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Sample records for accidental laboratory exposures

  1. Triage and management of accidental laboratory exposures to biosafety level-3 and -4 agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahrling, Peter; Rodak, Colleen; Bray, Mike; Davey, Richard T

    2009-06-01

    The recent expansion of biocontainment laboratory capacity in the United States has drawn attention to the possibility of occupational exposures to BSL-3 and -4 agents and has prompted a reassessment of medical management procedures and facilities to deal with these contingencies. A workshop hosted by the National Interagency Biodefense Campus was held in October 2007 and was attended by representatives of all existing and planned BSL-4 research facilities in the U.S. and Canada. This report summarizes important points of discussion and recommendations for future coordinated action, including guidelines for the engineering and operational controls appropriate for a hospital care and isolation unit. Recommendations pertained to initial management of exposures (ie, immediate treatment of penetrating injuries, reporting of exposures, initial evaluation, and triage). Isolation and medical care in a referral hospital (including minimum standards for isolation units), staff recruitment and training, and community outreach also were addressed. Workshop participants agreed that any unit designated for the isolation and treatment of laboratory employees accidentally infected with a BSL-3 or -4 pathogen should be designed to maximize the efficacy of patient care while minimizing the risk of transmission of infection. Further, participants concurred that there is no medically based rationale for building care and isolation units to standards approximating a BSL-4 laboratory. Instead, laboratory workers accidentally exposed to pathogens should be cared for in hospital isolation suites staffed by highly trained professionals following strict infection control procedures.

  2. Management of accidental laboratory exposure to Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei.

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    Peacock, Sharon J; Schweizer, Herbert P; Dance, David A B; Smith, Theresa L; Gee, Jay E; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; DeShazer, David; Steinmetz, Ivo; Tan, Patrick; Currie, Bart J

    2008-07-01

    The gram-negative bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei is a saprophyte and the cause of melioidosis. Natural infection is most commonly reported in northeast Thailand and northern Australia but also occurs in other parts of Asia, South America, and the Caribbean. Melioidosis develops after bacterial inoculation or inhalation, often in relation to occupational exposure in areas where the disease is endemic. Clinical infection has a peak incidence between the fourth and fifth decades; with diabetes mellitus, excess alcohol consumption, chronic renal failure, and chronic lung disease acting as independent risk factors. Most affected adults ( approximately 80%) in northeast Thailand, northern Australia, and Malaysia have >/=1 underlying diseases. Symptoms of melioidosis may be exhibited many years after exposure, commonly in association with an alteration in immune status. Manifestations of disease are extremely broad ranging and form a spectrum from rapidly life-threatening sepsis to chronic low-grade infection. A common clinical picture is that of sepsis associated with bacterial dissemination to distant sites, frequently causing concomitant pneumonia and liver and splenic abscesses. Infection may also occur in bone, joints, skin, soft tissue, or the prostate. The clinical symptoms of melioidosis mimic those of many other diseases; thus, differentiating between melioidosis and other acute and chronic bacterial infections, including tuberculosis, is often impossible. Confirmation of the diagnosis relies on good practices for specimen collection, laboratory culture, and isolation of B. pseudomallei. The overall mortality rate of infected persons is 50% in northeast Thailand (35% in children) and 19% in Australia.

  3. The Frequency of the Accidental Contamination with Laboratory Samples in Yazd Clinical Laboratories’ personnel in 2011

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    Jafari, AA. (PhD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: laboratory personnel have always accidental exposure to clinical samples, which can cause the transmission of infection. This threat can be prevented and controlled by education for the use of safety instruments. The purpose was to determine the frequency of accidental exposure to laboratory samples among Yazd laboratory personnel in 2011. Material and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 of Yazd clinical laboratory personnel. The data was collected, using a valid and reliable questioner, via interview and analyzed by means of SPSS software. Results: Eighty-six percent of the subjects reported an experience of accidental exposure to clinical samples, such as blood, serum and urine. The causes were carelessness (41% and work overload (29%. Needle- stick was the most prevalent injury (52% particularly in sampler workers (51% and in their hands (69%. There wasn’t significant relationship between accidental exposure to laboratory samples and the variables such as private and governmental laboratories (p=0.517, kind of employment (p=0.411, record of services (p=0.439 and academic degree (p=0.454. The subjects aged 20-29 (p=0.034 and worked in sampling unit had the highest accidental exposure. Conclusion: based on the results, inexperience of the personnel especially in sampling room, overload at work and ignorance of applying safety instruments are known as the most important reasons for accidental exposure to clinical samples. Keywords: Contamination; accidental Exposure; Infectious agents; laboratory; personnel

  4. [Management of accidental internal exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatome, M

    1994-11-01

    Radionucleides can penetrate into the body via the lung, the digestive tract, wounds and sometimes through healthy skin. Once they have penetrated the body, they can either remain localized at the site of entry or be rapidly metabolized. The risk is late effects. Radioelements must be eliminated as rapidly as possible decreasing the exposure proportionally. The effectiveness of the treatment depends on early institution. Nevertheless, emergency intensive care or surgery may be required. As soon as possible, explorations must be carried out to evaluate the level of contamination (human spectrometry, radiotoxicological examinations) and to start treatment. Modalities include non-specific techniques (lavage, insolubilization, laxatives) and specific techniques such as complexation or isotopic dilution (iodine for iodine, Prussian blue for cesium, DTPA for plutonium, Diamox or sodium bicarbonate for uranium). Surgical cleaning of wounds and burns is an excellent means of decontamination. External contamination is often associated. Further contamination must be prevented immediately.

  5. Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

    2012-07-01

    Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ≥100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies.

  6. Quality control for handling of accidental blood exposures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, P.T. van; Pelk-Jongen, M.; Wijkmans, C.; Voss, A.; Schneeberger, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    A regional counselling service was established to handle all accidental blood exposures using a standardized protocol. Levels of risk were assessed using an algorithm. Accidents that posed a risk for the transmission of hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were

  7. Quality control for handling of accidental blood exposures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, P.T. van; Pelk-Jongen, M.; Wijkmans, C.; Voss, A.; Schneeberger, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    A regional counselling service was established to handle all accidental blood exposures using a standardized protocol. Levels of risk were assessed using an algorithm. Accidents that posed a risk for the transmission of hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were

  8. Avoiding accidental exposure to intravenous cytotoxic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Elizabeth

    Many cytotoxic drugs have been shown to be mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic with second malignancies known to be associated with several specific cancer drugs. Occupational exposure to cytotoxic drugs presents a signification danger to healthcare staff and unwarranted handling of these drugs should be avoided. Guidelines have been established for the safe handling of hazardous drugs but not all professionals are adhering to these recommendations. Recent environmental studies have demonstrated measurable drug contamination on surfaces even when recommended guidelines are followed. It is therefore imperative that healthcare workers are aware of the potential hazards of antineoplastic agents and employ the recommended precautions to minimise exposure. This article outlines the potential risks associated with exposure to cytotoxic drugs for healthcare staff. The safe-handling precautions required in the storage, preparation, transport, administration and waste disposal of cytotoxic drugs are presented.

  9. Persistent Seroconversion after Accidental Eye Exposure to Calcifying Nanoparticles

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    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Aho, Katja M.; McKay, David S.; Kajander, E. Olavi

    2007-01-01

    Biosafety of nanomaterials has attracted much attention recently. We report here a case where accidental human eye exposure to biogenic nanosized calcium phosphate in the form of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) raised a strong IgG immune response against proteins carried by CNP. The antibody titer has persisted over ten years at the high level. The IgG was detected by ELISA using CNPs propagated in media containing bovine and human serum as antigen. The exposure incident occurred to a woman scientist (WS) at a research laboratory in Finland at 1993. CNP, also termed "nanobacteria", is a unique self-replicating agent that has not been fully characterized and no data on biohazards were available at that time. Before the accident, her serum samples were negative for both CNP antigen and anti-CNP antibody using specific ELISA tests (Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland). The accident occurred while WS was harvesting CNP cultures. Due to a high pressure in pipetting, CNP pellet splashed into her right eye. Both eyes were immediately washed with water and saline. The following days there was irritation and redness in the right eye. These symptoms disappeared within two weeks without any treatment. Three months after the accident, blood and urine samples of WS were tested for CNP cultures (2), CNP-specific ELISA tests, and blood cell counts. Blood cell counts were normal, CNP antigen and culture tests were negative. A high IgG anti-CNP antibody titer was detected (see Figure). The antibodies of this person have been used thereafter as positive control and standard in ELISA manufacturing (Nano-Sero IgG ELISA, Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland).

  10. Food allergy: practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life.

  11. Outcome of Accidental Exposure Prone to Blood Borne Viral Infections in an Educational Hospital

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    Shahnaz Sali

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The risk for transmission of blood-borne viruses (BBVs such as Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV due to occupational exposure is a major concern in the health care setting.Materials and Methods: This study among 337 health care workers (HCWs accidentally exposed to BBVs was carried out from January 2009 to March 2015. The data were reviewed in labbafinejhad hospital, Tehran, Iran.Results: 4 HCWs had exposure to HBS Ag positive, which HBS antibody titer of them was higher than 10 mlu/ml, 6 HCWs were exposed to HCV seropositive patients underwent laboratory investigations for  HCV-antibody on 4,12, 24 weeks that results were negative. 3 cases had exposure to HIV seropositive patients which received standard antiretroviral post exposure prophylaxis.Conclusion: Timely performance for PEP (Post Exposure Prophylaxis reducing BBVs transmission among HCWs.prophylaxis. Conclusions: Timely performance for  PEP(Post Exposure Prophylaxis reducing BBVs transmission among HCWs.Key words: Outcome; Accidental Exposure; Blood Borne Viral Infections

  12. Nodular goiter after occupational accidental exposure to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarev, M.A. [Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Human Biochemistry, Uninversity of Buenos Aires, School of Medicine, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Schnitman, M. [Center of Endocrinology and Metabolism, French Hospital C.Milstein, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-07-01

    In the present paper we present the consequences of an accidental occupational radiation exposure at a local hospital in Buenos Aires. Control at a local radiology service showed the lack of correct shielding in the X-ray equipment. The physicians and technicians (14 persons) exposed to radiation during 12 months were examined. The survey shows that: a) In 11 out of 14 radiation-exposed patients nodular goiter developed and an additional patient had diffuse goiter which means a goiter incidence of 85.7%; b) In 5 of the nodular goiter patients an increase in the size or the appearance of new nodules was observed along the follow-up period. No cancer was detected by FNA; c) Hypothyroidism was observed in 3/14 patients, and an additional patient had an abnormal TRH-TSH test, suggesting subclinical hypothyroidism; and d) Increased circulating antithyroid antibodies were found in one of the hypothyroid patients

  13. Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at the IPNS

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    Campos Torres, M.M.

    1995-02-01

    Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenetic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem.

  14. Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at IPNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, M.M.C.

    1996-05-01

    Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose rates ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2,850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem.

  15. Application of biological dosimetry in accidental radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosal, M.; Batora, I.; Kolesar, D.; Stojkovic, J. (Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta); Gaal, P.; Sklovsky, A. (Krajska Hygienicka Stanica, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)); Cizova, O. (Sexuologicka Ambulancia KUNZ, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia))

    1982-03-01

    The case is described of accidental irradiation of a male person with /sup 137/Cs of an activity of 24.71 GBq. The first estimate induced a reasonable suspicion that the absorbed dose could be very high and life-threatening. On the other hand the clinical picture, usual laboratory examinations, findings in the fluorescent blood count, the analysis of chromosomal count of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, the spermiogram, and the negative post-irradiation porphyrinuria suggested that the absorbed dose could be much lower than the original estimate. The results of dosimetry obtained after the reconstruction of the accident by measuring on a phantom revealed that the actual dose was very close to that presumed from the results of biological dosimetry during the first days of examination of the patient.

  16. Accidental blood exposures among medical residents in Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, O; Adam, J; Veyrie, N; Chousterman, B; Gaillard, R; Gregory, T; Yordanov, Y; Berveiller, P; Loulergue, P

    2011-03-01

    Accidental blood exposure (ABE) exposes healthcare workers, including medical residents, to the risk of occupational infection. We aimed to determine the characteristics of ABEs in residents with an anonymous self-reporting electronic questionnaire. A total of 350 residents (33% from surgical disciplines) entered this survey. One hundred and eighty-five residents (52%) reported at least one ABE during their residency (median, 2; range, 1-25), 53% of which occurred in operating theatres. Sixty-nine per cent of residents followed the current procedures for local disinfection. ABEs were notified to the hospital administration by 62% of residents, but only 51% of residents were referred to the occupational medicine department. The most frequently reported concerns following ABEs were human immunodeficiency virus (52%) and hepatitis C virus infection (39%). In 74% of cases, the serological status of the index patient was investigated. Only 54% of residents were aware of their hepatitis B surface antibody titres. Medical residents behaved inappropriately in 33% of cases in this survey. Further educational programmes should include residents, and not only senior healthcare workers, in order to improve individual behaviours.

  17. Mitigation of Lung Injury after Accidental Exposure to Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, J.; Jelveh, S.; Calveley, V.; Zaidi, A.; Doctrow, S. R.; Hill, R. P.

    2011-01-01

    There is a serious need to develop effective mitigators against accidental radiation exposures. In radiation accidents, many people may receive nonuniform whole-body or partial-body irradiation. The lung is one of the more radiosensitive organs, demonstrating pneumonitis and fibrosis that are believed to develop at least partially because of radiation-induced chronic inflammation. Here we addressed the crucial questions of how damage to the lung can be mitigated and whether the response is affected by irradiation to the rest of the body. We examined the widely used dietary supplement genistein given at two dietary levels (750 or 3750 mg/kg) to Fischer rats irradiated with 12 Gy to the lung or 8 Gy to the lung + 4 Gy to the whole body excluding the head and tail (whole torso). We found that genistein had promising mitigating effects on oxidative damage, pneumonitis and fibrosis even at late times (36 weeks) when drug treatment was initiated 1 week after irradiation and stopped at 28 weeks postirradiation. The higher dose of genistein showed no greater beneficial effect. Combined lung and whole-torso irradiation caused more lung-related severe morbidity resulting in euthanasia of the animals than lung irradiation alone. PMID:22013884

  18. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles

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    Dörr Harald

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  19. Accidental phosgene gas exposure: A review with background study of 10 cases

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    Arvind Kumar Vaish

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, authors present a review on clinical presentation and management of exposure of phosgene gas after reviewing the literature by searching with keywords phosgene exposure on Google, Cochrane, Embase and PubMed with a background of experience gained from 10 patients who were admitted to our institute after an accidental phosgene exposure in February 2011 nearby a city in India. Phosgene is a highly toxic gas, occupational workers may have accidental exposure. The gas can also be generated inadvertently during fire involving plastics and other chemicals and solvents containing chlorine, which is of concern to emergency responders. Phosgene inhalation may cause initially symptoms of respiratory tract irritation, patients feel fine thereafter, and then die of choking a day later because of build up of fluid in the lungs (delayed onset non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Phosgene exposure is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with a history of exposure should be admitted to the hospital for a minimum of 24 h for observation because of the potential for delayed onset respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  20. Orofacial manifestations from accidental exposure to caesium 137 in Goiania, Brazil.

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    Gomes, M A; Wascheck, C de C; Scully, C; Almeida, O de P; Bozzo, L

    1990-08-01

    The accidental close exposure of over 200 adults and children to a caesium-137 (137Cs) source in Goiania, Brazil in 1987 produced significant short-term morbidity in about 50 patients, and four deaths within a few weeks. Some 57% of those maximally exposed to radiation, developed orofacial lesions, notably purpura, spontaneous bleeding, ulcers and/or acute candidiasis. These lesions were probably mainly the consequences of depression of bone marrow elements by the radionuclide. Though the oral lesions that may follow iatrogenic exposure to ionizing radiation are well recognized this appears to be the first report on the oral sequelae of a serious radiation accident.

  1. Health care workers and AIDS: a differential study of beliefs and affects associated with accidental exposure to blood.

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    Rissi, Maria Rosa Rodrigues; Machado, Alcyone Artioli; Figueiredo, Marco Antonio de Castro

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze affective and cognitive determinants of the professional work of individuals caring for patients with HIV/AIDS, in view of the risk and/or experience of accidental exposure to blood. We drew on the theoretical-methodological references of Fishbein & Ajzen and Maslow's theory. Fifty health care workers were evaluated using an attitudes questionnaire and a needs and motivations instrument. The research verified differences between answers by health care workers who had never suffered accidents and those who had already experienced accidental exposure to blood. Health care workers did their work activities motivated by the need for self-fulfillment and valued their own performance when they were able to meet the patients' emotional needs. Among health professionals who had never experienced accidental exposure to blood, the predominant beliefs was that patients feel remorse over having expose themselves to HIV. Accidental exposure to blood raises difficulties in personal life. Technical aspects are also associated with the possibility of accidental exposure to blood.

  2. Health care workers and AIDS: a differential study of beliefs and affects associated with accidental exposure to blood

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    Maria Rosa Rodrigues Rissi

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze affective and cognitive determinants of the professional work of individuals caring for patients with HIV/AIDS, in view of the risk and/or experience of accidental exposure to blood. We drew on the theoretical-methodological references of Fishbein & Ajzen and Maslow's theory. Fifty health care workers were evaluated using an attitudes questionnaire and a needs and motivations instrument. The research verified differences between answers by health care workers who had never suffered accidents and those who had already experienced accidental exposure to blood. Health care workers did their work activities motivated by the need for self-fulfillment and valued their own performance when they were able to meet the patients' emotional needs. Among health professionals who had never experienced accidental exposure to blood, the predominant beliefs was that patients feel remorse over having expose themselves to HIV. Accidental exposure to blood raises difficulties in personal life. Technical aspects are also associated with the possibility of accidental exposure to blood.

  3. Quantification of nerve agent VX-butyrylcholinesterase adduct biomarker from an accidental exposure.

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    Solano, Maria I; Thomas, Jerry D; Taylor, James T; McGuire, Jeffrey M; Jakubowski, Edward M; Thomson, Sandra A; Maggio, Vincent L; Holland, Kerry E; Smith, J Richard; Capacio, Benedict; Woolfitt, Adrian R; Ashley, David L; Barr, John R

    2008-01-01

    The lack of data in the open literature on human exposure to the nerve agent O-ethyl-S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate (VX) gives a special relevance to the data presented in this study in which we report the quantification of VX-butyrylcholinesterase adduct from a relatively low-level accidental human exposure. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry using the fluoride ion regeneration method for the quantification of multiple nerve agents including VX. Six human plasma samples from the same individual were collected after the patient had been treated once with oxime immediately after exhibiting signs of exposure. Detection limits of approximately 5.5 pg/mL plasma were achieved for the G-analogue of VX (G-VX). Levels of the G-VX ranged from 81.4 pg/mL on the first day after the exposure to 6.9 pg/mL in the sample taken 27 days after the exposure. Based on the reported concentration of human butyrylcholinesterase in plasma of approximately 80 nM, it can be calculated that inhibition levels of >or= 0.05% of BuChE can be accurately quantified. These data further indicate that the fluoride ion regeneration method is a potentially powerful tool that can be used to assess low-level exposure to VX.

  4. Accidental exposure to UV radiation produced by germicidal lamp: case report and risk assessment.

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    Zaffina, Salvatore; Camisa, Vincenzo; Lembo, Marco; Vinci, Maria Rosaria; Tucci, Mario Graziano; Borra, Massimo; Napolitano, Antonio; Cannatà, Vittorio

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is known to cause both benefits and harmful effects on humans. The adverse effects mainly involve two target organs, skin and eye, and can be further divided into short- and long-term effects. The present case report describes an accidental exposure of two health-care workers to ultraviolet radiation produced by a germicidal lamp in a hospital pharmacy. The germicidal lamp presented a spectrum with an intense UV-C component as well as a modest UV-B contribution. Overexposure to UV-C radiation was over 100 times as large as the ICNIRP exposure limits. A few hours after the exposure, the two subjects reported symptoms of acute UV injury and both of them continued having significant clinical signs for over 2 years. In this study, we describe acute and potentially irreversible effects caused by high UV exposure. In addition, we present the results of risk assessment by occupational exposure to germicidal lamps. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  5. Accidental occupational exposure of intravenous nurses to human immunodeficiency virus. Anticipating the consequences.

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    Meisenhelder, J B

    1998-01-01

    This descriptive study randomly surveyed all 302 Massachusetts members of the Intravenous Nurses Society in 1991 regarding their perceptions of nine possible consequences of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection caused by accidental occupational exposure. Areas of highest concern were financial: adequacy of worker's compensation, ability of the employer to cover all healthcare costs, and job security. Nurses also were concerned about confidentiality of their HIV status and personal history jeopardizing their benefits. The i.v. nurses felt most secure in areas of their personal lives: housing and support of family and friends. Although some concerns correlated significantly with fear of contagion, others were unrelated, indicating a need for policy and attitude changes to promote comfort in working with HIV.

  6. Accidental bilateral Q-switched neodymium laser exposure: treatment and recovery of visual function

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    Zwick, Harry; Stuck, Bruce E.; Dunlap, Weldon; Scales, David K.; Lund, David J.; Ness, James W.

    1998-05-01

    A 21 year old female was accidentally exposed in both eyes when she looked into the 10 cm exit aperture of a military laser designator emitting 1064 nm q-switched (30 ns) pulses at a 10 pulse per second rate. Steroid therapy (methylprednisolone sodium succinate) was initiated within 6 hours post exposure. Initial ophthalmoscopic observation revealed small contained macular hemorrhages in each eye. Fluorescein angiography (FA) showed minimal leakage. Visual acuity was 20/100 and 20/60 in OD and OS respectively. Contrast sensitivity in both eyes was depressed across all spatial frequencies by more than 1.5 log units. At four weeks post exposure, no significant macular scarring was apparent and visual acuity returned to 20/25 in both eyes. Contrast sensitivity had improved to normal levels with a peak at 3 cycles/degree. At one year post exposure, visual acuity was 20/13 in both eyes and measures of contrast sensitivity were within normal limits. During the course of recovery, the patient's fixation shifted from a slightly superior temporal site back to the central foveal region. The foveal lesion sites were still evident by ophthalmoscopy and Amsler grid measurements but were deemed functional when the patient placed small targets generated by the scanning laser ophthalmoscope in the lesion site for discrimination. This outcome indicates remarkable recovery of visual function and suggests that early administration of steroids may assist in preserving the natural neural recovery process of the photoreceptor matrix by minimizing intraretinal scar formation.

  7. Medical documentation, bioanalytical evidence of an accidental human exposure to sulfur mustard and general therapy recommendations.

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    Steinritz, Dirk; Striepling, Enno; Rudolf, Klaus-Dieter; Schröder-Kraft, Claudia; Püschel, Klaus; Hullard-Pulstinger, Andreas; Koller, Marianne; Thiermann, Horst; Gandor, Felix; Gawlik, Michael; John, Harald

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent (CWA) that was first used in World War I and in several military conflicts afterwards. The threat by SM is still present even today due to remaining stockpiles, old and abandoned remainders all over the world as well as to its ease of synthesis. CWA are banned by the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) interdicting their development, production, transport, stockpiling and use and are subjected to controlled destruction. The present case report describes an accidental exposure of three workers that occurred during the destruction of SM. All exposed workers presented a characteristic SM-related clinical picture that started about 4h after exposure with erythema and feeling of tension of the skin at the upper part of the body. Later on, superficial blister and a burning phenomenon of the affected skin areas developed. Similar symptoms occurred in all three patients differing severity. One patient presented sustained skin affections at the gluteal region while another patient came up with affections of the axilla and genital region. Fortunately, full recovery was observed on day 56 after exposure except some little pigmentation changes that were evident even on day 154 in two of the patients. SM-exposure was verified for all three patients using bioanalytical GC MS and LC MS/MS based methods applied to urine and plasma. Urinary biotransformation products of the β-lyase pathway were detected until 5 days after poisoning whereas albumin-SM adducts could be found until day 29 underlining the beneficial role of adduct detection for post-exposure verification. In addition, we provide general recommendations for management and therapy in case of SM poisoning.

  8. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning presenting without a history of exposure: A case report

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    Bennetto Luke

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning is easy to diagnose when there is a history of exposure. When the exposure history is absent, or delayed, the diagnosis is more difficult and relies on recognising the importance of multi-system disease. We present a case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. Case presentation A middle-aged man, who lived alone in his mobile home was found by friends in a confused, incontinent state. Initial signs included respiratory failure, cardiac ischaemia, hypotension, encephalopathy and a rash, whilst subsequent features included rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, amnesia, dysarthria, parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathy, supranuclear gaze palsy and cerebral haemorrhage. Despite numerous investigations including magnetic resonance cerebral imaging, lumbar puncture, skin biopsy, muscle biopsy and electroencephalogram a diagnosis remained elusive. Several weeks after admission, diagnostic breakthrough was achieved when the gradual resolution of the patient's amnesia, encephalopathy and dysarthria allowed an accurate history to be taken for the first time. The patient's last recollection was turning on his gas heating for the first time since the spring. A gas heating engineer found the patient's gas boiler to be in a dangerous state of disrepair and it was immediately decommissioned. Conclusion This case highlights several important issues: the bewildering myriad of clinical features of carbon monoxide poisoning, the importance of making the diagnosis even at a late stage and preventing the patient's return to a potentially fatal toxic environment, and the paramount importance of the history in the diagnostic method.

  9. Accidental hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Casagranda

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypothermia is defined as an unintentional decrease of core body temperature below 35 °C. In this article we discuss pathophysiology, clinical aspects and treatment of hypothermic patients. The most important treatment of hypothermia is the identification of the most appropriate method of rewarming. We report a case of cardiac arrest secondary to severe accidental hypothermia, that occured in a young man, do to prolonged exposure to low temperature in river water, successfully treated with extracorporeal blood warming.

  10. Biological dose estimation for accidental supra-high dose gamma-ray exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y., E-mail: yingchen29@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiation Toxicology and Oncology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, 27 Taiping Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100850 (China); Yan, X.K. [Department of Radiation Toxicology and Oncology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, 27 Taiping Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100850 (China); Department of Radiation Safety, Beijing Institute of Nuclear and Chemical Safety, 14 Guan-cun, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100077 (China); Du, J.; Wang, Z.D.; Zhang, X.Q.; Zeng, F.G.; Zhou, P.K. [Department of Radiation Toxicology and Oncology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, 27 Taiping Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100850 (China)

    2011-09-15

    To correctly estimate the biological dose of victims accidentally exposed to a very high dose of {sup 60}Co gamma-ray, a new dose-effect curve of chromosomal dicentrics/multicentrics and rings in the supra-high dose range was established. Peripheral blood from two healthy men was irradiated in vitro with doses of {sup 60}Co gamma-rays ranging from 6 to 22 Gy at a dose rate of 2.0 Gy/min. Lymphocytes were concentrated, cultured and harvested at 52 h, 68 h and 72 h. The numbers of dic + r were counted. The dose-effect curves were established and validated using comparisons with doses from the Tokai-mura accident and were then applied to two victims of supra-high dose exposure accident. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in chromosome aberration frequency among the different culture times from 52 h to 72 h. The 6-22 Gy dose-effect curve was fitted to a linear quadratic model Y = -2.269 + 0.776D - 7.868 x l0{sup -3}D{sup 2}. Using this mathematic model, the dose estimates were similar to data from Tokai-mura which were estimated by PCC ring. Whole body average doses of 9.7 Gy and 18.1 Gy for two victims in the Jining accident were satisfactorily given. We established and successfully applied a new dose-effect curve of chromosomal dicentrics plus ring (dic + r) after 6-22 Gy {gamma}-irradiation from a supra-high dose {sup 60}Co gamma-ray accident.

