WorldWideScience

Sample records for accidental laboratory exposures

  1. Triage and management of accidental laboratory exposures to biosafety level-3 and -4 agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahrling, Peter; Rodak, Colleen; Bray, Mike; Davey, Richard T

    2009-06-01

    The recent expansion of biocontainment laboratory capacity in the United States has drawn attention to the possibility of occupational exposures to BSL-3 and -4 agents and has prompted a reassessment of medical management procedures and facilities to deal with these contingencies. A workshop hosted by the National Interagency Biodefense Campus was held in October 2007 and was attended by representatives of all existing and planned BSL-4 research facilities in the U.S. and Canada. This report summarizes important points of discussion and recommendations for future coordinated action, including guidelines for the engineering and operational controls appropriate for a hospital care and isolation unit. Recommendations pertained to initial management of exposures (ie, immediate treatment of penetrating injuries, reporting of exposures, initial evaluation, and triage). Isolation and medical care in a referral hospital (including minimum standards for isolation units), staff recruitment and training, and community outreach also were addressed. Workshop participants agreed that any unit designated for the isolation and treatment of laboratory employees accidentally infected with a BSL-3 or -4 pathogen should be designed to maximize the efficacy of patient care while minimizing the risk of transmission of infection. Further, participants concurred that there is no medically based rationale for building care and isolation units to standards approximating a BSL-4 laboratory. Instead, laboratory workers accidentally exposed to pathogens should be cared for in hospital isolation suites staffed by highly trained professionals following strict infection control procedures.

  2. Management of accidental exposure to Ebola virus in the biosafety level 4 laboratory, Hamburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Stephan; Feldmann, Heinz; Geisbert, Thomas W; Hensley, Lisa E; Rollin, Pierre E; Nichol, Stuart T; Ströher, Ute; Artsob, Harvey; Peters, Clarence J; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Becker, Stephan; ter Meulen, Jan; Olschläger, Stephan; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Sudeck, Hinrich; Burchard, Gerd D; Schmiedel, Stefan

    2011-11-01

    A needlestick injury occurred during an animal experiment in the biosafety level 4 laboratory in Hamburg, Germany, in March 2009. The syringe contained Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) mixed with Freund's adjuvant. Neither an approved treatment nor a postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) exists for Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Following a risk-benefit assessment, it was recommended the exposed person take an experimental vaccine that had shown PEP efficacy in ZEBOV-infected nonhuman primates (NHPs) [12]. The vaccine, which had not been used previously in humans, was a live-attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (recVSV) expressing the glycoprotein of ZEBOV. A single dose of 5 × 10(7) plaque-forming units was injected 48 hours after the accident. The vaccinee developed fever 12 hours later and recVSV viremia was detectable by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for 2 days. Otherwise, the person remained healthy, and ZEBOV RNA, except for the glycoprotein gene expressed in the vaccine, was never detected in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells during the 3-week observation period. PMID:21987751

  3. The Frequency of the Accidental Contamination with Laboratory Samples in Yazd Clinical Laboratories’ personnel in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari, AA. (PhD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: laboratory personnel have always accidental exposure to clinical samples, which can cause the transmission of infection. This threat can be prevented and controlled by education for the use of safety instruments. The purpose was to determine the frequency of accidental exposure to laboratory samples among Yazd laboratory personnel in 2011. Material and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 of Yazd clinical laboratory personnel. The data was collected, using a valid and reliable questioner, via interview and analyzed by means of SPSS software. Results: Eighty-six percent of the subjects reported an experience of accidental exposure to clinical samples, such as blood, serum and urine. The causes were carelessness (41% and work overload (29%. Needle- stick was the most prevalent injury (52% particularly in sampler workers (51% and in their hands (69%. There wasn’t significant relationship between accidental exposure to laboratory samples and the variables such as private and governmental laboratories (p=0.517, kind of employment (p=0.411, record of services (p=0.439 and academic degree (p=0.454. The subjects aged 20-29 (p=0.034 and worked in sampling unit had the highest accidental exposure. Conclusion: based on the results, inexperience of the personnel especially in sampling room, overload at work and ignorance of applying safety instruments are known as the most important reasons for accidental exposure to clinical samples. Keywords: Contamination; accidental Exposure; Infectious agents; laboratory; personnel

  4. Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

    2012-07-01

    Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ≥100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies.

  5. Quality control for handling of accidental blood exposures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, P.T. van; Pelk-Jongen, M.; Wijkmans, C.; Voss, A.; Schneeberger, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    A regional counselling service was established to handle all accidental blood exposures using a standardized protocol. Levels of risk were assessed using an algorithm. Accidents that posed a risk for the transmission of hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were

  6. The accidental exposure to ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is divided in three parts, the first one gives the radioactivity sources, the doses and the effects, the second part is devoted to the medical exposures, the third part concerns the accidents and the biological effects of an irradiation the different syndromes ( the acute whole-body irradiation syndrome, the localized irradiation syndrome, the inflammatory syndrome, hematopoietic syndrome,neuro-vascular syndrome) are detailed. (N.C.)

  7. Food allergy: practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life. PMID:27608473

  8. Food allergy: practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life.

  9. Accidental over-exposure from dental X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of an unusual dental X-ray procedure which resulted in accidental over-exposure both to the dentist and to several of his patients when a short-circuit was present in newly-installed equipment. The short-circuit by-passed the exposure control and energized the tube for certain orientations of the X-ray tube. The dentist left the patients, who wore protective aprons, to initiate the exposure themselves, using the control button. Although the warning lights were on, the dentist was not present in the room during the exposure, and the over-exposures were only detected when the developed X-ray films were found to be completely blackened. A reconstruction of the procedure enabled estimates to be made of the dose equivalents to the dentist's body and to the skin of the head, the eyes and the gonads of the patients. The dentist had overlooked several of basic principles recommended in the Code of Practice for the Protection of Persons against Ionizing Radiations from Medical and Dental Use (1972). It is pointed out that incidents involving failure of dental equipment (usually the timer mechanism) are not infrequent. (U.K.)

  10. Nodular goiter after occupational accidental exposure to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarev, M.A. [Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Human Biochemistry, Uninversity of Buenos Aires, School of Medicine, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Schnitman, M. [Center of Endocrinology and Metabolism, French Hospital C.Milstein, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-07-01

    In the present paper we present the consequences of an accidental occupational radiation exposure at a local hospital in Buenos Aires. Control at a local radiology service showed the lack of correct shielding in the X-ray equipment. The physicians and technicians (14 persons) exposed to radiation during 12 months were examined. The survey shows that: a) In 11 out of 14 radiation-exposed patients nodular goiter developed and an additional patient had diffuse goiter which means a goiter incidence of 85.7%; b) In 5 of the nodular goiter patients an increase in the size or the appearance of new nodules was observed along the follow-up period. No cancer was detected by FNA; c) Hypothyroidism was observed in 3/14 patients, and an additional patient had an abnormal TRH-TSH test, suggesting subclinical hypothyroidism; and d) Increased circulating antithyroid antibodies were found in one of the hypothyroid patients

  11. Accidental blood exposures among medical residents in Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, O; Adam, J; Veyrie, N; Chousterman, B; Gaillard, R; Gregory, T; Yordanov, Y; Berveiller, P; Loulergue, P

    2011-03-01

    Accidental blood exposure (ABE) exposes healthcare workers, including medical residents, to the risk of occupational infection. We aimed to determine the characteristics of ABEs in residents with an anonymous self-reporting electronic questionnaire. A total of 350 residents (33% from surgical disciplines) entered this survey. One hundred and eighty-five residents (52%) reported at least one ABE during their residency (median, 2; range, 1-25), 53% of which occurred in operating theatres. Sixty-nine per cent of residents followed the current procedures for local disinfection. ABEs were notified to the hospital administration by 62% of residents, but only 51% of residents were referred to the occupational medicine department. The most frequently reported concerns following ABEs were human immunodeficiency virus (52%) and hepatitis C virus infection (39%). In 74% of cases, the serological status of the index patient was investigated. Only 54% of residents were aware of their hepatitis B surface antibody titres. Medical residents behaved inappropriately in 33% of cases in this survey. Further educational programmes should include residents, and not only senior healthcare workers, in order to improve individual behaviours.

  12. Clinical study of lesions caused by accidental local exposure to ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last few years the radiopathology service of the Curie Foundation has admitted more than a hundred patients who were followed and treated for irradiation or suspected irradiation after a work accident. Accidents followed by clinical symptoms account for about half the cases examined. Some of these clinical signs were benign whereas others developed very seriously, all possible conditions between these two extremes being represented. This report neglects cases of high total exposure and deals only with those of partial irradiation where local symptoms predominate, usually at the distal extremities of the upper limbs and exceptionally at the root or distal extremity of the lower limbs. Six clinical cases were selected as particularly revealing and are discussed below: accidental exposure of both hands to an iridium-192 source; chronic exposure to X-rays (left hand and right lower half-lip); accidental exposure of the right hand and antero-external face of the right thigh to a iridium-192 source; acute accidental exposure of the left hand to X-rays emitted under 50 kV; accidental exposure of both hands to cobalt-60 radiation; radiolesions of the left lower limb following a critical power excursion (gamma rays and neutrons)

  13. Adverse events in humans associated with accidental exposure to the livestock brucellosis vaccine RB51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, David A; di Pietra, Jennifer; Lingappa, Jairam; Woods, Christopher; Noll, Heather; Neville, Bridget; Weyant, Robbin; Bragg, Sandra L; Spiegel, Richard A; Tappero, Jordan; Perkins, Bradley A

    2004-09-01

    Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine, is an attenuated live bacterial vaccine that was licensed conditionally by the Center for Veterinary Biologics, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA, on 23 February 1996, for vaccination of cattle in the United States. Accidental human inoculations can occur during vaccination of cattle, and previous live Brucella vaccines designed for cattle have been known to cause brucellosis in humans. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established passive surveillance for accidental inoculation with the RB51 vaccine in the United States to determine if this veterinary vaccine is associated with human disease, to describe the circumstances of accidental inoculation, to evaluate the potential efficacy of post-exposure chemoprophylaxis, and to develop recommendations for post-exposure management following exposure to RB51. Reports were received from 26 individuals. Accidental exposure to RB51 occurred by needle stick injury in 21 people (81%), conjunctival spray exposure in four (15%), and spray exposure of an open wound in one (4%) individual. At least one systemic symptom was reported in 19 (73%) people, including three (12%) who reported persistent local reactions with systemic involvement. One case required surgery, and B. abortus strain RB51 was isolated from the wound of that individual. Seven cases reported no adverse event associated with accidental exposure. Nine cases reported previous exposure to Brucella vaccines, including one case who also reported a previous diagnosis of brucellosis following exposure to S19 vaccine. Accidental needle stick injuries and conjunctival or open wound exposures of humans with the RB51 vaccine are associated with both local and systemic adverse events in the United States that are consistent with brucellosis; however, it remains undetermined if strain RB51 vaccine can cause systemic brucellosis in humans. Early culture attempts on those exposed and

  14. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörr Harald

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  15. Evaluation of health effects in Sequoyah Fuels Corporation workers from accidental exposure to uranium hexafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.R. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Swint, M.J.; Kathren, R.L. (Hanford Environmental Health Foundation, Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Urine bioassay measurements for uranium and medical laboratory results were studied to determine whether there were any health effects from uranium intake among a group of 31 workers exposed to uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and hydrolysis products following the accidental rupture of a 14-ton shipping cylinder in early 1986 at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation uranium conversion facility in Gore, Oklahoma. Physiological indicators studied to detect kidney tissue damage included tests for urinary protein, casts and cells, blood, specific gravity, and urine pH, blood urea nitrogen, and blood creatinine. We concluded after reviewing two years of follow-up medical data that none of the 31 workers sustained any observable health effects from exposure to uranium. The early excretion of uranium in urine showed more rapid systemic uptake of uranium from the lung than is assumed using the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 30 and Publication 54 models. The urinary excretion data from these workers were used to develop an improved systemic recycling model for inhaled soluble uranium. We estimated initial intakes, clearance rates, kidney burdens, and resulting radiation doses to lungs, kidneys, and bone surfaces. 38 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Evaluation of health effects in Sequoyah Fuels Corporation workers from accidental exposure to uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urine bioassay measurements for uranium and medical laboratory results were studied to determine whether there were any health effects from uranium intake among a group of 31 workers exposed to uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and hydrolysis products following the accidental rupture of a 14-ton shipping cylinder in early 1986 at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation uranium conversion facility in Gore, Oklahoma. Physiological indicators studied to detect kidney tissue damage included tests for urinary protein, casts and cells, blood, specific gravity, and urine pH, blood urea nitrogen, and blood creatinine. We concluded after reviewing two years of follow-up medical data that none of the 31 workers sustained any observable health effects from exposure to uranium. The early excretion of uranium in urine showed more rapid systemic uptake of uranium from the lung than is assumed using the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 30 and Publication 54 models. The urinary excretion data from these workers were used to develop an improved systemic recycling model for inhaled soluble uranium. We estimated initial intakes, clearance rates, kidney burdens, and resulting radiation doses to lungs, kidneys, and bone surfaces. 38 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  17. Use of ubiquitous materials for the estimation of accidental exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incidents involving unexpected radiation exposure do take place due to human error, equipment failure or other reasons in spite of regulatory systems being in place. Medical physicists who are also radiation safety officers (RSO) of their institutions in several countries, like India, have the responsibility of radiation protection of the staff, carers and comforters of the patients, visitors and public at large, apart from ensuring patient-specific treatment planning for accurate dose delivery, adoption of optimized practices, and minimization of chances of radiation accidents in radiation therapy, radio-diagnostic, and nuclear medicine practices. Theft and mishandling of 137Cs teletherapy source in 1987 in Goiania (Brazil) in which 28 people suffered radiation burns and five people (three men, one woman, and one child) died and several other incidents demonstrated that mishandling of a source from a place like hospital cannot be ruled out. In the recent times, especially after terrorist attack on World Trade Center, New York, USA (on September 11, 2001), apprehensions of radiation terrorism and other malevolent uses (Dirty Bomb) of radioactive materials have considerably increased all over the world. To meet the situation of any radiation accident (due to external sources or the hospital-based sources), preparedness for dosimetry of the exposed persons in the quickest possible way becomes important for the implementation of the necessary follow-up procedures

  18. Orofacial manifestations from accidental exposure to caesium 137 in Goiania, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, M A; Wascheck, C de C; Scully, C; Almeida, O de P; Bozzo, L

    1990-08-01

    The accidental close exposure of over 200 adults and children to a caesium-137 (137Cs) source in Goiania, Brazil in 1987 produced significant short-term morbidity in about 50 patients, and four deaths within a few weeks. Some 57% of those maximally exposed to radiation, developed orofacial lesions, notably purpura, spontaneous bleeding, ulcers and/or acute candidiasis. These lesions were probably mainly the consequences of depression of bone marrow elements by the radionuclide. Though the oral lesions that may follow iatrogenic exposure to ionizing radiation are well recognized this appears to be the first report on the oral sequelae of a serious radiation accident.

  19. Retinal photoreceptor focal disruption secondary to accidental Nd:YAG laser exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Paolo; Pierro, Luisa; Pece, Alfredo; Marino, Valerio; Scialdone, Antonio

    2011-10-01

    Retinal injuries caused by accidental laser exposure include retinal or vitreous hemorrhages, macular holes and edema. We describe the imaging of a bilateral macular lesion secondary to accidental Nd:YAG laser exposure. Observational case report. We performed color photography, fluorescein angiography and autofluorescence (AF) with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope, as well as time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). After accidental exposure to a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser, a patient experienced blurred vision in the left eye (LE) with visual acuity of 20/60. Color, fluorescein angiography and OCT imaging showed a retinal hemorrhage in the foveal area of the left eye and in the inferomacular region of the asymptomatic right eye. Steroid therapy was then administered, and 5 days later there was rapid improvement with progressive re-absorption of the hemorrhages and functional recovery. At 6 month follow-up, visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes with unremarkable biomicroscopy, except for focal foveal retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy in the LE. In comparison to previous hemorrhages, OCT could visualize focal disruption of the photoreceptor IS/OS junction in both eyes. Due to different macular pigment distribution and lesion localization, 787 nm near-infrared AF depicted a small hypofluorescent spot in both eyes, whilst at 488 nm AF a black spot became evident in the right eye only. Despite the re-absorption of foveal hemorrhage and the functional recovery, AF and OCT imaging highlighted the persistence of small focal disruptions of the photoreceptor outer segments and RPE. PMID:22002418

  20. Medical documentation, bioanalytical evidence of an accidental human exposure to sulfur mustard and general therapy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinritz, Dirk; Striepling, Enno; Rudolf, Klaus-Dieter; Schröder-Kraft, Claudia; Püschel, Klaus; Hullard-Pulstinger, Andreas; Koller, Marianne; Thiermann, Horst; Gandor, Felix; Gawlik, Michael; John, Harald

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent (CWA) that was first used in World War I and in several military conflicts afterwards. The threat by SM is still present even today due to remaining stockpiles, old and abandoned remainders all over the world as well as to its ease of synthesis. CWA are banned by the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) interdicting their development, production, transport, stockpiling and use and are subjected to controlled destruction. The present case report describes an accidental exposure of three workers that occurred during the destruction of SM. All exposed workers presented a characteristic SM-related clinical picture that started about 4h after exposure with erythema and feeling of tension of the skin at the upper part of the body. Later on, superficial blister and a burning phenomenon of the affected skin areas developed. Similar symptoms occurred in all three patients differing severity. One patient presented sustained skin affections at the gluteal region while another patient came up with affections of the axilla and genital region. Fortunately, full recovery was observed on day 56 after exposure except some little pigmentation changes that were evident even on day 154 in two of the patients. SM-exposure was verified for all three patients using bioanalytical GC MS and LC MS/MS based methods applied to urine and plasma. Urinary biotransformation products of the β-lyase pathway were detected until 5 days after poisoning whereas albumin-SM adducts could be found until day 29 underlining the beneficial role of adduct detection for post-exposure verification. In addition, we provide general recommendations for management and therapy in case of SM poisoning.

  1. Medical documentation, bioanalytical evidence of an accidental human exposure to sulfur mustard and general therapy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinritz, Dirk; Striepling, Enno; Rudolf, Klaus-Dieter; Schröder-Kraft, Claudia; Püschel, Klaus; Hullard-Pulstinger, Andreas; Koller, Marianne; Thiermann, Horst; Gandor, Felix; Gawlik, Michael; John, Harald

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent (CWA) that was first used in World War I and in several military conflicts afterwards. The threat by SM is still present even today due to remaining stockpiles, old and abandoned remainders all over the world as well as to its ease of synthesis. CWA are banned by the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) interdicting their development, production, transport, stockpiling and use and are subjected to controlled destruction. The present case report describes an accidental exposure of three workers that occurred during the destruction of SM. All exposed workers presented a characteristic SM-related clinical picture that started about 4h after exposure with erythema and feeling of tension of the skin at the upper part of the body. Later on, superficial blister and a burning phenomenon of the affected skin areas developed. Similar symptoms occurred in all three patients differing severity. One patient presented sustained skin affections at the gluteal region while another patient came up with affections of the axilla and genital region. Fortunately, full recovery was observed on day 56 after exposure except some little pigmentation changes that were evident even on day 154 in two of the patients. SM-exposure was verified for all three patients using bioanalytical GC MS and LC MS/MS based methods applied to urine and plasma. Urinary biotransformation products of the β-lyase pathway were detected until 5 days after poisoning whereas albumin-SM adducts could be found until day 29 underlining the beneficial role of adduct detection for post-exposure verification. In addition, we provide general recommendations for management and therapy in case of SM poisoning. PMID:26321678

  2. Laboratory exposure to Brucella melitensis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, A; Kronborg, G; Knudsen, Inge Jenny Dahl;

    2013-01-01

    Brucella species are a frequent cause of laboratory-acquired infections. This report describes the handling of a laboratory exposure of 17 laboratory staff members exposed to Brucella melitensis in a large microbiology laboratory in a brucella-non-endemic area. We followed the US Centers...

  3. Ferrofluid-associated Cutaneous Dyschromia: Discoloration of Hand and Fingers Following Accidental Exposure to Ferromagnetic Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Philip R; Arfa, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ferrofluid is a colloidal suspension that usually consists of surfactant-coated nanoparticles of magnetite (Fe3O4) in a carrier liquid. Ferromagnetic fluid forms spikes when the liquid is exposed to a magnetic field. Purpose: The authors describe a man who developed temporary discoloration of his right palm and fingers after accidental cutaneous contact with ferrofluid and discuss some of the current and potential applications of this unique liquid. Methods: A 28-year-old man was ...

  4. Electron paramagnetic resonance technique for radiation dosimetry: emerging trends for laboratory and accidental dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applications of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) for radiation dosimetry are briefly reviewed. In particular, EPR-alanine dosimetry and accidental dosimetry using EPR signals from human tooth enamel have been discussed. The alanine dosimetry was found to be useful from low doses such as 1 Gy to high doses such as 100 kGy. The signals from tooth enamel are found to be invaluable in assessing the absorbed dose of people exposed to radiation accidents and also survivors of atomic bomb explosions. New emerging trends using EPR signals from bones exposed to radiation have also been briefly reviewed. (author)

  5. Chromosome damage and clinical manifestation in a fetus and the mother after accidental 60Co exposure in Xinzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present the clinical effect and chromosome damage sustained by a fetus and the four months pregnant mother in an accidental 60Co exposure in November of 1992 in Xinzhou, Shanxi Province. The mother suffered from a moderate acute radiation sickness with ratardation of fetal development. After delivery, the infant's body length, body weight and head circumference were all lowered by three percentiles compared with the normals. Four months after the exposure, the assay of the mother's peripheral lymphocytes showed a chromosome aberration rate of 36%, while concomitant examination of the baby failed to reveal any chromosome abnormality although the sister chromatid exchange rate was remarkably higher than that of the mother and the normal control

  6. Pneumoconiosis and exposures of dental laboratory technicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred and seventy-eight dental laboratory technicians and 69 non-exposed controls participated in an epidemiological respiratory study. Eight technicians who had a mean of 28 years grinding nonprecious metal alloys were diagnosed as having a simple pneumoconiosis by chest radiograph. Mean values for per cent predicted FVC and FEV1 were reduced among male nonsmoker technicians compared to male nonsmoker controls; after controlling for age, there was also a reduction in spirometry with increasing work-years. An industrial hygiene survey was conducted in 13 laboratories randomly selected from 42 laboratories stratified by size and type of operation in the Salt Lake City, Utah metropolitan area. Personal exposures to beryllium and cobalt exceeded the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) in one laboratory. Occupational exposures in dental laboratories need to be controlled to prevent beryllium-related lung disorders as well as simple pneumoconiosis

  7. Historical Doses To The Public from Routine and Accidental Releases of Tritium - Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1953 - 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S; Raskob, W

    2007-08-15

    Throughout fifty-three years of operations, an estimated 29,300 TBq of tritium have been released to the atmosphere at the Livermore site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; about 75% of this was released accidentally as gaseous tritium in 1965 and 1970. Routine emissions contributed slightly more than 3,700 TBq gaseous tritium and about 2,800 TBq tritiated water vapor to the total. Mean annual doses (with 95% confidence intervals) to the most exposed member of the public were calculated for all years using the same model and the same assumptions. Because time-dependent tritium models require detailed meteorological data that were unavailable for the large releases, ingestion/inhalation dose ratios were derived from experience with UFOTRI. Even with assumptions to assure that doses would not be underestimated, all doses from routine and accidental releases were below the level (3.6 mSv) at which adverse health effects have been documented, and most were below the current regulatory limit of 100 {micro}Sv per year from releases to the atmosphere.

  8. Urban "accidental" wetlands mediate water quality and heat exposure for homeless populations in a desert city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, M.

    2015-12-01

    In urban settings where humans interact in complex ways with ecosystems, there may be hidden or unanticipated benefits (services) or harm (disservices) conferred by the built environment. We examined interactions of a highly vulnerable population, the homeless, with urban waterways and wetlands in the desert city of Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.A. Climate change models project increases in heat, droughts, and extreme floods for the southwestern U.S. These projected changes pose a number of problems for sustainability and quality of future water supply, and the ability of human populations to mitigate heat stress and avoid fatalities. Urban wetlands that are created "accidentally" (by water pooling in abandoned areas of the landscape) have many structural (e.g., soils and hydrology) and functional (e.g., high denitrification) elements that mimic natural, unaltered aquatic systems. Accidental wetland systems in the dry bed of the Salt River, fed by storm and waste water from urban Phoenix, are located within economically depressed sections of the city, and show the potential for pollutant and heat mitigation. We used a mixed-method socio-ecological approach to examine wetland ecosystem functions and the ways in which homeless populations utilize Salt River wetlands for ecosystem services. Interviews and trash surveys indicated that homeless people are accessing and utilizing the wetlands as a source of running water, for sanitary and heat mitigation services, and for recreation and habitation. Environmental monitoring demonstrated that the wetlands can provide a reliable source of running water, nutrient and pathogen removal, heat mitigation, and privacy, but they may also pose a health risk to individuals coming in contact with the water through drinking or bathing. Whether wetlands provided a net benefit vs. harm varied according to site, season, and particular service, and several tradeoffs were identified. For example, heat is highest during the summer storm season

  9. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 5. Accidental Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Over the course of fifty-three years, LLNL had six acute releases of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and one acute release of tritiated water vapor (HTO) that were too large relative to the annual releases to be included as part of the annual releases from normal operations detailed in Parts 3 and 4 of the Tritium Dose Reconstruction (TDR). Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) had one such release of HT and one of HTO. Doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for these accidents have been modeled using an equation derived from the time-dependent tritium model, UFOTRI, and parameter values based on expert judgment. All of these acute releases are described in this report. Doses that could not have been exceeded from the large HT releases of 1965 and 1970 were calculated to be 43 {micro}Sv (4.3 mrem) and 120 {micro}Sv (12 mrem) to an adult, respectively. Two published sets of dose predictions for the accidental HT release in 1970 are compared with the dose predictions of this TDR. The highest predicted dose was for an acute release of HTO in 1954. For this release, the dose that could not have been exceeded was estimated to have been 2 mSv (200 mrem), although, because of the high uncertainty about the predictions, the likely dose may have been as low as 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem) or less. The estimated maximum exposures from the accidental releases were such that no adverse health effects would be expected. Appendix A lists all accidents and large routine puff releases that have occurred at LLNL and SNL/CA between 1953 and 2005. Appendix B describes the processes unique to tritium that must be modeled after an acute release, some of the time-dependent tritium models being used today, and the results of tests of these models.

  10. Automatic exposure system for radioactive source at teaching laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of Compton Scattering experiment, studied by undergraduate students of the Medical Physics course at the Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), takes place in the Medical Physics Teaching Laboratory, belonging to the Gleb Wataghin Physics Institute (IFGW/UNICAMP). The experiment consists of a fixed 137Cs radioactive source, with current activity of 610.5 MBq and a scintillation detector that turns around the center of the system whose function is to detect the scattered photons spectrum by a scatter object (target). The 137Cs source is stored in a lead shield with a collimating window for the gamma radiation emitted with energy of 0.662 MeV. This source is exposed only when an attenuation barrier protecting the collimating window is opened. The process of opening and closing the attenuation barrier may deliver a radiation dose to users when done manually. Considering the stochastic harmful effects of ionizing radiation, the goal of this project was to develop an automatic exposure system of the radioactive source, in order to reduce the radiation dose received during the Compton Scattering experiment. The developed system is micro controlled and performs standard operating routines, responding to emergencies. Furthermore, an electromagnetic lock enables quick closing of the barrier by gravity, in case of interruption of the electrical current circuit. Besides reducing the total dose to lab users, the system adds more security to the routine, since it limits the access to the radioactive source and prevents accidental exposure. (author)

  11. Cross-sectional study on accidental occupational exposures amongst urban slum-based private medical practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha A. Malgaonkar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This cross-sectional, complete enumeration study was conducted in an urban slum to determine the frequency of occupational exposure of private medical practitioners to patient body fluids and the remedial measures adopted following such events and also to examine their high-risk practices, personal protective measures, immunisation and training status in relation to occupational exposures. Methods: After Institutional Ethics Committee approval, private medical practitioners practising for and #8805; 1 year in the locality who gave written informed consent were interviewed in their own clinics using a pre-tested formatted questionnaire. Results: Of the 108 respondents interviewed, the majority were non-allopathic, male practitioners. The speciality-wise and gender-wise differences in training in occupational exposure were not significant (p=0.135. Prior to disposal, 10.18% cut needles while 26.85% disinfected needles with 1% hypochlorite solution (p=0.0001. 50.93% never bent or recapped needles (p=0.0008. Only 19.44% regularly used gloves while examining patients (p=0.0039. 41.66% were completely unimmunised against Hepatitis B (p=0.004, while only one female non-allopathic practitioner (0.92% had taken complete immunisation against tetanus (p<0.05. Of the 7.41% respondents who had history of needle stick injuries, only one female non-allopathic practitioner had reported occupational exposure. Those unaware about the need for post-exposure prophylaxis for occupational exposure and that anti-retroviral therapy was part of post-exposure prophylaxis constituted 87.96% and 95.37%, respectively. Conclusions: Reporting of occupational exposure, complete immunisation against hepatitis B and tetanus and use of personal protection was inadequate. Specialised hands-on training ought to be an integral component of continuing medical education for private medical practitioners. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3708-3713

  12. The accidental exposure to ionizing radiations; L'exposition accidentelle aux rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This article is divided in three parts, the first one gives the radioactivity sources, the doses and the effects, the second part is devoted to the medical exposures, the third part concerns the accidents and the biological effects of an irradiation the different syndromes ( the acute whole-body irradiation syndrome, the localized irradiation syndrome, the inflammatory syndrome, hematopoietic syndrome,neuro-vascular syndrome) are detailed. (N.C.)

  13. Occupational radiation exposures in research laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaccari, S.; Papotti, E. [Parma Univ., Health Physics (Italy); Pedrazzi, G. [Parma Univ., Dept. of Public Health (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Radioactive sources are widely used in many research activities at University centers. In particular, the activities concerning use of sealed form ({sup 57}Co in Moessbauer application) and unsealed form ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 32}P in radioisotope laboratories) are analyzed. The radiological impact of these materials and potential effective doses to researchers and members of the public were evaluated to show compliance with regulatory limits. A review of the procedures performed by researchers and technicians in the research laboratories with the relative dose evaluations is presented in different situations, including normal operations and emergency situations, for example the fire. A study of the possible exposure to radiation by workers, restricted groups of people, and public in general, as well as environmental releases, is presented. (authors)

  14. Application of the Alkaline Comet Assay and the Analysis of Structural Chromosome Aberrations in Assessment of Genetic Damage After Accidental Exposure to Ionising Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Living with the effects of low-level ionising radiation is one of the normal hazards of life. However, the effects of lower doses may not show up for years after exposure and are due to various changes in DNA molecules and chromosomes. Radiation-induced mutations seem to be brought about by the deletion of small pieces of chromosomes during the process of chromosome breakage and repair. Since chromosome damage is most likely to happen in dividing cells, ionising radiation usually cause cancer in those parts of the body where cells are actively dividing. Ionising radiation kills rapidly dividing cells, blood lymphocytes among them. People are exposed to high doses of ionising radiation when radiation accidents occur. The cytogenetical consequences of accidental exposure to gamma-radiation (radiation dose 221 mSv) were investigated by using alkaline Comet assay and the analysis of structural chromosomal aberrations (CA). Blood samples were repeatedly collected during one-year period after the accident. By using the Comet assay immediately after accidental exposure a high level of DNA damage was recorded. Although this level was decreasing over a one-year period, it was still elevated compared to normal values of DNA damage for unexposed persons. Immediately after the accident prevalence of CA (dicentrics, acentrics) over chromatid aberrations was recorded. However, one year afterwards only a few chromatid breaks were recorded. Our results confirmed usefulness of the alkaline Comet assay as a simple and sensitive technique for the biomonitoring of DNA damages, especially in the cases of accidental exposure to ionising radiation. (author)

  15. Description of the SAFRAN Models for Evaluation of Worker Exposure Resulting from Accidental Release of Airborne Radioactive Materials snd User’s Guide. Annex I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the method used in the SAFRAN tool for the calculation of exposure arising from accidental release of airborne radioactive materials. Models can be used for evaluation of occupational exposure to allow comparison with the relevant dose limiting criteria. Presently, four models are available to address different exposure conditions. The first three are ‘no dilution’ model, ‘gradual mixing’ model and ‘complete mixing’ model. The fourth combined ‘gradual mixing / complete mixing’ model is a combination of the two last models and allows the user to run subsequently the ‘gradual mixing and ‘complete mixing’ models. Each of the models are created using Ecolego. Each of the models is described and their practical use is explained

  16. Personnel Dosimetry for Radiation Accidents. Proceedings of a Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidents involving the exposure of persons to high levels of radiation have been few in number and meticulous precautions are taken in an effort to maintain this good record. When, however, such an accident does occur, a timely estimate of the dose received can be of considerable help to the physician in deciding whether a particular person requires medical treatment, and in selecting the most appropriate treatment. Individual dosimetry provides the physical basis for relating the observed effects to those in other accident cases, to other human data, and to data from animal experiments, thus providing an important aid to rational treatment and to the accumulation of a meaningful body of knowledge on the subject. It is most important therefore that, where there is a possibility of receiving high-level exposure, methods of personnel dosimetry should be available that would provide the dosimetric information most useful to the physician. Provision of good personnel dosimetry for accidental high-level exposure is in many cases an essential part of emergency planning because the information provided may influence emergency and rescue operations, and can lead to improved accident preparedness. Accordingly, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization jointly organized the Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation for the discussion of such methods and for a critical review of the procedures adopted in some of the radiation accidents that have already occurred. The meeting was attended by 179 participants from 34 countries and from five other international organizations. The papers presented and the ensuing discussions are published in these Proceedings. It is hoped that the Proceedings will be of help to those concerned with the organization and development of wide-range personnel monitoring systems, and with the interpretation of the results provided

  17. Assessment of risks associated to ionizing radiations: lung cancers after domestic radon exposure and thyroid cancers after accidental exposure to radioactive iodines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to develop a critical analysis of quantitative risk assessment in the field of ionizing radiation and to provide new estimates of attributable risks for particular situations of environmental exposure to ionizing radiation. This work is based on knowledge about dose-response relationships and ionizing radiation exposure of the general population. The work focuses on two different situations that both present an important interest for public health: lung cancer associated with domestic radon exposures (natural situation) and thyroid cancer associated with the Chernobyl accident fallout (accidental situation). The assessment of lung cancer risk associated with domestic radon exposure considers 10 dose-response relationships resulting from miner cohorts and case-control studies in the general population. A critical review of available data on smoking habits has been performed and allowed to consider the interactions between radon and tobacco. The exposure data come from measurements campaigns carried out since the beginning of the 1980 by the Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety and the Health General Directory in France. The French lung cancer mortality data are provided by the I.N.S.E.R.M.. Estimates of the number of attributable cancers are carried out for the whole country, stratified by 8 large regions (Z.E.A.T.) and by 96 departments for the year 1999 allowing to perform a sensibility analysis according to the geographical level of calculation. Uncertainties associated to risk coefficients and exposures have been quantified and it's impact on risk estimates is calculated. The estimated number of deaths attributable to domestic radon exposure ranges from 543 (90% uncertainty interval (U.I.): 75-1,097) to 3,108 (90% U.I.: 2,996-3,221). The corresponding risk fractions range from 2.2% (90% U.I.: 0.3%-4.4%) to 12.4% (90% U.I.: 11.9%-12.8%). The assessment of thyroid cancer risk in the most exposed area of France due to the

  18. Review of medical findings in a Marshallese population twenty-six years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 1954, radioactive debris from a thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll deviated from predicted trajectories and contaminated several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. As a result, 239 native inhabitants of these islands along with 28 American servicemen and 23 Japanese fishermen received variably severe exposures to diverse ionizing radiations. Fallout material consisted largely of mixed fission products with small amounts of neutron-induced radionuclides and minimal amounts of fissionable elements, producing a complex spectrum of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Individuals were exposed to deeply penetrating, whole-body gamma irradiation, to internal radiation emitters assimilated either by inhalation or by ingestion of contaminated water and food, and to direct radiation from material accumulating on body surfaces. That accident initiated a cascade of events, medical, social and political, which continue in varying forms to this day. Most of these have been discussed in the open medical literature and in periodic reports issued by the medical team headquartered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report attempts to summarize some of the principal findings of medical significnce that have been observed during the subsequent 26 years with particular emphasis on the last six years

  19. Review of medical findings in a Marshallese population twenty-six years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.; Paglia, D.E.; Larsen, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    In March 1954, radioactive debris from a thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll deviated from predicted trajectories and contaminated several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. As a result, 239 native inhabitants of these islands along with 28 American servicemen and 23 Japanese fishermen received variably severe exposures to diverse ionizing radiations. Fallout material consisted largely of mixed fission products with small amounts of neutron-induced radionuclides and minimal amounts of fissionable elements, producing a complex spectrum of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Individuals were exposed to deeply penetrating, whole-body gamma irradiation, to internal radiation emitters assimilated either by inhalation or by ingestion of contaminated water and food, and to direct radiation from material accumulating on body surfaces. That accident initiated a cascade of events, medical, social and political, which continue in varying forms to this day. Most of these have been discussed in the open medical literature and in periodic reports issued by the medical team headquartered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report attempts to summarize some of the principal findings of medical significnce that have been observed during the subsequent 26 years with particular emphasis on the last six years.

  20. Accidental Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Robert D.; Devin, Lee; Sullivan, Erin E.

    2012-01-01

    Historical accounts of human achievement suggest that accidents can play an important role in innovation. In this paper, we seek to contribute to an understanding of how digital systems might support valuable unpredictability in innovation processes by examining how innovators who obtain value from...... they incorporate accidents into their deliberate processes and arranged surroundings. By comparing makers working in varied conditions, we identify specific factors (e.g., technologies, characteristics of technologies) that appear to support accidental innovation. We show that makers in certain specified...... conditions not only remain open to accident but also intentionally design their processes and surroundings to invite and exploit valuable accidents. Based on these findings, we offer advice for the design of digital systems to support innovation processes that can access valuable unpredictability....

  1. Rapid assessment of accidental exposures (RACE) in environment using ultra-sensitive LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP-N) thermoluminescent detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of this work is to demonstrate a concept and first results of a new system for Rapid Assessment of Accidental Exposures (RACE) which is based on a new generation of ultra sensitive thermoluminescent detectors LiF:Mg, Cu, P. The RACE system is envisaged to be able to monitor environmental radiation doses at a large number of locations within a few days. The RACE will further be able to work as a standard detector system for routine environmental monitoring, but the major innovation is its capability to perform a rapid, short-term (ca. 24-48 hours) in situ dose assessment in case of any type of nuclear accidents, radiocontamination of environment or restoration works. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs

  2. Accidental exposure to biological material in healthcare workers at a university hospital: Evaluation and follow-up of 404 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Eliana Battaggia; Lopes, Marta Heloísa; Yasuda, Maria Aparecida Shikanai

    2005-01-01

    The care and follow-up provided to healthcare workers (HCWs) from a large teaching hospital who were exposed to biological material between 1 August 1998 and 31 January 2002 is described here. After exposure, the HCW is evaluated by a nurse and doctor in an emergency consultation and receives follow-up counselling. The collection of 10 ml of blood sample from each HCW and its source patient, when known, is made for immunoenzymatic testing for HIV, HBV and HCV. Evaluation and follow-up of 404 cases revealed that the exposures were concentrated in only a few areas of the hospital; 83% of the HCWs exposed were seen by a doctor responsible for the prophylaxis up to 3 h after exposure. Blood was involved in 76.7% (309) of the exposures. The patient source of the biological material was known in 80.7% (326) of the exposed individuals studied; 80 (24.5%) sources had serological evidence of infection with 1 or more agents: 16.2% were anti-HCV positive, 3.8% were HAgBs positive and 10.9% were anti-HIV positive. 67% (273) of the study population completed the proposed follow-up. No confirmed seroconversion occurred. In conclusion, the observed adherence to the follow-up was quite low, and measures to improve it must be taken. Surprisingly, no difference in adherence to the follow-up was observed among those exposed HCW at risk, i.e. those with an infected or unknown source patient. Analysis of post-exposure management revealed excess prescription of antiretroviral drugs, vaccine and immunoglobulin. Infection by HCV is the most important risk of concern, in our hospital, in accidents with biological material. PMID:15804666

  3. Rapid assessment of accidental exposures (RACE) with MCP-N (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system is based on a new generation of ultra-sensitive thermoluminescent dosemeters and is able to monitor environmental radiation doses at a large number of locations within few days and to perform rapid (24 - 48 hours) in situ dose assessment in the event of any nuclear or radiation accident. Technical specifications of the instrumentation and procedures of the system are given. The linearity of the detector response for doses within the range of 1 μGy to 1 Gy is better than 2%. All the detectors investigated demonstrated a good stability in long-term exposure. The detectors are fully comparable with active detectors in short-term and daily routine dose rate measurements. (M.D.)

  4. Current radiation exposure of man: a comparison between digital imaging and environmental, workplace and accidental radiation burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray imaging in diagnostic radiology is recognized worldwide as an outstanding tool for the early recognition and prevention of diseases. The reverse side is that radiography contributes essentially to the exposure of the public. Mean effective doses, averaged over patients and non-patients, are reaching or exceeding the level of natural radiation. This is particularly the case when digital imaging techniques are utilized, such as CT, coronary angiography and interventional radiology. Individual effective doses for a patient may occur between several mSv and several hundred mSv by one examination or a series of examinations, while individual organ doses of a patient may reach equivalent doses even up to several Sv, such as for the skin. The purpose of this review is to provide information on effective dose levels occurring in diagnostic radiology as compared with individual effective doses achieved from environmental radiation, radiation at workplaces and after major radiation incidents. (author)

  5. 76 FR 72216 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard; Extension of the Office of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... hazardous chemicals in accordance with the Standard's definitions for ``laboratory use of hazardous chemicals'' and ``laboratory scale.'' The Standard requires that these laboratories maintain worker... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in...

  6. 76 FR 25376 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard; Extension of the Office of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... Laboratories'' (29 CFR 1910.1450; the ``Standard'') applies to laboratories that use hazardous chemicals in accordance with the Standard's definitions for ``laboratory use of hazardous chemicals'' and ``laboratory scale.'' The Standard requires these laboratories to maintain worker exposures at or below...

  7. Radiative accidental matter

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra, D Aristizabal; Wegman, D

    2016-01-01

    Accidental matter models are scenarios where the beyond-the-standard model physics preserves all the standard model accidental and approximate symmetries up to a cutoff scale related with lepton number violation. We study such scenarios assuming that the new physics plays an active role in neutrino mass generation, and show that this unavoidably leads to radiatively induced neutrino masses. We systematically classify all possible models and determine their viability by studying electroweak precision data, big bang nucleosynthesis and electroweak perturbativity, finding that the latter places the most stringent constraints on the mass spectra. These results allow the identification of minimal radiative accidental matter models for which perturbativity is lost at high scales. We calculate radiative charged-lepton flavor violating processes in these setups, and show that $\\mu\\to e \\gamma$ has a rate well within MEG sensitivity provided the lepton-number violating scale is at or below $10^6\\,$ GeV, a value (natur...

  8. Optimizing bone surveys performed for suspected non-accidental trauma with attention to maximizing diagnostic yield while minimizing radiation exposure: utility of pelvic and lateral radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeletal surveys for non-accidental trauma (NAT) include lateral spinal and pelvic views, which have a significant radiation dose. To determine whether pelvic and lateral spinal radiographs should routinely be performed during initial bone surveys for suspected NAT. The radiology database was queried for the period May 2005 to May 2011 using CPT codes for skeletal surveys for suspected NAT. Studies performed for skeletal dysplasia and follow-up surveys were excluded. Initial skeletal surveys were reviewed to identify fractures present, including those identified only on lateral spinal and/or pelvic radiographs. Clinical information and MR imaging was reviewed for the single patient with vertebral compression deformities. Of the 530 children, 223 (42.1%) had rib and extremity fractures suspicious for NAT. No fractures were identified solely on pelvic radiographs. Only one child (<0.2%) had vertebral compression deformities identified on a lateral spinal radiograph. This infant had rib and extremity fractures and was clinically paraplegic. MR imaging confirmed the vertebral body fractures. Since no fractures were identified solely on pelvic radiographs and on lateral spinal radiographs in children without evidence of NAT, nor in nearly all with evidence of NAT, inclusion of these views in the initial evaluation of children for suspected NAT may not be warranted. (orig.)

  9. Radiative accidental matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, D. Aristizabal; Simoes, C.; Wegman, D.

    2016-07-01

    Accidental matter models are scenarios where the beyond-the-standard model physics preserves all the standard model accidental and approximate symmetries up to a cutoff scale related with lepton number violation. We study such scenarios assuming that the new physics plays an active role in neutrino mass generation, and show that this unavoidably leads to radiatively induced neutrino masses. We systematically classify all possible models and determine their viability by studying electroweak precision data, big bang nucleosynthesis and electroweak perturbativity, finding that the latter places the most stringent constraints on the mass spectra. These results allow the identification of minimal radiative accidental matter models for which perturbativity is lost at high scales. We calculate radiative charged-lepton flavor violating processes in these setups, and show that μ → eγ has a rate well within MEG sensitivity provided the lepton-number violating scale is at or below 5×105 GeV, a value (naturally) assured by the radiative suppression mechanism. Sizeable τ → μγ branching fractions within SuperKEKB sensitivity are possible for lower lepton-number breaking scales. We thus point out that these scenarios can be tested not only in direct searches but also in lepton flavor-violating experiments.

  10. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation, January 1983-December 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March 1, 1984, was the 30th anniversary of the Bravo thermonuclear test that resulted in the accidental exposure of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik atolls to radioactive fallout. The chronicling of the medical events resulting from that exposure is continued in this report, which covers the period from January 1983 through December 1984. An updated listing of all relevant publications from the Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, is presented in the Reference Section. Thirty years of observation continue to show no detectable increase in mortality in the exposed population as a result of that exposure. The survival curves of the high-exposure Rongelap group, the low-exposure Utirik population, and an unexposed group of Rongelap people matched by age and sex to the exposed Rongelap group in 1957 continue to be similar. 89 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation, January 1983-December 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, W.H.; Engle, J.R.; Harper, J.A.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    March 1, 1984, was the 30th anniversary of the Bravo thermonuclear test that resulted in the accidental exposure of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik atolls to radioactive fallout. The chronicling of the medical events resulting from that exposure is continued in this report, which covers the period from January 1983 through December 1984. An updated listing of all relevant publications from the Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, is presented in the Reference Section. Thirty years of observation continue to show no detectable increase in mortality in the exposed population as a result of that exposure. The survival curves of the high-exposure Rongelap group, the low-exposure Utirik population, and an unexposed group of Rongelap people matched by age and sex to the exposed Rongelap group in 1957 continue to be similar. 89 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Occupational exposure in Greek industrial radiography laboratories (1996-2003)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 40 industrial radiography laboratories are operating in Greece using X-ray or gamma-ray sources and more than 250 workers occupationally exposed to ionising radiation in these facilities are monitored on a regular basis. This study presents the evolution of individual doses received by radiographers during the past years. The mean annual dose (MAD) of all workers as well as of exposed workers is estimated, and correlated to the types of laboratories and practices applied. The MAD of the exposed workers in industrial radiography is compared with the doses of workers in other specialties and with the doses of radiographers in other countries. Furthermore, the study attempts to propose dose constraints for the practices in industrial radiography, according to the BSS European directive and the relevant Greek radiation protection legislation. The proposed value was defined as the dose below which the annual doses of 75% of the exposed radiographers are expected to be included. (authors)

  13. Flavour from accidental symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, Luca [SISSA/ISAS and INFN, I-34013 Trieste (Italy); King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Romanino, Andrea [SISSA/ISAS and INFN, I-34013 Trieste (Italy)

    2006-11-15

    We consider a new approach to fermion masses and mixings in which no special 'horizontal' dynamics is invoked to account for the hierarchical pattern of charged fermion masses and for the peculiar features of neutrino masses. The hierarchy follows from the vertical, family-independent structure of the model, in particular from the breaking pattern of the Pati-Salam group. The lightness of the first two fermion families can be related to two family symmetries emerging in this context as accidental symmetries.

  14. Toxic exposure to ethylene dibromide and mercuric chloride: effects on laboratory-reared octopuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P M; Hanlon, R T; Forsythe, J W

    1988-01-01

    The effects of acute and chronic exposure to either ethylene dibromide (EDB) or mercuric chloride (MC) were studied in laboratory-reared Octopus joubini, O. maya and O. bimaculoides. The advantages of using octopuses were that the responses were immediate, highly visible and sensitive. All species demonstrated signs of toxicity to acute and chronic exposure to EDB and to MC. A dosage-sensitive relationship for the loss and subsequent recovery of locomotor response and of chromatophore expansion was found for each species after acute exposure. For each species the LC50 for chronic exposure occurred within 12 hr at 100 mg/l for EDB and within 3 hr at 1,000 mg/l for MC. This study demonstrated the potential usefulness of laboratory-reared octopuses in evaluating the toxicity of marine environmental pollutants. PMID:3072470

  15. Exposure of Laboratory Animal Care Workers to Airborne Mouse and Rat Allergens

    OpenAIRE

    Glueck, Joshua T; Huneke, Richard B; Perez, Hernando; Burstyn, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Urine of rats and mice is the main source of allergenic proteins that can enter the respiratory tract of laboratory animal care workers. Little is known about the levels and determinants of these exposures in the United States. We investigated the relationship between activities in animal facilities and levels of personal exposure to allergen by collecting personal breathing zone dust samples from 7 caretakers during full workdays for 1 wk. Mice and rat urinary allergens in inhalable dust wer...

  16. Health care workers and AIDS: a differential study of beliefs and affects associated with accidental exposure to blood Profissionais de saúde e AIDS: um estudo diferencial sobre crenças e afetos associados à experiência de exposição acidental a material biológico potencialmente contaminado

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Rosa Rodrigues Rissi; Alcyone Artioli Machado; Marco Antonio de Castro Figueiredo

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze affective and cognitive determinants of the professional work of individuals caring for patients with HIV/AIDS, in view of the risk and/or experience of accidental exposure to blood. We drew on the theoretical-methodological references of Fishbein & Ajzen and Maslow's theory. Fifty health care workers were evaluated using an attitudes questionnaire and a needs and motivations instrument. The research verified differences between answers by health care workers who h...

  17. Assessment of the Durability of Marble Cladding by Laboratory Exposure compared to Natural Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Leksø, Henrik; Grelk, Bent

    2003-01-01

    Marble exposed to temperature cycles at high relative humidity (RH) under laboratory conditions loose strength similar to loss of strength for the same marble exposed to natural climate. Two marble types from three different building facades in Copenhagen are studied. From each building a marble ...

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory plan to maintain radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the radiation safety program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The practices and administrative policies of this program support the principles of ALARA (to maintain radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable). This document also describes a program to establish safety goals at PNL to help ensure that operations are conducted according to ALARA principles

  19. Experimental Bleaching of a Reef-Building Coral Using a Simplified Recirculating Laboratory Exposure System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determining stressor-response relationships in reef building corals is a critical need for researchers because of global declines in coral reef ecosystems. A simplified recirculating coral exposure system for laboratory testing of a diversity of species and morphologies of reef b...

  20. Radiation exposure rates and radionuclide concentrations in soil around the Argonne National Laboratory-West Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the routine environmental monitoring program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, exposure rates were measured around the Argonne National Laboratory-West Site in 1973, 1976, and 1980, and soil samples were collected in 1978. Elevated exposure rates were measured along the northern and western sides of the EBR-II facility, in a drainage ditch on the west side of the EBR-II facility, around the perimeter of the radioactive scrap and waste facility, and at the southwest corner of the TREAT facility. Exposure rates measured in the 1980 survey were all less than 30 μR/h. Overall results indicated that except for the drainage ditch, the operation of the nuclear facilities for the past 21 years has not produced any general contamination of the soil around the ANL-W Site

  1. Experimental Bleaching of a Reef-Building Coral Using a Simplified Recirculating Laboratory Exposure System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mace G. Barron

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining stressor-response relationships in reef building corals continues to be a critical research need due to global declines in coral reef ecosystems and projected declines for the future. A simplified recirculating coral exposure system was coupled to a solar simulator to allow laboratory testing of a diversity of species and morphologies of reef building corals under ecologically relevant conditions of temperature and solar radiation. Combinations of lamps and attenuating filters allowed for assignment of solar radiation treatments in experimental bleaching studies. Three bleaching experiments were performed using the reef building coral, Pocillopora damicornis, to assess the reproducibility of system performance and coral responses under control and stress conditions. Experiments showed consistent temperature- and solar radiation dependent-changes in pigment, numbers of symbiotic algae, photosystem II quantum yield, and tissue loss during exposure and recovery. The laboratory exposure system is recommended for use in experimental bleaching studies with reef building corals.

  2. Health care workers and AIDS: a differential study of beliefs and affects associated with accidental exposure to blood Profissionais de saúde e AIDS: um estudo diferencial sobre crenças e afetos associados à experiência de exposição acidental a material biológico potencialmente contaminado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosa Rodrigues Rissi

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze affective and cognitive determinants of the professional work of individuals caring for patients with HIV/AIDS, in view of the risk and/or experience of accidental exposure to blood. We drew on the theoretical-methodological references of Fishbein & Ajzen and Maslow's theory. Fifty health care workers were evaluated using an attitudes questionnaire and a needs and motivations instrument. The research verified differences between answers by health care workers who had never suffered accidents and those who had already experienced accidental exposure to blood. Health care workers did their work activities motivated by the need for self-fulfillment and valued their own performance when they were able to meet the patients' emotional needs. Among health professionals who had never experienced accidental exposure to blood, the predominant beliefs was that patients feel remorse over having expose themselves to HIV. Accidental exposure to blood raises difficulties in personal life. Technical aspects are also associated with the possibility of accidental exposure to blood.O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar determinantes afetivos e cognitivos que influenciam o trabalho de profissionais que cuidam de pessoas vivendo com o HIV/ AIDS, frente ao risco ou experiência de exposição acidental a material biológico potencialmente contaminado (MBPC. Utilizou-se o referencial teórico metodológico de Fishbein-Ajzen e a teoria de Maslow, que propõe a hierarquia das necessidades humanas. Cinqüenta profissionais de saúde foram avaliados por meio de escalas de atitudes, e de um instrumento de avaliação de necessidades e motivações. Verificou-se a diferença entre as respostas de profissionais que nunca sofreram acidente e aqueles que já passaram pela experiência de acidente ocupacional. Os resultados indicam que os profissionais exercem suas atividades motivados pela necessidade de auto-realização e valorizam sua performance

  3. Allegheny County Fatal Accidental Overdoses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Fatal accidental overdose incidents in Allegheny County, denoting age, gender, race, drugs present, zip code of incident and zip code of residence. Zip code of...

  4. Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (OOREOS) Satellite: Radiation Exposure in LEO and Supporting Laboratory Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioda, Andrew Lige; Cook, Amanda Marie; Quinn, Richard C.; Elsaesser, Andreas; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Ricca,Alessandra; Jones, Nykola C.; Hoffman, Soren; Ricco,Antonio

    2014-01-01

    We will present the results from the exposure of the metalloporphyrin iron tetraphenylporphyrin chloride (FeTPPCI), anthraufin (C(sub 14)H(sub 8)(O sub 4) (Anth) and Isoviolanthrene (C(sub 34H sub 18) (IVA) to the outher space environment, measured in situ aboard the Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses nanosatellite. The compounds were exposed for a period of 17 months (3700 hours of direct solar exposure) including broad-spectrum solar radiation (approx. 122 nm to the near infrared). The organic films are enclosed in hermetically sealed sample cells that contain one of four astrobiologically relevant microenvironments. Transmission spectra (200-1000 nm) were recorded for each film, at first daily and subsequently every 15 days, along with a solar spectrum and the dark response of the detector array. In addition to analysis via UV-Vis spectroscopy, the laboratory controls were also monitored via infrared and far-UV spectroscopy. The results presented will include the finding that the FeTPPCI and IVA organic films in contact with a humid headspace gas (0.8-2.3%) exhibit faster degradation times, upon irradiation, in comparison with identical films under dry headspaces gases, whereas the Anth thin film exhibited a higher degree of photostability. In the companion laboratory experiments, simulated solar exposure of FeTPI films in contact with either Ar or CO(sub -2):O(sub -2):Ar (10:0.01:1000) headspace gas results in growth of a band in the films infrared spectra at 1961 cm(sup 1). Our assignment of this new spectral feature and the corresponding rational will be presented. The relevance of O/OREOS findings to planetary science, biomarker research, and the photostability of organic materials in astrobiologically relevant environments will also be discussed.

