Report 11 Limiting Values of Radionuclide Intake and Air Concentration and Dose Conversion Factors for Inhalation, Submission, and Ingestion, to calculate the Committed Dose Equivalent to the maximally exposed organ and the committed Effective Dose Equivalent from intakes measured in micro-curies. REMIT also estimates the amount (in micrograms) of uranium intake from the activity entered in micro-curies. This calculation is based on the specific activities of the uranium isotopes. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: REMIT is a single- user system that only runs on IBM compatible PC systems under DOS and supports only Hewlett

  11. A study of radiation exposure dose in young dental patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to clarify the trend in dental radiography for young patients up to 18 years old and the accompanying radiation exposures, surveys were made at Fukuoka Dental College Hospital and thirty-five dental offices in Fukuoka city and Kitakyushu city. Each kind of radiography increased in average number with age and 16-18 group was given 4.60 times of radiography of one kind or another in the clinic of college hospital. In the dental offices, the number of radiography taken was about one-fourth that of the clinic of college hospital. Although exposure dose varies with exposure factors, distance and angle of exposure, in addition to time factor, were found to affect doses subtly. In the clinic of college hospital the average of estimated doses to organs per person per year were 105.4 mrad (25.2 mrad for 5-year-old children) in the salivary gland, 55.9 mrad (18.9 mrad for 5-year-old) in the thyroid gland, 52.1 mrad (15.0 mrad for 5-year-old) in the lens of the eye and 52.2 mrad (8.7 mrad for 5-year-old) in the sella turcica. In the dental offices, the same average of estimated doses to organs were 40.5 mrad (7.4 mrad for 5-year-old) in the salivary gland, 17.4 mrad (8.0 mrad for 5-year-old) in the thyroid gland, 12.2 mrad (6.1 mrad for 5-year-old) in the lens of eye and 13.1 mrad (1.3 mrad for 5-year-old) in the sella turcica. In all kinds of radiograpy, the estimated doses in genital glands were in μrad. In the dental offices, both the percentage of young patients to all patients and the radiographing rate were lower as compared with those in the clinic of college hospital. The estimated doses were also lower at one-half to one-fifth and those by age and by organ were found to be one-tenth or lower. (J.P.N.)

  12. Application of maximum values for radiation exposure and principles for the calculation of radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide sets out the mathematical definitions and principles involved in the calculation of the equivalent dose and the effective dose, and the instructions concerning the application of the maximum values of these quantities. further, for monitoring the dose caused by internal radiation, the guide defines the limits derived from annual dose limits (the Annual Limit on Intake and the Derived Air Concentration). Finally, the guide defines the operational quantities to be used in estimating the equivalent dose and the effective dose, and also sets out the definitions of some other quantities and concepts to be used in monitoring radiation exposure. The guide does not include the calculation of patient doses carried out for the purposes of quality assurance.

  13. High beta radiation exposure of medical staff measures for optimisation of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: New therapies applying beta radionuclides have been introduced in medicine in recent years, especially in nuclear medicine, e. g. radio-synoviorthesis, radioimmunotherapy and palliative pain therapy. The preparation of radiopharmaceuticals, their dispensary as well as injection require the handling of vials and syringes with high activities of beta emitters at small distances to the skin. Thus the medical staff may be exposed to a high level of beta radiation. Hence the local skin dose, Hp(0,07), was measured at these workplaces with thin-layer thermoluminescent dosemeters TLD (LiF:Mg,P,Cu) fixed to the tip of the fingers at both hands of the personnel. In addition, official beta/photon ring dosemeters were worn at the first knuckle of the index finger. Very high local skin doses were measured at the tip of index finger and thumb. The findings indicate that the exposure of the staff can exceed the annual dose limit for skin of 500 mSv when working at a low protection standard. By the use of appropriate shieldings and tools (e.g. tweezers or forceps) the exposure was reduced of more than one order of magnitude. The German dosimetry services provide official beta/photon ring dosemeters for routine monitoring of the extremity exposure of occupationally exposed persons. But even monitoring with these official dosemeters does not provide suitable results to control compliance with the dose limit in the majority of cases because they can mostly not be worn at the spot of highest beta exposure (finger tip). Therefore, a study was performed to identify the difference of readings of official ring dosemeters and the maximum local skin dose at the finger tips. At workplaces of radio-synoviorthesis a correction factor of 3 was determined provided that the staff worked at high radiation protection standard and the ring dosemeters were worn at the first knuckle of the index finger. The correction factor increases significantly when the radiation

  14. Reevaluation of a Radiation Risk Coefficient Based on a Review of the DDREF of Radiation Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urabe, I.

    2004-07-01

    On the basis of the consideration of the dose rate effectiveness of radiation exposure a sigmoid curve was fitted to the solid cancer dose response by A-bomb survivors. Since the variation of the ERR of solid cancer mortality could be represented by the sigmoid function, the DDREF of 10 was obtained by using the ERR per Sv around the weighted dose of 0.9 Sv (inflection point of the sigmoid curve) and 0.1 Sv (dose limit per 5 year or emergency) of the curve fitted. Though this might be large than the present value, the DDREF obtained here could be supported by the results of the studies in experimental human cells and animals conducting over wide dose and dose rate range such as acute, protracted and chronic exposure, which gave dose rate effectiveness factors from about 1 to 10 or more. Furthermore, it was quite possible that the higher DDREF would be explained by the acquirement of abilities of reducing the effects by radiation exposures. Based on these discussion, it has become clear that applying the DDREF of 10 yields a nominal value of 1x 10''-2 Sv for the probability of induced fatal caner in a population. And the annual mortality risk of 1x10''-5/y corresponding to the exposure of 1 mSv/y, which was on the order of the external annual background doses, was considered to be reasonable because it was well known that incidences below the risk of 1x10''-5/y were the events that the people did not show much concern about protective actions for mitigating the detriment in the society. (Author) 15 refs.

  15. Flavour from accidental symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, Luca [SISSA/ISAS and INFN, I-34013 Trieste (Italy); King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Romanino, Andrea [SISSA/ISAS and INFN, I-34013 Trieste (Italy)

    2006-11-15

    We consider a new approach to fermion masses and mixings in which no special 'horizontal' dynamics is invoked to account for the hierarchical pattern of charged fermion masses and for the peculiar features of neutrino masses. The hierarchy follows from the vertical, family-independent structure of the model, in particular from the breaking pattern of the Pati-Salam group. The lightness of the first two fermion families can be related to two family symmetries emerging in this context as accidental symmetries.

  16. Fetal Implications of Diagnostic Radiation Exposure During Pregnancy: Evidence-based Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimawi, Bassam H; Green, Victoria; Lindsay, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the fetal and long-term implications of diagnostic radiation exposure during pregnancy. Evidence-based recommendations for radiologic imaging modalities utilizing exposure of diagnostic radiation during pregnancy, including conventional screen-film mammography, digital mammography, tomosynthesis, and contrast-enhanced mammography are described. PMID:26982251

  17. Monitoring exposure to atomic bomb radiation by somatic mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, M; Kyoizumi, S; Kusunoki, Y; Hirai, Y; Tanabe, K; Cologne, J B

    1996-05-01

    Atomic bomb survivors are a population suitable for studying the relationship between somatic mutation and cancer risk because their exposure doses are relatively well known and their dose responses in terms of cancer risk have also been thoroughly studied. An analysis has been made of erythrocyte glycophorin A (GPA) gene mutations in 1,226 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The GPA mutation frequency (Mf) increased slightly but significantly with age at the time of measurement and with the number of cigarettes smoked. After adjustment for the effect of smoking, the Mf was significantly higher in males than in females and higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. All of these characteristics of the background GPA Mf were in accord with those of solid tumor incidence obtained from an earlier epidemiological study of A-bomb survivors. Analysis of the dose effect on Mf revealed the doubling dose to be about 1.20 Sv and the minimum dose for detection of a significant increase to be about 0.24 Sv. No significant dose effect for difference in sex, city, or age at the time of bombing was observed. Interestingly, the doubling dose for the GPA Mf approximated that for solid cancer incidence (1.59 Sv). And the minimum dose for detection was not inconsistent with the data for solid cancer incidence. The dose effect was significantly higher in those diagnosed with cancer before or after measurement than in those without a history of cancer. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that somatic mutations are the main cause of excess cancer risk from radiation exposure. PMID:8781371

  18. Polonium in cigarette smoke and radiation exposure of lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, João M.

    2006-01-01

    Polonium (210Po), the most volatile of naturally-occurring radionuclides in plants, was analysed in three common brands of cigarettes produced in Portugal. The analyses were carried out on the unburned tobacco contained in cigarettes, on the ashes and butts of smoked cigarettes and on the mainstream smoke. 210Po in tobacco displays concentrations ranging from 3 to 37 mBq g-1, depending upon the cigarette brand. The 210Po activity remaining in the solid residue of a smoked cigarette varied from 0.3 to 4.9 mBq per cigarette, and the 210Po in the inhaled smoke varied from 2.6 to 28.9 mBq. In all brands of cigarettes tested, a large fraction of the 210Po content is not inhaled by the smoker and it is released into the atmosphere. Part of it may be inhaled by passive smokers. Depending upon the commercial brand and upon the presence or absence of a filter in the cigarette, 5 to 37 % of the 210Po in the cigarette can be inhaled by the smoker. Taking into account the average 210Po in surface air, the smoker of one pack of twenty cigarettes per day may inhale 50 times 210Po than a non smoker. Cigarette smoke contributes with 1.5 % to the daily rate of 210Po absorption into the blood, 0.39 Bq d-1, and, after systemic circulation it gives rise to a whole body radiation dose in the same proportion. However, in the smoker the deposition of 210Po in the lungs is much more elevated than normal and may originate an enhanced radiation exposure. Estimated dose to the lungs is presented and radiobiological effects of cigarette smoke are discussed.

  19. Study of TSL and OSL properties of dental ceramics for accidental dosimetry applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest is increasing in the development of new methodologies for accidental dose assessment, exploiting the luminescence and dosimetric properties of objects and materials which can be usually found directly on exposed subjects and/or in the contaminated area. In this work, several types of ceramics employed for dental prosthetics restoration, including both innovative materials used as sub-frames for the construction of the inner part of dental crowns (core), and conventional porcelains used for the fabrication of the external layer (veneer), were investigated with regard to their thermally and optically stimulated luminescence (TSL and OSL respectively) properties, in view of their potential application in accidental dosimetry. The sensitivity to ionizing radiation proved to strongly depend on the type and brand of ceramic, with minimum detectable dose ranging from few mGy up to several tens of mGy. A linear dose-response was observed for most of the samples. However, the luminescence signals were characterised by a significant fading, which has to be taken into account for a reliable accidental dose assessment after a radiation exposure event.

  20. The philosophy and assumptions underlying exposure limits for ionising radiation, inorganic lead, asbestos and noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A review of the literature relating to exposure to, and exposure limits for, ionising radiation, inorganic lead, asbestos and noise was undertaken. The four hazards were chosen because they were insidious and ubiquitous, were potential hazards in both occupational and environmental settings and had early and late effects depending on dose and dose rate. For all four hazards, the effect of the hazard was enhanced by other exposures such as smoking or organic solvents. In the cases of inorganic lead and noise, there were documented health effects which affected a significant percentage of the exposed populations at or below the [effective] exposure limits. This was not the case for ionising radiation and asbestos. None of the exposure limits considered exposure to multiple mutagens/carcinogens in the calculation of risk. Ionising radiation was the only one of the hazards to have a model of all likely exposures, occupational, environmental and medical, as the basis for the exposure limits. The other three considered occupational exposure in isolation from environmental exposure. Inorganic lead and noise had economic considerations underlying the exposure limits and the exposure limits for asbestos were based on the current limit of detection. All four hazards had many variables associated with exposure, including idiosyncratic factors, that made modelling the risk very complex. The scientific idea of a time weighted average based on an eight hour day, and forty hour week on which the exposure limits for lead, asbestos and noise were based was underpinned by neither empirical evidence or scientific hypothesis. The methodology of the ACGIH in the setting of limits later brought into law, may have been unduly influenced by the industries most closely affected by those limits. Measuring exposure over part of an eight hour day and extrapolating to model exposure over the longer term is not the most effective way to model exposure. The statistical techniques used

  1. Effects of exposure to different types of radiation on behaviors mediated by peripheral or central systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Erat, S.

    The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on behavior may result from effects on peripheral or on central systems. For behavioral endpoints that are mediated by peripheral systems (e.g., radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion or vomiting), the behavioral effects of exposure to heavy particles (^56Fe, 600 MeV/n) are qualitatively similar to the effects of exposure to gamma radiation (^60Co) and to fission spectrum neutrons. For these endpoints, the only differences between the different types of radiation are in terms of relative behavioral effectiveness. For behavioral endpoints that are mediated by central systems (e.g., amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning), the effects of exposure to ^56Fe particles are not seen following exposure to lower LET gamma rays or fission spectrum neutrons. These results indicate that the effects of exposure to heavy particles on behavioral endpoints cannot necessarily be extrapolated from studies using gamma rays, but require the use of heavy particles.

  2. New approaches to radiation protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot Michael Rosen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radioprotectors are compounds that protect against radiation injury when given prior to radiation exposure. Mitigators can protect against radiation injury when given after exposure but before symptoms appear. Radioprotectors and mitigators can potentially improve the outcomes of radiotherapy for cancer treatment by allowing higher doses of radiation and/or reduced damage to normal tissues. Such compounds can also potentially counteract the effects of accidental exposure to radiation or deliberate exposure (eg., nuclear reactor meltdown, dirty bomb, or nuclear bomb explosion; hence the are called radiation countermeasures. Here we will review the general principles of radiation injury and protection and describe selected examples of radioprotectors/mitigators ranging from small molecules to proteins to cell-based treatments. We will emphasize agents that are in more advanced stages of development.