  11. Laboratory exposure to Brucella melitensis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, A; Kronborg, G; Knudsen, Inge Jenny Dahl

    2013-01-01

    for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, but, of 14 staff members classified as high-risk exposure, none accepted post-exposure prophylaxis. However, in a period of 6 months of follow-up, none of the exposed laboratory workers developed brucellosis and all obtained sera were negative for antibrucella...

  12. DIFFICULTY IN BREATHING DUE TO ACCIDENTAL EXPOSURE TO HYPOCHLORITE SOLUTION IN ENDODONTIC TREATMENTREATHING DUE TO ACCIDENTAL EXPOSURE TO HYPOCHLORITE SOLUTION IN ENDODONTIC TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddiwati Punta

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available An important phase of endodontic treatment is the irrigation of the root canal system. Desirable functions of irrigation are antimicrobial activity, dissolution of necrotic tissue, and non toxicity to the periradicular tissue. Toxicity of NaOCl solution on vital tissue is still controversial. Severe complications may occur if this solution is inadvertently exposed to the oral mucosa, and it is very hazardous. The purpose of this paper is to caution dentists on the hazards of using NaOCl irrigation in endodontic treatment. A case is presented in which 2.5% NaOCl solution was accidentally streaming into the patient's throat because the irrigating needle was not securely attached to the syringe, with the result that the patient had difficulty in breathing. The patient was promptly taken to a pulmonologist, internist, and ENT. The patient was given dexamethasone 10 mg iv injection, delladryl 1 cc iv, and nebulizer with 1 ampoule of steroid, 1 ampoule of ventolin and 5 cc NaCl 3x within 24 hours, and after 24 hours the condition was increased. From this case it is concluded that the 2.5% NaOCl solution is very alkaline and irritating, resulting in deem of the larynx and plugging up of the respiratory system. Clinicians need to be cautious in using NaOCl solution to avoid endangering the patient's life.

  13. ROLE OF LABORATORY IN OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE

    OpenAIRE

    ABUŞOĞLU, Sedat

    2017-01-01

    Occupationaldiseases and exposure are at issue recently in our country. Early diagnosis andcorrective actions of occupational diseases provides oppurtunity for preventingfrom chronic diseases. Clinical laboratories are of great importance especiallyin diagnosis and monitoring of the treatment. Occupational diseases become morespecific due to usage of different sample types in analysis, application ofuncommon techniques that is not frequently used in routine laboratories, issuesabout the prean...

  14. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 5. Accidental Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Over the course of fifty-three years, LLNL had six acute releases of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and one acute release of tritiated water vapor (HTO) that were too large relative to the annual releases to be included as part of the annual releases from normal operations detailed in Parts 3 and 4 of the Tritium Dose Reconstruction (TDR). Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) had one such release of HT and one of HTO. Doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for these accidents have been modeled using an equation derived from the time-dependent tritium model, UFOTRI, and parameter values based on expert judgment. All of these acute releases are described in this report. Doses that could not have been exceeded from the large HT releases of 1965 and 1970 were calculated to be 43 {micro}Sv (4.3 mrem) and 120 {micro}Sv (12 mrem) to an adult, respectively. Two published sets of dose predictions for the accidental HT release in 1970 are compared with the dose predictions of this TDR. The highest predicted dose was for an acute release of HTO in 1954. For this release, the dose that could not have been exceeded was estimated to have been 2 mSv (200 mrem), although, because of the high uncertainty about the predictions, the likely dose may have been as low as 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem) or less. The estimated maximum exposures from the accidental releases were such that no adverse health effects would be expected. Appendix A lists all accidents and large routine puff releases that have occurred at LLNL and SNL/CA between 1953 and 2005. Appendix B describes the processes unique to tritium that must be modeled after an acute release, some of the time-dependent tritium models being used today, and the results of tests of these models.

  15. Urban "accidental" wetlands mediate water quality and heat exposure for homeless populations in a desert city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, M.

    2015-12-01

    In urban settings where humans interact in complex ways with ecosystems, there may be hidden or unanticipated benefits (services) or harm (disservices) conferred by the built environment. We examined interactions of a highly vulnerable population, the homeless, with urban waterways and wetlands in the desert city of Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.A. Climate change models project increases in heat, droughts, and extreme floods for the southwestern U.S. These projected changes pose a number of problems for sustainability and quality of future water supply, and the ability of human populations to mitigate heat stress and avoid fatalities. Urban wetlands that are created "accidentally" (by water pooling in abandoned areas of the landscape) have many structural (e.g., soils and hydrology) and functional (e.g., high denitrification) elements that mimic natural, unaltered aquatic systems. Accidental wetland systems in the dry bed of the Salt River, fed by storm and waste water from urban Phoenix, are located within economically depressed sections of the city, and show the potential for pollutant and heat mitigation. We used a mixed-method socio-ecological approach to examine wetland ecosystem functions and the ways in which homeless populations utilize Salt River wetlands for ecosystem services. Interviews and trash surveys indicated that homeless people are accessing and utilizing the wetlands as a source of running water, for sanitary and heat mitigation services, and for recreation and habitation. Environmental monitoring demonstrated that the wetlands can provide a reliable source of running water, nutrient and pathogen removal, heat mitigation, and privacy, but they may also pose a health risk to individuals coming in contact with the water through drinking or bathing. Whether wetlands provided a net benefit vs. harm varied according to site, season, and particular service, and several tradeoffs were identified. For example, heat is highest during the summer storm season

  16. Accidental exposure to blood in medical interns of Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Batoul; Shahidzadeh-Mahani, Ali; Oveysi, Turadj; Akhlaghi, Hengameh

    2007-07-01

    Healthcare workers and medical students are at risk of exposure to blood-borne viruses such as HBV, HCV HIV, etc. Here we report the results of a survey of the frequency and causes of cutaneous blood exposure accidents (CBEA) among medical students. Anonymous questionnaires were randomly distributed to 200 interns in their second year of internship in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. A definite exposure was defined as injury by a sharp object causing obvious bleeding, whereas a possible exposure was defined as subtle or superficial injury due to contact with a contaminated instrument or needle but without bleeding, or contamination of an existing wound with blood or other body fluids. One hundred eighty-four subjects (92% of the original sample) responded to the questionnaire. We recorded 121 definite exposures and 259 possible exposures over a mean time interval of 14 months. Needles were the most common objects (41% of exposure episodes) causing CBEAs, while phlebotomy and suturing were the hospital procedures that accounted for the highest percentage of exposure episodes (30 and 28 percent, respectively). Only a minority of students regularly observed basic safety measures (wearing gloves, not recapping used needles and proper disposal of sharp objects). Considering the high incidence of blood exposure in medical interns at Tehran University of Medical Sciences and the ensuing risk of blood-borne infections, the subjects are likely to develop such infections during their internship period.

  17. Risks from accidental exposures to engineered nanoparticles and neurological health effects: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattsson Mats-Olof

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are certain concerns regarding the safety for the environment and human health from the use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs which leads to unintended exposures, as opposed to the use of ENPs for medical purposes. This review focuses on the unintended human exposure of ENPs. In particular, possible effects in the brain are discussed and an attempt to assess risks is performed. Animal experiments have shown that investigated ENPs (metallic nanoparticles, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes can translocate to the brain from different entry points (skin, blood, respiratory pathways. After inhalation or instillation into parts of the respiratory tract a very small fraction of the inhaled or instilled ENPs reaches the blood and subsequently secondary organs, including the CNS, at a low translocation rate. Experimental in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that several types of ENPs can have various biological effects in the nervous system. Some of these effects could also imply that ENPs can cause hazards, both acutely and in the long term. The relevance of these data for risk assessment is far from clear. There are at present very few data on exposure of the general public to either acute high dose exposure or on chronic exposure to low levels of air-borne ENPs. It is furthermore unlikely that acute high dose exposures would occur. The risk from such exposures for damaging CNS effects is thus probably very low, irrespective of any biological hazard associated with ENPs. The situation is more complicated regarding chronic exposures, at low doses. The long term accumulation of ENPs can not be excluded. However, we do not have exposure data for the general public regarding ENPs. Although translocation to the brain via respiratory organs and the circulation appears to be very low, there remains a possibility that chronic exposures, and/or biopersistent ENPs, can influence processes within the brain that are triggering or aggravating

  18. Cross-sectional study on accidental occupational exposures amongst urban slum-based private medical practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha A. Malgaonkar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This cross-sectional, complete enumeration study was conducted in an urban slum to determine the frequency of occupational exposure of private medical practitioners to patient body fluids and the remedial measures adopted following such events and also to examine their high-risk practices, personal protective measures, immunisation and training status in relation to occupational exposures. Methods: After Institutional Ethics Committee approval, private medical practitioners practising for and #8805; 1 year in the locality who gave written informed consent were interviewed in their own clinics using a pre-tested formatted questionnaire. Results: Of the 108 respondents interviewed, the majority were non-allopathic, male practitioners. The speciality-wise and gender-wise differences in training in occupational exposure were not significant (p=0.135. Prior to disposal, 10.18% cut needles while 26.85% disinfected needles with 1% hypochlorite solution (p=0.0001. 50.93% never bent or recapped needles (p=0.0008. Only 19.44% regularly used gloves while examining patients (p=0.0039. 41.66% were completely unimmunised against Hepatitis B (p=0.004, while only one female non-allopathic practitioner (0.92% had taken complete immunisation against tetanus (p<0.05. Of the 7.41% respondents who had history of needle stick injuries, only one female non-allopathic practitioner had reported occupational exposure. Those unaware about the need for post-exposure prophylaxis for occupational exposure and that anti-retroviral therapy was part of post-exposure prophylaxis constituted 87.96% and 95.37%, respectively. Conclusions: Reporting of occupational exposure, complete immunisation against hepatitis B and tetanus and use of personal protection was inadequate. Specialised hands-on training ought to be an integral component of continuing medical education for private medical practitioners. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3708-3713

  19. Occupational radiation exposures in research laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaccari, S.; Papotti, E. [Parma Univ., Health Physics (Italy); Pedrazzi, G. [Parma Univ., Dept. of Public Health (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Radioactive sources are widely used in many research activities at University centers. In particular, the activities concerning use of sealed form ({sup 57}Co in Moessbauer application) and unsealed form ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 32}P in radioisotope laboratories) are analyzed. The radiological impact of these materials and potential effective doses to researchers and members of the public were evaluated to show compliance with regulatory limits. A review of the procedures performed by researchers and technicians in the research laboratories with the relative dose evaluations is presented in different situations, including normal operations and emergency situations, for example the fire. A study of the possible exposure to radiation by workers, restricted groups of people, and public in general, as well as environmental releases, is presented. (authors)

  20. Risk analysis using fuzzy set theory of the accidental exposure of medical staff during brachytherapy procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglia, F; Giardina, M; Tomarchio, E

    2010-03-01

    Using fuzzy set theory, this paper presents results from risk analyses that explore potential exposure of medical operators working in a high dose rate brachytherapy irradiation plant. In these analyses, the HEART methodology, a first generation method for human reliability analysis, has been employed to evaluate the probability of human error. This technique has been modified on the basis of fuzzy set concepts to take into account, more directly, the uncertainties of the so-called error-promoting factors on which the method is based. Moreover, with regard to some identified accident scenarios, fuzzy potential dose was also evaluated to estimate the relevant risk. The results also provide some recommendations for procedures and safety equipment to reduce the occurrence of radiological exposure accidents.

  1. The accidental exposure to ionizing radiations; L'exposition accidentelle aux rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This article is divided in three parts, the first one gives the radioactivity sources, the doses and the effects, the second part is devoted to the medical exposures, the third part concerns the accidents and the biological effects of an irradiation the different syndromes ( the acute whole-body irradiation syndrome, the localized irradiation syndrome, the inflammatory syndrome, hematopoietic syndrome,neuro-vascular syndrome) are detailed. (N.C.)

  2. Appearance of pseudo-Pelger Huet anomaly after accidental exposure to ionizing radiation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goans, Ronald E; Iddins, Carol J; Christensen, Doran; Wiley, Albert; Dainiak, Nicholas

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the morphology of formed elements of human blood after exposure to ionizing radiation in vivo, archival smears of peripheral blood from eight individuals involved in the 1958 Y-12 criticality accident at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, were examined manually by light microscopy. For each case, increased interlobar bridging was observed in nuclei of the myeloid cells, many of which were bilobed and morphologically similar to Pelger Huet (PH) cells. The high-dose group (n = 5, 2.98-4.61 Gy-Eq) exhibited 13.0 ± 0.85% PH cells (mean ± SEM) in the neutrophil population compared to 6.8 ± 1.6% in the low-dose group (n = 3, 0.29-0.86 Gy-Eq; p = 0.008). An age- and gender-matched control group (n = 8) exhibited 3.6 ± 0.9% PH cells. Results of a one-way ANOVA show that the high-dose group is statistically different from both the low-dose group and the control group (p = 0.002). However, the low-dose group is not statistically different from the control group (p = 0.122). The mean number of nuclear lobes in blood neutrophils was also enumerated as a function of time after exposure and was found to be diminished, consistent with incomplete nuclear segmentation that is characteristic of the Pelger Huet anomaly (PHA). In contrast to these changes in myeloid cells, the morphology of erythrocytes and platelets appeared to be normal. The authors conclude that ionizing radiation induces abnormal morphology of circulating neutrophils, which is similar to the pseudo-PHA that is acquired in disorders such as myelodysplastic syndrome, acute myeloid leukemia, and leukemoid reactions. Potential molecular mechanisms by which radiation induces this morphological change are discussed. From this cohort, the biomarker appears to be present early post-accident (accident. Assessment of circulating pseudo-Pelger Huet cells is being investigated as a potential biodosimetric tool.

  3. Mercury Vapour Long-Lasting Exposure: Lymphocyte Muscarinic Receptors as Neurochemical Markers of Accidental Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Roda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic poisoning may result in home setting after mercury (Hg vapours inhalation from damaged devices. We report a chronic, nonoccupational Hg poisoning due to 10-year indoor exposure to mercury spillage. Case Report. A 72-year-old man with polyneuropathy of suspected toxic origin. At hospitalization, toxicological clinical evaluations confirmed the altered neurological picture documented across the last decade. Periodic blood and urine Hg levels (BHg, UHg monitoring were performed from admission (t0, until 1 year later (t2, paralleled by blood neurochemical markers assessment, that is, lymphocytes muscarinic receptors (l-MRs. At t0: BHg and UHg were 27 and 1.4 microg/L, respectively (normal values: BHg 1–4.5; UHg 0.1–4.5, associated with l-MRs increase, 185.82 femtomoL/million lymphocytes (normal range: 8.0–16.0. At t1 (two days after DMSA-mobilization test, BHg weak reduction, paralleled by UHg 3.7-fold increase, was measured together with further l-MRs enhancement (205.43 femtomoL/million lymphocytes. At t2 (eight months after two cycles of DMSA chelating therapy ending, gradual improving of clinical manifestations was accompanied by progressive decrease of BHg and UHg (4.0 and 2.8 microg/L, resp. and peripheral l-MRs neurochemical marker (24.89 femtomoL/million lymphocytes. Conclusion. l-MRs modulatory effect supports their use as peripheral neurochemical marker in Hg poisoning diagnosis and chelation therapy monitoring.

  4. Mercury Vapour Long-Lasting Exposure: Lymphocyte Muscarinic Receptors as Neurochemical Markers of Accidental Intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, E.; Vecchio, S.; Apostoli, P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Chronic poisoning may result in home setting after mercury (Hg) vapours inhalation from damaged devices. We report a chronic, nonoccupational Hg poisoning due to 10-year indoor exposure to mercury spillage. Case Report. A 72-year-old man with polyneuropathy of suspected toxic origin. At hospitalization, toxicological clinical evaluations confirmed the altered neurological picture documented across the last decade. Periodic blood and urine Hg levels (BHg, UHg) monitoring were performed from admission (t0), until 1 year later (t2), paralleled by blood neurochemical markers assessment, that is, lymphocytes muscarinic receptors (l-MRs). At t0: BHg and UHg were 27 and 1.4 microg/L, respectively (normal values: BHg 1–4.5; UHg 0.1–4.5), associated with l-MRs increase, 185.82 femtomoL/million lymphocytes (normal range: 8.0–16.0). At t1 (two days after DMSA-mobilization test), BHg weak reduction, paralleled by UHg 3.7-fold increase, was measured together with further l-MRs enhancement (205.43 femtomoL/million lymphocytes). At t2 (eight months after two cycles of DMSA chelating therapy ending), gradual improving of clinical manifestations was accompanied by progressive decrease of BHg and UHg (4.0 and 2.8 microg/L, resp.) and peripheral l-MRs neurochemical marker (24.89 femtomoL/million lymphocytes). Conclusion. l-MRs modulatory effect supports their use as peripheral neurochemical marker in Hg poisoning diagnosis and chelation therapy monitoring. PMID:27872646

  5. Accidental Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Robert D.; Devin, Lee; Sullivan, Erin E.

    2012-01-01

    Historical accounts of human achievement suggest that accidents can play an important role in innovation. In this paper, we seek to contribute to an understanding of how digital systems might support valuable unpredictability in innovation processes by examining how innovators who obtain value from...... they incorporate accidents into their deliberate processes and arranged surroundings. By comparing makers working in varied conditions, we identify specific factors (e.g., technologies, characteristics of technologies) that appear to support accidental innovation. We show that makers in certain specified...... conditions not only remain open to accident but also intentionally design their processes and surroundings to invite and exploit valuable accidents. Based on these findings, we offer advice for the design of digital systems to support innovation processes that can access valuable unpredictability....

  6. Review of medical findings in a Marshallese population twenty-six years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.; Paglia, D.E.; Larsen, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    In March 1954, radioactive debris from a thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll deviated from predicted trajectories and contaminated several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. As a result, 239 native inhabitants of these islands along with 28 American servicemen and 23 Japanese fishermen received variably severe exposures to diverse ionizing radiations. Fallout material consisted largely of mixed fission products with small amounts of neutron-induced radionuclides and minimal amounts of fissionable elements, producing a complex spectrum of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Individuals were exposed to deeply penetrating, whole-body gamma irradiation, to internal radiation emitters assimilated either by inhalation or by ingestion of contaminated water and food, and to direct radiation from material accumulating on body surfaces. That accident initiated a cascade of events, medical, social and political, which continue in varying forms to this day. Most of these have been discussed in the open medical literature and in periodic reports issued by the medical team headquartered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report attempts to summarize some of the principal findings of medical significnce that have been observed during the subsequent 26 years with particular emphasis on the last six years.

  7. Chemical exposures in research laboratories in a university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Shiro; Okamoto, Satoru; Yamada, Chikahisa; Ukai, Hirohiko; Samoto, Hajime; Ohashi, Fumiko; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2008-04-01

    Research laboratories in a university were investigated for air-borne levels of legally designated organic solvents and specified chemical substances. Repeated surveys in 2004-5 (four times in the two years) of about 720 laboratories (thus 2,874 laboratories in total) revealed that the solvent concentrations were in excess of the Administrative Control Levels only in a few laboratories (the conditions improved shortly after the identification) and none with regard to specified chemicals. Thus, working environments were in Control Class 1 in almost all (99.5%) laboratories examined. Such conditions were achieved primarily by extensive installation and use of local exhaust systems. The survey further revealed that types of chemicals used in research laboratories were extremely various (only poorly covered by the regulation) whereas the amounts of each chemical to be consumed were quite limited. For protection of health of researchers (including post- and under-graduate students) in laboratories, therefore, it appeared more appropriate to make personal exposure assessment rather than evaluation of levels of chemicals in air of research laboratories. Considering unique characteristics of research activity, it is important to educate each researcher to make his/her own efforts to protect his/her health, through supply of knowledge on toxicity of chemicals as well as that on proper use of protective equipments including exhaust chambers.

  8. Beryllium contamination and exposure monitoring in an inhalation laboratory setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Caroline; Audusseau, Séverine; Salehi, Fariba; Truchon, Ginette; Chevalier, Gaston; Mazer, Bruce; Kennedy, Greg; Zayed, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    Beryllium (Be) is used in several forms: pure metal, beryllium oxide, and as an alloy with copper, aluminum, or nickel. Beryllium oxide, beryllium metal, and beryllium alloys are the main forms present in the workplace, with inhalation being the primary route of exposure. Cases of workers with sensitization or chronic beryllium disease challenge the scientific community for a better understanding of Be toxicity. Therefore, a toxicological inhalation study using a murine model was performed in our laboratory in order to identify the toxic effects related to different particle sizes and chemical forms of Be. This article attempts to provide information regarding the relative effectiveness of the environmental monitoring and exposure protection program that was enacted to protect staff (students and researchers) in this controlled animal beryllium inhalation exposure experiment. This includes specific attention to particle migration control through intensive housekeeping and systematic airborne and surface monitoring. Results show that the protective measures applied during this research have been effective. The highest airborne Be concentration in the laboratory was less than one-tenth of the Quebec OEL (occupational exposure limit) of 0.15 microg/m(3). Considering the protection factor of 10(3) of the powered air-purifying respirator used in this research, the average exposure level would be 0.03 x 10(- 4) microg/m(3), which is extremely low. Moreover, with the exception of one value, all average Be concentrations on surfaces were below the Quebec Standard guideline level of 3 microg/100 cm(2) for Be contamination. Finally, all beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests for the staff were not higher than controls.

  9. Inhalation exposure system used for acute and repeated-dose methyl isocyanate exposures of laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, B; O'Connor, R W; Dement, J M

    1987-06-01

    Laboratory animals were exposed by inhalation for 2 hr/day (acute) or 6 hr/day (four consecutive days, repeated dose) to methyl isocyanate (MIC). Exposures were conducted in stainless steel and glass inhalation exposure chambers placed in stainless steel, wire mesh cages. MIC was delivered with nitrogen via stainless steel and Teflon supply lines. Chamber concentrations ranged from 0 to 60 ppm and were monitored continuously with infrared spectrophotometers to 1 ppm and at 2-hr intervals to 20 ppb with a high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a fluorescence detector. Other operational parameters monitored on a continuous basis included chamber temperature (20-27 degrees C), relative humidity (31-64%), static (transmural) pressure (-0.3 in.), and flow (300-500 L/min). The computer-assistance system interfaced with the inhalation exposure laboratory is described in detail, including the analytical instrumentation calibration system used throughout this investigation.

  10. 76 FR 72216 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard; Extension of the Office of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... hazardous chemicals in accordance with the Standard's definitions for ``laboratory use of hazardous chemicals'' and ``laboratory scale.'' The Standard requires that these laboratories maintain worker... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in...

  11. Accidentes laborales viales

    OpenAIRE

    Corzo Suárez, Susana

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto es dar a conocer la problemática de la aplicación del de la ley 31/1995, de 8 de noviembre, de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales, en la evaluación y prevención de los riesgos de los accidentes laborales viales. Para poder llegar a este objetivo se han utilizado diversas vías de estudio: Intentar aclarar qué son accidentes de tráfico y qué son accidentes laborales viales; Cuáles son los diferentes tipos de accidentes laborales viales y sus principales ca...

  12. 76 FR 25376 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard; Extension of the Office of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... Laboratories'' (29 CFR 1910.1450; the ``Standard'') applies to laboratories that use hazardous chemicals in accordance with the Standard's definitions for ``laboratory use of hazardous chemicals'' and ``laboratory scale.'' The Standard requires these laboratories to maintain worker exposures at or below...

  13. Radiative accidental matter

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra, D Aristizabal; Wegman, D

    2016-01-01

    Accidental matter models are scenarios where the beyond-the-standard model physics preserves all the standard model accidental and approximate symmetries up to a cutoff scale related with lepton number violation. We study such scenarios assuming that the new physics plays an active role in neutrino mass generation, and show that this unavoidably leads to radiatively induced neutrino masses. We systematically classify all possible models and determine their viability by studying electroweak precision data, big bang nucleosynthesis and electroweak perturbativity, finding that the latter places the most stringent constraints on the mass spectra. These results allow the identification of minimal radiative accidental matter models for which perturbativity is lost at high scales. We calculate radiative charged-lepton flavor violating processes in these setups, and show that $\\mu\\to e \\gamma$ has a rate well within MEG sensitivity provided the lepton-number violating scale is at or below $10^6\\,$ GeV, a value (natur...

  14. Optimizing bone surveys performed for suspected non-accidental trauma with attention to maximizing diagnostic yield while minimizing radiation exposure: utility of pelvic and lateral radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Priyanka; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Seibert, Anthony; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L. [University of California Davis Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Coulter, Kevin [University of California Davis Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Sacramento, CA (United States); Li, Chin-Shang [University of California Davis Medical Center, Division of Biostatistics, Department of Public Health Sciences, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Skeletal surveys for non-accidental trauma (NAT) include lateral spinal and pelvic views, which have a significant radiation dose. To determine whether pelvic and lateral spinal radiographs should routinely be performed during initial bone surveys for suspected NAT. The radiology database was queried for the period May 2005 to May 2011 using CPT codes for skeletal surveys for suspected NAT. Studies performed for skeletal dysplasia and follow-up surveys were excluded. Initial skeletal surveys were reviewed to identify fractures present, including those identified only on lateral spinal and/or pelvic radiographs. Clinical information and MR imaging was reviewed for the single patient with vertebral compression deformities. Of the 530 children, 223 (42.1%) had rib and extremity fractures suspicious for NAT. No fractures were identified solely on pelvic radiographs. Only one child (<0.2%) had vertebral compression deformities identified on a lateral spinal radiograph. This infant had rib and extremity fractures and was clinically paraplegic. MR imaging confirmed the vertebral body fractures. Since no fractures were identified solely on pelvic radiographs and on lateral spinal radiographs in children without evidence of NAT, nor in nearly all with evidence of NAT, inclusion of these views in the initial evaluation of children for suspected NAT may not be warranted. (orig.)