  5. Accidental exposures in radiotherapy: an history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy accidents are exceedingly rare. However, they may have major negative consequences: for health (and sometimes life) of victims as well as for the trust that patients put in radiotherapy and radiation oncolysis. Each accident must be pointed out, analysed and reported, in order to allow preventive actions, avoiding repetitive accidents. Through examples of majors accidents occurred all over the world in the last decades, affecting professionals, public or patients themselves, the necessity of transparency is demonstrated. The International Commission of Radiobiological Protection has drawn positive lessons from such accidents and insists on following recommendations: necessity of sufficient number and competent professionals, importance of continuous and initial education, information of professionals and, in general, a strict Quality Assurance program. It is clear that each radiotherapy center remains at risk for errors. It is essential to develop preventive procedures to avoid transformation of errors into accidents. In that context, complete and detailed description and reports of each anomaly or incident must be encouraged as it is done for sectors of aviation or nuclear industry. Radiation oncology must develop such a culture of transparency and of systematic report of all incident. (authors)

  6. Experimental Bleaching of a Reef-Building Coral Using a Simplified Recirculating Laboratory Exposure System

    OpenAIRE

    Mace G. Barron; Cheryl J. McGill; Lee A. Courtney; Marcovich, Dragoslav T

    2010-01-01

    Determining stressor-response relationships in reef building corals continues to be a critical research need due to global declines in coral reef ecosystems and projected declines for the future. A simplified recirculating coral exposure system was coupled to a solar simulator to allow laboratory testing of a diversity of species and morphologies of reef building corals under ecologically relevant conditions of temperature and solar radiation. Combinations of lamps and attenuating filters al...

  7. Accidental inhalation of mercury vapour: respiratory and toxicologic consequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, D. C.; Todoruk, D. N.; Rajani, H. R.; Cook, D A; Herbert, F. A.

    1983-01-01

    Four adults, including a pregnant woman, and three children were admitted to hospital following accidental exposure to mercury vapour produced by heating mercury-gold amalgam. Initial symptoms and signs included a paroxysmal cough, dyspnea, chest pain, tachypnea, nausea, vomiting, fever and leukocytosis. Pulmonary function testing performed on the second day after exposure revealed air-flow obstruction and minor restrictive defects in three patients. The diffusing capacity of the lung for car...

  8. Steam oxidation of TP 347H FG. Laboratory exposures versus service conditions at the power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Anette N. [DONG Energy A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark); Montgomery, Melanie [DONG Energy A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark); Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Vattenfall Heat Nordic, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2010-07-01

    TP347H FG is often used as final superheater tubing at Danish Power Plants. The oxidation behaviour of TP347H FG in steam was investigated both in laboratory conditions and field conditions. Short time exposures (336 hours) were performed in the laboratory at 500, 600 and 700 C in gasses with 8 or 46% H{sub 2}O and varying oxygen partial pressures. The shortest exposure time at the power plant was 7720 h, the temperature varied between 500 and 650 C. Surprisingly, thicker oxide layers formed within the laboratory facility at 600 and 700 C than during the long time exposures at the power plant. This could not be explained by spallation. Double-layered oxides developed during oxidation. The outer layer consist of Fe-oxides and the inner oxide contained Fe and the remaining alloy elements. Investigations with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the morphology of the inner oxide was different for the two types of exposures. However, investigation using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the inner oxide in both cases consisted of particles of Fe-Mn-Cr spinel embedded in a metallic Fe-Ni matrix in the bulk of the (former) alloy grains and Cr-rich oxide layer along the (former) alloy grain boundaries. The main difference between the layers formed at the two locations is that the Cr-rich oxide layer is thicker for the samples exposed at the power plant than that for the samples exposed at the laboratory conditions. Furthermore, the depth of Cr depletion in the alloy adjacent the oxide layer is greater for the samples exposed at the power plant compared to those exposed in the laboratory. The microstructure investigation suggests that the slower oxidation rate of TP347H FG at the power plant as compared to the laboratory is due to a larger reservoir of Cr for the samples exposed at the power plant probably combined with a higher mobility of Cr within the alloy. (orig.)

  9. Hipotermia accidental secundaria a brote de psoriasis generalizada Accidental hypothermia due to generalized psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Agudo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available La hipotermia accidental es una alteración de la termorregulación corporal, definida como una temperatura central igual o inferior a 35ºC. Según la intensidad se puede clasificar en ligera (35-32,2ºC, moderada (32,2-28ºC y grave (The accidental hypothermia is a disorder of corporal termoregulation, defined as a central temperature below 35ºC. According to the intensity may be classified in mild (35-32.2 ºC, moderate (32.2-28ºC and severe (below 28ºC. The most frequent causes are the exposure to cold, use of depressant drugs of central nervous system and hypoglycemia, although there are other less frequent. We present a case of moderate hypothermia due to generalized psoriasis which required admission in the Intensive Care Unit of Hospital García Orcoyen. The termoregulation, pathogenesis, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of accidental hypothermia are reviewed.

  10. Accidente de Trabajo y Recargo

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Alonso, María Antonia

    2015-01-01

    En la actualidad existen diferentes formas de Accidente de Trabajo. En el presente trabajo se da a conocer las distintas formas y la doctrina de los tribunales. Se aborda el recargo de prestaciones de Seguridad Social y el deber del empresario en cumplir la normativa de Seguridad Social

  11. Accidental degeneracies in string compactification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bais, F.A.; Taormina, A.

    1986-11-27

    The equivalence of the torus and group manifold compactification of strings is established. Accidental degeneracies are shown to occur for a large class of compactifications. This way many examples are obtained in which modular invariance does not uniquely fix the representation content of the spectrum.

  12. Accidental degeneracies in string compactification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bais, F. A.; Taormina, A.

    1986-11-01

    The equivalence of the torus and group manifold compactification of strings is established. Accidental degeneracies are shown to occur for a large class of compactifications. This way many examples are obtained in which modular invariance does not uniquely fix the representation content of the spectrum.

  13. Quality assurance for radon exposure chambers at the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory, Montgomery, Alabama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), operates six radon exposure chambers in its two laboratories, the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama, and the Las Vegas Facility, Las Vegas, Nevada. These radon exposure chambers are used to calibrate and test portable radon measuring instruments, test commercial suppliers of radon measurement services through the Radon Measurement Proficiency Program, and expose passive measurement devices to known radon concentrations as part of a quality assurance plan for federal and state studies measuring indoor radon concentrations. Both laboratories participate in national and international intercomparisons for the measurement of radon and are presently working with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to receive a certificate of traceability for radon measurements. NAREL has developed an estimate of the total error in its calibration of each chamber's continuous monitors as part of an internal quality assurance program. This paper discusses the continuous monitors and their calibration for the three chambers located in Montgomery, Alabama, as well as the results of the authors intercomparisons and total error analysis

  14. Quality assurance for radon exposure chambers at the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory, Montgomery, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semler, M.O.; Sensintaffar, E.L. [National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory, Montgomery, AL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), operates six radon exposure chambers in its two laboratories, the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama, and the Las Vegas Facility, Las Vegas, Nevada. These radon exposure chambers are used to calibrate and test portable radon measuring instruments, test commercial suppliers of radon measurement services through the Radon Measurement Proficiency Program, and expose passive measurement devices to known radon concentrations as part of a quality assurance plan for federal and state studies measuring indoor radon concentrations. Both laboratories participate in national and international intercomparisons for the measurement of radon and are presently working with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to receive a certificate of traceability for radon measurements. NAREL has developed an estimate of the total error in its calibration of each chamber`s continuous monitors as part of an internal quality assurance program. This paper discusses the continuous monitors and their calibration for the three chambers located in Montgomery, Alabama, as well as the results of the authors intercomparisons and total error analysis.

  15. Medical management of accidentally exposed individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow aplasia is one of the main syndromes following a high dose accidental radiation exposure. Whilst transfusion and bone marrow transplantation have been used with some success starting with the first treatments of accident victims, other therapeutic strategies are needed. With the development of experimental and clinical haematology, promising new approaches to the treatment of aplasia have appeared. New trends for the treatment of haemopoietic injury based on bone marrow transplantation rely on new sources of compatible donor cells, such as cord blood, on the selection of immature haemopoietic cells and on new transplant regimens. Haemopoietic growth factors stimulate the proliferation and/or differentiation of haemopoietic progenitors and, possibly, stem cells. Furthermore, they act on the functions of mature cells. Currently, they have specific uses in haematology related to their role in the regulation of growth and in the differentiation of haemopoietic progenitor cells. Growth factors have already been used for the treatment of accidental radiation induced aplasia and lessons have been learned from their medical management and followup. (author)

  16. Establishment of exposure dose assessment laboratory in National Radiation Emergency Medical Center (NREMC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As unclear industry grown, 432 of the nuclear power plants are operating and 52 of NPPs are under construction currently. Increasing use of radiation or radioisotopes in the field of industry, medical purpose and research such as non-destructive examination, computed tomography and x-ray, etc. constantly. With use of nuclear or radiation has incidence possibility for example the Fukushima NPP incident, the Goiania accident and the Chernobyl Nuclear accident. Also the risk of terror by radioactive material such as Radiological Dispersal Device(RDD) etc. In Korea, since the 'Law on protection of nuclear facilities and countermeasure for radioactive preparedness was enacted in 2003, the Korean institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences(KIRAMS) was established for the radiation emergency medical response in radiological disaster due to nuclear accident, radioactive terror and so on. Especially National Radiation Emergency Medical Center(NREMC) has the duty that is protect citizens from nuclear, radiological accidents or radiological terrors through the emergency medical preparedness. The NREMC was established by the 39-article law on physical protection of nuclear material and facilities and measures for radiological emergencies. Dose assessment or contamination survey should be performed which provide the radiological information for medical response. For this reason, the NREMC establish and re-organized dose assessment system based on the existing dose assessment system of the NREMC recently. The exposure dose could be measured by physical and biological method. With these two methods, we can have conservative dose assessment result. Therefore the NREMC established the exposure dose assessment laboratory which was re-organized laboratory space and introduced specialized equipment for dose assessment. This paper will report the establishment and operation of exposure dose assessment laboratory for radiological emergency response and discuss how to enhance

  17. Laboratory Tests for Group and Individual Exposures of Arion lusitanicus Mabille Slugs to Different Molluscicide Baits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Stojnić

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Molluscicide baits based on different active ingredients were tested in a seven-day laboratory trial on juveniles and young adults of Arion lusitanicus Mabille slug collected in ruderal sites during June and July of 2008. Before setting the trial, the slugs were adapted to laboratory conditions. The testing was conducted using a modified version of the method proposed by Godan (1983 and Wiktor (1989. The slugs were kept in arenas under controlled conditions (20-24oC temperature, 80-90% relative air humidity, no air stream, diffuse daylight. Smaller(15.5 x 15.5 x 7 cm and larger (28 x 17.5 x 7 cm arenas were used, depending on slug numbers, and different rates of food and bait were administered. Plastic boxes with perforated coverage, lined with multi-ply paper moistened on a daily basis, were used as arenas. The slugs were fed on fresh salad daily, while baits were administered in open 35 mm petri dishes once for the duration of experiment. The first trial involved single-slug exposures to bait in 20 arenas per each of four treatments with two replicates and a total of 160 slugs. The second trial, group exposure, involved four treatments of five slugs per arena in six replicates with a total of 120 slugs. The products Arion and Pužomor demonstrated the highest efficacy (77.5% in the single-slug trial. The average efficacy of the product Carakol after seven days of exposure was 60.0%. Regarding group exposure, Pužomor pellets achieved 79.3% efficacy after three days and this efficacy rate remained for the rest of the experiment. On the seventh day ofexposure, Arion and Carakol had 33.3% and 40.0% efficacy, respectively.

  18. Research progress in study of accidental hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui YUAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Accidental hypothermia refers to a state of lowering of core body temperature down to 35 ℃induced by drowning, burial in snow and prolonged exposure to cold environment, etc. Hypothermia may affect the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, digestive system, etc. The triad consisting "hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy" is an important factor accelerating the death of patients. Early, timely application of rewarming measures is regarded as the basic principle in treatment of hypothermia. A series of rewarming measures, such as infusion of warm fluids, inspiration of warm air, abdominal infusion of warm fluid, instruction of warm fluid into pleural cavity, intravenous infusion of warm fluid, rewarming through ECMO, etc. have been used recently. Advance in research on the classification of hypothermia, its impact to the body and the treatment methods are reviewed in present paper. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.04.15

  19. Accidental Turbulent Discharge Rate Estimation from Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Eric; Shaffer, Franklin; Savaş, Ömer

    2015-11-01

    A technique to estimate the volumetric discharge rate in accidental oil releases using high speed video streams is described. The essence of the method is similar to PIV processing, however the cross correlation is carried out on the visible features of the efflux, which are usually turbulent, opaque and immiscible. The key step in the process is to perform a pixelwise time filtering on the video stream, in which the parameters are commensurate with the scales of the large eddies. The velocity field extracted from the shell of visible features is then used to construct an approximate velocity profile within the discharge. The technique has been tested on laboratory experiments using both water and oil jets at Re ~105 . The technique is accurate to 20%, which is sufficient for initial responders to deploy adequate resources for containment. The software package requires minimal user input and is intended for deployment on an ROV in the field. Supported by DOI via NETL.

  20. Organizational influence on the occurrence of work accidents involving exposure to biological material La influencia de la organización en la ocurrencia de accidentes de trabajo con exposición a material biológico Influência organizacional na ocorrência de acidentes de trabalho com exposição a material biológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Palucci Marziale

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to analyze work accidents involving exposure to biological materials which took place among personnel working in nursing and to evaluate the influence of the organizational culture on the occurrence of these accidents. METHOD: a retrospective, analytical study, carried out in two stages in a hospital that was part of the Network for the Prevention of Work Accidents. The first stage involved the analysis of the characteristics of the work accidents involving exposure to biological materials as recorded over a seven-year period by the nursing staff in the hospital studied, and registered in the Network databank. The second stage involved the analysis of 122 nursing staff members' perception of the institutional culture, who were allocated to the control group (workers who had not had an accident and the case group (workers who had had an accident. RESULTS: 386 accidents had been recorded: percutaneous lesions occurred in 79% of the cases, needles were the materials involved in 69.7% of the accidents, and in 81.9% of the accident there was contact with blood. Regarding the influence of the organizational culture on the occurrence of accidents, the results obtained through the analysis of the two groups did not demonstrate significant differences between the average scores attributed by the workers in each organizational value or practice category. It is concluded that accidents involving exposure to biological material need to be avoided, however, it was not possible to confirm the influence of organizational values or practices on workers' behavior concerning the occurrence of these accidents.OBJETIVOS: analizar los accidentes de trabajo con exposición a material biológico entre el personal de enfermería y evaluar la influencia de la cultura organizacional en la ocurrencia de accidentes de este tipo. MÉTODO: estudio retrospectivo, analítico, desarrollado en dos etapas en un Hospital de la Red para la Prevención de Accidentes. En

  1. MDI Biological Laboratory Arsenic Summit: Approaches to Limiting Human Exposure to Arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Bruce A; Caldwell, Kathleen; Congdon, Clare Bates; Disney, Jane; Donahue, Maria; Ferguson, Elizabeth; Flemings, Elsie; Golden, Meredith; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Highman, Jay; James, Karen; Kim, Carol; Lantz, R Clark; Marvinney, Robert G; Mayer, Greg; Miller, David; Navas-Acien, Ana; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Postema, Sonia; Rardin, Laurie; Rosen, Barry; SenGupta, Arup; Shaw, Joseph; Stanton, Elizabeth; Susca, Paul

    2015-09-01

    This report is the outcome of the meeting "Environmental and Human Health Consequences of Arsenic" held at the MDI Biological Laboratory in Salisbury Cove, Maine, August 13-15, 2014. Human exposure to arsenic represents a significant health problem worldwide that requires immediate attention according to the World Health Organization (WHO). One billion people are exposed to arsenic in food, and more than 200 million people ingest arsenic via drinking water at concentrations greater than international standards. Although the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a limit of 10 μg/L in public water supplies and the WHO has recommended an upper limit of 10 μg/L, recent studies indicate that these limits are not protective enough. In addition, there are currently few standards for arsenic in food. Those who participated in the Summit support citizens, scientists, policymakers, industry, and educators at the local, state, national, and international levels to (1) establish science-based evidence for setting standards at the local, state, national, and global levels for arsenic in water and food; (2) work with government agencies to set regulations for arsenic in water and food, to establish and strengthen non-regulatory programs, and to strengthen collaboration among government agencies, NGOs, academia, the private sector, industry, and others; (3) develop novel and cost-effective technologies for identification and reduction of exposure to arsenic in water; (4) develop novel and cost-effective approaches to reduce arsenic exposure in juice, rice, and other relevant foods; and (5) develop an Arsenic Education Plan to guide the development of science curricula as well as community outreach and education programs that serve to inform students and consumers about arsenic exposure and engage them in well water testing and development of remediation strategies. PMID:26231509

  2. Adesão a protocolo pós-exposição ocupacional de acidentes entre cirurgiões dentistas Adhesión a protocolo post exposición ocupacional de accidentes entre cirujanos dentistas Compliance with occupational post-exposure protocol for injuries among dental surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima Martins

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a adesão a protocolo pós-exposição ocupacional a acidentes e os fatores relacionados à adesão entre cirurgiões-dentistas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado em Montes Claros, MG, de 2007 a 2008, com cirurgiões-dentistas em atividade clínica com relato de ocorrência de acidentes com instrumentos perfurocortantes no seu exercício profissional. As variáveis referentes à caracterização do dentista, condições de trabalho dos dentistas, caracterização da clientela atendida, características dos acidentes com instrumentos perfurocortantes sofridos pelos dentistas e condutas pós-acidentes foram avaliadas por meio de um questionário estruturado, previamente testado. Os dados foram submetidos à análise descritiva e ao teste qui-quadrado (p OBJETIVO: Analizar la adhesión a protocolo post exposición ocupacional a accidentes y los factores relacionados a la adhesión entre cirujanos dentistas. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal realizado en Montes Claros, Sureste de Brasil, de 2007 a 2008, con cirujanos dentistas en actividad clínica con relato de ocurrencia de accidentes con instrumentos perfurocortantes en el ejercicio profesional. Las variables relacionadas con la caracterización del dentista, condiciones de trabajo de los dentistas, caracterización de la clientela atendida, características de los accidentes con instrumentos perfurocortantes sufridos por los dentistas y conductas post accidentes fueron evaluadas por medio de un cuestionario estructurado, previamente testado. Los datos fueron sometidos al análisis descriptivo y a la prueba de chi-cuadrado (pOBJECTIVE: To analyze the compliance with occupational post-exposure protocol for accidents and factors associated with compliance among dental surgeons. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in the municipality of Montes Claros, Southeastern Brazil, from 2007 to 2008, with accident reports from needles and sharp instruments among practicing

  3. Heat and mass transfers in a concrete wall with composite liner under accidental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billard, Y.; Shekarchi, M.; Debicki, G. E-mail: Gerard.debicki@insa-lyon.fr; Granger, L.; Chauvel, D

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study the behaviour of a concrete wall, covered with a composite liner and exposed to accidental conditions leading to high temperatures and pressures on a face of the material. In the laboratory, two practical levels of accidental situations (beyond design) have been considered. Firstly, the 'SC1' scenario (accidental conditions) consisted of a rise from ambient conditions to a saturation point of 160 deg. C, and a pressure of 0.75 MPa in 12 h, using the maximum increase possible with the apparatus. This rise was then followed by cooling, leading to 0.22 MPa and 120 deg. C in 24 h. These conditions were maintained for several days. Secondly, a 'SC2' scenario (severe accident conditions) consisted of a rise to a saturation point of 173 deg. C and a pressure of 1 MPa, these conditions were maintained for 24 h before cooling. A cylindrical specimen of 1.3 m of thickness was used. Thermocouples, pressure taps and moisture gauges were implemented before concreting. These devices provided local information, and were mostly distributed in the first 0.30 m of the concrete. The concrete composition (high performance concrete) was the same as that used for the construction of the CIVAUX 2 nuclear power station. Typical experimental results for the evolution of temperature, pressure and water content as functions of time are shown for the two test conditions. The concrete attached to the back of the composite dried, and a mass transfer was induced towards colder zones in the centre of the specimen. The liner acted as a heat insulator and the pressure acting on the back of the composite remained lower than that applied on the composite. The residual adhesion of the liner to the concrete was measured. Finally, the overall results allowed the comparison of situations where the wall was lined and unlined, during exposure to SC1 and SC2 conditions.

  4. Accidental haloperidol poisoning in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona P Gajre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Haloperidol, a butyrophenone neuroleptic drug, is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of adult schizophrenia and mania. It is used in children with neurological disorders like chorea and developmental disorders such as hyperactivity. With the advent of newer selective neuroleptics use of haloperidol is now on decline. However, in adults it is still the preferred drug especially in resource challenged settings. Extrapyramidal reactions occur frequently with haloperidol predominantly as parkinsonian symptoms. There are few case reports of accidental haloperidol poisoning in children and this one of them.

  5. Biochemical response of amphipods (Gammarid: Paramorea) in a sediment laboratory exposure from Ushuaia Bay, Beagle Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schvezov, Natasha; Amin, Oscar

    2011-03-01

    A coastal system (Ushuaia Bay, Argentina) impacted by anthropogenic activities was studied by the response of local amphipods (Parmorea sp., Gammaridae) to the exposure of coastal sediments in a laboratory assay. Four coastal areas with different loadings of contaminants and one considered as reference were studied. Organic matter, carbohydrates, proteins and heavy metals were measured in sediment samples. Organisms were exposed to sediments for seven days and catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured afterward. Amphipods exhibited an activation of GST and inhibition of AChE in most impacted areas. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was conducted in order to associate the biological responses with sediment metal concentration and its eutrophicated status. Levels of Cd and Cr were associated with the inhibition of AChE and with the enhancement of GST. CAT and LPO were enhanced in most areas, but no link was found with the contaminants studied by PCA, suggesting that other parameters present in sediments not included in the PCA affect the amphipods. The most impacted area corresponds to Nautical Club station, with a highly eutrophicated status and high content of metals, where amphipods after the exposure were affected in a biochemical level. PMID:21239059

  6. Rock Formation and Cosmic Radiation Exposure Ages in Gale Crater Mudstones from the Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul; Farley, Ken; Malespin, Charles; Gellert, Ralph; Grotzinger, John

    2014-05-01

    The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) in the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) has been utilized to secure abundances of 3He, 21Ne, 36Ar, and 40Ar thermally evolved from the mudstone in the stratified Yellowknife Bay formation in Gale Crater. As reported by Farley et al. [1] these measurements of cosmogenic and radiogenic noble gases together with Cl and K abundances measured by MSL's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer enable a K-Ar rock formation age of 4.21+0.35 Ga to be established as well as a surface exposure age to cosmic radiation of 78+30 Ma. Understanding surface exposures to cosmic radiation is relevant to the MSL search for organic compounds since even the limited set of studies carried out, to date, indicate that even 10's to 100's of millions of years of near surface (1-3 meter) exposure may transform a significant fraction of the organic compounds exposed to this radiation [2,3,4]. Transformation of potential biosignatures and even loss of molecular structural information in compounds that could point to exogenous or endogenous sources suggests a new paradigm in the search for near surface organics that incorporates a search for the most recently exposed outcrops through erosional processes. The K-Ar rock formation age determination shows promise for more precise in situ measurements that may help calibrate the martian cratering record that currently relies on extrapolation from the lunar record with its ground truth chronology with returned samples. We will discuss the protocol for the in situ noble gas measurements secured with SAM and ongoing studies to optimize these measurements using the SAM testbed. References: [1] Farley, K.A.M Science Magazine, 342, (2013). [2] G. Kminek et al., Earth Planet Sc Lett 245, 1 (2006). [3] Dartnell, L.R., Biogeosciences 4, 545 (2007). [4] Pavlov, A. A., et al. Geophys Res Lett 39, 13202 (2012).

  7. Kinematics and kinetics of an accidental lateral ankle sprain

    OpenAIRE

    Kristianslund, Eirik; Bahr, Roald; Krosshaug, Tron

    2011-01-01

    Ankle sprains are common during sporting activities and can have serious consequences. Understanding of injury mechanisms is essential to prevent injuries, but only two previous studies have provided detailed descriptions of the kinematics of lateral ankle sprains and measures of kinetics are missing. In the present study a female handball player accidentally sprained her ankle during sidestep cutting in a motion analysis laboratory. Kinematics and kinetics were calculated from 240 Hz recordi...

  8. Toxicity of nitrogenous fertilizers to eggs of snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) in field and laboratory exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Solla, Shane Raymond; Martin, Pamela Anne

    2007-09-01

    Many reptiles oviposit in soil of agricultural landscapes. We evaluated the toxicity of two commonly used nitrogenous fertilizers, urea and ammonium nitrate, on the survivorship of exposed snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) eggs. Eggs were incubated in a community garden plot in which urea was applied to the soil at realistic rates of up to 200 kg/ha in 2004, and ammonium nitrate was applied at rates of up to 2,000 kg/ha in 2005. Otherwise, the eggs were unmanipulated and were subject to ambient temperature and weather conditions. Eggs were also exposed in the laboratory in covered bins so as to minimize loss of nitrogenous compounds through volatilization or leaching from the soil. Neither urea nor ammonium nitrate had any impact on hatching success or development when exposed in the garden plot, despite overt toxicity of ammonium nitrate to endogenous plants. Both laboratory exposures resulted in reduced hatching success, lower body mass at hatching, and reduced posthatching survival compared to controls. The lack of toxicity of these fertilizers in the field was probably due to leaching in the soil and through atmospheric loss. In general, we conclude that nitrogenous fertilizers probably have little direct impacts on turtle eggs deposited in agricultural landscapes. PMID:17702542

  9. Area and Personal Exposure Levels to Formaldehyde and Its Variation among Undergraduate Students during Gross Anatomy Laboratory Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Pensri Watchalayann; Adul Tapyai; Kajorn Lakchayapakorn

    2014-01-01

    Formaldehyde emitted from the cadavers in Gross Anatomy Laboratory may fluctuate leading to a variation in exposure level of the participants during practice. This study aimed to evaluate the variation of formaldehyde levels and to determine the relationship between area and personal exposure concentration. Formaldehyde levels were measured in six sampling areas repeatedly during three types of study sessions; thoracic, abdominal, and brain and nerve study session. The highest formaldehyde le...

  10. Dog and cat exposures to hazardous substances reported to the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory: 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Ali; Van der Merwe, Deon

    2013-06-01

    Pet dogs and cats in the USA are commonly exposed to potentially hazardous substances found in domestic environments. Requests for assistance and advice received by the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory regarding exposures in dogs and cats to substances perceived by their caretakers to be potentially harmful included 1,616 phone calls, over a 3-year period covering 2009-2012. Enquiries occurred more often during summer. Dogs were involved in 84.7 % of calls and cats in 15.3 %. Oral exposures were reported in 95.5 % of calls, dermal exposures in 3.7 % of calls, inhalation exposures in 0.6 % of calls, and parenteral exposures in 0.2 % of calls. Therapeutic drugs were the most frequently reported substances, accounting for 35.4 % of calls, followed by household chemicals (15.5 %); foods (14.8 %); pesticides (13.9 %); plants (12 %), industrial chemicals and fertilizers (3.6 %); cosmetics and personal care products (2.8 %); and animal, insect, and microorganism toxins (2.1 %). Although requests for information or assistance are not a measure of poisoning incidence, it can provide insight regarding relative exposure rates, help to identify changing exposure trends and emerging exposures, and reflect the public concern regarding actual or apparent harmful exposures in pets.

  11. Effects of Direct and Indirect Exposure of Insecticides to Garden Symphylan (Symphyla: Scutigerellidae) in Laboratory Bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Shimat V

    2015-12-01

    The garden symphylan, Scutigerella immaculata Newport, is a serious soil pest whose root feeding affects yield and survival of several high valued crops in the California's central coast. Because organophosphate insecticides, widely used for S. immaculata control, are rigorously regulated and little is known about the efficacy of alternate insecticides, laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine insecticide efficacy through repellency and lethality. To determine indirect repellency (noncontact) of insecticides, choice assays were conducted where five S. immaculata were introduced into the arena to choose between insecticide-treated and untreated wells whereas, in direct repellency (contact) assays, three insecticide-treated 1-cm-diameter discs were pasted into the arena and the number of visits, time spent per visitation, and number of long-duration (>10 s) stays of five S. immaculata were quantified. To determine efficacy through direct mortality, number of S. immaculata died after 72 h were determined by introducing 10 S. immaculata to insecticide-treated soil assays. In indirect exposure bioassays, seven (clothianidin, oxamyl, zeta-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, ethoprop, azadirachtin, and a combination of beta-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid) out of 14 insecticides tested elicited repellency to S. immaculata. Of six insecticides tested in the direct exposure assays, only tolfenpyrad elicited contact repellency. In soil assays, after 72 h of introduction, bifenthrin, oxamyl, clothianidin, zeta-cypermethrin, and tolfenpyrad caused 100, 95, 80, 44, and 44% S. immaculata mortality, respectively, which was significantly greater than distilled water and four other insecticides. The implications of these results on S. immaculata management in the California's central coast are discussed. PMID:26470373

  12. Effects of Direct and Indirect Exposure of Insecticides to Garden Symphylan (Symphyla: Scutigerellidae) in Laboratory Bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Shimat V

    2015-12-01

    The garden symphylan, Scutigerella immaculata Newport, is a serious soil pest whose root feeding affects yield and survival of several high valued crops in the California's central coast. Because organophosphate insecticides, widely used for S. immaculata control, are rigorously regulated and little is known about the efficacy of alternate insecticides, laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine insecticide efficacy through repellency and lethality. To determine indirect repellency (noncontact) of insecticides, choice assays were conducted where five S. immaculata were introduced into the arena to choose between insecticide-treated and untreated wells whereas, in direct repellency (contact) assays, three insecticide-treated 1-cm-diameter discs were pasted into the arena and the number of visits, time spent per visitation, and number of long-duration (>10 s) stays of five S. immaculata were quantified. To determine efficacy through direct mortality, number of S. immaculata died after 72 h were determined by introducing 10 S. immaculata to insecticide-treated soil assays. In indirect exposure bioassays, seven (clothianidin, oxamyl, zeta-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, ethoprop, azadirachtin, and a combination of beta-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid) out of 14 insecticides tested elicited repellency to S. immaculata. Of six insecticides tested in the direct exposure assays, only tolfenpyrad elicited contact repellency. In soil assays, after 72 h of introduction, bifenthrin, oxamyl, clothianidin, zeta-cypermethrin, and tolfenpyrad caused 100, 95, 80, 44, and 44% S. immaculata mortality, respectively, which was significantly greater than distilled water and four other insecticides. The implications of these results on S. immaculata management in the California's central coast are discussed.

  13. Accidental inflation in the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P4[1,1,1,6,9] by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes

  14. Juvenile roach (Rutilus rutilus) increase their anaerobic metabolism in response to copper exposure in laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Virginie; Betoulle, Stéphane; Jaffal, Ali; Dedourge-Geffard, Odile; Delahaut, Laurence; Geffard, Alain; Palluel, Olivier; Sanchez, Wilfried; Paris-Palacios, Séverine; Vettier, Aurélie; David, Elise

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to determine the potential impairment of cell energy synthesis processes (glycolysis and respiratory chain pathways) by copper in juvenile roach at different regulation levels by using a multi-marker approach. Juvenile roach were exposed to 0, 10, 50, and 100 µg/L of copper for 7 days in laboratory conditions. The glycolysis pathway was assessed by measuring the relative expression levels of 4 genes encoding glycolysis enzymes. The respiratory chain was studied by assessing the electron transport system and cytochrome c oxidase gene expression. Muscle mitochondria ultrastructure was studied, and antioxidant responses were measured. Furthermore, the main energy reserves-carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins-were measured, and cellular energy was evaluated by measuring ATP, ADP, AMP and IMP concentrations. This study revealed a disturbance of the cell energy metabolism due to copper exposure, with a significant decrease in adenylate energy charge in roach exposed to 10 μg/L of copper after 1 day. Moreover, ATP concentrations significantly decreased in roach exposed to 10 μg/L of copper after 1 day. This significant decrease persisted in roach exposed to 50 µg/L of copper after 7 days. AMP concentrations increased in all contaminated fish after 1 day of exposure. In parallel, the relative expression of 3 genes encoding for glycolysis enzymes increased in all contaminated fish after 1 day of copper exposure. Focusing on the respiratory chain, cytochrome c oxidase gene expression also increased in all contaminated fish at the two time-points. The activity of the electron transport system was not disturbed by copper, except in roach exposed to 100 µg/L of copper after 1 day. Copper induced a metabolic stress. Juvenile roach seemed to respond to the ensuing high energy demand by increasing their anaerobic metabolism, but the energy produced by the anaerobic metabolism is unable to compensate for the stress induced by copper after 7

  15. A laboratory exposure system to study the effects of aging on super-micron aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santarpia, Joshua; Sanchez, Andres L.; Lucero, Gabriel Anthony; Servantes, Brandon Lee; Hubbard, Joshua Allen

    2014-02-01

    A laboratory system was constructed that allows the super-micron particles to be aged for long periods of time under conditions that can simulate a range of natural environments and conditions, including relative humidity, oxidizing chemicals, organics and simulated solar radiation. Two proof-of-concept experiments using a non-biological simulant for biological particles and a biological simulant demonstrate the utility of these types of aging experiments. Green Visolite®, which is often used as a tracer material for model validation experiments, does not degrade with exposure to simulated solar radiation, the actual biological material does. This would indicate that Visolite® should be a good tracer compound for mapping the extent of a biological release using fluorescence as an indicator, but that it should not be used to simulate the decay of a biological particle when exposed to sunlight. The decay in the fluorescence measured for B. thurengiensis is similar to what has been previously observed in outdoor environments.

  16. Assessment of risks associated to ionizing radiations: lung cancers after domestic radon exposure and thyroid cancers after accidental exposure to radioactive iodines; Evaluation des risques associes aux rayonnements ionisants: cancers du poumon apres exposition domestique au radon et cancers de la thyroide apres exposition accidentelle aux iodes radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catelinois, O

    2004-09-15

    The aim of this work is to develop a critical analysis of quantitative risk assessment in the field of ionizing radiation and to provide new estimates of attributable risks for particular situations of environmental exposure to ionizing radiation. This work is based on knowledge about dose-response relationships and ionizing radiation exposure of the general population. The work focuses on two different situations that both present an important interest for public health: lung cancer associated with domestic radon exposures (natural situation) and thyroid cancer associated with the Chernobyl accident fallout (accidental situation). The assessment of lung cancer risk associated with domestic radon exposure considers 10 dose-response relationships resulting from miner cohorts and case-control studies in the general population. A critical review of available data on smoking habits has been performed and allowed to consider the interactions between radon and tobacco. The exposure data come from measurements campaigns carried out since the beginning of the 1980 by the Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety and the Health General Directory in France. The French lung cancer mortality data are provided by the I.N.S.E.R.M.. Estimates of the number of attributable cancers are carried out for the whole country, stratified by 8 large regions (Z.E.A.T.) and by 96 departments for the year 1999 allowing to perform a sensibility analysis according to the geographical level of calculation. Uncertainties associated to risk coefficients and exposures have been quantified and it's impact on risk estimates is calculated. The estimated number of deaths attributable to domestic radon exposure ranges from 543 (90% uncertainty interval (U.I.): 75-1,097) to 3,108 (90% U.I.: 2,996-3,221). The corresponding risk fractions range from 2.2% (90% U.I.: 0.3%-4.4%) to 12.4% (90% U.I.: 11.9%-12.8%). The assessment of thyroid cancer risk in the most exposed area of France due to

  17. Acidentes de trabalho com exposição a material biológico entre os profissionais de Enfermagem Accidentes de trabajo con exposición a material biológico entre profesionales de enfermería Occupational accidents with exposure to human tissue in nursing professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Moura de Araújo

    2012-07-01

    conclusión de que se debe prestar más atención a la prevención de estos accidentes, así como al rigor del seguimiento tras la exposiciónocupacional.The aim of this research was to identify the types of accidents among workers involving human tissue in order to raise the profile of the victims the type of exposure, and the circumstances in which accidents occurred. This was a retrospective and descriptive study based on documents. Data collection was performed using the records of the Information System for Notifiable Diseases(SINAN in a referral hospital for infectious diseases in Ceará a total of 777 cases.The results show that 94.7 of those affected were female 57.5% were nursing assistants, 88% of cases were due to percutaneous exposure 70.1% being caused by hollow needles, 87.3% with exposure to blood, and 13.7% were related to inappropriate disposal ofperforating objects at the bench, bedside, etc.. We conclude that more attention must be given to the prevention of such accidents, as well as to strict follow-up after occupational exposure.

  18. Accidental Bolus of Parenteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodeserto, Frank; Al-Jaghbeer, Mohammed; Huang, David

    2016-08-01

    There is a paucity of data that exists regarding acute toxicity and management in the setting of parental nutrition (PN) overdose. We describe a case of a patient who received an accidental rapid bolus of PN and fat emulsion. She developed a seizure, metabolic acidosis, arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia, altered mental status, hypotension, and hypoxemia likely caused by elevated triglycerides, leading to a hyperviscosity syndrome. After failing standard therapy, she was successfully treated with a single-volume plasma exchange with resolution of symptoms. Fat emulsion or intravenous lipid emulsion and much of its safety have been recently described in its use as a rescue therapy in resuscitation from drug-related toxicity. Elevated serum triglyceride levels can result in a picture similar to a hyperviscosity syndrome. Plasma exchange is a known therapeutic modality for the management of hyperviscosity syndrome and a novel therapy in the treatment of hyperviscosity syndrome due to fat emulsion therapy. In a patient receiving PN with development of rapid deterioration of clinical status, without an obvious etiology, there should be consideration of PN overdose. A rapid assessment and treatment of severe electrolyte abnormalities should be undertaken immediately to prevent life-threatening cardiovascular and central nervous system collapse. If fat emulsion was rapidly coadministered and there are signs and symptoms of hyperviscosity syndrome, then consideration should be given to plasma exchange as an effective therapeutic treatment option. PMID:25666023

  19. Mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.; Roswell, R.L.; Stevens, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    A mathematical model was constructed for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included. 25 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Whole-body heat exposure induces membrane changes in spermatozoa from the cauda epididymidis of laboratory mice

    OpenAIRE

    Wechalekar, Harsha; Setchell, Brian P.; Peirce, Eleanor J.; Ricci, Mario; Leigh, Chris; Breed, William G.

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine if exposure to hot environmental temperatures had a direct, detrimental effect on sperm quality. For this the effect of whole-body heat exposure on epididymal spermatozoa of laboratory mice was investigated. C57BL/6 mice (n = 7) were housed in a microclimate chamber at 37°C–38°C for 8 h per day for three consecutive days, while control mice (n = 7) were kept at 23°C–24°C. Cauda epididymal spermatozoa were obtained 16 h after the last heat treatment. The...

  1. Acidentes ocupacionais por exposição a material biológico entre a equipe multiprofissional do atendimento pré-hospitalar Accidentes ocupacionales por exposición a material biológico entre el equipo multiprofesional de atención pre hospitalaria Occupational accidents due to exposure to biological material in the multidisciplinary team of the emergency service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina Oliveira

    2009-09-01

    ñamiento serológico, 61,2%. Estuvieron asociados al accidente: tiempo en la institución, (Odds ratio-OR 2,84; Intervalo de confianza-IC 95% 1,22-6,62, asignado en la Unidad de Soporte Avanzado, (OR 4,18; IC 95% 1,64-10,64; interacción: tiempo en la institución y asignado en la Unidad de Soporte Básico, (OR 0,27; IC 95% 0,07-1,00. Se sugiere: la implantación de protocolos después de accidentes, con el objetivo de reducirlos; la subnotificación y el aumento del acompañamiento después del accidente.This transversal, survey-based research was carried out with a multiprofessional emergency care team in Belo Horizonte, between June and December 2006. The study aimed at estimating the incidence of occupational accidents by exposure to biological material, post-accidents conducts and demographic determinant factors. The study applied a structured questionnaire and descriptive analyses, as well as incidence calculations and logistic regression. The incidence of accidents with biological material reached 20.6%, being 40.8% by sharp materials and 49.0% by body fluids; 35.3% of the accidents took place among physicians and 24.0% among nurses. Post-accidents procedures: no medical assessment, 63.3%; under-notification, 81.6%; no conduct, 55.0%; and no serological follow-up, 61.2%. Factors associated with accidents: working time in the institution (Odds Ratio - OR, 2.84; Credible Interval - CI 95% - 1.22-6.62; working in advanced support units (OR=4.18; CI 95% - 1.64-10.64; and interaction between working time in the institution and working in Basic Support Unit (OR 0.27; CI 95% - 0.07-1.00. In order to reduce accidents, the implementation of post-accident protocols and follow-up, as well as under-notification norms, are suggested.

  2. 40 CFR 79.60 - Good laboratory practices (GLP) standards for inhalation exposure health effects testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Testing Requirements for Registration § 79.60 Good laboratory practices (GLP) standards for inhalation... have immediately available manuals and standard operating procedures relative to the laboratory... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Good laboratory practices...

  3. Evaluation and mitigation of accidental releases of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One result of the workshop was, that even in the case of severe accident sequences in modern nuclear power plants (other facilities were not discussed), there will be enough time to take active measures in order to lower the emissions and to diminish the consequences inside and outside of the plant. On the whole, new evidence from Harrisburg show that previously estimated accidental emissions, especially of radiologically relevant nuclides, have been rather conservative and that much lower emissions are possible, if the above measures are considered. Under accident conditions, models to predict radiation exposure must be applied under the event of a short-term release. (orig./DG)

  4. A comparison of a laboratory and field study of annoyance and acceptability of aircraft noise exposures. [human reactions and tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsky, P. N.

    1977-01-01

    Residents living in close, middle and distant areas from JFK Airport were included in a field interview and laboratory study. Judgments were made of simulated aircraft noise exposures of comparable community indoor noise levels and mixes of aircraft. Each group of subjects judged the levels of noise typical for its distance area. Four different numbers of flyovers were tested: less than average for each area, the approximate average, the peak number, or worst day, and above peak number. The major findings are: (1) the reported integrated field annoyance is best related to the annoyance reported for the simulated approximate worst day exposure in the laboratory; (2) annoyance is generally less when there are fewer aircraft flyovers, and the subject has less fear of crashes and more favorable attitudes toward airplanes; (3) beliefs in harmful health effects and misfeasance by operators of aircraft are also highly correlated with fear and noise annoyance; (4) in direct retrospective comparisons of number of flights, noise levels and annoyance, subjects more often said the worst day laboratory exposured more like their usual home environments; and (5) subjects do not expect an annoyance-free environment. Half of the subjects can accept an annoyance level of 5 to 6 from a possible annoyance range of 0 to 9, 28% can live with an annoyance intensity of 7, and only 5% can accept the top scores of 8 to 9.

  5. Range-Finding Risk Assessment of Inhalation Exposure to Nanodiamonds in a Laboratory Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti J. Koivisto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study considers fundamental methods in occupational risk assessment of exposure to airborne engineered nanomaterials. We discuss characterization of particle emissions, exposure assessment, hazard assessment with in vitro studies, and risk range characterization using calculated inhaled doses and dose-response translated to humans from in vitro studies. Here, the methods were utilized to assess workers’ risk range of inhalation exposure to nanodiamonds (NDs during handling and sieving of ND powder. NDs were agglomerated to over 500 nm particles, and mean exposure levels of different work tasks varied from 0.24 to 4.96 µg·m−3 (0.08 to 0.74 cm−3. In vitro-experiments suggested that ND exposure may cause a risk for activation of inflammatory cascade. However, risk range characterization based on in vitro dose-response was not performed because accurate assessment of delivered (settled dose on the cells was not possible. Comparison of ND exposure with common pollutants revealed that ND exposure was below 5 μg·m−3, which is one of the proposed exposure limits for diesel particulate matter, and the workers’ calculated dose of NDs during the measurement day was 74 ng which corresponded to 0.02% of the modeled daily (24 h dose of submicrometer urban air particles.

  6. A comparison of engineering controls for formaldehyde exposure during grossing activities in health care anatomic pathology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenhai; Stewart, Erica J

    2016-07-01

    This article for the first time reports a large set of monitoring results for formaldehyde exposure during grossing activities in health care anatomic pathology laboratories, and compares the effectiveness of different local exhaust ventilation systems on the exposure. To control the confounding effects from grossing work load, sampling duration, and the sizes of specimens grossed, only 15-min short-term personal exposure samples collected during large tissue specimen grossing were used for the comparison of the effectiveness of these local exhaust systems. While we also collected long-term 8-hr time weighted average samples, these are not treated in this analysis. The systems examined were canopy receiving hoods, slot exhausts, and commercially available pre-manufactured backdraft grossing stations, both recirculating and ducted exhaust types. Out of over 2,000 personal short-term air samples, 307 samples from 163 surveys met the data selection criteria. Over a third of the data were less than the analytical laboratory limits of detection. Using the robust maximum likelihood estimation method for multiple limits of detection, the mean and geometric mean of the dataset for each type of local exhaust system were found to be less than the short-term personal exposure regulatory limit of 2 ppm. Nonparametric Wilcoxon rank-sum pairwise tests of five types of engineering controls showed a statistically significant difference among these controls, with the most effective being the manufactured backdraft grossing stations ducted to the outside, and the least effective being canopy exhaust systems and manufactured filtered recirculating grossing stations. Finally, exposure with each of the major engineering control types was rated by the American Industrial Hygiene Association exposure control rating scheme. PMID:26861729

  7. Mortalidad intrahospitalaria por accidente cerebrovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Rodríguez Lucci

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La mortalidad global por accidente cerebrovascular (ACV ha disminuido en las últimas tres décadas, probablemente debido a un mejor control de los factores de riesgo vascular. La mortalidad hospitalaria por ACV ha sido tradicionalmente estimada entre 6 y 14% en la mayoría de las series comunicadas. Sin embargo, los datos de ensayos clínicos recientes sugieren que esta cifra sería sustancialmente menor. Se revisaron datos de pacientes internados con diagnóstico de ACV del Banco de Datos de Stroke de FLENI y los registros institucionales de mortalidad entre los años 2000 y 2010. Los subtipos de ACV isquémicos se clasificaron según criterios TOAST y los ACV hemorrágicos en hematomas intrapanquimatosos, hemorragias subaracnoideas aneurismáticas, malformaciones arteriovenosas y otros hematomas intraparenquimatosos. Se analizaron 1514 pacientes, 1079 (71% con ACV isquémico (grandes vasos 39%, cardioembólicos 27%, lacunares 9%, etiología indeterminada 14%, otras etiologías 11% y 435 (29% con ACV hemorrágico (intraparenquimatosos 27%, hemorragia subaracnoidea 30%, malformaciones arteriovenosas 25% y otros hematomas espontáneos 18%. Se registraron 38 muertes intrahospitalarias (17 ACV isquémicos y 21 ACV hemorrágicos, representando una mortalidad global del 2.5% (1.7% en ACV isquémicos y 4.8% en ACV hemorrágicos. No se registraron muertes asociadas al uso de fibrinolíticos endovenosos. La mortalidad intrahospitalaria en pacientes con ACV isquémico y hemorrágico en nuestro centro fue baja. El manejo en un centro dedicado a las enfermedades neurológicas y el enfoque multidisciplinario por personal médico y no médico entrenado en el cuidado de la enfermedad cerebrovascular podrían explicar, al menos en parte, estos resultados.

  8. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns

  9. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 1, Waste streams and treatment technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  10. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  11. Preliminary study: Formaldehyde exposure in laboratories of Sharjah university in UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Omer Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Laboratory technicians, students, and instructors are at high risk, because they deal with chemicals including formaldehyde. Thus, this preliminary study was conducted to measure the concentration of formaldehyde in the laboratories of the University of Sharjah in UAE. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two air samples were collected and analyzed for formaldehyde using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH method 3500. In this method, formaldehyde reacts with chromotropic acid in the presence of sulfuric acid to form a colored solution. The absorbance of the colored solution is read in spectrophotometer at wavelength 580 nm and is proportional to the quantity of the formaldehyde in the solution. Results: For the anatomy laboratory and in the presence of the covered cadaver, the mean concentration of formaldehyde was found to be 0.100 ppm with a range of 0.095-0.105 ppm. Whereas for the other laboratories, the highest mean concentration of formaldehyde was 0.024 ppm in the general microbiology laboratory and the lowest mean concentration of formaldehyde was 0.001 ppm in the environmental health laboratory. The 8-hour (time-weighted average concentration of formaldehyde was found to be ranging between 0.0003 ppm in environmental health laboratory and 0.026 ppm in the anatomy laboratory. Conclusions: The highest level of concentration of formaldehyde in the presence of the covered cadaver in anatomy laboratory exceeded the recommended ceiling standard established by USA-NIOSH which is 0.1 ppm, but below the ceiling standard established by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists which is 0.3 ppm. Thus, it is recommended that formaldehyde levels should be measured periodically specially during the dissection in the anatomy laboratory, and local exhaust ventilation system should be installed and personal protective equipment such as safety glass and gloves should be available and be used to prevent

  12. Cellular and aqueous microcystin-LR following laboratory exposures of Microcystis aeruginosa to copper algaecides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwinski, Kyla J; Calomeni, Alyssa J; Geer, Tyler D; Rodgers, John H

    2016-03-01

    Microcystin release from algal cells influences use of copper-algaecides in water resources. Accurate data regarding relationships between copper-algaecide exposures and responses of microcystin-producing algae are needed to make informed management decisions. Responses of Microcystis aeruginosa were measured in terms of cellular microcystin-LR (MC-LR), aqueous MC-LR, and chlorophyll-a following exposure to CuSO4 and copper-ethanolamine. Comparisons were made between treated and untreated samples, and copper formulations. EC50s and slopes for M. aeruginosa responses to copper exposures were calculated. Algal responses followed a sigmoidal exposure-response relationship, and cellular MC-LR and chlorophyll-a were negatively related to copper concentrations. Aqueous MC-LR increased with copper concentrations, although the increase in aqueous MC-LR was not proportional to decreases in cellular MC-LR and chlorophyll-a. Cellular MC-LR and chlorophyll a declined at a greater rate than aqueous MC-LR increased. Total MC-LR was less than untreated controls following copper exposure. Differences were measured between copper formulations in terms of aqueous and total MC-LR concentrations at concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 mg Cu L-1. Aqueous and total MC-LR were greater (10-20%) following exposure to CuSO4 compared to copper-ethanolamine one day following exposure. The positive relationship between copper concentration and aqueous MC-LR at 0.07-1.0 mg Cu L-1 demonstrates that lower copper concentrations were as effective as higher concentrations in controlling M. aeruginosa while decreasing the total amount of MC-LR, and minimizing the proportion of MC-LR released to the aqueous-phase. Results serve to support more accurate risk evaluations of MC-LR concentrations when M. aeruginosa is exposed to copper-algaecides and when it is untreated. PMID:26761600

  13. QUALITY OF RADIOGRAPHIC IMAGES: LABORATORY EVALUATION OF INTRAORAL FILMS, FILTERS, COLLIMATORS, AND RADIATION EXPOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMBURUS José Roberto

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate density, radiographic contrast and dose of radiation exposure, the author analyzed 80 radiographs containing 640 optical density data of the images of a penetrometer, exposed to the radiation beam with combinations between D and E periapical films, aluminum and copper/aluminum filters, and circular or rectangular collimators. The data obtained were analyzed by ANOVA and allowed the following conclusions: 1 aluminum filtration resulted in improved image contrast; 2 the use of group D film and an aluminum filter produced improved image contrast quality; 3 the rectangular collimator contributed to the production of improved contrast and to the reduction of radiation exposure, but did not affect density; 4 the combination of copper/aluminum filter, E group film and rectangular collimation significantly reduced radiation exposure.

  14. Adverse effect of diesel engine produced particulate matter on various stone types and concrete: a laboratory exposure experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Orsolya; Szabados, György; Antal, Ákos; Török, Ákos

    2015-04-01

    The effect of particulate matter on construction materials have been studied under laboratory conditions. For testing the adverse effects of diesel soot and particulate matter on stone and concrete a small scale laboratory exposure chamber was constructed. Blocks of 9 different stone types and concrete was placed in the chamber and an exhaust pipe of diesel engine was diverted into the system. Tested stones included: porous limestone, cemented non-porous limestone, travertine, marble, rhyolite tuff, andesite and granite. The engine was operated for 10 hours and the produced particulate matter was diverted directly to the surface of the material specimens of 3 cm in diameter each. Working parameters of the engine were controlled; the composition of the exhaust gas, smoke value and temperature were continuously measured during the test. Test specimens were documented and analysed prior to exposure and after the exposure test. Parameters such colorimetric values, weight, surface properties, mineralogical compositions of the test specimens were recorded. The working temperature was in the order of 300°C-320°C. The gas concentration was in ppm as follows: 157 CO; 5.98 CO2, 34.3 THC; 463 NOx; 408 NO; 12.88 O2. Our tests have demonstrated that significant amount of particulate matter was deposited on construction materials even at a short period of time; however the exposure was very intense. It also indicates that that the interaction of particulate matter and aerosol compounds with construction materials in urban areas causes rapid decay and has an adverse effect not only on human health but also on built structures.

  15. Laboratory tests for group and individual exposures of Arion lusitanicus Mabille slugs to different molluscicide baits

    OpenAIRE

    Bojan Stojnić; Marina Vukša; Goran Jokić

    2008-01-01

    Molluscicide baits based on different active ingredients were tested in a seven-day laboratory trial on juveniles and young adults of Arion lusitanicus Mabille slug collected in ruderal sites during June and July of 2008. Before setting the trial, the slugs were adapted to laboratory conditions. The testing was conducted using a modified version of the method proposed by Godan (1983) and Wiktor (1989). The slugs were kept in arenas under controlled conditions (20-24oC temperature, 80-90% rela...

  16. Exposure estimates using urban plume dispersion and traffic microsimulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.J.; Mueller, C.; Bush, B.; Stretz, P.

    1997-12-01

    The goal of this research effort was to demonstrate a capability for analyzing emergency response issues resulting from accidental or mediated airborne toxic releases in an urban setting. In the first year of the program, the authors linked a system of fluid dynamics, plume dispersion, and vehicle transportation models developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to study the dispersion of a plume in an urban setting and the resulting exposures to vehicle traffic. This research is part of a larger laboratory-directed research and development project for studying the relationships between urban infrastructure elements and natural systems.

  17. Tuberculosis cutánea por inoculación accidental Cutaneous tuberculosis accidental inoculation

    OpenAIRE

    María Ascensión Maestre Naranjo; Jenry Borda Olivas; Arantxa Ortega Hernández; Esmeralda Tovar Benito; María Luisa Rodríguez de la Pinta; Rosa María Daza Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Caso clínico de una microbióloga con amplia experiencia, que sufre una inoculación accidental al manipular una cepa pura de Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Se pincha en la cara lateral externa de la falange distal del dedo índice, atravesando el guante con la aguja contaminada. (Imagen 1). La trabajadora procede de forma inmediata a la limpieza de la herida. El Servicio de Prevención, registra la inoculación como accidente de trabajo. A las tres semanas del accidente, aparece en el lugar de la in...

  18. 29 CFR 1910.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) provide further guidance in defining the scope of health... (29 CFR 1910.1200) including the requirements for preparation of material safety data sheets and... laboratories. 1910.1450 Section 1910.1450 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL...