  3. Radiation protection of patients in medical exposures: regional project IAEA 2007-2008 RLA/9/57

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation protection of patients in medical exposures as a project is composed of 5 regional covers some 80 countries, 94 hospitals and 120 activities related to radiology and radiation. A workshop was developed with the following objectives: to provide theoretical and practical elements for professionals in radiation protection of patients developing tasks assigned, to identify the methodology by measurement through sheets for data collection and interpretation of the same, to perform practical exercises of the procedures to apply in radiology, mammography, computed tomography and interventionism. The workshop was divided into theoretical and practical sections, sections for analysis and interpretation of data and a final exam. This project aims to identify strengths and weaknesses, simple primary objectives with fast results, involvement of doctors, institutional commitment to see results after more complex stages, technique stiffness, sustainability. Among the goals of the member states are: To prevent radioinjury in interventional procedures and reduce the probability of stochastic effect, especially in pediatrics; dose reduction changing of rare earth in countries that have not yet made, optimization in mammography, optimization of protection in CT, with emphasis in pediatrics; protection of family and the public to give discharge the patient, after therapy with radiopharmaceuticals; to prevent accidental exposures in radiotherapy and pediatric radiology. The content is divided into four parts which include different forms to collect information constituted on the following topics: Intervention, with information over Uncertainties in calibration of the meter PKA, Evaluation of dose with radiochromatic movie, Data processing and radiation protection, Measurements of kerma-area product, Practice: Exposure assessment of the patient in interventional radiology, Determination of the Hemi reducer layer, Recalibration and use of a meter of Kerma-area product (Pk

  4. Mapping the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation - cosmic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: elaine@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (lRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Salles, Krause C.S.; Prado, Nadya M.C., E-mail: krausesalles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: nadya@ime.ib.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to statically and graphically describe the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation. in this stage, doses due to cosmic rays is being assessed based on sea level dose rates, corrected by latitude and altitude, according to the model recommended by UNSCEAR. In this work, the doses were estimated for ali Brazilian municipalities with more than 100.000 inhabitants. The 253 municipalities selected for this study include about 52% of the Brazilian population. Average dose rate was estimated to be about 50 n Sv/h with a variation coefficient of 31%. The estimated doses have shown a strong influence of altitude on dose rates, with a correlation coefficient of 0,998 for ao exponential fit. This result confirms previous studies that show a large effect of the altitude 00 exposure from cosmic radiation. Considering the same occupation and shielding conditions used by UNSCEAR as global averages, average annual dose was estimated to be 0,37 (0,24 - 0,76) mSv/y, very close to UNSCEAR worldwide average of 0,38 (0,3 - 1,0) mSv/y. (author)

  5. Prevention of risks in relation with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After remind the base notions in the field of ionizing radiation, this file evaluates the situation on the natural and occupational exposures: modes, sources, and exposure level, risk for health. It presents the principles of prevention allowing in a professional area (out of nuclear industry) to reduce and control these exposures. Some practical cases illustrate the radiation protection approach. references are given: regulatory benchmarks, useful links, books to consult. (N.C.)

  6. Functional status of liverin conditions of radiation and chemical exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Severynovs’ka

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic influences of low-intensity X-rays in doses of 0.15 and 0.25 Gr and mix of heavy metals salts in a dose of 2 EPC (extreme permissible concentrations for each metal, as a single factor or as a combination of factors, on the state of pro-/antioxidative system in a rat liver have been studied. Analysis of the data concerning combined influences allows to conclude that effects under these doses have some differences: a splash of processes of lipid peroxidation are observed in both causes, but under the lower dose an additivity takes place, and under the dose of 0.25 Gr a synergism of the agent effects in relation to the development of peroxidative reactions is registered. The results testify that technogenic contamination of water with heavy metals worsens the action of radiation factor, specifically, eliminates a hormetic splash of antioxidative activity at 0.15 Gr. Biochemical indexes of the liver activity, as a central organ of a general metabolism, and a structure of morbidity have been studied in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident from industrial Prydnieprovie region. Disturbances of liver functions have been shown, especially in persons obtained the exposure dose about 0.25 Gr. A comparison of these results and data of tests with laboratory animals reveals their mutual accordance and supports a relevancy of extrapolation of data of model experiments on a person health state, which undergone a similar influence.

  7. Medical radiation exposure and usage for diagnostic radiology in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A national dose survey of routine X-ray examinations in Malaysia (a Level II country) from 1993 to 1995 had established baseline data for seven common types of x-ray examinations. A total of 12 randomly selected public hospitals and 867 patients were included in this survey. Survey results are generally comparable with those reported in the UK, USA and IAEA. The findings support the importance of the ongoing national quality assurance programme to ensure doses are kept to a level consistent with optimum image quality. The data was useful in the formulation of national guidance levels as recommended by the IAEA. The medical radiation exposure and usage for diagnostic radiology (1990-1994) enabled a comparison to be made for the first time with the UNSCEAR 2000 Report. In 1994, the number of physicians, radiologists, x-ray units and x-ray examinations per 1000 population was 0.45, 0.005, 0.065 and 183, respectively; 3.6 million x-ray examinations were performed; the annual effective dose per capita was 0.05 mSv and collective dose was 1000 person-Sv. Chest examinations contributed 63% of the total. Almost all examinations experienced increasing frequency except for barium studies, cholecystography, and intravenous urography (-23%, -36%, -51%). Notable increases were observed in computed tomography (161%), cardiac procedures (190%), and mammography (240%). (author)

  8. Adaptive response induced by occupational exposures to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have found a significant decreased sensitivity to the cytogenetic effects of both ionizing radiation (IR) (2 Gy of γ rays) and bleomycin (BLM, 0,03 U/ml), in lymphocytes from individuals occupationally exposed to IR when compared with controls. These results suggest that occupational exposures to IR can induce adaptive response that can be detected by a subsequent treatment either by IR or by BLM. When a comparison is made between the cytogenetic effects of both treatments, no correlation was observed at the individual level. On the other hand, the individual frequencies of chromosome aberrations induced by a challenge dose of IR were negatively correlated with the occupationally received doses during the last three years. This correlation was not observed after the challenge treatment of BLM. Moreover, the individual frequencies of chromosome aberrations induced by IR treatment were homogeneous. This is not the case of the individual frequencies of chromatid aberrations induced by BLM, where a great heterogeneity was observed. (authors)

  9. Ionizing radiation occupational exposure in the hemodynamics services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this research is to study the ionizing radiation occupational exposure in the hemodynamic services of two large scale hospitals (Hospital A and Hospital B) of the Sao Paulo city. The research looked into annual doses that 279 professionals of the hemodynamic services were exposed to between 1991 and 2002. The data analyzed was collected from the database of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) for Hospital A, and from the Radiological Protection Department of Hospital B. Besides this, measures of hands and crystalline lens equivalent doses were performed during hemodynamic procedures of the physicians, assistant physicians and nursing assistants with TL dosimeters (CaSO4:Dy + Teflon R) produced at IPEN. The safety procedures adopted by the hospitals were verified with the aid of a specific questionnaire for the hemodynamic services. Finally, a profile of the professionals that work in cardiac catheterism laboratories of the hemodynamic services was delineated, considering the variables of individual monitoring time, age and sex. This study allowed for observation of the behavior of the professionals' annual doses of these hemodynamic services in relation to the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear and the Secretaria de Vigilancia Sanitaria limits. It showed that the annual doses of the same specialized occupations would vary from one hospital to another. It further showed the need of individual monitoring of the physicians' unprotected body parts (hands and crystalline lens) during the hemodynamic procedures. (author)

  10. Does occupational exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation affect bone marrow thrombopoiesis?

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed, Douaa; Abd Elwanis, Mostafa E; Abd Elhameed, Saly Y; Galal, Hanan

    2011-01-01

    Background The biological effects of high levels of radiation exposure are fairly well known, but the effects of low levels of radiation are more difficult to determine because the deterministic effects do not occur at these levels. Methods In order to assess the risk of this exposure on BM thrombopoiesis, we measured reticulated platelets (RP) by flow cytometry in 14 hospital workers (12 technicians and 2 nurses) exposed to low level ionizing radiation in Radiotherapy Department in South Egy...

  11. A meta-analysis of leukaemia risk from protracted exposure to low-dose gamma radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, R D; Schubauer-Berigan, M K

    2010-01-01

    Context More than 400 000 workers annually receive a measurable radiation dose and may be at increased risk of radiation-induced leukaemia. It is unclear whether leukaemia risk is elevated with protracted, low-dose exposure. Objective We conducted a meta-analysis examining the relationship between protracted low-dose ionising radiation exposure and leukaemia. Data sources Reviews by the National Academies and United Nations provided a summary of informative studies published before 2005. PubM...

  12. Ionizing radiation exposure and the development of soft-tissue sarcomas in atomic-bomb survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Samartzis, D; Nishi, N; Cologne, J; Funamoto, S; Hayashi, M; Kodama, K; Miles, EF; Suyama, A; Soda, M; Kasagi, F

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Very high levels of ionizing radiation exposure have been associated with the development of soft-tissue sarcoma. The effects of lower levels of ionizing radiation on sarcoma development are unknown. This study addressed the role of low to moderately high levels of ionizing radiation exposure in the development of soft-tissue sarcoma. METHODS: Based on the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, 80,180 individuals were prospectively assessed for the development o...

  13. Radiation exposure on flights; Strahlenexposition beim Fliegen. Ein Fall fuer den Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blettner, Maria [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Biometrie, Epidemiologie und Informatik (IMBEI); Boehm, Theresia; Eberbach, Frieder [Vereinigung Cockpit e.V. Main Airport Center (MAC), Frankfurt (Germany). AG Strahlenschutz; Bottollier-Depois, Jean-Francois [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Clairand, Isabelle; Huet, Christelle [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry Lab.; Frasch, Gerhard [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim/Neuherberg (Germany). Beruflicher Strahlenschutz und Strahlenschutzregister; Hammer, Ga el P. [Laboratoire National de Sante E.P., Dudelange (Luxembourg). Registre Morphologique des Tumeurs; Mares, Vladimir; Ruehm, Werner [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen Deutsches Forschungszentrum fuer Gesundheit und Umwelt GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany); Voelkle, Hansruedi [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Physikdept.

    2014-09-01

    Extend and effects of radiation doses occuring during flights are treated under various aspects. Part of them are, in the first line, radiation exposure of the flying staff and the results of epidemiologic studies regarding the health consequences, as well as aspects of practical radiation protection for the flying staff. Computer programs for dose calculation on flights round off the theme. (orig.)

  14. [Combined radiation exposures and their immediate and late sequelae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogin, E E

    1990-01-01

    The author reviews correlations between the general and local processes and criteria for the diagnosis of acute radiation sickness (acute radiation syndrome) /ARS/ as well as other clinical sequels of radiation injury (radiation burns, abnormalities of critical organ function, stochastic sequels) induced by total even and uneven radiation and concomitant radiation effects. Based on the own observations the coefficients were defined of private correlations of the doses of the total gamma- and high-absorbable ("soft") components of concomitant radiation effects on the content of neutrophil leukocytes in peripheral blood seen during successive transformations of the development of ARS and the subclinical forms of radiation injury. The main characteristic features of ARS induced by concomitant radiation injury as a result of nuclear reactor break down have been formulated.

  15. MicroRNA Expression Profiling Altered by Variant Dosage of Radiation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuei-Fang Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various biological effects are associated with radiation exposure. Irradiated cells may elevate the risk for genetic instability, mutation, and cancer under low levels of radiation exposure, in addition to being able to extend the postradiation side effects in normal tissues. Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE is the focus of rigorous research as it may promote the development of cancer even at low radiation doses. Alterations in the DNA sequence could not explain these biological effects of radiation and it is thought that epigenetics factors may be involved. Indeed, some microRNAs (or miRNAs have been found to correlate radiation-induced damages and may be potential biomarkers for the various biological effects caused by different levels of radiation exposure. However, the regulatory role that miRNA plays in this aspect remains elusive. In this study, we profiled the expression changes in miRNA under fractionated radiation exposure in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. By utilizing publicly available microRNA knowledge bases and performing cross validations with our previous gene expression profiling under the same radiation condition, we identified various miRNA-gene interactions specific to different doses of radiation treatment, providing new insights for the molecular underpinnings of radiation injury.

  16. Radiation exposure during chest X-ray examinations in a premature intensive care unit: phantom studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. There are few reports on the radiation dose received by infants, their family and radiographers exposed to scatter radiation in a premature baby intensive care unit. Objective. To evaluate the degree of radiation exposure from diagnostic X-ray examinations with mobile X-ray machines in a premature intensive care unit. Materials and methods. The radiation exposure of an adjacent newborn, the radiographer and other persons in the room was simulated using phantoms during X-ray examination of the chest using vertical and horizontal beams. Results. Most of the measured doses were below the registration limit of the measuring apparatus and had to be extrapolated by multiple exposures. Without exception, the maximal doses were significantly lower than the permitted limit for persons not professionally exposed to X-rays. Conclusions. Recommendations to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure are given. (orig.)