  15. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation, January 1983-December 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, W.H.; Engle, J.R.; Harper, J.A.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    March 1, 1984, was the 30th anniversary of the Bravo thermonuclear test that resulted in the accidental exposure of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik atolls to radioactive fallout. The chronicling of the medical events resulting from that exposure is continued in this report, which covers the period from January 1983 through December 1984. An updated listing of all relevant publications from the Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, is presented in the Reference Section. Thirty years of observation continue to show no detectable increase in mortality in the exposed population as a result of that exposure. The survival curves of the high-exposure Rongelap group, the low-exposure Utirik population, and an unexposed group of Rongelap people matched by age and sex to the exposed Rongelap group in 1957 continue to be similar. 89 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Flavour from accidental symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, Luca [SISSA/ISAS and INFN, I-34013 Trieste (Italy); King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Romanino, Andrea [SISSA/ISAS and INFN, I-34013 Trieste (Italy)

    2006-11-15

    We consider a new approach to fermion masses and mixings in which no special 'horizontal' dynamics is invoked to account for the hierarchical pattern of charged fermion masses and for the peculiar features of neutrino masses. The hierarchy follows from the vertical, family-independent structure of the model, in particular from the breaking pattern of the Pati-Salam group. The lightness of the first two fermion families can be related to two family symmetries emerging in this context as accidental symmetries.

  17. Radiation exposure of cardiac sonographers working in an academic noninvasive cardiovascular imaging laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Michael R; Orsinelli, Maryellen H; Orsinelli, David A

    2017-09-24

    Exposure to workplace radiation among cardiac sonographers has been felt to be low, and patient-related sources have been considered negligible. Sonographers may be exposed to radiation from patient emitted sources as well as external sources in interventional laboratories. This study quantified radiation exposure to cardiac sonographers. Cardiac sonographers, vascular imaging technologists, exercise physiologists, noninvasive nursing staff, and CT/MRI technologists were provided body dosimeter badges. Sonographers were provided dosimeter rings for their scanning hands. Radiation exposure was quantified from the dosimeter data, reported in millirems (mrem) for deep, eye, and shallow exposure, as well as shallow exposure data from the rings. Data were prospectively collected for 63 employees over a 12-month period and retrospectively analyzed. The mean annual deep body exposure in sonographers was 8.2 mrem/year, shallow exposure 9.8 mrem/year, eye exposure 8.5 mrem/year, and ring exposure 207 mrem/year. There was a significant difference between body and ring exposure (P = .0002). When comparing exposure data between the vascular imaging technologists, CT/MRI technologists, noninvasive nursing staff, and the cardiac sonographers, there were no statistical differences (P > .23). Exercise physiologists had significantly higher exposure compared to sonographers (P exposure is low, cardiac sonographers are exposed to workplace radiation, most likely from patient emitted radiation. The finding that radiation exposure from rings exceeded body exposure supports this conclusion. Continued education and assessment of work flow practices should be employed to minimize staff radiation exposure. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Determination of VX-G analogue in red blood cells via gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry following an accidental exposure to VX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jeffrey M; Taylor, James T; Byers, Christopher E; Jakubowski, Edward M; Thomson, Sandra M

    2008-01-01

    A sensitive method for determining exposure to the chemical warfare agent VX is described in which the biomarker ethyl methylphosphonofluoridate (VX-G) is measured in red blood cells (RBCs) following treatment with fluoride ion using isotope-dilution gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The analyte was isolated via solid-phase extraction and detected using ammonia chemical ionization in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. A good linear relationship was obtained in the quantitative concentration range of 4 ng/mL to 1000 ng/mL with an absolute detection limit of VX vapor. Detection and quantitation of VX-G were possible in samples taken as late as 27 days following exposure.

  19. Assessment of the Durability of Marble Cladding by Laboratory Exposure compared to Natural Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Leksø, Henrik; Grelk, Bent

    2003-01-01

    Marble exposed to temperature cycles at high relative humidity (RH) under laboratory conditions loose strength similar to loss of strength for the same marble exposed to natural climate. Two marble types from three different building facades in Copenhagen are studied. From each building a marble...... cladding panel exposed for the south facing natural climate during 29, 60 and 61 years, respectively, and a cladding panel of each of the marble types only exposed for indoor climate are cut in bars of size 30x30x300 mm. The bars from indoor are exposed to temperature cycles between 10 °C and 60 °C...... at nearly 100% RH and at nearly 0% RH. The strength of the natural exposed marble as well as the laboratory-exposed marble are measured as flexural strength under concentrated load using four-point loading. Analysis of the strength test show that it is possible to transfer test results for laboratory...

  20. Laboratory animal allergy : allergen exposure assessment and epidemiological study of risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, A.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the study presented in this thesis was to estimate the prevalence rate of laboratory animal allergy and to determine its association with risk factors, like allergen exposure level, atopy, gender and other host factors. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 540

  1. Experimental Bleaching of a Reef-Building Coral Using a Simplified Recirculating Laboratory Exposure System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determining stressor-response relationships in reef building corals is a critical need for researchers because of global declines in coral reef ecosystems. A simplified recirculating coral exposure system for laboratory testing of a diversity of species and morphologies of reef b...

  2. Experimental Bleaching of a Reef-Building Coral Using a Simplified Recirculating Laboratory Exposure System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determining stressor-response relationships in reef building corals is a critical need for researchers because of global declines in coral reef ecosystems. A simplified recirculating coral exposure system for laboratory testing of a diversity of species and morphologies of reef b...

  3. Linking accelerated laboratory and outdoor exposure results for PV polymeric materials: a mechanistic study of EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaohong; Pang, Yongyan; Lin, Chiao-Chi; Liu, Kaipeng; Nguyen, Tinh; Chin, Jaonnie W.

    2013-09-01

    Linking accelerated laboratory test to field performance for predicting the service life of polymeric materials are being investigated at NIST using the reliability-based methodology. Based on this methodology, a successful linkage between the laboratory and field exposure data for a model polymeric material has been made. Recently, this methodology, for the first time, was introduced to the lifetime assessment of PV polymeric materials. In this paper, a mechanistic study of the degradation of three unstabilized model ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) systems---uncured EVA, cured EVA and laminated EVA---was carried out under accelerated laboratory exposure and outdoor exposure. The NIST SPHERE (Simulated Photodegradation via High Energy Radiant Exposure) was used for the accelerated laboratory tests, and the outdoor exposure was conducted in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Simultaneous multiple stresses, including temperature, relative humidity and UV radiation, were applied individually or in combination during SPHERE exposure. The effects of the environmental factors on the main degradation mechanisms of different EVA systems were investigated. The results showed that the UV radiation was the most important factor for the degradation of EVA and a synergistic effect occurred between UV radiation and relative humidity. A slower degradation rate was observed for the laminated system as a result of limited diffusion of O2 and H2O into EVA. It was also found that the substantial chemical changes of the uncured EVA system did not yield yellowing, which was dramatically different from the peroxide cured EVA system. Additionally, the chemical degradation modes of the three EVA systems exposed outdoors appeared to be similar to those exposed to the SPHERE. The implication of this work to the current test standards was discussed.

  4. Accidental dapsone poisoning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P M; Philip, E

    1984-12-01

    Accidental poisoning in children shows a trend towards poisoning with various newer drugs and chemicals used in the household. Sixty-one cases of accidental poisoning in children were seen in Sree Avittam Thirunal Hospital, (S.A.T.H.), Trivandrum, South India during the year 1982, constituting 0.61% of the total pediatric admissions. Dapsone poisoning constituted 9.8% of the total accidental poisonings, emphasising the need for safe storage of drugs out of the reach of young children. Dapsone poisoning with resultant methaemoglobinaemia responded well to intravenous ascorbic acid and other supportive measures.

  5. Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (OOREOS) Satellite: Radiation Exposure in LEO and Supporting Laboratory Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioda, Andrew Lige; Cook, Amanda Marie; Quinn, Richard C.; Elsaesser, Andreas; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Ricca,Alessandra; Jones, Nykola C.; Hoffman, Soren; Ricco,Antonio

    2014-01-01

    We will present the results from the exposure of the metalloporphyrin iron tetraphenylporphyrin chloride (FeTPPCI), anthraufin (C(sub 14)H(sub 8)(O sub 4) (Anth) and Isoviolanthrene (C(sub 34H sub 18) (IVA) to the outher space environment, measured in situ aboard the Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses nanosatellite. The compounds were exposed for a period of 17 months (3700 hours of direct solar exposure) including broad-spectrum solar radiation (approx. 122 nm to the near infrared). The organic films are enclosed in hermetically sealed sample cells that contain one of four astrobiologically relevant microenvironments. Transmission spectra (200-1000 nm) were recorded for each film, at first daily and subsequently every 15 days, along with a solar spectrum and the dark response of the detector array. In addition to analysis via UV-Vis spectroscopy, the laboratory controls were also monitored via infrared and far-UV spectroscopy. The results presented will include the finding that the FeTPPCI and IVA organic films in contact with a humid headspace gas (0.8-2.3%) exhibit faster degradation times, upon irradiation, in comparison with identical films under dry headspaces gases, whereas the Anth thin film exhibited a higher degree of photostability. In the companion laboratory experiments, simulated solar exposure of FeTPI films in contact with either Ar or CO(sub -2):O(sub -2):Ar (10:0.01:1000) headspace gas results in growth of a band in the films infrared spectra at 1961 cm(sup 1). Our assignment of this new spectral feature and the corresponding rational will be presented. The relevance of O/OREOS findings to planetary science, biomarker research, and the photostability of organic materials in astrobiologically relevant environments will also be discussed.

  6. The accidental technology trainer: a guide for libraries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerding, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii Chapter 1: Being an Accidental Technology Trainer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 What Is an Accidental Technology Trainer...

  7. Allegheny County Fatal Accidental Overdoses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Fatal accidental overdose incidents in Allegheny County, denoting age, gender, race, drugs present, zip code of incident and zip code of residence. Zip code of...

  8. Experimental Bleaching of a Reef-Building Coral Using a Simplified Recirculating Laboratory Exposure System

    OpenAIRE

    Barron, Mace G.; McGill, Cheryl J.; Courtney, Lee A.; Marcovich, Dragoslav T.

    2010-01-01

    Determining stressor-response relationships in reef building corals continues to be a critical research need due to global declines in coral reef ecosystems and projected declines for the future. A simplified recirculating coral exposure system was coupled to a solar simulator to allow laboratory testing of a diversity of species and morphologies of reef building corals under ecologically relevant conditions of temperature and solar radiation. Combinations of lamps and attenuating filters al...

  9. Experimental Bleaching of a Reef-Building Coral Using a Simplified Recirculating Laboratory Exposure System

    OpenAIRE

    Barron, Mace G.; Cheryl J. McGill; Courtney, Lee A.; Marcovich, Dragoslav T

    2010-01-01

    Determining stressor-response relationships in reef building corals continues to be a critical research need due to global declines in coral reef ecosystems and projected declines for the future. A simplified recirculating coral exposure system was coupled to a solar simulator to allow laboratory testing of a diversity of species and morphologies of reef building corals under ecologically relevant conditions of temperature and solar radiation. Combinations of lamps and attenuating filters al...

  10. Health care workers and AIDS: a differential study of beliefs and affects associated with accidental exposure to blood Profissionais de saúde e AIDS: um estudo diferencial sobre crenças e afetos associados à experiência de exposição acidental a material biológico potencialmente contaminado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosa Rodrigues Rissi

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze affective and cognitive determinants of the professional work of individuals caring for patients with HIV/AIDS, in view of the risk and/or experience of accidental exposure to blood. We drew on the theoretical-methodological references of Fishbein & Ajzen and Maslow's theory. Fifty health care workers were evaluated using an attitudes questionnaire and a needs and motivations instrument. The research verified differences between answers by health care workers who had never suffered accidents and those who had already experienced accidental exposure to blood. Health care workers did their work activities motivated by the need for self-fulfillment and valued their own performance when they were able to meet the patients' emotional needs. Among health professionals who had never experienced accidental exposure to blood, the predominant beliefs was that patients feel remorse over having expose themselves to HIV. Accidental exposure to blood raises difficulties in personal life. Technical aspects are also associated with the possibility of accidental exposure to blood.O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar determinantes afetivos e cognitivos que influenciam o trabalho de profissionais que cuidam de pessoas vivendo com o HIV/ AIDS, frente ao risco ou experiência de exposição acidental a material biológico potencialmente contaminado (MBPC. Utilizou-se o referencial teórico metodológico de Fishbein-Ajzen e a teoria de Maslow, que propõe a hierarquia das necessidades humanas. Cinqüenta profissionais de saúde foram avaliados por meio de escalas de atitudes, e de um instrumento de avaliação de necessidades e motivações. Verificou-se a diferença entre as respostas de profissionais que nunca sofreram acidente e aqueles que já passaram pela experiência de acidente ocupacional. Os resultados indicam que os profissionais exercem suas atividades motivados pela necessidade de auto-realização e valorizam sua performance

  11. Laboratory facility to create reference radon + thoron atmosphere under dynamic exposure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressyanov, D; Mitev, K; Georgiev, S; Dimitrova, I; Kolev, J

    2017-01-01

    Radon ((222)Rn) and thoron ((220)Rn) levels in the environment are typically subject to significant random and systematic variations. Creation in the laboratory of reproducible and controlled exposure conditions close to that in the real environment can be useful for testing (222)Rn and (220)Rn detectors and for research. In this report the design and performance of a novel laboratory facility with such functionality is presented. The facility allows the exposure of detectors under controlled dynamic as well as static activity concentrations of (222)Rn and (220)Rn (pure and mixed) and temperature. The temperature is measured and regulated within -15 °C ÷ +60 °C by a dedicated programmable thermostat. Different reference activity concentrations in the exposure vessel are made by regulating the flow-rate of the air that flushes (222)Rn/(220)Rn activity from the sources towards the exposure vessel. Reference atmospheres that contain (222)Rn, (220)Rn or a specified ratio of the two can be created. Pilot experiments that demonstrate the feasibility of the approach are presented. They include follow-up of a pre-defined temperature profile (in the range -5 °C ÷ +35 °C), test of the correspondence between planned and measured (222)Rn and (220)Rn activity concentrations, follow-up of a pre-defined dynamic profile of (220)Rn concentrations and test of the possibility to create mixed (220)Rn/(222)Rn atmospheres (experimentally checked for ratio of the activity concentrations from 0.27 to 4.5). The results from the experimental tests are in agreement with the values obtained by the developed theoretical model. The proposed approach can be used to plan and create stationary and dynamic reference exposure conditions that are close to the real exposure regimes in the environment.

  12. Steam oxidation of TP 347H FG. Laboratory exposures versus service conditions at the power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Anette N. [DONG Energy A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark); Montgomery, Melanie [DONG Energy A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark); Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Vattenfall Heat Nordic, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2010-07-01

    TP347H FG is often used as final superheater tubing at Danish Power Plants. The oxidation behaviour of TP347H FG in steam was investigated both in laboratory conditions and field conditions. Short time exposures (336 hours) were performed in the laboratory at 500, 600 and 700 C in gasses with 8 or 46% H{sub 2}O and varying oxygen partial pressures. The shortest exposure time at the power plant was 7720 h, the temperature varied between 500 and 650 C. Surprisingly, thicker oxide layers formed within the laboratory facility at 600 and 700 C than during the long time exposures at the power plant. This could not be explained by spallation. Double-layered oxides developed during oxidation. The outer layer consist of Fe-oxides and the inner oxide contained Fe and the remaining alloy elements. Investigations with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the morphology of the inner oxide was different for the two types of exposures. However, investigation using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the inner oxide in both cases consisted of particles of Fe-Mn-Cr spinel embedded in a metallic Fe-Ni matrix in the bulk of the (former) alloy grains and Cr-rich oxide layer along the (former) alloy grain boundaries. The main difference between the layers formed at the two locations is that the Cr-rich oxide layer is thicker for the samples exposed at the power plant than that for the samples exposed at the laboratory conditions. Furthermore, the depth of Cr depletion in the alloy adjacent the oxide layer is greater for the samples exposed at the power plant compared to those exposed in the laboratory. The microstructure investigation suggests that the slower oxidation rate of TP347H FG at the power plant as compared to the laboratory is due to a larger reservoir of Cr for the samples exposed at the power plant probably combined with a higher mobility of Cr within the alloy. (orig.)

  13. Quality assurance for radon exposure chambers at the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory, Montgomery, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semler, M.O.; Sensintaffar, E.L. [National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory, Montgomery, AL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), operates six radon exposure chambers in its two laboratories, the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama, and the Las Vegas Facility, Las Vegas, Nevada. These radon exposure chambers are used to calibrate and test portable radon measuring instruments, test commercial suppliers of radon measurement services through the Radon Measurement Proficiency Program, and expose passive measurement devices to known radon concentrations as part of a quality assurance plan for federal and state studies measuring indoor radon concentrations. Both laboratories participate in national and international intercomparisons for the measurement of radon and are presently working with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to receive a certificate of traceability for radon measurements. NAREL has developed an estimate of the total error in its calibration of each chamber`s continuous monitors as part of an internal quality assurance program. This paper discusses the continuous monitors and their calibration for the three chambers located in Montgomery, Alabama, as well as the results of the authors intercomparisons and total error analysis.

  14. Hipotermia accidental secundaria a brote de psoriasis generalizada Accidental hypothermia due to generalized psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Agudo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available La hipotermia accidental es una alteración de la termorregulación corporal, definida como una temperatura central igual o inferior a 35ºC. Según la intensidad se puede clasificar en ligera (35-32,2ºC, moderada (32,2-28ºC y grave (The accidental hypothermia is a disorder of corporal termoregulation, defined as a central temperature below 35ºC. According to the intensity may be classified in mild (35-32.2 ºC, moderate (32.2-28ºC and severe (below 28ºC. The most frequent causes are the exposure to cold, use of depressant drugs of central nervous system and hypoglycemia, although there are other less frequent. We present a case of moderate hypothermia due to generalized psoriasis which required admission in the Intensive Care Unit of Hospital García Orcoyen. The termoregulation, pathogenesis, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of accidental hypothermia are reviewed.

  15. Accidente de Trabajo y Recargo

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Alonso, María Antonia

    2015-01-01

    En la actualidad existen diferentes formas de Accidente de Trabajo. En el presente trabajo se da a conocer las distintas formas y la doctrina de los tribunales. Se aborda el recargo de prestaciones de Seguridad Social y el deber del empresario en cumplir la normativa de Seguridad Social

  16. Medical management of accidentally exposed individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenot, Jean-Claude [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1997-12-31

    Bone marrow aplasia is one of the main syndromes following a high dose accidental radiation exposure. Although both transfusion and bone marrow transplantation have been used with some success since the first treatments of patients, other therapeutic strategies are needed. New promising approaches of the treatment of aplasia have appeared with the development of experimental and clinical hematology. Some new trends for the treatment of the hematopoietic injury based on bone marrow transplantation rely on new sources of compatible donor cells, such as cord blood, on the selection of immature haemopoietic cells and on new transplant regimens. The hematopoietic growth factors stimulate proliferation and/or differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors and possibly stem cells. Furthermore, they act on the functions of mature cells. They have now specific uses in hematology, related to their role in the regulation of growth and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Some growth factors have already been used for the treatment of accidental radiation-induced aplasia and lessons have been learned from their medical management and follow-up. (author) 30 refs.

  17. Exposure to electromagnetic fields from smart utility meters in GB; part I) laboratory measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyman, Azadeh; Addison, Darren; Mee, Terry; Goiceanu, Cristian; Maslanyj, Myron; Mann, Simon

    2017-05-01

    Laboratory measurements of electric fields have been carried out around examples of smart meter devices used in Great Britain. The aim was to quantify exposure of people to radiofrequency signals emitted from smart meter devices operating at 2.4 GHz, and then to compare this with international (ICNIRP) health-related guidelines and with exposures from other telecommunication sources such as mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices. The angular distribution of the electric fields from a sample of 39 smart meter devices was measured in a controlled laboratory environment. The angular direction where the power density was greatest was identified and the equivalent isotropically radiated power was determined in the same direction. Finally, measurements were carried out as a function of distance at the angles where maximum field strengths were recorded around each device. The maximum equivalent power density measured during transmission around smart meter devices at 0.5 m and beyond was 15 mWm(-2) , with an estimation of maximum duty factor of only 1%. One outlier device had a maximum power density of 91 mWm(-2) . All power density measurements reported in this study were well below the 10 W m(-2) ICNIRP reference level for the general public. Bioelectromagnetics. 2017;38:280-294. © 2017 Crown copyright. BIOELECTROMAGNETICS © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Exposure setups for laboratory animals and volunteer studies using body-mounted antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Achim; Adami, C; Bolz, T; Rennings, A; Dorn, H; Rüttiger, L

    2007-01-01

    For two different in vivo exposure setups body-mounted antenna systems have been designed. The first setup is designed for investigation of volunteers during simulated mobile phone usage. The setup consists of a dual-band antenna for GSM/WCDMA with enhanced carrying properties, which enables exposure for at least 8 h a day. The 10 g averaged localised SAR--normalised to an antenna input power of 1 W--measured in the flat phantom area of the SAM phantom amounts to 7.82 mW g(-1) (900 MHz) and 10.98 mW g(-1) (1966 MHz). The second exposure setup is used for a laboratory behavioural study on rats. The design goal was a localised, well-defined SAR distribution inside the animals' heads at 900 MHz. To fulfil the biological requirements, a loop antenna was developed. For tissues around the ears, a localised SAR value of 50.12 W kg(-1) averaged over a mass of 2.2 g for an antenna input power of 1 W is obtained.

  19. Effects of chemical smokes on flora and fauna under field and laboratory exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, D.J.; Novak, E.W.; Lower, W.R.; Yanders, A.; Kapila, S.; Wang, R.

    1987-06-01

    Various types of obscurant smokes are used routinely in training by the U.S. Army. Because continued routine use of the smokes could be detrimental to the native flora and fauna at training sites, a preliminary biological and chemical field study of fogoil, hexachloroethane, and tank diesel smokes was conducted. Smoke plumes were sampled and chemically analyzed at distances of 15-150 m from the smoke source where Tradescantia clones 4430 and 03 and the native plant Ambrosia dumosa and the native rodent Dipodomys merriami were exposed for 30 min. In addition, Tradescantia clone 4430 was exposed to tank diesel in the laboratory at concentration levels equivalent to exposure at 15 and 50 m. Tradescantia clones were examined for mutagenic effects indicated by micronuclei induction in developing pollen and pink somatic mutations in stamen hairs. Photosynthetic perturbations were measured in Tradescantia and A. dumosa using variable fluorescence induction. Animals were examined for sister chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations. It was found that all of the smokes tested exerted varying degrees of physiological and mutagenic effects in one or more assay system at one or more exposure distance. The studies reported here indicate that exposed ecological systems, or at least components of these systems, are at a higher risk than are unexposed components (e.g., organisms) for several types of damage attributed to obscurant smoke exposure.

  20. Exposure to tebuconazol in rice field and laboratory conditions induces oxidative stress in carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni, Cândida; Loro, Vania Lucia; Santi, Adriana; de Menezes, Charlene Cavalheiro; Cattaneo, Roberta; Clasen, Bárbara Estevão; Zanella, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides can have an effect on the biochemical and physiological functions of living organisms. The changes seen in fish and their response to pesticides can be used as an example for vertebrate toxicity. In this study, carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to different concentrations of tebuconazol fungicide, by rice field (31.95 μg/L) and laboratory (33.47 and 36.23 μg/L) conditional testing, during a 7 day period. Parameters such thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels (TBARS), protein carbonyl, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities were studied, using the liver, brain and white muscle of the fish. The field experiment showed that the TBARS levels were increased in all the analyzed tissues. Similarly, the protein carbonyl of the liver and the brain AChE activity increased after 7 days. The laboratory experiment demonstrated that the TBARS levels in the liver were increased in both of the concentration tests. TBARS levels in the muscle increased only by the lowest test concentration. On the other hand, the protein carbonyl was increased only by the highest concentration. The results indicate that the tebuconazol exposure from the field and laboratory conditions directly affected the health of the fish, showing the occurrence of oxidative stress.

  1. MDI Biological Laboratory Arsenic Summit: Approaches to Limiting Human Exposure to Arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Bruce A; Caldwell, Kathleen; Congdon, Clare Bates; Disney, Jane; Donahue, Maria; Ferguson, Elizabeth; Flemings, Elsie; Golden, Meredith; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Highman, Jay; James, Karen; Kim, Carol; Lantz, R Clark; Marvinney, Robert G; Mayer, Greg; Miller, David; Navas-Acien, Ana; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Postema, Sonia; Rardin, Laurie; Rosen, Barry; SenGupta, Arup; Shaw, Joseph; Stanton, Elizabeth; Susca, Paul

    2015-09-01

    This report is the outcome of the meeting "Environmental and Human Health Consequences of Arsenic" held at the MDI Biological Laboratory in Salisbury Cove, Maine, August 13-15, 2014. Human exposure to arsenic represents a significant health problem worldwide that requires immediate attention according to the World Health Organization (WHO). One billion people are exposed to arsenic in food, and more than 200 million people ingest arsenic via drinking water at concentrations greater than international standards. Although the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a limit of 10 μg/L in public water supplies and the WHO has recommended an upper limit of 10 μg/L, recent studies indicate that these limits are not protective enough. In addition, there are currently few standards for arsenic in food. Those who participated in the Summit support citizens, scientists, policymakers, industry, and educators at the local, state, national, and international levels to (1) establish science-based evidence for setting standards at the local, state, national, and global levels for arsenic in water and food; (2) work with government agencies to set regulations for arsenic in water and food, to establish and strengthen non-regulatory programs, and to strengthen collaboration among government agencies, NGOs, academia, the private sector, industry, and others; (3) develop novel and cost-effective technologies for identification and reduction of exposure to arsenic in water; (4) develop novel and cost-effective approaches to reduce arsenic exposure in juice, rice, and other relevant foods; and (5) develop an Arsenic Education Plan to guide the development of science curricula as well as community outreach and education programs that serve to inform students and consumers about arsenic exposure and engage them in well water testing and development of remediation strategies.

  2. Research progress in study of accidental hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui YUAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Accidental hypothermia refers to a state of lowering of core body temperature down to 35 ℃induced by drowning, burial in snow and prolonged exposure to cold environment, etc. Hypothermia may affect the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, digestive system, etc. The triad consisting "hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy" is an important factor accelerating the death of patients. Early, timely application of rewarming measures is regarded as the basic principle in treatment of hypothermia. A series of rewarming measures, such as infusion of warm fluids, inspiration of warm air, abdominal infusion of warm fluid, instruction of warm fluid into pleural cavity, intravenous infusion of warm fluid, rewarming through ECMO, etc. have been used recently. Advance in research on the classification of hypothermia, its impact to the body and the treatment methods are reviewed in present paper. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.04.15

  3. Preventing and controlling accidental gas releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, P. D.; Fthenakis, V. M.; Kalb, P. D.