  19. Doctrinal elements for the post-accidental management of a nuclear accident - Final version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines and defines the objectives, principles and main actions for the post-accidental management of a nuclear accident. It defines the emergency phase and the post-accidental phase, three basic objectives (to protect the population against the hazards of ionizing radiations, to support populations affected by the accident consequences, to restore affected territories), management principles, key issues for post-accidental management. It defines actions to be undertaken: post-accidental zoning, monitoring of deposited radioactivity, early actions for the protection and taking charge of population, information. It addresses the different aspects of post-accidental management planning in a period of transition: reception of population, reduction of population exposure to deposited radioactivity, treatment of public health problems, improvement of the knowledge on the radiological situation of the environment, improvement of the radiological quality of the different environments, dealing with wastes, empowerment of stakeholders through an adequate governance, support and redeployment of economic activity, help and compensation, information. Appendices more deeply discuss actions to be undertaken just after the emergency phase, for the management of the transition period, and for the management of the long-term period

  20. Bridging the gap between sample collection and laboratory analysis: using dried blood spots to identify human exposure to chemical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Blake, Thomas A.; Perez, Jonas W.; Crow, Brian S.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-05-01

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  1. Characterisation of initial atmospheric corrosion carbon steels by field exposure and laboratory simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The early stages of the evolution of atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels exposed in both a laboratory simulated and a natural atmosphere environment in Shenyang have been observed by in situ scanning electron microscopy. In the case of laboratory cyclic wet-dry tests, even though the chloride content level is very low, filiform corrosion is initiated in the early stage. The filiform corrosion grows in random directions, forming a network of ridges. White nodules nucleate and grow on the ridges during continued corrosion and eventually connect with each other to form the initial corrosion scale. Pits were also found on the surface beneath corrosion products. In the case of a natural atmospheric environment, both filiform corrosion and other localized corrosion, such as pitting and inter-granular attack take place in the initial stage. It is obvious that there is variety of localized corrosion in the initial stage of atmospheric corrosion

  2. Whole-body heat exposure induces membrane changes in spermatozoa from the cauda epididymidis of laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechalekar, Harsha; Setchell, Brian P; Peirce, Eleanor J; Ricci, Mario; Leigh, Chris; Breed, William G

    2010-07-01

    This study was carried out to determine if exposure to hot environmental temperatures had a direct, detrimental effect on sperm quality. For this the effect of whole-body heat exposure on epididymal spermatozoa of laboratory mice was investigated. C57BL/6 mice (n = 7) were housed in a microclimate chamber at 37 degrees C-38 degrees C for 8 h per day for three consecutive days, while control mice (n = 7) were kept at 23 degrees C-24 degrees C. Cauda epididymal spermatozoa were obtained 16 h after the last heat treatment. The results showed that sperm numbers were similar in the two groups (P = 0.23), but after heat treatment, a significant reduction in the percentage of motile sperm was present (P phosphotidylserine from the inner to the outer leaflet of the sperm plasma membrane, and 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD), which binds to the sperm nucleus when the plasma membrane is damaged. The percentage of spermatozoa showing positive staining with Annexin V-PE or 7-AAD or both, was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in heat-exposed mice compared with controls. These results show that whole-body heat exposure to 37 degrees C-38 degrees C induces membrane changes in the epididymal spermatozoa of mice, which may lead to apoptosis. PMID:20531278

  3. Genotoxic effects in occupational exposure to formaldehyde: A study in anatomy and pathology laboratories and formaldehyde-resins production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viegas Susana

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the Report on Carcinogens, formaldehyde ranks 25th in the overall U.S. chemical production, with more than 5 million tons produced each year. Given its economic importance and widespread use, many people are exposed to formaldehyde environmentally and/or occupationally. Presently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies formaldehyde as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1, based on sufficient evidence in humans and in experimental animals. Manyfold in vitro studies clearly indicated that formaldehyde can induce genotoxic effects in proliferating cultured mammalian cells. Furthermore, some in vivo studies have found changes in epithelial cells and in peripheral blood lymphocytes related to formaldehyde exposure. Methods A study was carried out in Portugal, using 80 workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde vapours: 30 workers from formaldehyde and formaldehyde-based resins production factory and 50 from 10 pathology and anatomy laboratories. A control group of 85 non-exposed subjects was considered. Exposure assessment was performed by applying simultaneously two techniques of air monitoring: NIOSH Method 2541 and Photo Ionization Detection equipment with simultaneously video recording. Evaluation of genotoxic effects was performed by application of micronucleus test in exfoliated epithelial cells from buccal mucosa and peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results Time-weighted average concentrations not exceeded the reference value (0.75 ppm in the two occupational settings studied. Ceiling concentrations, on the other hand, were higher than reference value (0.3 ppm in both. The frequency of micronucleus in peripheral blood lymphocytes and in epithelial cells was significantly higher in both exposed groups than in the control group (p p p p Conclusions The population studied is exposed to high peak concentrations of formaldehyde with a long-term exposure. These two aspects, cumulatively, can be the

  4. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Types and Amount of Insurance § 870..., accidental death benefits are equal to the amount of Option A. (c)(1) Under Basic insurance, accidental... automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  5. Assessing pharmacokinetics of different doses of fosfomycin in laboratory rats enables adequate exposure for pharmacodynamic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeppl, Wolfgang; Lingscheid, Tilman; Bernitzky, Dominik; Donath, Oliver; Reznicek, Gottfried; Zeitlinger, Markus; Burgmann, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Fosfomycin has been the subject of numerous pharmacodynamic in vivo models in recent years. The present study set out to determine fosfomycin pharmacokinetics in laboratory rats to enable adequate dosing regimens in future rodent models. Fosfomycin was given intraperitoneally as single doses of 75, 200 and 500 mg/kg bodyweight to 4 Sprague-Dawley rats per dose group. Blood samples were collected over 8 h and fosfomycin concentrations were determined by HPLC-mass spectrometry. Fosfomycin showed a dose-proportional pharmacokinetic profile indicated by a correlation of 0.99 for maximum concentration and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). The mean AUC0-8 after intraperitoneal administration of 75, 200 or 500 mg/kg bodyweight fosfomycin were 109.4, 387.0 and 829.1 µg·h/ml, respectively. In conclusion, a dosing regimen of 200-500 mg/kg 3 times daily is appropriate to obtain serum concentrations in laboratory rats, closely mimicking human serum concentrations over time.

  6. Exposure levels to radiation in a nuclear medicine laboratory: measurements with thermoluminescence dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1996 in the Nuclear medicine Department and another routine and research departments of the National Institute of Medical and Nutrition Sciences (INCMNSZ) are working at least with 12 radioactive sources opened and sealed. However, it was unknown if with the Tl personal dosemeters with lithium fluoride crystals (LiF), could be possible to receive information about the equivalent dose for each radionuclide or if there was some radionuclide that by being low energy emissor or beta energy emissor, it did not represent an ionization power sufficient to excite the crystals of the thermoluminescent dosemeters (DTL). In this work the obtained results with control dosemeters of diverse source opened or sealed are shown, which were put at 1 cm of the LiF crystals during a time exposure 18 hours. Therefore the objective of this work is to verify which sources excite or not to DTL crystals and taking the pertinent safety measures for each radionuclide. The conclusion is that the majority of dosemeters were excited by beta or gamma radiation of the radionuclides and that LiF crystals are able to receive equivalent doses until 1200 mSv, being this a guarantee for the staff, that in an any moment could be exposed to high dose in his working day. Also it was corroborated that the radionuclides more energizer are: iodine-131, iodine-125 and sodium-22 while the phosphorus-32 must be managed with careful, since the exposure to hands can result significant, just like the technetium-99m (99m Tc). (Author)

  7. A procedure for benchmarking laboratory exposures with 1 A GeV iron ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W; Tweed, John; Walker, Steve A; Cucinotta, Francis A; Tripathi, Ram K; Blattnig, Steve; Mertens, Christopher J

    2005-01-01

    A new version of the HZETRN code capable of simulating HZE ions with either laboratory or space boundary conditions is under development. The computational model consists of combinations of physical perturbation expansions based on the scales of atomic interaction, multiple scattering, and nuclear reactive processes with use of asymptotic/Neumann expansions with non-perturbative corrections. The code contains energy loss with straggling, nuclear attenuation, nuclear fragmentation with energy dispersion and downshifts, and off-axis dispersion with multiple scattering under preparation. The present benchmark is for a broad directed beam for 1 A GeV iron ion beams with 2 A MeV width and four targets of polyethylene, polymethyl metachrylate, aluminum, and lead of varying thickness from 5 to 30 g/cm2. The benchmark quantities will be dose, track averaged LET, dose averaged LET, fraction of iron ion remaining, and fragment energy spectra after 23 g/cm2 of polymethyl metachrylate. PMID:15934193

  8. A mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I of the project: early effects of inhaled radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents a mathematical model for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included

  9. A mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I of the project: early effects of inhaled radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.

    1980-06-01

    The report presents a mathematical model for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included.

  10. Accidental swallowing of orthodontic expansion appliance key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monini, André da Costa; Maia, Luiz Guilherme Martins; Jacob, Helder Baldi; Gandini, Luiz Gonzaga

    2011-08-01

    Ingestion of a foreign object, including a dental object, can lead to a trip to the emergency room. This article describes the accidental swallowing of a key that was used to activate a rapid maxillary expander. An orthodontic patient swallowed the key while trying to activate the appliance at home. The object's trajectory was followed on radiographs until it was eliminated. Possible clinical complications, legal implications of this situation, and practices for prevention are described. PMID:21803265

  11. Accidental ingestion of Ecstasy in a toddler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Jung; Lai, Ming-Wei; Kong, Man-Shan; Chao, Hsun-Chin

    2005-12-01

    Toddlers who ingest the drug of abuse 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'Ecstasy') are at particularly high risk of serious neurological and cardiovascular side effects. We report of a 20-month-old male toddler who accidentally ingested Ecstasy. He presented with fever and seizures, tachycardia, hypertension, and hyperthermia. Urine amphetamine level was 2111 ng/mL. Treatment included rapid cooling, hydration, and support measures. Vital signs were regularly monitored. His condition became stable on day 2 and urine amphetamine level returned to normal on day 3 of hospitalization. His behavior, activity, and appetite had returned to their usual levels upon follow-up at our outpatient clinic. The incidence of drug abuse with MDMA has increased dramatically over the last decade in developed countries. It can be expected that accidental Ecstasy poisoning in children will increase as well. This case illustrates the need to consider the possibility of accidental Ecstasy ingestion in the differential diagnosis of a child suffering from convulsions with fever.

  12. Exposure of Laboratory Mice to Domestic Cooking Gas: - Implications for Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madu D. Ibegbu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of domestic cooking gas to induce hepatotoxicity and clastogenicity in mice was studied. The mice were exposed to domestic gas for twenty-one days at doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg respectively. The positive control group of mice were given sodium arsenite intraperitoneously at a dose of 2.5mg/kg body weight. While the negative control group had only distilled water, sodium arsenite significantly (p < 0.05 induced the formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (mPCEs, serum and liver gamma glutamyl transferase (γGT and alkaline phosphatase (AP activities respectively as compared with the observations made in the negative control group. Similarly, the domestic gas significantly (p<0.05 induced mPCEs formation, serum and liver, γGT and AP activities. The degree of induction was in the order of 100 mg/kg < 200 mg/kg < 300 mg/kg. However, when compared with the positive control group, the domestic cooking gas at the tested doses was not as potent as sodium arsenite in its ability to induce enzyme activity and mPCEs formation. Limited histopathological analysis of liver samples from treated and untreated mice showed distended blood vessels, necrosis and hepatocellular degeneration in the groups treated with high doses of domestic gas or sodium arsenite as compared with the untreated group. Our findings suggest that the domestic cooking gas has some degree of clastogenic and hepatotoxic activities in mice. Health risks may therefore be associated with long-term occupational and / or domestic exposure in humans.

  13. Exposure to a heat wave under food limitation makes an agricultural insecticide lethal: a mechanistic laboratory experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Khuong V; Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2016-10-01

    Extreme temperatures and exposure to agricultural pesticides are becoming more frequent and intense under global change. Their combination may be especially problematic when animals suffer food limitation. We exposed Coenagrion puella damselfly larvae to a simulated heat wave combined with food limitation and subsequently to a widespread agricultural pesticide (chlorpyrifos) in an indoor laboratory experiment designed to obtain mechanistic insights in the direct effects of these stressors in isolation and when combined. The heat wave reduced immune function (activity of phenoloxidase, PO) and metabolic rate (activity of the electron transport system, ETS). Starvation had both immediate and delayed negative sublethal effects on growth rate and physiology (reductions in Hsp70 levels, total fat content, and activity levels of PO and ETS). Exposure to chlorpyrifos negatively affected all response variables. While the immediate effects of the heat wave were subtle, our results indicate the importance of delayed effects in shaping the total fitness impact of a heat wave when followed by pesticide exposure. Firstly, the combination of delayed negative effects of the heat wave and starvation, and the immediate negative effect of chlorpyrifos considerably (71%) reduced larval growth rate. Secondly and more strikingly, chlorpyrifos only caused considerable (ca. 48%) mortality in larvae that were previously exposed to the combination of the heat wave and starvation. This strong delayed synergism for mortality could be explained by the cumulative metabolic depression caused by each of these stressors. Further studies with increased realism are needed to evaluate the consequences of the here-identified delayed synergisms at the level of populations and communities. This is especially important as this synergism provides a novel explanation for the poorly understood potential of heat waves and of sublethal pesticide concentrations to cause mass mortality. PMID:27390895

  14. Accidental Kähler moduli inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maharana, Anshuman [Harish Chandra Research Institute,Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad, UP 211019 (India); Rummel, Markus [Rudolph Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford,1 Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Sumitomo, Yoske [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, KEK,1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2015-09-14

    We study a model of accidental inflation in type IIB string theory where inflation occurs near the inflection point of a small Kähler modulus. A racetrack structure helps to alleviate the known concern that string-loop corrections may spoil Kähler Moduli Inflation unless having a significant suppression via the string coupling or a special brane setup. Also, the hierarchy of gauge group ranks required for the separation between moduli stabilization and inflationary dynamics is relaxed. The relaxation becomes more significant when we use the recently proposed D-term generated racetrack model.

  15. Accidental Kähler moduli inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a model of accidental inflation in type IIB string theory where inflation occurs near the inflection point of a small Kähler modulus. A racetrack structure helps to alleviate the known concern that string-loop corrections may spoil Kähler Moduli Inflation unless having a significant suppression via the string coupling or a special brane setup. Also, the hierarchy of gauge group ranks required for the separation between moduli stabilization and inflationary dynamics is relaxed. The relaxation becomes more significant when we use the recently proposed D-term generated racetrack model

  16. Lead excretion in milk of accidentally exposed dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Karyn; Higgins, William; Thompson, Belinda; Ebel, Joseph G

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure in dairy cattle is associated with economic losses due to mortality and treatment costs, but with production animals there is also risk to the human food chain. The first objective of this study was to quantify the Pb concentration in milk from Pb-exposed cattle. The second objective was to correlate blood and milk Pb concentrations from individual cows. The third objective was long-term monitoring to determine the duration of milk contamination after exposure ceased. A dairy herd of more than 100 cows was accidentally exposed to Pb-contaminated feed. Milk and blood were collected for Pb analysis. Serial collection of milk samples continued for 2.5 years. The initial concentration of Pb in bulk tank milk was 0.0999 mg l⁻¹. The highest milk Pb concentration from an individual cow was 0.4657 mg l⁻¹ and the highest blood Pb concentration was 1.216 mg l⁻¹. One milk sample collected at the end of the study (day 922) contained 0.0117 mg Pb l⁻¹ of Pb. The calculated relationship between milk (y) and blood (x) Pb concentration was ln(y) = 3.4(x) - 2.21 (R² = 0.98).

  17. Learning From Biomarkers in Victims Accidentally Exposed to Ionizing Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Wang; Liqing Du; Chang Xu; Qin Wang; Zhiyi Song; Jianxiang Liu; Xu Su

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers,such as chromosome aberration and micronuclei assays,prove to be reliable for facilitating clinical diagnosis in radiation accidents.In a radiation accident in India,chromosomal aberration,γ-H2AX,as well as other blood markers,were detected in accidentally exposed victims.This multi-parametric approach aided in confirming that individuals had been exposed by ionizing radiation.However,doses were impossible to estimate because of a 30-day delay in accident awareness.Exposure dose for victims was estimated using a dose-response curve previously established.Dose estimation,blood cell depletion kinetics,and no appearance of prodromal symptoms suggested that doses of exposure were low.Hematologic investigation,sampling time,and chromosome aberration scoring were all proposed according to data from the victims exposed to 60Co.Finally,knowledge regarding chromosome aberration analysis and the importance of international co-operation and assistance should be shared from this accident.

  18. Accidentes de tránsito terrestre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Enrique Ramírez Muñoz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Los accidentes de tránsito terrestres en Costa Rica se han convertido en un serio problema de salud pública, que derivan ya sea en lesiones graves o bien en muertes de personas de todas las edades. Estos eventos incluyen el atropellamiento, las colisiones y choques, y producen cuadros lesionológicos muy diversos de acuerdo a la participación de las personas, el tipo de vehículo y la forma en la que se produce el traumatismo. Así mismo, se debe tener en cuenta la participación de factores coadyuvantes como el uso del casco y el cinturón de seguridad, o bien el consumo de alcohol y el uso del teléfono móvil. La valoración médico legal de las víctimas, vivas o muertas de accidentes de tránsito, está a cargo del Departamento de Medicina Legal del Organismo de Investigación Judicial, y se hace por solicitud de una Autoridad Judicial competente.

  19. Accidental gamma dose measurement using commercial glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Pradeep; Vaijapurkar, S G; Senwar, K R; Kumar, D; Bhatnagar, P K

    2008-01-01

    Commercial glasses have been investigated for their application in accidental gamma dose measurement using Thermoluminescent (TL) techniques. Some of the glasses have been found to be sensitive enough that they can be used as TL dating material in radiological accident situation for gamma dosimetry with lower detection limit 1 Gy (the dose significant for the onset of deterministic biological effects). The glasses behave linearly in the dose range 1-25 Gy with measurement uncertainty +/- 10%. The errors in accidental dose measurements using TL technique are estimated to be within +/- 25%. These glasses have shown TL fading in the range of 10-20% in 24 h after irradiation under room conditions; thereafter the fading becomes slower and reaches upto 50% in 15 d. TL fading of gamma-irradiated glasses follows exponential decay pattern, therefore dosimetry even after years is possible. These types of glasses can also be used as lethal dose indicator (3-4 Gy) using TL techniques, which can give valuable inputs to the medical professional for better management of radiation victims. The glasses are easy to use and do not require lengthy sample preparation before reading as in case of other building materials. TL measurement on glasses may give immediate estimation of the doses, which can help in medical triage of the radiation-exposed public. PMID:18285317

  20. Outcome of accidental hypothermia with or without circulatory arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Michael; Agersnap, Lisbeth; Ravn, Jesper;

    2012-01-01

    Resuscitation guidelines for the treatment of accidental hypothermia are based primarily on isolated cases. Mortality rates are high despite aggressive treatment aimed at restoring spontaneous circulation and normothermia....

  1. Management options in the food chain for accidental radionuclide deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finland with four other countries participated in the European Union's network project FARMING in 2000 - 2004. The aim of the project was to invite participants from each country representing the food supply chain in a stakeholder group and advance with the groups the networking in building preparedness for accidental contamination of the food production systems. The task of the groups was to evaluate the practicability of management options suggested for reduction of radiation exposure through foodstuffs, and for disposal of waste generated in implementation of these options. The criteria for practicability were effectiveness in reduction of radiation exposure through foodstuffs, technical feasibility, capacity, costs for implementation, secondary costs for waste disposal, socio-economic impact, and acceptability concerning ecology and protection of environment and landscape. Practicable management options aimed at sustainable restoration of food production systems after accidental contamination. The Finnish stakeholder group represented farm production, processing industry, food marketing, catering, advisor organisations for households and agriculture, consumers, nature conservation, the media, experts on environmental impact and authorities responsible for production, safety and security of foodstuffs, food supply and feedstuffs. The group was expected to examine the effect of the Finnish, and, also more generally, northern production conditions on the practicability of the suggested management options. The stakeholder group members first familiarized themselves with intervention after accidental contamination of a large milk production area and thereafter with practicability of individual management options. The evaluation was based on the group members' complementary expertise that very well covered the chain 'from field to fork' whether the issue was related to legislation, production methods, logistics, environmental impacts, or the issues of consumers and

  2. Accidental Contamination with Oil during Endodontic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia, Hugo; Díaz, Mariana; Cholico, Patricia; del Real, Monserrat; Márquez-de Alba, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    The modern surgical endodontic treatment is a safe and predictable procedure with high success rate. However, several factors can retard or impede the proper healing process. Use of a high speed handpiece during hard tissues management (osteotomy and apical resection) can potentially be one of these factors. Formation of metallic debris from the surgical diamond burs, production of necrotic local tissue due to overheating and the direct liberation of air from conventional handpiece into the working area are potential irritants able to delay the tissue healing. The aim of the present article is to report the histopathological findings of the trans-operational accidental contamination with oil in the surgical area during an endodontic surgery. PMID:27790269

  3. Accidental etizolam ingestion in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Zenichiro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Funato, Michinori; Kuwabara, Hideaki; Kondo, Naomi

    2007-07-01

    Etizolam (ETZ) is an antidepressive thienodiazepine drug that is used worldwide. The most frequent adverse effects in adults are drowsiness and muscle weakness, and this can rarely cause paradoxical excitation; however, no information exists on intoxication in children. Furthermore, evidence bearing on its safety in children is not available. We present a case of a child who accidentally took a single dose of ETZ, approximately the same as a therapeutic dose for adults, and who showed paradoxical excitation and muscle weakness. The case presented here suggests that pediatricians and emergency physicians should be aware of the possible adverse effects in children and therapeutic approaches in intoxication of ETZ and the necessity of further investigations on a specific therapeutic guideline for overdose management especially in children. PMID:17666930

  4. Throat-cutting of accidental origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Serafettin; Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Gunaydin, Gursel

    2008-07-01

    Incised wounds of the neck can be accidental, homicidal, or suicidal. In this paper, a death case has been presented where a spinning circular saw of a cutting machine in a workshop came off its place and cut the throat of a 30-year-old male who was operating the machine. There was an incision (15 cm x 5 cm) that began in the middle of the neck down the thyroid cartilage, extended horizontally to the left of the neck and ended on the outer part of the neck in the outer left side of m. trapezius. Death occurred because of exsanguination caused by the cutting of carotis artery and jugular vein. In the case we presented, although the cut in the neck initially suggested homicide, it was found to have occurred as a result of an accident after the autopsy and death scene investigation. PMID:18489556

  5. Accidental foreign bodies in pediatric abdomens: A pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreign bodies in pediatric abdomens are caused by accidental ingestion or trauma. The purpose of this article is to review the various findings of accidental foreign bodies in pediatric abdomens. Abdominal radiography, fluoroscopic examination, gastrointestinal contrast studies and CT may be useful in evaluating the location and type of foreign body, and for evaluating complications such as bowel perforation and obstruction

  6. Deterioration of concrete structures by acid deposition — an assessment of the role of rainwater on deterioration by laboratory and field exposure experiments using mortar specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okochi, Hiroshi; Kameda, Hideki; Hasegawa, Shin-ichi; Saito, Nobuhiko; Kubota, Ken; Igawa, Manabu

    Deterioration of concrete structures caused by acid deposition was investigated by laboratory and field exposure of portland cement mortar specimens to acid deposition. Laboratory exposure experiment showed that the dissolved amount of calcium hydrates, which were the major components in mortar, increased with the increase in the acidity of simulated acid rain solution and the decrease in the flow rate. There was little difference in their amount among different temperature treatments after each exposure to the solution with the same acidity, namely left at room temperature, heated at 70°C, and cooled at -2°C. The neutralization progressed more deeply under the heated and cooled condition and was accelerated by even acid rain with pH 4.7 during a long period (90 exposure cycles, which correspond to the rainfall amount of 15 years in Japan). A field exposure experiment for two years indicated that the carbonation of calcium hydrates and the formation of other corrosion products such as chloride, nitrate, and sulfate were limited to the surface of mortar specimens. The neutralization progressed more deeply in mortar specimens sheltered from rainwater than in those washed by rainwater.

  7. Causes of accidental childhood deaths in China in 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kit Yee; Yu, Xin-Wei; Lu, Jia-Peng;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infectious causes of childhood deaths in the world have decreased substantially in the 21st century. This trend has exposed accidental deaths as an increasingly important future challenge. Presently, little is known about the cause structure of accidental childhood deaths in low......- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. In this paper, we aim to establish cause structure for accidental deaths in children aged 0-4 years in China in the year 2010. METHODS: In this paper, we explored the database of 208 multi-cause child mortality studies in Chinese that formed a basis for the first...... published estimate of the causes of child deaths in China (for the year 2008). Only five of those studies identified specific causes of accidental deaths. Because of this, we searched the Chinese medical literature databases CNKI and WanFang for single-cause mortality studies that were focused on accidental...

  8. Kinematics and kinetics of an accidental lateral ankle sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristianslund, Eirik; Bahr, Roald; Krosshaug, Tron

    2011-09-23

    Ankle sprains are common during sporting activities and can have serious consequences. Understanding of injury mechanisms is essential to prevent injuries, but only two previous studies have provided detailed descriptions of the kinematics of lateral ankle sprains and measures of kinetics are missing. In the present study a female handball player accidentally sprained her ankle during sidestep cutting in a motion analysis laboratory. Kinematics and kinetics were calculated from 240 Hz recordings with a full-body marker setup. The injury trial was compared with two previous (non-injury) trials. The injury trial showed a sudden increase in inversion and internal rotation that peaked between 130 and 180 ms after initial contact. We observed an attempted unloading of the foot from 80 ms after initial contact. As the inversion and internal rotation progressed, the loads were likely to exceed injury threshold between 130 and 180 ms. There was a considerable amount of dorsiflexion in the injury trial compared to neutral flexion in the control trials, similar to the previously published kinematical descriptions of lateral ankle sprains. The present study also adds valuable kinetic information that improves understanding of the injury mechanism. PMID:21824618

  9. El accidente de trabajo. Concepto legal y jurisprudencia

    OpenAIRE

    García Romero, José Daniel

    2015-01-01

    El trabajo final de grado versa sobre el concepto de accidente de trabajo que da la jurisprudencia a través de las diferentes sentencias del Tribunal Supremo en la Sala de lo Social, y de los diferentes Tribunales Superiores de Justicia. Analizaremos en profundidad que características tienen que concurrir para que sea considerado como tal, analizando los diferentes supuestos de accidente de trabajo como el accidente in itinere, en misión, etc. También hemos tratado las diferentes contingencia...

  10. Static and mobile networks design for atmospheric accidental releases monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global context of my PhD thesis work is the optimization of air pollution monitoring networks, but more specifically it concerns the monitoring of accidental releases of radionuclides in air. The optimization problem of air quality measuring networks has been addresses in the literature. However, it has not been addresses in the context of surveillance of accidental atmospheric releases. The first part of my thesis addresses the optimization of a permanent network of monitoring of radioactive aerosols in the air, covering France. The second part concerns the problem of targeting of observations in case of an accidental release of radionuclides from a nuclear plant. (author)

  11. Presentismo: potencialidad en accidentes de salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grettchen Flores-Sandí

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de salud ha sobrepasado el entorno propiamente sanitario y cada vez más, tiene otras implicaciones sociales, la institución de salud es hoy en día una actividad compleja donde no solamente se gestiona la prevención y tratamiento de las enfermedades de los usuarios sino al recurso humano encargado de su atención. Asimismo en la actualidad se reconoce la importancia del recurso humano para la organización y surge el concepto de "presentismo", referido a aquellos trabajadores que sufren enfermedades que los obligarían a ausentarse del trabajo pero que se presentan a trabajar sin cumplir eficazmente sus funciones. Al respecto y en relación con el presentismo, se debe tomar en cuenta que los efectos adversos o accidentes durante la atención de servicios de salud se encuentran asociados a factores fisiológicos, psicológicos y ambientales e implican desde el punto de vista administrativo, una falla en la productividad, que afecta tanto al usuario del servicio como al trabajador. Se debe considerar que este grupo profesional se ubica entre los grupos de riesgo del presentismo y que con el fin de administrar y reducir el presentismo se requieren estrategias preventivas por parte de la gerencia de salud.

  12. Study of TSL and OSL properties of dental ceramics for accidental dosimetry applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest is increasing in the development of new methodologies for accidental dose assessment, exploiting the luminescence and dosimetric properties of objects and materials which can be usually found directly on exposed subjects and/or in the contaminated area. In this work, several types of ceramics employed for dental prosthetics restoration, including both innovative materials used as sub-frames for the construction of the inner part of dental crowns (core), and conventional porcelains used for the fabrication of the external layer (veneer), were investigated with regard to their thermally and optically stimulated luminescence (TSL and OSL respectively) properties, in view of their potential application in accidental dosimetry. The sensitivity to ionizing radiation proved to strongly depend on the type and brand of ceramic, with minimum detectable dose ranging from few mGy up to several tens of mGy. A linear dose-response was observed for most of the samples. However, the luminescence signals were characterised by a significant fading, which has to be taken into account for a reliable accidental dose assessment after a radiation exposure event.

  13. Accumulation of copper, chromium, and arsenic in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from laboratory and field exposures to wood treated with chromated copper arsenate type C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler-Ivanbrook, L.; Breslin, V.T. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1999-02-01

    Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to examine the uptake of Cu, Cr, and As leached from southern yellow pine (SYP) treated with chromated copper arsenate type C (CCA-C), as well as effects on mortality and growth, in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). Mussels were exposed to CCA-C-treated wood at a preservative retention of 40 kg/m{sup 3} and control (nontreated) SYP in laboratory flow-through sea table and field exposure experiments for 9 months in 1994 and 3 months in 1995. Mussels were sampled at regular intervals to evaluate possible short- and long-term exposure effects., Individual mussels were measured to determine the length, dry weight, and condition index. Mussel tissues were than analyzed for Cu, Cr, and As. Results showed few significant differences in condition index, dry weight, and length between CCA-C-exposed and control mussels. In addition, no statistically significant differences in mortality were found between the mussels exposed to CCA-C-treated and nontreated SYP in the laboratory flow-through sea table and field exposure experiments. Significant differences in Cu, As, and Cr contents in mussel tissues between treatments were few, and generally cannot be attributed to exposure to CCA-C-treated SYP. The lack of Cu, Cr, and As uptake from CCA-C-treated SYP was attributed to the low, although continuous, rate of release of these elements from CCA-C-treated wood and to the experimental design, which allowed continuous flushing, prohibiting the accumulation of these elements in the water surrounding the mussels.

  14. CRADA with Teledyne Electronic Technologies and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL-096): The Exposure-to-Risk monitoring system. Final letter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrall, K.D.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the ``Exposure-to- Risk`` monitoring system in an actual occupational environment. The system is a unique combination of existing hardware with proprietary software to create an integrated means of assessing occupational exposures to volatile organic compounds. One component of this system utilizes a portable mass spectrometer developed by Teledyne Electronic Technologies. Integration of the system was accomplished under Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) funding. Commercialization of the system will take place following demonstration in an actual occupational environment, and will include, in part, Teledyne Electronic Technologies. The Exposure-to-Risk monitoring system will benefit DOE by overcoming present-day limitations in worker health protection monitoring. There are numerous sites within the` DOE complex where many different hazardous chemicals are used on a routine basis. These chemicals range from paint stripers and cleaning solvents to chemical warfare agents, each having its own degree of potential adverse health risk to a worker. Thus, a real concern for DOE is to ensure that a worker is properly monitored to assess any adverse health risk from exposure to potentially hazardous chemicals. With current industrial hygiene technologies, this is an arduous task. The Exposure-to-Risk monitoring system integrates a patented breath-inlet device connecting a subject`s exhaled breath directly with a field-portable mass spectrometer with physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to estimate the target tissue dose following a chemical exposure. Estimation of the adverse health risk prediction follows from the exposure/dose calculation based on currently accepted methodologies. This new system can determine, in the field, the possible adverse health risks on a daily basis to an individual worker.

  15. Accidental Childhood Iron Poisoning: A Problem of Marketing and Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzelok, Edward P.; Hoff, Julie V.

    1979-01-01

    The article indicates that accidental iron poisoning represents a significant hazard in children less than five years of age. Attractiveness of dosage, high availability, and ambiguity in product labeling contribute to the problem. Journal availability: see EC 114 125. (CL)

  16. Mistakes in diagnosing non-accidental injury: 10 years' experience

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, David M; Hobbs, Christopher J

    1988-01-01

    Fifty children who were referred to the child abuse team in Leeds over the 10 years 1976-86 with suspected non-accidental injury were found to have conditions which mimicked non-accidental injury. These included impetigo (nine children) and blue spots (five children). Five children who presented with multiple bruising had haemostatic disorders. Eight children had disorders of the bone. Five children had been previously abused physically. Four showed evidence of neglect. One had evidence of no...

  17. Accidental Implant Screwdriver Ingestion: A Rare Complication during Implant Placement.

    OpenAIRE

    Anshul Jain; Baliga, Shridhar D

    2014-01-01

    One of the complications during a routine dental implant placement is accidental ingestion of the implant instruments, which can happen when proper precautions are not taken. Appropriate radiographs should be taken to locate the correct position of foreign body; usually the foreign body passes asymptomatically from gastrointestinal tract but sometimes it may lead to intestinal obstruction, perforations and impactions. The aim of this article is to report accidental ingestion of 19 mm long scr...

  18. Accidental oil spills - project management strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planning and organisation, as well as actions taken during accidental discharging of hazardous substances (hydrocarbons) into the soil and water, show that without integrating all the functions of safety, occupational safety, fire and explosion protection, technical safety, all the way to the environmental protection, procedure of cleaning, rehabilitation and remediation of polluted areas into their original state cannot be successfully carried out. Neglecting any of the mentioned links/components of the procedure represents a risk to people's health and life, while pollution to the environment remains a constant threat. Development of technologies is quickly transforming the environment in which the professionals of all disciplines work. Therefore, the response to changes by application of new technologies and procedures in all domains is indispensable, however, through a comprehensive and expert perception and consideration of each of the essential correlations comprising the safety management in all the fields. Through management of safety projects in environmental protection, it has become obvious that a united management of different fields is necessary, as well as management of safety in general. Engineering, health, legislation, public, environmental standards, occupational safety, hazards, biophysical and socio-economic aspects are parts of an integral management. Experts joined efforts through interaction and communications are inter-disciplinary characteristics, i.e. multi-disciplinary safety management, but also the management of each project separately. Exactly this knowledge exchange is highly productive and becomes an indispensable element in recognition of indirect and cumulative actions, thus applicable in any field. Implementation of European standards and accreditation of procedures pursuant to the corresponding standards, from risk assessment through rehabilitation to independent expert confirmation of efficiency in implementing the entire

  19. Epidemiology of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, R J; Davis, P M; Meadow, S R; Sibert, J R

    1996-07-01

    A two year prospective study was performed to determine the epidemiology of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. Cases were notified to the British Paediatric Association Surveillance Unit from September 1992 to August 1994 if a formal case conference had been held for the first time during that period to discuss any of the above conditions. A total of 128 cases were identified: 55 suffered Munchausen syndrome by proxy alone, 15 poisoning, and 15 suffocation; 43 suffered more than one type of abuse. The majority of children were aged under 5 years, the median age being 20 months. On 85% of occasions the perpetrator was the child's mother. In 42% of families with more than one child, a sibling had previously suffered some form of abuse. Eighty five per cent of notifying paediatricians considered the probability of their diagnosis as virtually certain before a case conference was convened. The commonest drugs used to poison were anticonvulsants; opiates were the second commonest. Sixty eight children suffered severe illness of whom eight died. The combined annual incidence of these conditions in children aged under 16 years is at least 0.5/100,000, and for children aged under 1, at least 2.8/100,000.

  20. Reduction of exposure to acrylamide: achievements, potential of optimization, and problems encountered from the perspectives of a Swiss enforcement laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Koni

    2005-01-01

    The most important initiatives taken in Switzerland to reduce exposure of consumers to acrylamide are the separate sale of potatoes low in reducing sugars for roasting and frying, the optimization of the raw material and preparation of french fries, and campaigns to implement suitable preparation methods in the gastronomy and homes. Industry works on improving a range of other products. Although these measures can reduce high exposures by some 80%, they have little effect on the background exposure resulting from coffee, bread, and numerous other products for which no substantial improvement is in sight. At this stage, improvements should be achieved by supporting voluntary activity rather than legal limits. Committed and consistent risk communication is key, and the support of improvements presupposes innovative approaches.

  1. Propofol-Induced Neurotoxicity in the Fetal Animal Brain and Developments in Modifying These Effects—An Updated Review of Propofol Fetal Exposure in Laboratory Animal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Xiong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past twenty years, evidence of neurotoxicity in the developing brain in animal studies from exposure to several general anesthetics has been accumulating. Propofol, a commonly used general anesthetic medication, administered during synaptogenesis, may trigger widespread apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing brain and long-term neurobehavioral disturbances in both rodents and non-human primates. Despite the growing evidence of the potential neurotoxicity of different anesthetic agents in animal studies, there is no concrete evidence that humans may be similarly affected. However, given the growing evidence of the neurotoxic effects of anesthetics in laboratory studies, it is prudent to further investigate the mechanisms causing these effects and potential ways to mitigate them. Here, we review multiple studies that investigate the effects of in utero propofol exposure and the developmental agents that may modify these deleterious effects.

  2. The PROCESS experiment: exposure of amino acids in the EXPOSE-E experiment on the international space station and in laboratory simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, M; Chabin, A; Brack, A; Cottin, H; Chaput, D; Westall, F

    2012-05-01

    To understand the chemical behavior of organic molecules in the space environment, amino acids and a dipeptide in pure form and embedded in meteorite powder were exposed in the PROCESS experiment in the EXPOSE-E facility mounted on the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) platform on board the International Space Station (ISS). After exposure to space conditions for 18 months, the samples were returned to Earth and analyzed in the laboratory for reactions caused by solar UV and cosmic radiation. Chemical degradation and possible racemization and oligomerization, the main reactions caused by photochemistry in the vacuum ultraviolet domain (VUV, wavelength range 100-200 nm for photon energy from 6.2 to 12.4 eV) were examined in particular. The molecules were extracted and derivatized by silylation and analyzed by gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS) to quantify the rate of the degradation of the compounds. Laboratory exposure in several wavelength ranges from UV to VUV was carried out in parallel in the Cologne Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) Center and Centre de biophysique moléculaire (CBM) laboratories. The results show that resistance to irradiation is a function of the chemical nature of the exposed molecules and the wavelengths of the UV light. The most altered compounds were the dipeptide, aspartic acid, and aminobutyric acid. The most resistant were alanine, valine, glycine, and aminoisobutyric acid. Our results also demonstrate the protective effect of meteorite powder, which reemphasizes the importance of exogenic contribution to the inventory of prebiotic organics on early Earth.

  3. [Severe accidental hypothermia in an elderly woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobel, B; Mikhlin, A

    2001-11-01

    Profound hypothermia (core temperature of less than 28 degrees C) is a life threatening state and a medical emergency associated with a high mortality rate. The prognosis depends on underlying diseases, advanced or very early age, the duration prior to treatment, the degree of hemodynamic deterioration, and especially, the methods of treatment, including active external or internal rewarming. This is a case study of an 80-year-old female patient with severe accidental hypothermia (core temperature 27 degrees C). She was found in her home lying immobile on the cold floor after a fall. The patient was in a profound coma with cardiocirculatory collapse, and the medical staff treating her was inclined to pronounce her deceased. On her arrival at the hospital, she was resuscitated, put on a respirator and actively warmed. Very severe metabolic disorders were found, including a marked metabolic acidosis composed of diabetic ketoacidosis (she had suffered from insulin treated type 2 diabetes mellitus) and lactic acidosis with a very high anion gap (42) and a hyperosmotic state (blood glucose 1202 mg/dl). There were pathognomonic electrocardiographic abnormalities, J-wave of Osborn and prolonged repolarization. Slow atrial fibrillation with a ventricular response of 30 bpm followed by a nodal rhythm of 12 bpm and reversible cardiac arrest were recorded. The pulse and blood pressure were unobtainable. Despite the successful resuscitation and hemodynamic and cognitive improvement, rhabdomyolysis (CKP 6580 u/L), renal failure and hepatic damage developed. She was extubated and treated with intravenous fluids containing dopamine, bicarbonate, insulin and antibiotics. Her medical condition gradually improved, and she was discharged clear minded, functioning very well and independent. Renal and liver tests returned eventually to normal limits. Progressive bradycardia, hypotension and death due to ventricular fibrillation or asystole commonly occur during severe hypothermia

  4. Exposure to a heat wave under food limitation makes an agricultural insecticide lethal: a mechanistic laboratory experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinh, Khuong Van; Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2016-01-01

    Extreme temperatures and exposure to agricultural pesticides are becoming more frequent and intense under global change. Their combination may be especially problematic when animals suffer food limitation. We exposed Coenagrion puella damselfly larvae to a simulated heat wave combined with food l...

  5. Accidental Laser Injury to the Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandari, Jamal Al; Raizada, Seemant; Razzak, Ahmed Abdul

    2010-03-01

    The unprotected human eye is extremely sensitive to laser radiation and can be permanently damaged from direct or reflected beams. Two cases of retinal injury by laser exposure outside hospital setting are reported. Two patients presented in retina clinic in Al-Bahar eye center in Kuwait with complaints of decrease in vision following exposure to unknown light. Case 1 was exposed to a laser used in military warfare and Case 2 exposed to laser pointer. Routine slit lamp examination and fundus examination of the patient was done along with fundus fluorescien angiography (FFA) and Optical coherence tomography (OCT). Patients were followed up in out patient department for 6 months. Patient with military laser exposure had severe permanent vision loss and persisted even after 6 months. Patient exposed to laser pointer beam had transient visual loss, which improved to 20/25 at 7 months follow-up. Laser retinal damage should be suspected in any patient with visual complaints after obvious exposure to unknown strong light. The treatment for laser retinal injuries is extremely limited and hence prevention is essential. PMID:20337345

  6. Validation of the HZETRN code for laboratory exposures with 1A GeV iron ions in several targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S A; Tweed, J; Wilson, J W; Cucinotta, F A; Tripathi, R K; Blattnig, S; Zeitlin, C; Heilbronn, L; Miller, J

    2005-01-01

    A new version of the HZETRN code capable of validation with HZE ions in either the laboratory or the space environment is under development. The computational model consists of the lowest order asymptotic approximation followed by a Neumann series expansion with non-perturbative corrections. The physical description includes energy loss with straggling, nuclear attenuation, nuclear fragmentation with energy dispersion and downshift. Measurements to test the model were performed at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory with iron ions. Surviving beam particles and produced fragments were measured with solid-state detectors. Beam analysis software has been written to relate the computational results to the measured energy loss spectra of the incident ions for rapid validation of modeled target transmission functions.

  7. Exposure of Workers of Ectatomma brunneum Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ectatomminae) to ant Baits Containing Different Active Ingredients under Laboratory Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane Tofolo; Edilberto Giannotti; Marcos Pizano

    2015-01-01

    This work evaluated the short-range mortality of workers of Ectatomma brunneum Smith when exposed to ant baits in laboratory, in order to verify if the attractiveness of this non-target species by ant baits intended to be used in the control of leaf-cutting (target) ants might be harmful to the population studied. Workers were exposed in laboratory for 48 hours to ant baits used in pastures to control the leaf-cutting ants Atta capiguara Gonçalves (Formicidae: Attini) and Atta bisphaerica For...

  8. Study of the luminescence properties of dental materials for their use in accidental dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The current social and political situation in many world areas and the increasing hostilities between countries and cultures have accentuated the risk of a malicious use of ionising radiations. Terrorist attacks with the intentional disseminations of radioactive materials in urban settlements may involve a large number of persons, and a rapid estimation of the severity of the exposure is required for undertaking suitable protective actions and supporting decision making. Promising methodologies for a prompt dose evaluation, are those exploiting the luminescence and dosimetric properties of objects and materials which can be easily found in the contaminated area. Among these objects, dental materials have the advantage to be on contact with human body and they could therefore represent individual dosimeters in case of accidental exposure to ionising radiation. The interest in the use of dental ceramics for dosimetric purposes dates back to late 1970, however, it is only through the use of high-sensitive experimental techniques and instrumentation today available, that the potentiality of such materials as accidental dosimeters can be exploited. Moreover, innovative materials are being continuously introduced into the market, containing new additives and pigments with peculiar optical properties. In this study, Thermally Stimulated Luminescence (TSL) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) techniques are applied to investigate the luminescence and dosimetric properties of several dental materials, including resins, glass and feldspatic ceramics, and also zirconia and alumina based ceramics, being their use widely increased in the recent years in substitution of metal cores. (author)

  9. Non-accidental collision followed by dental trauma: associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Tataounoff, Juliana; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Alcântara, Carlos Eduardo Pinto; Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Marques, Leandro Silva

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present cross-sectional survey was to assess factors associated with non-accidental collision followed by dental trauma among adolescents in the city of Diamantina, Brazil. A total of 387 students from 12 to 15 years of age (mean = 14 SD = 0.9) were randomly selected. The study was carried out in two stages. Firstly, data were collected through dental examinations of permanent incisors. Secondly, a thorough interview was held with 85 adolescents who exhibited dental trauma in the dental examinations. The interview consisted of a detailed description of the incident and physical environment in which it occurred. Descriptive analysis and the chi-square test (P 3 mm (P = 0.007) and inadequate lip coverage (P = 0.013). Analysis of the event revealed that 22.3% of the cases of dental trauma occurred because of non-accidental collision. Non-accidental collision followed by injury occurred mainly at school (P concrete, tiled or ceramic floor (P = 0.001). No statistically significant associations were found between non-accidental collision and gender, age or mother's schooling. It was concluded that the non-accidental collisions happened especially at school and in indoor environments with a concrete, tiled or ceramic floor.

  10. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms. PMID:26844181

  11. Use of sulfur hexafluoride airflow studies to determine the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in an alpha inhalation exposure laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in the workplace is quite subjective and is generally one of the more difficult tasks in radiation protection. General guidance for determining the number and placement of air sampling and monitoring instruments has been provided by technical reports such as Mishima, J. These two documents and other published guidelines suggest that some insight into sampler placement can be obtained by conducting airflow studies involving the dilution and clearance of the relatively inert tracer gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in sampler placement studies and describes the results of a study done within the ITRI alpha inhalation exposure laboratories. The objectives of the study were to document an appropriate method for conducting SF6 dispersion studies, and to confirm the appropriate number and placement of air monitors and air samplers within a typical ITRI inhalation exposure laboratory. The results of this study have become part of the technical bases for air sampling and monitoring in the test room

  12. Use of sulfur hexafluoride airflow studies to determine the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in an alpha inhalation exposure laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    Determination of the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in the workplace is quite subjective and is generally one of the more difficult tasks in radiation protection. General guidance for determining the number and placement of air sampling and monitoring instruments has been provided by technical reports such as Mishima, J. These two documents and other published guidelines suggest that some insight into sampler placement can be obtained by conducting airflow studies involving the dilution and clearance of the relatively inert tracer gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) in sampler placement studies and describes the results of a study done within the ITRI alpha inhalation exposure laboratories. The objectives of the study were to document an appropriate method for conducting SF{sub 6} dispersion studies, and to confirm the appropriate number and placement of air monitors and air samplers within a typical ITRI inhalation exposure laboratory. The results of this study have become part of the technical bases for air sampling and monitoring in the test room.

  13. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  14. The AMINO experiment: exposure of amino acids in the EXPOSE-R experiment on the International Space Station and in laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Marylène; Chabin, Annie; Colas, Cyril; Cadène, Martine; Chaput, Didier; Brack, Andre; Cottin, Herve

    2015-01-01

    In order to confirm the results of previous experiments concerning the chemical behaviour of organic molecules in the space environment, organic molecules (amino acids and a dipeptide) in pure form and embedded in meteorite powder were exposed in the AMINO experiment in the EXPOSE-R facility onboard the International Space Station. After exposure to space conditions for 24 months (2843 h of irradiation), the samples were returned to the Earth and analysed in the laboratory for reactions caused by solar ultraviolet (UV) and other electromagnetic radiation. Laboratory UV exposure was carried out in parallel in the Cologne DLR Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft und Raumfahrt). The molecules were extracted from the sample holder and then (1) derivatized by silylation and analysed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS) in order to quantify the rate of degradation of the compounds and (2) analysed by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) in order to understand the chemical reactions that occurred. The GC-MS results confirm that resistance to irradiation is a function of the chemical nature of the exposed molecules and of the wavelengths of the UV light. They also confirm the protective effect of a coating of meteorite powder. The most altered compounds were the dipeptides and aspartic acid while the most robust were compounds with a hydrocarbon chain. The MS analyses document the products of reactions, such as decarboxylation and decarbonylation of aspartic acid, taking place after UV exposure. Given the universality of chemistry in space, our results have a broader implication for the fate of organic molecules that seeded the planets as soon as they became habitable as well as for the effects of UV radiation on exposed molecules at the surface of Mars, for example.

  15. Application of metallomic and metabolomic approaches in exposure experiments on laboratory mice for environmental metal toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sevillano, M A; García-Barrera, T; Gómez-Ariza, J L

    2014-02-01

    Metals have a central role in biological systems, regulating numerous cellular processes, and in other cases having toxic or deleterious effects on the metabolism. Hence, the study of metal-induced changes in cellular metabolic pathways is crucial to understanding the biological response associated with environmental issues. In this context, the finding of biomarkers has great interest, representing -omics techniques, such as metallomics and metabolomics, powerful tools for this purpose. The present work evaluates the exposure of mice Mus musculus to toxic metals (As, Cd and Hg), considering the changes induced in both the metallome and metabolome as a consequence of the high genetic homology between Mus musculus/Mus spretus mice, which allows the use of the database from M. musculus to identify the proteins and metabolites expressed by M. spretus. For this purpose a metallomic approach based on size exclusion chromatography (SEC) in combination with other complementary orthogonal separation techniques and heteroelement monitoring by ICP-ORS-qMS was performed, followed by identification of metallobiomolecules by organic mass spectrometry. In addition, simultaneous speciation of selenoproteins and selenometabolites in mouse plasma was accomplished by tandem (double) SEC-(dual) affinity chromatography (AF)-HPLC and online isotope dilution analysis (IDA)-ICP-ORS-qMS. Finally, the simultaneous changes in metabolic expression in mice caused by metal exposure (metabolome) were considered, using direct infusion mass spectrometry (DI-ESI-QqQ-TOF-MS) of extracts from mice plasma. Subsequently altered metabolites were identified using MS/MS experiments. The results obtained under controlled conditions were extrapolated to homologous free-living mice captured in Doñana National Park (DNP) and surroundings (southwest Spain) affected by As, Cd and Hg pollution. In summary, such studies are needed to understand the effect of heavy metal exposure and cope with heavy metal

  16. ACCIDENTAL DEATHS DUE TO ELECTROCUTION DURING AMATEUR ELECTRO - FISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Electro - fishing (passing electricity through water to catch fish requires sophisticated equipment. While this method is commonly employed b y scientists for survey and fisheries management, a crude and illegal form electro - fishing is employed in Kerala for catching fish from water bodies. This can result in accidental electrocution and even fatalities. Even though they are rare, forensic patho logists in Kerala do come across such deaths from time to time. 8 cases of accidental death which occurred during electro - fishing are discussed here.

  17. Correcting for accidental correlations in saturated avalanche photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Grieve, James A; Tang, Zhongkan; Ling, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a high-level numerical model for estimating rates of accidental correlations between a pair of passively quenched Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes operating in the saturated regime. By considering the recovery time of both the diodes and the detection circuit we introduce the concept of an "effective duty cycle" and show that it may be estimated by numeric simulation. The impact of effective duty cycle on the observed accidental rate is examined and we demonstrate that the updated model leads to an improved correction factor in actual experiments. This will improve the signal-to-noise ratio in applications depending on correlation measurements.

  18. Accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohida, Neeraj S; Bhad, Wasundhara A

    2011-01-01

    Orthodontic appliances that become dislodged can cause problems in the airway or the gastrointestinal tract. Accidental ingestion of an appliance during a chair-side procedure or because of inadequate retention of the appliance can create a medical emergency with potentially serious complications, including death from aspiration of the foreign body. This article reports the accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance. The ease with which removable appliances can become dislodged if retention is inadequate is discussed, and some serious complications that can arise are described. Precautions the orthodontist can take to prevent such accidents are presented. PMID:21195285

  19. Genetic Damage Induced by Accidental Environmental Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Pérez-Cadahía

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum is one of the main energy sources worldwide. Its transport is performed by big tankers following some established marine routes. In the last 50 years a total amount of 37 oil tankers have given rise to great spills in different parts of the world, Prestige being the last one. After the accident, a big human mobilisation took place in order to clean beaches, rocks and fauna, trying to reduce the environmental consequences of this serious catastrophe. These people were exposed to the complex mixture of compounds contained in the oil. This study aimed at determine the level of environmental exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOC, and the possible damage induced on the population involved in the different cleaning tasks by applying the genotoxicity tests sister chromatid exchanges (SCE, micronucleus (MN test, and comet assay. Four groups of individuals were included: volunteers (V, hired manual workers (MW, hired high-pressure cleaner workers (HPW and controls. The higher VOC levels were associated with V environment, followed by MW and lastly by HPW, probably due to the use of high-pressure cleaners. Oil exposure during the cleaning tasks has caused an increase in the genotoxic damage in individuals, the comet assay being the most sensitive biomarker to detect it. Sex, age and tobacco consumption have shown to influence the level of genetic damage, while the effect of using protective devices was less noticeable than expected, perhaps because the kind used was not the most adequate.

  20. Medical handling of accidentally exposed individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1978 the International Atomic Energy Agency issued a publication in the IAEA Safety Series entitled Manual on Early Medical Treatment of Possible Radiation Injury (Safety Series No. 47). The contents were directed to first aid and early medical treatment of workers who might be concerned in an accident involving exposure to radiation, whether external or internal. The present manual is the first of a set of three safety series publications dealing with assessment and treatment of overexposures which will constitute an articulated system of documents covering all aspects of diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of overexposures. This document establishes a set of general criteria and recommendations to aid specialists involved in the medical handling of overexposed persons. It deals with the medical management of individual patients or small groups of patients under close medical supervision. 14 refs, 7 figs, 7 tabs

  1. Organizational influence on the occurrence of work accidents involving exposure to biological material La influencia de la organización en la ocurrencia de accidentes de trabajo con exposición a material biológico Influência organizacional na ocorrência de acidentes de trabalho com exposição a material biológico

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Helena Palucci Marziale; Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi Rocha; Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz Robazzi; Camila Maria Cenzi; Heloisa Ehmke Cardoso dos Santos; Marli Elisa Mendes Trovó

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to analyze work accidents involving exposure to biological materials which took place among personnel working in nursing and to evaluate the influence of the organizational culture on the occurrence of these accidents. METHOD: a retrospective, analytical study, carried out in two stages in a hospital that was part of the Network for the Prevention of Work Accidents. The first stage involved the analysis of the characteristics of the work accidents involving exposure to biological ...

  2. Tissue distribution of organochlorine pesticides in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from laboratory exposure and a contaminated lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Viet D; Kroll, Kevin J; Supowit, Samuel D; Halden, Rolf U; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-09-01

    Tissue concentrations of persistent organochlorine pesticides in laboratory-exposed largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and in bass collected from Lake Apopka, FL were determined by both total mass and lipid normalized mass to better understand the bioaccumulation pathways of contaminants. In the laboratory study, male bass were orally administered a single dose of a mixture of two pesticides (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and dieldrin) and then fed uncontaminated food for 28 days. Gastrointestinal tract, liver, brain, gonad, kidney, spleen, and muscle were collected for chemical analysis. Different profiles were observed by total contaminant mass in tissues compared to lipid normalized mass. On a lipid normalized basis, p,p'-DDE was highest in the gastrointestinal tract followed by the liver, gonad, spleen, muscle, kidney and then brain. Dieldrin, on the other hand, was highest in the gastrointestinal tract and spleen and then followed by the gonad, muscle, liver, kidney, and brain. Distribution of the chemicals among the organs differed by their log KOW values and generally followed the blood flow path after the gastrointestinal tract. The low contaminant levels found in kidney and brain suggest insufficient time for equilibration into these tissues, especially into the brain where the blood-brain barrier may be slow to traverse. In Lake Apopka fish, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDXs, sum of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDT), Drins (sum of aldrin, dieldrin, and endrin), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were found. For DDXs, the lipid normalized concentrations in each tissue were about the same, as predicted from theory. For Drins and HCHs, the lipid normalized concentrations were similar for kidney, spleen, brain, gonad and muscle, but much lower in the gastrointestinal tract and liver, probably because of metabolism occurring in those tissues. PMID:27394080

  3. Tissue distribution of organochlorine pesticides in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from laboratory exposure and a contaminated lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Viet D; Kroll, Kevin J; Supowit, Samuel D; Halden, Rolf U; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-09-01

    Tissue concentrations of persistent organochlorine pesticides in laboratory-exposed largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and in bass collected from Lake Apopka, FL were determined by both total mass and lipid normalized mass to better understand the bioaccumulation pathways of contaminants. In the laboratory study, male bass were orally administered a single dose of a mixture of two pesticides (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and dieldrin) and then fed uncontaminated food for 28 days. Gastrointestinal tract, liver, brain, gonad, kidney, spleen, and muscle were collected for chemical analysis. Different profiles were observed by total contaminant mass in tissues compared to lipid normalized mass. On a lipid normalized basis, p,p'-DDE was highest in the gastrointestinal tract followed by the liver, gonad, spleen, muscle, kidney and then brain. Dieldrin, on the other hand, was highest in the gastrointestinal tract and spleen and then followed by the gonad, muscle, liver, kidney, and brain. Distribution of the chemicals among the organs differed by their log KOW values and generally followed the blood flow path after the gastrointestinal tract. The low contaminant levels found in kidney and brain suggest insufficient time for equilibration into these tissues, especially into the brain where the blood-brain barrier may be slow to traverse. In Lake Apopka fish, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDXs, sum of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDT), Drins (sum of aldrin, dieldrin, and endrin), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were found. For DDXs, the lipid normalized concentrations in each tissue were about the same, as predicted from theory. For Drins and HCHs, the lipid normalized concentrations were similar for kidney, spleen, brain, gonad and muscle, but much lower in the gastrointestinal tract and liver, probably because of metabolism occurring in those tissues.

  4. Are diabetic foot lesions precipitated by accidental trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, H K; Moissinac, K; Harwant, S

    2001-12-01

    Diabetic foot lesions may arise from frictional trauma due to tight or inappropriate footwear, repetitive stresses on parts of the foot, overlying bony prominence generated by walking and accidental trauma to the neuropathic foot. Many diabetics have been found to be unaware of their foot lesion, or know what the precipitating cause was. Based on the assumption that accidental trauma would affect the foot in a random fashion and result in lesions distributed evenly throughout the foot, a study was performed to determine whether foot lesions were distributed evenly or concentrated to certain areas of predilection. It was found that foot lesions were not evenly distributed but concentrated to certain areas of predilection. Even though relatively high proportion of the study population walked about in open slippers and barefeet, the study showed that accidental trauma was not a predominant precipitant of diabetic foot lesions. Diabetic foot lesions tend to occur as a result of cumulative, repetitive trauma to areas of prediliection rather than accidental trauma. PMID:14569763

  5. An accidental sect: how war made belief in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.

    2006-01-01

    Idealists consider beliefs cause wars. Realists consider wars cause beliefs. The war in Sierra Leone offers some scope to test between these two views. The main rebel faction, the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) was, sociologically speaking, an accidental sect. It lost its original ideologues at an

  6. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prevention of accidental ignition. 192.751 Section 192.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention...