  17. Testicular cancer risk associated with occupational radiation exposure: a systematic literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousif, Lamya; Blettner, Maria; Hammer, Gael P; Zeeb, Hajo, E-mail: yousif@imbei.uni-mainz.d [Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics (IMBEI), University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Strasse 69, 55131 Mainz (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Testicular cancer is a rare disease, affecting mainly young men aged 15-49. There have been some recent reports that it might be associated with radiation exposure. We have systematically reviewed this topic. English-language articles published between 1990 and 2008 studying the relationship between occupational radiation exposure and testicular cancer were included. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of the EPHPP checklist. For ionising radiation we subdivided study populations into occupational groups. No pooled analysis was performed due to the heterogeneity of studies. Seven case-control and 30 cohort studies were included in the review. For radiation workers, one incidence study showed a significant increase and four showed no effect. Eight mortality studies did not indicate an effect while four showed a non-significant increase. Incidence among persons with military exposure was not increased in two studies and non-significantly increased in another two. Among aircrew studies, one showed no effect against five with slight increases. Medical exposure studies showed no increases. For EMF exposure, three studies showed no effect, two reported a significant and four a non-significant increase in incidence. Overall, there was very limited evidence for associations between occupational ionising radiation and testicular cancer, while there were some positive associations for EMF. Testicular cancer mortality is generally low and was not associated with radiation. New incidence studies are recommended to investigate the association between radiation exposure and testicular cancer where exposure is better specified and individually estimated. (review)

  18. Testicular cancer risk associated with occupational radiation exposure: a systematic literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testicular cancer is a rare disease, affecting mainly young men aged 15-49. There have been some recent reports that it might be associated with radiation exposure. We have systematically reviewed this topic. English-language articles published between 1990 and 2008 studying the relationship between occupational radiation exposure and testicular cancer were included. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of the EPHPP checklist. For ionising radiation we subdivided study populations into occupational groups. No pooled analysis was performed due to the heterogeneity of studies. Seven case-control and 30 cohort studies were included in the review. For radiation workers, one incidence study showed a significant increase and four showed no effect. Eight mortality studies did not indicate an effect while four showed a non-significant increase. Incidence among persons with military exposure was not increased in two studies and non-significantly increased in another two. Among aircrew studies, one showed no effect against five with slight increases. Medical exposure studies showed no increases. For EMF exposure, three studies showed no effect, two reported a significant and four a non-significant increase in incidence. Overall, there was very limited evidence for associations between occupational ionising radiation and testicular cancer, while there were some positive associations for EMF. Testicular cancer mortality is generally low and was not associated with radiation. New incidence studies are recommended to investigate the association between radiation exposure and testicular cancer where exposure is better specified and individually estimated. (review)

  19. Radiation exposure to staff and patients during two endocrinological procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present work is to obtain information about the exposure to patient and staff during percutaneous nephrolithotripsy and ureteroscopy with intracorporeal lithotripsy and to search for a correlation between these parameters. The collected data for each procedure consist of the total air kerma-area product, PKA, cumulative dose, CD, fluoroscopy time, FT, number of images acquired, as well as clinical patient data. Average, minimum, maximum and median values were calculated for 38 patients. Mean values and median in parentheses were as follows: 355 (383) cGy cm2 (PKA for PCNL); 433 (286) cGy cm2 (PKA for URS); 42 (37) mGy (CD for PCNL); 12 (7) mGy (CD for URS); 3.5 (3.0) min (FT for PCNL); 1.4 (1.3) min (FT for URS). The typical operator doses for PCNL and URS were assessed to be 66.1 μSv and 34.3 μSv, respectively, while the maximum doses for the same type of procedures were 152.6 μSv and 124.1 μSv. Good correlation was observed between the staff dose and PKA for both procedures, while the correlation of staff dose with CD and FT was found to be weak. While applying principles of radiation protection and normal load in the clinic, there is no possibility to exceed the new annual dose limit for eye lens of 20 mSv per year averaged over 5 years. The correlation of PKA with FT and CD was also explored and no significant interconnection was observed. (authors)

  20. Radiation Exposure in X-Ray and CT Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A-Z Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams What are x-rays and what do ... natural background radiation for: ABDOMINAL REGION: Computed Tomography (CT)-Abdomen and Pelvis 10 mSv 3 years Computed ...

  1. Occupational hazard: radiation exposure for the urologist: developing a reference standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Seth A.; Rangarajan, Sriram S.; Chen, Tony; Palazzi, Kerrin L.; Langford, J. Scott; Sur, Roger L., E-mail: rlsur@ucsd.edu [Department of Surgery and Division of Urology, U C San Diego Health Science System, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Introduction: to date, there is a paucity of literature offering practicing urologists a reference for the amount of radiation exposure received while surgically managing urolithiasis. This study examines the cumulative radiation exposure of an urologist over 9 months. Materials and methods: We present a case series of fluoroscopic exposures of an experienced stone surgeon operating at an academic comprehensive stone center between April and December 2011. Radiation exposure measurements were determined by a thermoluminescent dosimeter worn on the outside of the surgeon's thyroid shield. Estimations of radiation exposure (mrem) per month were charted with fluoroscopy times, using scatter plots to estimate Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. Results: the total 9-month radiation exposure was 87 mrems for deep dose equivalent (DDE), 293 mrem for lens dose equivalent (LDE), and 282 mrem for shallow dose equivalent (SDE). Total fluoroscopy time was 252.44 minutes for 64 ureteroscopies (URSs), 29 percutaneous nephrolithtomies (PNLs), 20 cystoscopies with ureteral stent placements, 9 shock wave ithotripsies (SWLs), 9 retrograde pyelograms (RPGs), 2 endoureterotomies, and 1 ureteral balloon dilation. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients examining the association between fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure were not significant for DDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2), LDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2), or SDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2). Conclusions: Over a 9-month period, total radiation exposures were well below annual accepted limits (DDE 5000 mrem, LDE 15,000 mrem and SDE 50,000 mrem). Although fluoroscopy time did not correlate with radiation exposure, future prospective studies can account for co-variates such as patient obesity and urologist distance from radiation source. (author)

  2. Occupational hazard: radiation exposure for the urologist: developing a reference standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: to date, there is a paucity of literature offering practicing urologists a reference for the amount of radiation exposure received while surgically managing urolithiasis. This study examines the cumulative radiation exposure of an urologist over 9 months. Materials and methods: We present a case series of fluoroscopic exposures of an experienced stone surgeon operating at an academic comprehensive stone center between April and December 2011. Radiation exposure measurements were determined by a thermoluminescent dosimeter worn on the outside of the surgeon's thyroid shield. Estimations of radiation exposure (mrem) per month were charted with fluoroscopy times, using scatter plots to estimate Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. Results: the total 9-month radiation exposure was 87 mrems for deep dose equivalent (DDE), 293 mrem for lens dose equivalent (LDE), and 282 mrem for shallow dose equivalent (SDE). Total fluoroscopy time was 252.44 minutes for 64 ureteroscopies (URSs), 29 percutaneous nephrolithtomies (PNLs), 20 cystoscopies with ureteral stent placements, 9 shock wave ithotripsies (SWLs), 9 retrograde pyelograms (RPGs), 2 endoureterotomies, and 1 ureteral balloon dilation. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients examining the association between fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure were not significant for DDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2), LDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2), or SDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2). Conclusions: Over a 9-month period, total radiation exposures were well below annual accepted limits (DDE 5000 mrem, LDE 15,000 mrem and SDE 50,000 mrem). Although fluoroscopy time did not correlate with radiation exposure, future prospective studies can account for co-variates such as patient obesity and urologist distance from radiation source. (author)

  3. National Standard for Limiting Occupational Exposure to Ionizing Radiation. NOHSC:1013(1995)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of The National Standard for Limiting Occupational Exposure to Ionizing Radiation are to limit the risk to health arising from exposure to ionizing radiation in the workplace and to optimize radiation protection by setting common essential requirements for the control of exposure to radiation, including the specification of employer duties and employee duties. It serves to identify the provisions which are to be made in the regulations of States, Territories and the Commonwealth for the control of occupational exposure to radiation. It is recognised that legislation, including regulations, may already exist which covers all or part of the scope of this Standard. It is also recognised that it may not be appropriate to take up this Standard verbatim because of differing legislative frameworks and drafting conventions in each State and Territory and in the Commonwealth. However, it is expected that the implementation of the provisions contained in this Standard will be nationally consistent. This Standard deals only with occupational health and safety matters related to exposure to ionizing radiation; the appropriate authority should be consulted about other radiation control requirements which may apply. The complementary 'Recommendations for Limiting Exposure to Ionizing Radiation' - Guidance note NOHSC:3022(1995)- Radiation Health series no. 39 - describes the principles and practice on which this Standard is based and provides interpretive and reference material. It supersedes earlier recommendations of the NHMRC: Recommended Radiation Protection Standards for Individuals Exposed to Ionising Radiation, adopted in 1980, Australia's Radiation Protection Standards (1989) and the Interim on Australia's Radiation Protection Standards (1991). These revised Recommendations for application in Australia take into account the most recent recommendations of the ICRP, which were adopted after careful review of all available scientific evidence concerning the

  4. Workers' radioprotection: professional exposure to ionizing radiation in France: assessment for 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As more than 300.000 workers are potentially exposed to different artificial sources of ionizing radiation in different activity sectors in France (nuclear, industry, research, and medicine) and some others to natural radiation sources, this report proposes an assessment of these exposures for 2010. The report describes the monitoring of professional exposure (legal framework, monitoring modalities, means and actions of the IRSN), presents the methodology adopted for this annual assessment of workers' exposure to ionizing radiation. It gives this assessment for civilian activities submitted to an authorization or declaration regime and for defence activities (general results for external and internal exposures, exposure in the medical and veterinary sector, in the nuclear sector, in the industrial sector, in the research sector). It finally addresses the exposure of workers to natural radioactivity

  5. Current Evidence for Developmental, Structural, and Functional Brain Defects following Prenatal Radiation Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Tine Verreet; Mieke Verslegers; Roel Quintens; Sarah Baatout; Mohammed A. Benotmane

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is omnipresent. We are continuously exposed to natural (e.g., radon and cosmic) and man-made radiation sources, including those from industry but especially from the medical sector. The increasing use of medical radiation modalities, in particular those employing low-dose radiation such as CT scans, raises concerns regarding the effects of cumulative exposure doses and the inappropriate utilization of these imaging techniques. One of the major goals in the radioprotection f...

  6. Reaction of fresh water zooplankton community to chronic radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipov, D.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine - URCRM (Russian Federation); Ivanov, I. [FSUE Mayak PA (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The characteristic features of ecological community as a whole and cenosis of zooplankton organisms as part of it determine the intensity of the processes of self-purification of water and the formation of a particular body of water. Identifying features of the structure and composition of the zooplankton community of aquatic ecosystems exposed to different levels of radiation exposure, it is necessary to identify patterns of changes in zooplankton and hydro-biocenosis as a whole. Industrial reservoirs, the storage of liquid low-level radioactive waste 'Mayak' for decades, have high radiation load. A large range of levels of radioactive contamination (total volume beta-activity in water varies from 2.2x10{sup 3} to 2.3x10{sup 7} Bq/l, total volume alpha-activity - from 2.6x10{sup -1} to 3.1x10{sup 3} Bq/l) provides a unique opportunity to study ecosystems in a number of reservoirs with increasing impact of radiation factor. We studied five reservoirs that were used as the storage of low-and intermediate-level liquid radioactive waste pond and one comparison water body. In parallel with zooplankton sampling water samples were collected for hydro-chemical analysis. 41 indicators were analysed in order to assess the water chemistry. To determine the content of radionuclides in the various components of the ecosystem samples were collected from water, bottom sediments and plankton. Sampling of zooplankton for the quantitative analysis was performed using the method of weighted average auto bathometer. Apshteyn's plankton net of the surface horizon was used for qualitative analysis of the species composition of zooplankton. Software package ERICA Assessment Tool 2012 was used for the calculation of the absorbed dose rate. Species diversity and biomass of zooplankton, the share of rotifers in the number of species, abundance and biomass decrease with the increase of the absorbed dose rate and salinity. The number of species in a sample decreases with the

  7. Analysis of chronic radiation exposure at small doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krestinina, L.Y. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the late effects of radiation exposure among residents of settlements located on the territory of the East-Urals Radiation Trace (EURT) in the Southern Urals. In 1957 an explosion occurred at the depot of radioactive waste in the Southern Urals. An area of 23000 km{sup 2} was contaminated, with contamination density of over 0.1 Ci/m{sup 2} for {sup 90}Sr. There were 217 populated ares on that territory with total population about 270000. The residents of 22 villages with contamination density of over 4 Ci/km{sup 2} for {sup 90}Sr were evacuated. The times of evacuation differed from 7 to 670 days since the accident, depending on the level of contamination. In 1988-1993 an individualized registry was created at the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (URCRM) which included information on the residents of 22 evacuated villages and a proportion of unevacuated residents of the EURT area. Currently, the registry contains data on 30000 residents. Of that number 17000 persons were born before, and 12000 after the accident (including about 9000 offspring of exposed residents evacuated from the EURT, and about 3000 persons who were born after the accident and have been living permanently in the EURT area). Over the 35-year period since the accident the residents have received mean effective doses ranging from 23 to 530 mSv. The mean effective doses received by permanent residents range from 5 to 60 mSv. The cohort of people exposed on the EURT territory was identified based on the information contained in the registry. If a person happened to be in the EURT area at the time of the accident, he/she was considered to be eligible for inclusion in the cohort. Over the 35-year period (from 1957 through 1992) 29.5% of 17872 residents died, and 35% of the original cohort were lost to follow-up for different reasons. To enable an analysis a control group was established which included residents of villages located outside, but close