    1988-07-01

    Toxic, flammable, and explosive gases may be used in photovoltaic cell research laboratories and in commercial manufacturing facilities. Accidental release of these materials can present hazards to life and property. Accidents can arise from a variety of mechanical and human related failures. These can occur from the time materials are received at the loading dock of the facility to the time treated gases are discharged to the atmosphere through a stack. Each type of initiating event may require a different control approach. These may range from the training and certification of plant workers charged with the handling of gas cylinder hookups to installation of emergency pollution control systems. Since engineering options for controlling released materials are limited, emphasis should be placed on administrative and engineering approaches for preventing such accidents. These are likely to be the most effective approaches for protecting life and property.

  4. Ecotoxicological response of marine organisms to inorganic and organic sediment amendments in laboratory exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Gunther; Leather, James; Kan, Jinjun; Arias-Thode, Yolanda Meriah

    2011-10-01

    Experimental materials currently being investigated for use as amendments for the in situ remediation of contaminated sediments were assessed for their potential impacts on marine benthos. Laboratory toxicity tests involving lethal and sublethal endpoints were conducted on sediments amended with apatite, organoclay, chitin, or acetate, with the polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata, the amphipod Eohaustorius estuarius, and the larval sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus. Amendments were mixed loosely into uncontaminated or metal-contaminated sediments, and also added inside experimental geotextile mats, at sediment dry weight (dw) concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 10%. The geotextile mats, containing apatite (5 or 10% dw), and/or organoclay (5%) did not result in adverse effects on any of the test organisms. Chitin and acetate, however, repetitively resulted in adverse effects on survival and/or adverse or positive effects on organism growth at concentrations of ≤ 2.5% dw. The adverse effects were attributed to water quality degradation in the exposure vessels (notably ammonia and dissolved oxygen concentration, for chitin and acetate, respectively) as a result of the microbial breakdown of the amendments. For N. arenaceodentata, growth was enhanced in the presence of chitin at concentrations as low as 0.5% sediment dw, which stimulated bacterial growth that may have provided an additional food source for the polychaete. Sediment chitin concentrations of 0.5% resulted in a statistically significant reduction in N. arenaceodentata body burdens of 61%, 29%, and 54%, relative to unamended contaminated sediment, for Cu, Zn, and Cd, respectively. The studies suggest a lack of inherent toxicity of these materials on the experimental organisms, as the adverse or positive responses observed are likely related to artifacts associated with laboratory exposure. Assessments in field settings are needed to verify this conclusion.

  5. Excruciating Effect of Formaldehyde Exposure to Students in Gross Anatomy Dissection Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OG Avwioro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Formaldehyde is extensively used for preservation of cadavers in departments of anatomy. However, it is a noxious chemical which may cause serious health problems.Objective: To assess the effect of exposure of medical students to formaldehyde at the Department of Anatomy, Niger Delta University, Nigeria. Methods: In a questionnaire-based study, 93 second-year medical students were surveyed at the Department of Human Anatomy, Niger Delta University, Nigeria. The average duration of exposure for each student in the dissection hall was 6 hr/wk. Participants with history of cough, respiratory or skin diseases were excluded from the study. Results: Out of 93 questionnaires distributed, 75 were completed and returned (response rate: 81%. Of 75 students, 58 (77% were strongly affected by unpleasant smell of formaldehyde. It was followed by “runny or congested nose” and “redness of the eyes.” “Skin-related diseases” was identified as the least ranked effect of formaldehyde.Conclusion: Due to the numerous health challenges that formaldehyde causes to students in the gross anatomy dissection laboratories, it cannot be considered as a suitable chemical for embalmment of cadaver for dissection.

  6. Organizational influence on the occurrence of work accidents involving exposure to biological material La influencia de la organización en la ocurrencia de accidentes de trabajo con exposición a material biológico Influência organizacional na ocorrência de acidentes de trabalho com exposição a material biológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Palucci Marziale

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to analyze work accidents involving exposure to biological materials which took place among personnel working in nursing and to evaluate the influence of the organizational culture on the occurrence of these accidents. METHOD: a retrospective, analytical study, carried out in two stages in a hospital that was part of the Network for the Prevention of Work Accidents. The first stage involved the analysis of the characteristics of the work accidents involving exposure to biological materials as recorded over a seven-year period by the nursing staff in the hospital studied, and registered in the Network databank. The second stage involved the analysis of 122 nursing staff members' perception of the institutional culture, who were allocated to the control group (workers who had not had an accident and the case group (workers who had had an accident. RESULTS: 386 accidents had been recorded: percutaneous lesions occurred in 79% of the cases, needles were the materials involved in 69.7% of the accidents, and in 81.9% of the accident there was contact with blood. Regarding the influence of the organizational culture on the occurrence of accidents, the results obtained through the analysis of the two groups did not demonstrate significant differences between the average scores attributed by the workers in each organizational value or practice category. It is concluded that accidents involving exposure to biological material need to be avoided, however, it was not possible to confirm the influence of organizational values or practices on workers' behavior concerning the occurrence of these accidents.OBJETIVOS: analizar los accidentes de trabajo con exposición a material biológico entre el personal de enfermería y evaluar la influencia de la cultura organizacional en la ocurrencia de accidentes de este tipo. MÉTODO: estudio retrospectivo, analítico, desarrollado en dos etapas en un Hospital de la Red para la Prevención de Accidentes. En

  7. Exposure to culturable and total microbiota in cultural heritage conservation laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał L. Górny

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To date, the scientific source materials usually focus on microbial contamination of the museum or library collections themselves, while the exposure of persons who professionally deal with this type of objects in cultural heritage conservation laboratories is ignored. Material and Methods: The study was carried out in 9 naturally ventilated conservation laboratories with no history of water damage. Viable (understood as culturable bioaerosol stationary samples were collected in both outdoor and indoor environments using 6-stage Andersen impactor. Simultaneously, stationary and personal indoor bioaerosol measurements were carried out using both Gesamtstaubprobenahme an der Person (GSP and Button filter samplers. These measurements were complemented by evaluation of microbial content in the dust settled on conserved works of art. All impactor, filter, and settled dust samples were quantitatively examined to obtain viable and total concentrations of bacteria and fungi. All isolated microbial strains were taxonomically identified. Results: At workplaces, the concentrations of viable microorganisms in air were below 2000 cfu/m3 and accounted for not more than 5.5% of total microbiota. The study showed that quantitative assessment of viable bioaerosol can be made with an Andersen impactor as well as by using Button and GSP filter samplers, irrespective of whether they are applied for personal or stationary measurements. Compared to the impactor, however, the use of filter samplers for microbial contamination monitoring substantially limits the scope of qualitative information which can be obtained. Size distribution analysis revealed that the largest “load” of microorganisms can penetrate into the respiratory tract between the trachea and terminal bronchi, and thereby may be responsible for allergic inflammations in exposed workers. Conclusions: The precise assessment of microbial hazards in conservation laboratories should comprise

  8. Adesão a protocolo pós-exposição ocupacional de acidentes entre cirurgiões dentistas Adhesión a protocolo post exposición ocupacional de accidentes entre cirujanos dentistas Compliance with occupational post-exposure protocol for injuries among dental surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima Martins

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a adesão a protocolo pós-exposição ocupacional a acidentes e os fatores relacionados à adesão entre cirurgiões-dentistas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado em Montes Claros, MG, de 2007 a 2008, com cirurgiões-dentistas em atividade clínica com relato de ocorrência de acidentes com instrumentos perfurocortantes no seu exercício profissional. As variáveis referentes à caracterização do dentista, condições de trabalho dos dentistas, caracterização da clientela atendida, características dos acidentes com instrumentos perfurocortantes sofridos pelos dentistas e condutas pós-acidentes foram avaliadas por meio de um questionário estruturado, previamente testado. Os dados foram submetidos à análise descritiva e ao teste qui-quadrado (p OBJETIVO: Analizar la adhesión a protocolo post exposición ocupacional a accidentes y los factores relacionados a la adhesión entre cirujanos dentistas. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal realizado en Montes Claros, Sureste de Brasil, de 2007 a 2008, con cirujanos dentistas en actividad clínica con relato de ocurrencia de accidentes con instrumentos perfurocortantes en el ejercicio profesional. Las variables relacionadas con la caracterización del dentista, condiciones de trabajo de los dentistas, caracterización de la clientela atendida, características de los accidentes con instrumentos perfurocortantes sufridos por los dentistas y conductas post accidentes fueron evaluadas por medio de un cuestionario estructurado, previamente testado. Los datos fueron sometidos al análisis descriptivo y a la prueba de chi-cuadrado (pOBJECTIVE: To analyze the compliance with occupational post-exposure protocol for accidents and factors associated with compliance among dental surgeons. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in the municipality of Montes Claros, Southeastern Brazil, from 2007 to 2008, with accident reports from needles and sharp instruments among practicing

  9. Accidental haloperidol poisoning in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona P Gajre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Haloperidol, a butyrophenone neuroleptic drug, is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of adult schizophrenia and mania. It is used in children with neurological disorders like chorea and developmental disorders such as hyperactivity. With the advent of newer selective neuroleptics use of haloperidol is now on decline. However, in adults it is still the preferred drug especially in resource challenged settings. Extrapyramidal reactions occur frequently with haloperidol predominantly as parkinsonian symptoms. There are few case reports of accidental haloperidol poisoning in children and this one of them.

  10. Effects of Direct and Indirect Exposure of Insecticides to Garden Symphylan (Symphyla: Scutigerellidae) in Laboratory Bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Shimat V

    2015-12-01

    The garden symphylan, Scutigerella immaculata Newport, is a serious soil pest whose root feeding affects yield and survival of several high valued crops in the California's central coast. Because organophosphate insecticides, widely used for S. immaculata control, are rigorously regulated and little is known about the efficacy of alternate insecticides, laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine insecticide efficacy through repellency and lethality. To determine indirect repellency (noncontact) of insecticides, choice assays were conducted where five S. immaculata were introduced into the arena to choose between insecticide-treated and untreated wells whereas, in direct repellency (contact) assays, three insecticide-treated 1-cm-diameter discs were pasted into the arena and the number of visits, time spent per visitation, and number of long-duration (>10 s) stays of five S. immaculata were quantified. To determine efficacy through direct mortality, number of S. immaculata died after 72 h were determined by introducing 10 S. immaculata to insecticide-treated soil assays. In indirect exposure bioassays, seven (clothianidin, oxamyl, zeta-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, ethoprop, azadirachtin, and a combination of beta-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid) out of 14 insecticides tested elicited repellency to S. immaculata. Of six insecticides tested in the direct exposure assays, only tolfenpyrad elicited contact repellency. In soil assays, after 72 h of introduction, bifenthrin, oxamyl, clothianidin, zeta-cypermethrin, and tolfenpyrad caused 100, 95, 80, 44, and 44% S. immaculata mortality, respectively, which was significantly greater than distilled water and four other insecticides. The implications of these results on S. immaculata management in the California's central coast are discussed.

  11. Noise exposure, music, and animals in the laboratory: a commentary based on Laboratory Animal Refinement and Enrichment Forum (LAREF) discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson-Kane, Emily G; Farnworth, Mark J

    2006-01-01

    The effects of noise, in general, and music, in particular, on the behavior and welfare of animals in the laboratory deserve a great deal of empirical study. However, many laboratories must develop their current practices on the basis of sparse and conflicting data. With this commentary we seek to establish some of the factors that should be taken into account in deciding how to deal with sources of uncontrolled or deliberate sound and, specifically, in determining whether to play music in the laboratory. Views differ, however, the balance of evidence supports the use of quiet music during nonhuman animals' active periods, if this practice is introduced with an awareness of the risks to welfare and research.

  12. Dog and cat exposures to hazardous substances reported to the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory: 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Ali; Van der Merwe, Deon

    2013-06-01

    Pet dogs and cats in the USA are commonly exposed to potentially hazardous substances found in domestic environments. Requests for assistance and advice received by the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory regarding exposures in dogs and cats to substances perceived by their caretakers to be potentially harmful included 1,616 phone calls, over a 3-year period covering 2009-2012. Enquiries occurred more often during summer. Dogs were involved in 84.7 % of calls and cats in 15.3 %. Oral exposures were reported in 95.5 % of calls, dermal exposures in 3.7 % of calls, inhalation exposures in 0.6 % of calls, and parenteral exposures in 0.2 % of calls. Therapeutic drugs were the most frequently reported substances, accounting for 35.4 % of calls, followed by household chemicals (15.5 %); foods (14.8 %); pesticides (13.9 %); plants (12 %), industrial chemicals and fertilizers (3.6 %); cosmetics and personal care products (2.8 %); and animal, insect, and microorganism toxins (2.1 %). Although requests for information or assistance are not a measure of poisoning incidence, it can provide insight regarding relative exposure rates, help to identify changing exposure trends and emerging exposures, and reflect the public concern regarding actual or apparent harmful exposures in pets.

  13. A laboratory exposure system to study the effects of aging on super-micron aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santarpia, Joshua; Sanchez, Andres L.; Lucero, Gabriel Anthony; Servantes, Brandon Lee; Hubbard, Joshua Allen

    2014-02-01

    A laboratory system was constructed that allows the super-micron particles to be aged for long periods of time under conditions that can simulate a range of natural environments and conditions, including relative humidity, oxidizing chemicals, organics and simulated solar radiation. Two proof-of-concept experiments using a non-biological simulant for biological particles and a biological simulant demonstrate the utility of these types of aging experiments. Green Visolite®, which is often used as a tracer material for model validation experiments, does not degrade with exposure to simulated solar radiation, the actual biological material does. This would indicate that Visolite® should be a good tracer compound for mapping the extent of a biological release using fluorescence as an indicator, but that it should not be used to simulate the decay of a biological particle when exposed to sunlight. The decay in the fluorescence measured for B. thurengiensis is similar to what has been previously observed in outdoor environments.

  14. Genotoxicity biomarkers in occupational exposure to formaldehyde--the case of histopathology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeira, Carina; Viegas, Susana; Carolino, Elisabete; Prista, João; Gomes, Manuel C; Brito, Miguel

    2011-03-18

    Formaldehyde, classified by the IARC as carcinogenic in humans and experimental animals, is a chemical agent that is widely used in histopathology laboratories. The exposure to this substance is epidemiologically linked to cancer and to nuclear changes detected by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus test (CBMN). This method is extensively used in molecular epidemiology, since it provides information on several biomarkers of genotoxicity, such as micronuclei (MN), which are biomarkers of chromosomes breakage or loss, nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB), common biomarkers of chromosome rearrangement, poor repair and/or telomere fusion, and nuclear buds (NBUD), biomarkers of elimination of amplified DNA. The aim of this study is to compare the frequency of genotoxicity biomarkers, provided by the CBMN assay in peripheral lymphocytes and the MN test in buccal cells, between individuals occupationally exposed and non-exposed to formaldehyde and other environmental factors, namely tobacco and alcohol consumption. The sample comprised two groups: 56 individuals occupationally exposed to formaldehyde (cases) and 85 unexposed individuals (controls), from whom both peripheral blood and exfoliated epithelial cells of the oral mucosa were collected in order to measure the genetic endpoints proposed in this study. The mean level of TWA(8h) was 0.16±0.11 ppm (

  15. Accidental inflation in the landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Metallinos, Konstantinos [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA (United States); Gomez-Reino, Marta, E-mail: jose@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: marta.gomez-reino.perez@cern.ch, E-mail: Konstantinos.Metallinos@tufts.edu [Department of Physics, University of Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain)

    2013-02-01

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P{sup 4}{sub [1,1,1,6,9]} by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

  16. Accidental Inflation in the Landscape

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J; Metallinos, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P^4_[1,1,1,6,9] by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

  17. Impact of urban air pollution on the allergenicity of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia: Outdoor exposure study supported by laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang-Yona, Naama; Shuster-Meiseles, Timor; Mazar, Yinon; Yarden, Oded; Rudich, Yinon

    2016-01-15

    Understanding the chemical interactions of common allergens in urban environments may help to decipher the general increase in susceptibility to allergies observed in recent decades. In this study, asexual conidia of the allergenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus were exposed to air pollution under natural (ambient) and controlled (laboratory) conditions. The allergenic activity was measured using two immunoassays and supported by a protein mass spectrometry analysis. The allergenicity of the conidia was found to increase by 2-5 fold compared to the control for short exposure times of up to 12h (accumulated exposure of about 50 ppb NO2 and 750 ppb O3), possibly due to nitration. At higher exposure times, the allergenicity increase lessened due to protein deamidation. These results indicate that during the first 12h of exposure, the allergenic potency of the fungal allergen A. fumigatus in polluted urban environments is expected to increase. Additional work is needed in order to determine if this behavior occurs for other allergens.

  18. 78 FR 4324 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories (Non-Mandatory Appendix); Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... waste products. Inapplicability of Public Notice and Delayed Effective Date Requirements Section 553 of... recommendations extracted from the CSB's 2011 case study, ``Texas Tech University Laboratory Explosion... laboratory or into areas where food is stored and consumed. 4. Provide Laboratory Ventilation The best way...

  19. Managing Potential Laboratory Exposure to Ebola Virus by Using a Patient Biocontainment Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    et al. (8) with permission. †JEB, Japanese encephalitis virus B; Ebola/ Lassa , potential exposure to these viruses . ‡IP, immune plasma from...expo- sure to BSL-4 viruses , 8 involved percutaneous injury and 6 involved potential aerosol exposure. Eight persons (5 evaluated for exposure to Lassa ...potentially exposed to Lassa virus also received intrave- nous ribavirin. No patient developed disease or serocon- verted. From 1985 through 2003, no

  20. Mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.; Roswell, R.L.; Stevens, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    A mathematical model was constructed for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included. 25 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  2. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 1, Waste streams and treatment technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  3. High-resolution short-exposure small-animal laboratory x-ray phase-contrast tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Daniel H.; Vågberg, William; Yaroshenko, Andre; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Hertz, Hans M.

    2016-12-01

    X-ray computed tomography of small animals and their organs is an essential tool in basic and preclinical biomedical research. In both phase-contrast and absorption tomography high spatial resolution and short exposure times are of key importance. However, the observable spatial resolutions and achievable exposure times are presently limited by system parameters rather than more fundamental constraints like, e.g., dose. Here we demonstrate laboratory tomography with few-ten μm spatial resolution and few-minute exposure time at an acceptable dose for small-animal imaging, both with absorption contrast and phase contrast. The method relies on a magnifying imaging scheme in combination with a high-power small-spot liquid-metal-jet electron-impact source. The tomographic imaging is demonstrated on intact mouse, phantoms and excised lungs, both healthy and with pulmonary emphysema.

  4. Accidental methanol ingestion: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakker Jan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of methanol (CH3OH intoxication differs enormously from country to country. Methanol intoxication is extremely rare in the Dutch population. Even a low dose can already be potentially lethal. Patients are conventionally treated with hemodialysis. Therefore we'd like to present a report of a foreign sailor in Rotterdam who accidentally caused himself severe methanol intoxication, with a maximum measured concentration of 4.4 g/L. Case presentation The patient presented with hemodynamic instability and severe metabolic acidosis with pH 6.69. The anion gap was 39 mmol/L and the osmol gap 73 mosmol/kg. Treatment with ethanol and continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVH-DF was initiated. Despite the hemodynamic instability it is was possible to achieve rapid correction of pH and methanol concentration with CVVH-DF while maintaining a stable and therapeutic ethanol serum concentration. Despite hemodynamic and acid-base improvement, our patient developed massive cerebral edema leading to brain death. Permission for organ donation was unfortunately not ascertained. Conclusions We conclude that in a hemodynamic instable situation high methanol concentrations and methanol-induced derangements of homeostasis are safely and effectively treated with CVVH-DF and that severe cerebral edema is another possible cause of death rather than the classical bleeding in the putamen area.

  5. 用FISH技术对忻州事故宫内受照者进行回顾性剂量重建%Retrospective dose estimation for individuals exposed to accidental exposure in uterus with fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆雪; 刘青杰; 赵骅; 梁莉; 张淑兰; 封江彬; 张照辉; 陈德清; 马力文; 贾廷珍

    2010-01-01

    目的 对忻州事故中宫内受照者"京"进行回顾性剂量重建.方法 受照后16年取"京"及其母亲"芳"的外周静脉血,用常规方法分析非稳定性染色体畸变,用CB法分析双核淋巴细胞微核;用全染色体探针的FISH方法分析染色体易位,参照本实验室建立的全基因组易位率与吸收剂量之间的剂量-效应曲线进行剂量估算.参照"芳"的剂量校正系数推算"京"在宫内的受照剂量.结果 受照16年后未观察到两位受照者的外周血非稳定性染色体畸变,淋巴细胞微核率在正常范围内.参照本实验室建立的吸收剂量与全基因组易位率之间的剂量-效应曲线,"芳"在16年后用FISH方法估算的剂量为0.76(0.41~1.00)Gy,而"芳"在事故后短期内估算的生物剂量为2.30(2.07~2.50)Gy,其剂量校正系数为3.03;"京"在16年后估算的剂量为0.61(0.44~0.86)Gy,推算"京"在宫内受照的剂量为1.85(1.33~2.61)Gy.结论 16年后用FISH方法对宫内受照者进行剂量重建,参照受照母亲的剂量校正系数,可推算出胎儿宫内受照的大致剂量,为临床提供依据.%Objective To reconstruct the absorbed dose for the individual who was accidentally exposed in uterus 16 years ago.Methods Peripheral blood samples were taken from the victim and her mother.The dicentric and centric ring chromosome aberrations were analyzed with conventional method,the micronucleus was observed with cytokinesis-block micronucleus method,and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosomes 1,2 and 4 painting probes were used for translocation detection.Dose was estimated according to the standard dose-response curves previously established.Results No unstable chromosome aberrations and normal micronucleus frequencies were observed in two persons 16years after the accident.Against the established dose-response curves with FISH,the doses to the mother and her daughter were 0.76 Gy (95% GI 0.41-1.00 Gy) and 0.61 Gy (95% CI 0

  6. Range-Finding Risk Assessment of Inhalation Exposure to Nanodiamonds in a Laboratory Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti J. Koivisto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study considers fundamental methods in occupational risk assessment of exposure to airborne engineered nanomaterials. We discuss characterization of particle emissions, exposure assessment, hazard assessment with in vitro studies, and risk range characterization using calculated inhaled doses and dose-response translated to humans from in vitro studies. Here, the methods were utilized to assess workers’ risk range of inhalation exposure to nanodiamonds (NDs during handling and sieving of ND powder. NDs were agglomerated to over 500 nm particles, and mean exposure levels of different work tasks varied from 0.24 to 4.96 µg·m−3 (0.08 to 0.74 cm−3. In vitro-experiments suggested that ND exposure may cause a risk for activation of inflammatory cascade. However, risk range characterization based on in vitro dose-response was not performed because accurate assessment of delivered (settled dose on the cells was not possible. Comparison of ND exposure with common pollutants revealed that ND exposure was below 5 μg·m−3, which is one of the proposed exposure limits for diesel particulate matter, and the workers’ calculated dose of NDs during the measurement day was 74 ng which corresponded to 0.02% of the modeled daily (24 h dose of submicrometer urban air particles.

  7. Assessment of risks associated to ionizing radiations: lung cancers after domestic radon exposure and thyroid cancers after accidental exposure to radioactive iodines; Evaluation des risques associes aux rayonnements ionisants: cancers du poumon apres exposition domestique au radon et cancers de la thyroide apres exposition accidentelle aux iodes radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catelinois, O

    2004-09-15

    The aim of this work is to develop a critical analysis of quantitative risk assessment in the field of ionizing radiation and to provide new estimates of attributable risks for particular situations of environmental exposure to ionizing radiation. This work is based on knowledge about dose-response relationships and ionizing radiation exposure of the general population. The work focuses on two different situations that both present an important interest for public health: lung cancer associated with domestic radon exposures (natural situation) and thyroid cancer associated with the Chernobyl accident fallout (accidental situation). The assessment of lung cancer risk associated with domestic radon exposure considers 10 dose-response relationships resulting from miner cohorts and case-control studies in the general population. A critical review of available data on smoking habits has been performed and allowed to consider the interactions between radon and tobacco. The exposure data come from measurements campaigns carried out since the beginning of the 1980 by the Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety and the Health General Directory in France. The French lung cancer mortality data are provided by the I.N.S.E.R.M.. Estimates of the number of attributable cancers are carried out for the whole country, stratified by 8 large regions (Z.E.A.T.) and by 96 departments for the year 1999 allowing to perform a sensibility analysis according to the geographical level of calculation. Uncertainties associated to risk coefficients and exposures have been quantified and it's impact on risk estimates is calculated. The estimated number of deaths attributable to domestic radon exposure ranges from 543 (90% uncertainty interval (U.I.): 75-1,097) to 3,108 (90% U.I.: 2,996-3,221). The corresponding risk fractions range from 2.2% (90% U.I.: 0.3%-4.4%) to 12.4% (90% U.I.: 11.9%-12.8%). The assessment of thyroid cancer risk in the most exposed area of France due to

  8. Preliminary study: Formaldehyde exposure in laboratories of Sharjah university in UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Omer Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Laboratory technicians, students, and instructors are at high risk, because they deal with chemicals including formaldehyde. Thus, this preliminary study was conducted to measure the concentration of formaldehyde in the laboratories of the University of Sharjah in UAE. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two air samples were collected and analyzed for formaldehyde using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH method 3500. In this method, formaldehyde reacts with chromotropic acid in the presence of sulfuric acid to form a colored solution. The absorbance of the colored solution is read in spectrophotometer at wavelength 580 nm and is proportional to the quantity of the formaldehyde in the solution. Results: For the anatomy laboratory and in the presence of the covered cadaver, the mean concentration of formaldehyde was found to be 0.100 ppm with a range of 0.095-0.105 ppm. Whereas for the other laboratories, the highest mean concentration of formaldehyde was 0.024 ppm in the general microbiology laboratory and the lowest mean concentration of formaldehyde was 0.001 ppm in the environmental health laboratory. The 8-hour (time-weighted average concentration of formaldehyde was found to be ranging between 0.0003 ppm in environmental health laboratory and 0.026 ppm in the anatomy laboratory. Conclusions: The highest level of concentration of formaldehyde in the presence of the covered cadaver in anatomy laboratory exceeded the recommended ceiling standard established by USA-NIOSH which is 0.1 ppm, but below the ceiling standard established by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists which is 0.3 ppm. Thus, it is recommended that formaldehyde levels should be measured periodically specially during the dissection in the anatomy laboratory, and local exhaust ventilation system should be installed and personal protective equipment such as safety glass and gloves should be available and be used to prevent

  9. Acidentes de trabalho com exposição a material biológico entre os profissionais de Enfermagem Accidentes de trabajo con exposición a material biológico entre profesionales de enfermería Occupational accidents with exposure to human tissue in nursing professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Moura de Araújo

    2012-07-01

    conclusión de que se debe prestar más atención a la prevención de estos accidentes, así como al rigor del seguimiento tras la exposiciónocupacional.The aim of this research was to identify the types of accidents among workers involving human tissue in order to raise the profile of the victims the type of exposure, and the circumstances in which accidents occurred. This was a retrospective and descriptive study based on documents. Data collection was performed using the records of the Information System for Notifiable Diseases(SINAN in a referral hospital for infectious diseases in Ceará a total of 777 cases.The results show that 94.7 of those affected were female 57.5% were nursing assistants, 88% of cases were due to percutaneous exposure 70.1% being caused by hollow needles, 87.3% with exposure to blood, and 13.7% were related to inappropriate disposal ofperforating objects at the bench, bedside, etc.. We conclude that more attention must be given to the prevention of such accidents, as well as to strict follow-up after occupational exposure.