  7. Prevalence of renal and hepatobiliary disease, laboratory abnormalities, and potentially toxic medication exposures among persons with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mapel DW

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Douglas W Mapel,1 Jenõ P Marton21Lovelace Clinic Foundation, Albuquerque, New Mexico, NM, USA; 2Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of renal and hepatic disease, related laboratory abnormalities, and potentially hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic medication use in a population-based cohort of persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.Methods: This was a retrospective case-control cohort analysis of COPD patients enrolled in one regional health system for at least 12 months during a 36-month study period (n = 2284. Each COPD patient was matched by age and gender to up to three persons not diagnosed with COPD (n = 5959.Results: The mean age for cases and controls was 70.3 years, and 52.5% were women. The COPD cohort had significantly higher prevalences (cases/100 of acute, chronic, and unspecified renal failure as compared with controls (1.40 versus 0.59, 2.89 versus 0.79, and 1.09 versus 0.44, respectively. Among the cases, 31.3% had at least one renal or urinary tract diagnosis during the study period, as compared with 21.1% of controls. COPD cases also had more gallbladder disease (2.76 versus 1.63 and pancreatic disease (1.40 versus 0.60, but not hepatic disease. COPD patients were more likely to have at least one serum creatinine level (5.1 versus 2.1 or liver aspartate aminotransferase level (4.5 versus 2.7 that was more than twice the upper limit of normal. COPD patients had prescription fills for an average of 17.6 potentially nephrotoxic and 27.4 hepatotoxic drugs during the study period, as compared with 13.6 and 19.9 for the controls (P value for all comparisons < 0.01.Conclusion: COPD patients have a substantially increased prevalence of renal, gallbladder, and pancreatic diseases, as well as abnormal renal and hepatic laboratory values, but not diagnosed liver disease. COPD patients are also more likely to be prescribed

  8. Responsabilidad del empleador por accidentes de trabajo y enfermedades profesionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mangarelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. 1. Responsabilidad del “empleador” por accidentes de trabajo y enfermedades profesionales. Noción. 2. La indemnización “tarifada”. Fundamento de su procedencia 3. Responsabilidad del empleador por accidentes de trabajo o enfermedades profesionales en la ley uruguaya (ley Nº 16.074. 4. La “ampliación” de la responsabilidad del empleador por el derecho común en el derecho uruguayo (artículo 7 ley Nº 16.074. 5. Requisitos para la ampliación de la responsabilidad patronal: culpa grave en el incumplimientode normas de seguridad y prevención. 6. La culpa grave. Concepto. 7. El modelo del hombre a tener en cuenta en la “culpa grave” no es el del buen padre de familia. 8. El grado de la culpa no puede ser medido por el resultado del accidente. 9. Se aplican las eximentes de la responsabilidad civil. 10. Distintos ámbitos de la responsabilidad patronal por accidentes de trabajo o enfermedades profesionales: A ante la víctima o los derecho-habientes; B ante el Banco de Seguros del Estado; C ante el Ministerio de Trabajo ySeguridad Social. 11. Recupero del BSE en caso de culpa grave en el incumplimiento de normas de seguridad y prevención. Requisitos 12. Responsabilidad del empleador en caso de accidente de trabajo o enfermedad profesional sufrido por un adolescente. Conclusiones.

  9. Occupational exposure to mineral oil metalworking fluid (MWFs) mist: Development of new methodologies for mist sampling and analysis. Results from an inter-laboratory comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanh Huynh, C.; Herrera, H.; Parrat, J.; Wolf, R.; Perret, V.

    2009-02-01

    Metalworking Fluids (MWFs) are largely used in the sector of undercutting, a large professional activity in Switzerland, in particular in the fine mechanic and watch making industry. France proposes a Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 1 mg.m-3 of aerosol. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) sets its value at 5 mg.m-3 but a proposal to lower the standard ("intended changes") to 0.2 mg.m-3 of aerosol is pending since 2001. However, it has not become a recognized threshold limit value for exposure. Since 2003, the new Swiss PEL (MAK) recommendations would be 0.2 mg.m-3 of aerosol (oil with boiling point > 350°C without additives) and/or 20 mg.m-3 of oil aerosol + vapour for medium or light oil. To evaluate evaporative losses of sampled oil, the German "Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut für Arbeitssicherheit" (BGIA) recommends the use of a XAD-2 cartridge behind the filter. The method seems to work perfectly for MWFs in a clean occupational atmosphere free from interference of light vapour cleaning solvent such as White Spirit. But, in real situation, machine shop atmosphere contaminated with traces of White Spirit, the BGIA method failed to estimate the MWFs levels (over-estimation). In this paper, we propose a new approach meant to measure both oil vapours and aerosols. Five inter-laboratory comparisons are discussed, based on the production of oil mist in an experimental chamber under controlled conditions.

  10. 40 CFR 63.95 - Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accidental release prevention programs. 63.95 Section 63.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs. (a) A State submission for approval... (“federally-listed chemicals”) that an approvable State Accidental Release Prevention program is...

  11. Accidental nuclear excursion recuplex operation 234-5 facility: Final medical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuqua, P. A.

    1962-04-07

    The April 7, 1962 criticality accident involving human exposures was the first to have occurred in any production facility at Hanford. The accidental nuclear excursion did not result in any mechanical damage or spread of contamination. Three employees received over-exposure to gamma and neutron radiation. None were fatally exposed and in each case the over-exposure was recognized promptly. Following an initial period of medical observation and testing, the men were released to work. They continued to be followed clinically. Clinical studies performed were hematological procedures including leukocyte chromosome aberrations, morphologically aberrant blood cells, bone marrow evaluations, blood chemistry determinations, amino acid excretion studies, seminal fluid, urinary gonadotropins and estrogen excretion studies, testicular biopsies and crystalline lens examinations. These studies, along with a brief description of the accident and of the dosimetry, are summarized in this report by those participating in the studies. In view of the dose ranges received in these cases, both the negative and positive findings are considered to be of unusual interest due to the lack of knowledge of effects following human exposures at these levels.

  12. Dynamic evaluation of environmental impact due to tritium accidental release from the fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of the key safety issues of fusion reactors, tritium environmental impact of fusion accidents has attracted great attention. In this work, the dynamic tritium concentrations in the air and human body were evaluated on the time scale based on accidental release scenarios under the extreme environmental conditions. The radiation dose through various exposure pathways was assessed to find out the potential relationships among them. Based on this work, the limits of HT and HTO release amount for arbitrary accidents were proposed for the fusion reactor according to dose limit of ITER. The dynamic results aim to give practical guidance for establishment of fusion emergency standard and design of fusion tritium system. - Highlights: • Dynamic tritium concentration in the air and human body evaluated on the time scale. • Different intake forms and relevant radiation dose assessed to find out the potential relationships. • HT and HTO release amount limits for arbitrary accidents proposed for the fusion reactor according to dose limit

  13. Psychosocial factors and safety behaviour as predictors of accidental work injuries in farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasscock, David John; Rasmussen, Kurt; Carstensen, Ole;

    2006-01-01

    Farming is one of the most hazardous occupations in terms of the incidence and seriousness of accidental injuries. Research with other occupational groups has drawn attention to the role of psychosocial factors and stress. Such research needs to be extended to agriculture. Since stress may...... be a problem faced by farmers, there is a particular need to investigate the associations between farm accidents and work stressors and stress reactions. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, this study aimed to uncover the best psychosocial predictors of injury, while controlling for exposure......-related confounders. From a randomly selected sample of 794 farms, 10% of all farms in Ringkoebing County, Denmark, 393 farmers completed completed weekly accident registration over 12 months. The study sample consisted of 310 farmers who also completed questionnaires on psychosocial factors. Results indicated...

  14. The radiological impact on the Greater London population of postulated accidental releases from the Sizewell PWR

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, G N; Charles, D; Hemming, C R

    1983-01-01

    This report contains an assessment of the radiological impact on the Greater London population of postulated accidental releases from the Sizewell PWR. Three of the degraded core accident releases postulated by the CEGB are analysed. The consequences, conditional upon each release, are evaluated in terms of the health impact on the exposed population and the impact of countermeasures taken to limit the exposure. Consideration is given to the risk to the Greater London population as a whole and to individuals within it. The consequences are evaluated using the NRPB code MARC (Methodology for Assessing Radiological Consequences). The results presented in this report are all conditional upon the occurrence of each release. In assessing the significance of the results, due account must be taken of the frequency with which such releases may be predicted to occur.

  15. Leading global projects for professional and accidental project leaders

    CERN Document Server

    Moran, Robert T

    2008-01-01

    This book is a must-read for anyone responsible for projects and initiatives that span functional and geographical divides. Authors Moran and Youngdahl bring extensive experience and learning from industry practice to present a clear and straightforward treatment of the leadership skills and knowledge required to lead projects that are global in nature. They have written the first book of its kind to address the three essential skills of global project leaders - strategic project management, project leadership, and cross-cultural leadership. The authors argue that global project leadership is an essential skill in our project-based world and that we are all either intentional or accidental project leaders. Intentional project leaders pursue formal project management education and even certification whereas accidental project leaders find themselves leading global projects and initiatives as a result of a special assignment or promotion. Moran and Youndahl have found that the vast majority of global projects ...

  16. Accidental intraoral injection of formalin during extraction: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Pushp Chander; Raval, Rushik; Kaur, Mandeep; Kaur, Jasleen

    2016-04-01

    Transparent, clear solutions such as hydrogen peroxide, alcohol, sodium hypochlorite, formaldehyde, and local anaesthetics are widely used in dentistry, so the tissues are liable to accidental injury. Formalin, a 37%-40% solution of formaldehyde, is extensively used in 10% solution as a tissue preservative, but it has toxic effects on systems such as the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, skin, and mucosa. However, we know of few reports of cases of inadvertent injection of alcohol and formalin directly into the human body. In this case report we describe the early and delayed clinical effects of accidental intraoral injection of formalin, the subsequent symptoms and management, and some prudent points that should be learnt to avoid such incidents in the future. PMID:26794082

  17. Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ze-Guo

    2014-04-09

    Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect.

  18. Accidental Sulfur Poisoning in a Group of Holstein Heifers

    OpenAIRE

    Gunn, Moira F.; Baird, John D.; Wilkie, Judith S. Nimmo

    1987-01-01

    Fourteen animals died or were euthanized after toxic levels of elemental sulfur were accidentally fed to a group of 120 Holstein heifers. Dehydration, rumen stasis, tachycardia, and diarrhea were seen along with metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, and hypochloremia. The majority of deaths occurred from 3 to 10 days after the sulfur was fed to the heifers. Postmortem examination showed rumenitis, acute alveolitis, and renal tubular necrosis. The toxicity of ingested sulfur was attributed to the c...

  19. Paediatric femur fractures at the emergency department: accidental or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M M; Vrolijk-Bosschaart, Thekla F; Bakx, Roel; Van Rijn, Rick R

    2016-01-01

    Only a small proportion of all paediatric fractures is caused by child abuse or neglect, especially in highly prevalent long bone fractures. It can be difficult to differentiate abusive fractures from non-abusive fractures. This article focuses on femoral fractures in young children. Based on three cases, this article presents a forensic evidence-based approach to differentiate between accidental and non-accidental causes of femoral fractures. We describe three cases of young children who were presented to the emergency department because of a suspected femur fracture. Although in all cases, the fracture had a similar location and appearance, the clinical history and developmental stage of the child led to three different conclusions. In the first two cases, an accidental mechanism was a plausible conclusion, although in the second case, neglect of parental supervision was the cause for concern. In the third case, a non-accidental injury was diagnosed and appropriate legal prosecution followed. Any doctor treating children should always be aware of the possibility of child abuse and neglect in children with injuries, especially in young and non-mobile children presenting with an unknown trauma mechanism. If a suspicion of child abuse or neglect arises, a thorough diagnostic work-up should be performed, including a full skeletal survey according to the guidelines of the Royal College of Radiologists and the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. In order to make a good assessment, the radiologist reviewing the skeletal survey needs access to all relevant clinical and social information. PMID:26642309

  20. Accidental Symmetries and N=1 Duality in Supersymmetric Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, Robert G; Leigh, Robert G.; Strassler, Matthew J.

    1996-01-01

    We note that the accidental symmetries which are present in some examples of duality imply the existence of continuously infinite sets of theories with the same infrared behavior. These sets interpolate between theories of different flavors and colors; the change in color and flavor is compensated by interactions (often non-perturbative) induced by operators in the superpotential. As an example we study the behavior of SU(2) gauge theories with 2\

  1. Timing, ``Accidentals'' and Other Artifacts in EPR Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Caroline H.

    1997-01-01

    Subtraction of ``accidentals'' in Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiments frequently changes results compatible with local realism into ones that appear to demonstrate non-locality. The validity of the procedure depends on the unproven assumption of the independence of emission events. Other possible sources of bias include enhancement, imperfect synchronisation, over-reliance on rotational invariance, and the well-known detection loophole. Investigation of existing results may be more fruitful t...

  2. Accidental dural puncture rates in UK obstetric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, C M; Reynolds, F

    1998-10-01

    Headache following epidural analgesia is a common cause of complaint, but accidental dural puncture rates vary among hospitals and with techniques. We were therefore interested to discover the extent of audit of dural puncture, the dural puncture rates in those UK centres that kept reliable records, and the techniques they used for detecting the epidural space. Consultants in charge of anaesthetic services to all 257 obstetric units in the UK were sent a questionnaire requesting numbers of obstetric epidurals, techniques used to detect the epidural space and the numbers of accidental dural punctures in the years 1991-1995. Replies were received from 191 respondents (74%) of whom 104 were able to provide some information about dural puncture rates. Dural puncture rate was inversely related to the number of epidurals performed; the highest recorded rate was 3.6% in a unit with 1000. Most respondents did not record the loss of resistance technique used but among those who did, the dural puncture rate using mainly saline was 0.69% and using mainly air was 1.11% (P<0.001). Since accurate patient information is crucial for informed consent, audit needs to be improved in many centres. Though the accidental dural puncture rate may be under-reported in this survey, our data are in agreement with other findings that loss of resistance to saline is safer than loss of resistance to air. PMID:15321187

  3. Occupational exposure to mineral oil metalworking fluid (MWFs) mist: Development of new methodologies for mist sampling and analysis. Results from an inter-laboratory comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, C Khanh; Herrera, H [Institut Universitaire Romand de Sante au Travail (IST), CH-1005 Lausanne (Switzerland); Parrat, J [Service des Arts et Metiers et du Travail (LIST), CH-2800 Delemont and Laboratoire intercantonal de sante au travail (LIST), CH-1034 Peseux (Switzerland); Wolf, R [SUVA, CH-6002 Luzern (Switzerland); Perret, V, E-mail: chhuynh@hospvd.c [Service cantonal de toxicologie industrielle et de protection contre les pollutions interieures (STIPI), CH-1211 Geneve (Switzerland)

    2009-02-01

    Metalworking Fluids (MWFs) are largely used in the sector of undercutting, a large professional activity in Switzerland, in particular in the fine mechanic and watch making industry. France proposes a Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 1 mg.m{sup -3} of aerosol. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) sets its value at 5 mg.m{sup -3} but a proposal to lower the standard ('intended changes') to 0.2 mg.m{sup -3} of aerosol is pending since 2001. However, it has not become a recognized threshold limit value for exposure. Since 2003, the new Swiss PEL (MAK) recommendations would be 0.2 mg.m{sup -3} of aerosol (oil with boiling point > 350 deg. C without additives) and/or 20 mg.m{sup -3} of oil aerosol + vapour for medium or light oil. To evaluate evaporative losses of sampled oil, the German 'Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut fuer Arbeitssicherheit' (BGIA) recommends the use of a XAD-2 cartridge behind the filter. The method seems to work perfectly for MWFs in a clean occupational atmosphere free from interference of light vapour cleaning solvent such as White Spirit. But, in real situation, machine shop atmosphere contaminated with traces of White Spirit, the BGIA method failed to estimate the MWFs levels (over-estimation). In this paper, we propose a new approach meant to measure both oil vapours and aerosols. Five inter-laboratory comparisons are discussed, based on the production of oil mist in an experimental chamber under controlled conditions.

  4. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  5. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-12-31

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  6. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities

  7. Formation of Glycidyl Fatty Acid Esters Both in Real Edible Oils during Laboratory-Scale Refining and in Chemical Model during High Temperature Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weiwei; Liu, Guoqin; Liu, Xinqi

    2016-07-27

    In the present study, the formation mechanisms of glycidyl fatty acid esters (GEs) were investigated both in real edible oils (soybean oil, camellia oil, and palm oil) during laboratory-scale preparation and refining and in chemical model (1,2-dipalmitin (DPG) and 1-monopalmitin (MPG)) during high temperature exposure (160-260 °C under nitrogen). The formation process of GEs in the chemical model was monitored using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the roasting and pressing process could produce certain amounts of GEs that were much lower than that produced in the deodorization process. GE contents in edible oils increased continuously and significantly with increasing deodorization time below 200 °C. However, when the temperature exceeded 200 °C, GE contents sharply increased in 1-2 h followed by a gradual decrease, which could verify a simultaneous formation and degradation of GEs at high temperature. In addition, it was also found that the presence of acylglycerol (DAGs and MAGs) could significantly increase the formation yield of GEs both in real edible oils and in chemical model. Compared with DAGs, moreover, MAGs displayed a higher formation capacity but substantially lower contribution to GE formation due to their low contents in edible oils. In situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopic evidence showed that cyclic acyloxonium ion intermediate was formed during GE formation derived from DPG and MPG in chemical model heated at 200 °C. PMID:27319409

  8. Acute behavioural dysfunctions following exposure to γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to ionizing radiations (IR) has been reported to have many ill effects. These are manifested immediately after exposure and may persist or develop long after the incident. The severity and manifestation is dependent on the absorbed dose and type of the IR. These have been reported extensively in human subjects; especially among the victims of the accidental exposure and radiotherapy patients. Additionally, there have been a plethora of studies in animal models which support these findings, and are being used to test radio-mitigative or radio-protective strategies. The vulnerability of neuronal tissue to IR is well known, however the acute dose-dependent behavioural consequences have yet to be understood. Thus, our laboratory has been trying to decipher the dose-dependent behavioural dysfunctions which have occurred 24-72 hours post IR exposure and possible radio-protective strategies. We are utilizing mouse models of studying the behavioural processes, in a test battery conceptualized to study the affective and cognitive skills as well as motor skills of the animals. Additionally, we have observed cellular damage to different areas of the brain and subsequent correlations to behavioural dysfunctions. This has being carried out by using single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). The findings show that after exposure to sub-lethal γ-rays, there are significant changes that occur in all the behavioural parameters. The most sensitive area has been found to be the Hippocampus as visualized by DTI and the SCGE. Consequently, short term and long term memory functions have been shown to be disrupted within 24-72 hours of exposure. Acute dysfunctions of affective functions have also been demonstrated to materialise within 24 hours post exposure. Unexpectedly, the behavioural dysfunctions were seen to be dose independent. Thus, this study provides a foundation to help decipher the acute behavioural manifestations of IR exposure

  9. Activities developed by the biological dosimetry laboratory of the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear - ARN of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological dosimetry (DB) allows to estimate doses absorbed in individuals exposed to ionizing radiation through the quantification of stable and unstable chromosome aberrations (SCA and UCA). The frequency of these aberrations is referred to a calibration dose response curve (in vitro) to determine the doses of the individual to the whole body. The DB is a necessary support for programs of national radiation protection and response systems in nuclear or radiological emergencies in the event of accidental or incidental, single overexposure or large scale. In this context the Laboratory of Dosimetry Biological (LDB) of the Authority Regulatory Nuclear (ARN) Argentina develops and applies different dosimeters cytogenetic from four decades ago. These dosimeters provide a fact more within the whole of the information necessary for an accidental, complementing the physical and clinical dosimetry exposure assessment. The most widely used in the DB biodosimetric method is the quantification of SCA (dicentrics and rings Central) from a sample of venous blood. The LDB is accredited for the trial, under rules IRAM 301: 2005 (ISO / IEC 17025: 2005) and ISO 19238:2004. Test applies to the immediate dosimetry evaluation of acute exposures, all or a large part of the body in the range 0,1-5 Gy. In this context the LDB is part of the Latin American network of DB (LBDNet), BioDoseNet-who and response system in radiological emergencies and nuclear IAEA-RANET, being enabled to summon the LBDNet if necessary

  10. Severe adverse effects related to dermal exposure to a glyphosate-surfactant herbicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariager, T P; Madsen, P V; Ebbehøj, N E;

    2013-01-01

    This is a case of severe chemical burns following prolonged accidental exposure to a glyphosate-surfactant herbicide. The patient developed local swelling, bullae and exuding wounds. Neurological impairment followed affecting finger flexion and sensation with reduced nerve conduction. Imaging...

  11. Imaging of accidental contamination with F-18-solution; a quick trouble-shooting procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalevi Kairemo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To the best of our knowledge, imaging of accidental exposure to radioactive fluorine-18 (F-18 due to liquid spill has not been described earlier in the scientific literature. The short half-life of F-18 (t½=110 min, current radiation safety requirements, and Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP regulations on radiopharmaceuticals have restrained the occurrence of these incidents. The possibility of investigating this type of incidents by gamma and positron imaging is also quite limited. Additionally, a quick and precise analysis of radiochemical contamination is cumbersome and sometimes challenging if the spills of radioactive materials are low in activity. Herein, we report a case of accidental F-18 contamination in a service person during a routine cyclotron maintenance procedure. During target replacement, liquid F-18 was spilled on the person responsible for the maintenance. The activities of spills were immediately measured using contamination detectors, and the photon spectrum of contaminated clothes was assessed through gamma spectroscopy. Despite protective clothing, some skin areas were contaminated, which were then thoroughly washed. Later on, these areas were imaged, using positron emission tomography (PET, and a gamma camera (including spectroscopy. Two contaminated skin areas were located on the hand (9.7 and 14.7 cm2, respectively, which showed very low activities (19.0 and 22.8 kBq respectively at the time of incident. Based on the photon spectra, F-18 was confirmed as the main present radionuclide. PET imaging demonstrated the shape of these contaminated hot spots. However, the measured activities were very low due to the use of protective clothing. With prompt action and use of proper equipments at the time of incident, minimal radionuclide activities and their locations could be thoroughly analyzed. The cumulative skin doses of the contaminated regions were calculated at 1.52 and 2.00 mSv, respectively. In the follow-up, no skin

  12. Numerical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piskunov, V.N.; Aloyan, A.A.; Gerasimov, V.M.; Pinaev, V.S.; Golubev, A.I.; Yanilkin, Yu.V.; Ivanov, N.V.; Nikonov, S.N.; Kharchenko, A.I. [and others

    1995-05-01

    Statement of work for contract 006 {open_quotes}Mathematical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport{close_quotes} implies that the final result of the activity within this task will be VNIIEF developed techniques which will provide for the prediction of the post-accidental environment. Report [1] presents the description of physical models and calculation techniques which were chosen by VNIIEF to accomplish this task. These techniques were analysed for their capabilities, the areas of their application were defined, modifications within contract 006 were described, the results of test and methodical calculations were presented. Moreover, the experimental data were analysed over the source parameters and contamination measurements which can be used in the comparison with the calculation results. Based an these data this report compares the calculation results obtained with VNIIEF calculation techniques with the LANL-presented experimental results. The calculations which statements and results are given in section 1, included the following processes: explosion cloud ascent dynamics and jet release origin; aerosols kinetics in the release source including composite particle origin in the explosion cloud caused by radioactive substance sorption an the soil particles; contaminant transport in atmosphere and their in-site fallout due to the accidental explosions and fires; atmospheric flow dynamics and industrial contamination transfer over the complicated terrain. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data. Section 2 presents the parameters for a typical source in the explosion accidents based an the experimental results and calculated data from Section 1, as well as contamination patterns were calculated with basic technique {open_quotes}Prognosis{close_quotes}.

  13. Accidentes de trabajo en un hospital de agudos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Bermúdez B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: El mejor conocimiento de los determinantes y circunstancias de producción de los accidentes laborales, favorecerá la implantación de medidas correctoras. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir la evolución temporal de los accidentes de trabajo (AT y determinar los factores de riesgo de baja médica en el Hospital Dr. Peset de Valencia. MÉTODOS: Descripción y análisis retrospectivo de los accidentes de trabajo producidos en el Hospital Dr. Peset de Valencia durante los años 1992 a 1995. Se estimó por métodos deterministas la tendencia y estacionalidad de las series (índices estacionales, IE. Se aplicó un modelo de regresión logística para identificar los factores pronósticos de baja médica y determinar su probabilidad de ocurrencia . RESULTADOS: Las tasas más elevadas de AT se produjeron entre los trabajadores de cocina y lavandería (10,00 AT por 100 trabajadores-año. Los AT con baja médica mantienen una tendencia cercana a cero siendo febrero el mes con I.E más elevado (IE=139,8. Los que cursan sin baja médica tienen una tendencia positiva (r²=0,23, p<0,0001, siendo mayo el mes de mayor siniestralidad (IE=134,2. La probabilidad de que el accidente curse con baja médica aumenta significativamente con la edad, cuando se produce por la tarde, si ha tenido lugar en cocina/lavandería, y si se trata de un esguince o tendinitis. CONCLUSIONES: la actuación sobre la siniestralidad en los AT que cursen con IT, debería centrarse sobre los trabajos menos cualificados y en las áreas de cocina y lavandería.

  14. Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Peterson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema.

  15. Clinical perspectives on osteogenesis imperfecta versus non-accidental injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elaine Maria

    2015-12-01

    Although non-accidental injuries (NAI) are more common in cases of unexplained fractures than rare disorders such as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), ruling out OI and other medical causes of fracture is always indicated. The majority of OI patients can be diagnosed with the help of family history, physical examination, and radiographic findings. In particular, there are a few radiological findings which are seen more commonly in NAI than in OI which may help guide clinician considerations regarding the probability of either of these diagnoses. At the same time, molecular testing still merits careful consideration in cases with unexplained fractures without obvious additional signs of abuse. PMID:26492946

  16. Biokinetics of radionuclides and treatment of accidental intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the objectives and reviews the progress of EULEP Working Party 5, convened under the auspices of the European Union's Fifth Framework Programme, to 'cluster' two EU-supported contracts, Biokinetics and Dosimetry of Internal Contamination (BIODOS (EU Contract FIS5-1999-00214)) and Radionuclide Biokinetics Database (EULEP) ( RBDATA-EULEP (Concerted Action Contract FIS5-1999-00218), and two non-EU funded projects, Biokinetics of Radionuclides in Human Volunteers (RNHV (non-EU Funded Project) and Treatment of Accidental Intakes of Radionuclides (TAIR (part-funded by EULEP)). (author)

  17. ECMO for Cardiac Rescue after Accidental Intravenous Mepivacaine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Froehle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mepivacaine is a potent local anaesthetic and used for infiltration and regional anaesthesia in adults and pediatric patients. Intoxications with mepivacaine affect mainly the CNS and the cardiovascular system. We present a case of accidental intravenous mepivacaine application and intoxication of an infant resulting in seizure, broad complex bradyarrhythmia, arterial hypotension and finally cardiac arrest. The patient could be rescued by prolonged resuscitations and a rapid initiation of ECMO and survived without neurological damage. The management strategies of this rare complication including promising other treatment options with lipid emulsions are discussed.

  18. Methemoglobinemia as a result of accidental lacquer thinner poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranju Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lacquer thinner, commonly used for removing household paints, is known to contain a mixture of various aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and naptha; if ingested, it may cause methemoglobinemia. We report two cases who presented to us with a history of accidental ingestion of paint thinner. Both the patients had very high levels of methemoglobin and were treated with methylene blue (MB, but did not respond to the MB therapy. One of them received an exchange transfusion followed again by MB and survived. Unfortunately the other patient succumbed to the poisoning.

  19. Accidental Degeneracy and Berry Phase of Resonant States

    CERN Document Server

    Mondragón, A

    1997-01-01

    We study the complex geometric phase acquired by the resonant states of an open quantum system which evolves irreversibly in a slowly time dependent environment. In analogy with the case of bound states, the Berry phase factors of resonant states are holonomy group elements of a complex line bundle with structure group C*. In sharp contrast with bound states, accidental degeneracies of resonances produce a continuous closed line of singularities formally equivalent to a continuous distribution of "magnetic" charge on a "diabolical" circle, in consequence, we find different classes of topologically inequivalent non-trivial closed paths in parameter space.

  20. Protective action guides for accidentally contaminated water and food. Proceedings of a workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Workshop on Protective Action Guides for Accidentally Contaminated Water and Food was designed for those who have experience in planning for and responding to ingestion exposure scenarios. The objective was to identify and discuss all of the issues, problems, relevant experiences, and research that should be considered in the development of Protective Action Guides (PAGs) for water and food. The workshop proved to be very helpful for those responsible for developing PAGs for the ingestion exposure pathways. This workshop addressed the roles and responsibilities for the development of PAGs. EPA has the responsibility for development of PAGs, except in the case of PAGs for food for which the responsibility is shared with FDA. EPA participated in the development of the recommendations on PAGs for food and animal feed that FDA published in 1982, which are under revision. In the absence of PAGs specifically for water, past practice has been for EPA to provide ad hoc guidance when needed. EPA will be developing guidance for drinking water during the next fiscal year and, therefore, one of the working groups at the workshop was devoted to considering issues related to PAGs for water. It has not yet been determined whether PAGs for drinking water should be separate or included with those for food. These issues were discussed at the workshop and the recommendations included in this proceedings document will be used as resource in the development of PAGs for the ingestion pathway

  1. Potential radiological exposure rates resulting from hypothetical dome failure at Tank W-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The main plant area at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contains 12 buried Gunite tanks that were used for the storage and transfer of liquid radioactive waste. Although the tanks are no longer in use, they are known to contain some residual contaminated sludges and liquids. In the event of an accidental tank dome failure, however unlikely, the liquids, sludges, and radioactive contaminants within the tank walls themselves could create radiation fields and result in above-background exposures to workers nearby. This Technical Memorandum documents a series of calculations to estimate potential radiological exposure rates and total exposures to workers in the event of a hypothetical collapse of a Gunite tank dome. Calculations were performed specifically for tank W-10 because it contains the largest radioactivity inventory (approximately half of the total activity) of all the Gunite tanks. These calculations focus only on external, direct gamma exposures for prescribed, hypothetical exposure scenarios and do not address other possible tank failure modes or routes of exposure. The calculations were performed with established, point-kernel gamma ray modeling codes.

  2. Two new tools and a working method for crisis management of accidental spills at sea. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koops, W.

    1992-12-14

    Tables of Contents: Accidental spills and crisis management at sea; Present global situation concerning prevention of accidental spills; Present regional situation concerning preparation for accidental spills in the North Sea; Present national (Dutch) situation concerning response to accidental spills; Improvements in present crisis management approach; Design of the gravity scale for accidental spills; Introduction and design of a diagnostic model for accidental spills at sea; Introduction and design of a working method to support decision making in response situations; The computer program; Calibration and evaluation of the newly developed tools and working method; and, Appendices with background information.

  3. Procedures, placement, and risks of further abuse after Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, P.; McClure, R; Rolfe, K; Chessman, N; Pearson, S.; Sibert, J; Meadow, R

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate outcome, management, and prevention in Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation.
DESIGN—Ascertainment through British Paediatric Surveillance Unit and questionnaires to responding paediatricians.
SETTING—The UK and Republic of Ireland, September 1992 to August 1994.
SUBJECTS—Children under 14 years diagnosed with the above.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Placement and child protection measures for victims and sib...

  4. Accidental endoscopic finding of Anisakis simplex in human colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Aloia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anisakidosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the ingestion of nematodes belonging to the family of Anisakidae. Human infection is caused by intake of raw or undercooked sea fish and cephalopods infested by Anisakis larvae. We present a case of accidental endoscopic finding of an alive nematode adhering to distal ascending colon in a 32 years old man, submitted to colonoscopy owing to recent onsets of rectal bleeding of likely hemorrhoidal origin. The nematode, removed from colon by means of biopsy forceps, has been identified as L3 larvae of A. simplex by a light microscope. Histological examination of intestinal mucosa showed a mild fibrosis of lamina propria, characterized by focal lymphocytic inflammation and scattered infiltration of eosinophils. The patient reported the intake of marinated anchovies 3 days before endoscopic examination.

  5. Accidental intraoral formalin injection: a rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakant Dandriyal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Formalin is a hazardous chemical that needs cautious handling and special storage. Owing to its disinfectant and fixative (i.e. for preserving pathologic tissue specimens in histopathology properties, it is widely used in dentistry. Although, the terms formaldehyde and formalin are often confused as being identical, these are different as to the concentrations of the primary component i.e. formaldehyde. In fact, the common fixative available as 10% neutral buffered formalin is actually a 4% solution of formaldehyde (i.e., a 10% solution made from a 37-40% commercially pure formaldehyde solution. This case report describes an unfortunate case of accidental injection instead of local anesthetic, of formalin into the pterygomandibular space in a 35-year old woman during inferior alveolar nerve block for surgical removal of impacted lower right third molar and its successful management by cautious debridement (under both local and general anesthesia and empirical drug therapy (utilizing analgesics and antibiotics.

  6. Correcting for accidental correlations in saturated avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, J A; Chandrasekara, R; Tang, Z; Cheng, C; Ling, A

    2016-02-22

    In this paper we present a general method for estimating rates of accidental coincidence between a pair of single photon detectors operated within their saturation regimes. By folding the effects of recovery time of both detectors and the detection circuit into an "effective duty cycle" we are able to accomodate complex recovery behaviour at high event rates. As an example, we provide a detailed high-level model for the behaviour of passively quenched avalanche photodiodes, and demonstrate effective background subtraction at rates commonly associated with detector saturation. We show that by post-processing using the updated model, we observe an improvement in polarization correlation visibility from 88.7% to 96.9% in our experimental dataset. This technique will be useful in improving the signal-to-noise ratio in applications which depend on coincidence measurements, especially in situations where rapid changes in flux may cause detector saturation. PMID:26907016

  7. Siquieros accidental painting technique: a fluid mechanics point of view

    CERN Document Server

    Zetina, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This is an entry for the Gallery of Fluid Motion of the 65th Annual Meeting of the APS-DFD (fluid dynamics video). This video shows an analysis of the 'accidental painting' technique developed by D.A. Siqueiros, a famous Mexican muralist. We reproduced the technique that he used: pouring layers of paint of different colors on top of each other. We found that the layers mix, creating aesthetically pleasing patterns, as a result of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Due to the pigments used to give paints their color, they can have different densities. When poured on top of each other, if the top layer is denser than the lower one, the viscous gravity current undergoes unstable as it spread radially. We photograph the process and produced slowed-down video to visualize the process.

  8. Notas sobre Accidentes Aéreos causados por Aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rivera

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En varios artículos de opinión publicados en Engormix, el autor se ha referido a dos épocas muy peligrosas para la presentación de accidentes aéreos en diferentes países, situados especialmente en el hemisferio norte (Boreal. Comprenden dos etapas, la primera, en los meses de Septiembre y Octubre, cuando comienza el invierno en el Ártico que deja a millones de aves sin alimento, razón por la cual inician la migración a los diferentes continentes en busca de alimentos; la segunda, durante los meses de Febrero y Marzo, cuando emprenden su regreso al sitio de partida, coincidiendo con la iniciación de la primavera que les garantiza comida suficiente...

  9. Subtraction of "accidentals" and the validity of Bell tests

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, C H

    1999-01-01

    In some key Bell experiments, including two of the well-known ones by Alain Aspect, 1981-2, it is only after the subtraction of ``accidentals'' from the coincidence counts that we get violations of Bell tests. The data adjustment, producing increases of up to 60% in the test statistics, has never been adequately justified. Few published experiments give sufficient information for the reader to make a fair assessment. There is a straightforward and well known realist model that fits the unadjusted data very well. In this paper, the logic of this realist model and the reasoning used by experimenters in justification of the data adjustment are discussed. It is concluded that the evidence from all Bell experiments is in urgent need of re-assessment, in the light of all the known ``loopholes''. Invalid Bell tests have frequently been used, neglecting an improved one derived by Clauser and Horne in 1974. ``Local causal'' explanations for the observations have been wrongfully neglected.

  10. Accidental Perforation of Endotracheal Tube during Orthognathic Surgery for Maxillary Prognathism - a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Jain

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary prognathism(excess is a congenital anomaly characterized by facial disfigurement. Accidental perforation of endotracheal tube during corrective surgery is not an uncommon complication. A case of accidental perforation of endotracheal tube during surgery and its management is presented here.

  11. Accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad y el riesgo de cáncer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoja informativa acerca de los riesgos del cáncer asociados con accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad. Incluye información para pacientes con cáncer que viven en una zona que puede haber sido afectada por un accidente en una planta nuclear.

  12. Two Cases of Accidental Injection of Epinephrine into a Digit Treated with Subcutaneous Phentolamine Injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P. Bodkin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental injection into the digit from an epinephrine autoinjection device can cause discoloration, pain, and paresthesias. Although loss of digit is rare, treatment in the emergency department is commonly aimed at vasodilation of the affected tissue. We report two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into the digits that were successfully treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injection with no adverse events.

  13. Two Cases of Accidental Injection of Epinephrine into a Digit Treated with Subcutaneous Phentolamine Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, Ryan P.; Acquisto, Nicole M.; Wiegand, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Accidental injection into the digit from an epinephrine autoinjection device can cause discoloration, pain, and paresthesias. Although loss of digit is rare, treatment in the emergency department is commonly aimed at vasodilation of the affected tissue. We report two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into the digits that were successfully treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injection with no adverse events. PMID:24024046

  14. 76 FR 73021 - Agency Information Collection (Report of Accidental Injury in Support of Claim for Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... Injury in Support of Claim for Compensation or Pension/Statement of Witness to Accident, VA Form 21- 4176...: VA Form 21-4176 is used to support a claim for disability benefits based on an accidental injury that... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Report of Accidental Injury in Support of Claim for Compensation...

  15. Biomechanics of supination ankle sprain : a case report of an accidental injury event in the laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Hong, Youlian; Shima, Yosuke; Krosshaug, Tron; Young, Patrick Shu-Hang; Chan, Kai-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Ankle sprain is the most common injury in sports,5 but the mechanism of injury is not clear. Injury mechanisms can be studied through many different approaches.9 Over the years, ankle kinematics has been studied during simulated subinjury or close-to-injury situations, that is, sudden simulated ankle spraining motion on inversion platforms.11 Because these tests did not induce real injury, they could only somewhat suggest the ankle kinematics during an ankle sprain injury. The most direct way...

  16. Characterization and Comparison of Injuries Caused by Accidental and Non-accidental Blunt Force Trauma in Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarapanich, Nida P; McCobb, Emily C; Reisman, Robert W; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Intarapanich, Pichai P

    2016-07-01

    Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) are often difficult to distinguish from non-accidental injury (NAI). This retrospective case-control study compared animals with known MVA trauma against those with known NAI. Medical records of 426 dogs and cats treated after MVA and 50 after NAI were evaluated. Injuries significantly associated with MVA were pelvic fractures, pneumothorax, pulmonary contusion, abrasions, and degloving wounds. Injuries associated with NAI were fractures of the skull, teeth, vertebrae, and ribs, scleral hemorrhage, damage to claws, and evidence of older fractures. Odds ratios are reported for these injuries. MVA rib fractures were found to occur in clusters on one side of the body, with cranial ribs more likely to fracture, while NAI rib fractures were found to occur bilaterally with no cranial-caudal pattern. Establishing evidence-based patterns of injury may help clinicians differentiate causes of trauma and may aid in the documentation and prosecution of animal abuse. PMID:27364279

  17. Investigation of thermoluminescence properties of mobile phone screen displays as dosimeters for accidental dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid assessment of the radiation dose after unexpected exposure is a task of accidental dosimetry. In case of a radiological accident glasses originating from mobile phone screens, placed usually near the human body, could be used as emergency thermoluminescent (TL) personal dosimeters. The time between irradiation and TL readout is crucial and therefore preparation of the mobile phone screens and their readout conditions should be optimized. The influence of the samples etching, bleaching and selection of the optical filters based on measurement of the emission spectrum of irradiated glass samples during heating for different types of mobile phones were the subjects of our investigation. Obtained results showed that glasses extracted from different brands of mobile phones have different dosimetric properties but all of them give a luminescent signal which can be used to calculate the dose. - Highlights: • Application of acids mixture for more effective glass samples etching. • Bleaching can be performed not only by blue but also by UV light. • The readout with BG39 optical filter improves the TL signal intensity. • The glass samples from touch mobile phones are worse emergency TL dosimeters

  18. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1980-December 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Rittmaster, R.S.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report updates, for 1980 through 1982, the results of continuing medical surveillance of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in March 1954. The originally exposed Marshallese population comprised 64 persons on Rongelap Atoll who each received, on the average, an estimated 190 rads of absorbed external gamma radiation, 18 on Ailingnae Atoll who received 110 rads, and 159 on Utirik who received 11 rads. There were, in addition, 3 persons in utero on Rongelap, 1 person in utero on Ailingnae, and 8 persons in utero on Utirik who are considered exposed. The recipients of primary medical care include exposed and comparison populations as well as a rather large number of additional beneficiaries who are seen on a humanitarian basis of practical need and resource availability. In recent years, about 1400 people have been seen annually. This report, however, deals with four clearly defined groups: the remaining individuals who were exposed to radioactive fallout on Rongelap, Ailingnae, and Utirik in 1954 (including those in utero), and a comparison population of individuals from Rongelap who were unexposed. The number of persons now in each exposure category are 51, 12, 116, and 137, respectively. 100 references, 4 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

  19. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1980-December 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report updates, for 1980 through 1982, the results of continuing medical surveillance of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in March 1954. The originally exposed Marshallese population comprised 64 persons on Rongelap Atoll who each received, on the average, an estimated 190 rads of absorbed external gamma radiation, 18 on Ailingnae Atoll who received 110 rads, and 159 on Utirik who received 11 rads. There were, in addition, 3 persons in utero on Rongelap, 1 person in utero on Ailingnae, and 8 persons in utero on Utirik who are considered exposed. The recipients of primary medical care include exposed and comparison populations as well as a rather large number of additional beneficiaries who are seen on a humanitarian basis of practical need and resource availability. In recent years, about 1400 people have been seen annually. This report, however, deals with four clearly defined groups: the remaining individuals who were exposed to radioactive fallout on Rongelap, Ailingnae, and Utirik in 1954 (including those in utero), and a comparison population of individuals from Rongelap who were unexposed. The number of persons now in each exposure category are 51, 12, 116, and 137, respectively. 100 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

  20. A Survey of Accidental Hypothermia Knowledge among Navy Members in China and the Implications for Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Accidental hypothermia (AH is a potentially life-threatening condition that can lead to significant morbidity and life-long effects. Navy personnel are always at a greater risk of AH due to frequent outdoor work, wilderness exposure, prolonged immobility and exhaustion. The purpose of the survey was to assess Chinese Navy members’ awareness of AH and to make recommendations with regard to better measures for improving it. Methods: 111 Navy members completed a written questionnaire that was subsequently analyzed. Results: 30.6% of the respondents have experienced AH and 64.9% rated their knowledge of AH as “low” or “none”. Over half of them identified the initial symptom of AH as obvious shivering (69.4% and apathy (45.0%. As for the aggravate symptoms, 60.9% chose the wrong answer of more obvious shivering instead of the right one—absence of shivering (5.4%. In the case of the treatment of mild AH, more than half of the respondents chose the wrong answers. Conclusions: This study suggests that the basic skills of recognition and treatment of AH are inadequate in the Chinese Navy. Further work is required to develop a systematical, comprehensive and corresponding education method that would promote correct actions during AH.

  1. US Transuranium and Uranium Registries case study on accidental exposure to uranium hexafluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtandilashvili, Maia; Puncher, Matthew; McComish, Stacey L; Tolmachev, Sergei Y

    2015-03-01

    The United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries' (USTUR) whole-body donor (Case 1031) was exposed to an acute inhalation of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) produced from an explosion at a uranium processing plant 65 years prior to his death. The USTUR measurements of tissue samples collected at the autopsy indicated long-term retention of inhaled slightly enriched uranium material (0.85% (235)U) in the deep lungs and thoracic lymph nodes. In the present study, the authors combined the tissue measurement results with historical bioassay data, and analysed them with International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) respiratory tract models and the ICRP Publication 69 systemic model for uranium using maximum likelihood and Bayesian statistical methods. The purpose of the analysis was to estimate intakes and model parameter values that best describe the data, and evaluate their effect on dose assessment. The maximum likelihood analysis, which used the ICRP Publication 66 human respiratory tract model, resulted in a point estimate of 79 mg of uranium for the occupational intake composed of 86% soluble, type F material and 14% insoluble, type S material. For the Bayesian approach, the authors applied the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, but this time used the revised human respiratory tract model, which is currently being used by ICRP to calculate new dose coefficients for workers. The Bayesian analysis estimated that the mean uranium intake was 160 mg, and calculated the case-specific lung dissolution parameters with their associated uncertainties. The parameters were consistent with the inhaled uranium material being predominantly soluble with a small but significant insoluble component. The 95% posterior range of the rapid dissolution fraction (the fraction of deposited material that is absorbed to blood rapidly) was 0.12 to 0.91 with a median of 0.37. The remaining fraction was absorbed slowly, with a 95% range of 0.000 22 d(-1) to 0.000 36 d(-1) and a median of 0.000 31 d(-1). The effective dose per unit intake calculated using the dissolution parameters derived from the maximum likelihood and the Bayesian analyses was higher than the current ICRP dose coefficient for type F uranium by a factor of 2 or 7, respectively; the higher value of the latter was due to use of the revised respiratory tract model. The dissolution parameter values obtained here may be more appropriate to use for radiation protection purposes when individuals are exposed to a UF6 mixture that contains an insoluble uranium component. PMID:25580579

  2. Annual course of retraining for the occupational exposure personnel of the laboratory of internal dosimetry; Curso anual de reentrenamiento para el POE del laboratorio de dosimetria interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro L, M.M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2002-09-15

    The general objective of this report is to instruct the personnel in the basic concepts of radiological protection and in the Manual of Procedures of Radiological Safety of the Laboratory of Internal Dosimetry. Also, to exchange experiences during the activities that are carried out in the laboratory and in the knowledge of abnormal situations. The referred Manual consists of 14 procedures and 5 instructions which are listed in annex of this document. The content of this course consists of three topics: 1. Basic principles of radiological protection to reduce the received dose equivalent. 2. Use of radiation measurer equipment. 3. Emergency procedures of the laboratory of internal dosimetry. (Author)

  3. Metabolic transit of radiocaesium in domestic animals - practical application in an accidental situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a serious nuclear accident occurs, the radioisotopes of caesium are very worrying to public health. Because of their long environmental persistence, their diffusion and their solubility in natural environments, they are present in many foodstuffs. Numerous studies were undertaken during the atmospheric nuclear tests, but since the accident of Tchernobyl land Goiania, this research has been pursued anew. By using the experimental data,, this report takes stock of the knowledge on the metabolic transit of radiocaesium in domestic animals. The transfer of this radionuclide in the major foodstuffs of animal origin (milk, meat, eggs) is important and depends on the metabolism of the animal species, and in one species, the age, the physiologic state and the diet. Nevertheless, it is possible to restrict the radioactive contamination by adding to all animal feed, some additives. The methods for in vivo determination of the radioactive measurements in cattle, in laboratory or in real conditions, are discussed too. Finally, all these results are used to consider the short-, middle- and long-term management of an accidental situation. (authors)

  4. La prevención de accidentes (2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinchilla, M.

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Everyone prefers to work in those organizations where their dignity of human beings is respected. One of the most efficient means at the disposal of any firm, to improve the morale of the individual employees, and to establish a spirit of cooperation between the individual and the firm, is to set up a program of accident benefit. It will avoid direct and indirect losses due to working accidents, as analyzed in a previous article, and it will make it possible to improve total performance of each worker, since he will work in a more favorable environment, free from worry about potential danger to his person. It is almost impossible to describe in detail all those items that should be taken into account in a safety program. None the less, and as an indication of their diversity, some sources of danger are mentioned in this chapter, which are closely connected with human safety, such as public curiosity, travelling from one place to another, cleanliness and order.Todas las personas prefieren desempeñar sus tareas en aquellas organizaciones que tienen hacia ellos las consideraciones correspondientes a un ser humano. Uno de los medios más eficaces a disposición de cualquier empresa para elevar la moral del individuo y para crear un lazo de cooperación común entre el individuo y la empresa, es la de llevar a cabo un programa de prevención de accidentes, programa que redundará en el doble fruto: evitar las pérdidas directas e indirectas causadas por los accidentes de trabajo que se detallaron en un trabajo anterior, y conseguir aumentar el rendimiento del operario al hacerle un ambiente más grato por la preocupación que se demuestra hacia su persona. Es casi imposible detallar todos aquellos puntos que se deben tener en cuenta en un programa de seguridad; sin embargo, y como exponente de su diversidad, se señalan en este capítulo algunas causas, que, sin estar ligadas directamente con el trabajo individual, no obstante se encuentran

  5. Use of Vaccinia Virus Smallpox Vaccine in Laboratory and Health Care Personnel at Risk for Occupational Exposure to Orthopoxviruses - Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Brett W; Harms, Tiara J; Reynolds, Mary G; Harrison, Lee H

    2016-03-18

    On June 25, 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended routine vaccination with live smallpox (vaccinia) vaccine (ACAM2000) for laboratory personnel who directly handle 1) cultures or 2) animals contaminated or infected with replication-competent vaccinia virus, recombinant vaccinia viruses derived from replication-competent vaccinia strains (i.e., those that are capable of causing clinical infection and producing infectious virus in humans), or other orthopoxviruses that infect humans (e.g., monkeypox, cowpox, and variola) (recommendation category: A, evidence type 2 [Box]). Health care personnel (e.g., physicians and nurses) who currently treat or anticipate treating patients with vaccinia virus infections and whose contact with replication-competent vaccinia viruses is limited to contaminated materials (e.g., dressings) and persons administering ACAM2000 smallpox vaccine who adhere to appropriate infection prevention measures can be offered vaccination with ACAM2000 (recommendation category: B, evidence type 2 [Box]). These revised recommendations update the previous ACIP recommendations for nonemergency use of vaccinia virus smallpox vaccine for laboratory and health care personnel at risk for occupational exposure to orthopoxviruses (1). Since 2001, when the previous ACIP recommendations were developed, ACAM2000 has replaced Dryvax as the only smallpox vaccine licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and available for use in the United States (2). These recommendations contain information on ACAM2000 and its use in laboratory and health care personnel at risk for occupational exposure to orthopoxviruses.

  6. Detecting spatiotemporal clusters of accidental poisoning mortality among Texas counties, U.S., 1980 – 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Ann

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accidental poisoning is one of the leading causes of injury in the United States, second only to motor vehicle accidents. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the rates of accidental poisoning mortality have been increasing in the past fourteen years nationally. In Texas, mortality rates from accidental poisoning have mirrored national trends, increasing linearly from 1981 to 2001. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are spatiotemporal clusters of accidental poisoning mortality among Texas counties, and if so, whether there are variations in clustering and risk according to gender and race/ethnicity. The Spatial Scan Statistic in combination with GIS software was used to identify potential clusters between 1980 and 2001 among Texas counties, and Poisson regression was used to evaluate risk differences. Results Several significant (p Conclusion The findings of the present study provide evidence for the existence of accidental poisoning mortality clusters in Texas, demonstrate the persistence of these clusters into the present decade, and show the spatiotemporal variations in risk and clustering of accidental poisoning deaths by gender and race/ethnicity. By quantifying disparities in accidental poisoning mortality by place, time and person, this study demonstrates the utility of the spatial scan statistic combined with GIS and regression methods in identifying priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation.

  7. Impact study of an accidental pollution and an agricultural pollution on the subsoil water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the protection of groundwater resources against accidental and agricultural pollutions. It comprises three parts: part 1 is a bibliographic analysis of pollutants transfer mechanisms in the non-saturated zone. It presents the techniques of numerical resolution of the equations controlling these transfers (mechanistic approach). Approaches of data processing-type are also presented. The advantage of neural networks, more and more used in the environmental domain, is emphasized. The second part treats of the migration of non-miscible pollutants (of hydrocarbon or chlorinated solvent type) in the non-saturated zone from an accidental pollution source (a road accident). After a bibliographic analysis of the reference accident, of the most often road transported pollutants and of the available softwares, the area under study is presented with the tests performed at the laboratory for the determination of the permeability coefficient at saturation and the Van Genuchten parameters of the covering layer. The results of the parametric study are given for a reference example using the NAPL-Simulator code. This study allows to outline the main parameters which are used for the construction of a database for the calibration of the neural network-based model. This model is used in the case of the impact study of the road works between Avesnes-sur-Helpes and Maubeuge carried out on the captation fields of Bachant syncline. The third part treats of the migration of a diffuse pollution of agricultural origin (nitrates) in the non-saturated zone. The area under study is presented with the in-situ follow up results of surface fertilizer supplies and of nitrate profile measurements performed for some logging. The construction of the database is detailed. The input data retained are the surface nitrogen supplies, the thickness of the soil beneath the root zone, the water table depth and the time. Finally, the artificial neural networks model and its application to

  8. Pre-accidental situations highlighted by RECUPERARE method and data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matahri, N. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2006-07-01

    RECUPERARE method has been developed for operating feedback analysis and built on the French Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) principles. It is used to study the causes of human errors or technical failures occurred in French PWRs and the recovery process of events. Based on an event classification (6 categories) model according to the nature of the link between failure and recovery, the identified and recorded data are: the causes of the defects (technical, human, organizational) and the context in which they appear; the factors of the recovery performance (depending on technical and organizational aspects); a chronological analysis, designed to collect delays between failures and their detection/recovery for each event. About 3600 events reported in French PWRs (1997-2003) had been reviewed through this model. Initially, the weight of factors and the most important factors, which influenced the detection and recovery delay, are defined. For this purpose, the regression Partial Least Square (PLS) is used. Then, to link RECUPERARE results with pre-accidental data, conditional probabilities of events linked between them by a cause and effect relationship are calculated. For this, the Bayesian method with the Bayesian network is built with the PLS obtained results and applied. This constitutes a first approach to take into account in HRA the human and organizational factors highlighted by operating feedback. (author)

  9. Accidental intoxication with hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Smędra-Kaźmirska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a fatal case of accidental ingestion of a mixture of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. The man was admitted to hospital, where appropriate treatment, adequate to his condition, was instituted. Numerous ventricular fibrillation episodes, for which the patient was defibrillated repeatedly, were observed during the period of hospitalization. The patient was in a critical condition, with progressive symptoms of hypovolemic shock and multiorgan failure. On the next day after admission, signs of electromechanical dissociation progressing to asystole were noted. The instituted resuscitation procedure proved ineffective and the patient died. Autopsy revealed brownish discoloration of the esophageal, gastric, and small intestinal mucous membranes. Numerous ulcerations without signs of perforation were found both in the esophagus and in the stomach. The mucous membrane of the small intestine demonstrated focal rubefactions, whereas no focal lesions of the large intestinal mucosa were seen. Microscopic investigation of the biopsy specimens collected from the stomach, duodenum and small intestine revealed mucous membrane necrosis foci, reaching the deeper layers of the wall of these organs. The mucous membrane of the large intestine was congested. Bioptates obtained from the lungs indicated the presence of hemorrhagic infarcts and focal extravasations. Poisoning with the aforementioned acids with consequent necrosis of the esophageal, gastric, duodenal and small intestinal walls with hemorrhages to the gastrointestinal tract, as well as extravasations and hemorrhagic infarcts in the lungs was considered to be the cause of death.

  10. Accidental intoxication with hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smędra-Kaźmirska, A; Kędzierski, M; Barzdo, M; Jurczyk, Ap; Szram, S; Berent, J

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a fatal case of accidental ingestion of a mixture of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. The man was admitted to hospital, where appropriate treatment, adequate to his condition, was instituted. Numerous ventricular fibrillation episodes, for which the patient was defibrillated repeatedly, were observed during the period of hospitalization. The patient was in a critical condition, with progressive symptoms of hypovolemic shock and multiorgan failure. On the next day after admission, signs of electromechanical dissociation progressing to asystole were noted. The instituted resuscitation procedure proved ineffective and the patient died. Autopsy revealed brownish discoloration of the esophageal, gastric, and small intestinal mucous membranes. Numerous ulcerations without signs of perforation were found both in the esophagus and in the stomach. The mucous membrane of the small intestine demonstrated focal rubefactions, whereas no focal lesions of the large intestinal mucosa were seen. Microscopic investigation of the biopsy specimens collected from the stomach, duodenum and small intestine revealed mucous membrane necrosis foci, reaching the deeper layers of the wall of these organs. The mucous membrane of the large intestine was congested. Bioptates obtained from the lungs indicated the presence of hemorrhagic infarcts and focal extravasations. Poisoning with the aforementioned acids with consequent necrosis of the esophageal, gastric, duodenal and small intestinal walls with hemorrhages to the gastrointestinal tract, as well as extravasations and hemorrhagic infarcts in the lungs was considered to be the cause of death.