  8. Workers' radiation protection - Occupational exposure to ionizing radiations in France: 2011 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual statistics of occupational radiation exposure includes all civilian or military activities under authorisation or declaration (i.e. medical and veterinary activities, nuclear industry, defence, non nuclear industry and research), as well as activities concerned by the enhanced exposure to natural radiation. The number of workers monitored in activities under authorisation or declaration increased to 343 988 in the year 2011, i.e. 4% more than in 2010. In the same time, the collective dose of workers monitored with passive dosimetry increased to 64.2 man.Sv, i.e. 3% more than in 2010. The average annual individual dose is 0.19 mSv, which is very similar to the year 2010. Among the 14 035 workers having received more than 1 mSv (legal dose limit for the public), 1 929 workers (0.6%) received more than 6 mSv. Twelve workers received more than 20 mSv (dose limit for the workers in the French regulation). Important differences are observed between the occupational activities: in the medical and veterinary field (62% of the monitored workers) the average dose is low (0.1 mSv); the average doses in the nuclear field and in the non nuclear industry (29% of the monitored workers) are higher, respectively 0.37 and 0.52 mSv. In the research field, the average dose remains low, below 0.1 mSv. In 2011, 9 workers had a committed effective dose higher or equal to 1 mSv, the maximum dose being of 3.2 mSv. The annual statistics also consider the results of aircrew dosimetry: in 2011, 21 195 aircrew members of 5 civilian airline companies received an averaged dose of 2.0 mSv, the maximum individual dose being equal to 4.7 mSv. (authors)

  9. Radiation protection of workers. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiations in France: 2012 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual statistics of occupational exposure to ionising radiation includes all civilian or military activities under authorisation or declaration (i.e. medical and veterinary activities, nuclear industry, defence, non nuclear industry and research), as well as activities concerned by the enhanced exposure to natural radiation. The number of workers monitored in activities under authorisation or declaration increased to 354 665 in the year 2012, i.e. 3% more than in 2011. In the same time, the collective dose of workers monitored with passive dosimetry decreased to 62.35 man.Sv, i.e. 3% less than in 2011. The average annual individual dose is 0.18 mSv, which is very similar to the year 2011. Among the 13 977 workers having received more than 1 mSv (legal dose limit for the public), 1 849 workers received more than 6 mSv. Fourteen workers received more than 20 mSv (dose limit for the workers in the French regulation). Important differences are observed between the occupational activities: in the medical and veterinary field (62% of the monitored workers) and in the research field (4% of the monitored workers) the average doses are less than 0.5 mSv; the average doses in the nuclear field and in the non nuclear industry (representing together 30% of the monitored workers) are higher, respectively 1.19 and 1.54 mSv. In 2012, 11 workers had a committed effective dose higher or equal to 1 mSv, the maximum dose being of 4 mSv. The annual statistics also consider the results of aircrew dosimetry: in 2011, 20 823 aircrew members of 4 civilian airline companies received an averaged dose of 1.9 mSv, the maximum individual dose being equal to 4.4 mSv. (authors)

  10. Health care workers and AIDS: a differential study of beliefs and affects associated with accidental exposure to blood Profissionais de saúde e AIDS: um estudo diferencial sobre crenças e afetos associados à experiência de exposição acidental a material biológico potencialmente contaminado

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Rosa Rodrigues Rissi; Alcyone Artioli Machado; Marco Antonio de Castro Figueiredo

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze affective and cognitive determinants of the professional work of individuals caring for patients with HIV/AIDS, in view of the risk and/or experience of accidental exposure to blood. We drew on the theoretical-methodological references of Fishbein & Ajzen and Maslow's theory. Fifty health care workers were evaluated using an attitudes questionnaire and a needs and motivations instrument. The research verified differences between answers by health care workers who h...

  11. Operational accidents and radiation exposure experience within the United States Atomic Energy Commission, 1943--1975. [AEC health and safety during first 32 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    The occupational injury and fatality experience during 32 years of the development of the atomic energy industry under the direction of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and its predecessor, the Manhattan Engineering District, is reviewed. Data are included on the cause of all accidents, including fires and transportation accidents, and the cost of AEC property damage. Fatalities of AEC and contractor personnel from all causes during the 32-year period totaled 321, of which 184 occurred in construction; 121 in AEC operations such as production, research, and services; and 16 in Government functions. There were 19,225 lost-time injuries attributable to all accidental causes, or a 32-year frequency rate of 2.75 based on the number of injuries per million man-hours. There were six deaths attributable to nuclear causes, thee of which were due to blast and flying missiles and three caused by whole-body radiation exposure. Forty-one workers were involved in lost-time radiation accidents, of whom 26 showed clinical manifestations attributable to radiation, resulting in permanent partial-disability of three workers and the loss of a digit by four workers, while the others did not develop evidence of radiation injury. (CH)

  12. Occupational Exposure to Diagnostic Radiology in Workers without Training in Radiation Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaona, Enrique; Enríquez, Jesús G. Franco

    2004-09-01

    The physicians, technicians, nurses, and others involved in radiation areas constitute the largest group of workers occupationally exposed to man-made sources of radiation. Personnel radiation exposure must be monitored for safety and regulatory considerations, this assessment may need to be made over a period of one month or several months. The purpose of this study was to carry out an exploratory survey of occupational exposures associated with diagnostic radiology. The personnel dosimeters used in this study were thermoluminiscent dosimeters (TLDs). The reported number of monitored workers was 110 of different departments of radiology of the Mexican Republic without education in radiation safety, included general fluoscopic/radiographic imaging, computed tomography and mammography procedures. Physicians and X-ray technologist in diagnostic radiology receive an average annual effective dose of 2.9 mSv with range from 0.18 to 5.64 mSv. The average level of occupational exposures is generally similar to the global average level of natural radiation exposure. The annual global per capita effective dose due to natural radiation sources is 2.4 mSv (UNSCEAR 2000 Report). There is not significant difference between average occupational exposures and natural radiation exposure for p < 0.05.

  13. Assessment of occupational exposure due to external sources of radiation. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. The three Safety Guides on occupational radiation protection are jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the International Labour Office. The Agency gratefully acknowledges the contribution of the European Commission to the development of the present Safety Guide. The present Safety Guide addresses the assessment of exposure due to external sources of radiation in the workplace. Such exposure can result from a number of sources within a workplace, and the monitoring of workers and the workplace in such situations is an integral part of any occupational radiation protection programme. The assessment of exposure due to external radiation sources depends critically upon knowledge of the radiation type and energy and the conditions of exposure. The present Safety Guide reflects the major changes over the past decade in international practice in external dose assessment

  14. Impact of the Near-Earth Space Environment on Human Radiation Exposure at Commercial Airline Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, C. J.; Blattnig, S. R.; Solomon, S. C.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Kunches, J.; Kress, B. T.; Murray, J. J.; Wilson, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    There is a growing concern for the health and safety of commercial aircrew and passengers due to their exposure to ionizing radiation with high linear energy transfer (LET), particularly at high latitudes. The International Commission of Radiobiological Protection (ICRP), the EPA, and the FAA consider the crews of commercial aircraft as radiation workers. The FAA reports that pregnant crew members may run a risk as high as 1.3 per thousand births of severe illness to their children as a result of background radiation exposure. During solar energetic particle (SEP) events, radiation exposure can exceed annual limits, and the number of serious health effects is expected to be quite high if precautions are not taken. Health concerns for frequent-flyer passengers are similar to the health concerns of the crew. There is a need for a capability to monitor background radiations levels at commercial airline altitudes and to provide analytical input for airline operations decisions for altering flight paths and altitudes for the mitigation and reduction of radiation exposure levels during a SEP event. Efforts are currently underway to develop a global, nowcast (real-time) capability for calculating ionizing radiation exposure at commercial airline altitudes. The state-of-the-art in physics-based transport of high energy galactic cosmic ray and solar cosmic ray particles will be presented. Paramount to reliable real-time transport calculations is an accurate and timely specification of the boundary conditions, such as the incident differential energy flux and geomagnetic cutoff rigidity, using a combination of satellite observations and empirical space radiation environment models. However, empirical models of the near-Earth radiation environment can only advance with continued observations and development of physics-based models of the heliosphere and the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. In this paper we also discuss the state-of-the-art in space

  15. Cellular effects after exposure to mixed beams of ionizing radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Staaf, Elina

    2012-01-01

    Mixed beams of ionizing radiation in our environment originate from space, the bedrock and our own houses. Radiotherapy patients treated with boron neutron capture therapy or with high energy photons are also exposed to mixed beams of gamma radiation and neutrons. Earlier investigations have reported additivity as well as synergism (a greater than additive response) when combining radiations of different linear energy transfer. However, the outcome seemed to be dependent on the experimental s...

  16. The impact of fuel cladding failure events on occupational radiation exposures at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes two case studies that evaluated the impact of fuel cladding failures on occupational radiation exposures at pressurized water reactors (PWRs). For the case studies, radiation measurements were made both during routine operations and during the subsequent maintenance and refueling outage ata PWR with more than 0.2% failed fuel. Gamma spectroscopy measurements, radiation exposure rate determinations, thermoluminescent dosimeter assessments, and air sample analyses were made in the plant's radwaste, pipe penetration, and containment buildings. Small highly radioactive fuel particles, which contaminated the plant's fuel handling building, were also analyzed. Based on the data collected, fuel cladding failures increased radiation exposure rates an estimated 540% in some areas of the plant during routine operations. Furthermore, the fraction of the total exposure rates due to fission products remained relatively constant over the duration of the outage

  17. Factors modifying the response of large animals to low-intensity radiation exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, N. P.; Still, E. T.

    1972-01-01

    In assessing the biological response to space radiation, two of the most important modifying factors are dose protraction and dose distribution to the body. Studies are reported in which sheep and swine were used to compare the hematology and lethality response resulting from radiation exposure encountered in a variety of forms, including acute (high dose-rate), chronic (low dose-rate), combinations of acute and chronic, and whether received as a continuous or as fractionated exposure. While sheep and swine are basically similar in response to acute radiation, their sensitivity to chronic irradiation is markedly different. Sheep remain relatively sensitive as the radiation exposure is protracted while swine are more resistant and capable of surviving extremely large doses of chronic irradiation. This response to chronic irradiation correlated well with changes in radiosensitivity and recovery following an acute, sublethal exposure.

  18. Cell/Tissue Culture Radiation Exposure Facility Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the development of automated systems to improve radiobiology research capabilities at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National...

  19. Exposure to ionizing radiation induced persistent gene expression changes in mouse mammary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datta Kamal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast tissue is among the most sensitive tissues to the carcinogenic actions of ionizing radiation and epidemiological studies have linked radiation exposure to breast cancer. Currently, molecular understanding of radiation carcinogenesis in mammary gland is hindered due to the scarcity of in vivo long-term follow up data. We undertook this study to delineate radiation-induced persistent alterations in gene expression in mouse mammary glands 2-month after radiation exposure. Methods Six to eight week old female C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2 Gy of whole body γ radiation and mammary glands were surgically removed 2-month after radiation. RNA was isolated and microarray hybridization performed for gene expression analysis. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA was used for biological interpretation of microarray data. Real time quantitative PCR was performed on selected genes to confirm the microarray data. Results Compared to untreated controls, the mRNA levels of a total of 737 genes were significantly (p Conclusions Exposure to a clinically relevant radiation dose led to long-term activation of mammary gland genes involved in proliferative and metabolic pathways, which are known to have roles in carcinogenesis. When considered along with downregulation of a number of tumor suppressor genes, our study has implications for breast cancer initiation and progression after therapeutic radiation exposure.

  20. Radiation risk statement in the participant information for a research protocol that involves exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) is required to scrutinise the protocols of clinical drug trials that recruit patients as participants. If the study involves exposing the participants to ionizing radiation the information provided to the participant should contain a radiation risk statement that is understandable by the Committee and the participant. The information that should be included in the risk statement is available from a variety of published sources and is discussed. The ARPANSA Code of Practice Exposure of Humans to Ionizing Radiation for Research Purposes (2005) states explicitly what the responsibilities of the researcher and the HREC are. Some research protocols do not provide the information required by good radiation protection practice and explicitly called for by the Code. Nine points (including: state that ionizing radiation is involved; that the radiation is additional to standard care; the effective dose to be received; the dose compared to natural background; the dose to the most exposed organs; a statement of risk; the benefits accruing from the exposure; ask the participant about previous exposures; name a contact person from whom information may be sought) that should be considered for inclusion in the participant information are presented and discussed. An example of a radiation risk statement is provided

  1. The simple exposure dose calculation method in interventional radiology and one case of radiation injury (alopecia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interventional radiology (IVR) is less invasive than surgery, and has rapidly become widespread due to advances in instruments and X-ray apparatuses. However, radiation exposure of long-time fluoroscopy induces the risk of radiation injury. We estimated the exposure dose in the patient who underwent IVR therapy and developed radiation injury (alopecia). The patient outcome and the method of estimating the exposure dose are reported. The estimation method of exposure dose was roughly estimated by real-time expose dose during exam. It is a useful indicator for the operator to know the exposure dose during IVR. We, radiological technologist must to know call attention to the role of radiological technicians during IVR. (author)

  2. Injury of the blood-testies barrier after low-dose-rate chronic radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Young Hoon; Bae Min Ji; Lee, Chang Geun; Yang, Kwang Mo; Jur, Kyu; Kim, Jong Sun [Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    The systemic effect of radiation increases in proportionally with the dose and dose rate. Little is known concerning the relationships between harmful effects and accumulated dose, which is derived from continuous low-dose rate radiation exposure. Recent our studies show that low-dose-rate chronic radiation exposure (3.49 mGy/h) causes adverse effects in the testis at a dose of 2 Gy (6 mGy/h). However, the mechanism of the low-dose-rate 2 Gy irradiation induced testicular injury remains unclear. The present results indicate that low-dose rate chronic radiation might affect the BTB permeability, possibly by decreasing levels of ZO-1, Occludin-1, and NPC-2. Furthermore, our results suggest that there is a risk of male infertility through BTB impairment even with low-dose-rate radiation if exposure is continuous.