  10. Superglue accidentally used as ear drops

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anusha, Bala; Purushotman, R; Lina, L C; Avatar, S

    2012-01-01

    Superglue in the ear as a foreign body is an uncommon presentation. We report the case of a lady who accidentally instilled superglue directly onto her tympanic membrane and presented five days later...

  11. Accidental Chemical Burns of Oral Mucosa by Herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S P Deo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate (GlySH is a broad spectrum, nonselective herbicide, widely used in agriculture. This case report describes a 25-year-old man presenting with extensive chemical burns and ulceration of the oral cavity as a result of accidental exposure to GlySH. This paper aims to illustrate the typical appearance of GlySH related chemical mucosal burn and to demonstrate the severity of the corrosive effect of GlySH which need team approach to prevent unfavorable sequelae such as microstomia. Keywords: Chemical burns, corrosive injury, glyphosate poisoning, herbicide, microstomia, oral mucosal burn.

  12. Genomic damage in children accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fucic, A; Brunborg, G; Lasan, R

    2007-01-01

    doses of radiation; (b) effects on children from combined exposure to low doses of radiation and chemical agents from food, water and air; and (c) specific effects from exposure during early childhood (radioisotopes from water, radon in homes). Special consideration should also be given to a possible......, environmental radiation pollution and indoor accidental contamination reveals consistently increased chromosome aberration and micronuclei frequency in exposed than in referent children. Future research in this area should be focused on studies providing information on: (a) effects on children caused by low...... of children to environmental genotoxicants. Environmental research on children predominantly investigates the health effects of air pollution while effects from radiation exposure deserve more attention. The main sources of knowledge on genome damage of children exposed to radiation are studies performed...

  13. Acidentes ocupacionais por exposição a material biológico entre a equipe multiprofissional do atendimento pré-hospitalar Accidentes ocupacionales por exposición a material biológico entre el equipo multiprofesional de atención pre hospitalaria Occupational accidents due to exposure to biological material in the multidisciplinary team of the emergency service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina Oliveira

    2009-09-01

    ñamiento serológico, 61,2%. Estuvieron asociados al accidente: tiempo en la institución, (Odds ratio-OR 2,84; Intervalo de confianza-IC 95% 1,22-6,62, asignado en la Unidad de Soporte Avanzado, (OR 4,18; IC 95% 1,64-10,64; interacción: tiempo en la institución y asignado en la Unidad de Soporte Básico, (OR 0,27; IC 95% 0,07-1,00. Se sugiere: la implantación de protocolos después de accidentes, con el objetivo de reducirlos; la subnotificación y el aumento del acompañamiento después del accidente.This transversal, survey-based research was carried out with a multiprofessional emergency care team in Belo Horizonte, between June and December 2006. The study aimed at estimating the incidence of occupational accidents by exposure to biological material, post-accidents conducts and demographic determinant factors. The study applied a structured questionnaire and descriptive analyses, as well as incidence calculations and logistic regression. The incidence of accidents with biological material reached 20.6%, being 40.8% by sharp materials and 49.0% by body fluids; 35.3% of the accidents took place among physicians and 24.0% among nurses. Post-accidents procedures: no medical assessment, 63.3%; under-notification, 81.6%; no conduct, 55.0%; and no serological follow-up, 61.2%. Factors associated with accidents: working time in the institution (Odds Ratio - OR, 2.84; Credible Interval - CI 95% - 1.22-6.62; working in advanced support units (OR=4.18; CI 95% - 1.64-10.64; and interaction between working time in the institution and working in Basic Support Unit (OR 0.27; CI 95% - 0.07-1.00. In order to reduce accidents, the implementation of post-accident protocols and follow-up, as well as under-notification norms, are suggested.

  14. A 24-hour study to investigate persistent chemical exposures associated with clandestine methamphetamine laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDyke, Mike; Erb, Nicola; Arbuckle, Shawn; Martyny, John

    2009-02-01

    The clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine continues to be a concern across the United States. Although the exposures associated with the actual production process have been evaluated, the persistence of those exposures in a residential setting have not been investigated. This study was designed to document the contamination associated with two red phosphorous methamphetamine "cooks" conducted in a residence and the associated exposures up to 24 hours after the cook. The two cooks were conducted on the first day of the study, and exposures associated with different occupant activity levels were measured the following day. Airborne methamphetamine levels during the cook ranged from 520 microg/m(3) to 760 microg/m(3). On Day 2, airborne levels of methamphetamine ranged from 70 microg/m(3) to 210 microg/m(3) and increased with moderate to high activity levels within the residence. The majority of the methamphetamine measured during both days had a particle size of less than 1 mum, suggesting that the methamphetamine is formed as a condensation aerosol and is readily resuspended from contaminated surfaces. Significant methamphetamine contamination was found in the carpeting and likely was associated with the elevated levels of methamphetamine during activity. Levels of hydrogen chloride and iodine were also detected on Day 2 of the project although at very low levels. The study concluded that exposures may still present a significant inhalation exposure well after the actual cook.

  15. An integrated biomarker response index for the mussel Mytilus edulis based on laboratory exposure to anthracene and field transplantation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mengqi; Wang, You; Zhou, Bin; Jian, Xiaoyang; Dong, Wenlong; Tang, Xuexi

    2016-10-01

    Organic pollution is a serious environmental problem in coastal areas and it is important to establish quantitative methods for monitoring this pollution. This study screened a series of sensitive biomarkers to construct an integrated biomarker response (IBR) index using Mytilus edulis. Mussels were exposed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon anthracene under controlled laboratory conditions and the activities of components of the glutathione antioxidant system, and the concentrations of oxidative-damage markers, were measured in the gills and digestive glands. Anthracene exposure resulted in increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide radicals (O{2/-}•), indicating that oxidative damage had occurred. Correspondingly, anthracene exposure induced increased activities of glutathione S -transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in digestive glands, and GPx and glutathione reductase (GR) in gills, consistent with stimulation of the antioxidant system. A field experiment was set up, in which mussels from a relatively clean area were transplanted to a contaminated site. One month later, the activities of GST, GPx and GR had increased in several tissues, particularly in the digestive glands. Based on the laboratory experiment, an IBR, which showed a positive relationship with anthracene exposure, was constructed. The IBR is suggested to be a potentially useful tool for assessing anthracene pollution.

  16. An integrated biomarker response index for the mussel Mytilus edulis based on laboratory exposure to anthracene and field transplantation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mengqi; Wang, You; Zhou, Bin; Jian, Xiaoyang; Dong, Wenlong; Tang, Xuexi

    2017-09-01

    Organic pollution is a serious environmental problem in coastal areas and it is important to establish quantitative methods for monitoring this pollution. This study screened a series of sensitive biomarkers to construct an integrated biomarker response (IBR) index using Mytilus edulis. Mussels were exposed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon anthracene under controlled laboratory conditions and the activities of components of the glutathione antioxidant system, and the concentrations of oxidative-damage markers, were measured in the gills and digestive glands. Anthracene exposure resulted in increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide radicals (O 2 • ), indicating that oxidative damage had occurred. Correspondingly, anthracene exposure induced increased activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in digestive glands, and GPx and glutathione reductase (GR) in gills, consistent with stimulation of the antioxidant system. A field experiment was set up, in which mussels from a relatively clean area were transplanted to a contaminated site. One month later, the activities of GST, GPx and GR had increased in several tissues, particularly in the digestive glands. Based on the laboratory experiment, an IBR, which showed a positive relationship with anthracene exposure, was constructed. The IBR is suggested to be a potentially useful tool for assessing anthracene pollution.

  17. Cellular and aqueous microcystin-LR following laboratory exposures of Microcystis aeruginosa to copper algaecides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwinski, Kyla J; Calomeni, Alyssa J; Geer, Tyler D; Rodgers, John H

    2016-03-01

    Microcystin release from algal cells influences use of copper-algaecides in water resources. Accurate data regarding relationships between copper-algaecide exposures and responses of microcystin-producing algae are needed to make informed management decisions. Responses of Microcystis aeruginosa were measured in terms of cellular microcystin-LR (MC-LR), aqueous MC-LR, and chlorophyll-a following exposure to CuSO4 and copper-ethanolamine. Comparisons were made between treated and untreated samples, and copper formulations. EC50s and slopes for M. aeruginosa responses to copper exposures were calculated. Algal responses followed a sigmoidal exposure-response relationship, and cellular MC-LR and chlorophyll-a were negatively related to copper concentrations. Aqueous MC-LR increased with copper concentrations, although the increase in aqueous MC-LR was not proportional to decreases in cellular MC-LR and chlorophyll-a. Cellular MC-LR and chlorophyll a declined at a greater rate than aqueous MC-LR increased. Total MC-LR was less than untreated controls following copper exposure. Differences were measured between copper formulations in terms of aqueous and total MC-LR concentrations at concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 mg Cu L-1. Aqueous and total MC-LR were greater (10-20%) following exposure to CuSO4 compared to copper-ethanolamine one day following exposure. The positive relationship between copper concentration and aqueous MC-LR at 0.07-1.0 mg Cu L-1 demonstrates that lower copper concentrations were as effective as higher concentrations in controlling M. aeruginosa while decreasing the total amount of MC-LR, and minimizing the proportion of MC-LR released to the aqueous-phase. Results serve to support more accurate risk evaluations of MC-LR concentrations when M. aeruginosa is exposed to copper-algaecides and when it is untreated.

  18. Accounting for differing exposure patterns between laboratory tests and the field in the assessment of long-term risks of pesticides to terrestrial vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, David L

    2005-11-01

    Long-term risks of pesticides to birds and mammals are currently assessed by comparing effects thresholds determined in chronic laboratory studies to exposure levels expected to occur in the field. However, there is often a mismatch between exposure patterns tested in the laboratory tests (exposure levels held constant) and those experienced by animals in the field (exposure levels varying over time). Three methods for addressing this problem are presented and discussed. Time-weighted averaging (TWA) converts a variable field exposure regime to a single value that can be compared directly to the laboratory test results. Body-burden modeling (BBM) is applied to both laboratory and field exposure regimes allowing a straightforward comparison of body residue levels expected for each situation. Temporal analysis (TA) uses expert judgment to decide if the length of time exposure exceeds a toxicity threshold is long enough to cause biologically significant effects. To reduce uncertainty in long-term assessments, the conduct of specialized laboratory tests in which test subjects are administered a time-varying exposure that mimics what occurs in the field should be considered. Such tests may also be useful testing the validity of each of these assessment methods.

  19. QUALITY OF RADIOGRAPHIC IMAGES: LABORATORY EVALUATION OF INTRAORAL FILMS, FILTERS, COLLIMATORS, AND RADIATION EXPOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMBURUS José Roberto

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate density, radiographic contrast and dose of radiation exposure, the author analyzed 80 radiographs containing 640 optical density data of the images of a penetrometer, exposed to the radiation beam with combinations between D and E periapical films, aluminum and copper/aluminum filters, and circular or rectangular collimators. The data obtained were analyzed by ANOVA and allowed the following conclusions: 1 aluminum filtration resulted in improved image contrast; 2 the use of group D film and an aluminum filter produced improved image contrast quality; 3 the rectangular collimator contributed to the production of improved contrast and to the reduction of radiation exposure, but did not affect density; 4 the combination of copper/aluminum filter, E group film and rectangular collimation significantly reduced radiation exposure.

  20. Mortalidad intrahospitalaria por accidente cerebrovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Rodríguez Lucci

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La mortalidad global por accidente cerebrovascular (ACV ha disminuido en las últimas tres décadas, probablemente debido a un mejor control de los factores de riesgo vascular. La mortalidad hospitalaria por ACV ha sido tradicionalmente estimada entre 6 y 14% en la mayoría de las series comunicadas. Sin embargo, los datos de ensayos clínicos recientes sugieren que esta cifra sería sustancialmente menor. Se revisaron datos de pacientes internados con diagnóstico de ACV del Banco de Datos de Stroke de FLENI y los registros institucionales de mortalidad entre los años 2000 y 2010. Los subtipos de ACV isquémicos se clasificaron según criterios TOAST y los ACV hemorrágicos en hematomas intrapanquimatosos, hemorragias subaracnoideas aneurismáticas, malformaciones arteriovenosas y otros hematomas intraparenquimatosos. Se analizaron 1514 pacientes, 1079 (71% con ACV isquémico (grandes vasos 39%, cardioembólicos 27%, lacunares 9%, etiología indeterminada 14%, otras etiologías 11% y 435 (29% con ACV hemorrágico (intraparenquimatosos 27%, hemorragia subaracnoidea 30%, malformaciones arteriovenosas 25% y otros hematomas espontáneos 18%. Se registraron 38 muertes intrahospitalarias (17 ACV isquémicos y 21 ACV hemorrágicos, representando una mortalidad global del 2.5% (1.7% en ACV isquémicos y 4.8% en ACV hemorrágicos. No se registraron muertes asociadas al uso de fibrinolíticos endovenosos. La mortalidad intrahospitalaria en pacientes con ACV isquémico y hemorrágico en nuestro centro fue baja. El manejo en un centro dedicado a las enfermedades neurológicas y el enfoque multidisciplinario por personal médico y no médico entrenado en el cuidado de la enfermedad cerebrovascular podrían explicar, al menos en parte, estos resultados.

  1. The REPAIR Project: Examining the Biological Impacts of Sub-Background Radiation Exposure within SNOLAB, a Deep Underground Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, Christopher; Tharmalingam, Sujeenthar; Pirkkanen, Jake; Zarnke, Andrew; Laframboise, Taylor; Boreham, Douglas R

    2017-07-19

    Considerable attention has been given to understanding the biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure at levels slightly above background. However, relatively few studies have been performed to examine the inverse, where natural background radiation is removed. The limited available data suggest that organisms exposed to sub-background radiation environments undergo reduced growth and an impaired capacity to repair genetic damage. Shielding from background radiation is inherently difficult due to high-energy cosmic radiation. SNOLAB, located in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, is a unique facility for examining the effects of sub-background radiation exposure. Originally constructed for astroparticle physics research, the laboratory is located within an active nickel mine at a depth of over 2,000 m. The rock overburden provides shielding equivalent to 6,000 m of water, thereby almost completely eliminating cosmic radiation. Additional features of the facility help to reduce radiological contamination from the surrounding rock. We are currently establishing a biological research program within SNOLAB: Researching the Effects of the Presence and Absence of Ionizing Radiation (REPAIR project). We hypothesize that natural background radiation is essential for life and maintains genomic stability, and that prolonged exposure to sub-background radiation environments will be detrimental to biological systems. Using a combination of whole organism and cell culture model systems, the effects of exposure to a sub-background environment will be examined on growth and development, as well as markers of genomic damage, DNA repair capacity and oxidative stress. The results of this research will provide further insight into the biological effects of low-dose radiation exposure as well as elucidate some of the processes that may drive evolution and selection in living systems. This Radiation Research focus issue contains reviews and original articles, which relate to the

  2. Exposure to a heat wave under food limitation makes an agricultural insecticide lethal: a mechanistic laboratory experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinh, Khuong Van; Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2016-01-01

    Extreme temperatures and exposure to agricultural pesticides are becoming more frequent and intense under global change. Their combination may be especially problematic when animals suffer food limitation. We exposed Coenagrion puella damselfly larvae to a simulated heat wave combined with food...... limitation and subsequently to a widespread agricultural pesticide (chlorpyrifos) in an indoor laboratory experiment designed to obtain mechanistic insights in the direct effects of these stressors in isolation and when combined. The heat wave reduced immune function (activity of phenoloxidase, PO...... variables. While the immediate effects of the heat wave were subtle, our results indicate the importance of delayed effects in shaping the total fitness impact of a heat wave when followed by pesticide exposure. Firstly, the combination of delayed negative effects of the heat wave and starvation...

  3. The Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) satellite: radiation exposure in low-earth orbit and supporting laboratory studies of iron tetraphenylporphyrin chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Amanda M; Mattioda, Andrew L; Ricco, Antonio J; Quinn, Richard C; Elsaesser, Andreas; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Ricca, Alessandra; Jones, Nykola C; Hoffmann, Søren V

    2014-02-01

    We report results from the exposure of the metalloporphyrin iron tetraphenylporphyrin chloride (FeTPPCl) to the outer space environment, measured in situ aboard the Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses nanosatellite. FeTPPCl was exposed for a period of 17 months (3700 h of direct solar exposure), which included broad-spectrum solar radiation (∼122 nm to the near infrared). Motivated by the potential role of metalloporphyrins as molecular biomarkers, the exposure of thin-film samples of FeTPPCl to the space environment in low-Earth orbit was monitored in situ via ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy and reported telemetrically. The space data were complemented by laboratory exposure experiments that used a high-fidelity solar simulator covering the spectral range of the spaceflight measurements. We found that thin-film samples of FeTPPCl that were in contact with a humid headspace gas (0.8-2.3% relative humidity) were particularly susceptible to destruction upon irradiation, degrading up to 10 times faster than identical thin films in contact with dry headspace gases; this degradation may also be related to the presence of oxides of nitrogen in those cells. In the companion terrestrial experiments, simulated solar exposure of FeTPPCl films in contact with either Ar or CO2:O2:Ar (10:0.01:1000) headspace gas resulted in growth of a band in the films' infrared spectra at 1961 cm(-1). We concluded that the most likely carriers of this band are allene (C3H4) and chloropropadiene (C3H3Cl), putative molecular fragments of the destruction of the porphyrin ring. The thin films studied in space and in solar simulator-based experiments show qualitatively similar spectral evolution as a function of contacting gaseous species but display significant differences in the time dependence of those changes. The relevance of our findings to planetary science, biomarker research, and the photostability of organic materials in astrobiologically relevant environments is

  4. Reconstructing Tritium Exposure Using Tree Rings at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOVE, ADAM H.; HUNT, JAMES R.; KNEZOVICH, JOHN P.

    2010-01-01

    Annual tritium exposures were reconstructed using tree cores from Pinus jeffreyi and Eucalyptus globulus near a tritiated water vapor release stack. Both tritium (3H) and carbon-14 (14C) from the wood were measured from milligram samples using accelerator mass spectrometry. Because the annual nature of the eucalyptus tree rings was in doubt, 14C measurements provided growth rates used to estimate the age for 3H determinations. A 30-yr comparison of organically bound tritium (OBT) levels to reported 3H release data is achieved using OBT measurements from three trees near the stack. The annual average 3H, determined from atmospheric water vapor monitoring stations, is comparable to the OBT in proximal trees. For situations without adequate historical monitoring data, this measurement-based historical assessment provides the only independent means of assessing exposure as compared to fate and transport models that require prior knowledge of environmental conditions and 3H discharge patterns. PMID:14572081

  5. Estudo sobre os acidentes de trabalho com exposição aos líquidos corporais humanos em trabalhadores da saúde de um hospital universitário Estudio sobre los accidentes de trabajo con exposicíon a líquidos corporales humanos en trabajadores de la salud de un hospital universitario Study of work accidents related to human body fluids exposure among health workers at a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Balsamo

    2006-06-01

    trabajadores declaró que el accidente "simplemente aconteció" y el 29,17% no tenía sugerencias. Este estudio aportó herramientas importantes para la revisión y elaboración de estrategias de prevención de los accidentes con exposición a los líquidos corporales humanos.This descriptive and exploratory study from a quantitative approach aimed to characterize workers who were victims of work accidents related to human body fluids exposure and to evaluate the accident victim care protocol. The population consisted of 48 workers who were victims of work accidents involving exposure to human body fluids, from July 2000 to June 2001. Data were collected through a form and interviews. Results showed that nursing workers presented higher accident risk levels and that 87.50% involved piercing and cutting material, such as needles and butterflies (70%. As to the accident-related situation/activity, the workers indicated that 25% were due to an "inadequate act during the procedure"; 19.64% mentioned that "it happened" and 29.17% answered that they did not have any suggestion. This study provided important tools to review and elaborate strategies to prevent accidents involving exposure to human body fluids.

  6. Growth Responses of Fish During Chronic Exposure of Metal Mixture under Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Naz and Muhammad Javed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Growth responses of five fish species viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhina mrigala, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix were determined, separately, under chronic exposure of binary mixture of metals (Zn+Ni at sub-lethal concentrations (1/3rd of LC50 for 12 weeks. Randomized complete block design (RCBD was followed to conduct this research work. The groups (10 fish each of Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhina mrigala, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix having almost similar weights were investigated for their growth responses and metals bioaccumulation patterns in their body organs during chronic exposure of Zn+Ni mixture. The bioaccumulation of metals in the fish body organs viz. gills, liver, kidney, fins, bones, muscle and skin were also determined before and after growth trails under the stress of metals mixture. The exposure of fish to sub-lethal concentrations of mixture caused significant impacts on the average wet weight increments of five fish species. Ctenopharyngodon idella and Labeo rohita attained significantly higher weights, followed by that of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Cirrhina mrigala and Catla catla. However, the growth of metals mixture exposed fish species was significantly lesser than that of control fish (un-stressed. Significantly variable condition factor values reflected the degree of fish well-beings that correlated directly with fish growth and metal exposure concentration. Any significant change in feed intake, due to stress, is reflected in terms of fish growth showing the impacts of metal mixture on fish growth were either additive or antagonist / synergistic. Accumulation of all the metals in fish body followed the general order: liver>kidney>gills> skin >muscle> fins >bones.

  7. Bridging the gap between sample collection and laboratory analysis: using dried blood spots to identify human exposure to chemical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Blake, Thomas A.; Perez, Jonas W.; Crow, Brian S.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-05-01

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  8. Exposure estimates using urban plume dispersion and traffic microsimulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.J.; Mueller, C.; Bush, B.; Stretz, P.

    1997-12-01

    The goal of this research effort was to demonstrate a capability for analyzing emergency response issues resulting from accidental or mediated airborne toxic releases in an urban setting. In the first year of the program, the authors linked a system of fluid dynamics, plume dispersion, and vehicle transportation models developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to study the dispersion of a plume in an urban setting and the resulting exposures to vehicle traffic. This research is part of a larger laboratory-directed research and development project for studying the relationships between urban infrastructure elements and natural systems.

  9. Assessing pharmacokinetics of different doses of fosfomycin in laboratory rats enables adequate exposure for pharmacodynamic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeppl, Wolfgang; Lingscheid, Tilman; Bernitzky, Dominik; Donath, Oliver; Reznicek, Gottfried; Zeitlinger, Markus; Burgmann, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Fosfomycin has been the subject of numerous pharmacodynamic in vivo models in recent years. The present study set out to determine fosfomycin pharmacokinetics in laboratory rats to enable adequate dosing regimens in future rodent models. Fosfomycin was given intraperitoneally as single doses of 75, 200 and 500 mg/kg bodyweight to 4 Sprague-Dawley rats per dose group. Blood samples were collected over 8 h and fosfomycin concentrations were determined by HPLC-mass spectrometry. Fosfomycin showed a dose-proportional pharmacokinetic profile indicated by a correlation of 0.99 for maximum concentration and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). The mean AUC0-8 after intraperitoneal administration of 75, 200 or 500 mg/kg bodyweight fosfomycin were 109.4, 387.0 and 829.1 µg·h/ml, respectively. In conclusion, a dosing regimen of 200-500 mg/kg 3 times daily is appropriate to obtain serum concentrations in laboratory rats, closely mimicking human serum concentrations over time.

  10. Development of a paperless, Y2K compliant exposure tracking database at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conwell, J L; Creek, K L; Pozzi, A R; Whyte, H M

    2001-02-01

    The Industrial Hygiene and Safety Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a database application known as IH DataView, which manages industrial hygiene monitoring data. IH DataView replaces a LANL legacy system, IHSD, that restricted user access to a single point of data entry needed enhancements that support new operational requirements, and was not Year 2000 (Y2K) compliant. IH DataView features a comprehensive suite of data collection and tracking capabilities. Through the use of Oracle database management and application development tools, the system is Y2K compliant and Web enabled for easy deployment and user access via the Internet. System accessibility is particularly important because LANL operations are spread over 43 square miles, and industrial hygienists (IHs) located across the laboratory will use the system. IH DataView shows promise of being useful in the future because it eliminates these problems. It has a flexible architecture and sophisticated capability to collect, track, and analyze data in easy-to-use form.