  11. Accidental release of chlorine and its impact on urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sheikh, H.A.; Badr, O.A.; El Kadi, H.M.; Hamoda, M.F. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Among the possible scenarios of accidental releases of chlorine from high pressure cylinders, this paper considers a typical one for the analysis. The calculated transient mass flow rate of chlorine released from a one-tonne cylinder showed that such an accident takes about 10 minutes to evacuate the cylinder. However, the toxic effect in the surrounding atmosphere continues for a longer period (about 20 minutes). The size and location of the toxic cloud at ground level were predicted as functions of time using an EPA-based dispersion model. The results showed a growth of the toxic cloud for some time beyond which it started to decay. For the typical scenario considered in this study, the most dangerous situation generated a toxic cloud with dimensions of 4000 m and 600 m in the downwind and crosswind directions, respectively. A study of the effects of some meteorological parameters on the size and location of the toxic cloud at ground level was also conducted. In general, it was observed that enhancing atmospheric mixing produced larger toxic zones during the early stages of the release and caused an opposite effect during the later ones. This dynamic data was linked to a GIS environment and the time variant was represented using an animation technique for Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates. Data base information related to physical urban characteristics and population was immediately obtained for the affected areas.

  12. ¿Accidente industrial o amputación deliberada?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponce, Paola

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los diferentes aspectos de la práctica de amputaciones durante el período victoriano de Inglaterra tales como: las causas que llevaron a tal práctica, los métodos y técnicas quirúrgicos usados durante el S. XIX así como la evidencia de atrofia y/o asimetría por causa del desuso. Tres casos de amputaciones fueron encontrados en una población industrial en el cementerio Victoriano de St. Pete s Collegiate Church en Wolverhampton (West Midlands, Inglaterra. Las amputaciones fueron realizadas en el miembro superior de una mujer (HB53 y los miembros inferiores de dos hombres (HB86 y (HB129. Se concluye que en los tres casos los individuos sobrevivieron a las amputaciones y que estas fueron realizadas mucho tiempo antes de la muerte. Dos de ellas fueron probablemente realizadas mediante cirugía (HB86 y HB129 mientras que la tercera (HB53 podría ser el resultado de un accidente industrial.

  13. Prolonged Toxic Encephalopathy following Accidental 4-Aminopyridine Overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ballesta Méndez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP is a drug that is used to improve motor fatigue in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS. Medication error can occur, as commercial preparation may not be available in some countries. Case Presentation. A 58-year-old woman with progressive MS presented with status epilepticus. She was receiving 4-AP for more than 3 years. The symptoms started soon after the ingestion of a single pill that was supposed to contain 10 mg 4-AP, but further investigations revealed that each pill had been inadvertently prepared with an 100 mg 4-AP concentration. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU for appropriate management (orotracheal intubation, sedation, and antiepileptic drugs. The first electroencephalogram (EEG showed abundant irregular spike-waves on the left central regions. Neurological condition gradually improved from day 7, while the EEG did not reveal any more electrical seizures but was still consistent with toxic encephalopathy. The patient stayed in the ICU until day 13. At discharge from the rehabilitation ward (2.5 months later, the patient had not yet recovered her previous cognitive and functional condition. Conclusion. A single 100 mg 4-AP accidental overdose may cause serious immediate complications, with a slow and incomplete neurological recovery.

  14. Deposition on holm oak leaf surfaces of accidentally released radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauret, G.; Tent, J.; Rigol, A.; Llaurado, R.M. (Analytical Chemistry Department, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)); Alegre, L.H.; Utrillas, M.J. (Vegetal Biology Department, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain))

    1994-10-14

    The retention of aerosols by canopies of holm oak trees in a typical Mediterranean forest is studied. Firstly, dry deposition is measured both under and outside the canopy during several months. No clear differences are observed either in the amount or in the chemical composition of the particles collected under and outside the canopy. Secondly, the leaf morphology and anatomy as well as the aerosol deposited onto the leaf surfaces are studied by scanning electron microscopy. Cuticle thickness is measured and differences are observed between young and old leaves. The distribution of aerosol particles over leaf surface is also established. Finally, the possible incorporation into leaves of a radioactive aerosol released in an accidental situation is studied, by means of a sequential extraction procedure using water and an organic solvent. From the results it can be deduced that neither the abiotic layer nor the cuticle play any important role in the retention of caesium. The studied radionuclides are mainly found in particulate form, soluble in water, or incorporated into leaves.

  15. Accidental Cutaneous Burns Secondary to Salbutamol Metered Dose Inhaler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Kale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of accidental cutaneous burns caused by salbutamol metered dose inhaler. A 9-year-old boy underwent dental extraction at a children's hospital and was incidentally noted to have burn injuries on dorsum of both hands. On questioning, the boy revealed that a few days ago his 14-year-old brother, who is an asthmatic, playfully sprayed his salbutamol metered dose inhaler on the back of both his hands with the inhaler's mouth piece being in direct contact with the patient's skin. On examination, there was a rectangular area of erythema with superficial peeling on the dorsum of both hands, the dimensions of which exactly matched those of the inhaler's mouthpiece. It is possible that the injury could have been a chemical burn from the pharmaceutical/preservative/propellant aerosol or due to the physical effect of severe cooling of the skin or mechanical abrasive effect of the aerosol blasts or a combination of some or all the above mechanisms. This case highlights the importance of informing children and parents of the potentially hazardous consequences of misusing a metered dose inhaler.

  16. Funciones superiores en pacientes con accidente cerebro vascular.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rodríguez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios realizados en Chile hasta la fecha no permiten detectar de manera significativa el deterioro neuropsicológico causado por el accidente cerebro vascular (ACV y el impacto que éste tiene en el paciente a nivel de su desenvolvimiento diario y familiar. Con base a esto el objetivo de esta investigación fue elaborar un perfil de deterioro neuropsicológico de las diversas funciones cerebrales superiores causado por un ACV, en un grupo de 50 pacientes de la Unidad de Medicina Física del Hospital San José al cuál se le administró un Protocolo de Evaluación Neuropsicológica, comparándose luego con un grupo control de 50 sujetos evaluados con el mismo protocolo. Se encuentra que sobre un 20% de la población con ACV evaluada presenta deterioro en al menos uno de los ítems evaluados, siendo las funciones ejecutivas, la memoria a largo plazo y la memoria a corto plazo las áreas mayoritariamente afectada en la población evaluada.

  17. Tritium Research Laboratory safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, D.A.

    1979-03-01

    Design and operational philosophy has been evolved to keep radiation exposures to personnel and radiation releases to the environment as low as reasonably achievable. Each experiment will be doubly contained in a glove box and will be limited to 10 grams of tritium gas. Specially designed solid-hydride storage beds may be used to store temporarily up to 25 grams of tritium in the form of tritides. To evaluate possible risks to the public or the environment, a review of the Sandia Laboratories Livermore (SLL) site was carried out. Considered were location, population, land use, meteorology, hydrology, geology, and seismology. The risks and the extent of damage to the TRL and vital systems were evaluated for flooding, lightning, severe winds, earthquakes, explosions, and fires. All of the natural phenomena and human error accidents were considered credible, although the extent of potential damage varied. However, rather than address the myriad of specific individual consequences of each accident scenario, a worst-case tritium release caused indirectly by an unspecified natural phenomenon or human error was evaluated. The maximum credible radiological accident is postulated to result from the release of the maximum quantity of gas from one experiment. Thus 10 grams of tritium gas was used in the analysis to conservatively estimate the maximum whole-body dose of 1 rem at the site boundary and a maximum population dose of 600 man-rem. Accidental release of this amount of tritium implies simultaneous failure of two doubly contained systems, an occurrence considered not credible. Nuclear criticality is impossible in this facility. Based upon the analyses performed for this report, we conclude that the Tritium Research Laboratory can be operated without undue risk to employees, the general public, or the environment. (ERB)

  18. Comparison of Clinical and Laboratory Responses in Sheep and Dogs following Whole-Body Exposures to 250-Kvp X-Rays and Fission-Spectrum Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen sheep and eight dogs were exposed to 400 rad (air dose) of pulsed fission-spectrum neutrons, and an equal number of sheep and 14 dogs to 400 r (midline air dose) 250 kVp X-rays. Seven additional sheep and four dogs served as un-irradiated controls. Control data were obtained for two weeks preceding the exposures and at frequent and regular intervals after the injury. In sheep, the most consistent clinical change was complete loss of wool by the 51st day post-exposure. The underlying skin was pink in colour closely resembling that of a mild blush sometimes noted in humans. Dogs did not demonstrate loss of hair. Formed blood elements, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and thrombocytes fell rapidly after the radiation in both species. At about post-exposure day 24 recovery in white cell numbers was noted only in the neutron groups. Thrombocyte levels decreased to safe level in both species but somewhat earlier in the dog. Recovery appeared during the third post-exposure week in both species ex posed to neutrons, but not in those given X-rays. Red blood-cell haematocrits showed significant drops in both groups of dogs by the ninth day, but neither group of sheep exhibited significant decrease in haematocrit values. Plasma Fe59 clearance rates were determined in the experimental subjects as a parameter of measurement of haematopoietic function. Prognostic implications of alteration in this parameter of haemapoiesis are discussed. The most significant gross-pathologic changes were confined to the lungs wherein extensive perivascular haemorrhage around the arteries was noted. On microscopic study the area of haemorrhage was observed to be within the advential-connective tissue and periarterial vessels. Thirty-day mortality for dogs was 50% following neutron exposures and 93% after the X-ray insult. In sheep neutrons produced 22% mortality and X-rays 80%. (author)

  19. Prevalence of occupational exposure to blood and body secretions and its related effective factors among health care workers of three Emergency Departments in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Farsi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accidental exposure to blood and body secretions is frequent among health care workers (HCWs. They are at risk of acquiring blood-borne diseases. In this study, we have investigated the prevalence and risk factors of occupational exposure among the HCWs of the Emergency Departments (ED at three teaching hospitals in Tehran. Materials and Methods: We conducted this observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study using a self-reporting 25-question survey, related to occupational exposures, in February 2010. It was carried out among 200 HCWs (specialist physicians, residents, medical interns, nurses, laboratory personnel, housekeepers, cleaners, and others, who were working in the EDs of the three teaching hospitals of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The age, sex, and job category of the HCWs suffering from the injury were determined, as also the risk factors responsible for the exposure of the HCWs. Results: One hundred and fifteen (57.5% of the 200 HCWs had had at least one episode of blood or body fluid exposure in their professional life. Hollow-bore needles accounted for the highest amount of injuries, with 41.5%, followed by suture needles (18.5%. The most prevalent procedures associated with injuries were suturing (17.5% and recapping used syringes (16.5%, respectively. All the specialist doctors in this study reported at least one exposure. The percentage of exposure in the other participants of our study was 74.3% for ED residents, 61.1% for laboratory technicians, 51.9% for nurses, and 51% for medical interns. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that male gender, recapping needles, and job profession were independently associated with exposure to blood or body fluids. Conclusion: High prevalence of occupational exposure in this study emphasized the importance of promoting awareness, training, and education for the HCWs, for preventive strategies, and also reporting of occupational exposure to blood and

  20. Non-accidental pediatric trauma: radiographic findings in the abused child

    OpenAIRE

    Deltoff, Marshall

    1994-01-01

    The common radiographic manifestations of abused children are discussed along with the mandated obligation of the doctor to recognize and report any reasonable suspicion of non-accidental trauma in his/her pediatric patients.

  1. Fate of Accidental Symmetries of the Relativistic Hydrogen Atom in a Spherical Cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Hashimi, M H; Wiese, U -J

    2015-01-01

    The non-relativistic hydrogen atom enjoys an accidental $SO(4)$ symmetry, that enlarges the rotational $SO(3)$ symmetry, by extending the angular momentum algebra with the Runge-Lenz vector. In the relativistic hydrogen atom the accidental symmetry is partially lifted. Due to the Johnson-Lippmann operator, which commutes with the Dirac Hamiltonian, some degeneracy remains. When the non-relativistic hydrogen atom is put in a spherical cavity of radius $R$ with perfectly reflecting Robin boundary conditions, characterized by a self-adjoint extension parameter $\\gamma$, in general the accidental $SO(4)$ symmetry is lifted. However, for $R = (l+1)(l+2) a$ (where $a$ is the Bohr radius and $l$ is the orbital angular momentum) some degeneracy remains when $\\gamma = \\infty$ or $\\gamma = \\frac{2}{R}$. In the relativistic case, we consider the most general spherically and parity invariant boundary condition, which is characterized by a self-adjoint extension parameter. In this case, the remnant accidental symmetry is ...

  2. Management options for accidental injection of epinephrine from an autoinjector: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathez Christian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Epinephrine autoinjector devices are used with increasing frequency to treat severe anaphylactic reactions. Accidental injection, usually involving a finger, is a potential complication. Case presentation A physician in a Family Practice training program accidentally injected epinephrine into his left thumb while reading the operating instructions of an autoinjector (Epipen®. He developed swelling, pallor, and pain in the thumb. Treatment included topical nitroglycerin, oral vasodilators and warming of the thumb. As expected, none caused an immediate response; however, after 8 hours, the thumb was pink and warm. There was full recovery 2 months after the accident. We reviewed the treatment of accidental epinephrine injection, and found that the use of parenteral adrenergic alpha blocker phentolamine would have produced immediate recovery. Conclusions All health professionals concerned with the use of epinephrine autoinjectors should receive adequate instruction on their use. A regimen for management of accidental epinephrine injection, in particular the use of phentolamine, should be emphasized.

  3. Simple battery armor to protect against gastrointestinal injury from accidental ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Laulicht, Bryan; Traverso, Giovanni; Deshpande, Vikram; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Accidental battery ingestion in children is a recognized source of significant morbidity and mortality. To mitigate the risks of accidental battery ingestion, legislation has been introduced to regulate the locking of battery compartments. Regulation of battery housings has translated into modest reductions in the number of battery ingestion cases reported. We report here the fabrication of waterproof, pressure-sensitive battery coatings that are nonconductive in the low-pressure gastrointest...

  4. Menace of childhood non-accidental traumatic brain injuries: A single unit report

    OpenAIRE

    Musa Ibrahim; Adamu Ladan Mu′azu; Nura Idris; Musa Uba Rabiu; Binta Wudil Jibir; Kabir Ibrahim Getso; Mohammad Aminu Mohammad; Femi Luqman Owolabi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) has high rate of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are dearths of reports from developing countries with large paediatric population on trauma; neurosurgery trauma of nonaccidental origin is not an exemption. This study analysed menace of non-accidental TBI in the paediatric population from our center. Materials and Methods: This is a single unit, retrospective study of the epidemiology of non-accidental TBI in children starting from S...

  5. Fate of accidental symmetries of the relativistic hydrogen atom in a spherical cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hashimi, M. H.; Shalaby, A. M.; Wiese, U. -J.

    2015-01-01

    The non-relativistic hydrogen atom enjoys an accidental $SO(4)$ symmetry, that enlarges the rotational $SO(3)$ symmetry, by extending the angular momentum algebra with the Runge-Lenz vector. In the relativistic hydrogen atom the accidental symmetry is partially lifted. Due to the Johnson-Lippmann operator, which commutes with the Dirac Hamiltonian, some degeneracy remains. When the non-relativistic hydrogen atom is put in a spherical cavity of radius $R$ with perfectly reflecting Robin bounda...

  6. Effective post-exposure treatment of Ebola infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Feldmann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola viruses are highly lethal human pathogens that have received considerable attention in recent years due to an increasing re-emergence in Central Africa and a potential for use as a biological weapon. There is no vaccine or treatment licensed for human use. In the past, however, important advances have been made in developing preventive vaccines that are protective in animal models. In this regard, we showed that a single injection of a live-attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vector expressing the Ebola virus glycoprotein completely protected rodents and nonhuman primates from lethal Ebola challenge. In contrast, progress in developing therapeutic interventions against Ebola virus infections has been much slower and there is clearly an urgent need to develop effective post-exposure strategies to respond to future outbreaks and acts of bioterrorism, as well as to treat laboratory exposures. Here we tested the efficacy of the vesicular stomatitis virus-based Ebola vaccine vector in post-exposure treatment in three relevant animal models. In the guinea pig and mouse models it was possible to protect 50% and 100% of the animals, respectively, following treatment as late as 24 h after lethal challenge. More important, four out of eight rhesus macaques were protected if treated 20 to 30 min following an otherwise uniformly lethal infection. Currently, this approach provides the most effective post-exposure treatment strategy for Ebola infections and is particularly suited for use in accidentally exposed individuals and in the control of secondary transmission during naturally occurring outbreaks or deliberate release.

  7. Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from

  8. Dynamic fugacity model for accidental oil release during Arctic shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afenyo, Mawuli; Khan, Faisal; Veitch, Brian; Yang, Ming

    2016-10-15

    Improved understanding of ecological risk associated with Arctic shipping would help advance effective oil spill prevention, control, and mitigation strategies. Ecological risk assessment involves analysis of a release (oil), its fate, and dispersion, and the exposure and intake of the contaminant to different receptors. Exposure analysis is a key step of the detailed ecological risk assessment, which involves the evaluation of the concentration and persistence of released pollutants in the media of contact. In the present study, a multimedia fate and transport model is presented, which is developed using a fugacity-based approach. This model considers four media: air, water, sediment, and ice. The output of the model is the concentration of oil (surrogate hydrocarbons-naphthalene) in these four media, which constitutes the potential exposure to receptors. The concentration profiles can subsequently be used to estimate ecological risk thereby providing guidance to policies for Arctic shipping operations, ship design, and ecological response measures. PMID:27377002

  9. Effects of long-term exposure to solvents in the paint industry. A cross-sectional epidemiologic study with clinical and laboratory methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orbaek, P.; Risberg, J.; Rosen, I.; Haeger-Aronsen, B.; Hagstadius, S.; Hjortsberg, U.; Regnell, G.; Rehnstroem, S.S.; Svensson, K.; Welinder, H.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of organic solvents on 50 male workers exposed 5-46 (mean 18) years were studied with a cross-sectional design. Referents were matched pairwise according to age and education. An analysis of confounders confirmed good comparability between the two groups. As indicators of organic brain dysfunction regional cerebral blood flow was measured and the power spectrum of the subjects' electroencephalograms was analyzed, the former being reduced 4% and the latter showing increased power in the delta and beta bands in the exposed group. Symptoms of brain dysfunction were significantly more frequent among the exposed subjects and showed an exposure-effect relationship. Neuropsychological tests revealed definite indication of brain dysfunction in 14% of the exposed subjects in comparison to none in the reference group. The exposed subjects performed significantly worse than the referents in tests measuring focused attention abilities. A neurophysiological examination of the peripheral nervous system showed no difference between the groups. Clinical chemistry demonstrated no differences that could be explained by solvent exposure.

  10. Análisis de accidentes severos en contenciones nucleares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goicolea Ruigómez, José María

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis for severe accidents has recently been added to the long list of requisites imposed on nuclear power plants. In this work we study the rationale and justiflcation for this type of analysis. Calculations for the structural response of the containment buildings can be performed on the computer using advanced nonlinear Finite Element codes. A state of the art review of these methods is carried out, proposing a methodology based on analysis by numerical methods with experimental validation. Additionally we present some results obtained by the authors for the analysis of both reinforced concrete and steel containments. The concluding remarks show the validity of the proposed methodology, as well as the evidence of a large security margin in the containments, due mainly to the conservatisms in the design stage.

    El análisis frente a accidentes severos ha venido a añadirse recientemente a la larga lista de requisitos impuestos a las centrales nucleares. En este trabajo se pretende estudiar la problemática y justificación de este tipo de análisis. El cálculo de la respuesta de la contención se puede realizar en el ordenador mediante métodos avanzados de elementos finitos no lineales. Se hace una revisión del estado de la técnica en estos métodos, proponiendo una metodología basada en el análisis mediante modelos numéricos con validación experimental. Se presentan asimismo los resultados de análisis realizados, para contenciones tanto de hormigón armado como metálicas. Las conclusiones del trabajo establecen la validez de la metodología empleada, así como la constatación de un amplio margen de seguridad existente en las contenciones evaluadas, debido a los conservadurismos del proceso de diseño original.

  11. Genotypic and phenotypic modifications of Neisseria meningitidis after an accidental human passage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Omer

    Full Text Available A scientist in our laboratory was accidentally infected while working with Z5463, a Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A strain. She developed severe symptoms (fever, meningism, purpuric lesions that fortunately evolved with antibiotic treatment to complete recovery. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis confirmed that the isolate obtained from the blood culture (Z5463BC was identical to Z5463, more precisely to a fourth subculture of this strain used the week before the contamination (Z5463PI. In order to get some insights into genomic modifications that can occur in vivo, we sequenced these three isolates. All the strains contained a mutated mutS allele and therefore displayed an hypermutator phenotype, consistent with the high number of mutations (SNP, Single Nucleotide Polymorphism detected in the three strains. By comparing the number of SNP in all three isolates and knowing the number of passages between Z5463 and Z5463PI, we concluded that around 25 bacterial divisions occurred in the human body. As expected, the in vivo passage is responsible for several modifications of phase variable genes. This genomic study has been completed by transcriptomic and phenotypic studies, showing that the blood strain used a different haemoglobin-linked iron receptor (HpuA/B than the parental strains (HmbR. Different pilin variants were found after the in vivo passage, which expressed different properties of adhesion. Furthermore the deletion of one gene involved in LOS biosynthesis (lgtB results in Z5463BC expressing a different LOS than the L9 immunotype of Z2491. The in vivo passage, despite the small numbers of divisions, permits the selection of numerous genomic modifications that may account for the high capacity of the strain to disseminate.

  12. Assessment of methodologies for analysis of the dungeness B accidental aircraft crash risk.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2010-09-01

    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has requested Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to review the aircraft crash methodology for nuclear facilities that are being used in the United Kingdom (UK). The scope of the work included a review of one method utilized in the UK for assessing the potential for accidental airplane crashes into nuclear facilities (Task 1) and a comparison of the UK methodology against similar International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) methods (Task 2). Based on the conclusions from Tasks 1 and 2, an additional Task 3 would provide an assessment of a site-specific crash frequency for the Dungeness B facility using one of the other methodologies. This report documents the results of Task 2. The comparison of the different methods was performed for the three primary contributors to aircraft crash risk at the Dungeness B site: airfield related crashes, crashes below airways, and background crashes. The methods and data specified in each methodology were compared for each of these risk contributors, differences in the methodologies were identified, and the importance of these differences was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. The bases for each of the methods and the data used were considered in this assessment process. A comparison of the treatment of the consequences of the aircraft crashes was not included in this assessment because the frequency of crashes into critical structures is currently low based on the existing Dungeness B assessment. Although the comparison found substantial differences between the UK and the three alternative methodologies (IAEA, NRC, and DOE) this assessment concludes that use of any of these alternative methodologies would not change the conclusions reached for the Dungeness B site. Performance of Task 3 is thus not recommended.

  13. Accidentes de trabajo fatales y violencia interpersonal en Brasil, 2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Sousa Santana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se estima la mortalidad proporcional por accidentes de trabajo provocados por violencia interpersonal en Brasil, entre 2000 y 2010. Se analizaron los datos del Sistema de Información sobre Mortalidad, basados en los informes estadísti- cos de defunción del Ministerio de Salud de Brasil, los cuales incluyen un campo para el registro de accidentes de trabajo que debe ser completado en toda defunción por causas externas. Se identificaron 1.368.732 casos de defunciones por causas externas, 31.576 (2,3% por accidentes de trabajo y solo 226 (0,02% por accidentes de trabajo con violen- cia interpersonal. Cerca del 80% de los informes estadísticos de defunción no tenían el campo “accidente de trabajo” completado. La mayor cantidad de casos ocurrió entre hom- bres (94,3% de 25-34 años, con nivel de escolaridad medio, ubicados en la región sudeste y noreste, que trabajan principalmente en la producción de bienes y servicios industriales y la actividad agropecuaria. La mayoría de los casos fueron causados por armas de fuego, seguidos por armas blancas, con un aumento relativo de estos últimos en el período estu- diado. Los resultados sugieren un gran subregistro de diagnósticos que reconocen la rela- ción con el trabajo. Se hace necesaria una mejor capacitación en el llenado de los informes estadísticos, así como estudios que cuantifiquen el subregistro de accidentes de trabajo y accidentes de trabajo con violencia interpersonal.

  14. Risk of potential radiation accidental situations at TESLA accelerator installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spasic Jokic, Vesna [TESLA Accelerator Installation, Lab. of Physics, VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia); Orlic, Milan [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Lab. of radioisotopes, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia); Djurovic, Branka [Military Medical Academy, Radiation Protection Dept., Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia)

    2006-07-01

    The main aim of this paper is to recognize some of the numerous risks of potential exposure and to quantify requirements and probability of failure of radiation protection system due to design event tree. Nature of design and construction of Tesla Accelerator Installation (T.A.I.) make possibility of potential exposure as a result of proven design and modification, trade off, human error as well as defense in depth. In the case of potential exposure human risk is the result of two random events: first, the occurrence of the event that causes the exposure, and the second, the appearance of a harmful effect. The highest doses during potential exposure at T.A.I. can be received at the entrance to primary beam space (V.I.N.C.Y. cyclotron vault) as well as in space with target for fluorine production, high energy experimental channels, proton therapy channel and channel for neutron researches. Expected values of prompt radiation equivalent dose rate in the cyclotron vault is considerably high, in order of 10 Sv/h. Serious problem deals with such large research installation is a number of workers, as visiting research workers of different educational levels and people in Institute who are not professionally connected with ionizing radiation. They could cause willing or unwilling opening of the cyclotron vault doors. Considering some possible scenarios we assumed that during 7000 working hours per year it is reasonably to expect 300 unsafe entries per year. It can be concluded that safety system should be designed so that probability of failure of radiation protection system has to be less than 1.9 10{sup -6}. (authors)

  15. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory The Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose...

  16. Fate of accidental symmetries of the relativistic hydrogen atom in a spherical cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hashimi, M. H.; Shalaby, A. M.; Wiese, U.-J.

    2015-11-01

    The non-relativistic hydrogen atom enjoys an accidental SO(4) symmetry, that enlarges the rotational SO(3) symmetry, by extending the angular momentum algebra with the Runge-Lenz vector. In the relativistic hydrogen atom the accidental symmetry is partially lifted. Due to the Johnson-Lippmann operator, which commutes with the Dirac Hamiltonian, some degeneracy remains. When the non-relativistic hydrogen atom is put in a spherical cavity of radius R with perfectly reflecting Robin boundary conditions, characterized by a self-adjoint extension parameter γ, in general the accidental SO(4) symmetry is lifted. However, for R =(l + 1) (l + 2) a (where a is the Bohr radius and l is the orbital angular momentum) some degeneracy remains when γ = ∞ or γ =2/R. In the relativistic case, we consider the most general spherically and parity invariant boundary condition, which is characterized by a self-adjoint extension parameter. In this case, the remnant accidental symmetry is always lifted in a finite volume. We also investigate the accidental symmetry in the context of the Pauli equation, which sheds light on the proper non-relativistic treatment including spin. In that case, again some degeneracy remains for specific values of R and γ.

  17. Patterns and Trends in Accidental Poisoning Deaths: Pennsylvania's Experience 1979-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren C Balmert

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine county and state-level accidental poisoning mortality trends in Pennsylvania from 1979 to 2014.Crude and age-adjusted death rates were formed for age group, race, sex, and county for accidental poisonings (ICD 10 codes X40-X49 from 1979 to 2014 for ages 15+ using the Mortality and Population Data System housed at the University of Pittsburgh. Rate ratios were calculated comparing rates from 1979 to 2014, overall and by sex, age group, and race. Joinpoint regression was used to detect statistically significant changes in trends of age-adjusted mortality rates.Rate ratios for accidental poisoning mortality in Pennsylvania increased more than 14-fold from 1979 to 2014. The largest rate ratios were among 35-44 year olds, females, and White adults. The highest accidental poisoning mortality rates were found in the counties of Southwestern Pennsylvania, those surrounding Philadelphia, and those in Northeast Pennsylvania near Scranton.The patterns and locations of accidental poisoning mortality by race, sex, and age group provide direction for interventions and policy makers. In particular, this study found the highest rate ratios in PA among females, whites, and the age group 35-44.

  18. Assessment of Cesium, Iodine, Strontium and Ruthenium isotopes behaviour in urban areas, after contamination from accidental release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exposures of urban populations to the radiation derived from the deposition, after accidental atmospheric releases, of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 129 I, 131 I, 133 I, 89 Sr, 103 Ru and 106 Ru were assessed, using the integrated system for the evaluation of environmental radiological impact in emergency situations, developed by the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD)/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN). These radionuclide are fission products likely to be emitted in the occurrence of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Their environmental behaviour in urban areas, due to their deposition in soil, in urban surfaces and in vegetable-garden food products, such as leafy and non-leafy vegetables, were analyzed, and dose assessments at the short, medium and long terms were performed, with an without the application of protective measures for reduction of doses. Simulations of unitary initial deposition for each radionuclide and of two different potential accidents involving water reactors (PWR), with different source terms and distinct deposition for each radionuclide, were performed. Results were analyzed on the basis of relative relevance of radionuclides and pathways for the exposure of members of the public, as a function of age and time after the release. It was also performed an assessment of the effectiveness of protective measures as a function of the moment of their implementation. (author)

  19. Emergency exposure levels for natural uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to identify the inhalation hazards associated with the over-exposure of workers and of the general public, following an accidental release of uranium hexafluoride. Maximum emergency concentrations are recommended for periods of 10, 30, and 60 minutes. The quantitative aspect of the assessment is considered in the context of the development of exposure standards for chemical substances and this facilitates the derivation of levels which are compatible with occupational and public health experience and attainable by management, and to which most workers and members of the general public may be exposed without adverse effect. The radiological implications are also considered. (author)

  20. Tratamiento de Terapia Ocupacional en el accidente cerebrovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo García, AM

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEntre los muchos pacientes que necesitan tratamiento rehabilitador en Terapia Ocupacional están los que en la edad adulta han sufrido un accidente cerebrovascular.Uno de los factores de riesgo asociados con más frecuencia a las alteraciones del sistema nervioso central es el progresivo envejecimiento de la población, debido a esto orientaré el siguiente artículo hacia la intervención sobre la población geriátrica.La Terapia Ocupacional ofrece un tratamiento global que abarca las áreas funcional, motriz, sensorial, perceptivo y cognitiva. No debemos olvidar el asesoramiento realizado al paciente, a la familia y/ o cuidadores sobre el manejo de la persona que ha sufrido un ictus, la adaptación del entorno y la prescripción, uso y manejo de ayudas técnicas cuando sea necesario.Las propuestas terapéuticas que expondré a continuación, no son recetas únicas que se puedan emplear del mismo modo en todos las personas que hayan sufrido un ictus. Con cada paciente será necesario una evaluación individualizada de su situación y una adaptación de la terapia según sus déficit específicos.La meta final de la Terapia Ocupacional es la integración óptima del paciente dentro de su entorno familiar y social, con el mayor grado de autonomía posible.ABSTRACTAmong the patients who need Occupational Therapy’s rehabilitation treatment, there are those who have suffered a cerebrovascular damage when elderly.People’s gradual ageing is one of the risk factors in the nervous central system’s alterations and this is why I am going to write about intervention on geriatric population.The Occupational Therapy’s rehabilitation treatment works on the functional, motor, sensorial, perceptive and cognitive areas. Moreover, we should not forget to advise the patient and his/her family or caregivers about the way of treating ,the environment’s adaptation, the prescription and use of technical aids when needed.The following therapeutic

  1. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, Robin D.; Little, Edward E.; Puglis, Holly J.; Scott, Erinn L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model–normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution.

  2. Study on plutonium distribution in Palomares ecosystem after an accidental aerosol release of transuranic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A discharge of plutonium and transuranic elements accidentally ocurred near Palomares (Almeria, Spain) in 1966. After decontamining operations, about 10 g of finely dispersed plutonium remained on the soil and was spreaded on the sorroundings and into Mediterranean sea. An analytical study including a 34 sampling sites of marine sediments, chemical clean-up, analytical methods for isolating plutonium from interfering radionuclides in the alfa-spectra was carried out. The detection limit level reached for the 239 u+240Pu was 10 mBq/Kg one of the lowest cited in the Spanish analytical literature until now. These results were attained following a careful electroplating Pu deposition method developed by our laboratory as result of the high signal/noise rates measured and a 20 KeV resolution. Several analytical assurance quality procedures specially developed for the Palomares ecological system were applied to the results, at the CIEMAT laboratories using reference standard certified samples. The values were unbiased and with no differences statistically significants between them. Interlaboratory comparisons were carried out. After 20 years of plutonium traces environmental transport their concentration were from two at three times the leves of radionuclides in the fallout of the zone studied. The plutonium concentration range in surface sediments was 0.3-5.0 Bq/Kg. The highest values corresponding in the coastal sediments and the lowest in the deep sea. Plutonium concentrations are highly correlated with the sediments structure, grain size composition and distance from the mouth of Almanzora river. The most important contribution at the transport from the land into sea could be the freshet occured at 1973. For this reason the plutonium ecologycal path has been from Palomares sorroundings into the sea. Sites in the Mediterranean sea not affected by plutonium apportation from Almanzora river showed Pu levels approximately the same as the mean value for the whole

  3. A structural equation model of soil metal bioavailability to earthworms: confronting causal theory and observations using a laboratory exposure to field-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumelle, Léa; Vile, Denis; Lamy, Isabelle; Vandenbulcke, Franck; Gimbert, Frédéric; Hedde, Mickaël

    2016-11-01

    Structural equation models (SEM) are increasingly used in ecology as multivariate analysis that can represent theoretical variables and address complex sets of hypotheses. Here we demonstrate the interest of SEM in ecotoxicology, more precisely to test the three-step concept of metal bioavailability to earthworms. The SEM modeled the three-step causal chain between environmental availability, environmental bioavailability and toxicological bioavailability. In the model, each step is an unmeasured (latent) variable reflected by several observed variables. In an exposure experiment designed specifically to test this SEM for Cd, Pb and Zn, Aporrectodea caliginosa was exposed to 31 agricultural field-contaminated soils. Chemical and biological measurements used included CaC12-extractable metal concentrations in soils, free ion concentration in soil solution as predicted by a geochemical model, dissolved metal concentration as predicted by a semi-mechanistic model, internal metal concentrations in total earthworms and in subcellular fractions, and several biomarkers. The observations verified the causal definition of Cd and Pb bioavailability in the SEM, but not for Zn. Several indicators consistently reflected the hypothetical causal definition and could thus be pertinent measurements of Cd and Pb bioavailability to earthworm in field-contaminated soils. SEM highlights that the metals present in the soil solution and easily extractable are not the main source of available metals for earthworms. This study further highlights SEM as a powerful tool that can handle natural ecosystem complexity, thus participating to the paradigm change in ecotoxicology from a bottom-up to a top-down approach. PMID:27378153

  4. Insomnia medication use and the probability of an accidental event in an older adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Y Avidan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Alon Y Avidan1, Liisa A Palmer2, Justin F Doan3, Robert W Baran31UCLA Department of Neurology, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Thomson Reuters, Washington, DC, USA; 3Takeda Global Research and Development Center, Deerfield, IL, USAObjective: This study examined the risk of accidental events in older adults prescribed a sedating antidepressant, long-acting benzodiazepine, short-acting benzodiazepine, and nonbenzodiazepine, relative to a reference group (selective melatonin receptor agonist.Methods: This was a retrospective cohort analysis of older adults (≥65 years with newly initiated pharmacological treatment of insomnia. Data were collected from the Thomson MarketScan® Medicare Supplemental and Coordination of Benefits databases (January 1, 2000, through June 30, 2006. Probit models were used to evaluate the probability of an accidental event.Results: Data were analyzed for 445,329 patients. Patients taking a long-acting benzodiazepine (1.21 odds ratio [OR], short-acting benzodiazepine (1.16 OR, or nonbenzodiazepine (1.12 OR had a significantly higher probability of experiencing an accidental event during the first month following treatment initiation compared with patients taking the reference medication (P < 0.05 for all. A significantly higher probability of experiencing an accidental event was also observed during the 3-month period following the initiation of treatment (1.62 long-acting benzodiazepine, 1.60 short-acting benzodiazepine, 1.48 nonbenzodiazepine, and 1.56 sedating antidepressant; P < 0.05.Conclusions: Older adults taking an SAD or any of the benzodiazepine receptor agonists appear to have a greater risk of an accidental event compared with a reference group taking an MR.Keywords: insomnia, accidental events, benzodiazepine receptor agonist, melatonin receptor agonist, older adults

  5. Comparison of intracranial computed tomographic (CT) findings in pediatric abusive and accidental head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Child abuse specialists rely heavily on diagnostic neuroimaging. Objectives. Study objectives were: (1) to compare the frequencies of six specific intracranial CT abnormalities in accidental and non-accidental pediatric head trauma, and (2) to assess interobserver agreement regarding these CT findings. Materials and methods. Three pediatric radiologists blindly and independently reviewed cranial CT scans of pediatric patients who sustained closed head trauma between 1991 and 1994. All patients were less than 4 years of age. Study cases included thirty-nine (50 %) with non-accidental head trauma and thirty-nine (50 %) with accidental head trauma. Each scan was evaluated for the presence or absence of the following six intracranial findings: (1) interhemispheric falx hemorrhage, (2) subdural hemorrhage, (3) large (non-acute) extra-axial fluid, (4) basal ganglia edema, (5) posterior fossa hemorrhage, and (6) frontal-parietal shearing tear(s). Interobserver agreement was calculated as the percentage of total cases in which all reviewers agreed a specific CT finding was present or absent. Diagnosis required independent agreement by all three pediatric radiologists. The frequencies of these six intracranial CT abnormalities were compared between the two study groups by Chi-square analysis and Fisher's exact test. Results. Interobserver agreement between radiologists was greater than 80 % for all lesions evaluated, with the exception of frontal-parietal shearing tear(s). Interhemispheric falx hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage, large (non-acute) extra-axial fluid, and basal ganglia edema were discovered significantly more frequently in non-accidental trauma (P ≤.05). Conclusion. Although not specific for child abuse, discovery of these intracranial CT abnormalities in young patients should prompt careful evaluation of family and injury circumstances for indicators of non-accidental trauma. (orig.). With 6 figs., 2 tabs

  6. An accidental but safe and effective use of Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in maggot debridement therapy in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawi, Tarek I; Williams, Kirstin A; Villet, Martin H

    2010-05-01

    The calliphorid fly, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), is known to cause serious malign myiasis in animals, whereas its sibling species Lucilia sericata (Meigen) is commonly a carrion breeder and is used in maggot debridement therapy (MDT). The current study reports an accidental involvement of L. cuprina in MDT in Alexandria, Egypt, that has proved to be safe and effective. In November 2008, the laboratory colonies of L. sericata (the species regularly used in MDT) at the Faculty of Science, Alexandria University were renewed by Lucilia flies collected as third instar larvae on exposed rabbit carcasses. Flies from the new colonies were successfully used to heal the diabetic foot wounds of two patients at Alexandria Main University Hospital. Analysis of DNA sequences and adult and larval morphology then revealed that these flies were and still are L. cuprina. Breeding of this species in carrion in Alexandria is a new record. Despite the safety of this strain of L. cuprina in MDT, entomologists rearing blow flies for the purpose of wound debridement should regularly maintain high quality assurance of their species' identity to avoid possible clinical complications that may result from the introduction of an unexpected and invasive species to their laboratory colonies.

  7. Accidental and deliberate microbiological contamination in the feed and food chains--how biotraceability may improve the response to bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson, Rickard; van Rotterdam, Bart; Fach, Patrick; De Medici, Dario; Fricker, Martina; Löfström, Charlotta; Agren, Joakim; Segerman, Bo; Andersson, Gunnar; Wielinga, Peter; Fenicia, Lucia; Skiby, Jeffrey; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2011-03-01

    A next frontier of the global food safety agenda has to consider a broad spectrum of bio-risks, such as accidental and intentional contaminations in the food and feed chain. In this article, the background for the research needs related to biotraceability and response to bioterrorism incidents are outlined. Given the current scale of international trade any response need to be considered in an international context. Biotraceability (e.g. the ability to use downstream information to point to processes or within a particular food chain that can be identified as the source of undesirable agents) is crucial in any food-born outbreak and particular in the response to bioterrorism events. In the later case, tested and proven biotraceability improves the following: (i) international collaboration of validated tracing tools and detection methods, (ii) multi-disciplinary expertise and collaboration in the field of food microbiology and conceptual modeling of the food chain, (iii) sampling as a key step in biotracing (iv) optimized sample preparation procedures, including laboratory work in Biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratories, (v) biomarker discovery for relevant tracing and tracking applications, and (vi) high-throughput sequencing using bio-informatic platforms to speed up the characterization of the biological agent. By applying biotraceability, the response phase during a bioterrorism event may be shortened and is facilitated for tracing the origin of biological agent contamination.

  8. Activities developed by the biological dosimetry laboratory of the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear - ARN of Argentina; Actividades desarrolladas por el laboratorio de dosimetria biologica de la Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear de Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radl, A.; Sapienza, C.E.; Taja, M.R.; Bubniak, R.; Deminge, M.; Di Giorgio, M., E-mail: csapienza@arn.gob.ar [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Biological dosimetry (DB) allows to estimate doses absorbed in individuals exposed to ionizing radiation through the quantification of stable and unstable chromosome aberrations (SCA and UCA). The frequency of these aberrations is referred to a calibration dose response curve (in vitro) to determine the doses of the individual to the whole body. The DB is a necessary support for programs of national radiation protection and response systems in nuclear or radiological emergencies in the event of accidental or incidental, single overexposure or large scale. In this context the Laboratory of Dosimetry Biological (LDB) of the Authority Regulatory Nuclear (ARN) Argentina develops and applies different dosimeters cytogenetic from four decades ago. These dosimeters provide a fact more within the whole of the information necessary for an accidental, complementing the physical and clinical dosimetry exposure assessment. The most widely used in the DB biodosimetric method is the quantification of SCA (dicentrics and rings Central) from a sample of venous blood. The LDB is accredited for the trial, under rules IRAM 301: 2005 (ISO / IEC 17025: 2005) and ISO 19238:2004. Test applies to the immediate dosimetry evaluation of acute exposures, all or a large part of the body in the range 0,1-5 Gy. In this context the LDB is part of the Latin American network of DB (LBDNet), BioDoseNet-who and response system in radiological emergencies and nuclear IAEA-RANET, being enabled to summon the LBDNet if necessary.

  9. La responsabilidad civil por los daños sufridos en un accidente de trabajo

    OpenAIRE

    San José Sebrango, Marta

    2015-01-01

    RESUMEN: La preocupación por la siniestralidad laboral obliga al legislador a introducir constantes cambios con objeto de tratar de evitar accidentes o, al menos disminuirlos, con el fin de mejorar no solo la calidad de vida de los trabajadores, sino la calidad en el desempeño del trabajo, evitando situaciones gravosas o penosas por la especialización y mejoras reguladas, entre otras, en la Ley de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales. Sin embargo, es inevitable que los accidentes de trabajo se ...

  10. Drogodependencias, conducción y accidentes de tráfico

    OpenAIRE

    Cano Pérez, L.; Osca-Lluch, Julia; Haba Osca, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Los accidentes de tráfico suponen una causa importante de mortalidad, morbilidad y discapacidad. El uso y abuso de alcohol y drogas en los contextos recreativos nocturnos es frecuente y esta muy relacionado con los accidentes de tráfico. El consumo de drogas y la conducción bajo los efectos del alcohol, sin necesidad de efectuarse bajo un efecto de embriaguez, es uno de los grandes problemas que aparecen en el área de la seguridad vial.

  11. Inhaled Surfactant in the treatment of accidental Talc Powder inhalation: a new case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Piparo Caterina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of talcum powder is incorrectly part of the traditional care of infants. Its acute aspiration is a very dangerous condition in childhood. Although the use of baby powder has been discouraged from many authors and the reports of its accidental inhalation have been ever more rare, sometimes new cases with several fatalities have been reported. We report on a patient in which accidental inhalation of baby powder induced severe respiratory difficulties. We also point out the benefits of surfactant administration. Surfactant contributed to the rapid improvement of the medical and radiological condition, preventing severe early and late complications and avoiding invasive approaches.

  12. Accidentes de trabajo fatales y violencia interpersonal en Brasil, 2000-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Vilma Sousa Santana; Elizabeth Costa Dias; Graziella Lage Oliveira; Maria Cláudia Peres Moura; Leticia Coelho da Costa Nobre; Jorge Mesquita Huet Machado

    2013-01-01

    En el presente estudio se estima la mortalidad proporcional por accidentes de trabajo provocados por violencia interpersonal en Brasil, entre 2000 y 2010. Se analizaron los datos del Sistema de Información sobre Mortalidad, basados en los informes estadísti- cos de defunción del Ministerio de Salud de Brasil, los cuales incluyen un campo para el registro de accidentes de trabajo que debe ser completado en toda defunción por causas externas. Se identificaron 1.368.732 casos de defunciones por ...

  13. Guidelines on the medical therapy of persons accidentally overexposed to ionizing radiations. External contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document represents a guide for the external decontamination of persons accidentally radio contaminated due to the use, production or transport of radioactive materials. The general conditions, from the medical point of view, to be kept in mind, in the event of accidental overexposures as decontamination treatment and the handling of samples are detailed throughout report. The external contamination without injury in skin or with wound its considered. The distribution of measures and responsibilities for the therapy of the irradiated patients with radioactive materials are enumerated. The preparations of decontaminate solutions are detailed in this work. Moreover, forms for the reception, physical evaluation of the patient and external contamination are presented. (author)

  14. Investigation of Thermal Equilibrium around an Accidental Event and Impact on Possibly Enclosed Surrounding Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Biswanath; Shah, Nitin; Choukekar, Ketan; Kapoor, Himanshu; Kumar, Uday; Das, Jotirmoy; Bhattacharaya, Ritendra; Vaghela, Hitensinh; Muralidhara, Srinivasa

    Complex and large cryogenic distribution systems are integral part of a fusion machine having superconducting magnets, cryopumps, etc. The various equipment of the cryogenic distribution system are interconnected via Cryogenic Transfer Lines (CTLs) to distribute cold helium to end users. During nominal operation of the fusion machine, helium inventory in CTLs could be in order of several tons. The cold helium present in CTLs could be released in surrounding volume due to accidental scenario. The present analysis, aims to estimate lowest temperature in the surrounding volume due to accidental scenario. The paper will describe simulation results and the test plan in a simulated condition.

  15. Laryngeal impaction of an archwire segment after accidental ingestion during orthodontic adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesan, Uday Kumar; Ahmad, Wizziyiane; Balakrishnan, Priya

    2012-08-01

    Orthodontic archwires or fractured appliances that are accidentally swallowed can become lodged in the airway or gastrointestinal tract. Inadvertent ingestion or aspiration of an appliance or archwire piece during orthodontic appliance adjustment is a medical emergency with potentially serious complications, including possible death from asphyxiation. This article reports the accidental ingestion of a piece of orthodontic archwire that became impacted in the larynx; it was subsequently retrieved. Some potential complications are discussed, along with suggested precautions to prevent such mishaps when using fixed appliances. PMID:22858337

  16. Accidental human laser retinal injuries from military laser systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuck, Bruce E.; Zwick, Harry; Molchany, Jerome W.; Lund, David J.; Gagliano, Donald A.

    1996-04-01

    The time course of the ophthalmoscopic and functional consequences of eight human laser accident cases from military laser systems is described. All patients reported subjective vision loss with ophthalmoscopic evidence of retinal alteration ranging from vitreous hemorrhage to retinal burn. Five of the cases involved single or multiple exposures to Q-switched neodymium radiation at close range whereas the other three incidents occur over large ranges. Most exposures were within 5 degrees of the foveola, yet none directly in the foveola. High contrast visual activity improved with time except in the cases with progressive retinal fibrosis between lesion sites or retinal hole formation encroaching the fovea. In one patient the visual acuity recovered from 20/60 at one week to 20/25 in four months with minimal central visual field loss. Most cases showed suppression of high and low spatial frequency contrast sensitivity. Visual field measurements were enlarged relative to ophthalmoscopic lesion size observations. Deep retinal scar formation and retinal traction were evident in two of the three cases with vitreous hemorrhage. In one patient, nerve fiber layer damage to the papillo-macular bundle was clearly evident. Visual performance measured with a pursuit tracking task revealed significant performance loss relative to normal tracking observers even in cases where acuity returned to near normal levels. These functional and performance deficits may reflect secondary effects of parafoveal laser injury.

  17. Accidental tritium release from nuclear technologies and a radiobiological survey of the impact of low dose tritium on the developing mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Atomic Energy Act, 1962 provides for the development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy for the welfare of the people in India. The licensing policy adopted for nuclear power stations in India requires that the plants meet stringent requirements based on the system of dose limitation, recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). Currently, nuclear energy is contributing just 3% of the country's power generation. The share of nuclear power is proposed to be increased to 10% in the near future. With the introduction of nuclear energy, the need to assess the radioecological and radiobiological impact of radionuclides of long half- life existing in the environment for longer duration has appeared. Tritium, a radioactive by-product of power reactors is one of such major radionuclides of concern. In the world, routine releases and accidental spills of tritium from nuclear power plants pose a growing health and safety concern. Tritium has been observed in ground water in the vicinity of several nuclear stations. Exposure to tritium has been clinically proven to cause deleterious and detectable effects such as teratogenesis, cancer and life shortening in laboratory animals. There is, now, a growing emphasis on tritium in radiation protection as the challenge of nuclear fusion comes nearer. Present investigation is an attempt to elucidate the effects of low dose tritiated water exposure on developing mouse cerebellum. Pregnant Swiss albino mice (12-15 in number were given a priming injection 7.4 and 74 kBq/ml of body water) of tritiated water (HTO) on 16th day of gestation. From the same day onward, through parturition, till the last interval studied, the pregnant females were continuously maintained respectively on 11.1 and 111 kBq/ml of tritiated drinking water provided ad libidum. After cervical dislocation the litters were autopsied on 1, 3, 5 and 6 weeks post- partum. Brains were fixed and then cerebellum from each of

  18. Accidentes ocupacionales y conocimiento sobre precauciones universales en internos universitarios costarricenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Rivera-Valdivia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivo: los internos universitarios (estudiantes de medicina en su último año son vulnerables a accidentes ocupacionales con agujas y otros objetos cortantes, especialmente debido a su inexperiencia y falta de entrenamiento aunados a su deseo de realizar una serie de nuevas actividades y procedimientos. No existe información en nuestro país con respecto a la frecuencia de este tipo de accidentes en internos universitarios de la carrera de medicina. El objetivo del presente estudio fue estudiar la frecuencia y tipo de accidentes ocupacionales sufridos con mayor frecuencia por internos de medicina y evaluar su conocimiento sobre precauciones universales. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal a través de una encuesta directa y anónima. De todos los internos de medicina que trabajaban en el Valle Central de octubre de 2001 a enero de 2002 se seleccionó una muestra aleatoria de 201 internos (poder 95%, error 5%. A la población seleccionada se le aplicó una encuesta precodificada, la cual consistía en 20 preguntas estructuradas, la mayoría cerradas y tres abiertas relacionadas con la ocurrencia de accidentes ocupacionales en los médicos internos, número, tipo, acciones tomadas tras el accidente y conocimientos sobre precauciones universales. Posteriormente se hizo un análisis descriptivo de los resultados obtenidos. Resultados: de todos los participantes, 90% habían trabajado más de 3 meses como médicos internos. Más de la mitad habían realizado al menos 3 meses de rotación en una área médica y 3 meses en una área quirúrgica. La muestra incluyó estudiantes de 5 universidades diferentes. Sólo un 37% de los internos encuestados habían recibido la vacunación contra virus de la hepatitis B. Del total de internos, 64% admitió haber sufrido al menos un accidente ocupacional con sangre de algún paciente, un 20% admitió haber sufrido 3 o 4 accidentes. De los internos que

  19. Laboratory animal allergy.

    OpenAIRE

    Hollander, A

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the study presented in this thesis was to estimate the prevalence rate of laboratory animal allergy and to determine its association with risk factors, like allergen exposure level, atopy, gender and other host factors. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 540 workers at 8 laboratory animal facilities. All participants completed a questionnaire and underwent skin prick testing with common and occupational allergens. Total and specific IgE measures were obtained....

  20. Differences between hospital- and community-acquired blood exposure incidents revealed by a regional expert counseling center.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, P.T. van; Pelk-Jongen, M.; Boer, E. de; Voss, A.; Wijkmans, C.; Schneeberger, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: One year (2003) regional analysis of all blood exposure incidents from hospitals as well as from the community. DESIGN: Establishment of an easily accessible regional expert counseling center, operating 24 h a day, for all accidental blood exposures. Tasks of the center were to register i

  1. 50 CFR 23.52 - What are the requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally destroyed CITES...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally destroyed CITES document? 23.52 Section 23.52 Wildlife and...) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Application..., or accidentally destroyed CITES document? (a) Purpose. A Management Authority may issue a...

  2. 36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT UNLAWFUL OR ACCIDENTAL REMOVAL, DEFACING, ALTERATION, OR DESTRUCTION OF RECORDS § 1230.10 Who is... destruction, removal, alteration or defacement of records; (c) Implement and disseminate policies and... preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records?...

  3. Inhalation exposure methodology.

    OpenAIRE

    Phalen, R F; Mannix, R C; Drew, R T

    1984-01-01

    Modern man is being confronted with an ever-increasing inventory of potentially toxic airborne substances. Exposures to these atmospheric contaminants occur in residential and commercial settings, as well as in the workplace. In order to study the toxicity of such materials, a special technology relating to inhalation exposure systems has evolved. The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of the techniques which are used in exposing laboratory subjects to airborne particles and ga...

  4. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 14: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF PHOSGENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report, discussing phosgene, is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. Phosgene, a highly reactive and corrosive liquid that boils at room temperature has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (lDLH) conctntration of 2 ppm, ...

  5. Multiple scattering and accidental coincidences in the J-PET detector simulated using GATE package

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalski, P; Wiślicki, W; Raczyński, L; Bednarski, T; Białas, P; Bułka, J; Czerwiński, E; Gajos, A; Gruntowski, A; Kamińska, D; Kapłon, Ł; Kochanowski, A; Korcyl, G; Kowal, J; Kozik, T; Krzemień, W; Kubicz, E; Niedźwiecki, Sz; Pałka, M; Rudy, Z; Salabura, P; Sharma, N G; Silarski, M; Słomski, A; Smyrski, J; Strzelecki, A; Wieczorek, A; Wochlik, I; Zieliński, M; Zoń, N

    2015-01-01

    Novel Positron Emission Tomography system, based on plastic scintillators, is developed by the J-PET collaboration. In order to optimize geometrical configuration of built device, advanced computer simulations are performed. Detailed study is presented of background given by accidental coincidences and multiple scattering of gamma quanta.

  6. Accidental ingestion of Ecstasy by a toddler: unusual cause for convulsion in a febrile child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A J; Egleston, C V

    1997-05-01

    The case is reported of a toddler who presented with an apparent febrile convulsion. The final diagnosis was that of accidental ingestion of Ecstasy. The child made an uneventful recovery. Ecstasy toxicity should be added to the list of differential diagnoses in a child presenting with fever and an unexplained seizure. PMID:9193992

  7. Accidental ingestion of Ecstasy by a toddler: unusual cause for convulsion in a febrile child.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, A. J.; Egleston, C. V.

    1997-01-01

    The case is reported of a toddler who presented with an apparent febrile convulsion. The final diagnosis was that of accidental ingestion of Ecstasy. The child made an uneventful recovery. Ecstasy toxicity should be added to the list of differential diagnoses in a child presenting with fever and an unexplained seizure.

  8. The accidental city : violence, economy and humanitarianism in Kakuma refugee camp Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this research I examine social ordering processes in Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya. I view the camp as an accidental city, by which I challenge the image of the camp as a temporary and artificial waiting space or a protracted refugee crisis per se. The reference to the city is both metaphorical

  9. Guidebook for the treatment of accidental internal radionuclide contamination of workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is a guide intended for the treatment of accidental internal radionuclide contamination of workers. It is a practical guide, based on an actual treatments examination to eliminate the incorporated radionuclides from organism, and to avoid the radioinduced diseases development. It should be used by work doctors, emergency doctors, radiation protection agents, nurses and medical personnel. (N.C.)

  10. [Risk of acute hepatic insufficiency in children due to chronic accidental overdose of paracetamol (acetaminophen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hameleers-Snijders, P.; Hogeveen, M.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Kramers, C.; Draaisma, J.M.T.

    2007-01-01

    Two girls aged 4 and 3 years, respectively, experienced acute liver failure due to accidental ingestion of supratherapeutic doses of paracetamol (90 mg/kg/day or more). Recognition of chronic paracetamol intoxication as a cause of acute hepatic failure is often delayed. It is important to consider t

  11. Management of accidental dural puncture and post-dural puncture headache after labour: a Nordic survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darvish, B; Gupta, A; Alahuhta, S;

    2011-01-01

    a major risk with epidural analgesia is accidental dural puncture (ADP), which may result in post-dural puncture headache (PDPH). This survey was conducted to explore the incidence of ADP, the policy for management of PDPH and the educational practices in epidural analgesia during labour...