  3. Assessment of radiation exposure of nuclear medicine staff using personal TLD dosimeters and charcoal detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, F.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Pardo, R.; Deban, L. [Valladolid Univ., Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias (Spain); Garcia-Talavera, P.; Singi, G.M.; Martin, E. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Although the main concern regarding exposure to ionizing radiation for nuclear medicine workers is external radiation, inhalation of radionuclides can significantly contribute to the imparted doses. We propose a new approach to assess exposure to inhalation of {sup 131}I based on passive monitoring using activated charcoal detectors. We compared the inhalation doses to the staff of a nuclear medicine department, based on the measurements derived from charcoal detectors placed at various locations, and the external doses monitored using personal TLD dosimeters. (authors)

  4. Quality assurance and radiation protection in medical exposures in Europe. A role model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical exposures constitute the major source of ionizing radiation to which the world population is exposed to. Due to this fact, the European Community has implemented a number of agreements aimed at regulating these activities. For its part, Spain - through a series of Royal Ordinances - has developed a legal framework to broadly address not only Radiation Protection but medical exposure quality criteria as well. These regulations may be used as reference criteria to addressing same issues in our country

  5. Robotically Driven Interventions: A Method of Using CT Fluoroscopy without Radiation Exposure to the Physician1

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, Stephen B.; Patriciu, Alexandru; Bohlman, Mark E.; Kavoussi, Louis R.; Stoianovici, Dan

    2002-01-01

    Radiation exposure to physicians’ hands during interventional procedures with computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopic guidance may be high. A robot was developed that could hold, orient, and advance a needle, with CT fluoroscopic guidance. This robot could be either computer or joystick controlled. Twenty-three robotically guided percutaneous interventions were performed without complication. Physician radiation exposure was negligible during the CT fluoroscopy–guided procedures.

  6. Rays Sting: The Acute Cellular Effects of Ionizing Radiation Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A; Ciccarelli, M; Sorriento, D; Napolitano, L; Fiordelisi, A; Trimarco, B; Durante, M; Iaccarino, G

    2016-05-01

    High-precision radiation therapy is a clinical approach that uses the targeted delivery of ionizing radiation, and the subsequent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in high proliferative, radiation sensitive cancers. In particular, in thoracic cancer ratdiation treatments, can not avoid a certain amount of cardiac toxicity. Given the low proliferative rate of cardiac myocytes, research has looked at the effect of radiation on endothelial cells and consequent coronary heart disease as the mechanism of ratdiation induced cardiotoxicity. In fact, little is known concerning the direct effect of radiation on mitochondria dynamis in cardiomyocyte. The main effect of ionizing radiation is the production of ROS and recent works have uncovered that they directly participates to pivotal cell function like mitochondrial quality control. In particular ROS seems to act as check point within the cell to promote either mitochondrial biogenesis and survival or mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. Thus, it appears evident that the functional state of the cell, as well as the expression patterns of molecules involved in mitochondrial metabolism may differently modulate mitochondrial fate in response to radiation induced ROS responses. Different molecules have been described to localize to mitochondria and regulate ROS production in response to stress, in particular GRK2. In this review we will discuss the evidences on the cardiac toxicity induced by X ray radiation on cardiomyocytes with emphasis on the role played by mitochondria dynamism.

  7. Rays Sting: The Acute Cellular Effects of Ionizing Radiation Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A; Ciccarelli, M; Sorriento, D; Napolitano, L; Fiordelisi, A; Trimarco, B; Durante, M; Iaccarino, G

    2016-05-01

    High-precision radiation therapy is a clinical approach that uses the targeted delivery of ionizing radiation, and the subsequent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in high proliferative, radiation sensitive cancers. In particular, in thoracic cancer ratdiation treatments, can not avoid a certain amount of cardiac toxicity. Given the low proliferative rate of cardiac myocytes, research has looked at the effect of radiation on endothelial cells and consequent coronary heart disease as the mechanism of ratdiation induced cardiotoxicity. In fact, little is known concerning the direct effect of radiation on mitochondria dynamis in cardiomyocyte. The main effect of ionizing radiation is the production of ROS and recent works have uncovered that they directly participates to pivotal cell function like mitochondrial quality control. In particular ROS seems to act as check point within the cell to promote either mitochondrial biogenesis and survival or mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. Thus, it appears evident that the functional state of the cell, as well as the expression patterns of molecules involved in mitochondrial metabolism may differently modulate mitochondrial fate in response to radiation induced ROS responses. Different molecules have been described to localize to mitochondria and regulate ROS production in response to stress, in particular GRK2. In this review we will discuss the evidences on the cardiac toxicity induced by X ray radiation on cardiomyocytes with emphasis on the role played by mitochondria dynamism. PMID:27326395

  8. DNA repair and cell cycle biomarkers of radiation exposure and inflammation stress in human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Budworth

    Full Text Available DNA damage and repair are hallmarks of cellular responses to ionizing radiation. We hypothesized that monitoring the expression of DNA repair-associated genes would enhance the detection of individuals exposed to radiation versus other forms of physiological stress. We employed the human blood ex vivo radiation model to investigate the expression responses of DNA repair genes in repeated blood samples from healthy, non-smoking men and women exposed to 2 Gy of X-rays in the context of inflammation stress mimicked by the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Radiation exposure significantly modulated the transcript expression of 12 genes of 40 tested (2.2E-06radiation. Three genes of this panel (CDKN1A, FDXR and BBC3 were also highly sensitive to LPS treatment in the absence of radiation exposure, and LPS co-treatment significantly affected their radiation responses. At the protein level, BAX and pCHK2-thr68 were elevated after radiation exposure, but the pCHK2-thr68 response was significantly decreased in the presence of LPS. Our combined panel yields an estimated 4-group accuracy of ∼90% to discriminate between radiation alone, inflammation alone, or combined exposures. Our findings suggest that DNA repair gene expression may be helpful to identify biodosimeters of exposure to radiation, especially within high-complexity exposure scenarios.

  9. Study of the luminescence properties of dental materials for their use in accidental dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The current social and political situation in many world areas and the increasing hostilities between countries and cultures have accentuated the risk of a malicious use of ionising radiations. Terrorist attacks with the intentional disseminations of radioactive materials in urban settlements may involve a large number of persons, and a rapid estimation of the severity of the exposure is required for undertaking suitable protective actions and supporting decision making. Promising methodologies for a prompt dose evaluation, are those exploiting the luminescence and dosimetric properties of objects and materials which can be easily found in the contaminated area. Among these objects, dental materials have the advantage to be on contact with human body and they could therefore represent individual dosimeters in case of accidental exposure to ionising radiation. The interest in the use of dental ceramics for dosimetric purposes dates back to late 1970, however, it is only through the use of high-sensitive experimental techniques and instrumentation today available, that the potentiality of such materials as accidental dosimeters can be exploited. Moreover, innovative materials are being continuously introduced into the market, containing new additives and pigments with peculiar optical properties. In this study, Thermally Stimulated Luminescence (TSL) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) techniques are applied to investigate the luminescence and dosimetric properties of several dental materials, including resins, glass and feldspatic ceramics, and also zirconia and alumina based ceramics, being their use widely increased in the recent years in substitution of metal cores. (author)

  10. Radiation exposure of eyes, thyroid gland and hands in orthopaedic staff: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavachandran Chandrasekharan Nair

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various procedures, especially minimal invasive techniques using fluoroscopy, pose a risk of radiation exposure to orthopaedic staff. Anatomical sites such as the eyes, thyroid glands and hands are more vulnerable to radiation considering the limited use of personal protective devices in the workplace. The objective of the study is to assess the annual mean cumulative and per procedure radiation dose received at anatomical locations like eyes, thyroid glands and hands in orthopaedic staff using systematic review. Methods The review of literature was conducted using systematic search of the database sources like PUBMED and EMBASE using appropriate keywords. The eligibility criteria and the data extraction of literature were based on study design (cohort or cross-sectional study, study population (orthopaedic surgeons or their assistants, exposure (doses of workplace radiation exposure at hands/fingers, eye/forehead, neck/thyroid, language (German and English. The literature search was conducted using a PRISMA checklist and flow chart. Results Forty-two articles were found eligible and included for the review. The results show that radiation doses for the anatomical locations of eye, thyroid gland and hands were lower than the dose levels recommended. But there is a considerable variation of radiation dose received at all three anatomical locations mainly due to different situations including procedures (open and minimally invasive, work experience (junior and senior surgeons,distance from the primary and secondary radiation, and use of personal protective equipments (PPEs. The surgeons receive higher radiation dose during minimally invasive procedures compared to open procedures. Junior surgeons are at higher risk of radiation exposure compared to seniors. PPEs play a significant role in reduction of radiation dose. Conclusions Although the current radiation precautions appear to be adequate based on the low dose radiation

  11. Readings of Polysulphone Film after Fractionated and Continuous Exposures to UV Radiation and Consequences for the Calculation of the Reading Resulting from Polychromatic UV Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reading of polysulphone film (PSF), resulting from fractionated exposures to monochromatic UV radiation, was compared with the response to continuous irradiations of the same radiant exposure and wavelength. Also studied was the effect of a pre-exposure to monochromatic UV radiation on the reading resulting from a subsequent irradiation at a different wavelength. The results are used for a physical description of the detector reading resulting from given spectral radiant exposures. This allows readings of PSF after exposures to polychromatic UV radiation to be calculated. The description was tested for solar UV radiation at ground level and good agreement between experimental and calculated detector readings was achieved. (author)

  12. Patient radiation exposure during transforaminal lumbar endoscopic spine surgery: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iprenburg, Menno; Wagner, Ralf; Godschalx, Alexander; Telfeian, Albert E

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to describe patient radiation exposure during single-level transforaminal endoscopic lumbar discectomy procedures at levels L2-5 and L5-S1. METHODS Radiation exposure was monitored in 151 consecutive patients undergoing single-level transforaminal endoscopic lumbar discectomy procedures. Two groups were studied: patients undergoing procedures at the L4-5 level or above and those undergoing an L5-S1 procedure. RESULTS For the discectomy procedures at L4-5 and above, the average duration of fluoroscopy was 38.4 seconds and the mean calculated patient radiation exposure dose was 1.5 mSv. For the L5-S1 procedures, average fluoroscopy time was 54.6 seconds and the mean calculated radiation exposure dose was 2.1 mSv. The average patient radiation exposure dose among these cases represents a 3.5-fold decrease compared with the senior surgeon's first 100 cases. CONCLUSIONS Transforaminal lumbar endoscopic discectomy can be used as a minimally invasive technique for the treatment of lumbar radiculopathy in the setting of a herniated lumbar disc without the significant concern of exposing the patient to harmful doses of radiation. One caveat is that both the surgeon and the patient are likely to be exposed to higher doses of radiation during a surgeon's early experience in minimally invasive endoscopic spine surgery. PMID:26828888

  13. Occupational exposure to radio frequency/microwave radiation and the risk of brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Spallek, Jacob; Schüz, Joachim;

    2006-01-01

    It is still under debate whether occupational exposure to radio frequency/microwave electromagnetic fields (RF/MW-EMF) contributes to the development of brain tumors. This analysis examined the role of occupational RF/MW-EMF exposure in the risk of glioma and meningioma. A population-based, case....... "High" exposure was defined as an occupational exposure that may exceed the RF/MW-EMF exposure limits for the general public recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Multiple conditional logistic regressions were performed separately for glioma and meningioma...

  14. Health care workers and AIDS: a differential study of beliefs and affects associated with accidental exposure to blood Profissionais de saúde e AIDS: um estudo diferencial sobre crenças e afetos associados à experiência de exposição acidental a material biológico potencialmente contaminado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosa Rodrigues Rissi

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze affective and cognitive determinants of the professional work of individuals caring for patients with HIV/AIDS, in view of the risk and/or experience of accidental exposure to blood. We drew on the theoretical-methodological references of Fishbein & Ajzen and Maslow's theory. Fifty health care workers were evaluated using an attitudes questionnaire and a needs and motivations instrument. The research verified differences between answers by health care workers who had never suffered accidents and those who had already experienced accidental exposure to blood. Health care workers did their work activities motivated by the need for self-fulfillment and valued their own performance when they were able to meet the patients' emotional needs. Among health professionals who had never experienced accidental exposure to blood, the predominant beliefs was that patients feel remorse over having expose themselves to HIV. Accidental exposure to blood raises difficulties in personal life. Technical aspects are also associated with the possibility of accidental exposure to blood.O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar determinantes afetivos e cognitivos que influenciam o trabalho de profissionais que cuidam de pessoas vivendo com o HIV/ AIDS, frente ao risco ou experiência de exposição acidental a material biológico potencialmente contaminado (MBPC. Utilizou-se o referencial teórico metodológico de Fishbein-Ajzen e a teoria de Maslow, que propõe a hierarquia das necessidades humanas. Cinqüenta profissionais de saúde foram avaliados por meio de escalas de atitudes, e de um instrumento de avaliação de necessidades e motivações. Verificou-se a diferença entre as respostas de profissionais que nunca sofreram acidente e aqueles que já passaram pela experiência de acidente ocupacional. Os resultados indicam que os profissionais exercem suas atividades motivados pela necessidade de auto-realização e valorizam sua performance

  15. Allegheny County Fatal Accidental Overdoses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Fatal accidental overdose incidents in Allegheny County, denoting age, gender, race, drugs present, zip code of incident and zip code of residence. Zip code of...