  11. Impact of early life exposure to antiepileptic drugs on neurobehavioral outcomes based on laboratory animal and clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Kevin G; Scharfman, Helen E

    2013-03-01

    Epilepsy affects approximately 1% of children under the age of 15, making it a very common neurological disorder in the pediatric population (Russ et al., 2012). In addition, ~0.4-0.8% of all pregnant women have some form of epilepsy (Hauser et al., 1996a,b; Borthen et al., 2009; Krishnamurthy, 2012). Despite the potential deleterious effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on the developing brain, their use is still required for seizure control in pregnant women (Krishnamurthy, 2012), and they represent the standard approach for treating children with epilepsy (Chu-Shore and Thiele, 2010; Quach et al., 2010; Verrotti et al., 2011). Even when AEDs are effective, there are potential side effects, including cognitive and affective changes or altered sleep and appetite. The consequences of AED exposure in development have been studied extensively (Canger et al., 1999; Modi et al., 2011a,b; Oguni, 2011). Despite intensive study, there is still debate about the long-term consequences of early life AED exposure. Here, we consider the evidence to date that AED exposure, either prenatally or in early postnatal life, has significant adverse effects on the developing brain and incorporate studies of laboratory animals as well as those of patients. We also note the areas of research where greater clarity seems critical in order to make significant advances. A greater understanding of the impact of AEDs on somatic, cognitive and behavioral development has substantial value because it has the potential to inform clinical practice and guide studies aimed at understanding the genetic and molecular bases of comorbid pathologies associated with common treatment regimens. Understanding these effects has the potential to lead to AEDs with fewer side effects. Such advances would expand treatment options, diminish the risk associated with AED exposure in susceptible populations, and improve the quality of life and health outcomes of children with epilepsy and children born to women who

  12. Genotoxic effects in occupational exposure to formaldehyde: A study in anatomy and pathology laboratories and formaldehyde-resins production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viegas Susana

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the Report on Carcinogens, formaldehyde ranks 25th in the overall U.S. chemical production, with more than 5 million tons produced each year. Given its economic importance and widespread use, many people are exposed to formaldehyde environmentally and/or occupationally. Presently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies formaldehyde as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1, based on sufficient evidence in humans and in experimental animals. Manyfold in vitro studies clearly indicated that formaldehyde can induce genotoxic effects in proliferating cultured mammalian cells. Furthermore, some in vivo studies have found changes in epithelial cells and in peripheral blood lymphocytes related to formaldehyde exposure. Methods A study was carried out in Portugal, using 80 workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde vapours: 30 workers from formaldehyde and formaldehyde-based resins production factory and 50 from 10 pathology and anatomy laboratories. A control group of 85 non-exposed subjects was considered. Exposure assessment was performed by applying simultaneously two techniques of air monitoring: NIOSH Method 2541 and Photo Ionization Detection equipment with simultaneously video recording. Evaluation of genotoxic effects was performed by application of micronucleus test in exfoliated epithelial cells from buccal mucosa and peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results Time-weighted average concentrations not exceeded the reference value (0.75 ppm in the two occupational settings studied. Ceiling concentrations, on the other hand, were higher than reference value (0.3 ppm in both. The frequency of micronucleus in peripheral blood lymphocytes and in epithelial cells was significantly higher in both exposed groups than in the control group (p p p p Conclusions The population studied is exposed to high peak concentrations of formaldehyde with a long-term exposure. These two aspects, cumulatively, can be the

  13. Accidental fire in the West Hall

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    On January 7 an accidental fire due to the failure of standard circuit-breakers, destroyed the coils of two spectrometer magnets and severely damaged the apparatus of two experiments. See also photos 7701582X, 7701581X, 7701580X. (Annual Report 1977, pg. 127-128)

  14. Accidental oxygen disconnection in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Guyon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental oxygen disconnection during rapid sequence intubation (RSI in the emergency department is a potentially catastrophic yet avoidable event. We report three cases of inadvertent oxygen disconnection during RSI, which resulted in significant oxygen desaturation. This error can potentially be prevented by thorough preparation, focusing on teamwork training, ensuring an ergonomic environment, and by making simple modifications to existing equipment.

  15. accidental injuries and cutaneous contaminations during general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-05-01

    May 1, 2003 ... accidental injuries, blood and body fluids contaminations are becoming life ... glove with the skin of the hand or fingers establishing direct contact with blood ..... susceptible to skin breaks on the finger tips; the site of majority of ...

  16. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Types and Amount of Insurance § 870..., accidental death benefits are equal to the amount of Option A. (c)(1) Under Basic insurance, accidental... automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  17. Integrated biomarker response index used in laboratory exposure of the mussel Mytilus edulis to water accommodated fractions of crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mengqi; Wang, You; Zhang, Xinxin; Hu, Shunxin; Tang, Xuexi

    2017-03-01

    Oil pollution is a serious environmental problem in coastal areas and to set up a quantitative evaluation method in monitoring the environmental pollution is of great importance. Individuals of Mytilus edulis, collected from the coastal area of Qingdao, were thus exposed to the water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of crude oil under controlled lab conditions. Mussels were exposed to different concentrations of WAFs for 96h acute toxicity experiment and 15d chronic toxicity experiment, a 7d restoration experiment was conducted after toxicity experiment as well. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes (CAT, GST, GPx and GR) were measured in gills of mussels. The purpose of the study was to screen out a series of sensitive biomarkers and set up an Integrated Biomarker Response index (IBR) for marine oil pollution monitoring. Results showed: (1) WAFs exposure induced the increased activities of CAT, GST, GPx and GR in gills, revealing a stimulation effect on the antioxidant system. Activities of enzymes were more significantly altered in response to higher concentrations of WAFs (2.3 and 5.0 mg.L-1) than lower concentrations (0.5 and 1.1 mg.L-1). After restoration experiment, the activities decreased to the initial levels. (2) IBR was set up base on the laboratory experiment, which showed a positive relationship with WAFs exposure concentrations. Therefore, IBR was suggested to be a potentially useful tool in assessing the oil pollution.

  18. Exposure of Laboratory Mice to Domestic Cooking Gas: - Implications for Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madu D. Ibegbu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of domestic cooking gas to induce hepatotoxicity and clastogenicity in mice was studied. The mice were exposed to domestic gas for twenty-one days at doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg respectively. The positive control group of mice were given sodium arsenite intraperitoneously at a dose of 2.5mg/kg body weight. While the negative control group had only distilled water, sodium arsenite significantly (p < 0.05 induced the formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (mPCEs, serum and liver gamma glutamyl transferase (γGT and alkaline phosphatase (AP activities respectively as compared with the observations made in the negative control group. Similarly, the domestic gas significantly (p<0.05 induced mPCEs formation, serum and liver, γGT and AP activities. The degree of induction was in the order of 100 mg/kg < 200 mg/kg < 300 mg/kg. However, when compared with the positive control group, the domestic cooking gas at the tested doses was not as potent as sodium arsenite in its ability to induce enzyme activity and mPCEs formation. Limited histopathological analysis of liver samples from treated and untreated mice showed distended blood vessels, necrosis and hepatocellular degeneration in the groups treated with high doses of domestic gas or sodium arsenite as compared with the untreated group. Our findings suggest that the domestic cooking gas has some degree of clastogenic and hepatotoxic activities in mice. Health risks may therefore be associated with long-term occupational and / or domestic exposure in humans.

  19. Radiation exposure to personnel in cardiac catheterization laboratories; Strahlenexposition des Personals im Herzkatheterlabor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boetticher, H. von [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Zentralkrankenhaus Links der Weser, Bremen (Germany); Meenen, C. [Abt. Praevention, Unfallkasse Freie Hansestadt Bremen, Bremen (Germany); Lachmund, J. [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Zentralkrankenhaus Links der Weser, Bremen (Germany); Bremer Inst. fuer Praeventionsforschung, Sozialmedizin und Epidemiologie (BIPSE) (Germany); Hoffmann, W. [Inst. fuer Community Medicine, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Univ. Greifswald (Germany); Enge, H.J. [Klinik fuer Kardiologie, Zentralkrankenhaus Links der Weser, Bremen (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Radiation exposure in personnel of cardiac catheterization units is based on local dosimetry during patient investigations. In the present study, dose rates were measured at various heights in representative locations, with and without fixed radiation protection shields in place. To determine the effective dose values, TLD measurements were performed using an Alderson phantom to generate radiation scatter and a second phantom in the position of the cardiologist performing the catheterization. Various types of personal radiation protection garment and fixed shields were considered in the calculations. Our results indicate on one hand that good protective standards can be achieved with effective doses below 1 mSv/year under optimized conditions. On the other hand, inappropriate radiation protection equipment can cause substantial increase of radiation doses. Alone the lack of a thyroid shield increases the effective dose of the cardiologist by a factor of 3. For the personnel, effective doses were generally higher than personal doses by a factor between 1.5 and 4.8 depending on the radiation protection situation. (orig.) [German] Die Strahlenexposition des Personals im Herzkatheterlabor wird auf der Basis von Messungen der Ortsdosisleistung waehrend Patientenuntersuchungen ermittelt. Dabei werden Werte in verschiedenen Hoehen an repraesentativen Aufenthaltsorten mit und ohne Dauerschutzeinrichtungen bestimmt. Zur Bestimmung der effektiven Dosen werden TLD-Messungen mit einem Alderson-Phantom als Streukoerper und einem zweiten als Untersucher durchgefuehrt. Unterschiedliche Ausfuehrungen von persoenlichen Schutzausruestungen und die Auswirkungen der Dauerschutzeinrichtungen werden rechnerisch einbezogen. Es wird gezeigt, dass einerseits unter optimierten Bedingungen ein guter Strahlenschutz mit effektiven Dosen unter 1 mSv/Jahr realisiert werden kann, andererseits aber Maengel in der Schutzausruestung zu erheblichen Dosiserhoehungen fuehren. Allein das Fehlen eines

  20. Application of a prospective model for calculating worker exposure due to the air pathway for operations in a laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimbergen, T.W.M. [Department of Occupational Health, Safety and Environment, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); NRG Radiation and Environment, PO Box 9034, 6800 ES Arnhem (Netherlands); Wiegman, M.M. [VU Medisch Centrum, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET-Research, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    In order to arrive at recommendations for guidelines on maximum allowable quantities of radioactive material in laboratories, a proposed mathematical model was used for the calculation of transfer fractions for the air pathway. A set of incident scenarios was defined, including spilling, leakage and failure of the fume hood. For these 'common incidents', dose constraints of 1 mSv and 0.1 mSv are proposed in case the operations are being performed in a controlled area and supervised area, respectively. In addition, a dose constraint of 1 {mu}Sv is proposed for each operation under regular working conditions. Combining these dose constraints and the transfer fractions calculated with the proposed model, maximum allowable quantities were calculated for different laboratory operations and situations. Provided that the calculated transfer fractions can be experimentally validated and the dose constraints are acceptable, it can be concluded from the results that the dose constraint for incidents is the most restrictive one. For non-volatile materials this approach leads to quantities much larger than commonly accepted. In those cases, the results of the calculations in this study suggest that limitation of the quantity of radioactive material, which can be handled safely, should be based on other considerations than the inhalation risks. Examples of such considerations might be the level of external exposure, uncontrolled spread of radioactive material by surface contamination, emissions in the environment and severe accidents like fire. (authors)

  1. Application of a prospective model for calculating worker exposure due to the air pathway for operations in a laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimbergen, T W M; Wiegman, M M

    2007-01-01

    In order to arrive at recommendations for guidelines on maximum allowable quantities of radioactive material in laboratories, a proposed mathematical model was used for the calculation of transfer fractions for the air pathway. A set of incident scenarios was defined, including spilling, leakage and failure of the fume hood. For these 'common incidents', dose constraints of 1 mSv and 0.1 mSv are proposed in case the operations are being performed in a controlled area and supervised area, respectively. In addition, a dose constraint of 1 microSv is proposed for each operation under regular working conditions. Combining these dose constraints and the transfer fractions calculated with the proposed model, maximum allowable quantities were calculated for different laboratory operations and situations. Provided that the calculated transfer fractions can be experimentally validated and the dose constraints are acceptable, it can be concluded from the results that the dose constraint for incidents is the most restrictive one. For non-volatile materials this approach leads to quantities much larger than commonly accepted. In those cases, the results of the calculations in this study suggest that limitation of the quantity of radioactive material, which can be handled safely, should be based on other considerations than the inhalation risks. Examples of such considerations might be the level of external exposure, uncontrolled spread of radioactive material by surface contamination, emissions in the environment and severe accidents like fire.

  2. Laboratory evaluation of welder's exposure and efficiency of air duct ventilation for welding work in a confined space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, J; Shibata, N; Iwasaki, T

    2000-01-01

    CO2 arc welding in a confined space was simulated in a laboratory by manipulating a welding robot which worked in a small chamber to experimentally evaluate the welder's exposure to welding fumes, ozone and carbon monoxide (CO). The effects of the welding arc on the air temperature rise and oxygen (O2) concentration in the chamber were also investigated. The measuring points for these items were located in the presumed breathing zone of a welder in a confined space. The time averaged concentrations of welding fumes, ozone and CO during the arcing time were 83.55 mg/m3, 0.203 ppm and 0.006%, respectively, at a welding current of 120A-200A. These results suggest serious exposure of a welder who operates in a confined space. Air temperature in the chamber rose remarkably due to the arc heat and the increase in the welding current. No clear decrease in the O2 concentration in the chamber was recognized during this welding operation. A model of air duct ventilation was constructed in the small chamber to investigate the strategy of effective ventilation for hazardous welding contaminants in a confined space. With this model we examined ventilation efficiency with a flow rate of 1.08-1.80 m3/min (ventilation rate for 0.40-0.67 air exchanges per minute) in the chamber, and proved that the exposure level was not drastically reduced during arcing time by this air duct ventilation, but the residual contaminants were rapidly exhausted after the welding operation.

  3. Accidental ingestion of Ecstasy in a toddler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Jung; Lai, Ming-Wei; Kong, Man-Shan; Chao, Hsun-Chin

    2005-12-01

    Toddlers who ingest the drug of abuse 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'Ecstasy') are at particularly high risk of serious neurological and cardiovascular side effects. We report of a 20-month-old male toddler who accidentally ingested Ecstasy. He presented with fever and seizures, tachycardia, hypertension, and hyperthermia. Urine amphetamine level was 2111 ng/mL. Treatment included rapid cooling, hydration, and support measures. Vital signs were regularly monitored. His condition became stable on day 2 and urine amphetamine level returned to normal on day 3 of hospitalization. His behavior, activity, and appetite had returned to their usual levels upon follow-up at our outpatient clinic. The incidence of drug abuse with MDMA has increased dramatically over the last decade in developed countries. It can be expected that accidental Ecstasy poisoning in children will increase as well. This case illustrates the need to consider the possibility of accidental Ecstasy ingestion in the differential diagnosis of a child suffering from convulsions with fever.

  4. Accidental exposure to isocyanate fumes in a group of firemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axford, A T; McKerrow, C B; Jones, A P; Le Quesne, P M

    1976-05-01

    A total of 35 firemen involved in fighting a fire in a factory in which polyurethane foam was made were exposed to fumes of toluene di-isocyanate from two large storage tanks which were damaged during the fire, resulting in massive spillage. Most of the men experienced symptoms during the fire or during the three weeks after it. The symptoms were mainly gastrointestinal, respiratory, or neurological. Altogether 15 men described gastrointestinal symptoms which subsided within two days of onset. Respiratory symptoms were described by 31 men and were most pronounced during the three days after the fire, thereafter tending to improve. The neurological findings are described separately. When the men were reviewed at six months there was a suggestion that some of them might have sustained long-term damage to the respiratory tract, and almost four years later 20 men had persistent respiratory symptoms. Serial measurements of ventilatory capacity revealed a marked decline in the first six months although this was not sustained.

  5. Opposing effects of DHEA replacement in elderly subjects on declarative memory and attention after exposure to a laboratory stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, O T; Kudielka, B M; Hellhammer, D H; Hellhammer, J; Kirschbaum, C

    1998-08-01

    Aging is accompanied by a continuous decline of the adrenal steroid hormone DHEA and its ester DHEAS. Results from studies in rodents have demonstrated that DHEA(S) administration can enhance memory in several test paradigms. However studies from this laboratory did not find positive effects of DHEA treatment on cognitive performance in young and elderly humans. With respect to a possible mechanism of DHEA activity, effects on several neurotransmitter receptors as well as a possible antiglucocorticoid action are discussed. For high levels of glucocorticoids, a disruptive effect on hippocampal mediated memory is documented in rodents and humans. Therefore it was speculated that, if an antiglucocorticoid action of DHEA would underlie the observed beneficial effects of DHEA on memory, these effects might only be detectable if subjects are stressed (and therefore have high cortisol levels). To test this hypothesis 75 elderly women and men participated in a placebo controlled experiment. Subjects took DHEA (50 mg/day) or placebo for 2 weeks (double blind). Thereafter they participated in a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST). Before and after stress exposure subjects completed two declarative memory tests (visual-verbal and spatial) as well as one attention test. In addition recall of visual material learned before stress was assessed after stress. Baseline DHEAS levels were significantly lower compared with young adults. DHEA replacement increased DHEAS levels into ranges found in young subjects. DHEA-substituted subjects showed a trend towards a larger cortisol stress response. In the visual memory test subjects under DHEA recalled less items after stress which they had learned before stress. In the attention test however subjects under DHEA performed better than subjects from the placebo group after stress. No interaction between stress and DHEA was found for the spatial memory task. The effects of DHEA substitution on

  6. Modelling accidental hypothermia effects on a human body under different pathophysiological conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Coccarelli, Alberto; Boileau, Etienne; Parthimos, Dimitris; Nithiarasu, Perumal

    2017-01-01

    Accidental exposure to cold water environment is one of the most challenging situations in which hypothermia occurs. In the present work, we aim to characterise the energy balance of a human body subjected to such extreme environmental conditions. This study is carried out using a recently developed computational model and by setting boundary conditions needed to simulate the effect of cold surrounding environment. A major finding is the capacity of the body core regions to maintain their tem...

  7. Accidental K\\"ahler Moduli Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Maharana, Anshuman; Sumitomo, Yoske

    2015-01-01

    We study a model of accidental inflation in type IIB string theory where inflation occurs near the inflection point of a small K\\"ahler modulus. A racetrack structure helps to alleviate the known concern that string-loop corrections may spoil K\\"ahler Moduli Inflation unless having a significant suppression via the string coupling or a special brane setup. Also, the hierarchy of gauge group ranks required for the separation between moduli stabilization and inflationary dynamics is relaxed. The relaxation becomes more significant when we use the recently proposed D-term generated racetrack model.

  8. Accidental Kähler moduli inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maharana, Anshuman [Harish Chandra Research Institute,Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad, UP 211019 (India); Rummel, Markus [Rudolph Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford,1 Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Sumitomo, Yoske [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, KEK,1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2015-09-14

    We study a model of accidental inflation in type IIB string theory where inflation occurs near the inflection point of a small Kähler modulus. A racetrack structure helps to alleviate the known concern that string-loop corrections may spoil Kähler Moduli Inflation unless having a significant suppression via the string coupling or a special brane setup. Also, the hierarchy of gauge group ranks required for the separation between moduli stabilization and inflationary dynamics is relaxed. The relaxation becomes more significant when we use the recently proposed D-term generated racetrack model.

  9. Accidental Ingestion of 35% Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Pritchett

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide is a commonly used oxidizing agent with a variety of uses depending on its concentration. Ingestion of hydrogen peroxide is not an uncommon source of poisoning, and results in morbidity through three main mechanisms: direct caustic injury, oxygen gas formation and lipid peroxidation. A case of a 39-year-old man who inadvertently ingested 250 mL of unlabelled 35% hydrogen peroxide intended for natural health use is presented. Hydrogen peroxide has purported benefits ranging from HIV treatment to cancer treatment. Its use in the natural health industry represents an emerging source for accidental poisonings.

  10. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Różalska, Anna; Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Zbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-06-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit.

  11. Tratamiento del virus de hepatitis B en el accidente laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Zamora-Barquero

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available La exposición accidental al virus B entraña alto riesgo de contagio de la enfermedad. Su manejo incluye: medidas preventivas en el manejo de los pacientes, vacunar y confirmar inmunidad de los trabajadores, uso de inmunoglobulinas y vacunación posterior al accidente y disponer de protocolos de reporte precoz y clínicas en el manejo de los accidentes.

  12. Outcome of accidental hypothermia with or without circulatory arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Michael; Agersnap, Lisbeth; Ravn, Jesper;

    2012-01-01

    Resuscitation guidelines for the treatment of accidental hypothermia are based primarily on isolated cases. Mortality rates are high despite aggressive treatment aimed at restoring spontaneous circulation and normothermia....

  13. El accidente de trabajo "in itinere": concepto legal y jurisprudencial

    OpenAIRE

    López Mejías, Ana

    2016-01-01

    El trabajo que voy a llevar a cabo trata sobre el accidente de trabajo, más en concreto el accidente de trabajo "in itinere", ya que es un hecho protegido que la ley general de la seguridad social le da una gran importancia. Trataré los requisitos necesarios para que se dé un accidente de trabajo "in itinere", basándome siempre en sentencias ya que es un trabajo básicamente jurisprudencial. En el trabajo también trato el accidente de trabajo in mision. A modo de conclusión expresaré mi opinió...

  14. Learning From Biomarkers in Victims Accidentally Exposed to Ionizing Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Wang; Liqing Du; Chang Xu; Qin Wang; Zhiyi Song; Jianxiang Liu; Xu Su

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers,such as chromosome aberration and micronuclei assays,prove to be reliable for facilitating clinical diagnosis in radiation accidents.In a radiation accident in India,chromosomal aberration,γ-H2AX,as well as other blood markers,were detected in accidentally exposed victims.This multi-parametric approach aided in confirming that individuals had been exposed by ionizing radiation.However,doses were impossible to estimate because of a 30-day delay in accident awareness.Exposure dose for victims was estimated using a dose-response curve previously established.Dose estimation,blood cell depletion kinetics,and no appearance of prodromal symptoms suggested that doses of exposure were low.Hematologic investigation,sampling time,and chromosome aberration scoring were all proposed according to data from the victims exposed to 60Co.Finally,knowledge regarding chromosome aberration analysis and the importance of international co-operation and assistance should be shared from this accident.

  15. Accidentes de tránsito terrestre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Enrique Ramírez Muñoz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Los accidentes de tránsito terrestres en Costa Rica se han convertido en un serio problema de salud pública, que derivan ya sea en lesiones graves o bien en muertes de personas de todas las edades. Estos eventos incluyen el atropellamiento, las colisiones y choques, y producen cuadros lesionológicos muy diversos de acuerdo a la participación de las personas, el tipo de vehículo y la forma en la que se produce el traumatismo. Así mismo, se debe tener en cuenta la participación de factores coadyuvantes como el uso del casco y el cinturón de seguridad, o bien el consumo de alcohol y el uso del teléfono móvil. La valoración médico legal de las víctimas, vivas o muertas de accidentes de tránsito, está a cargo del Departamento de Medicina Legal del Organismo de Investigación Judicial, y se hace por solicitud de una Autoridad Judicial competente.

  16. Deterioration of concrete structures by acid deposition — an assessment of the role of rainwater on deterioration by laboratory and field exposure experiments using mortar specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okochi, Hiroshi; Kameda, Hideki; Hasegawa, Shin-ichi; Saito, Nobuhiko; Kubota, Ken; Igawa, Manabu

    Deterioration of concrete structures caused by acid deposition was investigated by laboratory and field exposure of portland cement mortar specimens to acid deposition. Laboratory exposure experiment showed that the dissolved amount of calcium hydrates, which were the major components in mortar, increased with the increase in the acidity of simulated acid rain solution and the decrease in the flow rate. There was little difference in their amount among different temperature treatments after each exposure to the solution with the same acidity, namely left at room temperature, heated at 70°C, and cooled at -2°C. The neutralization progressed more deeply under the heated and cooled condition and was accelerated by even acid rain with pH 4.7 during a long period (90 exposure cycles, which correspond to the rainfall amount of 15 years in Japan). A field exposure experiment for two years indicated that the carbonation of calcium hydrates and the formation of other corrosion products such as chloride, nitrate, and sulfate were limited to the surface of mortar specimens. The neutralization progressed more deeply in mortar specimens sheltered from rainwater than in those washed by rainwater.

  17. Determinants of suicide and accidental or violent death in the Australian HIV Observational Database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish McManus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rates of suicide and accidental or violent death remain high in HIV-positive populations despite significantly improved prognosis since the introduction of cART. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study of suicide and accidental or violent death in the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD between January 1999 and March 2012. For each case, 2 controls were matched by clinic, age, sex, mode of exposure and HIV-positive date to adjust for potential confounding by these covariates. Risk of suicide and accidental or violent death was estimated using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: We included 27 cases (17 suicide and 10 violent/accidental death and 54 controls. All cases were men who have sex with men (MSM or MSM/ injecting drug use (IDU mode of exposure. Increased risk was associated with unemployment (Odds Ratio (OR 5.86, 95% CI: 1.69-20.37, living alone (OR 3.26, 95% CI: 1.06-10.07, suicidal ideation (OR 6.55, 95% CI: 1.70-25.21, and >2 psychiatric/cognitive risk factors (OR 4.99, 95% CI: 1.17-30.65. CD4 cell count of >500 cells/µL (OR 0.25, 95% CI: 0.07-0.87 and HIV-positive date ≥1990 (1990-1999 (OR 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11-0.89, post-2000 (OR 0.08, 95% CI: 0.01-0.84 were associated with decreased risk. CD4 cell count ≥500 cells/µL remained a significant predictor of reduced risk (OR 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03-0.70 in a multivariate model adjusted for employment status, accommodation status and HIV-positive date. CONCLUSIONS: After adjustment for psychosocial factors, the immunological status of HIV-positive patients contributed to the risk of suicide and accidental or violent death. The number of psychiatric/cognitive diagnoses contributed to the level of risk but many psychosocial factors were not individually significant. These findings indicate a complex interplay of factors associated with risk of suicide and accidental or violent death.

  18. Tension pneumothorax following an accidental kerosene poisoning: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G M Ashir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tension pneumothorax is a rare complication following an accidental kerosene poisoning. In such situation, a bed-side needle thoracocentesis is performed because of its potential of becoming fatal; hence its clinical importance. A case of 15 month old boy with tension pneumothorax following accidental kerosene poisioning that responded to needle thoracocentesis is presented.

  19. Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Patricia; Carmean, Colleen; Jafari, Ali

    2005-01-01

    "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" is a comprehensive overview of standards, practices and possibilities of course management systems in higher education. "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" focuses on what the current knowledge is (in best practices, research, standards and…

  20. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic products... the Director, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, all accidental radiation occurrences... radiation occurrence occurred; (3) The manufacturer, type, and model number of the electronic product...

  1. Tension pneumothorax following an accidental kerosene poisoning: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Tension pneumothorax is a rare complication following an accidental kerosene poisoning. In such situation, a bed-side needle thoracocentesis is performed because of its potential of becoming fatal; hence its clinical importance. A case of 15 month old boy with tension pneumothorax following accidental kerosene poisioning that responded to needle thoracocentesis is presented.

  2. Rickettsial infection caused by accidental conjunctival inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissos, Joao; de Sousa, Rita; Santos, Ana Sofia; Gouveia, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    The most common transmission route of tick-borne Rickettsia is through tick bite; nevertheless, other transmission routes should also be considered. We report a case of rickettsial infection in a 15-year-old boy caused by accidental contamination of the conjunctiva through the infected fluid of a crushed engorged tick removed from a dog. Right eye pain, conjunctival hyperaemia with mucopurulent exudate, chemosis and eyelid oedema were the first signs and symptoms. Two days later, the boy developed fever, myalgia, headache, abdominal pain and was vomiting; physical examination showed multiple cervical adenopathies but no rash. He was treated with doxycycline (200 mg/day) for 7 days with progressive resolution of clinical signs. Rickettsial infection was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay with serological seroconversion in two consecutive samples. Rickettsia conorii or Rickettsia massiliae were the possible causal agents since they are the Rickettsia spp found in the Rhipicephalus sanguineus dog tick in Portugal. PMID:25568272

  3. Accidental Contamination with Oil during Endodontic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia, Hugo; Díaz, Mariana; Cholico, Patricia; Del Real, Monserrat; Márquez-de Alba, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    The modern surgical endodontic treatment is a safe and predictable procedure with high success rate. However, several factors can retard or impede the proper healing process. Use of a high speed handpiece during hard tissues management (osteotomy and apical resection) can potentially be one of these factors. Formation of metallic debris from the surgical diamond burs, production of necrotic local tissue due to overheating and the direct liberation of air from conventional handpiece into the working area are potential irritants able to delay the tissue healing. The aim of the present article is to report the histopathological findings of the trans-operational accidental contamination with oil in the surgical area during an endodontic surgery.