  12. Accidental hypothermia: Rewarming treatments, complications and outcomes from one university medical centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. van der Ploeg; J.C. Goslings; B.H. Walpoth; J.J.L.M. Bierens

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the study: Accidental hypothermia (AH) is a complex and life threatening condition. Knowledge about epidemiology, rewarming treatments, complications and outcome is limited. This study was initiated to obtain data on causes, rewarming treatments and complications. Methods: A retrospective coh

  13. Insertion of an intrathecal catheter following accidental dural puncture : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesen, M.; Kloehr, S.; Rossaint, R.; Walters, M.; Straube, S.; van de Velde, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inserting an intrathecal catheter after accidental dural puncture in parturients to prevent postdural puncture headache is becoming increasingly popular. We aimed to identify relevant published articles investigating this intervention and subject data to a meta-analysis. Methods: A syste

  14. TRACE-RELAP comparison in simulation of accidental situations stop conditions under different plant configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RHRS (Residual heat removal system) loss in accidental conditions would be a non-negligible risk to the safety of the plant, especially if it is in certain configurations that make it more vulnerable by undermining its core cooling capability. One occurs when the primary is in terms of reduced inventory or half loop.

  15. SUMMARY OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF RADIOACTIVITY DETECTED OFF THE NEVADA TEST SITE, 1963-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Of the more than 450 underground nuclear explosives tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site from August 1963 (signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty) through the end of 1986, only 23 accidentally released radioactivity that was detectable beyond the boundary of the NTS. Of these ...

  16. Accidental displacement of a dental implant into the submandibular space during explantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B H; Kim, B C; Lee, J

    2016-07-01

    Dental implants are reliable and widely used, but complications such as peri-implantitis occasionally necessitate their removal. Accidents during removal are similar to those that may occur during extraction, including displacement into another structure in the maxillofacial region. We present a rare case of accidental displacement into the submandibular space, which happened during an attempt to remove an implant. PMID:26507676

  17. Accidental Epipen injection into a digit - the value of a Google search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M. J. A.; Purushotham, A. D.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the lack of awareness by the clinicians consulted of the most suitable treatment for accidentally injected epinephrine, this patient was successfully treated due mainly to the ability of clinicians on-site to access the Internet in the A&E department. A broad search engine such as Google can be an invaluable tool in finding important clinical information rapidly. PMID:15140311

  18. The Costs of Cultural Change: Accidental Injury and Modernization among the Papago Indians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberg, Robert A.; Gallagher, Mary M.

    1972-01-01

    Several theories are examined suggesting that stress associated with modernization is responsible for excesses of accidental injuries among American Indians. A preliminary version of this paper was presented at the annual meetings of the American Anthropological Association, New York, 1971. (FF)

  19. Accidental Epipen injection into a digit - the value of a Google search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M J A; Purushotham, A D

    2004-05-01

    Despite the lack of awareness by the clinicians consulted of the most suitable treatment for accidentally injected epinephrine, this patient was successfully treated due mainly to the ability of clinicians on-site to access the Internet in the A&E department. A broad search engine such as Google can be an invaluable tool in finding important clinical information rapidly.

  20. [Accidental injection of adrenaline in a finger with EpiPen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspersen, J; Vedsted, P

    1998-11-01

    We report a case of accidental injection of 0.3 mg epinephrine in the right pollux. The actual case was treated with systemic nitroglyceride and immersion of the finger in hot water. A review of the literature shows that the adequate treatment is local infiltration with Phentholamine Mesylate. There is a need to describe this treatment in conventional literature.

  1. Automatic opening system for radioactive source in teaching laboratory; Sistema automatico de abertura de fonte radiativa em laboratorio de ensino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seren, Maria Emilia Gibin, E-mail: mseren@ifi.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (LEB/IFGW/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin. Lab. de Ensino em Fisica Medica; Gaal, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir@ifi.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (LEB/IFGW/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin. Lab. de Eletronica e Eletricidade; Rodrigues, Varlei, E-mail: varlei@ifi.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DFA/IFGW/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada; Morais, Sergio Luiz de, E-mail: ceelinho@ifi.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (CST-Mec/IFGW/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin. Oficina Mecanica

    2013-07-01

    Compton scattering phenomenon is experimentally studied during the medical physics laboratory course at the University of Campinas (UNICAMP). The Teaching Laboratory of Medical Physics from IFGW/UNICAMP has a structure for its development: a fixed {sup 137}Cs sealed source with activity 610.5MBq, whose emitted radiation collides on a target, and a scintillation detector that turns around the target and detects scattered photons spectrum. {sup 137}Cs source is stored in a lead shield with a collimating window for the gamma radiation emitted with energy of 0.662MeV. This source is exposed only when attenuation barrier protecting the collimating window is opened. The process of opening and closing the attenuation barrier may deliver radiation dose to users when done manually. Taking into account the stochastic harmful effects of ionizing radiation, the objective of this project was to develop an automatic exposure system of the radioactive source in order to reduce the dose during the Compton scattering experiment. The developed system is micro controlled and performs standard operating routines and responds to emergencies. Electromagnetic lock enables quick closing barrier by gravity in case of interruption of electrical current circuit. Besides reducing the total dose of lab users, the system adds more security in the routine since it limits access to the source and prevents accidental exposure. (author)

  2. Exposure Forecaster

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Exposure Forecaster Database (ExpoCastDB) is EPA's database for aggregating chemical exposure information and can be used to help with chemical exposure...

  3. Radioecological studies on terrestrial food chain analysis for accidental release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Lee, Jeong Ho; Lee, Hyun Duk [and others

    2000-03-01

    For investigating the contamination pathways of major radionuclides in staple food crops, greenhouse experiments in which rice, Chines cabbage and radish were exposed to mixed {gamma} radionuclides of Mn-54, Co-60, Sr-85, Ru-103 and Cs-134 and H-3 at different growth stages, were conducted to generate data on parameters concerning the direct contamination of those crops. Experiments of the exposure to iodine gas were also performed for rice and radish at their various growth stages to obtain contamination parameters of elemental iodine. Based on data obtained from the experiments mentioned above, a database program was constructed to make it possible to search parameter values for different radionuclides, crops and deposition times in an easy way have an graphic output of the variation in the contamination parameter with deposition times. Paddy-field soils were collected from 5 or 6 places around Kori and Youngkwang NPPs and physicochemical properties and background radioactivity levels of the soils were investigated. Soil-to-rice transfer factors of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in the collected soils were determined for different RI application times. For Kori soils, transfer factors were also measured in the second year to investigate the yearly variation. In addition, the conceptual design of an automatized experimental greenhouse was performed to be used as a basic material for a detailed design for the construction in the future.

  4. The study of etiological and demographic characteristics of acute household accidental poisoning in children - a consecutive case series study from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzar Nabeel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the agents of poisoning and demographic distribution of children brought to Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK with a history of accidental poison intake and to examine the factors associated with it. Methods This hospital based descriptive study of first 100 patients from both sexes who presented to Pediatric department, CHK from 1st January 2006 till 31st December 2008 with exposure to a known poisonous agent and fulfilling other inclusion criteria were included in the study. Data regarding their demographic profile and potential risk factors was collected on a well structured proforma, cases were followed until discharge or expiry. Data was analyzed using frequencies, proportions, group means, median and standard deviations. Results The male to female ratio in our study was 1.2:1, with kerosene (50% being the most common household agent followed by medicines (38%, insecticides (7% and bathroom cleaners (5%. Factors such as mother's education level, number of siblings and storage place of poison correlated significantly with the cases of accidental poisoning. Most of the children (70% presented within 3 hours of ingestion. Dyspnea was the most common symptom observed. The mortality rate in our study was 3%. Conclusions Children belonging to age group 2-3 years are the most susceptible both in terms of morbidity and mortality. Preventive strategies need to be adopted at a national level to spread awareness among parents.

  5. Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Polyurethane Foam for Use as Cask Impact Limiter in Accidental Drop Scenarios - 12099

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigid, closed-cell polyurethane foams are frequently used as cask impact limiters in nuclear materials and hazardous waste transport due to their high energy-absorption potential. When assessing the cask integrity in accidental scenarios based on numerical simulations, a description of the foam damping properties is required for different strain rates and for a wide temperature range with respect to waste heat generation in conjunction with critical operating and environmental conditions. Implementation and adaption of a respective finite element material model strongly relies on an appropriate experimental data base. Even though extensive impact experiments were conducted e.g. in Sandia National Laboratories, Savannah River National Laboratory and by Rolls Royce plc, not all relevant factors were taken into account. Hence, BAM who is in charge of the mechanical evaluation of such packages within the approval procedure in Germany, incorporated systematic test series into a comprehensive research project aimed to develop numerical methods for a couple of damping materials. In a first step, displacement driven compression tests have been performed on confined, cubic specimens at five loading rates ranging from 0.02 mm/s to 3 m/s at temperatures between +90 deg. C and -40 deg. C. Materials include two different polyurethane foam types called FR3718 and FR3730 having densities of 280 kg/m3 and 488 kg/m3 from the product line-up of General Plastics Manufacturing Company. Their data was used to adapt an advanced plasticity model allowing for reliably simulating cellular materials under multi-axial compression states. Therefore, an automated parameter identification procedure had been established by combining an artificial neural network with local optimization techniques. Currently, the selected numerical material input values are validated and optimized by means of more complex loading configurations with the prospect of establishing methods applicable to impact

  6. Physical reconstruction of the radiological accident of Chilca (Lima - Peru); Reconstruccion fisica del accidente radiologico de Chilca (Lima - Peru)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachos, A. [Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas, Departamento de Radioterapia, Av. Angamos Este 2520, Surquillo, Lima (Peru); Marquez, J. F., E-mail: alachosd1271@yahoo.com [Univesidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, C. German Amezaga 375, Ciudad Univesitaria, Lima (Peru)

    2014-08-15

    The radiological accident happened in the Chilca District, the Canete County at 60 km to the south of Lima-Peru, during the night of January 11 to 12, 2012. The physical reconstruction of the accident was carried out in January 21, 2012, by means of the information gathering administrative and technical of the radioactive source as well as of the installation, the personnel and the involved procedures in the accidental event, information of the space geometry where the event took place. The preliminary information indicates that the source could have been locked in the guide tube of the equipment, next to the collimator in the first takes radiographic. The radiation monitors were not activated on the procedure, impeding this way, not to realize the flaw and causing that the personnel were exposed to the radiation during the whole work period. Their hands and especially their fingers would have been only to some millimeters of the source. With the obtained information and the measurements of the exposure rates of the radioactive source, was carried out the dose calculation to total body, the dose received in the hands and the dose received in the index finger of the left hand. The accident happened by operative procedure breach, by lack of training of the operators. The physical reconstruction of the accident contributes fundamental information for the decisions taking in the medical management of the accidents by radiation. (author)

  7. IPSN monitoring capabilities and information networks in accidental situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmet, D.; Robeau, D.

    1992-12-31

    In 1989, a Radiological Transmission and Early Warning System (SYTAR) came into being in order to harmonize radioactivity surveillance methodologies and furthermore to trigger off an alert throughout the networks whenever an unusual degree of radioactivity is detected. SYTAR is a remote permanent system linking up a national electronic access and the radiation protection services of nuclear facilities located on the mainland. The structure of the network are particularly presented in the framework of a drill organized on october 1991 in the south-east of France. During this drill, an accident was simulated on a ghost nuclear power plant located in the Cadarache Nuclear Center. A large number of samples were taken from filtered aerosols, soils, grass, milk, vegetables, food stuff; they were contaminated with Caesium 137 and Iodine 131 before to be sent to laboratories for measurements. The results of measurements were transmitted to the actors of the drill using SYTAR network. They permit to determine the exclusion area, the radiological impacts and counter-measures. (author).

  8. Clinical and biological observations on seven accidentally irradiated algerian persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On may 5th 1978 an Ir 192 source of 15 Curies for gammagraphy set in a pencil-like holder fell from a truck on the road from Algiers to Setif. It was found 2 or 3 days later by two young boys 3 and 7 years old (AEK and RAB). They handled this bright metallic object for some hours. Later their Grandmother (Mrs ARA, 47 years old) took the source away from them, brought it into their house and hid it in the kitchen. The Iridium source remained for 6 weeks in this room where 5 persons were irradiated depending on various conditions of time, posture and dose rate. Two young female patients DJA (22 years old) and FMA (20 years old and pregnant) regularly frequented the working area of the kitchen at a distance of between 0.80 and 1.50 meters from the source which delivered a dose rate in the range of 8 Roentgen/hour at one meter. The exposure was estimated to be 6 to 8 hours daily. Two girls, FAH (17 years old) and NOU (19 years old) usually spent several hours in the kitchen doing their homework. After 4 weeks, the pregnant woman FMA suffered a malaise and decided to leave the house and go to another house. From this time on the two younger girls replaced FMA in the kitchen and were irradiated from 6 to 8 hours daily. Moreover, Mrs ARA, the Grandmother, came frequently into the kitchen and often leaned against the shelf where the source had been hidden and was thus often very close to it. The Algerian authorities looked actively for the missing and finally located it on June 12, 38 days after it had been lost. On June 14th, the seven injured persons were evacuated from Algiers to Paris where they were taken to the Curie Foundation Hospital (Dr. Jammet)

  9. Acute expanded perlite exposure with persistent reactive airway dysfunction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chung-Li; Wang, Jung-Der; Chu, Po-Chin; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon

    2010-01-01

    Expanded perlite has been assumed as simple nuisance, however during an accidental spill out in Taiwan, among 24 exposed workers followed for more than 6 months, three developed persisted respiratory symptoms and positive provocation tests were compatible with reactive airway dysfunction syndrome. During simulation experiment expanded perlite is shown to be very dusty and greatly exceed current exposure permission level. Review of literature and evidence, though exposure of expanded perlite below permission level may be generally safe, precautionary protection of short term heavy exposure is warranted.

  10. Acute radiation enteritis caused by dose-dependent radiation exposure in dogs: experimental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenda; Chen, Jiang; Xu, Liu; Li, Hongyu; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2014-12-01

    Accidental or intended radiation exposure in mass casualty settings presents a serious and on-going threat. The development of mitigating and treating agents requires appropriate animal models. Unfortunately, the majority of research on radiation enteritis in animals has lacked specific assessments and targeted therapy. Our study showed beagle dogs, treated by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for abdominal irradiation, were administered single X-ray doses of 8-30 Gy. The degree of intestinal tract injury for all of the animals after radiation exposure was evaluated with regard to clinical syndrome, endoscopic findings, histological features, and intestinal function. The range of single doses (8 Gy, 10-14 Gy, and 16-30 Gy) represented the degree of injury (mild, moderate, and severe, respectively). Acute radiation enteritis included clinical syndrome with fever, vomiting, diarrhea, hemafecia, and weight loss; typical endoscopic findings included edema, bleeding, mucosal abrasions, and ulcers; and intestinal biopsy results revealed mucosal necrosis, erosion, and loss, inflammatory cell infiltration, hemorrhage, and congestion. Changes in serum diamine oxides (DAOs) and d-xylose represented intestinal barrier function and absorption function, respectively, and correlated with the extent of damage (P enteritis, thus obtaining a relatively objective evaluation of intestinal tract injury based on clinical performance and laboratory examination. The method of assessment of the degree of intestinal tract injury after abdominal irradiation could be beneficial in the development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies for acute radiation enteritis.

  11. Study of a new possibility to predict the behavior of high - performance anticorrosive protections applied on steel after their exposure in natural aggressive environments, respectively in laboratory accelerated conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina POPA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the global warming, notable changes in the climatic regime of Romania were observed in the last 40-50 years by increasing of the maximum temperatures and decreasing of the minimum temperatures characteristic for each season. This paper makes reference to an experimental research regarding the actual severity of the Romanian climate and its effects toward some performant anticorrosive coatings applied on steel. Such performant anticorrosive protection systems were exposed in situ – marine and alpine environment - and in parallel, aiming to simulate the severe climatic actions through laboratory accelerated environments - neutral salt fog, condensation and temperature variations. The graphical representation and the interpretation of the adhesion to the steel surface by means of the variation of the class into which the paint was framed after performing the cross-cut test during the exposure provided information concerning a new possibility to predict the evolution of the degradation of the paint, by means of this characteristic experimentally determined.

  12. A mobile bioassay laboratory for the assessment of internal doses based on in vivo and in vitro measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidental internal exposure may occur in practices such as nuclear power reactor operation, production of radioisotopes and use of unsealed radioactive sources in medicine and research. Such practices require an infrastructure for quick response in the case of nuclear and radiological accidents of a wide range of magnitudes. The goal of this work is to design and calibrate a mobile laboratory for the mitigation of accidents involving workers and population exposure as well as for routine monitoring of internal contamination. The detectors available in the mobile laboratory can identify and quantify photon emitters in the energy range of 100-3000 keV in the whole body, organs or tissues and in urine samples. The system was set up in a truck with internal dimensions of 3.30m x 1.60m x 1.70m. A thyroid monitor consisting of a lead-collimated NaI(Tl)3x3 was calibrated with a neck-thyroid phantom developed at the IRD. Whole body measurements are performed with a NaI(Tl)8x4 calibrated with a plastic-bottle phantom containing standard solutions uniformly distributed among its various sections. Urine samples are measured with a second NaI(Tl) 3x3 detector set up in a steel support. Standard radionuclide solutions were prepared and certified by the National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI) located at the IRD. In vitro measurements of urine samples use a calibration curve of efficiency versus energy for standard volumes. In vivo and In vitro detection limits were converted to committed doses for the radionuclides of interest using current biokinetic and dosimetric models to evaluate the applicability and limitations of the system. Dose detection limits obtained for the activation and fission products of high energy show that the system sensitivity is suitable for use in emergency situations as well as in routine monitoring of workers subject to risk of internal exposure by such radionuclides. (author)

  13. In Vivo Nanodetoxication for Acute Uranium Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guzmán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accidental exposure to uranium is a matter of concern, as U(VI is nephrotoxic in both human and animal models, and its toxicity is associated to chemical toxicity instead of radioactivity. We synthesized different PAMAM G4 and G5 derivatives in order to prove their interaction with uranium and their effect on the viability of red blood cells in vitro. Furthermore, we prove the effectiveness of the selected dendrimers in an animal model of acute uranium intoxication. The dendrimer PAMAM G4-Lys-Fmoc-Cbz demonstrated the ability to chelate the uranyl ion in vivo, improving the biochemical and histopathologic features caused by acute intoxication with uranium.

  14. Accidental Displacement of Third Molar into the Sublingual Space: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Jorge

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful extraction of third molars depends on preoperative diagnosis and planning. Gold standard preoperative examinations are performed through computed tomography, decreasing risks and avoiding potential accidents. The present report highlights the value of preoperative examinations in face of accidentally displaced third molars. Methods: An 18-years-old female patient underwent a third mandibular molar extraction with a general dentist. Accidentally, the mandibular left third molar was displaced into the sublingual space, making necessary a second surgical step. The surgery was interrupted and the patient was referred to an expert in maxillofacial surgery. Results: After 21 days awaiting an asymptomatic health status, the second surgical step was successfully performed using multislice computed tomography as preoperative imaging guide. Conclusions: The present case report highlights the clinical usefulness of imaging planning and informed consents in face of legal and ethic potential complaints.

  15. Accidentes de tráfico, víctimas mortales y consumo de alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Arranz Muñoz, José María; Gil, Ana Isabel

    2006-01-01

    Clasificación JEL: C3, H2, I1, R4. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la relación existente entre los precios de las bebidas alcohólicas, el consumo de alcohol y los accidentes mortales de tráfico a partir de datos de las comunidades autónomas españolas durante el periodo 1998-2002. Entre los principales resultados de la investigación se aprecia una correlación positiva entre el consumo de alcohol y el ratio de accidentes mortales de tráfico. Además, las acciones dirigidas a modif...

  16. Marine oil spill risk mapping for accidental pollution and its application in a coastal city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Dongdong; Liang, Bin; Bao, Chenguang; Ma, Minghui; Xu, Yan; Yu, Chunyan

    2015-07-15

    Accidental marine oil spill pollution can result in severe environmental, ecological, economic and other consequences. This paper discussed the model of Marine Oil Spill Risk Mapping (MOSRM), which was constructed as follows: (1) proposing a marine oil spill risk system based on the typical marine oil spill pollution accidents and prevailing risk theories; (2) identifying suitable indexes that are supported by quantitative sub-indexes; (3) constructing the risk measuring models according to the actual interactions between the factors in the risk system; and (4) assessing marine oil spill risk on coastal city scale with GIS to map the overall risk. The case study of accidental marine oil spill pollution in the coastal area of Dalian, China was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The coastal areas of Dalian were divided into three zones with risk degrees of high, medium, and low. And detailed countermeasures were proposed for specific risk zones.

  17. Current controversies in the interpretation of non-accidental head injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspan, Tim [Imaging Centre, University Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    The field of non-accidental injury (NAI) has been the subject of a number of theories and hypotheses of variable merit. Concerning injuries that occur within the intracranial compartment, much research has been undertaken to investigate the cause of SDH and parenchymal brain injury. Much, however, remains contentious, particularly regarding the medicolegal aspects of suspected child abuse. Issues that present the greatest challenges will be addressed. (orig.)

  18. Can accidental introductions of non-native species be prevented by fish stocking audits ?

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, G. D.; Gozlan, Rodolphe; Britton, J R

    2013-01-01

    Accidental introductions of non-native species into aquatic environments often result in invasive populations that cause substantial conservation concerns. They account for 8% of all fish introductions and often occur when fish consignments are intentionally released into the wild (stocked') but are unknowingly contaminated with a hitch-hiking' species that is also released.This study tested the efficacy of a fish stocking audit procedure in preventing the introduction of a model hitch-hiking...

  19. Transient thermal creep of concrete in accidental conditions at temperatures up to 400°C

    OpenAIRE

    HASSEN, S; COLINA, H

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the transient thermal strains of high-performance concrete (HPC) under constant load and increasing temperatures up to 400°C in accidental conditions are studied experimentally. Heating is applied at a rate of 1.5°C/min until successive constant temperature levels are reached. These temperature stages are maintained for 24 h to ensure the stabilisation of internal temperature and the physico-chemical thermo-dependent process. The analysis of experimental measures is concentrated...

  20. Determining the Role of Hand Feeding Practices in Accidental Shark Bites on Scuba Divers

    OpenAIRE

    Clua, E.E.; Torrente, F.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Introduction: Shark-based ecotourism is significantly developing around the world, often without appropriate management of risk. This activity involves a risk of accidental bites on divers that can be quite severe or even fatal. Objectives: To determine if ecotourism companies' liability can be engaged in the context of bites on scuba divers in presence of hand-feeding practices, supporting the legitimacy of financial compensation for the victims. Methods: We analyzed ...

  1. Significant effect of accidental pollinations on the progeny of low setting Prunus interspecific crosses

    OpenAIRE

    Arbeloa Matute, Arancha; Daorden Álvarez, María Elena; García Martín, Elena; Wünsch, Ana; Hormaza Urroz, José Ignacio; Marín Velázquez, Juan Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of fortuitous pollination on interspecific hybridizations of the plum rootstock Myrobalan with the apricot cultivars 'Moniquí' and 'Moniquí Borde' was assessed in this work. Progeny was originated through hand pollination of emasculated flowers of three Myrobalan clones, without bagging, in 1998 and 1999. Fruit set was low and variable among years (1.8-8.0%), but higher than the level of accidental pollination measured with emasculated and non-pollinated flowers (1.2%). Molecula...

  2. MARC - the NRPB methodology for assessing radiological consequences of accidental releases of activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Radiological Protection Board has developed a methodology for the assessment of the public health related consequences of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. The methodology consists of a suite of computer programs which predict the transfer of activity from the point of release to the atmosphere through to the population. The suite of programs is entitled MARC; Methodology for Assessing Radiological Consequences. This report describes the overall framework and philosophy utilised within MARC. (author)

  3. Baclofen intoxication after accidental ingestion in a 3-year-old child

    OpenAIRE

    Dasarwar Nagesh; Shanbag Preeti; Kumbhare Nilesh

    2009-01-01

    Baclofen is a skeletal muscle relaxant, used to control spasticity in both adults and children with neuromuscular disorders. Several cases of baclofen overdose have been reported, but only a small number have involved children. We report a 3-year-old girl with accidental ingestion of baclofen, who presented with coma, bradycardia and hypotension. She recovered within 24 hours with supportive treatment. The case emphasizes the importance of warning parents about the potential toxicity of baclo...

  4. Accidental hijab pin ingestion in Muslim women: an emerging endoscopic emergency?

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Jason; Patel, Neeral; Boulton, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Ingested foreign body is an infrequent indication for emergency endoscopy in the adult gastroenterology practice. We describe the clinical features and endoscopic management of the first four cases of accidental ingestion of hijab pins by Muslim women in our unit, all presenting within a 12-month period. The pins were all successfully retrieved without any complications. In this report, we review published guidelines and the current literature, as well as discussing the approach (conservative...

  5. Accidental Continuous Releases from Coal Processing in Semi-Confined Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Fabiano; Emilio Palazzi; Fabio Currò

    2013-01-01

    Notwithstanding the enforcement of ATEX EU Directives (94/9/EC of 23 March 1994) and safety management system application, explosions in the coal sector still claim lives and cause huge economic losses. Even a consolidated activity like coke dry distillation allows the opportunity of preventing explosion risk connected to fugitive emissions of coke oven gas. Considering accidental releases under semi-confined conditions, a simplified mathematical approach to the maximum allowed gaseous build-...

  6. Analizan partículas calientes del accidente nuclear de Palomares

    OpenAIRE

    León Dueñas, Sergio David

    2012-01-01

    Investigadores pertenecientes al Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, CNA, (Universidad de Sevilla-Junta de Andalucía-CSIC) en colaboración con la Organización Internacional de la Energía Atómica (IAEA), han llevado a cabo me didas de elementos transuránicos en partículas calientes procedentes de accidentes nucleares tales como el de Thule (Groenlandia) o Palomares (España).

  7. Accidental ingestion of BiTine ring and a note on inefficient ring separation forceps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghele ON

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Om Nemichand Baghele1, Mangala Om Baghele21Department of Periodontology, SMBT Dental College and Hospital, Sangamner, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India; 2Private General Dental Practice, Mumbai, IndiaBackground: Accidental ingestion of medium-to-large instruments is relatively uncommon during dental treatment but can be potentially dangerous. A case of BiTine ring ingestion is presented with a note on inefficient ring separation forceps.Case description: A 28-year-old male patient accidentally ingested the BiTine ring (2 cm diameter, 0.5 cm outward projections while it was being applied to a distoproximal cavity in tooth # 19. The ring placement forceps were excessively flexible; bending of the beaks towards the ring combined with a poor no-slippage mechanism led to sudden disengagement of the ring and accelerated movement towards the pharynx. We followed the patient with bulk forming agents and radiographs. Fortunately the ring passed out without any complications.Clinical implications: Checking equipment and methods is as important as taking precautions against any preventable medical emergency. It is the responsibility of the clinician to check, verify and then use any instrument/equipment.Keywords: foreign bodies/radiography, foreign bodies/complications, equipment failure, dental instrument, accidental ingestion

  8. Cuidado popular de familias con un adulto mayor sobreviviente del primer accidente cerebrovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucero López-Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el accidente cerebrovascular afecta a numerosas personas en el mundo y se constituye en la principal causa de muer- te. Los sobrevivientes pueden padecer discapacidad y sufrir modificaciones en las actividades cotidianas. La familia es el principal apoyo del sobreviviente y al ser parte de una misma cultura, construye acciones de cuidado en búsqueda del bienestar. Objetivo: describir las acciones del cuidado popular de las familias con un adulto mayor sobreviviente del primer accidente cerebrovascular. Método: estudio etnográfico, con observación participante y entrevistas en profundidad. Participaron siete familias bogotanas (siete adultos mayores entre los dos y diez meses posteriores al primer accidente cerebrovascular y los siete cuidadores principales respectivos. Resultados: cuidadores y adulto mayor comparten acciones de cuidado para la recuperación, relacionadas con la alimentación, el cuidado personal y la ingesta de medicamentos permeadas por la creencia religiosa, fuente de soporte y vínculo afectivo. Conclusión: conocer el cuidado popular de esta población posibilita proponer acciones culturalmente congruentes con sus valores y creencias para potencializar las ca- pacidades familiares e intermediar en los procesos de tratamiento.

  9. Mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito en Bayamo, Cuba 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlines Piña-Tornés

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de describir la mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito en Bayamo, Cuba, en el año 2011 se realizó una revisión de los pacientes lesionados y fallecidos a causa de accidentes de tránsito, registrados en Hospital Carlos M. de Céspedes. Se atendieron en emergencias 1365 lesionados, predominando el grupo etario de 25 a 44 años con 372 pacientes (27,3%, y el sexo masculino con 1071 (78,5%. Fallecieron 46 personas, en su mayoría del mismo grupo de edad y de sexo masculino. Los traumatismos múltiples (52,6% y cráneofaciales (34,2% fueron las localizaciones predominantes. Se destacaron los atropellos por vehículo de motor con mortalidad del 26,3%. En conclusión, la mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito predomina en adultos jóvenes masculinos; cuyas consecuencias fatales son debido a traumatismos múltiples por atropellos.

  10. Mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito en Bayamo, Cuba 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlines Piña-Tornés

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de describir la mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito en Bayamo, Cuba, en el año 2011 se realizó una revisión de los pacientes lesionados y fallecidos a causa de accidentes de tránsito, registrados en Hospital Carlos M. de Céspedes. Se atendieron en emergencias 1365 lesionados, predominando el grupo etario de 25 a 44 años con 372 pacientes (27,3%, y el sexo masculino con 1071 (78,5%. Fallecieron 46 personas, en su mayoría del mismo grupo de edad y de sexo masculino. Los traumatismos múltiples (52,6% y cráneofaciales (34,2% fueron las localizaciones predominantes. Se destacaron los atropellos por vehículo de motor con mortalidad del 26,3%. En conclusión, la mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito predomina en adultos jóvenes masculinos; cuyas consecuencias fatales son debido a traumatismos múltiples por atropellos.

  11. Decay Heat Removal and Transient Analysis in Accidental Conditions in the EFIT Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomino Bandini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a conceptual design of an industrial-scale transmutation facility (EFIT of several 100 MW thermal power based on accelerator-driven system (ADS is addressed in the frame of the European EUROTRANS Integral Project. In normal operation, the core power of EFIT reactor is removed through steam generators by four secondary loops fed by water. A safety-related decay heat removal (DHR system provided with four independent inherently safe loops is installed in the primary vessel to remove the decay heat by natural convection circulation under accidental conditions which are caused by a loss-of-heat sink (LOHS. In order to confirm the adequacy of the adopted solution for decay heat removal in accidental conditions, some multi-D analyses have been carried out with the SIMMER-III code. The results of the SIMMER-III code have been then used to support the RELAP5 1D representation of the natural circulation flow paths in the reactor vessel. Finally, the thermal-hydraulic RELAP5 code has been employed for the analysis of LOHS accidental scenarios.

  12. Accidental Coverage of Both Renal Arteries during Infrarenal Aortic Stent-Graft Implantation: Cause and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Marcello Bracale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to report a salvage maneuver for accidental coverage of both renal arteries during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR of an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA. A 72-year-old female with a 6 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm was treated by endovascular means with a standard bifurcated graft. Upon completing an angiogram, both renal arteries were found to be accidentally occluded. Through a left percutaneous brachial approach, the right renal artery was catheterized and a chimney stent was deployed; however this was not possible for the left renal artery. A retroperitoneal surgical approach was therefore carried out with a retrograde chimney stent implanted to restore blood flow. After three months, both renal arteries were patent and renal function was not different from the baseline. Both endovascular with percutaneous access via the brachial artery and open retroperitoneal approaches with retrograde catheterization are feasible rescue techniques to recanalize the accidentally occluded renal arteries during EVAR.

  13. Humeral fracture in non-ambulant infants - a possible accidental mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somers, John M.; Halliday, Katharine E. [Nottingham University Hospitals, Radiology Department, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Chapman, Stephen [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    Humeral fracture in a non-ambulant infant younger than 1 year is suspicious for a non-accidental injury unless there is a credible accidental explanation. A previously unrecognised accidental mechanism was described in 1996 whereby a 5-month-old infant was rolled by a 3-year-old sibling from a prone to a supine position. To investigate the widely accepted view that an infant with limited mobility cannot sustain a fracture of the humerus by his or her own actions in the absence of the intervention of an external party. We present seven cases of non-ambulant infants between 4 and 7 months of age in whom an isolated humeral fracture was the only injury present. In each case the caregiver described the fracture occurring when the child rolled over, trapping the dependent arm, without the intervention of another party. There is no proof for this mechanism in the form of an independent witness or video recording. However, we propose that this mechanism is worthy of further consideration as a rare and unusual cause for the injury. Further study is required. (orig.)

  14. Investigation of post-accidental management conditions. Complete final report dated July 31, 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of the process which resulted in the setting up of an investigation aimed at testing recommendations for post-accidental management, this report indicates the objectives of this investigation: to study the application of recommendations made by the CODIR-PA (Management Committee - Post-Accidental Management) to the operators of the milk sector, and to define an action plan to carry on and resume production. According to the adopted methodology, the study comprised two phases. The first one comprised an analysis of applications in the milk sector, the study of operational consequences on a zoning proposed by the CORDI-PA on the milk sector and on milk products, and the study of the acceptability and feasibility of considered options. The second phase addressed the elaboration of an action plan to carry on and resume the activity. While identifying and assessing the various risks, it identified critical issues for carrying on or resuming milk production in a contaminated territory, and defined an action plan to implement by anticipation or in the post-accidental situation

  15. Accidental hanging: a novel mobile suspension apparatus partially hidden inside the clothes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodikara, Sarathchandra

    2012-12-01

    Accidental hanging is uncommon. An immobile/fixed and exposed suspension apparatus is seen in almost all cases of hanging. A 50-year-old man, who was drunk, was trying to steal an iron rod by hiding it under his clothing. To secure hiding, he attached it to his body by a loose ligature around the neck, the waist belt of the sarong, and another band around the waist and by his underwear. Sometime later, because of ethanol intoxication, he fell asleep in the sitting position. While he was sitting on the floor, the iron rod was lifted up accidentally, and its upper end was wedged against the wall behind the victim, and the lower end was fixed against the floor. When he fell asleep, the weight of the tilted head acted as the constricting force compressing the neck by the ligature that was used to attach the iron rod to the neck. The cause of death was concluded as hanging in a man with ethanol intoxication. This case highlights a novel mobile suspension apparatus partially hidden inside the clothes, in a case of accidental hanging. A similar case has not been reported in the forensic literature. PMID:22083076

  16. Frequency Estimates for Aircraft Crashes into Nuclear Facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George D. Heindel

    1998-09-01

    In October 1996, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a new standard for evaluating accidental aircraft crashes into hazardous facilities. This document uses the method prescribed in the new standard to evaluate the likelihood of this type of accident occurring at Los Alamos National Laboratory's nuclear facilities.

  17. Analytical Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s analytical laboratories in Pittsburgh, PA, and Albany, OR, give researchers access to the equipment they need to thoroughly study the properties of materials...

  18. Computational Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains a number of commercial off-the-shelf and in-house software packages allowing for both statistical analysis as well as mathematical modeling...

  19. National laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The foundation of a 'National Laboratory' which would support a Research center in synchrotron radiation applications is proposed. The essential features of such a laboratory differing of others centers in Brazil are presented. (L.C.)

  20. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  1. An atypical case of successful resuscitation of an accidental profound hypothermia patient, occurring in a temperate climate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, E

    2010-03-01

    Cases of accidental profound hypothermia occur most frequently in cold, northern climates. We describe an atypical case, occurring in a temperate climate, where a hypothermic cardiac-arrested patient was successfully resuscitated using extracorporeal circulation (ECC).

  2. Accumulation of plutonium in mammalian wildlife tissues following dispersal by accidental-release tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, M P; Child, D P; Caffrey, E A; Davis, E; Harrison, J J; Hotchkis, M A C; Payne, T E; Ikeda-Ohno, A; Thiruvoth, S; Twining, J R; Beresford, N A

    2016-01-01

    We examined the distribution of plutonium (Pu) in the tissues of mammalian wildlife inhabiting the relatively undisturbed, semi-arid former Taranaki weapons test site, Maralinga, Australia. The accumulation of absorbed Pu was highest in the skeleton (83% ± 6%), followed by muscle (10% ± 9%), liver (6% ± 6%), kidneys (0.6% ± 0.4%), and blood (0.2%). Pu activity concentrations in lung tissues were elevated relative to the body average. Foetal transfer was higher in the wildlife data than in previous laboratory studies. The amount of Pu in the gastrointestinal tract was highly elevated relative to that absorbed within the body, potentially increasing transfer of Pu to wildlife and human consumers that may ingest gastrointestinal tract organs. The Pu distribution in the Maralinga mammalian wildlife generally aligns with previous studies related to environmental exposure (e.g. Pu in humans from worldwide fallout), but contrasts with the partitioning models that have traditionally been used for human worker-protection purposes (approximately equal deposition in bone and liver) which appear to under-predict the skeletal accumulation in environmental exposure conditions.

  3. El subregistro de accidentes de trabajo en una Unidad de Medicina Familiar del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Subregistro de accidentes de trabajo en asegurados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Pérez Martínez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar el subregistro de los accidentes de trabajo en una Unidad de Medicina Familiar (UMFX escogida, inicialmente atendidos en el servicio de urgencias de un Hospital General de Zona (HGZ, del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS en el año 2002. Material y métodos: Es un estudio transversal que utilizó información de la fuente original del HGZ que otorga la primera atención médica. Se elaboró una cédula de registro con las diversas fuentes de información, efectuando confrontación, seguimiento y análisis estadístico de las mismas. Resultados: De 6551 probables accidentes de trabajo atendidos en el HGZ, se seleccionaron 821 casos adscritos a la UMFX escogida. Se conformaron tres grupos de acuerdo con su dictamen: Grupo I= SÍ de trabajo, 35.4% (290; Grupo II=NO de trabajo, 4.6% (38, y el Grupo III= no calificados y atendidos en urgencias, 60%(493; este último representa el subregistro de los accidentes de trabajo. Conclusiones: El subregistro del 60% es de los más altos reportado en la literatura, lo cual representa para el IMSS, los trabajadores y el país graves repercusiones económicas y sociales no cuantificadas.Objective: To determine the Occupational Accidents Subregistry at a selected Family Medicine Unit (FMUX initially treated at a Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS General Zone Hospital (HGZ during the year 2002. Materials and Methods: This is a transversal study utilizing information from the original source, the HGZ primary-care hospital-facility. We elaborated a registry permit with diverse information sources, and conducted confrontation, followup, and statistical analysis of these sources. Results: Of 6,551 probable occupational accidents treated at the HGZ Emergency Room, we selected 821 cases ascribed to the selected FMUX. We made up three groups according these dictates: Group I = YES, occupational, 35.4% (290; Group II = NO, occupational, 4.6% (38, and Grupo III = not qualified and

  4. Development of management tools for accidental radiological contamination of the French coastal areas - Development of management tools for accidental radiological contamination in the French marine coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffa, C.; Charmasson, S. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/LERCM - Antenne de Radioecologie Marine, Centre Ifremer, Zone portuaire de Bregaillon, 13507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Bailly du Bois, P.; Fievet, B. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/LRC (France); Couvez, C.; Renaud, P. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/DIR (France); Didier, D. [IRSN/PRP-CRI/SESUC/BMTA (France)

    2014-07-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident led to the most important accidental release of artificial radionuclides into the sea. This accident has underlined the importance of being able to adequately reproduce the fate of radioactive releases and to estimate their consequences for the marine environment. For its Crisis Centre, the French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has operational tools, in order to help experts and decision makers in case of any atmospheric accidental release and terrestrial environment contamination. The on-going project aims to develop tools to manage any marine contamination of the French coastal areas. We should be able to evaluate and anticipate the marine post-accidental situation: contaminated areas localization and contamination levels, and possible consequences. Many sites has be considered as potential source terms into the sea: the Coastal Nuclear Power Plants, the La Hague reprocessing Plant, the Brest and Toulon Military Harbours as home-ports of nuclear powered vessels, and different river mouths (Rhone River, Gironde, Loire, Seine) that could be contaminated by upstream accidental release. To achieve this goal, two complementary approaches are developed: Marine sheets and a dedicated modelling tool (STERNE). - Marine sheets aim to summarize marine environment characteristics for the different sites, identify potential stakes for human protection such as aquaculture areas, beaches, or industrial water intakes, and ecological stakes. Whenever possible, a local climatology (main currents depending on meteorological or tide conditions) that could be a support to first environmental measurement strategy is proposed. A list of available local contacts for any operational management is also provided. - The modelling tool, STERNE (Simulation du Transport et du transfert d'Elements Radioactifs dans l'environNEment marin), must predict radionuclide dispersion and contamination of water, marine species and sediments

  5. Accidental goodness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Anne

    In postmodern capitalist market economies, management of the single organisation is bound to be guided by several rationales, which are in conflict with each other. For some writers this perception leads to the argument, that conceptions of management should strive towards goals beyond the present...

  6. Accidental overexposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident frequency seems to increase rapidly, probably because of the industrial source use development. In opposition to that was noted twenty years ago, the accidents don't involve only the industrial firm or hospital wage earners but also public people. Serious accident analysis puts to the fore the defects which made them possible. The accidents due to energy production reactors are very seldom even if Chernobyl or nuclear submarine accidents have exposed about several hundreds workers to doses going beyond one gray. 78 refs. 17 figs. 14 tabs. 3 annexes

  7. State-of-the-Art Workshops on Medical Countermeasures Potentially Available for Human Use Following Accidental Exposures to Ebola Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahrling, Peter B; Hensley, Lisa E; Barrett, Kevin; Lane, Henry Clifford; Davey, Richard T

    2015-10-01

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola in West Africa has raised a general awareness that at present there are no Ebola-specific medical countermeasures (MCMs) with proven effectiveness. This paper recapitulates discussions held at the 6th International Filovirus Symposium in March 2014 as well as the subsequent design of a randomized clinical trial design for treating Ebola virus-infected patients evacuated from West Africa to the United States. A number of different drugs or biologics were critically reviewed and 3 different postexposure strategies were identified as being farthest along in development; passive immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies, postexposure vaccination with constructs involving viral vectors (such as vesicular stomatitis virus), and antisense compounds directly targeting the viral genome such as modified phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer-based compounds and small interfering RNA products. At the time of the meetings, there were no investigational new drugs (INDs) in place for the candidate MCMs. Developers and sponsors of these candidate products were strongly encouraged to prepare pre-IND packets and submit pre-IND meeting requests to the Food and Drug Administration. Some of these investigational products have already been used under emergency authorizations to treat patients in Africa as well as patients evacuated to the United States or Western Europe. PMID:25957962

  8. State-of-the-Art Workshops on Medical Countermeasures Potentially Available for Human Use Following Accidental Exposures to Ebola Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahrling, Peter B; Hensley, Lisa E; Barrett, Kevin; Lane, Henry Clifford; Davey, Richard T

    2015-10-01

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola in West Africa has raised a general awareness that at present there are no Ebola-specific medical countermeasures (MCMs) with proven effectiveness. This paper recapitulates discussions held at the 6th International Filovirus Symposium in March 2014 as well as the subsequent design of a randomized clinical trial design for treating Ebola virus-infected patients evacuated from West Africa to the United States. A number of different drugs or biologics were critically reviewed and 3 different postexposure strategies were identified as being farthest along in development; passive immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies, postexposure vaccination with constructs involving viral vectors (such as vesicular stomatitis virus), and antisense compounds directly targeting the viral genome such as modified phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer-based compounds and small interfering RNA products. At the time of the meetings, there were no investigational new drugs (INDs) in place for the candidate MCMs. Developers and sponsors of these candidate products were strongly encouraged to prepare pre-IND packets and submit pre-IND meeting requests to the Food and Drug Administration. Some of these investigational products have already been used under emergency authorizations to treat patients in Africa as well as patients evacuated to the United States or Western Europe.

  9. Laboratory Building.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  10. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) adversely affects the life-cycle of the damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bots, Jessica, E-mail: Jessica.bots@ua.ac.b [Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); De Bruyn, Luc, E-mail: luc.debruyn@ua.ac.b [Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO), Kliniekstraat 25, 1070 Brussels (Belgium); Snijkers, Tom, E-mail: tomsnijkers@gmail.co [Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Van den Branden, Bert, E-mail: bvandenbranden@gmail.co [Department PIH Environment, University College West Flanders (HOWEST), Graaf K. 11 de Goedelaan 5, B-8500 Kortrijk (Belgium); Van Gossum, Hans, E-mail: hans.vangossum@ua.ac.b [Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2010-03-15

    We evaluated whether life-time exposure to PFOS affects egg development, hatching, larval development, survival, metamorphosis and body mass of Enallagma cyathigerum (Insecta: Odonata). Eggs and larvae were exposed to five concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 000 mug/L. Our results show reduced egg hatching success, slower larval development, greater larval mortality, and decreased metamorphosis success with increasing PFOS concentration. PFOS had no effect on egg developmental time and hatching or on mass of adults. Eggs were the least sensitive stage (NOEC = 10 000 mug/L). Larval NOEC values were 1000 times smaller (10 mug/L). Successful metamorphosis was the most sensitive response trait studied (NOEC < 10 mug/L). The NOEC value suggests that E. cyathigerum is amongst the most sensitive freshwater organisms tested. NOEC for metamorphosis is less than 10-times greater than the ordinary reported environmental concentrations in freshwater, but is more than 200-times smaller than the greatest concentrations measured after accidental releases. - Long-term laboratory exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid reduces survival and interferes with metamorphosis of Enallagma cyathigerum (Insecta: Odonata).

  11. Dynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Dynamics Lab replicates vibration environments for every Navy platform. Testing performed includes: Flight Clearance, Component Improvement, Qualification, Life...

  12. Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: To conduct fundamental studies of highway materials aimed at understanding both failure mechanisms and superior performance. New standard test methods are...

  13. Montlake Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NWFSC conducts critical fisheries science research at its headquarters in Seattle, WA and at five research stations throughout Washington and Oregon. The unique...

  14. Visualization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  15. PWR physics, operation and safety - Management of accidental situations of the reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains a brief presentation and the table of contents of a book in which the author first presents the main types of accidents which are taken into account in safety demonstration. He presents the risk concerning the three safety barriers, and the various accidents affecting the three safety functions: reactivity control, power evacuation, confinement by the third barrier. Then the author describes approaches to the management of accidents affecting these three safety functions: reactivity insertion accidents due to absorber withdrawal (presentation, absorber cluster extraction transients, primary fluid dilution transient), steam pipe failure accidents or reactivity insertion by primary cooling (presentation, description of a transient of steam-pipe failure, sensitivity study of main parameters), loss-of-coolant accidents (presentation, intermediate breach, the big breach, peculiar case of breaches in stopped status), total loss of support systems such as in Fukushima (loss of electric supplies, of the cold source), loss of steam generator tubes. In the next part, the author addresses the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident and the lessons learned in terms of post-accidental management: presentation of the reactor and description of the accident. The author presents the 'status approach' of the post-accidental management, addresses the core post-fusion situations and their consequences as far as containment is concerned. He finally proposes ways to manage accidental situations for the PWR system. Appendices propose some additional aspects of system thermal-hydraulics, a presentation of safety deterministic and probabilistic approaches, comments on the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents, comments on human and organizational factors regarding nuclear safety, some specific design aspects of the PWR reactor regarding safety, a presentation of assessment equations and data for the 1300 MWe PWR model

  16. Menace of childhood non-accidental traumatic brain injuries: A single unit report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI has high rate of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are dearths of reports from developing countries with large paediatric population on trauma; neurosurgery trauma of nonaccidental origin is not an exemption. This study analysed menace of non-accidental TBI in the paediatric population from our center. Materials and Methods: This is a single unit, retrospective study of the epidemiology of non-accidental TBI in children starting from September, 2008 to March, 2014. The management outcomes of the epidemiology of the non-accidental TBI were analysed. Results: Total of 109 children age range from 0 (intra-natal to 16 years with a mean of 5.8 ± 4.6 years (median, 5 years were enrolled into the study. 34 (31.2% were domestic violence, 26 (23.9% street assaults, 16 (14.7% were due to animal assaults and mishaps, 17 (15.6% fall from heights. Seven (6.4% cases of collapsed buildings were also seen during the period. Four (3.7% industrial accidents and two (1.8% were self-inflicted injuries. There were also three (2.8% cases of iatrogenic TBI out of which two infants (1.8% sustained TBI from cesarean section procedure while one patient (0.9% under general anaesthesia felt from the operation bed resulting to severe TBI. Conclusion: Child abuse, unprotected child labour, parental/care-givers negligence are the main cause of nonaccidental TBI. Human right activists and government agents should be incorporated in curtailing the menace.

  17. Numerical research of a super-large cooling tower subjected to accidental loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi; Lin, Feng [Department of Building Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Gu, Xianglin, E-mail: gxl@tongji.edu.cn [Department of Building Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Lu, Xiaoqin [Guangdong Electric Power Design Institute, Guangzhou 510660 (China)

    2014-04-01

    With the continued development of nuclear power plants, more and more super-large cooling towers are to be built in China and around the world. For the safe operation of nuclear power plants, research work has been done on the causes of collapse of cooling towers, collapse modes and the secondary disasters caused by the collapse of cooling towers. However, the collapse modes and the ground vibration induced by the collapse of cooling towers subjected to the accidental loads have not been fully understood. This paper has been focused on the modes and mechanisms behavior of the collapse of cooling towers subjected to accidental loads. Meanwhile, prediction of the ground vibration due to the collapse of the cooling towers has also been completed in a parallel project. Using dynamic finite element program LS-DYNA, a 3D finite element model for a super-large cooling tower was developed and the nonlinear material models were incorporated. In this paper, four types of accidental loads were considered to trigger the collapse or local failure of the tower, including vehicle collision, airplane impact, local explosion and missile attack. It was found that vehicle collision, missile attack and small TNT equivalent explosives (2 kg, 20 kg, 200 kg) might result in local failure of the cooling tower, however, the tower can still keep stable. On the other hand, large TNT equivalent explosives (2000 kg, 4500 kg) could cause severe damages in the inclined columns of the cooling tower, and lead to progressive collapse of the entire cooling tower. The two kinds of TNT equivalent explosives caused the same collapse mode while the collapsing duration was different. The airplane impacted at the throat of the cooling tower caused the local failure of shell structure of the tower, and then the progressive collapse of the cooling tower happened due to the gravitational action. The resulting collapse mode was different from that triggered by the local explosion.

  18. The accidental city : violence, economy and humanitarianism in Kakuma refugee camp Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this research I examine social ordering processes in Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya. I view the camp as an accidental city, by which I challenge the image of the camp as a temporary and artificial waiting space or a protracted refugee crisis per se. The reference to the city is both metaphorically and physically relevant. First, the metaphorical dimension of the city places refugees and their negotiation of space into the realm of the normal and the possible, contrary to prevailing notions o...

  19. Is Project Management Still an Accidental Profession? A Qualitative Study of Career Trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey M. Richardson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the authors used qualitative techniques to look for reoccurring themes related to 87 project managers’ responses to interview questions associated with entry into the field of project management and career progression. The study found that despite the efforts of higher education, professional associations, and their professional development and certifications, the project management remains a destination by accident. Professional project managers do not intend to be project managers but “fall into” the profession. This study provides a conceptual framework for project manager career trajectory that has implications for project management training and mentoring and contributes to the growing literature on the accidental profession.

  20. Problems in experimental and mathematical investigations of the accidental thermalhydraulic processes in RBMK nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigmatulin, B.I.; Tikhonenko, L.K. [Engineering Centre (EREC) for Nuclear Plants Safety, Electrogorsk (Russian Federation); Blinkov, V.N. [Aviation Institute, Kharkov (Ukraine)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    In this paper the thermalhydraulic scheme and peculiarities of the boiling water graphite-moderated channel-type reactor RBMK are presented and discussed shortly. The essential for RBMK transient regimes, accidental situations and accompanying thermalhydraulic phenomena and processes are formulated. These data are presented in the form of cross reference matrix (version 1) for system computer codes verification. The paper includes qualitative analysis of the computer codes and integral facilities which have been used or can be used for RBMK transients and accidents investigations. The stability margins for RBMK-1000 and RBMK-1500 are shown.

  1. A model of neutrino mass and dark matter with an accidental symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Ahriche

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a model of radiative neutrino mass that automatically contains an accidental Z2 symmetry and thus provides a stable dark matter candidate. This allows a common framework for the origin of neutrino mass and dark matter without invoking any symmetries beyond those of the Standard Model. The model can be probed by direct-detection experiments and μ→e+γ searches, and predicts a charged scalar that can appear at the TeV scale, within reach of collider experiments.

  2. Muertes por enfermedades cardiacas y accidentes cerebrovasculares prevenibles - (Preventable Deaths from Heart Disease and Stroke)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-03

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de septiembre del 2013 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. Más de 800,000 personas en los Estados Unidos mueren cada año a causa de enfermedades cardiacas y accidentes cerebrovasculares. Aprenda cómo controlar todos los principales factores de riesgo.  Created: 9/3/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/3/2013.

  3. Balantidiosis: a rare accidental finding in the urine of a patient with acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanduri, Ankit; Chauhan, Sapna; Chandola, Iva; Mahawal, Bs; Kataria, Vk

    2014-05-01

    Balantidium coli is the only ciliated protozoan which is known to infect human and nonhuman primates. Route of infection is faecal-oral route. It is actively motile and causes mostly asymptomatic infections, or it may develop dysentery which is similar to that which is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. Here, we are describing a case of an accidental finding of B.coli in the urine of a patient who presented with acute renal failure, based on its characteristic morphology and motility which were seen on light microscopy. This is the third case of Urinary Balantidiosis which has been reported from India. PMID:24995185

  4. Non-accidental chlorpyrifos poisoning-an unusual cause of profound unconsciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiun-Chang; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Lin, Jainn-Jim; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Wu, Chang-Teng

    2010-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus anticholinesterase insecticide, and organophosphate intoxication can induce symptoms such as miosis, urination, diarrhea, diaphoresis, lacrimation, excitation of central nervous system, salivation, and consciousness disturbance (MUDDLES). Although accidental poisoning of children with drugs and chemicals is a common cause for consciousness disturbance in children, the possibility of deliberate poisoning is rarely considered. We report on a healthy 5-year 6-month-old boy with recurrent organophosphate intoxication. Reports of chlorpyrifos intoxication in children are quite rare. This case report demonstrates decision-making process and how to disclose deliberate chlorpyrifos poisoning of the toddler by the stepmother, another example of Munchausen syndrome by proxy. PMID:19763618

  5. Crisis Management of Accidental Extubation in a Prone-Positioned Patient with Klippel-Feil Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spond, Matthew; Burns, Tyler; Rosenbaum, Thea; Lienhart, Kristen

    2016-06-15

    We present the case of an accidental extubation in a prone-positioned patient with a challenging airway because of Klippel-Feil syndrome and previous cervical spine fusions. The surgical procedure was well underway when this occurred, which added substantially to the difficulties produced by this event. We herein highlight the corrective steps we took in our case. We also recommend the need for a comprehensive preoperative briefing with all operating room personnel together with an action plan for how to prevent this particular scenario. PMID:27301052

  6. The present status and recent applications of the accidental tritium assessment code UFOTRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskob, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    The computer program UFOTRI can be used for assessing the impact of accidental released tritium in the two chemical forms tritiated water vapour and tritium gas. By applying UFOTRI to potential European sites for ITER, it could be demonstrated that the main goal, the nonevacuation criteria, is fulfilled for the present release limits. Contributions in international studies together with the re-evaluation of experimental data showed that the plant sub-model as well as the soil sub-model are areas for further improvement. (author)

  7. Acute ischaemia of the leg following accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifert, J A; Bossaller, L; Uhl, M

    2008-11-01

    Accidental intra-arterial injection of drugs is a sporadic complication in i.v. drug addicts. A 22-year-old drug-abuser injected flunitrazepam tablets dissolved in tap water into her left femoral artery and presented with clinical signs of acute ischaemia of the left leg. Severe rhabdomyolysis developed within 5 hours after the injection. Selective arterial catheter angiography showed an acute occlusion of the posterior tibial artery. Combination therapy with i.a. urokinase, i.a. prostaglandines and i.v. anticoagulation resulted in re-opening of the obstructed distal artery and complete cessation of symptoms.

  8. Accidental hijab pin ingestion in Muslim women: an emerging endoscopic emergency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Jason; Patel, Neeral; Boulton, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Ingested foreign body is an infrequent indication for emergency endoscopy in the adult gastroenterology practice. We describe the clinical features and endoscopic management of the first four cases of accidental ingestion of hijab pins by Muslim women in our unit, all presenting within a 12-month period. The pins were all successfully retrieved without any complications. In this report, we review published guidelines and the current literature, as well as discussing the approach (conservative vs proactive endoscopic retrieval) and timing of endoscopic treatment. The Muslim community may need to be alerted to the potential health hazard of hijab pins. PMID:24390968

  9. Prevención de los accidentes de tráfico infantiles

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera Menor, Estrella

    2003-01-01

    En España, aproximadamente el 3% de los muertos en accidente de tráfico es un niño de hasta 14 años. Sin embargo, con independencia de la importancia cuantitativa, es evidente la importancia cualitativa y sentimental que la pérdida de una vida que apenas comienza, o su sufrimiento, tiene sobre una sociedad que, de forma natural, acepta y asume como una de sus obligaciones, con entronque en sus valores primarios y por tanto más fuertemente arraigados, el salvaguardar y proteger a s...