  16. Determinants of personal ultraviolet-radiation exposure doses on a sun holiday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B; Thieden, E; Philipsen, P A;

    2013-01-01

    A great number of journeys to sunny destinations are sold to the Danish population every year. We suspect that this travel considerably increases personal annual ultraviolet-radiation (UVR) exposure doses. This is important because such exposure is the main cause of skin cancer, and studies have ...

  17. Investigations of the radiation exposure of the head during computerized axial tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various head phantoms and patients were used to measure, by means of thermoluminescence and film dosimetry, the radiation exposure of the head, especially of the eye lenses, in computerized axial tomography with the EMI scanner. The form of the isodoses and the dependence on position of the exposure dose in the region of the eyes were confirmed by calculations with a computer program. (orig.)

  18. Sports injuries, drowning and exposure to radiation concern Canada Safety Council meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazards associated with surface sports, aquatic sports and exposure to radiation were considered at a meeting of the Canada Safety Council in late 1979. The session on radiation noted that 6 of 20000 radiation workers wearing dosimeters were exposed to a dose in excess of 5 rem, the annual limit set by the Atomic Energy Control Board. Radiographers were in the job classification receiving the highest doses of ionizing radiation. Concern was expressed for the emission of damaging radiation from broken mercury vapour lamps. Increased regulation rather than training was seen as the most effective solution. (T.I.)

  19. Workers' radiation protection. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiations in France: 2013 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual statistics of occupational exposure to ionising radiation includes all civilian or military activities under authorisation or declaration (i.e. medical and veterinary activities, nuclear industry, defense, non-nuclear industry and research), as well as activities concerned by the enhanced exposure to natural radiation. The number of workers monitored in activities under authorisation or declaration has slightly decreased compared to 2012, with to 352 082 workers in the year 2013 whereas the previous years had been marked by a steady increase in the number of monitored workers. In the same time, the collective dose of workers monitored with passive dosimetry has slightly decreased in 2013. This evolution is however masked by an exceeding of more than 7 Sv of the regulatory limit of dose, which contribution to the total collective dose is almost 11%. The average annual individual dose also slightly increased to 0.19 mSv. Among the 13 892 workers who received more than 1 mSv (legal dose limit for the public), 1 894 workers received more than 6 mSv, which is a little more compared to 2012. Nine workers received more than 20 mSv (dose limit for the workers in the French regulation). Important differences are observed between the occupational activities: in the medical and veterinary field (63% of the monitored workers) and in the research field (4% of the monitored workers) the average doses are less than 0.6 mSv; the average doses in the nuclear field and in the non-nuclear industry (representing together 29% of the monitored workers) are higher, respectively 1.27 and 1.62 mSv. Concerning the monitoring of internal dosimetry, 354 878 examinations have been performed in 2013. The distribution between the different types of examination (42% of radio-toxical analysis of excreta and 58% of body counting) is nearly the same than in the year 2012. In 2013, 18 workers had a committed effective dose higher or equal to 1 mSv, the maximum dose being of 9 mSv. The

  20. Pacific Northwest Laboratory plan to maintain radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the radiation safety program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The practices and administrative policies of this program support the principles of ALARA (to maintain radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable). This document also describes a program to establish safety goals at PNL to help ensure that operations are conducted according to ALARA principles

  1. 75 FR 79033 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Safety and Health Administration Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Radiation... extension of the information collection for Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records, 30 CFR 57.5037 and 57..., mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology,...

  2. Control of occupational radiation exposures in TVA nuclear power plants design and operating philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the Tennessee Valley Authority commitment to nuclear power, a formal program has been initiated for keeping inplant personnel radiation exposures as low as practicable (ALAP). The design and operating philosophy relative to implant radiation control at the Browns Ferry plant is described, and the plans for implementation of ALAP criteria in future plants are discussed

  3. Serum-amylase - a semiquantitative indicator of exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier works by Kashima et al. and Chen et al. have shown that it might be possible to use the radiation induced activity changes in s-amylase as an indicator of exposure to ionizing radiation. It is the aim of our investigations to check and possibly make more precise the results these authors arrived at. (orig.)

  4. Spatial Positioning of RET and H4 Following Radiation Exposure Leads to Tumor Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri E. Nikiforov

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ionizing radiation is a well-known risk factor for a number of human cancers, including leukemia, thyroid cancer, soft tissue sarcomas, and many others. Although it has been known for a long time that radiation exposure to the cell results in extensive DNA damage, including double strand DNA breaks, the exact mechanisms of radiation-induced carcinogenesis remain unknown. Recently, a large increase in incidence of thyroid cancer was observed in children exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl nuclear accident [1]. A high prevalence of chromosomal rearrangements involving the RET gene was found among these radiation-induced thyroid tumors [2,3]. As a result of such rearrangement, a portion of the RET gene is fused with another gene, typically with the H4 or ELE1. However, since the DNA targets of ionizing radiation are randomly distributed throughout the cell nucleus, the reason for predilection for the RET rearrangements in thyroid cells was unclear.

  5. Overview of the Department of Energy's Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project (ORERP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project (ORERP) was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to (1) collect, preserve, and disseminate historical data related to radioactive fallout and health effects from nuclear testing, and (2) reconstruct, insofar as possible, the exposures to the off-site public from nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site and doses to individuals resulting from these exposures. The goals, methods, and example results of the ORERP are presented

  6. Radiation exposures for DOE [Department of Energy] and DOE contractor employees, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the 21st in a series of annual radiation exposure reports published by the Department of Energy (DOE) or its predecessors. This report summarizes the radiation exposures received at DOE and DOE contractor facilities in 1988. Radiation exposures to both employees and visitors are included. Trends in radiation exposures are evaluated by comparing the doses received in 1988 to those received in previous years. The significance of the doses is addressed by comparing them to the DOE limits and by correlating the doses to health risks based on risk estimates from expert groups. This report represents a significant advancement from previous reports because it is the first for which detailed exposure data are available for each individual monitored at a DOE facility. This reports contains information on different types of radiation doses, such as penetrating, shallow, and neutron doses. It also contains analysis of exposures by age, sex, and occupation of the exposed individuals. This report is the first of any federal organization that presents such detailed exposure data. The purpose of this report is to disseminate information regarding radiation exposures received at US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor facilities. The primary purpose of this practice is to ensure that the DOE occupational dose limits are not exceeded and that as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) goals are met. A secondary purpose, however, is to provide information that can be used by other organizations and individuals who wish to collect and analyze such information. This information may be useful for estimating the effect of changing dose limits on operations at DOE facilities, determining the progress of DOE with respect to the ALARA principle, or, in combination with epidemiological information, assisting researchers in determining whether or not low doses of ionizing radiation are harmful. 23 refs., 20 figs., 23 tabs

  7. The Frequency of the Accidental Contamination with Laboratory Samples in Yazd Clinical Laboratories’ personnel in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari, AA. (PhD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: laboratory personnel have always accidental exposure to clinical samples, which can cause the transmission of infection. This threat can be prevented and controlled by education for the use of safety instruments. The purpose was to determine the frequency of accidental exposure to laboratory samples among Yazd laboratory personnel in 2011. Material and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 of Yazd clinical laboratory personnel. The data was collected, using a valid and reliable questioner, via interview and analyzed by means of SPSS software. Results: Eighty-six percent of the subjects reported an experience of accidental exposure to clinical samples, such as blood, serum and urine. The causes were carelessness (41% and work overload (29%. Needle- stick was the most prevalent injury (52% particularly in sampler workers (51% and in their hands (69%. There wasn’t significant relationship between accidental exposure to laboratory samples and the variables such as private and governmental laboratories (p=0.517, kind of employment (p=0.411, record of services (p=0.439 and academic degree (p=0.454. The subjects aged 20-29 (p=0.034 and worked in sampling unit had the highest accidental exposure. Conclusion: based on the results, inexperience of the personnel especially in sampling room, overload at work and ignorance of applying safety instruments are known as the most important reasons for accidental exposure to clinical samples. Keywords: Contamination; accidental Exposure; Infectious agents; laboratory; personnel

  8. Comparison of radiation dose exposure in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention vs. peripheral intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Arif, Salech; Bartus, Stanislaw; Rakowski, Tomasz; Bobrowska, Beata; Rutka, Joanna; Zabowka, Anna; Tokarek, Tomasz; Dudek, Dariusz; Dubiel, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Most endovascular techniques are associated with patient and personal exposure to radiation during the procedure. Ionising radiation can cause deterministic effects, such as skin injury, as well as stochastic effects, which increase the long-term risk of malignancy. Endovascular operators need to be aware of radiation danger and take all necessary steps to minimise the risk to patients and staff. Some procedures, especially percutaneous peripheral artery revascularisation, are as...

  9. Recent controversial cases of health consequences from radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The health effects of ionizing radiation have long been a controversial and emotive topic. Radiation has been associated in the public mind with cancer, hereditary disorders, abnormal births, accident and bombs. This survey reviews the information about three situations that have attracted considerable publicity in the last ten years or so. Two of these situations concern high observed incidences of cancer in groups of people who have been, or might have been, exposed to radiation at levels greater than those to which we are all exposed as the result of the ever-present background of radiation from natural sources. In the third situation, an increased incidence of general ill health in a group of men in the armed forces was suspected but not clearly established. All of these situations have given rise to epidemiological investigations. 70 refs

  10. Dosimetry methods for the estimation of exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiations, by their nature, have required for their detection the use of suitable devices generically referred detecting systems. The detection of secondary particles arising during the processes of ionization and excitation to the passage of radiation in the environment, have constituted the basis of the measurement methods. A detector system is a device that converts the energy of the incident radiation on a signal (electrical, photochemical, etc.) that is easily processable from the technological point of view, but without distorting the original information. These devices have provided qualitative or quantitative information about the radiation of interest. The detector system is a set of a detector together with a processing system. This system has based its operation in methods of: gas ionization, scintillation, semiconductor, film, thermoluminescence, among others. (author)

  11. Personal dosimetry for external radiation exposure in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article summarizes a report on harmonisation and dosimetric quality assurance in individual monitoring for external radiation, published by the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS). The report comprises three parts: (1) procedures and regulations in countries of the European Union and Switzerland with respect to personal dosimetry; (2) a catalogue with descriptions of dosimetry systems in the fore-mentioned countries; and (3) performance testing of dosimetric services in EU Member States and Switzerland. 17 refs

  12. Hazards after prenatal exposure of man to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of the human organism to radiation during the prenatal period is an item of particular importance in the assessment of radiation hazard. Contrary to how such anomalies of development were rated formerly, new studies that were carried through give very exact data on the time sequence of cell-division processes in mice and provide corrected or modified results on prenatal radiation effects: The number of malformations early on in the one-cell stage increases as the dose is increased (X-ray and neutron irradiation). Irradiation later in the preimplantation phase entail the embryo's death; the threshold dose above which this occurs is about 0.2 Gy (X-rays, gamma-radiation, fast electrons). During the main period of organ formation a dose-effect ratio with a threshold dose in the range of 0.05-0.2 Gy is found for mice and rats with manifold macroscopic-anatomical malformations. Observations in men (Hiroshima, Nagasaki) suggest that there must be a threshold dose which induced gross malformations as well as mental retardations. To make radiation protection safe, fetuses should be considered to be more sensitive to radiation inducing leukemia and cancer, and this without a threshold dose. Embryos and fetuses constitute an important group at risk in radiation protection, with high sensitivity to radiation during the entire prenatal development and characteristic patterns of damage on account of development-biological properties. After Chernobyl, epidemiological studies should therefore be regularly carried through in children to be born in the next months. (TRV)

  13. On the exposure to mobile phone radiation in trains

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, J.; Fernandez-Seivane, L.; Hernando, J. M.; Castan, M. B.; Garcia, L; Vazquez, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents theoretical estimates of the Power Density levels which may be reached inside trains. Two possible sources of high levels of radiation are discussed. The first one arises since the walls of the wagons are metallic and therefore bounce back almost all radiation impinging on them. The second is due to the simultaneous emission of a seemingly large number of nearby telephones. The theoretical study presented here shows that Power Densities stay at values below reference leve...

  14. The evaluation of radiation dose by exposure method in digital magnification mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In digital mammography, Exposure factor were automatically chosen using by measurement breast thickness and the density of mammary gland. It may cause a increase glandular dose. The purpose of this study was to investigate optimal image quality in digital magnification mammography to decrease radiation exposure of patient dose. Auto mode gives the best image quality however, AGD showed better image quality. Image quality of manual mode passed phantom test and SNR at 55% mAs of auto mode commonly used in the digital magnification mammography. Also it could reduce AGD. According to result, manual mode may reduce the unnecessary radiation exposure in digital magnification mammography

  15. The evaluation of radiation dose by exposure method in digital magnification mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young [Dankook Univ. Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwa Sun [Ansan Univ., Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    In digital mammography, Exposure factor were automatically chosen using by measurement breast thickness and the density of mammary gland. It may cause a increase glandular dose. The purpose of this study was to investigate optimal image quality in digital magnification mammography to decrease radiation exposure of patient dose. Auto mode gives the best image quality however, AGD showed better image quality. Image quality of manual mode passed phantom test and SNR at 55% mAs of auto mode commonly used in the digital magnification mammography. Also it could reduce AGD. According to result, manual mode may reduce the unnecessary radiation exposure in digital magnification mammography.