  4. Accidental injuries in agriculture in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, C

    2002-12-01

    The rate of occupational accidents in British agriculture is higher than in most other industries. The most common fatal accidents are those involving vehicles and machinery, falls from a height and electrocution. A substantial proportion of reported non-fatal injuries in agricultural employees is attributable to manual handling, but among self-employed farmers the contribution is much smaller. Few data are available on longer-term determinants of risk, but accidental deaths are most frequent in July, August and September. The main approaches to preventing agricultural accidents are through engineering improvements, and education and training of the workforce. The introduction of roll-over protection structures for tractors has been an important development in recent decades. Other engineering controls include guards for power take off shafts, guard rails to prevent falls, better handling facilities for animals and closed transfer systems for pesticides. Training on safety is available from several sources, but its effectiveness in reducing accidents is uncertain.

  5. Accidental Contamination with Oil during Endodontic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia, Hugo; Díaz, Mariana; Cholico, Patricia; del Real, Monserrat; Márquez-de Alba, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    The modern surgical endodontic treatment is a safe and predictable procedure with high success rate. However, several factors can retard or impede the proper healing process. Use of a high speed handpiece during hard tissues management (osteotomy and apical resection) can potentially be one of these factors. Formation of metallic debris from the surgical diamond burs, production of necrotic local tissue due to overheating and the direct liberation of air from conventional handpiece into the working area are potential irritants able to delay the tissue healing. The aim of the present article is to report the histopathological findings of the trans-operational accidental contamination with oil in the surgical area during an endodontic surgery. PMID:27790269

  6. Accidental cell phone ingestion with pharyngeal impaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammed M; Bahl, Kazal; Dross, Matthew; Farooqui, Shoheb; Dross, Peter

    2014-09-01

    35 year old intoxicated male ingested an unusual, large foreign object (cell phone). To report the ingestion of an unusual large foreign object with hypopharyngeal impaction, complications, and treatment. Foreign body ingestion in the adult population is more prevalent in those who engage in drug or alcohol abuse. Impaction and perforation of the upper aerodigestive tract can lead to significant and potentially fatal complications including parapharyngeal/retropharyngeal abscess, mediastinitis, and aortoesophageal fistula. The treatment of foreign object ingestion is dependent on the type of foreign object ingested, its location, and potential for perforation. Endoscopic removal under general anesthesia is the treatment method recommended for foreign bodies impacted at the cricopharyngeus or esophagus. We report the only case of the accidental ingestion of an entire cell phone with casing. A plain film x-ray of the neck can be used in the assessment of the location of radiopaque foreign objects and in diagnosing potential complication.

  7. Non-Accidental Health Impacts of Wildfire Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssouf, Hassani; Liousse, Catherine; Roblou, Laurent; Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Salonen, Raimo O.; Maesano, Cara; Banerjee, Soutrik; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Wildfires take a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Climate change may increase the risk of wildfire frequency. Therefore, in view of adapted preventive actions, there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. We conducted a systematic review of non-accidental health impacts of wildfire and incorporated lessons learned from recent experiences. Based on the literature, various studies have established the relationship between one of the major components of wildfire, particulate matter (particles with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) and cardiorespiratory symptoms in terms of Emergency Rooms visits and hospital admissions. Associations between wildfire emissions and various subclinical effects have also been established. However, few relationships between wildfire emissions and mortality have been observed. Certain segments of the population may be particularly vulnerable to smoke-related health risks. Among them, people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions, the elderly, smokers and, for professional reasons, firefighters. Potential action mechanisms have been highlighted. Overall, more research is needed to better understand health impact of wildfire exposure. PMID:25405597

  8. Steam oxidation of X20CrMoV121: Comparison of laboratory exposures and in situ exposure in power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, M.; Hansson, A. N.; Vilhelmsen, T.

    2012-01-01

    X20CrMoV121 is a 12% Cr martensitic steel which has been used in power plants in Europe for many decades. Specimens have been removed from superheater tubes to investigate long‐term exposure with respect to steam oxidation. These tubes have been exposed for various durations up to 135 000 h in po...

  9. High mortality due to accidental salinomycin intoxication in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafihelan Javad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In February 2012, 100% mortality was reported in a herd with 79 local sheep that were kept around of Abhar, Northwest of Iran. The ration for adult sheep was daily mixed (40 kg straw, 25 kg wheat and 2 kg Vit-C premix and accidentally 1 500 g of salinomycin (Salinomycin 12% Premix; Aras Bazar Laboratories, Iran had been added to the ration (22388 mg/kg = 22388 ppm and overnight was fed to herd. At the morning, 78 sheep were founded dead and one of them showed convulsive seizures. Postmortem examination revealed pulmonary congestion and edema, hemorrhages in abomasum, large pale kidney and white streak lines in myocardium. Main histopathologic lesions were extensive subepicardial and intercardiomyofibers hemorrhages, extensive cardiomyolysis and myocarditis in heart, severe hyperemia and extensive acute tubular necrosis (ATN in kidneys and focal necrosis and retention of bile cholangitis in the liver. In this study, on the basis of the history, observation of the ionophore remnant in the ration, clinical signs, gross and histopathological findings, acute salinomycin intoxication is definitely diagnosed.

  10. [The assessment of risk for xylene exposure in a laboratory of anatomy: comparison between computational models and environmental and biological monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, S; Campo, L; Pasini, R; De Comite, A; Missineo, P; Riboldi, L; Bertazzi, P A

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to xylene in a pathology laboratory was evaluated using two algorithms: Stoffenmanager and Archi.me.de. The results were compared with those obtained by applying the environmental and biological monitoring of the exposure. The use of models required a period of self-learning and, for Stoffenmanager, knowledge of the English language. Information on the toxicity and safety of xylene, available from the medial and safety data sheets, and the conditions and amount of use, obtained through a survey and interviews with operators, have been imputed. Stoffenmanager estimated low the inhalation exposure and medium the dermal exposure, with a value of personal exposure during the work shift of 1.4 mg/m3. A.r.chi.me.d.e. estimated negligible the risk to health. These ratings are consistent with those obtained using the experimental approach. This result, combined with the simplicity and low cost, makes the algorithms very interesting tools for the assessment of chemical risk in the workplace.

  11. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  12. Exposure to a putative alarm cue reduces downstream drift in larval sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, C M; Kierczynski, K E; Hume, J B; Luhring, T M

    2016-09-01

    An experimental mesocosm study suggested larval sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus detect and respond to an alarm cue released by dead adult conspecifics. Larvae exhibited a reduced tendency to move downstream when exposed to the cue and were less likely to move under continuous v. pulsed exposure. These findings support the hypothesis that short-term exposure to the alarm cue would probably result in retraction into the burrow, consistent with the blind, cryptic lifestyle of the larval P. marinus.

  13. CRADA with Teledyne Electronic Technologies and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL-096): The Exposure-to-Risk monitoring system. Final letter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrall, K.D.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the ``Exposure-to- Risk`` monitoring system in an actual occupational environment. The system is a unique combination of existing hardware with proprietary software to create an integrated means of assessing occupational exposures to volatile organic compounds. One component of this system utilizes a portable mass spectrometer developed by Teledyne Electronic Technologies. Integration of the system was accomplished under Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) funding. Commercialization of the system will take place following demonstration in an actual occupational environment, and will include, in part, Teledyne Electronic Technologies. The Exposure-to-Risk monitoring system will benefit DOE by overcoming present-day limitations in worker health protection monitoring. There are numerous sites within the` DOE complex where many different hazardous chemicals are used on a routine basis. These chemicals range from paint stripers and cleaning solvents to chemical warfare agents, each having its own degree of potential adverse health risk to a worker. Thus, a real concern for DOE is to ensure that a worker is properly monitored to assess any adverse health risk from exposure to potentially hazardous chemicals. With current industrial hygiene technologies, this is an arduous task. The Exposure-to-Risk monitoring system integrates a patented breath-inlet device connecting a subject`s exhaled breath directly with a field-portable mass spectrometer with physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to estimate the target tissue dose following a chemical exposure. Estimation of the adverse health risk prediction follows from the exposure/dose calculation based on currently accepted methodologies. This new system can determine, in the field, the possible adverse health risks on a daily basis to an individual worker.

  14. Study of TSL and OSL properties of dental ceramics for accidental dosimetry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veronese, Ivan, E-mail: ivan.veronese@unimi.i [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Galli, Anna [CNR-INFM, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca and INFN Sezione di Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Cantone, Marie Claire [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Martini, Marco [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca and INFN Sezione di Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Vernizzi, Fabrizio; Guzzi, Gianpaolo [Italian Association for Metals and Biocompatibility Research - A.I.R.M.E.B., Milan (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    Interest is increasing in the development of new methodologies for accidental dose assessment, exploiting the luminescence and dosimetric properties of objects and materials which can be usually found directly on exposed subjects and/or in the contaminated area. In this work, several types of ceramics employed for dental prosthetics restoration, including both innovative materials used as sub-frames for the construction of the inner part of dental crowns (core), and conventional porcelains used for the fabrication of the external layer (veneer), were investigated with regard to their thermally and optically stimulated luminescence (TSL and OSL respectively) properties, in view of their potential application in accidental dosimetry. The sensitivity to ionizing radiation proved to strongly depend on the type and brand of ceramic, with minimum detectable dose ranging from few mGy up to several tens of mGy. A linear dose-response was observed for most of the samples. However, the luminescence signals were characterised by a significant fading, which has to be taken into account for a reliable accidental dose assessment after a radiation exposure event.

  15. El accidente de trabajo. Concepto legal y jurisprudencia

    OpenAIRE

    García Romero, José Daniel

    2015-01-01

    El trabajo final de grado versa sobre el concepto de accidente de trabajo que da la jurisprudencia a través de las diferentes sentencias del Tribunal Supremo en la Sala de lo Social, y de los diferentes Tribunales Superiores de Justicia. Analizaremos en profundidad que características tienen que concurrir para que sea considerado como tal, analizando los diferentes supuestos de accidente de trabajo como el accidente in itinere, en misión, etc. También hemos tratado las diferentes contingencia...

  16. Presentismo: potencialidad en accidentes de salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grettchen Flores-Sandí

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de salud ha sobrepasado el entorno propiamente sanitario y cada vez más, tiene otras implicaciones sociales, la institución de salud es hoy en día una actividad compleja donde no solamente se gestiona la prevención y tratamiento de las enfermedades de los usuarios sino al recurso humano encargado de su atención. Asimismo en la actualidad se reconoce la importancia del recurso humano para la organización y surge el concepto de "presentismo", referido a aquellos trabajadores que sufren enfermedades que los obligarían a ausentarse del trabajo pero que se presentan a trabajar sin cumplir eficazmente sus funciones. Al respecto y en relación con el presentismo, se debe tomar en cuenta que los efectos adversos o accidentes durante la atención de servicios de salud se encuentran asociados a factores fisiológicos, psicológicos y ambientales e implican desde el punto de vista administrativo, una falla en la productividad, que afecta tanto al usuario del servicio como al trabajador. Se debe considerar que este grupo profesional se ubica entre los grupos de riesgo del presentismo y que con el fin de administrar y reducir el presentismo se requieren estrategias preventivas por parte de la gerencia de salud.

  17. The Artificial, the Accidental, the Aesthetic…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Koltick

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available How do we define, discuss or assess aesthetics within a contemporary philosophical framework? The indefiniteness that accompanies attempts to formalize a definition of the aesthetic is a primary focus of this paper. This lack of a definition has occupied philosophers for hundreds of years in attempts to delineate the boundaries of an elusively formless concept. This formlessness speaks to the incredibly evasive character of such a pervasive feature recognized in both natural and artificial systems, agents and artefacts. With the rapid growth of artificially intelligent systems and an astounding diversity in computational creativity, in what ways may we approach aesthetics? How is the aesthetic recognized, determined and produced? This paper seeks to critically engage issues of non-human agency, inter-object relations, and aesthetic theory in relation to computational entities and autonomous systems. The ability of these systems to operate outside of human cognitive limitations including thought patterns and constructions which may preclude alternative aesthetic outcomes, afford them in some ways limitless potential in relation to aesthetics. The designation of the accidental or provisional is utilized as an alternative approach to the production and assessment of aesthetic occurrences of the non-human.

  18. Tuberculosis cutánea por inoculación accidental Cutaneous tuberculosis accidental inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ascensión Maestre Naranjo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Caso clínico de una microbióloga con amplia experiencia, que sufre una inoculación accidental al manipular una cepa pura de Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Se pincha en la cara lateral externa de la falange distal del dedo índice, atravesando el guante con la aguja contaminada. (Imagen 1. La trabajadora procede de forma inmediata a la limpieza de la herida. El Servicio de Prevención, registra la inoculación como accidente de trabajo. A las tres semanas del accidente, aparece en el lugar de la inoculación una pápula eritematosa levemente dolorosa a la presión que va creciendo hasta alcanzar un tamaño de 1,5-2 cm., sin adenopatías axilares, ni clínica general. (Imagen 2 Se procede a la exéresis y biopsia de la lesión. Informe anatomopatológico: Inflamación crónica granulomatosa tuberculoide muy sugestiva de tuberculosis cutánea. Microbiología: dudosos bacilos ácido alcohol resistentes (BAAR Cultivo: positivo a Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Ambas cepas presentan la misma identidad. Diagnóstico: tuberculosis cutánea. El SPRL realiza la comunicación de Enfermedad Profesional según el RD 1299/2006, de 10 de diciembre. Se realiza valoración y seguimiento en el Servicio de Medicina Interna, iniciando tratamiento de tuberculosis.Clinical case of a microbiologist with wide experience, which is inoculated accidental when Mycobacterium's pure strain manipulates tuberculosis; it (she pricks itself in the lateral external face of the phalanx distal of the forefinger, crossing the glove with the contaminated needle. Immediate treatment of the wound. The Service of Prevention, he registers the inoculation as accident of work. To three weeks a slightly painful pápula eritematosa appears in the place of the inoculation to the pressure that is growing until a size reaches 1,5-2 cm., without adenopatías axyllaris, not general clinic. Exéresis and biopsy of the same one, pathological anatomy: chronic inflammation very suggestive granulomatosa

  19. Reduction of exposure to acrylamide: achievements, potential of optimization, and problems encountered from the perspectives of a Swiss enforcement laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Koni

    2005-01-01

    The most important initiatives taken in Switzerland to reduce exposure of consumers to acrylamide are the separate sale of potatoes low in reducing sugars for roasting and frying, the optimization of the raw material and preparation of french fries, and campaigns to implement suitable preparation methods in the gastronomy and homes. Industry works on improving a range of other products. Although these measures can reduce high exposures by some 80%, they have little effect on the background exposure resulting from coffee, bread, and numerous other products for which no substantial improvement is in sight. At this stage, improvements should be achieved by supporting voluntary activity rather than legal limits. Committed and consistent risk communication is key, and the support of improvements presupposes innovative approaches.

  20. Validation of the HZETRN code for laboratory exposures with 1A GeV iron ions in several targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S A; Tweed, J; Wilson, J W; Cucinotta, F A; Tripathi, R K; Blattnig, S; Zeitlin, C; Heilbronn, L; Miller, J

    2005-01-01

    A new version of the HZETRN code capable of validation with HZE ions in either the laboratory or the space environment is under development. The computational model consists of the lowest order asymptotic approximation followed by a Neumann series expansion with non-perturbative corrections. The physical description includes energy loss with straggling, nuclear attenuation, nuclear fragmentation with energy dispersion and downshift. Measurements to test the model were performed at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory with iron ions. Surviving beam particles and produced fragments were measured with solid-state detectors. Beam analysis software has been written to relate the computational results to the measured energy loss spectra of the incident ions for rapid validation of modeled target transmission functions.

  1. The PROCESS experiment: exposure of amino acids in the EXPOSE-E experiment on the international space station and in laboratory simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, M; Chabin, A; Brack, A; Cottin, H; Chaput, D; Westall, F

    2012-05-01

    To understand the chemical behavior of organic molecules in the space environment, amino acids and a dipeptide in pure form and embedded in meteorite powder were exposed in the PROCESS experiment in the EXPOSE-E facility mounted on the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) platform on board the International Space Station (ISS). After exposure to space conditions for 18 months, the samples were returned to Earth and analyzed in the laboratory for reactions caused by solar UV and cosmic radiation. Chemical degradation and possible racemization and oligomerization, the main reactions caused by photochemistry in the vacuum ultraviolet domain (VUV, wavelength range 100-200 nm for photon energy from 6.2 to 12.4 eV) were examined in particular. The molecules were extracted and derivatized by silylation and analyzed by gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS) to quantify the rate of the degradation of the compounds. Laboratory exposure in several wavelength ranges from UV to VUV was carried out in parallel in the Cologne Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) Center and Centre de biophysique moléculaire (CBM) laboratories. The results show that resistance to irradiation is a function of the chemical nature of the exposed molecules and the wavelengths of the UV light. The most altered compounds were the dipeptide, aspartic acid, and aminobutyric acid. The most resistant were alanine, valine, glycine, and aminoisobutyric acid. Our results also demonstrate the protective effect of meteorite powder, which reemphasizes the importance of exogenic contribution to the inventory of prebiotic organics on early Earth.

  2. Propofol-Induced Neurotoxicity in the Fetal Animal Brain and Developments in Modifying These Effects—An Updated Review of Propofol Fetal Exposure in Laboratory Animal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Xiong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past twenty years, evidence of neurotoxicity in the developing brain in animal studies from exposure to several general anesthetics has been accumulating. Propofol, a commonly used general anesthetic medication, administered during synaptogenesis, may trigger widespread apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing brain and long-term neurobehavioral disturbances in both rodents and non-human primates. Despite the growing evidence of the potential neurotoxicity of different anesthetic agents in animal studies, there is no concrete evidence that humans may be similarly affected. However, given the growing evidence of the neurotoxic effects of anesthetics in laboratory studies, it is prudent to further investigate the mechanisms causing these effects and potential ways to mitigate them. Here, we review multiple studies that investigate the effects of in utero propofol exposure and the developmental agents that may modify these deleterious effects.

  3. Characterizing oxidative flow reactor SOA production and OH radical exposure from laboratory experiments of complex mixtures (engine exhaust) and simple precursors (monoterpenes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Link, M. L.; Friedman, B.; Ortega, J. V.; Son, J.; Kim, J.; Park, G.; Park, T.; Kim, K.; Lee, T.; Farmer, D.

    2016-12-01

    Recent commercialization of the Oxidative Flow Reactor (OFR, occasionally described in the literature as a "Potential Aerosol Mass") has created the opportunity for many researchers to explore the mechanisms behind OH-driven aerosol formation on a wide range of oxidative timescales (hours to weeks) in both laboratory and field measurements. These experiments have been conducted in both laboratory and field settings, including simple (i.e. single component) and complex (multi-component) precursors. Standard practices for performing OFR experiments, and interpreting data from the measurements, are still being developed. Measurement of gas and particle phase chemistry, from oxidation products generated in the OFR, through laboratory studies on single precursors and the measurement of SOA from vehicle emissions on short atmospheric timescales represent two very different experiments in which careful experimental design is essential for exploring reaction mechanisms and SOA yields. Two parameters essential in experimental design are (1) the role of seed aerosol in controlling gas-particle partitioning and SOA yields, and (2) the accurate determination of OH exposure during any one experiment. We investigated the role of seed aerosol surface area in controlling the observed SOA yields and gas/particle composition from the OH-initiated oxidation of four monoterpenes using an aerosol chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer and scanning mobility particle sizer. While the OH exposure during laboratory experiments is simple to constrain, complex mixtures such as diesel exhaust have high estimated OH reactivity values, and thus require careful consideration. We developed methods for constraining OH radical exposure in the OFR during vehicle exhaust oxidation experiments. We observe changes in O/C ratios and highly functionalized species over the temperature gradient employed in the aerosol-CIMS measurement. We relate this observed, speciated chemistry to the

  4. Epidemiology of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, R J; Davis, P M; Meadow, S R; Sibert, J R

    1996-07-01

    A two year prospective study was performed to determine the epidemiology of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. Cases were notified to the British Paediatric Association Surveillance Unit from September 1992 to August 1994 if a formal case conference had been held for the first time during that period to discuss any of the above conditions. A total of 128 cases were identified: 55 suffered Munchausen syndrome by proxy alone, 15 poisoning, and 15 suffocation; 43 suffered more than one type of abuse. The majority of children were aged under 5 years, the median age being 20 months. On 85% of occasions the perpetrator was the child's mother. In 42% of families with more than one child, a sibling had previously suffered some form of abuse. Eighty five per cent of notifying paediatricians considered the probability of their diagnosis as virtually certain before a case conference was convened. The commonest drugs used to poison were anticonvulsants; opiates were the second commonest. Sixty eight children suffered severe illness of whom eight died. The combined annual incidence of these conditions in children aged under 16 years is at least 0.5/100,000, and for children aged under 1, at least 2.8/100,000.

  5. Aerosolized avian influenza virus by laboratory manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhiping

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian H5N1 influenza viruses present a challenge in the laboratory environment, as they are difficult to collect from the air due to their small size and relatively low concentration. In an effort to generate effective methods of H5N1 air removal and ensure the safety of laboratory personnel, this study was designed to investigate the characteristics of aerosolized H5N1 produced by laboratory manipulations during research studies. Results Normal laboratory procedures used to process the influenza virus were carried out independently and the amount of virus polluting the on-site atmosphere was measured. In particular, zootomy, grinding, centrifugation, pipetting, magnetic stirring, egg inoculation, and experimental zoogenetic infection were performed. In addition, common accidents associated with each process were simulated, including breaking glass containers, syringe injection of influenza virus solution, and rupturing of centrifuge tubes. A micro-cluster sampling ambient air pollution collection device was used to collect air samples. The collected viruses were tested for activity by measuring their ability to induce hemagglutination with chicken red blood cells and to propagate in chicken embryos after direct inoculation, the latter being detected by reverse-transcription PCR and HA test. The results showed that the air samples from the normal centrifugal group and the negative-control group were negative, while all other groups were positive for H5N1. Conclusions Our findings suggest that there are numerous sources of aerosols in laboratory operations involving H5N1. Thus, laboratory personnel should be aware of the exposure risk that accompanies routine procedures involved in H5N1 processing and take proactive measures to prevent accidental infection and decrease the risk of virus aerosol leakage beyond the laboratory.

  6. Preliminary study of effects of military obscurant smokes on flora and fauna during field and laboratory exposures. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, D.J.; Lower, W.R.; Kapila, S.; Yanders, A.F.; Wang, R.

    1986-12-01

    Since continued routine use of obscurant smokes could be detrimental to the native flora and fauna of training sites, a preliminary biological and chemical study of smokes was conducted to determine whether tests could be developed to demonstrate measurable changes in organisms exposed to smokes and to evaluate whether short exposures to smokes produced measurable changes in the organisms tested. Fog oil, hexachloroethane, and tank diesel smokes were tested. Tradescantia clones were examined for mutagenic effects indicated by micronuclei induction in developing pollen and pink somatic mutations in stamen hairs. Photosynthetic perturbations were measured in Tradescantia and Ambrosia dumosa using variable fluorescence induction. Animals were examined for sister chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations. It was found that all of the smokes tested exerted varying degrees of physiological and mutagenic effects in one or several of the assay systems at one or more of the exposure distances. These studies indicate that exposed ecological systems, or at least components of these systems, are at a higher risk than are control organisms for several types of damage attributed to obscurant smoke exposure.

  7. Use of sulfur hexafluoride airflow studies to determine the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in an alpha inhalation exposure laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    Determination of the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in the workplace is quite subjective and is generally one of the more difficult tasks in radiation protection. General guidance for determining the number and placement of air sampling and monitoring instruments has been provided by technical reports such as Mishima, J. These two documents and other published guidelines suggest that some insight into sampler placement can be obtained by conducting airflow studies involving the dilution and clearance of the relatively inert tracer gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) in sampler placement studies and describes the results of a study done within the ITRI alpha inhalation exposure laboratories. The objectives of the study were to document an appropriate method for conducting SF{sub 6} dispersion studies, and to confirm the appropriate number and placement of air monitors and air samplers within a typical ITRI inhalation exposure laboratory. The results of this study have become part of the technical bases for air sampling and monitoring in the test room.

  8. The AMINO experiment: exposure of amino acids in the EXPOSE-R experiment on the International Space Station and in laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Marylène; Chabin, Annie; Colas, Cyril; Cadène, Martine; Chaput, Didier; Brack, Andre; Cottin, Herve

    2015-01-01

    In order to confirm the results of previous experiments concerning the chemical behaviour of organic molecules in the space environment, organic molecules (amino acids and a dipeptide) in pure form and embedded in meteorite powder were exposed in the AMINO experiment in the EXPOSE-R facility onboard the International Space Station. After exposure to space conditions for 24 months (2843 h of irradiation), the samples were returned to the Earth and analysed in the laboratory for reactions caused by solar ultraviolet (UV) and other electromagnetic radiation. Laboratory UV exposure was carried out in parallel in the Cologne DLR Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft und Raumfahrt). The molecules were extracted from the sample holder and then (1) derivatized by silylation and analysed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS) in order to quantify the rate of degradation of the compounds and (2) analysed by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) in order to understand the chemical reactions that occurred. The GC-MS results confirm that resistance to irradiation is a function of the chemical nature of the exposed molecules and of the wavelengths of the UV light. They also confirm the protective effect of a coating of meteorite powder. The most altered compounds were the dipeptides and aspartic acid while the most robust were compounds with a hydrocarbon chain. The MS analyses document the products of reactions, such as decarboxylation and decarbonylation of aspartic acid, taking place after UV exposure. Given the universality of chemistry in space, our results have a broader implication for the fate of organic molecules that seeded the planets as soon as they became habitable as well as for the effects of UV radiation on exposed molecules at the surface of Mars, for example.

  9. Reducing employee exposure potential using the ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method of Testing Performance of Laboratory Fume Hoods as a diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupins, K; Hitchings, D T

    1998-02-01

    The primary goal of a laboratory ventilation system is to assure that employee exposure to hazardous chemicals does not exceed acceptable levels. Industrial hygienists at Eli Lilly & Co. were concerned about the adequacy of fume hoods to protect workers in an aging laboratory facility. Wanting to conduct a comprehensive series of tests for a true reading on the containment effectiveness of these hoods, the industrial hygienists went beyond the traditional face velocity tests. Tests prescribed in the ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method of Testing Performance of Laboratory Fume Hoods (ASHRAE 110) standard including low- and high-volume smoke tests, face velocity tests, and tracer gas containment tests indicated that many of the hoods did not meet industry consensus standards for containment (0.1 ppm), yet met industry recommended face velocity specifications (80-120 ft/min). Based on the results of performance tests and engineering observations of the facility, apparent causes of poor performance were identified, and a mitigation plan was implemented to bring the hoods to the desired containment standards. After completion of the improvements, retesting was conducted to confirm achievement of these standards. Pre- and postmitigation test results, indicating a 99.5% reduction in tracer gas leakage or potential employee exposures, build a strong case for a more complete testing protocol as specified by the ASHRAE 110 test method. The authors recommend that traditional face velocity testing alone be discontinued in favor of the ASHRAE 110 method as a quantitative measure of fume hood performance coupled with the traditional face velocity measurement at periodic intervals to assure continued performance.