  10. The accidental potential of diffractive thinking technologies. Mapping and colouring social differentiation in/of school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunæs, Dorthe; Brown, Rikke; Bjerg, Helle

    This paper presents our joint work with using and developing Donna Haraways concept of thinking technologies for putting research into play in cooperation with practitioners within the field of education. First we shortly present the conceptualization of thinking technologies and why we have found...... this conceptualization useful in our work and cooperation with practitioners. Secondly we present the development of the ‘colour map’ as a specific example of a thinking technology and introduce what we shall coin as the accidental potential of working with research informed thinking technologies on the particular...

  11. Accidentes de tránsito fatales en Costa Rica en el 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maikel Vargas Sanabria

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Los accidentes de tránsito en Costa Rica contribuyen significativamente con la tercera causa de muerte en el país en los últimos años: las causas externas, por ello resulta importante conocer el panorama más reciente de las fatalidades causadas por estos eventos. En el presente trabajo se analizarán desde el punto de vista médico legal los accidentes de tránsito fatales, cuyas víctimas fallecieron en el año 2007. Para ello se revisaron todas las autopsias efectuadas (un total de 3003 en el Departamento de Medicina Legal de Costa Rica para ese año. Se obtuvo que una cuarta parte de las mismas se originaron en accidentes de tránsito, lo cual generó una tasa de mortalidad de 16,58 por 100000 habitantes, considerada alta a nivel mundial. El perfil predominante de las víctimas fue: ser de género masculino, en edad económicamente productiva, con accidentes fatales de predominio en la noche, los fines de semana, en las provincias costeras, con fallecimiento en el sitio del hecho por trauma cráneo cervical en ocupantes de automotores o peatones, de los cuales un porcentaje significativo estaba bajo los efectos del alcohol y muy pocos bajo los efectos de otras drogas de abuso. Se insiste en la prevención como la herramienta fundamental para evitarlos.Traffic accidents in Costa Rica have been a contributing cause of death (the third cause of death over the last years; that ’s why its is a mayor issue to know the panorama of the latest fatalities caused by this events. In this article, it will be analyzed from the legal medicine point of view, the fatal transit accidents during the year 2007. For these reason all autopsies (a total of 3003 occurred during that year which were made by the Departamento de Medicina Legal de Costa Rica were reviewed. From these revision, it was obtained that one forth of these autopsies were transit accidents, which means that the mortality rate was 16,58 per 100000 habitants, that is consider high over the

  12. Guidelines on the medical therapy of persons accidentally overexposed to ionizing radiations. Internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work represent a guide for the treatment of accidental intakes of radionuclides. The different phases of radioactive contamination, the transfer and non-transfer of radioisotopes, the general principles in the treatment of internal contamination and the follow-up are determined. The in vivo monitoring and the evaluation of activity level are specified in this document. The applied treatment depends on the via of intake, that is: inhalation, ingestion, and through skin. The decontamination procedures that reduce the radionuclide transfer are specified. The different drugs, used to enhance radionuclides elimination, are enumerated in this work. Considerations about the iodine prophylaxis in radiologic als accidents are considered. (author)

  13. Accidental ingestion of a barbed wire broach and its endoscopic retrieval: Prevention better than cure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashekar Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of instruments is a potential complication that can occur during dental procedures. We report a case of accidental ingestion of an endodontic barbed wire broach during root canal treatment and its subsequent retrieval by endoscopic methods. Although prevention is the best approach, proper management of such an event is also crucial. The objective of this report is to draw attention to the potentially serious complications that can occur if preventive techniques are not practised, and to discuss the accepted guidelines for management of such an event.

  14. Accidental capture of vertebrates in small mammal studies in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This report contains a list of vertebrate species caught accidentally by live-traps while conducting capture and recapture studies with small mammals in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. Twentytwo terrestrial vertebrate species were registered: two amphibians, four reptiles, thirteen birds and three mammals. The use of vegetable baits as attractive smells, for example banana and peanut butter, was of great value in terms of the capture of a great diversity of species belonging to a wide range of feeding habitats, including insectivores and carnivores, probably attracted by arthropods that had fed on the baits.

  15. Learning Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Lyn; Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Considers the school library media center as an information learning laboratory. Topics include information literacy; Kuhlthau's Information Search Process model; inquiry theory and approach; discovery learning; process skills of laboratory science; the information scientist; attitudes of media specialists, teachers, and students; displays and Web…

  16. Hazards of combustible gases accidentally released from the process plant of HTGR process applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the preliminary work on reformer explosions for the indirect cycle plant design effort of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor for Process Heat (HTGR-PH). Models were completed for the determination of the combustible behavior of the releases (either instantaneous like puffs or continuous like jets or plumes), the amount of combustible material, and the propagation of detonation and shock waves (i.e., blast) as a consequence of potential explosions. A preliminary analysis reveals that (1) incombustible or flammable but nonexplosive mixtures can be formed by accidental releases from the reformer inlet flow and (2) the addition of sufficient steam to the reformer flow renders nonexplosive any accidental release from the reformer area. The explosion of combustible releases is then analyzed with reference to the worst contributor: synthesis gas. The explosions of instantaneous releases, while enroute, are analyzed under different meteorological conditions. The explosions of continuous releases are analyzed in situ for determining the effects on structures and equipment in the vicinity of the jets by considering (1) detonations inside the combustible region of jets and (2) blasts outside the combustible region of jets

  17. Report on international round table conference 'Accidental radiation contamination of food of animal origin'. Vol. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The World Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (WAVFH) held an international round table conference in Stockholm, Sweden, January 26-29, 1987. The topic of the conference was 'Accidental Radiation Contamination of Food of Animal Origin'. The agenda was divided into three major topic areas: 1. Ecological Science; 2. Veterinary Science - Live Animals; and 3. Veterinary Science - Food of Animal Origin. Experts and delegates from member countries presented papers, participated in discussions and workshops and produced a multidisciplinary report covering the topic areas. The recent accidental release of radioactive substances into the environment from the Chernobyl accident, demonstrated the need for veterinary, ecological, physical and medical sciences to be prepared to respond to an incident in order to protect the environment, food chain, other agricultural assets and humans from the adverse effects of radionuclides. Several presentations suggested that even with the best technologies, national and regional commitment, and relatively unrestricted resource levels, nuclear incidents can cross international boundaries and can contaminate the environment to the extent that the integrity of various food and water supplies can be at risk. Speakers and subsequent discussers tended to concentrate on the issues associated with lessening future environmental impacts if similar types of incidents should occur again

  18. Cuidados de Enfermería en el Accidente Ofídico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Hernández, María Piedad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El accidente ofídico supone una emergencia médica que requiere atención médica inmediata, pudiendo provocar la muerte de no realizarse una actuación adecuada precoz. El tratamiento varía según la geografía y características de las serpientes autóctonas, existiendo múltiples protocolos, que en ocasiones resultan contradictorios. El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar el proceso de atención de enfermería en el accidente ofídico, siendo imprescindible poseer un conocimiento integral de las especies peligrosas en España, consecuencias de la mordedura y tratamiento específico. Para la elaboración de este artículo se revisó la bibliografía para poner de manifiesto el plan de actuación y cuidados enfermeros. Con la elaboración de un plan de atención de enfermería individualizado se disminuye el riesgo de secuelas y se proporciona un cuidado y una atención sanitaria de calidad.

  19. Implications for platform re-assessment based on in-service damage resulting from accidental loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, J.V.; Stacey, A. [Health and Safety Executive, London (United Kingdom); Frieze, P.A.; Nichols, N.W.

    1996-12-01

    Current offshore design codes enable the capacity of structural components to be determined, but the equations apply only to the undamaged state. The ability to assess the performance of such components containing damage has only recently been developed and is important in the re-assessment of structures. In particular knowledge of the performance of members which are dented or bowed as a result of accidental damage is important in establishing the capacity of structures in-service, when for example using pushover analyses. Much research has been taken on the capacity of dented and bowed members. This paper reviews this data and establishes a database using screening criteria. This data is then compared with theoretical predictions from recently developed draft ISO equations. These show that dents and bows can significantly reduce the performance of members. A survey of offshore damage resulting in repairs has shown that 30% of this damage is the result of accidental events such as ship impact and dropped objects. Most damage found to members was in the form of dents, bows and cracks, with member severance in a few cases. The implications of this information for reassessment and offshore inspections are considered.

  20. Risk determination method for accidental water basin contamination based on risk source coupling with sensitive targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zongfeng; Zeng, Bo; Zhou, Tinggang; Li, Guowei; Zhu, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Accidental water basin pollution seriously threatens human health and ecological security, but rapid, effective methods for evaluating this threat are lacking. This paper aims to develop a risk evaluation method for basin accidents by coupling the risk source with sensitive targets to evaluate the zone accident risk levels of basins and prevent the accidental environmental pollution of water. This method incorporates the interplay between risk sources and sensitive targets by evaluating the zone risk levels of water environments from different sources, effectiveness of the risk source control mechanisms, vulnerability of sensitive targets and spatial and temporal relationships between these sources and targets. Using the Three Gorges Reservoir region as an example, a risk system for water basin pollution incidents consisting of a risk indicator quantification system, a risk zoning method and a verification method for the zoning results is developed and implemented. The results were verified in a field investigation, which showed that the risk zoning model provides rapid, effective and reliable zoning results. This research method could serve as a theoretical reference and technological support for evaluating water basin accident risks. Furthermore, the results are useful for evaluating and protecting the aquatic environments in the Three Gorges Reservoir region. PMID:26207430

  1. Structural Integrity Assessment of VVER-1000 RPV under Accidental Cool down Transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion, Fatigue and Irradiation embrittlement are the major degradation mechanisms responsible for ageing of RPV (and its internals) of a Pressurized Water Reactor. While corrosion and fatigue can generate cracks, irradiation damage can lead to brittle fracture initiating from these cracks. Ageing in nuclear power plants needs to be managed so as to ensure that design functions remain available throughout the life of the plant. From safety perspective, this implies that ageing degradation of systems, structures and components important to safety remain within acceptable limits. Reactor Pressure Vessel has been identified as the highest priority key component in plant life management for Pressurized Water Reactors. Therefore special attention is required to ensure its structural integrity during its lifetime. In this paper, structural integrity assessment for typical VVER-1000 RPV is carried out under severe accidental cool down transients using the Finite Element Method. Three different accidental scenarios are postulated and safety of the vessel is conservatively assessed under these transients using the Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics approach. Transient thermo mechanical stress analysis of the core belt region of the RPV is carried out in presence of postulated cracks and stress intensity factors are calculated and compared with the material fracture toughness to assess the structural integrity of the vessel. The paper also include some parametric analyses to justify the methodology. (author)

  2. Allowing the Accidental; the Interplay Between Intentionality and Realism in Photographic Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Mitcheson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We experience photographs both as intentional and as prone to the accidental. The photograph is both capable of being an artwork with its own, constructed world and of drawing our attention to the reality of the objects used in creating it. In this article I employ the insights contained in the concepts of Barthes’ studium and punctum in order to explore how the artist’s intentions and the realism of photography interact aesthetically. I advance the idea that a unique aesthetics of photography can be rooted in the tension between the intentional, culturally coded message of a photograph and the emanation of a reality that escapes intentional control. Our aesthetic experiences of the artist’s intentions and the appearance of the real depend upon and enhance each other. I claim that the photographer can intentionally allow the accidental, leaving room for the audience to encounter a punctum, and that the control manifested in the photographer's work can serve to heighten the experience of the penetration of the studium by the punctum when it occurs.

  3. Spontaneous hematologic recovery from bone marrow aplasia after accidental tenfold overdosage with radiophosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gmuer, J.; Bischof, B.; Coninx, S.; Bucher, U.; Poretti, G.; Henrichs, K.; Kaul, A.; Roedler, H.D.; Buettner, K.; Frick, P.G.

    1983-04-01

    Two patients with polycythemia vera received intravenously an accidental tenfold overdosage of radiophosphorus therapy (60 and 50 mCi 32P, respectively). In both patients, the occurrence of hemorrhagic complications 3 wk after the 32P medication led to detection of the error and referral to our hospital. Upon admission they showed an agranulocytosis, severe thrombocytopenia, and bone marrow aplasia. In both cases, spontaneous recovery of the hematopoiesis was observed from day 40 posttreatment onward. In one patient, a slow but ultimately complete normalization of blood counts and marrow morphology took place, whereas in the other, a mild thrombocytopenia persists. Nearly 5 yr after the accidental overdosage, both patients are clinically well. Symptoms of polycythemia vera have not reappeared up to now. Attempts were made to evaluate the radiation dose absorbed by the bone marrow. In the first patient, the daily 32P excretion was determined from day 22 to day 60, whereas in the other patient a whole body count was performed on day 78 after administration. From these results, an approximate cumulative bone marrow dose of 10 Sv (1000 rem) could be calculated.

  4. U.S. regulatory requirements for blast effects from accidental explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is limited to accidental explosions external to nuclear power plants. Procedures for deciding if the risk of damage due to an accidental explosion is sufficiently high to warrant detailed study and methods for assessing structural capability when detailed study is needed are described. The dynamic blast load effect may be estimated by a simplified static procedure. The regulatory staff permits use of a dynamic load factor of 2 applied to the overpressure or reflected pressure, as appropriate, and the assumption that structures and structural elements will deform dynamically as though the loads were applied statically. This assumption allows the designer to compute stresses, moments and shears without reference to the distribution of inertial forces within the structure. Blast pressure should be considered to act both inward and outward to account for dynamic stress reversal. Overturning and sliding stability as well as the ability of supporting structures to carry loads transmitted from the directly loaded exterior surfaces must be assessed. A detailed dynamic analysis in which force-time histories and the stiffness and mass properties of the structures are employed is also acceptable. Damping is not important for air blast effects. The regulatory staff requires that blast effects be resisted elastically. This is consistent with regulatory philosophy that global loading situations should not be permitted to cause global damage. Appendix C to ACI-349, 'Code Requirements for Nuclear Safety Related Concrete Structures', in conflict with regulatory requirements, permits a ductility of 3 for blast loadings

  5. Intoxication from an accidentally ingested lead shot retained in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Per; Gerhardsson, Lars

    2005-04-01

    A 45-year-old woman was referred to the Department of Occupational and Environmental Health in January 2002 because of increased blood lead concentrations of unknown origin. She suffered from malaise, fatigue, and diffuse gastrointestinal symptoms. She had a blood lead level of 550 microg/L (normal range game occasionally. Clinical examination, including standard neurologic examination, was normal. No anemia was present. Laboratory tests showed an increased excretion of lead in the urine, but there were no signs of microproteinuria. An abdominal X ray in October 2002 revealed a 6-mm rounded metal object in the colon ascendens. Before the object could be further localized, the patient contracted winter vomiting disease (gastroenteritis) and the metal object was spontaneously released from the colon during a diarrhea attack. The object was a lead shot pellet, possibly but not normally used in Sweden for hunting wild boar or roe deer. Blood lead levels slowly decreased. Nine months later the patient's blood lead levels were almost normal (approximately 70 microg/L) and her symptoms had almost completely disappeared. In this case, a rare source of lead exposure was found. In investigations of blood lead elevations of unknown origin, we recommend abdominal X ray in parallel with repeated blood lead determinations. PMID:15811841

  6. Estimation of the environmental or radiological impact in the event of accidental release of radionuclides in a DCLL fusion reactor; Estimacion del impacto radiologico ambiental en caso de liberacion accidental de radionucleidos en un reactor de fusion DCLL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palermo, I.; Gomez Ros, J. M.; Sanz, J.; Mota, F.

    2013-07-01

    Tritium production and activation in the LiPb products can pose a radiological risk in the event of accidental release in a fusion reactor. Within the research programme Consolider TECNO{sub F}US (CSD2008-079) fusion technology has developed a design for a reactor with regenerative wrap with dual refrigeration (DCLL). The purpose of this communication is to present estimates of the radiological impact derived from an accidental release of radionuclides from the circuit of LiPb provinients. (Author)

  7. High-level exposure: Progress in dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of people being accidentally exposed to unusually high levels of radiation, it becomes important to obtain as quickly as possible a reasonably accurate indication of the dose which each individual may have received. This serves in the first place to show which, if any, of the persons who may have been involved should receive medical treatment or be kept under observation. In the second place the information supplements clinical observation as a guide to treatment. A symposium in Vienna, held from 8 to 12 March 1965, discussed the assessment of doses received by persons who have been accidentally irradiated, by exposure to external radiation fields, by the intake of radioactive materials, or by radioactive contamination being deposited on the surface of the body. The symposium, organised jointly by IAEA and the World Health Organisation, was entitled Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation. There were 179 participants from 34 countries and five international organisations. This was a specialized conference, fairly narrow in scope, since it formed one in a succession of meetings on kindred subjects. For example, a symposium held in May 1964 dealt with general methods of assessing radioactive body burdens in man; a joint IAEA/WHO meeting in October 1960, and another in October 1962, dealt with medical aspects of radiation injury and of radioactive poisoning. About half the proceedings were devoted to discussion of measurement techniques for external radiation, with detailed discussion of various kinds of warning and recording devices, monitors and personal dosimeters. From these the meeting passed on to consider supplementary methods such as estimation of neutron dosage by analysis of blood or hair, and experiments conducted by means of polyethylene phantoms to establish the dose likely to be received under particular circumstances. Other sessions dealt with the determination of internal contamination, and

  8. Hazards analysis for the E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory x-ray absorption experiments to be performed at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelstein, N.M.; Shuh, D.K.; Bucher, J.B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this experiment is to determine the oxidation state(s) of neptunium (Np) in mouse skeleton and in soft tissue by X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES). If Np is present in sufficient concentration, X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) data will be obtained in order to further identify the Np species present. These data will be crucial in understanding the metabolic pathway of Np in mammals which will help in the design of reagents which can eliminate Np from mammals in the event of accidental exposure. It is proposed to run these experiments at the Standard Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). This laboratory is a DOE national user facility located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The {sup 237}Np nucleus decays by the emission of an alpha particle and this particle emission is the principal hazard in handling Np samples. This hazard is mitigated by physical containment of the sample which stops the alpha particles within the containment. The total amount of Np material that will be shipped to and be at SSRL at any one time will be less than 1 gram. This limit on the amount of Np will ensure that SLAC remains a low hazard, non-nuclear facility. The Np samples will be solids or Np ions in aqueous solution. The Np samples will be shipped to SSRL/SLAC OHP. SLAC OHP will inventory the samples and swipe the containers holding the triply contained samples, and then bring them to the SSRL Actinide trailer located outside building 131. The QA counting records from the samples, as measured at LBNL, will be provided to SSRL and SLAC OHP prior to the arrival of the samples at SLAC OHP. In addition, strict monitoring of the storage and experimental areas will be performed in accordance with SLAC/OHP radiation protection procedures to ensure against the release of contamination.

  9. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... or conditions. What are lab tests? Laboratory tests are medical procedures that involve testing samples of blood, urine, or other tissues or ...

  10. Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcot, Divya K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to particular hazardous materials in a work environment is dangerous to the employees who work directly with or around the materials as well as those who come in contact with them indirectly. In order to maintain a national standard for safe working environments and protect worker health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set forth numerous precautionary regulations. NASA has been proactive in adhering to these regulations by implementing standards which are often stricter than regulation limits and administering frequent health risk assessments. The primary objective of this project is to create the infrastructure for an Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database specific to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) which will compile all of the exposure assessment data into a well-organized, navigable format. The data includes Sample Types, Samples Durations, Crafts of those from whom samples were collected, Job Performance Requirements (JPR) numbers, Phased Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results and qualifiers, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and names of industrial hygienists who performed the monitoring. This database will allow NASA to provide OSHA with specific information demonstrating that JSC s work procedures are protective enough to minimize the risk of future disease from the exposures. The data has been collected by the NASA contractors Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and Wyle Laboratories. The personal exposure samples were collected from devices worn by laborers working at JSC and by building occupants located in asbestos-containing buildings.

  11. Carcinogenesis by internal radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation carcinogenesis is based on the same molecular mechanisms, while spatial and temporal dose distribution in target cells is differed between internal and external radiation exposures. Animal models on dose-carcinogenic response relationships are required to complement an uncertainties in human epidemiological studies and finally to estimate human risk of internal exposures to radionuclides. Several dose response models for experimental carcinogenesis by internally administered radionuclides in laboratory animals were reviewed and discussed in this paper. (J.P.N.)

  12. Personnel Monitoring of External Exposures Resulting from Radiation Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part I. A brief review of methods and techniques for estimating the doses received from external sources in radiation accidents with emphasis on research and the development of improved methods is presented. Dosimetry methods such as film badges, ionization chambers, radio photoluminescence, radio thermoluminescence, conductivity, electronexoemission, track and activation detectors and individual alarm systems are discussed. Comparisons are made between their operational characteristics and the overall impression is broadly summarized. Part II. The mechanical model for expressing rems in connection with the present-day practice of personnel monitoring of external exposures is discussed. The necessary precision of dosimeters, the estimation of the exposure dose from dosimeter readings, the estimation of absorbed dose from exposure dose and, finally, dose-equivalent transformations are analysed. All necessary aspects of such transformations are mentioned. The role of the time estimation of the dose received and recovery during protracted accidental exposures are discussed. (author)

  13. Radiation protection - Performance criteria for laboratories performing cytogenetic triage for assessment of mass casualties in radiological or nuclear emergencies - General principles and application to dicentric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for nuclear and radiological emergencies involving mass casualties from accidental or malicious acts or terrorism requires generic procedures for emergency dose assessment to help the development of medical response capabilities. A mass-casualties incident is defined here as an event that exceeds the local medical resources. Biological dosimetry, based on cytogenetic analysis using the dicentric assay, typically applied for accidental dose assessment, has been defined in ISO 19238. Cytogenetic triage is the use of chromosome damage to evaluate and assess approximately and rapidly radiation doses received by individuals in order to supplement the clinical categorization of casualties. This International Standard focuses on the use of the dicentric assay for rapid cytogenetic triage involving mass-casualty incidents. The primary purpose of this International Standard is to provide a guideline to all laboratories in order to perform the dicentric-bioassay - cytogenetic triage for dose assessment using documented and validated procedures. Secondly, it can facilitate the application of cytogenetic biodosimetry networks to permit comparison of results obtained in different laboratories. Finally, it is expected that laboratories newly commissioned to carry out the cytogenetic triage conform to this International Standard in order to perform the triage reproducibly and accurately. This International Standard is written in the form of procedures to adopt for dicentric-bioassay - cytogenetic triage biological dosimetry for overexposures involving mass radiological casualties. The criteria required for such measurements usually depend on the application of the results: medical management when appropriate, radiation-protection management, record keeping and medical/legal requirements. For example, selected cases can be analysed to produce a more accurate evaluation of high partial-body exposure; secondly, doses can be estimated for persons exposed below the

  14. The Chernobyl – Thirty Years After The Post – Accidental Radiological – Hygienic and Medical Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onishchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the result of the Chernobyl NPP accident more than 200 thousand square kilometers of the European territories were contaminated by Cs-137 in the amount of above 37 kBq/m2 (1 Ci/km2 . Belorussia, Russia and Ukraine amount up to 70% of this entire affected area. More than 600 000 people were engaged in the accidental cleanup operations, 340000 were evacuated or relocated within 1986-1991. The early stage evacuation efficacy is confirmed by the absence of acute radiation syndrome among the population and by the prevented collective dose which amounts to no less than 10 000 man/Sv. The effective measure to reduce the internal radiation dose to the population at the early accidental stage was introduction of maximum tentative permissive levels of radionuclide content in the foodstuffs.Among the identified post -accident medical consequences of the Chernobyl is the radiation syndrome found in 134 emergency cleanup workers within the first 24 hours of the accident’s development. Out of that number, 28 people died within the first four months, 19 people died before 2006. The accident’s liquidators developed radiation -induced leukemia ( the attributive risk value is 45-60% . People exposed to high radiation doses display the statistically significant 18% morbidity increase of all types of solid cancers at the doses above 150 mSv. There is the statistically significant information indicating the increased amount of thyroid cancer morbidity among those who were just children and teenagers at the time of the accident. The adverse psychological consequences are accounted for not just the fear of overexposure but also for the disturbance of the habitual lifestyle especially mindful of the forced relocation.The longterm protection measures, radionuclide decay and selfcleaning of the contaminated areas resulted in the drastic reduction of the population dose in the radioactively contaminated territories. In 2015, only in some settlements of the Briansk

  15. Accidental Thawing of Embryos, Cryopreserved for Transfer. Two Italian cases, Milan and Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busardò, Francesco P; Vergallo, Gianluca Montanari; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Bolino, Giorgio; Vullo, Annamaria; Frati, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The bioethical and juridical debate on the status of frozen embryos sometimes adds new issues arising from new scientific evidence or by accidental occurrences that bring to the attention of the scientific community the need for new practical solutions. Within this scenario, there have been, in recent years, episodes concerning the accidental thawing of embryos, which have been cryopreserved for transfer. Two Italian cases (the Milan and the Rome cases) are here reported: the Milan case involves a couple undergoing artificial insemination. Three eggs were collected for insemination and two of them had been fertilized. During the night of 8/9 May 2007 a short circuit occurred, resulting in an electricity blackout, which caused the loss of the embryos in culture, which should have been transferred to the woman's uterus on 9 May. The couple applied for damage compensation from the hospital following the loss of the embryos. The case went to Court and the result was a judgment issued by the Milan civil court, which recognized that the centre was to blame for irreparable damage to the embryos. The Rome case, involves two couples (A and B) affected by sterility who applied to an authorized public centre to undergo an ART program. Following the medical procedures, two of the embryos produced were transferred to the woman in couple A and five were frozen, whereas three embryos produced by couple B were transferred to the uterus of the woman and six eggs were cryopreserved in the centre. Two years after the procedure there was an electricity blackout, and the backup electricity generator failed to function, causing the loss of the gametes and the embryos cryopreserved in the centre. Legal proceedings begun by the couples to obtain compensation for damages are still underway. The above reported cases have significantly intensified the bioethical debate on the lawfulness of such practices and on the fate of the cryopreserved embryos, at the same time opening new frontiers in

  16. ACUTE ACCIDENTAL POISONING IN CHILDREN: A HOSPITAL-BASED RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kameshore

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute accidental poisoning in children is a big problem anywhere in the world. Studies done elsewhere in India showed a wide range of incidence of the problem. Hence, it was felt important to study its magnitude and associated characteristics as of now. OBJECTIVE: The current study was taken up to know the magnitude among children admitted in JNIMS, Imphal which is a newly established medical institute and also to study the characteristics like age, gender, type of poison, duration of hospital-stay and outcome of the cases. MATERIALS & METHODS: Retrospective data of all acute accidental poisoning cases among children admitted in the Pediatrics Ward, JNIMS, Imphal during the period July 2008 - December 2013 were analyzed by using descriptive statistics. RESULT: Of all the 13,663 children admitted, 148 cases were because of acute accidental poisoning giving an incidence rate of 1.08%. The male is to female ratio was 1.31:1. The last three years of the study period showed a slightly increasing trend in the incidence. Children aged 1-4 years were the most commonly affected (65.54%. Kerosene oil was by far the commonest (42% of all the poisonous substances consumed. Food poisoning, poisoning with organic compounds, poisoning with medicinal drugs and poisoning with corrosives comprised 21%, 12%, 9% and 8% respectively of all the cases. There was no mortality. DISCUSSION: The incidence rate of 1.08% as found out from the current study was on the lower side as compared to reports of previous studies done in other parts of the country. Yet, it was two-fold of the incidence reported from RIMS which is situated in the same State. Parental negligence in storing poisonous substances in the household was implicated. They need to be made aware for keeping harmful poisonous substances in safe places out of the reach of children. CONCLUSION: Community-based studies are recommended for estimating more accurately the magnitude of the problem in the

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH and other variables measured from laboratory experiment studies from an experimental carbonate exposure system from 2013-12-09 to 2014-01-31 (NODC Accession 0123317)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains the carbon chemistry measurements of a laboratory experiment study to understand the effects of ocean acidification on winter...

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH and other variables measured from laboratory experiment studies from an experimental carbonate exposure system from 2012-02-29 to 2012-05-11 (NODC Accession 0123315)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains the carbon chemistry measurements of a laboratory experiment study to understand the effects of ocean acidification on winter...

  19. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH and other variables measured from laboratory experiment studies from an experimental carbonate exposure system from 2013-05-15 to 2013-07-12 (NODC Accession 0123316)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains the carbon chemistry measurements of a laboratory experiment study to understand the effects of ocean acidification on winter...

  20. Construction and operation of the Howard T. Ricketts Laboratory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.; Stull, L.; Butler, J.; Chang, Y.; Allison, T.; O' Rourke, D.

    2006-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has proposed to partially fund the construction of the Howard T. Ricketts (HTR) regional biocontainment laboratory (RBL) by the University of Chicago at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Illinois. The HTR Laboratory (HTRL) would be constructed, owned, and operated by the University of Chicago on land leased to it by DOE. The preferred project site is located north of Eastwood Drive and west of Outer Circle Road and is near the biological sciences building. This environmental assessment addresses the potential environmental effects resulting from construction and operation of the proposed facility. The proposed project involves the construction of a research facility with a footprint up to approximately 44,000 ft{sup 2} (4,088 m{sup 2}). The proposed building would house research laboratories, including Biosafety Level 2 and 3 biocontainment space, animal research facilities, administrative offices, and building support areas. The NIH has identified a need for new facilities to support research on potential bioterrorism agents and emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, to protect the nation from such threats to public health. This research requires specialized laboratory facilities that are designed, managed, and operated to protect laboratory workers and the surrounding community from accidental exposure to agents. The proposed HTRL would provide needed biocontainment space to researchers and promote the advancement of knowledge in the disciplines of biodefense and emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Several alternatives were considered for the location of the proposed facility, as well as a no action alternative. The preferred alternative includes the construction of a research facility, up to 44,000 ft{sup 2} (4,088 m{sup 2}), at Argonne National Laboratory, a secure government location. Potential impacts to natural and cultural resources have been

  1. Modelo de identificación y caracterización de tramos de carreteras sin accidentes (tramos blancos. Aplicación a la red de autopistas de peaje españolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Peña-González, E.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional approach to infrastructural safety follows the consideration of mitigation tools, such as the identification and management of black spots or road sections with high accident concentration, or preventing tools, as road safety audits and inspections. A complement to these tools is presented in this paper, from a new perspective: the consideration of road sections where, under similar conditions and similar risk exposure, there are no accidents (white road sections. A model has been calibrated to the Spanish toll motorways network, identifying the specific geometric parameters and traffic characteristics which have the highest influence in the occurrence of white sections with sufficient length, without accidents during a significant period of time: heavy vehicles traffic volume, with of the road section and speed.El planteamiento tradicional de análisis de la accidentalidad en carretera pasa por la consideración de herramientas paliativas, como son la identificación y gestión de los puntos negros o tramos de concentración de accidentes, o preventivas, como las auditorías o inspecciones de seguridad vial. En este artículo se presenta un complemento a estas herramientas, desde una perspectiva novedosa: la consideración de los tramos donde, bajo unas condiciones similares a las de otros tramos y una similar exposición al riesgo, no se producen accidentes (tramos blancos. Se resume el modelo que se ha calibrado para las autopistas de peaje españolas, identificando los parámetros específicos de la geometría de la vía y del tráfico que más influencia tienen en el hecho de que en algunos tramos de suficiente longitud, no se produzcan accidentes durante un periodo significativo de tiempo: el tráfico de pesados, al ancho de calzada y la velocidad de circulación.

  2. Prevalencia de foramen oval permeable en pacientes con accidente cerebrovascular o accidente isquémico transitorio criptogénicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro E. Contreras

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENIntroducciónEl foramen oval permeable (FOP se encuentra en alrededor de la cuarta parte de la población general. Pese a que su hallazgo no tiene repercusiones clínicas y no requiere tratamiento,se reconoce como una posible causa de accidente cerebrovascular (ACV criptogénico.ObjetivoConocer la prevalencia de FOP en pacientes estudiados por ACV o crisis isquémicas transitorias(CIT criptogénicos.Material y métodosSe analizaron retrospectivamente los ecocardiogramas transesofágicos de pacientes con ACVo CIT criptogénicos derivados para la evaluación de fuentes embolígenas. Se definió FOP alpasaje de una o más burbujas dentro de los tres primeros latidos luego de la opacificación dela aurícula derecha. Se definió aneurisma del septum interauricular (ASA a la excursióndel septum hacia la aurícula derecha o izquierda de 10 mm o más.ResultadosSe evaluaron 43 pacientes, edad promedio 59,6 ± 16,9 años, 41,9% mujeres. Se halló FOPen 13 pacientes (30,2% - IC 95% 15% a 44%, de los cuales 7 (16,3% del total de la poblaciónpresentaban FOP grande. Hubo 6 casos de ASA (14%, todos asociados con FOP y en 4 deellos (66% el FOP era grande.ConclusionesLa prevalencia de FOP en pacientes con ACV o CIT criptogénicos es del 30% y en uno decada tres de ellos se asocia con aneurisma del septum interauricular.REV ARGENT CARDIOL 2009;77:493-495.

  3. Accidental formation of Gd₄(SiO₄)₂OTe: crystal structure and spectroscopic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daszkiewicz, Marek; Gulay, Lubomir D

    2015-07-01

    Designing new functional materials with increasingly complex compositions is of current interest in science and technology. Complex rare-earth-based chalcogenides have specific thermal, electrical, magnetic and optical properties. Tetragadolinium bis[tetraoxidosilicate(IV)] oxide telluride, Gd4(SiO4)2OTe, was obtained accidentally while studying the Gd2Te3-Cu2Te system. The crystal structure was determined by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallizes in the space group Pnma. Three symmetry-independent gadolinium sites were determined. The excitation and emission spectra were collected at room temperature and at 10 K. Gd4(SiO4)2OTe appears to be a promising optical material when doped with rare-earth ions. PMID:26146399

  4. 'Battered pets': features that raise suspicion of non-accidental injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, H M; Thrusfield, M V

    2001-05-01

    A study of veterinarians' perceptions, and experience, of non-accidental injury (NAI) to pets was undertaken using an anonymous questionnaire distributed to a random sample of 1000 small animal practitioners in the UK. NAI was acknowledged by 91.3 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval, 88.2 to 93.9 per cent) of the 404 respondents who returned questionnaires, of whom 48.3 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval, 43.4 to 53.1 per cent) had either suspected or seen NAI. Four hundred and forty-eight cases were documented, predominantly in dogs (243) and cats (182). Factors either raising suspicion, or facilitating recognition, of NAI included: implication of a particular person, features of the history, referral agency involvement, behaviour of the owner and/or the animal, nature of the injuries, and socioeconomic class of owners. Additionally, sexual abuse and suspected cases of Munchausen syndrome by proxy were recorded.

  5. The accidental data scientist big data applications and opportunities for librarians and information professionals

    CERN Document Server

    Affelt, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Harvard Business Review recently named the data scientist described as a high-ranking professional with the training and curiosity to make discoveries in the world of Big Data as "the sexiest job of the 21st century." Librarians and information professionals have always worked with data in order to meet the information needs of their constituents, thus "Big Data" is not a new concept for them though it is spawning new approaches along with a language all its own. InThe Accidental Data Scientist, Amy Affelt shows information professionals how to leverage their skills and training to master emerging tools, techniques, and vocabulary; create mission-critical Big Data research deliverables; and discover rewarding new career opportunities by embracing their inner Data Scientist.

  6. The European Community dimension to the problem of accidental radioactive releases to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Community has to comply with the provisions of the Euratom Treaty, 1957. As well as providing the conditions necessary for the growth of nuclear industries it lays down the task to establish uniform Safety Standards to protect the health of workers and of the general public. This includes emergency planning in case of nuclear accidents. As a result the Community followed the guide, published in 1982 by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, on the radiological protection criteria for controlling doses to the public in the event of accidental releases of radioactive materials. However when the Chernobyl accident occured the Community and International arrangements proved to be inadequate to respond to the consequent widespread contamination over Europe. Measures have been taken since then to improve the preparedness of the Community. They include better exchange of information, control of contaminated foodstuffs and better information to the public. (U.K.)

  7. [Accidental saline poisoning in newborn infants. Morphologic findings and pathogenetic discussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, G F; Maresch, W

    1987-01-01

    In the nursery of an Austrian hospital, five newborns accidentally received 10% natrium chloride solution by infusion or oral feeding. Because of wrong labelling by the hospital pharmacy the solution was taken for 10% glucose. In all five newborns, bradycardia, edemas, cyanosis and cramps occurred. In all cases, autopsy revealed a fatal haemorrhagic encephalopathy and more or less extended haemorrhages of the lungs, the kidneys and the liver. There was no suppurative pneumonia and no arteritis. The intracerebral bleedings, thromboses and necroses may be provoked by tissue shrinking caused by hypernatraemic dehydration. The cerebral lesions again cause hyperosmolarity leading to death in most cases. Peritoneal dialysis which may be life-saving in some cases, unfortunately has not been performed in the present cases.

  8. The use of consequence modelling in assessing accidental releases of activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological consequences of an accidental release can be expressed as the number of health effects in the exposed population and its descendents, and the economic and social implications that may result from restrictions placed on the consumption of foodstuffs, or on the occupation of domestic and commercial premises. For any given release of activity there will be a probability distribution of consequences which will depend on the meteorological characteristics and demographic data particular to the release location. The characteristics of this distribution should be important in reaching judgements on the acceptability of a given site or design. The relative importance of the different endpoints is analysed and the influence of the release location on the resulting distribution is considered. (author)

  9. Forensic aspects of paediatric fractures. Differentiating accidental trauma from child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilo, Rob A.C. [Netherlands Forensic Institute, The Hague (Netherlands). Department of Pathology and Toxicology; Rijn, Rick R. van [Emma Childrens' s Hospital/Academic, Medical Center Amsterdam (Netherlands). Department of Radiology; Robben, Simon G.F. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    Fractures are a common finding in children and it is estimated that 2.1% of all children will suffer at least one fracture before the age of 16. With young children in particular, the question may arise if this is related to child abuse. The aim of this book is to help physicians involved in child abuse cases to interpret radiological findings in light of the forensic circumstances under which they occurred. The authors present up-to-date literature related to the mechanisms underlying non-accidental cases of trauma. In this book not only the radiological findings in child-abuse are discussed, but more importantly, these findings are analyzed from a forensic perspective. Careful attention is paid to evidence regarding reported trauma mechanisms and their clinical outcome; for example, can a fall from a couch result in a femoral fracture, and if not, where is the supporting evidence? (orig.)

  10. Survival After Accidental Extrahepatic Distribution of Y90 Microspheres to the Mesentery During a Radioembolization Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabet, Amir; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Schaefer, Nico [University Hospital, Department of Surgery (Germany); Wilhelm, Kai; Schueller, Heinrich [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Radiation Oncology (Germany); Ezziddin, Samer, E-mail: samer.ezziddin@ukb.uni-bonn.de [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    We present the acute management and outcome of a patient after an accidental mesenteric distribution of Y90 microspheres during radioembolization (RE). This report describes and highlights: (1) the incidence of a significant reflux during a RE session while injecting into a replaced right hepatic artery from the superior mesenteric artery, (2) the appearance of diffuse mesenteric Y90 distribution in bremsstrahlung-imaging, (3) the management protocol with the radiation protection agent amifostine, (4) the development of typical adverse effects in the expected time window, and (5) survival of the patient without long-term sequelae. This report should sensitize physicians to this particular problem and may help to avoid as well as manage similar radioembolization incidences.

  11. Accidental Continuous Releases from Coal Processing in Semi-Confined Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Fabiano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the enforcement of ATEX EU Directives (94/9/EC of 23 March 1994 and safety management system application, explosions in the coal sector still claim lives and cause huge economic losses. Even a consolidated activity like coke dry distillation allows the opportunity of preventing explosion risk connected to fugitive emissions of coke oven gas. Considering accidental releases under semi-confined conditions, a simplified mathematical approach to the maximum allowed gaseous build-up is developed on the basis of the intrinsic hazards of the released compound. The results will help identifying and assessing low rate release consequences therefore to set-up appropriate prevention and control measures. The developed methodology was tested at the real-scale and validated by numerical computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations showing the effectiveness of the methodology to evaluate and mitigate the risk connected to confined hazardous releases.

  12. Multiple simultaneous intracerebral hemorrhages following accidental massive lumbar cerebrospinal fluid drainage: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Sandoval Jose

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple simultaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH are uncommon. We report the case of an 80-year-old woman with previous diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus and who was brought to our hospital with altered mental status and urinary incontinence. Medical history of hypertension, hematological disorders or severe head trauma was absent. Platelet count and coagulation profile were unremarkable. An initial head computed tomography (CT showed sulcal enlargement and ventricular dilatation, but no evidence of ICH. A tap test indicated as a guide to case selection for shunt surgery accidentally resulted in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF overdrainage. The patient presented sudden neurological deterioration, with sluggishly responsive pupils and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. A new head CT demonstrated multiple supra and infratentorial ICH. The patient became comatose and had a fatal course. Hence, CSF overdrainage may either cause or precipitate multiple simultaneous ICHs, affecting both the infratentorial and supratentorial regions.

  13. Complications following an accidental sodium hypochlorite extrusion: A report of two cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch-Aranda, María L.; Canalda-Sahli, Carlos; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2012-01-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most commonly used solution in root canal treatments, as it is a low-cost method that displays a very effective antimicrobial activity against microbiota of infected root canals. However, this solution can cause complications especially due to its cytotoxic features. When this solution is injected into the adjacent tissues, the patient usually experiences intense pain, and an urgent treatment should be implemented in order to prevent a long-term sequelae. This paper describes the clinical features of two patients that experienced an accidental extrusion of NaOCl after endodontic treatment of varying severity and with different treatments. Furthermore, it shows the long-term neurologic injuries that this type of accidents may cause and a treatment protocol for these situations will be suggested. Key words:Nerve damage, root canal irrigation, root canal treatment, sodium hypochlorite. PMID:24558554

  14. Forensic aspects of paediatric fractures. Differentiating accidental trauma from child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractures are a common finding in children and it is estimated that 2.1% of all children will suffer at least one fracture before the age of 16. With young children in particular, the question may arise if this is related to child abuse. The aim of this book is to help physicians involved in child abuse cases to interpret radiological findings in light of the forensic circumstances under which they occurred. The authors present up-to-date literature related to the mechanisms underlying non-accidental cases of trauma. In this book not only the radiological findings in child-abuse are discussed, but more importantly, these findings are analyzed from a forensic perspective. Careful attention is paid to evidence regarding reported trauma mechanisms and their clinical outcome; for example, can a fall from a couch result in a femoral fracture, and if not, where is the supporting evidence? (orig.)

  15. Urban Early Adolescent Narratives on Sexuality: Accidental and Intentional Influences of Family, Peers, and the Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmaraman, Linda; McKamey, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the ways that early adolescents talked, interacted, and made references to events in their individual and collective lives during photography-based focus groups about sexuality and relationships. Twenty-three participants (10 boys and 13 girls) were recruited from three urban schools participating in a comprehensive sex education impact evaluation in the Northeast. We analyzed conversational narratives that were elicited in a group process while sharing photos of important people, contexts, and situations, showcasing participants' exploration of sexuality and relationships. Our analysis revealed four main themes: (a) direct and indirect family communication about sexuality, (b) accidental and intentional Internet usage, (c) shared and contested peer knowledge, and (d) school as a direct and indirect learning context. Implications and future directions for practice, research, and policy are explored. PMID:22983141

  16. The accidental release of exotic species from breeding colonies and zoological collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrat, J; Richomme, C; Moinet, M

    2010-04-01

    Exotic species have often been introduced into a new country in zoological or botanical gardens or on game and fur farms. When accidentally or deliberately released, these alien species can become invasive and have negative impacts on native plant and animal communities and human activities. This article focuses on a selection of such invasive species: principally the American mink (Neovison vison), but also the coypu (Myocastor coypus), muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), raccoon (Procyon lotor) and African sacred ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus). In each of these cases, the authors describe the biological characteristics and life history of the species, in relation to its invasive capacity, the origins and establishment of non-native populations, the environmental consequences and possible control measures. The main negative impacts observed are the destruction of habitat, the introduction and/or spread of pathogens and changes in the composition of native communities with consequent effects on biodiversity. PMID:20617652

  17. Accidental permutation symmetries as a test for Grand Unification: the supersymmetric $SU(5)$ case

    CERN Document Server

    Fichet, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Unification of matter fields implies the existence of accidental permutation symmetries, which potentially remain immune to large quantum corrections up to the TeV scale. We investigate the case of a supersymmetric $SU(5)$ grand unified theory, where such a permutation symmetry is present in the up-type squark sector. We present a variety of tests allowing to challenge the $SU(5)$ hypothesis based on the observation of squarks at the LHC. These tests appear as relations among observables involving flavour-violating or chirality-flipping decays of squarks. Moreover, they rely on top-polarimetry and charm-tagging. As an example, we discuss the application to the scenario of Natural Supersymmetry, while more examples can be found in the related journal publications.

  18. Regional scale atmospheric dispersion simulation of accidental releases of radionuclides from Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, C. V.; Venkatesan, R.; Baskaran, R.; Rajagopal, V.; Venkatraman, B.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the results of regional scale atmospheric dispersion simulation of accidental emission of radionuclides from the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor, Japan following the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event on 11 March 2011. The objective was to study the temporal behaviour of plume trajectory, concentration, deposition and radiation dose pattern over an 80 km range around the reactor. The time-varying meteorological parameters during the release period were simulated with a multi-scale nested atmospheric model WRF ARW and the trajectory, plume dispersion were computed with Lagrangian Particle Dispersion models HYSPLIT, FLEXPART using the available information on accidental source term. The simulations indicated that the wind flow over Japan during the release period was driven by the large scale extra-tropical westerly waves and associated low pressure systems. In the lower levels, the flow was influenced by the local topography/sea breeze causing occasional landward wind shift on the east coast of Japan. Simulated airflow trajectories revealed that the plume stayed over the ocean by westerly winds on most days and the radioactivity dispersed over sea surface. Landward trajectories were found on a few days due to southeasterly, easterly and northeasterly flow (15-17, 19-21 March 2011) during which much of the radionuclides deposited over the land region. The hotspot of depositions occurred over east Pacific Ocean near to Japan. Over the land relatively high depositions were simulated in a narrow zone of 20 km width and 80 km length in the northwest sector in agreement with monitor data. Simulations showed wet depositions over the land to be higher than the dry depositions during 12-30 March due to occurrence of rainfall on some days. Comparison of activity deposition and air dose values with available observations confirmed that the plume pattern in a finer length scale around the site could be simulated realistically and agree with the measurements

  19. El Cuerpo Militar de Sanidad en la Investigación de Accidentes Aéreos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rios Tejada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación de un accidente o incidente aéreo puede ser simple o enormemente compleja. El proceso de investigación puede conducir a la elaboración de un informe directo y conciso o lo más frecuente, significa un largo camino de recopilación, análisis, estudio y finalmente la elaboración de posibles conclusiones. En este proceso, los aspectos médicos, psicológicos, ambientales, psicosociales o ergonómicos englobados en el término genérico de factores humanos cobran una especial relevancia, atribuyéndose hasta un 60-80% de causas directas o coadyuvantes al mismo. En este trabajo se revisan los antecedentes jurídicos y base legal en la que se apoya la Comisión para la investigación técnica de accidentes de aeronaves militares (CITAAM, así como sus atribuciones, organización y composición, sus funciones generales y más concretamente las encomendadas al vocal médico de la misma. Desde su creación en 1994, la experiencia acumulada ha sido enorme, haciéndose mención de algunos datos de interés estadístico pero señalando también la labor de formación realizada y su proyección nacional e internacional, sobre todo en el marco de la OTAN.

  20. Amputación corporal por accidente de trabajo en auxiliar de enfermería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Finol Muñoz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los auxiliares de enfermería son un rango profesional expuesto a múltiples riesgos por las actividades inherentes a su trabajo, expuestos constantemente a sustancias desinfectantes que sin el uso apropiado de equipos de protección individual, puede provocar efectos adversos y lesiones en el trabajador. Caso Clínico: Mujer de 51 años de edad, auxiliar de enfermería, con antecedentes de Diabetes Mellitus tipo I y Síndrome de Túnel Carpiano. Presenta derrame accidental de líquido mientras llenaba envase de Biguanid®, cayéndole en todo el cuerpo, por lo que decide cambiarse el uniforme entero, conservando calcetines y zapatos por el resto del turno. Posteriormente presenta lesiones en región dorsal de 4tº dedo de pie izquierdo, las cuales reciben tratamiento médico y seguimiento, con evolución tórpida, se evidencia edema y osteomielitis de la falange por lo que se decide amputar el dedo afectado. Una vez recuperada, fue estudiada con pruebas de provocación, evidenciando la susceptibilidad de la trabajadora a dicho desinfectante. Se propone al Instituto Nacional de Seguridad Social (INSS como accidente de trabajo y una indemnización por lesión permanente no invalidante, ambas peticiones con respuesta favorable para la trabajadora. Actualmente sigue desempeñando sus funciones como auxiliar en el hospital. El cumplimiento y vigilancia de las normas de prevención, basados en los riesgos laborales permitirá evitar este tipo de incidentes en la población laboral, evitando a largo plazo lesiones corporales, discapacidades y bajas laborales que alteran la calidad de vida del trabajador y de su entorno profesional.

  1. Non-accidental injury in companion animals in the Republic of Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuinness Kristina

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-accidental injury (NAI, animal abuse and "battered pet" syndrome are terms used to identify "the intentional harm of an animal". The terms include, but are not limited to, wilful neglect, inflicting injury, pain or distress, or malicious killing of an animal. Three categories of abuse are recognised: physical, sexual and neglect. A postal survey was conducted to determine the extent to which NAI was recognised by veterinary surgeons in urban, semi-rural and rural veterinary practices in the Republic of Ireland. The questionnaire was sent to 600 veterinarians; completed submissions were received from 115 respondents (19.2%. The occurrence of NAI was acknowledged by 106 (92.2% of the respondents and cases had been seen by 50 (43.3% of them, comprised of 36.2% of urban veterinary surgeons from rural towns and of 82% of urban practitioners. In 59% of cases the client indicated the injury was non-accidental; 39 (67.2% of the 58 reported cases involved a single event. Signs that made veterinary surgeons suspicious of NAI included inconsistent history, untreated injuries, recurring injuries, meekness of the animal, suspicious behaviour of the owner and injuries consistent with abuse. The types of injuries observed included burns, lacerations, gunshot wounds, poisoning, injury to genitalia, bruising and fractures. The findings of this study are comparable with those from other countries. Most but not all veterinary surgeons in Ireland recognise NAI and animal abuse is of significant concern in rural and urban communities as evidenced by this survey of practising veterinary surgeons.

  2. The effectiveness of a multidisciplinary QI activity for accidental fall prevention: Staff compliance is critical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohde Sachiko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accidental falls among inpatients are a substantial cause of hospital injury. A number of successful experimental studies on fall prevention have shown the importance and efficacy of multifactorial intervention, though success rates vary. However, the importance of staff compliance with these effective, but often time-consuming, multifactorial interventions has not been fully investigated in a routine clinical setting. The purpose of this observational study was to describe the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary quality improvement (QI activity for accidental fall prevention, with particular focus on staff compliance in a non-experimental clinical setting. Methods This observational study was conducted from July 2004 through December 2010 at St. Luke’s International Hospital in Tokyo, Japan. The QI activity for in-patient falls prevention consisted of: 1 the fall risk assessment tool, 2 an intervention protocol to prevent in-patient falls, 3 specific environmental safety interventions, 4 staff education, and 5 multidisciplinary healthcare staff compliance monitoring and feedback mechanisms. Results The overall fall rate was 2.13 falls per 1000 patient days (350/164331 in 2004 versus 1.53 falls per 1000 patient days (263/172325 in 2010, representing a significant decrease (p = 0.039. In the first 6 months, compliance with use of the falling risk assessment tool at admission was 91.5% in 2007 (3998/4368, increasing to 97.6% in 2010 (10564/10828. The staff compliance rate of implementing an appropriate intervention plan was 85.9% in 2007, increasing to 95.3% in 2010. Conclusion In our study we observed a substantial decrease in patient fall rates and an increase of staff compliance with a newly implemented falls prevention program. A systematized QI approach that closely involves, encourages, and educates healthcare staff at multiple levels is effective.

  3. Modelling for radiological and radioecological consequences of an accidental radionuclide release at Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Scenarios concerning accidental releases of radionuclides into water bodies can be found in the open literature, mostly in connection with nuclear power plants located either onshore or inland. However, meager attention has been given to nuclear reactors used as energy sources for propulsion at sea, which are also subject to accidents. Such potential accidents may involve the loss of part of the reactor core to the surrounding water body. In addition of the initial instantaneous releases, one can estimate delayed source terms based on the rate at which radionuclides are dissolved or leached from the solidified material, like part of the core or structural materials in contact with water. Most of such solidified material might be a mixture of uranium, zirconium, iron, calcium, silica, fission and activation products, and transuranium elements as oxides, forming a glassy type solid. Transport models were used to calculate radionuclide concentrations in water resulting from short and delayed source terms. Oceanographic data used in the calculations were taken either from the open literature or from unclassified reports of the Brazilian Navy, being, however, as generic as possible. Time-dependent concentration functions for radionuclides in aquatic food following an accidental release reflect the net result of intake and elimination processes. However, to avoid the complexities of multiple parameters involved in such processes, the model accounts only for trophic transfer of radionuclides, and yet avoids the necessity of analyzing the details of each transfer step used to determine fish, crustacea, molluscs and seaweed accumulation. Swimming and other aquatic sports are not included in the model used for dose calculations because of theirs relatively low importance in comparison with the pathways concerning ingestion of aquatic food

  4. ACCIDENTAL SUBCUTANEOUS INJECTION OF VECURONIUM BROMIDE IN A PATIENT WITH BURNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Dev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In patients with burn injury drug pharmacology will be altered and this poses special anaesthetic challenge when an subcutaneous injection of a non- depolarizing muscle relaxant occurs in such a patient. Small studies remain an important source of knowledge and hence this study aims to provide information on the anaesthetic management in a case of accidental subcutaneous injection of vecuronium bromide in a burns patient. PRESENTATION, DIAGNOSIS & MANAGEMENT: A 22 year young male with 4 days old hot water induced grade 1 burns involving 45% of body surface area was posted for burns dressing. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and vecuronium bromide through an external jugular vein to aid tracheal intubation. As the patient was not anaesthetized even after 10 minutes routine check lead to the discovery of fullness at the tip of the intravenous catheter indicating an extravasation of the drugs. Hence the other external jugular vein was cannulated and the patient induced and intubated using propofol, sevoflurane, nitrous oxide and oxygen. The action of vecuronium outlasted the duration of surgery. So the patient continued to receive support of mechanical ventilation with nitrous oxide and oxygen. It took 130 minutes for the clinical signs of recovery from the muscle relaxant to manifest. He was then reversed & extubated with subsequent good recovery. CONCLUSION: Subcutaneous injection of these drugs poses problems of delayed onset of action and prolonged duration of action. In an inadvertent accidental subcutaneous 0.1 mg/kg vecuronium bromide injection in a patient with 4 day old 45% burns showed delayed onset action and prolonged neuromuscular blockade due to subcutaneous deposition of the drug which was managed with mechanical ventilation .The reported resistance to the action of NDMR drugs in patient with burns was not noticed here probably because of the age of the thermal injury.

  5. Radiation exposure for DOE and DOE contractor employees, 1979. Twelfth annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the data submitted by DOE and DOE contractors for 1979 for 104,986 employees, representing 81% of all DOE and DOE contractor employees. Of all employees monitored, 47.6% received a dose equivalent that was less than measurable, 50.8% a measurable exposure less than 1 rem, and 1.6% an exposure greater than 1 rem. Only three DOE contractor employees at three separate facilities received whole-body dose equivalents greater than 5 rem during 1979. The two reported cases of internal depositions were both less than the annual dose-equivalent standard and resulted from accidental exposures

  6. Thermo-mechanical loadings of primary structures in accidental conditions, and approach to solution by limit design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The static thermo-mechanical loadings of some important structures due to accidental situations are described and the behaviour of these structures is calculated by several methods, elastic and plastic analysis and limit design. The interest of this last method is shown

  7. Perfiles resilientes y calidad de vida en personas con discapacidad sobrevenida por accidentes de tráfico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Suriá Martínez

    2015-09-01

    Conclusión: Esto sugiere la necesidad de profundizar en el conocimiento de la resiliencia y en el diseño de programas que incrementen la calidad de vida de las personas con discapacidad tras un accidente de tráfico.