  16. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in Switzerland 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systematic monitoring of radioactivity in the environment and food has been going on in Switzerland since the mid 1950s. This report contains a summary of the values measured in 1994, along with the interpretation of the data and the resultant radiation doses for the population. The monitoring programme deals with radioactivity in the atmosphere, precipitation, aquatic systems, grass, foodstuffs and the human body, but also includes natural radiation, doses due to radon inside dwellings, emissions from nuclear power stations and other installations using radionuclides and also miscellaneous radiation sources. With only one exception, the nuclear power plants and other facilities licensed to handle radioactive substances remained within their annual emission limits in 1994, and measurements carried out in the environment revealed no inadmissible immission or dose values. The population's mean annual radiation dose totals 4 mSv. Some 40% of this is due to radon in the home, with extreme values as high as 100 mSr; 30% may be ascribed to natural radiation, roughly 25% to medical applications of ionising radiation, leaving less than 5% ascribable to man-made sources. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  17. Studies on occupational exposure to external radiation at Fukuoka University Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report of the yearly changes of exposure received by workers in radiological occupations at Fukuoka University Hospital from August 1973 to December 1980. The total number of the workers during this period involving diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and the other related fields included 153 physicians, 27 technicians, 29 nurses and 16 assistants. Out of 225 workers, only two angiographers and two involved in intracavitary radiation therapy received more than 500 mrem of the annual exposure dose. The highest dose was 610 mrem. The exposure doses have gradually decreased each year. The exposure of the workers has remarkably decreased to almost negligible since a remote afterloading system was installed for intracavitary radiation therapy. In no worker was any somatic effect of radiation detected in the periodical physical examinations, even in the number of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. (author)

  18. Medical and occupational radiation exposure reported by self-administered questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affirmative response rates for diagnostic, therapeutic, and occupational ionizing radiation exposure were ascertained by surveying Hiroshima and Nagasaki aBCC-JNIH Adult Health Study subjects. Half reported diagnostic exposure since last visiting ABCC; 20%, within 3 months of interview. Rates were higher for A-bomb exposed than those not-in-city; possibly because of a higher disease rate or concern therefore among the A-bomb exposed group and/or A-bomb Survivors Medical Treatment Law handbooks' facilitating more examinations of the exposed. The rates did not differ among the A-bomb exposed groups. The respective Hiroshima and Nagasaki rates were 2.6%, and 1.6% for radiation therapy; and 0.5% and 0.2% for occupational exposure. Neither radiation therapy nor occupational exposure rates differed by A-bomb dose. (auth.)

  19. Rapid assessment of high-dose radiation exposures through scoring of cell-fusion-induced premature chromosome condensation and ring chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamadrid Boada, A I; Romero Aguilera, I; Terzoudi, G I; González Mesa, J E; Pantelias, G; García, O

    2013-09-18

    Analysis of premature chromosome condensation (PCC) mediated by fusion of G0-lymphocytes with mitotic CHO cells in combination with rapid visualization and quantification of rings (PCC-Rf) is proposed as an alternative technique for dose assessment of radiation-exposed individuals. Isolated lymphocytes or whole blood from six individuals were γ-irradiated with 5, 10, 15 and 20Gy at a dose rate of 0.5Gy/min. Following either 8- or 24-h post-exposure incubation of irradiated samples at 37°C, chromosome spreads were prepared by standard PCC cytogenetic procedures. The protocol for PCC fusion proved to be effective at doses as high as 20Gy, enabling the analysis of ring chromosomes and excess PCC fragments. The ring frequencies remained constant during the 8-24-h repair time; the pooled dose relationship between ring frequency (Y) and dose (D) was linear: Y=(0.088±0.005)×D. During the repair time, excess fragments decreased from 0.91 to 0.59 chromatid pieces per Gy, revealing the importance of information about the exact time of exposure for dose assessment on the basis of fragments. Compared with other cytogenetic assays to estimate radiation dose, the PCC-Rf method has the following benefits: a 48-h culture time is not required, allowing a much faster assessment of dose in comparison with conventional scoring of dicentrics and rings in assays for chemically-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC-Rch), and it allows the analysis of heavily irradiated lymphocytes that are delayed or never reach mitosis, thus avoiding the problem of saturation at high doses. In conclusion, the use of the PCC fusion assay in conjunction with scoring of rings in G0-lymphocytes offers a suitable alternative for fast dose estimation following accidental exposure to high radiation doses.

  20. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION EXPOSURE TO INDIVIDUALS IN RUSSIA AND ABROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu Medvedev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a comparative assessment of exposure levels of the staff from selected occupational groups in Russia and the respective doses reported for the personnel in some foreign countries. The comparison of the average doses was performed at on a country level and with respect of the job category: nurse, radiographer, industrial radiographer. The analysis involved some relevant data according to the Integrated State System for Doses Control and Registration, the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, the National Dose Registry of Canada, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection of Germany, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. The system for monitoring and registration of individual doses, and the reasons for higher levels of occupational exposure in Russia are discussed. Some recommendations on improving registration of occupational radiation exposure to individuals in forms of Federal Statistical Observation are given.

  1. QUALITY OF RADIOGRAPHIC IMAGES: LABORATORY EVALUATION OF INTRAORAL FILMS, FILTERS, COLLIMATORS, AND RADIATION EXPOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMBURUS José Roberto

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate density, radiographic contrast and dose of radiation exposure, the author analyzed 80 radiographs containing 640 optical density data of the images of a penetrometer, exposed to the radiation beam with combinations between D and E periapical films, aluminum and copper/aluminum filters, and circular or rectangular collimators. The data obtained were analyzed by ANOVA and allowed the following conclusions: 1 aluminum filtration resulted in improved image contrast; 2 the use of group D film and an aluminum filter produced improved image contrast quality; 3 the rectangular collimator contributed to the production of improved contrast and to the reduction of radiation exposure, but did not affect density; 4 the combination of copper/aluminum filter, E group film and rectangular collimation significantly reduced radiation exposure.

  2. Initiation-promotion model of tumor prevalence in mice from space radiation exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, F A; Wilson, J W

    1995-08-01

    Exposures in space consist of low-level background components from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), occasional intense-energetic solar-particle events, periodic passes through geomagnetic-trapped radiation, and exposure from possible onboard nuclear-propulsion engines. Risk models for astronaut exposure from such diverse components and modalities must be developed to assure adequate protection in future NASA missions. The low-level background exposures (GCR), including relativistic heavy ions (HZE), will be the ultimate limiting factor for astronaut career exposure. We consider herein a two-mutation, initiation-promotion, radiation-carcinogenesis model in mice in which the initiation stage is represented by a linear kinetics model of cellular repair/misrepair, including the track-structure model for heavy ion action cross-sections. The model is validated by comparison with the harderian gland tumor experiments of Alpen et al. for various ion beams. We apply the initiation-promotion model to exposures from galactic cosmic rays, using models of the cosmic-ray environment and heavy ion transport, and consider the effects of the age of the mice prior to and after the exposure and of the length of time in space on predictions of relative risk. Our results indicate that biophysical models of age-dependent radiation hazard will provide a better understanding of GCR risk than models that rely strictly on estimates of the initial slopes of these radiations.

  3. Initiation-promotion model of tumor prevalence in mice from space radiation exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, F A; Wilson, J W

    1995-08-01

    Exposures in space consist of low-level background components from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), occasional intense-energetic solar-particle events, periodic passes through geomagnetic-trapped radiation, and exposure from possible onboard nuclear-propulsion engines. Risk models for astronaut exposure from such diverse components and modalities must be developed to assure adequate protection in future NASA missions. The low-level background exposures (GCR), including relativistic heavy ions (HZE), will be the ultimate limiting factor for astronaut career exposure. We consider herein a two-mutation, initiation-promotion, radiation-carcinogenesis model in mice in which the initiation stage is represented by a linear kinetics model of cellular repair/misrepair, including the track-structure model for heavy ion action cross-sections. The model is validated by comparison with the harderian gland tumor experiments of Alpen et al. for various ion beams. We apply the initiation-promotion model to exposures from galactic cosmic rays, using models of the cosmic-ray environment and heavy ion transport, and consider the effects of the age of the mice prior to and after the exposure and of the length of time in space on predictions of relative risk. Our results indicate that biophysical models of age-dependent radiation hazard will provide a better understanding of GCR risk than models that rely strictly on estimates of the initial slopes of these radiations. PMID:7480628

  4. An Overview of NASA's Risk of Cardiovascular Disease from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Zarana S.; Huff, Janice L.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    The association between high doses of radiation exposure and cardiovascular damage is well established. Patients that have undergone radiotherapy for primary cancers of the head and neck and mediastinal regions have shown increased risk of heart and vascular damage and long-term development of radiation-induced heart disease [1]. In addition, recent meta-analyses of epidemiological data from atomic bomb survivors and nuclear industry workers has also shown that acute and chronic radiation exposures is strongly correlated with an increased risk of circulatory disease at doses above 0.5 Sv [2]. However, these analyses are confounded for lower doses by lifestyle factors, such as drinking, smoking, and obesity. The types of radiation found in the space environment are significantly more damaging than those found on Earth and include galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), solar particle events (SPEs), and trapped protons and electrons. In addition to the low-LET data, only a few studies have examined the effects of heavy ion radiation on atherosclerosis, and at lower, space-relevant doses, the association between exposure and cardiovascular pathology is more varied and unclear. Understanding the qualitative differences in biological responses produced by GCR compared to Earth-based radiation is a major focus of space radiation research and is imperative for accurate risk assessment for long duration space missions. Other knowledge gaps for the risk of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease include the existence of a dose threshold, low dose rate effects, and potential synergies with other spaceflight stressors. The Space Radiation Program Element within NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is managing the research and risk mitigation strategies for these knowledge gaps. In this presentation, we will review the evidence and present an overview of the HRP Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation Exposure.

  5. A novel dosimeter for measuring the amount of radiation exposure of surgeons during percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Instadose™

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuruk, Emrah; Gureser, Gokhan; Tuken, Murat; Ertas, Kasim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of Instadose™, a novel dosimeter designed for radiation workers to provide a measurement of the radiation dose at any time from any computer; to determine the amount of radiation exposure during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL); and to evaluate the factors that affect the amount of radiation exposed. Material and methods Two experienced surgeons wore Instadose™ on the outer part of their lead aprons during the PNL procedures performed between December 2013 and July 2014. Patient demographics and stone characteristics were noted. Factors affecting radiation dose were determined. Fluoroscopic screening time was compared with the amount of radiation in order to validate the measurements of Instadose™. Results Overall, 51 patients with a mean age of 43.41 ±18.58 (range 1–75) years were enrolled. Male to female ratio was 35/16. The amount of radiation was greater than 0.01mSv in only 19 (37.25%) cases. Stone location complexity (p = 0.380), dilation type (p = 0.584), stone size (p = 0.565), dilation size (p = 0.891) and access number (p = 0.268) were not associated with increased radiation exposure. Instadose™ measurements were correlated with fluoroscopic screening time (r = 0.519, p = 0.001). Conclusions Instadose™ is a useful tool for the measurement of radiation exposure during PNL. The advantage of measuring the amount of radiation exposure after each PNL operation is that it may aid urologists in taking appropriate precautions to minimize the risk of radiation related complications. PMID:27551558

  6. Assessment of Galactic Cosmic Ray Models and Implications on the Estimation of Radiation Exposure in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrigakshi, A. I.; Matthiä, D.; Berger, T.; Reitz, G.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2012-12-01

    Astronauts are subjected to elevated levels of high-energy ionizing radiation in space which poses a substantial risk to their health. Therefore, the assessment of the radiation exposure for long duration manned spaceflight is essential. This is done by measuring dose using various detector techniques and by performing numerical simulations utilizing radiation transport codes which allow to predict radiation exposure for future missions and for conditions where measurements are not feasible or available. A necessary prerequisite for an accurate estimation of the exposure using the latter approach is a reliable description of the radiation spectra. Accordingly, in order to estimate the exposure from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs), which are one of the major sources of radiation exposure in space, GCR models are required. This work presents an evaluation of GCR models for dosimetry purposes and the effect of applying these models on the estimation of GCR exposure in space outside and inside the Earth's magnetosphere. To achieve this, widely used GCR models - Badhwar-O'Neill2010, Burger-Usoskin, CREME2009 and CREME96, were evaluated by comparing model spectra for light and heavy nuclei with measurements from various high-altitude balloon and space missions over several decades. Additionally a new model, based on the GCR-ISO model, developed at the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) was also investigated. The differences arising in the radiation exposure by applying these models are quantified in terms of absorbed dose and dose equivalent rates that were estimated numerically using the GEANT4 Monte-Carlo framework. During certain epochs in the last decade, there are large discrepancies between the model and the measured spectra. All models exhibit weaknesses in describing the increased GCR flux that was observed in 2009-2010. The differences in the spectra, described by the models, result in considerable differences in the estimated dose quantities.