  8. Accidental degeneracy in photonic bands and topological phase transitions in two-dimensional core-shell dielectric photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Wang, Hai-Xiao; Xu, Ya-Dong; Chen, Huan-Yang; Jiang, Jian-Hua

    2016-08-01

    A simple core-shell two-dimensional photonic crystal is studied where the triangular lattice symmetry and the C6 point group symmetry give rich physics in accidental touching points of photonic bands. We systematically evaluate different types of accidental nodal points at the Brillouin zone center for transverse-magnetic harmonic modes when the geometry and permittivity of the core-shell material are continuously tuned. The accidental nodal points can have different dispersions and topological properties (i.e., Berry phases). These accidental nodal points can be the critical states lying between a topological phase and a normal phase of the photonic crystal. They are thus very important for the study of topological photonic states. We show that, without breaking time-reversal symmetry, by tuning the geometry of the core-shell material, a phase transition into the photonic quantum spin Hall insulator can be achieved. Here the "spin" is defined as the orbital angular momentum of a photon. We study the topological phase transition as well as the properties of the edge and bulk states and their application potentials in optics. PMID:27505772

  9. Notificación de accidentes y enfermedades laborales al Ministerio de Trabajo. Perú 2010-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian R Mejia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar las tendencias de los accidentes y enfermedades laborales notificadas al Ministerio de Trabajo del Perú, se realizó un estudio descriptivo de datos secundarios, con los reportes extraídos de los boletines mensuales desde septiembre de 2010 a diciembre de 2014. Se notificaron a nivel nacional 54 596 accidentes laborales no mortales, las tasas de los accidentes laborales no mortales por millón de habitantes aumentaron en el período 2011- 2013 (296,5 el 2011, 955,9 el 2012 y 1176,3 el 2013, disminuyendo en el 2014 (878,9. Hubieron 674 accidentes mortales, cuyas tasas se incrementaron entre el 2011-2012 y se redujeron entre el 2013-2014. Se reportaron 346 enfermedades laborales, las más frecuentes fueron los casos de hipoacusia (77, enfermedades por posturas inadecuadas (57 y dermatitis alérgica (44; los reportes se redujeron de 6,9 en el 2011 a 2,3 en el 2014. Los reportes de enfermedades laborales fueron disminuyendo, lo que podría indicar una subnotificación importante

  10. Estructuración del diplomado en investigación de accidentes aéreos de la Fuerza Aérea Colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Paul Strong Flores

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tiene como objetivo la elaboración del diplomado en investigación de accidentes aéreos que suministrará las competencias necesarias para liderar las investigaciones de accidentes o incidentes aéreos. Esto en el marco de la educación continuada en investigación de accidentes aéreos permitirá a los oficiales de seguridad determinar con exactitud las causas de los accidentes, de tal forma que sea una medida correctiva para desarrollar destreza y habilidades en la investigación de accidentes.

  11. Personal solar UVR exposure studies using a new miniature electronic dosimeter/datalogger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL) has been involved in a number of different collaborative studies around Australia using polysulphone (PS) film dosimeters in the measurement of personal exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) (Herlihy E et al, Photochem Photobiol 60:288-294, 1994; Gies HP et al, Photochem Photobiol 62:1015-1021, 1995). These PS dosimeters have proven useful in measuring cumulative exposures during different outdoor occupational and recreational activities. Recent advances in both UV photodiodes and miniature dataloggers have allowed the development of UV dosimeters which can log the incident UVR exposure with time (Diffey BL and Saunders PJ, Photochem Photobiol 61:615-618, 1995). This provides information on the variation of UVR exposure with time of day and also on the effect of variations in local environment, activity and possibly behaviour on exposure. A pilot study to examine the performance of the UV dosimeter/ datalogger and to refine a suitable questionnaire for a much larger follow up study was undertaken in 1995. Two of the new dosimeter/dataloggers were available and a third, less portable unit was used to monitor ambient solar UVR. The site chosen was a recreation park within 5 km of ARL where calibrated ambient UVR monitoring occurs. The UVR exposures of people undertaking outdoor activities were measured. The subjects wore the UV detector attached to clothing on their back, so that it was out of sight and therefore less likely to cause them to consciously modify their behaviour during their activity. On completion the subjects were asked a number of standard questions about their activities while wearing the UV dosimeters. Of particular interest was whether the data collected could be used to determine whether subjects have modified their behaviour when in the sun as a result of educational campaigns on sun exposure run by the Cancer Councils. Comparison of the subjects UV data record with the simultaneous

  12. Radiation and Health Technology Laboratory Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bihl, Donald E.; Lynch, Timothy P.; Murphy, Mark K.; Myers, Lynette E.; Piper, Roman K.; Rolph, James T.

    2005-07-09

    The Radiological Standards and Calibrations Laboratory, a part of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) performs calibrations and upholds reference standards necessary to maintain traceability to national standards. The facility supports U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site, programs sponsored by DOE Headquarters and other federal agencies, radiological protection programs at other DOE and commercial nuclear sites and research and characterization programs sponsored through the commercial sector. The laboratory is located in the 318 Building of the Hanford Site's 300 Area. The facility contains five major exposure rooms and several laboratories used for exposure work preparation, low-activity instrument calibrations, instrument performance evaluations, instrument maintenance, instrument design and fabrication work, thermoluminescent and radiochromic Dosimetry, and calibration of measurement and test equipment (M&TE). The major exposure facilities are a low-scatter room used for neutron and photon exposures, a source well room used for high-volume instrument calibration work, an x-ray facility used for energy response studies, a high-exposure facility used for high-rate photon calibration work, a beta standards laboratory used for beta energy response studies and beta reference calibrations and M&TE laboratories. Calibrations are routinely performed for personnel dosimeters, health physics instrumentation, photon and neutron transfer standards alpha, beta, and gamma field sources used throughout the Hanford Site, and a wide variety of M&TE. This report describes the standards and calibrations laboratory.

  13. Radiation and Health Technology Laboratory Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goles, Ronald W.; Johnson, Michelle Lynn; Piper, Roman K.; Peters, Jerry D.; Murphy, Mark K.; Mercado, Mike S.; Bihl, Donald E.; Lynch, Timothy P.

    2003-07-15

    The Radiological Standards and Calibrations Laboratory, a part of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) performs calibrations and upholds reference standards necessary to maintain traceability to national standards. The facility supports U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site, programs sponsored by DOE Headquarters and other federal agencies, radiological protection programs at other DOE and commercial nuclear sites and research and characterization programs sponsored through the commercial sector. The laboratory is located in the 318 Building of the Hanford Site's 300 Area. The facility contains five major exposure rooms and several laboratories used for exposure work preparation, low-activity instrument calibrations, instrument performance evaluations, instrument maintenance, instrument design and fabrication work, thermoluminescent and radiochromic Dosimetry, and calibration of measurement and test equipment (M&TE). The major exposure facilities are a low-scatter room used for neutron and photon exposures, a source well room used for high-volume instrument calibration work, an x-ray facility used for energy response studies, a high-exposure facility used for high-rate photon calibration work, a beta standards laboratory used for beta energy response studies and beta reference calibrations and M&TE laboratories. Calibrations are routinely performed for personnel dosimeters, health physics instrumentation, photon and neutron transfer standards alpha, beta, and gamma field sources used throughout the Hanford Site, and a wide variety of M&TE. This report describes the standards and calibrations laboratory.

  14. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  15. Lunar laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  16. Virtual Laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Hut, P

    2006-01-01

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations play a central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simul...

  17. Laboratory investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our task is to design mined-repository systems that will adequately secure high-level nuclear waste for at least 10,000 yr and that will be mechanically stable for 50 to 100-yr periods of retrievability during which mistakes could be corrected and a valuable source of energy could be reclaimed, should national policy on the reprocessing of spent fuel ever change. The only credible path for the escape of radionuclides from the repository to the biosphere is through ground-water, and in hard rock, bulk permeability is largely governed by natural and artificial fracture systems. Catastrophic failure of an excavation in hard rock is likely to occur at the weakest links - the discontinuities in the rock mass that is perturbed first by mining and then by radiogenic heating. The laboratory can contribute precise measurements of the pertinent thermomechanical, hydrological and chemical properties and improve our understanding of the fundamental processes through careful experiments under well controlled conditions that simulate the prototype environment. Thus laboratory investigations are necessary, but they are not sufficient, for conventional sample sizes are small relative to natural defects like joints - i.e., the rock mass is not a continuum - and test durations are short compared to those that predictive modeling must take into account. Laboratory investigators can contribute substantially more useful data if they are provided facilities for testing large specimens(say one cubic meter) and for creep testing of all candidate host rocks. Even so, extrapolations of laboratory data to the field in neither space nor time are valid without the firm theoretical foundations yet to be built. Meanwhile in-situ measurements of structure-sensitive physical properties and access to direct observations of rock-mass character will be absolutely necessary

  18. Culham Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains summaries of work carried out under the following headings: fusion research experiments; U.K. contribution to the JET project; supporting studies; theoretical plasma physics, computational physics and computing; fusion reactor studies; engineering and technology; contract research; external relations; staff, finance and services. Appendices cover main characteristics of Culham fusion experiments, staff, extra-mural projects supported by Culham Laboratory, and a list of papers written by Culham staff. (U.K.)

  19. Metabolic transit of radiocaesium in domestic animals - practical application in an accidental situation; Transit metabolique du radiocesium chez les animaux domestiques - application a une situation accidentelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daburon, F.; Vincent-Naulleau, S

    2001-07-01

    When a serious nuclear accident occurs, the radioisotopes of caesium are very worrying to public health. Because of their long environmental persistence, their diffusion and their solubility in natural environments, they are present in many foodstuffs. Numerous studies were undertaken during the atmospheric nuclear tests, but since the accident of Tchernobyl land Goiania, this research has been pursued anew. By using the experimental data,, this report takes stock of the knowledge on the metabolic transit of radiocaesium in domestic animals. The transfer of this radionuclide in the major foodstuffs of animal origin (milk, meat, eggs) is important and depends on the metabolism of the animal species, and in one species, the age, the physiologic state and the diet. Nevertheless, it is possible to restrict the radioactive contamination by adding to all animal feed, some additives. The methods for in vivo determination of the radioactive measurements in cattle, in laboratory or in real conditions, are discussed too. Finally, all these results are used to consider the short-, middle- and long-term management of an accidental situation. (authors)

  20. Study of applying the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability to nuclear power plants. [Use of ARAC to forecast hazards of accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orphan, R.C.

    1978-06-01

    Each utility licensee for a nuclear power reactor is required to minimize the adverse effects from an accidental radionuclide release into the atmosphere. In the past the ability to forecast quantitatively the extent of the hazard from such a release has been limited. Now powerful atmospheric modeling techniques are available to assist nuclear reactor site officials with greatly improved assessments. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) has developed a prototype system called the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) which is designed to integrate the modeling with advanced sensors, data handling techniques, and weather data in order to provide timely, usable advisories to the site officials. The purpose of this project is to examine the ways and means of adapting ARAC for application to many nuclear power reactors widely dispersed across the nation. The project will emphasize the management aspects, including government-industry relationships, technology transfer, organizational structure, staffing, implementing procedures, and costs. Benefits and costs for several alternative systems will be compared. The results will be reviewed and evaluated by the management and staff of the ARAC project at LLL and also by selected staff members of the sponsoring government agency.

  1. Development of emergency response tools for accidental radiological contamination of French coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffa, Céline; Bailly du Bois, Pascal; Caillaud, Matthieu; Charmasson, Sabine; Couvez, Céline; Didier, Damien; Dumas, Franck; Fievet, Bruno; Morillon, Mehdi; Renaud, Philippe; Thébault, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident resulted in the largest ever accidental release of artificial radionuclides in coastal waters. This accident has shown the importance of marine assessment capabilities for emergency response and the need to develop tools for adequately predicting the evolution and potential impact of radioactive releases to the marine environment. The French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) equips its emergency response centre with operational tools to assist experts and decision makers in the event of accidental atmospheric releases and contamination of the terrestrial environment. The on-going project aims to develop tools for the management of marine contamination events in French coastal areas. This should allow us to evaluate and anticipate post-accident conditions, including potential contamination sites, contamination levels and potential consequences. In order to achieve this goal, two complementary tools are developed: site-specific marine data sheets and a dedicated simulation tool (STERNE, Simulation du Transport et du transfert d'Eléments Radioactifs dans l'environNEment marin). Marine data sheets are used to summarize the marine environment characteristics of the various sites considered, and to identify vulnerable areas requiring implementation of population protection measures, such as aquaculture areas, beaches or industrial water intakes, as well as areas of major ecological interest. Local climatological data (dominant sea currents as a function of meteorological or tidal conditions) serving as the basis for an initial environmental sampling strategy is provided whenever possible, along with a list of possible local contacts for operational management purposes. The STERNE simulation tool is designed to predict radionuclide dispersion and contamination in seawater and marine species by incorporating spatio-temporal data. 3D hydrodynamic forecasts are used as input data. Direct discharge points or

  2. International Olympic Committee consensus statement: harassment and abuse (non-accidental violence) in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountjoy, Margo; Brackenridge, Celia; Arrington, Malia; Blauwet, Cheri; Carska-Sheppard, Andrea; Fasting, Kari; Kirby, Sandra; Leahy, Trisha; Marks, Saul; Martin, Kathy; Starr, Katherine; Tiivas, Anne; Budgett, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Despite the well-recognised benefits of sport, there are also negative influences on athlete health, well-being and integrity caused by non-accidental violence through harassment and abuse. All athletes have a right to engage in 'safe sport', defined as an athletic environment that is respectful, equitable and free from all forms of non-accidental violence to athletes. Yet, these issues represent a blind spot for many sport organisations through fear of reputational damage, ignorance, silence or collusion. This consensus statement extends the 2007 IOC Consensus Statement on Sexual Harassment and Abuse in Sport, presenting additional evidence of several other types of harassment and abuse-psychological, physical and neglect. All ages and types of athletes are susceptible to these problems but science confirms that elite, disabled, child and lesbian/gay/bisexual/trans-sexual (LGBT) athletes are at highest risk, that psychological abuse is at the core of all other forms and that athletes can also be perpetrators. Harassment and abuse arise from prejudices expressed through power differences. Perpetrators use a range of interpersonal mechanisms including contact, non-contact/verbal, cyber-based, negligence, bullying and hazing. Attention is paid to the particular risks facing child athletes, athletes with a disability and LGBT athletes. Impacts on the individual athlete and the organisation are discussed. Sport stakeholders are encouraged to consider the wider social parameters of these issues, including cultures of secrecy and deference that too often facilitate abuse, rather than focusing simply on psychopathological causes. The promotion of safe sport is an urgent task and part of the broader international imperative for good governance in sport. A systematic multiagency approach to prevention is most effective, involving athletes, entourage members, sport managers, medical and therapeutic practitioners, educators and criminal justice agencies. Structural and

  3. Transferencia del aprendizaje motor en pacientes con antecedentes de accidente cerebrovascular: serie de casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Castro-Medina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. La rehabilitación es un proceso de reaprendizaje motor, que mejora el desempeño en términos de adquisición de nuevas habilidades y adaptación o refinamiento de habilidades aprendidas previamente. A pesar de este conocimiento, existen, considerablemente, pocos estudios que describan el aprendizaje motor después de un accidente cerebrovascular (ACV y la relevancia del mismo en los procesos de rehabilitación y recuperación. Objetivo. Describir la transferencia del aprendizaje motor en pacientes con antecedentes de accidente cerebrovascular después de un tratamiento con procedimientos de reeducación funcional. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de dos casos con pacientes que recibieron tratamiento fisioterapéutico ambulatorio con los principios de reeducación funcional desarrollados en el Hospital de las Clínicas de la Universidad de São Paulo (Brasil, entre los meses de agosto y octubre de 2013. La transferencia del aprendizaje motor se determinó según los resultados obtenidos en la evaluación de balance funcional (Mini-BESTest. Se evaluó el test antes y después del tratamiento y se compararon los resultados para determinar el porcentaje de mejora. Resultados. En los dos casos se observó mejora clínica en el desempeño de la evaluación de balance funcional Mini-BESTest con un porcentaje de mejora entre el 21% y el 41%. Conclusión. Existen pocos hallazgos literarios que describen el mantenimiento de la capacidad de aprendizaje motor en pacientes con antecedentes de ACV. Este estudio reportó la capacidad para transferir el aprendizaje motor a una habilidad motora no aprendida (balance en dos casos, con base en la mejoría clínica del desempeño motor en el test aplicado.

  4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Sleepiness and Accidental Risk in 36140 Regularly Registered Highway Drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Philip

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a frequent neurodevelopmental disorder that increases accidental risk. Recent studies show that some patients with ADHD can also suffer from excessive daytime sleepiness but there are no data assessing the role of sleepiness in road safety in patients with ADHD. We conducted an epidemiological study to explore sleep complaints, inattention and driving risks among automobile drivers.From August to September 2014, 491186 regular highway users were invited to participate in an Internet survey on driving habits. 36140 drivers answered a questionnaire exploring driving risks, sleep complaints, sleepiness at the wheel, ADHD symptoms (Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale and distraction at the wheel. 1.7% of all drivers reported inattention-related driving accidents and 0.3% sleep-related driving accidents in the previous year. 1543 drivers (4.3% reported ADHD symptoms and were more likely to report accidents than drivers without ADHD symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.24, [1.03-1.51], p 15 versus 3.2% of drivers without ADHD symptoms and 20.5% reported severe sleepiness at the wheel versus 7.3%. Drivers with ADHD symptoms reported significantly more sleep-related (adjusted OR = 1.4, [1.21-1.60], p < .0001 and inattention-related (adjusted OR = 1.9, [1.71-2.14], p<0001 near misses than drivers without ADHD symptoms. The fraction of near-misses attributable to severe sleepiness at the wheel was 4.24% for drivers without ADHD symptoms versus 10,35% for drivers with ADHD symptoms.Our study shows that drivers with ADHD symptoms have more accidents and a higher level of sleepiness at the wheel than drivers without ADHD symptoms. Drivers with ADHD symptoms report more sleep-related and inattention-related near misses, thus confirming the clinical importance of exploring both attentional deficits and sleepiness at the wheel in these drivers. Road safety campaigns should be improved to better inform drivers of these accidental

  5. The Adoption of Urgent Measures to Protect the Population in the Event of an Accidental Release of Radioactivity into the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors consider a situation in which there is a risk of the population being seriously exposed to radiation through the accidental entry of radioactive material into the environment. The specific features of the situation under consideration are such that the appropriate protective measures can only be effective if implemented in time, i.e. within the first few hours or days of the emergency. Hence a programme providing for protection of the population against radiation in an emergency should include (a) methods by which the dosimetric information required for a rapid evaluation of the potential radiation hazard can be promptly obtained, and (b) criteria for the . adoption of urgent measures, i.e., the levels of radioactive contamination or irradiation justifying or not justifying the need for the implementation of specific protective measures. The authors make recommendations (draft regulations) on which to base such decisions. The criterion for the decisions is based on two hazard levels (A and B) for each of the irradiation paths, potentially significant in the given situation: external and contact irradiation, inhalation, and contamination of foodstuffs. Decisions to adopt immediate protective measures should be based on a comparison between the evaluated (predicted) hazard levels and the critical levels, defined as those hazard levels at which implementation of the protective measures under consideration is (A) desirable or (B) obligatory, irrespective of the specific circumstances. Figures for the critical levels are chosen with regard to the specific nature of the situation and protective measures, maximum permissible levels for occupational exposure, and known information on the biological risk of certain exposure levels. (author)

  6. Enfermedad preexistente, agravamiento y/o accidente de trabajo: análisis de 10 casos clínicos

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    Ana M.ª González Onetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En nuestro centro asistencial se han atendido en el año 2012, 1.304 primeras asistencias, de las cuales 85 fueron consideradas no accidente de trabajo/enfermedad profesional. Hemos elegido al azar 10 casos clínicos donde existió discrepancia por parte del paciente cuando los servicios médicos determinaron que la patología que sufría el paciente no era accidente de trabajo y/o agravamiento por lo que se derivó a su médico de atención primaria quien emitió parte de baja por contingencias comunes y se inició determinación de contingencias ante el INSS por parte del Servicio Andaluz de Salud. En 7 de los casos existió discrepancia entre los inspectores médicos del INSS y los servicios médicos de la mutua, en 3 de ellos se consideraron enfermedad común al existir enfermedad preexistente. De los casos analizados comprobamos que no existían criterios unificados, claros y precisos entre enfermedad preexistente, agravamiento y/o accidente de trabajo dependiendo del médico evaluador y/o médico de la mutua determinar si era o no accidente de trabajo. Si no existían antecedentes médicos por el SAS y/o bajas previas por ITCC por la misma patología o similar el INSS determino siempre la contingencia como accidente de trabajo. El tiempo medio de los 10 casos analizados entre el inicio de la determinación de contingencias y la comunicación de la resolución por parte del INSS fue de 240 días. De los 7 casos que fueron accidente de trabajo, 6 seguían en situación de baja laboral y un caso se encontraba curado e incorporado a su puesto de trabajo.

  7. The comparison of doses and risks from radon, medical and accidental irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following radiation hazards to the population of the region of Sverdlovsk are compared: the hazard from the exposure to indoor radon in dwellings; the consequences of the radiation accident at the 'Mayak' nuclear power plant in 1957; radioactive contamination by thorium enrichment tails; medical diagnostic exposure. It is concluded that radon and its daughters constitute the most significant radiation hazard. (A.K.)

  8. Prenatal radiation exposure. Dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unborn child requires special protection. In this context, the indication for an X-ray examination is to be checked critically. If thereupon radiation of the lower abdomen including the uterus cannot be avoided, the examination should be postponed until the end of pregnancy or alternative examination techniques should be considered. Under certain circumstances, either accidental or in unavoidable cases after a thorough risk assessment, radiation exposure of the unborn may take place. In some of these cases an expert radiation hygiene consultation may be required. This consultation should comprise the expected risks for the unborn while not perturbing the mother or the involved medical staff. For the risk assessment in case of an in-utero X-ray exposition deterministic damages with a defined threshold dose are distinguished from stochastic damages without a definable threshold dose. The occurrence of deterministic damages depends on the dose and the developmental stage of the unborn at the time of radiation. To calculate the risks of an in-utero radiation exposure a three-stage concept is commonly applied. Depending on the amount of radiation, the radiation dose is either estimated, roughly calculated using standard tables or, in critical cases, accurately calculated based on the individual event. The complexity of the calculation thereby increases from stage to stage. An estimation based on stage one is easily feasible whereas calculations based on stages two and especially three are more complex and often necessitate execution by specialists. This article demonstrates in detail the risks for the unborn child pertaining to its developmental phase and explains the three-stage concept as an evaluation scheme. It should be noted, that all risk estimations are subject to considerable uncertainties.

  9. Maternal and infant characteristics associated with accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed in US infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Michelle M; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Goodman, Michael

    2012-11-01

    To identify maternal and infant characteristics associated with accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed (ASSB) in US infants. Using 2000-2002 US linked infant birth and death certificate cohort files, we compared ASSB deaths to survivors. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) from logistic regression were used to analyze associations between selected maternal and infant characteristics and ASSB mortality. During 2000-2002, 1,064 infants died from ASSB, resulting in an ASSB mortality rate of 9.2 per 100,000 live births. Most ASSB deaths (71%) occurred before an infant reached 4 months old. Maternal factors associated with an increased risk of ASSB were younger age (using maternal age of 25-29 years as reference aOR 2.6 for mothers mortality risk. Younger, less educated, mulitparous, non-Hispanic black or American Indian women and their families who smoke during their pregnancy and deliver male or preterm infants, may need more intense safe sleeping education during the infant's first year of life, especially during the first 4 months of age.

  10. Modeling accidental releases to the atmosphere of a dense reactive chemical (Uranium hexafluoride)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Steven R.; Chang, Joseph C.; Zhang, Xiaoming J.

    In order to model the atmospheric transport and dispersion of dense reactive chemicals such as uranium hexafluoride (UF 6), it is necessary to include algorithms that account for heat exchanges due to chemical reactions and phase changes. UF 6 may be released accidentally at uranium-enrichment plants as a warm gas from a pipeline rupture, or as a flashing liquid from a pressurized tank or line break. The resulting plume is initially very dense due to the large molecular weight of UF 6, but may become lighter-than-air as the UF 6 reacts with water vapor to form HF, which has a molecular weight less than that of air, and which may cause an increase in plume temperature due to the exothermic reaction. The major chemical and thermodynamic processes related to UF 6 have been incorporated in a modified version of an existing dense gas model, HGSYSTEM. The same general approach could be used to include other reactive chemicals in the modeling system. New modules that are applicable to any type of chemical release have also been added to HGSYSTEM to account for building downwash, lift-off of warm plumes from the ground, and deposition. The revised HGSYSTEM/UF 6 model has been evaluated with field data from UF 6 tests. The sensitivities of the model predictions to variations in input parameters have been assessed.

  11. Neuroimaging for non-accidental head injury in childhood: A proposed protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspan, T.; Griffiths, P.D.; McConachie, N.S.; Punt, J.A.G

    2003-01-01

    Non-accidental head injury (NAHI) is a major cause of neurological disability and death during infancy. Radiological imaging plays a crucial role in evaluating craniospinal injury, both for guiding medical management and the forensic aspects of abusive trauma. The damage sustained is varied, complex and may be accompanied by an evolving pattern of brain injury secondary to a cascade of metabolic and physiological derangements. Regrettably, many cases are poorly or incompletely evaluated leading to diagnostic errors and difficulties in executing subsequent child care or criminal proceedings. It is evident, from cases referred to the authors, that imaging protocols for NAHI are lacking (or only loosely adhered to, if present) in many centres throughout the U.K. Future research in this field will also be hampered if there is a lack of consistent and reliable radiological data. There is no nationally agreed protocol for imaging NAHI. We propose such a protocol, based upon a wide experience in the medical management of child abuse and extensive involvement in the medicolegal aspects of NAHI. Jaspan, T., et al. (2003). Clinical Radiology58, 44--53.

  12. Neuroimaging for non-accidental head injury in childhood: A proposed protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-accidental head injury (NAHI) is a major cause of neurological disability and death during infancy. Radiological imaging plays a crucial role in evaluating craniospinal injury, both for guiding medical management and the forensic aspects of abusive trauma. The damage sustained is varied, complex and may be accompanied by an evolving pattern of brain injury secondary to a cascade of metabolic and physiological derangements. Regrettably, many cases are poorly or incompletely evaluated leading to diagnostic errors and difficulties in executing subsequent child care or criminal proceedings. It is evident, from cases referred to the authors, that imaging protocols for NAHI are lacking (or only loosely adhered to, if present) in many centres throughout the U.K. Future research in this field will also be hampered if there is a lack of consistent and reliable radiological data. There is no nationally agreed protocol for imaging NAHI. We propose such a protocol, based upon a wide experience in the medical management of child abuse and extensive involvement in the medicolegal aspects of NAHI. Jaspan, T., et al. (2003). Clinical Radiology58, 44--53

  13. Preliminary investigations of the significance of the ingestion pathway following accidental releases with actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary accident consequence assessments have been performed with the computer code UFOMOD to study the significance of the ingestion pathway in accidental releases with actinides. The investigation was based on the release category K1 of the 'Risk Oriented Analysis of the SNR 300', in which a higher fraction of actinides is released than in the worst release category for an LWR. The analysis was carried out using the currently implemented food chain transport model WASH-1400/BSU and data from the dynamic model from the MARC methodology. To study the influence of the time of the accident on the food chain-related results, releases in January and July were considered by means of the MARC data. In this report the differences are presented between both food chain transport models for transuranium elements and those which are observed in the potential doses due to ingestion, the areas affected by food-bans and the late health effects when using both models and taking the influence of the season into account. (orig./HP)

  14. Clinical and ethical orientations in case of accidental ingestion of foreign body during dental treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonan Ferreira da Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The passage of foreign bodies through the oropharynx during dental treatment is an accident that can be avoided in most cases,especially when the dentist adopts preventive measures such as using rubber dam or tying certain objects with dental floss. Objective:To emphasize the importance of avoiding the accident of ingesting foreign bodies during dental treatment and to guide the dentist on how to proceed,clinically and ethically, if the accident occurs.Case report:A minor female patient, unaccompanied,accidentally ingested a bur used for finishing a composite resin restoration during a dental treatment performed in the public service, due to a defect in the high-speed handpiece.The patient and their parents were informed of the accident,and the object was monitored radiographically until its elimination by natural means,with no reports of discomfort.Conclusion:It is the responsibility of the dentist to know and follow the necessary measures to avoid or solve complications from ingesting foreign bodies, since patient’s health and integrity must be protected. In addition, the dentist will also avoid possible ethical and legal demands when fulfilling his responsibilities as a health care professional.

  15. The review of autopsy cases of accidental childhood deaths in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayci, Nesime; Pakis, Isil; Karapirli, Mustafa; Celik, Sefa; Uysal, Cem; Polat, Oguz

    2011-08-01

    Children are at increased risk for various causes of injury from accidents. Accidents are, by far, the leading cause of death among children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to evaluate the lethal childhood accidents in İstanbul by age groups. Reports of autopsies performed between 2001 and 2005 in the Morgue Department of the Council of Forensic. Medicine in Istanbul (n :16853) are examined retrospectively. 833 deaths from accidents in children aged 0-18 years are investigated into the study. The parameters of age, gender, types of accidents and causes of death are evaluated. The accidents account for 47.3% of the deaths among children aged 0-18 years. Of 833 cases, 601 (73%) are male and 232 (27%) are female. The female to male ratio is 1/2.6. The highest rate of death from accidents is at the group of 15-18 years. The primary causes of accidental childhood deaths are motor vehicle accidents (23.1%), followed by drowning (20,1%), poisoning (15.7%), and fall from height (15.5%). The incidence and types of trauma vary with socio-economic status and culture. İstanbul, where this study is conducted in, has approximately 3000 autopsy number annually. Therefore, it provides an important database.

  16. Accidental Water Pollution Risk Analysis of Mine Tailings Ponds in Guanting Reservoir Watershed, Zhangjiakou City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Renzhi; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Zhijiao; Borthwick, Alistair; Zhang, Ke

    2015-12-01

    Over the past half century, a surprising number of major pollution incidents occurred due to tailings dam failures. Most previous studies of such incidents comprised forensic analyses of environmental impacts after a tailings dam failure, with few considering the combined pollution risk before incidents occur at a watershed-scale. We therefore propose Watershed-scale Tailings-pond Pollution Risk Analysis (WTPRA), designed for multiple mine tailings ponds, stemming from previous watershed-scale accidental pollution risk assessments. Transferred and combined risk is embedded using risk rankings of multiple routes of the "source-pathway-target" in the WTPRA. The previous approach is modified using multi-criteria analysis, dam failure models, and instantaneous water quality models, which are modified for application to multiple tailings ponds. The study area covers the basin of Gutanting Reservoir (the largest backup drinking water source for Beijing) in Zhangjiakou City, where many mine tailings ponds are located. The resultant map shows that risk is higher downstream of Gutanting Reservoir and in its two tributary basins (i.e., Qingshui River and Longyang River). Conversely, risk is lower in the midstream and upstream reaches. The analysis also indicates that the most hazardous mine tailings ponds are located in Chongli and Xuanhua, and that Guanting Reservoir is the most vulnerable receptor. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses are performed to validate the robustness of the WTPRA method. PMID:26633450

  17. Accidental Water Pollution Risk Analysis of Mine Tailings Ponds in Guanting Reservoir Watershed, Zhangjiakou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzhi Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past half century, a surprising number of major pollution incidents occurred due to tailings dam failures. Most previous studies of such incidents comprised forensic analyses of environmental impacts after a tailings dam failure, with few considering the combined pollution risk before incidents occur at a watershed-scale. We therefore propose Watershed-scale Tailings-pond Pollution Risk Analysis (WTPRA, designed for multiple mine tailings ponds, stemming from previous watershed-scale accidental pollution risk assessments. Transferred and combined risk is embedded using risk rankings of multiple routes of the “source-pathway-target” in the WTPRA. The previous approach is modified using multi-criteria analysis, dam failure models, and instantaneous water quality models, which are modified for application to multiple tailings ponds. The study area covers the basin of Gutanting Reservoir (the largest backup drinking water source for Beijing in Zhangjiakou City, where many mine tailings ponds are located. The resultant map shows that risk is higher downstream of Gutanting Reservoir and in its two tributary basins (i.e., Qingshui River and Longyang River. Conversely, risk is lower in the midstream and upstream reaches. The analysis also indicates that the most hazardous mine tailings ponds are located in Chongli and Xuanhua, and that Guanting Reservoir is the most vulnerable receptor. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses are performed to validate the robustness of the WTPRA method.

  18. UFOING: A program for assessing the off-site consequences from ingestion of accidentally released radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program UFOING estimates foodchain-related consequences following accidental releases of radionuclides to the atmosphere. It was developed as a stand-alone supplement to the accident consequence assessment program system UFOMOD to allow faster and more detailed investigations of the consequences arising from the foodchain pathways than possible with the version of UFOING which is implemented in UFOMOD. For assumed releases at different times of the year, age dependent individual doses, collective doses, individual risks for fatal stochastic somatic health effects as a function of time, the total numbers of the effects, and the areas affected by foodbans together with the estimated duration of the bans are calculated. In addition, percentage contributions of radionuclides and foodstuffs to the doses and risks can be evaluated. In the first part of this report, an overview over the program is given. The other parts contain a user's guide, a program guide, and descriptions of the data employed and of the version of UFOING which is implemented in UFOMOD. (orig.)

  19. Thermoluminescence properties of irradiated commercial color pencils for accidental retrospective dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Color pencils are widely used mostly in kindergartens, in schools and could be found in all houses with families having young children. Their wide spread use in modern times as well as their chemical composition, consisting mostly of Si and Al, constitute two strong motivations towards exploiting their use as accidental retrospective thermoluminescent dosimeters. The present manuscript reports on the study of colored pencils manufactured by a commercial brand in China which is very common throughout Turkey. The preliminary results discussed in the present work illustrated encouraging characteristics, such as the presence of a trapping level giving rise to natural TL in a temperature range that is sufficiently high. Specific thermoluminescence features of this peak, such as glow peak shape and analysis, anomalous fading, thermal quenching, reproducibility, linearity and recovery ability to low attributed doses were studied. The results suggest that the color pencils could be effectively used in the framework of retrospective thermoluminescent dosimetry with extreme caution, based on multiple aliquot protocols. - Highlights: • Thermoluminescence of the inner part of commercial colored pencils was studied. • The presence of a trapping level giving rise to natural TL at 260 °C was yielded. • Deco analysis, anomalous fading, thermal quenching, reproducibility, linearity and recovery ability of this peak were studied

  20. Accidental intoxication of the infant-juvenile population in households: profiles of emergency care

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    Jackeline Gonçalves Brito

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Analyzing profiles of intoxication and accidental poisoning of infant-juvenile population (0-24 years in the household, treated at a reference facility for Emergency and Primary Care, during the year 2013. METHOD A descriptive, cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed using Epi-Info, by way of simple and bivariate analyzes. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (protocol 405.578. RESULTS There were 45 intoxications, with a prevalence of males (60.0%, aged 1-4 years (71.1%. Among children under one, there was a higher frequency of pesticide poisoning (66.6%, between the ages of 1-4 by cleaning products (34.4%, and between 5-9 years of age by pharmacological substances (66.6%. The primary assistance was provided only at health institutions, with hospital admissions in 24.4% of the cases. CONCLUSION The importance of prevention through legislation is evident, in order to ensure greater safety in packaging of various products, and community awareness to eliminate risks in the household environment.

  1. Experimental study on the first aid for the accidental intake of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kai, Michiaki; Kusama, Tomoko; Yoshizawa, Yasuo (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-06-01

    In this paper we described an experimental study on the first aid for the accidental intake of radionuclides. Following experiments on first aid were made: (1) Sodium Alginate or prussian blue was respectively given orally to the mice immediately after administration of /sup 85/Sr or /sup 134/Cs. (2) Isotonic saline intraperitoneal treatment as a type of water supply or DTPA oral treatment was made to the mice immediately after intravenous injection of /sup 58/Co or /sup 54/Mn. The whole body retention in mice was measured with a 5 cm NaI(Tl) scintillation detector up to 28 hr after administration. Sodium alginate or prussian blue reduced intestinal absorption of radiostrontium or radiocesium. DTPA and isotonic saline increased excretion of radiocobalt and radiomanganese in urine. DTPA oral treatment reduced the whole body retention of /sup 58/Co to 66% and /sup 54/Mn to 89% of the control. It was worked out from the dose estimation that the intraperitoneal injection of 10 ml isotonic saline or DTPA oral administration immediately after /sup 58/Co injection decreased the internal radiation dose by approximately 22% or 14%, respectively.

  2. Accidental Fire in the Cerrado: Its Impact on Communities of Caterpillars on Two Species of Erythroxylum

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    Cintia Lepesqueur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the mechanisms that influence herbivorous insects, fires, a very frequent historical phenomenon in the cerrado, appear to be an important modifying influence on lepidopteran communities. The purpose of this study was to compare the richness, abundance, frequency, and composition of species of caterpillars in two adjacent areas of cerrado sensu stricto, one recently burned and one unburned since 1994, on the experimental farm “Fazenda Água Limpa” (FAL (15∘55′S and 47∘55′W, DF, Brazil. Caterpillars were surveyed on two plant species, genus Erythroxylum: E. deciduum A. St.-Hil. and E. tortuosum Mart. (Erythroxylaceae. We inspected a total of 4,196 plants in both areas, and 972 caterpillars were found on 13.3% of these plants. The number of plants with caterpillars (frequency differed significantly between the areas. The results indicate that recent and accidental fires have a positive effect on the abundance of caterpillars up to one year postfire, increase the frequency of caterpillars associated with Erythroxylum species in the cerrado and do not affect the richness of caterpillars on these plants. Moreover, the fires change the species composition of caterpillars by promoting an increase in rare or opportunistic species.

  3. Accidental firearm injury in childhood--a predictor of social and medical outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzer, S; Bergman, B; Brismar, B; Johansson, S E

    1997-09-01

    This paper reports register data on a consecutive series of 141 children and teenagers hospitalized due to firearm injuries during a 21-year period in a community with restrictive firearm laws. Most of the injuries were minor and hospitalization was short. Shot by an air gun resulting in an eye injury was the most frequent reason for hospitalization. The patients hospitalized due to firearm injuries were compared with a control group composed of 141 individuals matched pair-wise for sex and age. The total morbidity during the follow-up period of on average 10 years was higher among patients compared with controls concerning both somatic diseases and injuries. All cases of severe psychopathology were found in the patient group. Criminality was higher among patients compared with controls and the former were younger at the time of the first crime compared with the latter. This study indicates that, irrespective of firearm laws, young people suffering from firearm injuries, even if the injury is classified as accidental, run a higher risk of becoming psychosocially disadvantaged and criminal as adults. This makes preventative measures highly necessary not only from a societal point of view, but also to avoid individual suffering in this high-risk group of youngsters. PMID:9426991

  4. Game theory of pre-emptive vaccination before bioterrorism or accidental release of smallpox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Chai; Earn, David J D

    2015-06-01

    Smallpox was eradicated in the 1970s, but new outbreaks could be seeded by bioterrorism or accidental release. Substantial vaccine-induced morbidity and mortality make pre-emptive mass vaccination controversial, and if vaccination is voluntary, then there is a conflict between self- and group interests. This conflict can be framed as a tragedy of the commons, in which herd immunity plays the role of the commons, and free-riding (i.e. not vaccinating pre-emptively) is analogous to exploiting the commons. This game has been analysed previously for a particular post-outbreak vaccination scenario. We consider several post-outbreak vaccination scenarios and compare the expected increase in mortality that results from voluntary versus imposed vaccination. Below a threshold level of post-outbreak vaccination effort, expected mortality is independent of the level of response effort. A lag between an outbreak starting and a response being initiated increases the post-outbreak vaccination effort necessary to reduce mortality. For some post-outbreak vaccination scenarios, even modest response lags make it impractical to reduce mortality by increasing post-outbreak vaccination effort. In such situations, if decreasing the response lag is impossible, the only practical way to reduce mortality is to make the vaccine safer (greater post-outbreak vaccination effort leads only to fewer people vaccinating pre-emptively).

  5. Epidemiological Characteristics and Overall Burden of Accidental Injuries in Navarra, Spain: Epidemiology of Injuries in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz-Torres, Marta; Belzunegui-Otano, Tomás; Martínez-García, Oscar; Iriarte-Cerdán, Laura; Salgado-Reguero, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Injuries caused by accidents or violent situations in pediatric patients are a serious social problem where prevention plays a key role. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological situation of pediatric injuries in Spain. A prospective study of pediatric patients receiving care in the Emergency Service of the Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra due to for reasons of accidental injury was conducted. The study covered a period of 1 year and assessed a total of 16 variables. There were a total of 8,876 patients, of whom 56.4% were males. Traumatic injuries such as fractures and craniocerebral trauma were identified as the most frequent injuries, occurring as a result of injuries mainly in the home. In females, there was a decrease in the incidence of injuries related to age. There was a greater incidence at the end of the day, during the weekend, and in the months of March to October. The epidemiological profile of pediatric patients who met with accidents in Navarra, Spain, is described. The knowledge of the main areas and factors related to injuries allows us to improve preventive measures, which would contribute to better control in this region of Spain. PMID:27414146

  6. A critical reappraisal of nuclear power plant safety against accidental aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall problem of nuclear power plant safety against an accidental aircraft impact is discussed in relation with its structural analysis and design. Associated risks, such as fire, which is a potential source of damage for buildings and other structures, are not considered. The paper is divided in two parts. In part I different approaches used for determining the reaction-time curve are discussed. The influence on the results of target motions is examined next. It is shown that for the evaluation of structural response an aircraft-structure interaction analysis is usually an unnecessary refinement, 'mean' reaction-time and impact area-time curves being sufficient to define the excitation. Preliminary results for oblique impact are also given. Since the conditional probability of a normal impact is very small, the consideration of oblique impact may become acceptable in future design criteria. In part II, available solutions for the resulting structural dynamic problem are reviewed. The feasibility of resorting to a static analysis is also discussed. Present practices to evaluate floor response spectra are reviewed next. The short-comings of the 'deterministic' approach are pointed out. It is proposed to define the excitation as a mean plus a fluctuating force. The latter is treated as a nonstationary random process and the problem solved by numerical integration in the time domain. Although such solutions get prohibitively expensive when the number of degrees of freedom becomes large, results obtained for simple models may help to clarify which are the important variables of the problem. (orig.)

  7. Mild myopic astigmatism corrected by accidental flap complication: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahed Daoud

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old female presented for laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK. Her preoperative eye exam was normal, with a preop refraction of OD -2.50 D Sph +1.25 D Cyl Χ175 and OS -2.75 D Sph +1.50 D Cyl Χ165 (cycloplegic and manifest, with 20/20 BCVA OU. The central pachymetry reading was 553 ΅m in the right eye. Preoperative topography was normal. At the start of the pendular microkeratome path, some resistance was felt, but the microkeratome continued along its path. Upon inspection of the flap, there was a central rectangle of intact epithelium with two mirror-image flaps on both sides. The flap was repositioned and LASIK was discontinued. The cornea healed with two faint thin linear vertical parallel scars at the edge of the pupil. Postoperative inspection of the blade revealed central blunting. One month postoperatively, the uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA was 20/20. Manifest and cycloplegic refractions were plano. This is an interesting case of accidental flap complication resulting in the correction of mild myopic astigmatism.

  8. Accidental cloning of a single-photon qubit in two-channel continuous-variable quantum teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information encoded in the polarization of a single photon can be transferred to a remote location by two-channel continuous-variable quantum teleportation. However, the finite entanglement used in the teleportation causes random changes in photon number. If more than one photon appears in the output, the continuous-variable teleportation accidentally produces clones of the original input photon. In this paper, we derive the polarization statistics of the N-photon output components and show that they can be decomposed into an optimal cloning term and completely unpolarized noise. We find that the accidental cloning of the input photon is nearly optimal at experimentally feasible squeezing levels, indicating that the loss of polarization information is partially compensated by the availability of clones

  9. Clinical study of fetal liver transplantation in treatment of four cases of accidental or therapeutic acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarized the clinical experience of fetal liver transplantation (FLT) in the medical handling of accidental (case 1) or therapeutic (cases 2-4) acute radiation sickness of severe haemopoietic form. In addition to receiving 80 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide, cases 2, 3 and 4 were exposed to total body single irradiation of 5.5, 5.0 and 5.0 Gy, respectively; while case 1 was exposed to whole body irradiation of 5.2 Gy only. The total number of nucleated fetal liver cells transplanted was 2.26-4.1 x 108/kg. Only 2-5% of peripheral blood cells of cases 2, 3 and 4 were found to have allogeneic marker. The author points out that FLT may be beneficial in those cases of accidental irradiation or patients with acute leukemia when there were no HLA-identical bone marrow donors available

  10. Radionuclide dispersion and hydrodynamics of Ilha Grande Bay (Angra dos Reis, RJ) simulated from hypothetical accidental releases of liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has the aim to assess the impact of accidental release of radionuclides postulate from a nuclear power reactor through environmental modeling of aquatic resources. In order to do that it was used computational models of hydrodynamic circulation and transport for the simulation of tritium dispersion caused by an accidental release in Ilha Grande Bay from the site of the future third plant in two circulation scenarios. The main difference between the scenarios is based on the enhancement of dilution of the highest concentrations in the last one. This dilution enhancement resulting in decreasing concentrations was observed only during the first two weeks, when they ranged from 1 x 109 to 5 x 105 Bq/m³ close to the Itaorna beach spreading just to Sandri Island. After 180 days, the plume could not be detected anymore in the bay, because their activities would be lower than the minimum detectable value (< 11 kBq/m³). (author)

  11. Newspaper: Files. Radiotherapy and accidental radiation protection. Scientific management between I.G.R. and I.P.S.N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gustave-Roussy Institute (I.G.R.), the biggest european center of cancer treatment, and the Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (I.P.S.N.) that lead important researches and expertise in accidental radiation protection have established an agreement for a research program for six years. The objective is to speed up the researches in radio-pathology and radiobiology to improve the techniques used to treat the irradiated persons, for therapeutic or accidental reasons. Three principal themes have been chosen as starting point: Diagnosis and prognosis bio-indicators of irradiation effects on the digestive system, biological dosimetry and long term effects of a high dose irradiation. New themes will be tackled in function of the results or new needs. (N.C.)

  12. Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia caused by accidental kerosene ingestion in an elderly patient with dementia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotanda, Hiroshi; Kameyama, Yumi; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Ishii, Masaki; Hanaoka, Yoko; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Sumito; Iijima, Katsuya; Akishita, Masahiro; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia is an uncommon condition caused by aspiration of oil-based substances, occurring mainly in children. Here, we report the case of an 83-year-old patient with Alzheimer's disease who presented with coughing and hypoxia. The diagnosis of acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia caused by accidental kerosene ingestion was made on the basis of the patient's clinical history, and typical radiological and cytological findings. The patient's cognitive impairment and an unsafe environment, in which the patient's 91-year-old husband stored kerosene in an old shochu bottle, were responsible for the accidental ingestion. Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia should be considered in the differential diagnosis for acute respiratory disorders in the rapidly aging population. PMID:23286561

  13. Rootstock breeding program for apricot through interspecific crosses of Myrobalan x apricot: Significant effect of accidental pollinations

    OpenAIRE

    Arbeloa Matute, Arancha; Daorden Álvarez, María Elena; García Martín, Elena; Andreu Puyal, Pilar; Wünsch, Ana; Hormaza Urroz, José Ignacio; Marín Velázquez, Juan Antonio

    2006-01-01

    A rootstock breeding programme for apricot is being developed through interspecific crosses of the Myrobalan plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh.) and the 'Moniqui' and 'Moniqui Borde' (P. armeniaca L.) apricot cultivars. In this work, the incidence of accidental pollinations on these low-setting hybridisations was assessed. The progeny originated through hand-pollination of emasculated flowers of three Myrobalan clones, in three consecutive years. Fruit set was low and variable among years (1.8-8.0...

  14. The political economy of rationing health care in England and the US: the ‘accidental logics’ of political settlements

    OpenAIRE

    Bevan, Gwyn; Brown, Lawrence D.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers how the 'accidental logics' of political settlements for the English National Health Service (NHS) and the Medicare and Medicaid programmes in the United States have resulted in different institutional arrangements and different implicit social contracts for rationing, which we define to be the denial of health care that is beneficial but is deemed to be too costly. This article argues that rationing is designed into the English NHS and designed out of US Medicare; and ...

  15. OCTAVIO PAZ Y EL ACCIDENTE COMO IMAGEN DEL MUNDO Octavio Paz and the accident as world’s image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Aguayo Rodríguez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Examen del significado de la noción de accidente a partir de una perspectiva amplia que permita integrar antecedentes filológicos, filosóficos e históricos fundamentales. Se analiza la significación del accidente en tanto que imagen de mundo en las sociedades contemporáneas, a partir de una serie de reflexiones teóricas desarrolladas por Octavio Paz durante la década del 60 y, finalmente, se plantean algunas claves que pueden vincular la noción de accidente con la narrativa hispanoamericana del siglo XX.The article deals with the notion of accident from a wide point of view integrating philological, philosophical and historical data. The meaning of accident is analyzed according to the image of the world in the post-industrialized societies, from a set of theorical reflexions developed by Octavio Paz during the 60’s; finally, there is a brief discussion about the possible connections between the notion of accident and the hispanic literacy production in the 20th century, specifically in the field of narrative.

  16. ESTADO ACTUAL DE LA PREVENCIÓN DE LOS ACCIDENTES DE MONTAÑA EN ARAGÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Antonia Nerín

    2005-01-01

    - Establecer las necesidades de los colectivos implicados (usuarios, profesionales e nstituciones para reducir la incidencia y severidad de los accidentes de montaña. Para ello, hemos utilizado los resultados de las campañas institucionales Montañas para Vivirlas Seguro de los años 2000, 2001 y 2002, se han analizado las ocupaciones relacionadas con las actividades deportivas en la montaña y hemos consultado directamente con las instituciones implicadas. El nivel de formación e información del usuario de la montaña en Aragón no es el adecuado para el riesgo potencial de las actividades de montaña; mientras que se evidencia la necesidad de reglar algunas profesiones de la montaña. El rescate en montaña es efectivo, eficaz y eficiente; la medicalización es efectiva, eficaz y no eficiente (atendiendo a los criterios de necesidad, oferta y demanda y la prevención -a pesar de los esfuerzos- es no eficaz, no eficiente y no efectiva. Por todo ello, es urgente la creaciÛn de un servicio de vigilancia de los accidentes de montaña, así como un centro que coordine las propuestas y actuaciones orientadas a prevenir los acci-dentes de montaña.

  17. Exposure levels to radiation in a nuclear medicine laboratory: measurements with thermoluminescence dosemeters; Niveles de exposicion a la radiacion en un laboratorio de medicina nuclear: mediciones con dosimetros de termoluminiscencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz J, A. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear del Instituto nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Since 1996 in the Nuclear medicine Department and another routine and research departments of the National Institute of Medical and Nutrition Sciences (INCMNSZ) are working at least with 12 radioactive sources opened and sealed. However, it was unknown if with the Tl personal dosemeters with lithium fluoride crystals (LiF), could be possible to receive information about the equivalent dose for each radionuclide or if there was some radionuclide that by being low energy emissor or beta energy emissor, it did not represent an ionization power sufficient to excite the crystals of the thermoluminescent dosemeters (DTL). In this work the obtained results with control dosemeters of diverse source opened or sealed are shown, which were put at 1 cm of the LiF crystals during a time exposure 18 hours. Therefore the objective of this work is to verify which sources excite or not to DTL crystals and taking the pertinent safety measures for each radionuclide. The conclusion is that the majority of dosemeters were excited by beta or gamma radiation of the radionuclides and that LiF crystals are able to receive equivalent doses until 1200 mSv, being this a guarantee for the staff, that in an any moment could be exposed to high dose in his working day. Also it was corroborated that the radionuclides more energizer are: iodine-131, iodine-125 and sodium-22 while the phosphorus-32 must be managed with careful, since the exposure to hands can result significant, just like the technetium-99m ({sup 99m} Tc). (Author)

  18. ACCIDENTES CON EXPOSICIÓN A MATERIAL BIOLÓGICO CONTAMINADO POR VIH EN TRABAJADORES DE UN HOSPITAL DE TERCER NIVEL DE MADRID (1986-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia García de Codes Ilario

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La contaminación por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH es un riesgo ocupacional para los profesionales sanitarios accidentados contaminados con sangre positiva al VIH. El objetivo de nuestro estudio es describir las características de los accidentes registrados durante dieciséis años en un hospital general con sangre o fluidos biológicos procedentes de pacientes VIH positivos, determinar las tasas de exposición accidental en las diferentes categorías profesionales y comprobar el seguimiento realizado por los trabajadores del protocolo de accidentes establecido. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo en un hospital general de Madrid durante el período 1986 a 2001, de los accidentes con presencia de material biológico procedente de personas con serología VIH positiva. Se han estudiado variables del profesional accidentado relacionadas con persona, lugar y tiempo, además de las serologías al inicio y durante el seguimiento protocolizado. Resultados: Durante el período de estudio se declararon 550 accidentes con fuente VIH positiva. La media fue de 34,4 de accidentes por año. La tasa de exposición fue de 7,5 por cada 1.000 trabajadores- año. El colectivo profesional con mayor frecuencia de accidentes fue el personal de enfermería (54,4%. Las lesiones percutáneas fueron las más frecuentes (80,2%. La tasa media de exposición ha sido de 2,6 por cada 100 camas-año. Las zonas anatómicas más afectadas fueron los dedos de la mano (75,6%. El 53,6% de los accidentados finalizó el seguimiento serológico, sin registrarse ninguna seroconversión. Conclusiones: Durante los dieciséis años de estudio, la incidencia anual de accidentes con fuente VIH positiva fue en aumento desde los 27 accidentes declarados en 1986 hasta los 60 accidentes en 1990, con una tendencia descendente desde ese momento hasta contabilizarse 12 accidentes en el año 2001.

  19. Improvement of the WBC calibration of the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the CDTN/CNEN using MCNPX code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra P, F.; Heeren de O, A. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Melo, B. M.; Lacerda, M. A. S.; Da Silva, T. A.; Ferreira F, T. C., E-mail: tcff01@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Programa de Pos Graduacao / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    The Plan of Radiological Protection licensed by the National Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN in Brazil includes the risks of assessment of internal and external exposure by implementing a program of individual monitoring which is responsible of controlling exposures and ensuring the maintenance of radiation safety. The Laboratory of Internal Dosimetry of the Center for Development of Nuclear Technology - LID/CDTN is responsible for routine monitoring of internal contamination of the Individuals Occupationally Exposed (IOEs). These are, the IOEs involved in handling {sup 18}F produced by the Unit for Research and Production of Radiopharmaceuticals sources; as well a monitoring of the entire body of workers from the Research Reactor TRIGA IPR-R1/CDTN or whenever there is any risk of accidental incorporation. The determination of photon emitting radionuclides from the human body requires calibration techniques of the counting geometries, in order to obtain a curve of efficiency. The calibration process normally makes use of physical phantoms containing certified activities of the radionuclides of interest. The objective of this project is the calibration of the WBC facility of the LID/CDTN using the BOMAB physical phantom and Monte Carlo simulations. Three steps were needed to complete the calibration process. First, the BOMAB was filled with a KCl solution and several measurements of the gamma ray energy (1.46 MeV) emitted by {sup 40}K were done. Second, simulations using MCNPX code were performed to calculate the counting efficiency (Ce) for the BOMAB model phantom and compared with the measurements Ce results. Third and last step, the modeled BOMAB phantom was used to calculate the Ce covering the energy range of interest. The results showed a good agreement and are within the expected ratio between the measured and simulated results. (Author)

  20. Prescripción facilitada de drogas antihipertensivas y disminución de la muerte prematura por accidente cerebrovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Mariani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Desde 2003, el programa Remediar (+Redes distribuye gratuitamente medicación antihipertensiva. Durante este período, la mortalidad por accidente cerebrovascular disminuyó, aunque con inequidades entre grupos socioeconómicos. Objetivos: Evaluar la asociación entre la mortalidad por accidente cerebrovascular y la provisión de fármacos antihipertensivos. Estudiar la posible interacción entre los efectos de los antihipertensivos sobre la mortalidad y el nivel socioeconómico. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio ecológico para datos de panel. La mortalidad se expresa como tasas estandarizadas.Los fármacos antihipertensivos están ajustados a la población entre la que se distribuyeron y se expresan en cuartiles dedispensación. El nivel socioeconómico se midió por las necesidades básicas insatisfechas. Resultados: Desde el inicio del programa en 2003, la distribución de antihipertensivos aumentó significativamente, sobre todo en los grupos menos afluentes (p < 0,001. No hubo una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la tasa de dispensaciónde antihipertensivos y la mortalidad por accidente cerebrovascular globalmente. Sin embargo, en los análisis de interacción se observó que en los quintiles 3 a 5 de necesidades básicas insatisfechas (menos afluentes, los cuartiles en los que se distribuyeron más antihipertensivos tuvieron significativamente menor mortalidad por accidente cerebrovascular (p = 0,004,p = 0,015 y p = 0,017, para los quintiles 3 a 5 de nivel socioeconómico. Conclusiones: Los resultados del presente análisis sugieren la ausencia de efectos globales de la provisión de antihipertensivossobre la mortalidad por accidente cerebrovascular. Sin embargo, los datos muestran que, entre los grupos más desfavorecidos,la distribución de antihipertensivos estuvo asociada con una reducción de la mortalidad por esta causa.