  7. Terrestrial gamma radiation exposure in Bangka-Belitung islands, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangka-Belitung is known as tin producer and it geologically contains higher concentrations of natural radionuclides than most other areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of terrestrial gamma radiation in Bangka-Belitung Islands. The external gamma radiation dose rate from terrestrial gamma-rays have been measured at one meter above the ground by means of a portable gamma spectrometer at 66 survey points. The terrestrial gamma dose rates in Bangka island range from 43.67 to 511.54 nGy h-1 with a mean of 183.45 nGy h-1, while in Belitung island they range from 15.54 to 416.39 nGy h-1 with a mean of 132.60 nGy h-1. From this work, a strong correlation was found between dose rates found from in-situ radiation measurements and dose rates calculated theoretically from radioactivity contents of the soil at the same locations. Generally, Bangka-Belitung islands have higher outdoor natural gamma dose rates than the world average value of 0.058 μGy h-1 for the regions with normal background radiation specified by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). (author)

  8. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in Switzerland 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systematic monitoring of radioactivity in the environment and food has been going on in Switzerland since the mid 1950s. This report contains a summary of the values measured in 1993, along with the interpretation of the data and the resultant radiation dose for the population. The monitoring programme deals with radioactivity in the atmosphere, precipitation, aquatic systems, grass, foodstuffs and the human body, but also includes natural radiation, doses due to radon inside dwellings, emissions from nuclear power stations and other radiation sources. With two exceptions, the nuclear power plants and other facilities licensed to handle radioactive substances remained within their annual release limits in 1993, and measurements carried out in the environment revealed no inadmissible radioactivity concentrations or dose values. The population's mean annual radiation dose totals 4 mSv. Some 40% of this is due to radon in the home, with a mean of 1.6 mSv and extreme values as high as around 100 mSv; 30% or 1.2 mSv, may be ascribed to natural radiation, leaving less then 0.2 mSv ascribable to man-made sources, excluding medical applications. (author) figs., tabs

  9. Reduction of radiation exposure in catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: Lesson learned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roberto; De; Ponti

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades, the concern for the radiation injury hazard to the patients and the professional staff has increased in the medical community. Since there is no magnitude of radiation exposure that is known to be completely safe, the use of ionizing radiation during medical diagnostic or interventional procedures should be as low as reasonably achievable(ALARA principle). Nevertheless, in cardiovascular medicine, radiation exposure for coronary percutaneous interventions or catheter ablation of cardiac arrhythmias may be high: for ablation of a complex arrhythmia, such as atrial fibrillation, the mean dose can be > 15 m Sv and in some cases > 50 m Sv. In interventional electrophysiology, although fluoroscopy has been widely used since the beginning to navigate catheters in the heart and the vessels and to monitor their position, the procedure is not based on fluoroscopic imaging. Therefore, nonfluoroscopic three-dimensional systems can be used to navigate electrophysiology catheters in the heart with no or minimal use of fluoroscopy. Although zerofluoroscopy procedures are feasible in limited series, there may be difficulties in using no fluoroscopy on a routine basis. Currently, a significant reduction in radiation exposure towards near zero-fluoroscopy procedures seems a simpler task to achieve, especially in ablation of complex arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation. The data reported in the literature suggest the following three considerations. First, the use of the non-fluoroscopic systems is associated with a consistent reduction in radiation exposure in multiple centers: the more sophisticated and reliable this technology is, the higher the reduction in radiation exposure. Second, the use of these systems does not automatically lead to reduction of radiation exposure, but an optimized workflow should be developed and adopted for a safe non-fluoroscopic navigation of catheters. Third, at any level of expertise, there is a specific learning curve for

  10. External and internal exposure to natural radiations inside ancient Egyptian tombs in Saqqara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some ancient Egyptian tombs in Saqqara are closed for visit to undergo fixation processes. The workers inside these tombs exposed to natural radiations from natural Gamma emitters (external exposure) and inhale unknown radon doses (internal exposure) for long periods. The external exposure in all studied tombs is lower than the maximum recommended action level. The internal exposure in terms of annual effective dose in the south tomb is equal to 28.83mSv/year which highly exceed the recommended level (3-10mSv/year). In this tomb, the external exposure is equal to 21.43μSv/year. This reflects the hazards of radon over the other natural radiations in the closed area. Among the workers inside the studied tombs, the expected morality is equal to 0.0033%, 0.0199% and 0.0724% for the south entrance of Zoser pyramid, the Serapeum tomb, and the south tomb respectively. ctively

  11. External and internal exposure to natural radiations inside ancient Egyptian tombs in Saqqara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abo-Elmagd, M. [National Institute for Standard, Radiation Measurements Department, P.O. Box 136 Giza code no. 12211 (Egypt)]. E-mail: abo_elmgd@hotmail.com; Metwally, S.M. [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, P.O. Box 11566, Cairo (Egypt); Elmongy, S.A. [Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Safety, Cairo (Egypt); Salama, E. [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, P.O. Box 11566, Cairo (Egypt); El-Fiki, S.A. [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, P.O. Box 11566, Cairo (Egypt)

    2006-02-15

    Some ancient Egyptian tombs in Saqqara are closed for visit to undergo fixation processes. The workers inside these tombs exposed to natural radiations from natural Gamma emitters (external exposure) and inhale unknown radon doses (internal exposure) for long periods. The external exposure in all studied tombs is lower than the maximum recommended action level. The internal exposure in terms of annual effective dose in the south tomb is equal to 28.83mSv/year which highly exceed the recommended level (3-10mSv/year). In this tomb, the external exposure is equal to 21.43{mu}Sv/year. This reflects the hazards of radon over the other natural radiations in the closed area. Among the workers inside the studied tombs, the expected morality is equal to 0.0033%, 0.0199% and 0.0724% for the south entrance of Zoser pyramid, the Serapeum tomb, and the south tomb respectively. ctively.

  12. Full Mission Astronaut Radiation Exposure Assessments for Long Duration Lunar Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Anne; Clowdsley, Martha; Qualls, Garry; Blattnig, Steve; Lee, Kerry; Fry, Dan; Stoffle, Nicholas; Simonsen, Lisa; Slaba, Tony; Walker, Steven; Zapp, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Risk to astronauts due to ionizing radiation exposure is a primary concern for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and will drive mission architecture requirements, mission timelines, and operational practices. For short missions, radiation risk is dominated by the possibility of a large Solar Particle Event (SPE). Longer duration missions have both SPE and Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) risks. SPE exposure can contribute significantly toward cancer induction in combination with GCR. As mission duration increases, mitigation strategies must address the combined risks from SPE and GCR exposure. In this paper, full mission exposure assessments were performed for the proposed long duration lunar surface mission scenarios. In order to accomplish these assessments, previously developed radiation shielding models for a proposed lunar habitat and rover were utilized. End-to-End mission exposure assessments were performed by first calculating exposure rates for locations in the habitat, rover, and during Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA). Subsequently, total mission exposures were evaluated for the proposed timelines. Mission exposure results, assessed in terms of effective dose, are presented for the proposed timelines and recommendations are made for improved astronaut shielding and safer operational practices.

  13. Medical radiation exposures for diagnostic radiology in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, K H; Abdullah, B. J. J.; Sivalingam, S.

    1999-01-01

    The medical radiation usage for diagnostic radiology in Malaysia (a Level II country) for 1990-1994 is reported, enabling a comparison to be made for the first time with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation Report. In 1994, the number of physicians, radiologists, x-ray units, and x-ray examinations per 1,000 population was 0.45, 0.005, 0.065, and 183, respectively. (Level I countries had averages of 2.6, 0.072, 0.35, and 860, respectively). In 1994, a tot...

  14. Analysis of university student awareness of radiation exposures from consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Hwan [Korean Advance Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kun Woo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Since the terminology 'radioactive consumer product' is not quite familiar to the public and is often considered as negative and detrimental things, the educational curriculum is essential for establishing reliability of nuclear energy related and for the development of better communication strategy of radiation risk with the public. To provide base data which is valuable for establishing efficient curriculum of education and training about radiation safety, it is necessary to apprehend the different level of awareness of radiation exposures classified by various consumer products. On November 2014, a question investigation about asking awareness level of radiation exposure from various consumer products was done for university students who are highly educated. The object students are studied at a four-year-course universities which is located at Daejeon City. Although the average awareness level is comparatively low, the awareness of senior students, who major in radiation, nuclear related departments and male students are relatively high. On the other hand, the awareness of freshman, sophomore, junior students, who do not major in radiation, nuclear related departments and female students are relatively low. It is necessary to provide various information to avoid unnecessary concerns and misconceptions about radiation exposure. This paper will be an instrument for efficient establishment of curriculum of education and training related with radiation safety.

  15. Workers radiation protection. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiations in France: 2014 results. 2014 results of the occupational exposure to ionizing radiations in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National results of the individual monitoring of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation are reported for all civilian and military activities subject to authorization or declaration (i.e. medical and veterinary activities, nuclear industry, defence, non-nuclear industry and research), as well as for activities concerned by the enhanced exposure to natural radiation. 359 646 workers within activities subject to authorization or declaration were monitored by passive dosimetry in 2014, which represents an increase by 2% compared to 2013. Conversely the collective dose decreased from 68,47 to 56,28 man.Sv. However it must be noted that the collective dose for 2013 included a value exceeding 7 Sv registered on a unique dosimeter, which unlikely corresponds to a real irradiation of the worker wearing this dosimeter. Taking into account this particular event, the average individual dose in 2014 is very close to that in 2013. Furthermore, 13 072 workers received more than 1 mSv (i.e. the legal dose limit for the public), and 2 291 workers received more than 5 mSv. Nine workers received more than 20 mSv (i.e. the dose limit for the workers in the French regulation). Important differences are noticed according to the occupational activities: the average dose in the medical and veterinary field (which represents 63% of the monitored workers) and that in the research field (4% of the monitored workers) are less than 0.4 mSv; the average doses are higher in the nuclear field and in the non-nuclear industry (representing together 30% of the monitored workers), respectively 1.16 and 1.45 mSv. Concerning internal dosimetry, 306 220 individual examinations have been performed in 2014, 48% of which are radio-toxicological analysis of excreta and 52% are direct body countings. In 2014, 5 workers had a committed effective dose greater than or equal to 1 mSv and the maximum dose was 13.3 mSv. Results of aircrew dosimetry are also reported: in 2014, the average individual dose of

  16. International comparison of regulations on abortion after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possible factors to consider when assessing the necessity of an abortion are: 1) Exposure in the highly sensitive phase (e.g. organogenesis); 2) after intake of radioactive substances, accumulation of this radioactive substance in critical organs; 3) doses higher than the dose limit of 1 rem; 4) the wish of the pregnant woman to have an abortion. (orig.)

  17. Accidental gamma dose measurement using commercial glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Pradeep; Vaijapurkar, S G; Senwar, K R; Kumar, D; Bhatnagar, P K

    2008-01-01

    Commercial glasses have been investigated for their application in accidental gamma dose measurement using Thermoluminescent (TL) techniques. Some of the glasses have been found to be sensitive enough that they can be used as TL dating material in radiological accident situation for gamma dosimetry with lower detection limit 1 Gy (the dose significant for the onset of deterministic biological effects). The glasses behave linearly in the dose range 1-25 Gy with measurement uncertainty +/- 10%. The errors in accidental dose measurements using TL technique are estimated to be within +/- 25%. These glasses have shown TL fading in the range of 10-20% in 24 h after irradiation under room conditions; thereafter the fading becomes slower and reaches upto 50% in 15 d. TL fading of gamma-irradiated glasses follows exponential decay pattern, therefore dosimetry even after years is possible. These types of glasses can also be used as lethal dose indicator (3-4 Gy) using TL techniques, which can give valuable inputs to the medical professional for better management of radiation victims. The glasses are easy to use and do not require lengthy sample preparation before reading as in case of other building materials. TL measurement on glasses may give immediate estimation of the doses, which can help in medical triage of the radiation-exposed public. PMID:18285317

  18. Natural Sources of Radiation Exposure and the Teaching of Radioecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, R. M.; Veiga, R.; Carvalho, C.; Sanches, N.; Estellita, L.; Zanuto, P.; Queiroz, E.; Macario, K.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed an experimental activity that introduces concepts of the natural ionizing radiation and its interaction with our contemporary environment that can be used with students from secondary to college level. The experiment is based on the use of traditional and cheap portable Geiger-Muller detectors as survey meters for "in situ"…

  19. Molecular targets for radioprotection by low dose radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaptive response is a reduced effect from a higher challenging dose of a stressor after a smaller inducing dose had been applied a few hrs earlier. Radiation induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) cells did not show such an adaptive response, i.e. a reduced effect from a higher challenging dose (2 Gy) of a radiation after a priming dose (1 cGy) had been applied 4 or 7 hrs earlier, but its thermoresistant clone (TR) did. Since inducible HSP70 and HSP25 expressions were different between these two cell lines, the role of inducible HSP70 and HSP25 in adaptive response was examined. When inducible hsp70 or hsp25 genes were transfected to RIF cells, radioresistance in clonogenic survival and reduction of apoptosis was detected. The adaptive response was also acquired in these two cell lines, and inducible hsp70 transfectant showed more pronounced adaptive response than hsp25 transfectant. From these results, inducible HSP70 and HSP25 are at least partly responsible for the induction of adaptive response in these cells. Moreover, when inducible HSP70 or HSP25 genes were transfected to RIF cells, coregulation of each gene was detected and heat shock factor (HSF) was found to be responsible for these phenomena. In continuation of our earlier study on the involvement of heat shock protein (HSP) 25 and HSP70 in the induction of adaptive response, we have now examined the involvement of these proteins in the induction of the adaptive response, using an animal model system. C57BL6 mice were irradiated with 5 cGy of gamma radiation 3 times for a week (total of 15cGy) and a high challenge dose (6Gy) was given on the day following the last low dose irradiation. Survival rate of the low dose pre-irradiated mice was increased to 30%. Moreover, high dose-mediated induction of apoptosis was also reduced by low dose pre-irradiation. To elucidate any link existing between HSP and induction of the adaptive response, reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was performed

  20. Dynamic evaluation of environmental impact due to tritium accidental release from the fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of the key safety issues of fusion reactors, tritium environmental impact of fusion accidents has attracted great attention. In this work, the dynamic tritium concentrations in the air and human body were evaluated on the time scale based on accidental release scenarios under the extreme environmental conditions. The radiation dose through various exposure pathways was assessed to find out the potential relationships among them. Based on this work, the limits of HT and HTO release amount for arbitrary accidents were proposed for the fusion reactor according to dose limit of ITER. The dynamic results aim to give practical guidance for establishment of fusion emergency standard and design of fusion tritium system. - Highlights: • Dynamic tritium concentration in the air and human body evaluated on the time scale. • Different intake forms and relevant radiation dose assessed to find out the potential relationships. • HT and HTO release amount limits for arbitrary accidents proposed for the fusion reactor according to dose limit