  10. Application of metallomic and metabolomic approaches in exposure experiments on laboratory mice for environmental metal toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sevillano, M A; García-Barrera, T; Gómez-Ariza, J L

    2014-02-01

    Metals have a central role in biological systems, regulating numerous cellular processes, and in other cases having toxic or deleterious effects on the metabolism. Hence, the study of metal-induced changes in cellular metabolic pathways is crucial to understanding the biological response associated with environmental issues. In this context, the finding of biomarkers has great interest, representing -omics techniques, such as metallomics and metabolomics, powerful tools for this purpose. The present work evaluates the exposure of mice Mus musculus to toxic metals (As, Cd and Hg), considering the changes induced in both the metallome and metabolome as a consequence of the high genetic homology between Mus musculus/Mus spretus mice, which allows the use of the database from M. musculus to identify the proteins and metabolites expressed by M. spretus. For this purpose a metallomic approach based on size exclusion chromatography (SEC) in combination with other complementary orthogonal separation techniques and heteroelement monitoring by ICP-ORS-qMS was performed, followed by identification of metallobiomolecules by organic mass spectrometry. In addition, simultaneous speciation of selenoproteins and selenometabolites in mouse plasma was accomplished by tandem (double) SEC-(dual) affinity chromatography (AF)-HPLC and online isotope dilution analysis (IDA)-ICP-ORS-qMS. Finally, the simultaneous changes in metabolic expression in mice caused by metal exposure (metabolome) were considered, using direct infusion mass spectrometry (DI-ESI-QqQ-TOF-MS) of extracts from mice plasma. Subsequently altered metabolites were identified using MS/MS experiments. The results obtained under controlled conditions were extrapolated to homologous free-living mice captured in Doñana National Park (DNP) and surroundings (southwest Spain) affected by As, Cd and Hg pollution. In summary, such studies are needed to understand the effect of heavy metal exposure and cope with heavy metal

  11. Survival and Growth of the Marine Polychaete, Neanthes arenaceodentata, Following Laboratory Exposure to Copper-Spiked Sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Timothy J; Gaertner, Karin E; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Call, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    Juvenile marine polychaetes, Neanthes arenaceodentata, were exposed for 28 days to copper (Cu)-spiked sediment at six concentrations ranging from 48.3 to 2380 mg Cu/kg dry sediment, plus control. Survival was reduced (p ≤ 0.05) at concentrations ≥1190 mg Cu/kg. Growth was inhibited at Cu concentrations ≥506 mg Cu/kg. Dose-response relationships yielded LC10 and LC50 estimates of 514 and 1230 mg Cu/kg, respectively. The growth effect EC50 estimate was 409 mg Cu/kg. Ranges for the no observable effect concentration and lowest observable effect concentration were 506-1190 mg Cu/kg for survival, and 230-506 mg Cu/kg for growth. Pore water concentrations of Cu were 38.7-65.8 µg Cu/L in exposures where toxic effects were observed, compared to a range of 15.1-22.4 µg Cu/L in exposures where significant effects were not evident. The results of the study were compared with empirical and mechanistic sediment quality guidelines for the protection of benthic organisms.

  12. Non-accidental collision followed by dental trauma: associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Tataounoff, Juliana; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Alcântara, Carlos Eduardo Pinto; Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Marques, Leandro Silva

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present cross-sectional survey was to assess factors associated with non-accidental collision followed by dental trauma among adolescents in the city of Diamantina, Brazil. A total of 387 students from 12 to 15 years of age (mean = 14 SD = 0.9) were randomly selected. The study was carried out in two stages. Firstly, data were collected through dental examinations of permanent incisors. Secondly, a thorough interview was held with 85 adolescents who exhibited dental trauma in the dental examinations. The interview consisted of a detailed description of the incident and physical environment in which it occurred. Descriptive analysis and the chi-square test (P 3 mm (P = 0.007) and inadequate lip coverage (P = 0.013). Analysis of the event revealed that 22.3% of the cases of dental trauma occurred because of non-accidental collision. Non-accidental collision followed by injury occurred mainly at school (P concrete, tiled or ceramic floor (P = 0.001). No statistically significant associations were found between non-accidental collision and gender, age or mother's schooling. It was concluded that the non-accidental collisions happened especially at school and in indoor environments with a concrete, tiled or ceramic floor.

  13. Causes of accidental childhood deaths in China in 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kit Yee; Yu, Xin-Wei; Lu, Jia-Peng

    2015-01-01

    -4 years in China, of which 31 633 (10.1%) were accidental. Accidental deaths contributed 7240 (4.0%) of all deaths in neonatal period, 8838 (10.5%) among all post-neonatal infant deaths, and 15 554 (31.7%) among children with 1-4 years of age. Among four tested models, the most predictive was used......BACKGROUND: Infectious causes of childhood deaths in the world have decreased substantially in the 21st century. This trend has exposed accidental deaths as an increasingly important future challenge. Presently, little is known about the cause structure of accidental childhood deaths in low......- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. In this paper, we aim to establish cause structure for accidental deaths in children aged 0-4 years in China in the year 2010. METHODS: In this paper, we explored the database of 208 multi-cause child mortality studies in Chinese that formed a basis for the first...

  14. Dose-dependent antioxidant responses and pathological changes in tenca (Tinca tinca) after acute oral exposure to Microcystis under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atencio, L; Moreno, I; Jos, A; Pichardo, S; Moyano, R; Blanco, A; Cameán, A M

    2008-07-01

    The effects of cyanobacterial cells containing microcystins (MCs), toxins from cyanobacteria, on oxidative stress biomarkers from liver and kidney of Tenca fish (Tinca tinca) were investigated under laboratory conditions. Moreover, a histopathological study of liver, kidney, heart and intestine tissues was performed. Fish were orally exposed to cyanobacterial cells dosing 0, 5, 11, 25 and 55 microg MC-LR/fish mixed with the food. Results showed a dose-dependent decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and also of catalase (CAT) in the liver. Glutathione levels and protein oxidation, however, were not altered by the exposure to the cyanobacterial material. The microscopic study revealed tissue alterations even at the lower cyanobacterial cells doses. Onion-like hepatocytes in the liver, glomerulopathy in the kidney, loss of myofibrils in the heart and vacuolated enterocytes in the gastrointestinal tract were the main changes observed. These findings suggest that this fresh water fish can be adversely affected by cyanobacterial blooms in their natural habitats.

  15. Perfil del trauma maxilofacial en accidentes de bicicleta

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe Asunción Ramírez Roa; María Guadalupe Suárez-Moreno; Florentino Puerto-Álvarez; Heber Félix Quiroga-Vía; Jesús Arenas-Osuna; Bertha Vivanco-Cedeño

    2005-01-01

    Objetivo: conocer el perfil traumatológico maxilofacial, concomitante y manejo, de las personas que sufrieron accidentes de bicicleta. Se identificaron variables como edad, sexo, mecanismo, lugar, mes, patrones de lesiones, sintomatología, lapso de atención, turno, especialidad y tratamientos. Diseño: exploratorio, descriptivo, analítico, retrospectivo. Material y métodos: se censaron todos los pacientes con lesiones maxilofaciales por accidentes de bicicleta, de las notas médicas del Servici...

  16. ACCIDENTAL DEATHS DUE TO ELECTROCUTION DURING AMATEUR ELECTRO - FISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Electro - fishing (passing electricity through water to catch fish requires sophisticated equipment. While this method is commonly employed b y scientists for survey and fisheries management, a crude and illegal form electro - fishing is employed in Kerala for catching fish from water bodies. This can result in accidental electrocution and even fatalities. Even though they are rare, forensic patho logists in Kerala do come across such deaths from time to time. 8 cases of accidental death which occurred during electro - fishing are discussed here.

  17. Correcting for accidental correlations in saturated avalanche photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Grieve, James A; Tang, Zhongkan; Ling, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a high-level numerical model for estimating rates of accidental correlations between a pair of passively quenched Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes operating in the saturated regime. By considering the recovery time of both the diodes and the detection circuit we introduce the concept of an "effective duty cycle" and show that it may be estimated by numeric simulation. The impact of effective duty cycle on the observed accidental rate is examined and we demonstrate that the updated model leads to an improved correction factor in actual experiments. This will improve the signal-to-noise ratio in applications depending on correlation measurements.

  18. Accidentes laborales, medicamentos y hábitos de salud

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban Martín, María Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    El presente estudio está dirigido a analizar la posible asociación con el accidente de trabajo del tipo y cantidad de medicamentos que consumen los trabajadores de forma crónica y/o aguda antes de acudir a nuestra consulta, de las enfermedades crónicas y/o agudas que padecen y de otros hábitos de consumo (alcohol y drogas). La salud laboral es un problema prioritario. El objetivo será promover la salud de los trabajadores y tratar de disminuir la incidencia de accidentes laborales. E...

  19. Prevalence of renal and hepatobiliary disease, laboratory abnormalities, and potentially toxic medication exposures among persons with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mapel DW

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Douglas W Mapel,1 Jenõ P Marton21Lovelace Clinic Foundation, Albuquerque, New Mexico, NM, USA; 2Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of renal and hepatic disease, related laboratory abnormalities, and potentially hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic medication use in a population-based cohort of persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.Methods: This was a retrospective case-control cohort analysis of COPD patients enrolled in one regional health system for at least 12 months during a 36-month study period (n = 2284. Each COPD patient was matched by age and gender to up to three persons not diagnosed with COPD (n = 5959.Results: The mean age for cases and controls was 70.3 years, and 52.5% were women. The COPD cohort had significantly higher prevalences (cases/100 of acute, chronic, and unspecified renal failure as compared with controls (1.40 versus 0.59, 2.89 versus 0.79, and 1.09 versus 0.44, respectively. Among the cases, 31.3% had at least one renal or urinary tract diagnosis during the study period, as compared with 21.1% of controls. COPD cases also had more gallbladder disease (2.76 versus 1.63 and pancreatic disease (1.40 versus 0.60, but not hepatic disease. COPD patients were more likely to have at least one serum creatinine level (5.1 versus 2.1 or liver aspartate aminotransferase level (4.5 versus 2.7 that was more than twice the upper limit of normal. COPD patients had prescription fills for an average of 17.6 potentially nephrotoxic and 27.4 hepatotoxic drugs during the study period, as compared with 13.6 and 19.9 for the controls (P value for all comparisons < 0.01.Conclusion: COPD patients have a substantially increased prevalence of renal, gallbladder, and pancreatic diseases, as well as abnormal renal and hepatic laboratory values, but not diagnosed liver disease. COPD patients are also more likely to be prescribed

  20. TRACKING PYRETHROID TOXICITY IN SURFACE WATER SAMPLES: EXPOSURE DYNAMICS AND TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION TOOLS FOR LABORATORY TESTS WITH HYALELLA AZTECA (AMPHIPODA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanovic, Linda A; Stillway, Marie; Hammock, Bruce G; Fong, Stephanie; Werner, Inge

    2017-09-09

    Pyrethroid insecticides are commonly used in pest control and are present at toxic concentrations in surface waters of agricultural and urban areas worldwide. Monitoring is challenging due to their high hydrophobicity and low toxicity thresholds, which often fall below the detection limits of analytical methods. Standard daphnid bioassays used in surface water monitoring are not sensitive enough to protect more susceptible invertebrate species such as the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and chemical loss during toxicity testing is of concern. In this study, we quantified toxicity loss during storage and testing, using both natural and synthetic water, and present a tool to enhance toxic signal strength for improved sensitivity of H. azteca toxicity tests. The average half-life during storage in LDPE cubitainers at 4°C of five pyrethroids (permethrin, bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, cyfluthrin, esfenvalerate) and one organophosphate (chlorpyrifos; used as reference) was 1.4 d, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) proved an effective tool to potentiate toxicity. We conclude that toxicity tests on ambient water samples containing these hydrophobic insecticides are likely to underestimate toxicity present in the field, and mimic short pulse rather than continuous exposures. Where these chemicals are of concern, the addition of PBO during testing can yield valuable information on their presence or absence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Survival, Reproduction and Growth of the Marine Amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus, Following Laboratory Exposure to Copper-Spiked Sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Timothy J; Gaertner, Karin E; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Call, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    Leptocheirus plumulosus was exposed for 28 days to Cu-spiked sediment at mean concentrations ranging from 44.4 to 605 mg Cu/kg dry sediment in a sediment/water test system designed to simulate natural conditions. The NOEC (no observed effect concentration)-LOEC (lowest observed effect concentration) range for the most sensitive endpoint of growth was 199-414 mg Cu/kg sediment. An IC50 for reproduction was estimated at 187 mg Cu/kg sediment. Mean Cu concentrations in pore water (PW) where significant effects were observed were 25.8 and 59.0 µg/L, while their respective concentrations in overlying water (OW) were 22.1 and 28.0 µg Cu/L. Copper concentrations were ≤19.1 and <16.6 µg/L in PW and OW, respectively, at lower exposures where effects were not evident. Concentrations of Cu in marine sediment lower than sediment quality guidelines based on geochemical factors of acid volatile sulfide, organic carbon content (f OC), and sediment grain size (i.e., silt + clay) would appear not to result in adverse effects toward L. plumulosus.

  2. Mortality through 1990 among white male workers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory: considering exposures to plutonium and external ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggs, L D; Johnson, E R; Cox-DeVore, C A; Voelz, G L

    1994-12-01

    A cohort mortality study was conducted of 15,727 white men employed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a nuclear research and development facility. Some of the workers at this facility have been exposed to various forms of ionizing radiation and other potentially hazardous materials. These analyses focused on whole-body ionizing radiation exposures and internal depositions of plutonium. The results indicated that overall mortality among this cohort is quite low, even after nearly 30 y of follow-up. No cause of death was significantly elevated among plutonium-exposed workers when compared with their unexposed coworkers; however, a rate ratio for lung cancer of 1.78 (95% CI = 0.79-3.99) was observed. A case of osteogenic sarcoma, a type of cancer related to plutonium exposure in animal studies, was also observed. Dose-response relationships for whole-body dose from external ionizing radiation and tritium were observed for cancers of the brain/central nervous system, the esophagus, and Hodgkin's disease.

  3. Occupational exposure to mineral oil metalworking fluid (MWFs) mist: Development of new methodologies for mist sampling and analysis. Results from an inter-laboratory comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanh Huynh, C.; Herrera, H.; Parrat, J.; Wolf, R.; Perret, V.

    2009-02-01

    Metalworking Fluids (MWFs) are largely used in the sector of undercutting, a large professional activity in Switzerland, in particular in the fine mechanic and watch making industry. France proposes a Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 1 mg.m-3 of aerosol. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) sets its value at 5 mg.m-3 but a proposal to lower the standard ("intended changes") to 0.2 mg.m-3 of aerosol is pending since 2001. However, it has not become a recognized threshold limit value for exposure. Since 2003, the new Swiss PEL (MAK) recommendations would be 0.2 mg.m-3 of aerosol (oil with boiling point > 350°C without additives) and/or 20 mg.m-3 of oil aerosol + vapour for medium or light oil. To evaluate evaporative losses of sampled oil, the German "Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut für Arbeitssicherheit" (BGIA) recommends the use of a XAD-2 cartridge behind the filter. The method seems to work perfectly for MWFs in a clean occupational atmosphere free from interference of light vapour cleaning solvent such as White Spirit. But, in real situation, machine shop atmosphere contaminated with traces of White Spirit, the BGIA method failed to estimate the MWFs levels (over-estimation). In this paper, we propose a new approach meant to measure both oil vapours and aerosols. Five inter-laboratory comparisons are discussed, based on the production of oil mist in an experimental chamber under controlled conditions.

  4. Genetic Damage Induced by Accidental Environmental Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Pérez-Cadahía

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum is one of the main energy sources worldwide. Its transport is performed by big tankers following some established marine routes. In the last 50 years a total amount of 37 oil tankers have given rise to great spills in different parts of the world, Prestige being the last one. After the accident, a big human mobilisation took place in order to clean beaches, rocks and fauna, trying to reduce the environmental consequences of this serious catastrophe. These people were exposed to the complex mixture of compounds contained in the oil. This study aimed at determine the level of environmental exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOC, and the possible damage induced on the population involved in the different cleaning tasks by applying the genotoxicity tests sister chromatid exchanges (SCE, micronucleus (MN test, and comet assay. Four groups of individuals were included: volunteers (V, hired manual workers (MW, hired high-pressure cleaner workers (HPW and controls. The higher VOC levels were associated with V environment, followed by MW and lastly by HPW, probably due to the use of high-pressure cleaners. Oil exposure during the cleaning tasks has caused an increase in the genotoxic damage in individuals, the comet assay being the most sensitive biomarker to detect it. Sex, age and tobacco consumption have shown to influence the level of genetic damage, while the effect of using protective devices was less noticeable than expected, perhaps because the kind used was not the most adequate.

  5. The Accidental Transgressor: Morally-Relevant Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah; Woodward, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    To test young children's false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N=162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered three tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an "accidental transgressor" task, which measured a…

  6. The Accidental Transgressor: Morally Relevant Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah

    2014-01-01

    To test young children’s false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N = 162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered 3 tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an “accidental transgressor” task, which measured a morally relevant false belief theory of mind (MoToM). Children who did not pass false belief ToM were more likely to attribute negative intentions to an accidental transgressor than children who passed false belief ToM, and to use moral reasons when blaming the accidental transgressor. In Experiment 2, children (N = 46) who did not pass false belief ToM viewed it as more acceptable to punish the accidental transgressor than did participants who passed false belief ToM. Findings are discussed in light of research on the emergence of moral judgment and theory of mind. PMID:21377148

  7. The Accidental Transgressor: Morally-Relevant Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah; Woodward, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    To test young children's false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N=162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered three tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an "accidental transgressor" task, which measured a…

  8. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prevention of accidental ignition. 192.751 Section 192.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention...

  9. An accidental sect: how war made belief in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.

    2006-01-01

    Idealists consider beliefs cause wars. Realists consider wars cause beliefs. The war in Sierra Leone offers some scope to test between these two views. The main rebel faction, the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) was, sociologically speaking, an accidental sect. It lost its original ideologues at an

  10. The use of commercial glass as a potential gamma accidental dosimeter through the absorption spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharita, M.H., E-mail: prscientific1@aec.org.sy [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus, P.O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic); Yousef, S.; Bakr, S. [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus, P.O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2012-05-01

    Various types of commercial glass (ordinary windows, cathode ray tubes, glass kitchenware) have been studied as potential accidental radiation dosimeters. The proposed method utilizes the changes in the glasses' absorption spectra as a result of irradiation. A {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation cell has been used to irradiate samples with doses ranging from 5 to 200 Gy. The transmittance was measured using a photospectrometer (UV-visible spectrometry). The results demonstrate that the transmittance spectra of most of the glass samples change in linear proportion to the exposure dose. Moreover, the study considers the fading effect on the absorption spectra of the irradiated samples for fading times up to 100 days at room temperature. The results of this work demonstrate that several widely used types of glass can be used as high-dose accidental dosimeters for doses ranging between 8 and 200 Gy. A reasonable calibration line can be established for any irradiated glass sample by heating, re-irradiating with standard doses and measuring the related absorption coefficient. Further investigations are needed to decrease the minimum detectable dose of the proposed method and to study the effect of glass composition on radiation response.

  11. Responsabilidad del empleador por accidentes de trabajo y enfermedades profesionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mangarelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. 1. Responsabilidad del “empleador” por accidentes de trabajo y enfermedades profesionales. Noción. 2. La indemnización “tarifada”. Fundamento de su procedencia 3. Responsabilidad del empleador por accidentes de trabajo o enfermedades profesionales en la ley uruguaya (ley Nº 16.074. 4. La “ampliación” de la responsabilidad del empleador por el derecho común en el derecho uruguayo (artículo 7 ley Nº 16.074. 5. Requisitos para la ampliación de la responsabilidad patronal: culpa grave en el incumplimientode normas de seguridad y prevención. 6. La culpa grave. Concepto. 7. El modelo del hombre a tener en cuenta en la “culpa grave” no es el del buen padre de familia. 8. El grado de la culpa no puede ser medido por el resultado del accidente. 9. Se aplican las eximentes de la responsabilidad civil. 10. Distintos ámbitos de la responsabilidad patronal por accidentes de trabajo o enfermedades profesionales: A ante la víctima o los derecho-habientes; B ante el Banco de Seguros del Estado; C ante el Ministerio de Trabajo ySeguridad Social. 11. Recupero del BSE en caso de culpa grave en el incumplimiento de normas de seguridad y prevención. Requisitos 12. Responsabilidad del empleador en caso de accidente de trabajo o enfermedad profesional sufrido por un adolescente. Conclusiones.

  12. 21 CFR 369.9 - General warnings re accidental ingestion by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General warnings re accidental ingestion by... OVER-THE-COUNTER SALE Definitions and Interpretations § 369.9 General warnings re accidental ingestion... possibility of accidental ingestion of drugs, it is not only suggested but is recommended that one of these...

  13. Accidental nuclear excursion recuplex operation 234-5 facility: Final medical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuqua, P. A.

    1962-04-07

    The April 7, 1962 criticality accident involving human exposures was the first to have occurred in any production facility at Hanford. The accidental nuclear excursion did not result in any mechanical damage or spread of contamination. Three employees received over-exposure to gamma and neutron radiation. None were fatally exposed and in each case the over-exposure was recognized promptly. Following an initial period of medical observation and testing, the men were released to work. They continued to be followed clinically. Clinical studies performed were hematological procedures including leukocyte chromosome aberrations, morphologically aberrant blood cells, bone marrow evaluations, blood chemistry determinations, amino acid excretion studies, seminal fluid, urinary gonadotropins and estrogen excretion studies, testicular biopsies and crystalline lens examinations. These studies, along with a brief description of the accident and of the dosimetry, are summarized in this report by those participating in the studies. In view of the dose ranges received in these cases, both the negative and positive findings are considered to be of unusual interest due to the lack of knowledge of effects following human exposures at these levels.

  14. The radiological impact on the Greater London population of postulated accidental releases from the Sizewell PWR

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, G N; Charles, D; Hemming, C R

    1983-01-01

    This report contains an assessment of the radiological impact on the Greater London population of postulated accidental releases from the Sizewell PWR. Three of the degraded core accident releases postulated by the CEGB are analysed. The consequences, conditional upon each release, are evaluated in terms of the health impact on the exposed population and the impact of countermeasures taken to limit the exposure. Consideration is given to the risk to the Greater London population as a whole and to individuals within it. The consequences are evaluated using the NRPB code MARC (Methodology for Assessing Radiological Consequences). The results presented in this report are all conditional upon the occurrence of each release. In assessing the significance of the results, due account must be taken of the frequency with which such releases may be predicted to occur.

  15. First radon measurements and occupational exposure assessments in underground geodynamic laboratory the Polish Academy of Sciences Space Research Centre in Książ Castle (SW Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, Lidia; Przylibski, Tadeusz A

    2016-12-01

    The article presents the results of the first radon activity concentration measurements conducted continuously between 17(th) May 2014 and 16(th) May 2015 in the underground geodynamic laboratory of the Polish Academy of Sciences Space Research Centre in Książ. The data were registered with the use of three Polish semiconductor SRDN-3 detectors located the closest (SRDN-3 No. 6) to and the furthest (SRDN-3 No. 3) from the facility entrance, and in the fault zone (SRDN-3 No. 4). The study was conducted to characterize the radon behaviour and check it possibility to use with reference to long- and short-term variations of radon activity concentration observed in sedimentary rocks strongly fractured and intersected by systems of multiple faults, for integrated comparative assessments of changes in local orogen kinetics. The values of radon activity concentration in the underground geodynamic laboratory of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN) Space Research Centre in Książ undergo changes of a distinctly seasonal character. The highest values of radon activity concentration are recorded from late spring (May/June) to early autumn (October), and the lowest - from November to April. Radon activity concentrations varied depending on the location of measurement points. Between late spring and autumn they ranged from 800 Bq·m(-3) to 1200 Bq·m(-3), and even 3200 Bq·m(-3) in the fault zone. Between November and April, values of radon activity concentration are lower, ranging from 500 Bq·m(-3) to 1000 Bq·m(-3) and 2700 Bq·m(-3) in the fault zone. The values of radon activity concentration recorded in the studied facility did not undergo short-term changes in either the whole annual measuring cycle or any of its months. Effective doses received by people staying in the underground laboratory range from 0.001 mSv/h to 0.012 mSv/h. The mean annual effective dose, depending on the measurement site, equals 1 or is slightly higher than 10 mSv/year, while the maximum

  16. El accidente de trabajo "in itinere" = Working in the accident "itinere"

    OpenAIRE

    Pinillas Carro, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    El trabajo aqu?? presentado aborda el estudio de los accidentes de trabajo, regulado al art??culo 115 Ley General de Seguridad Social, y m??s concretamente el accidente in itinere, claro est??, sin olvidar tampoco el accidente en misi??n. En la primera parte del trabajo, y una vez desarrollado el concepto de accidente de trabajo, el presente trabajo se centra en el estudio pormenorizado del accidente in itinere y sus requisitos (teleol??gico, topogr??fico, cronol??gico y mec??nico). Por otro ...

  17. Formation of Glycidyl Fatty Acid Esters Both in Real Edible Oils during Laboratory-Scale Refining and in Chemical Model during High Temperature Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weiwei; Liu, Guoqin; Liu, Xinqi

    2016-07-27

    In the present study, the formation mechanisms of glycidyl fatty acid esters (GEs) were investigated both in real edible oils (soybean oil, camellia oil, and palm oil) during laboratory-scale preparation and refining and in chemical model (1,2-dipalmitin (DPG) and 1-monopalmitin (MPG)) during high temperature exposure (160-260 °C under nitrogen). The formation process of GEs in the chemical model was monitored using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the roasting and pressing process could produce certain amounts of GEs that were much lower than that produced in the deodorization process. GE contents in edible oils increased continuously and significantly with increasing deodorization time below 200 °C. However, when the temperature exceeded 200 °C, GE contents sharply increased in 1-2 h followed by a gradual decrease, which could verify a simultaneous formation and degradation of GEs at high temperature. In addition, it was also found that the presence of acylglycerol (DAGs and MAGs) could significantly increase the formation yield of GEs both in real edible oils and in chemical model. Compared with DAGs, moreover, MAGs displayed a higher formation capacity but substantially lower contribution to GE formation due to their low contents in edible oils. In situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopic evidence showed that cyclic acyloxonium ion intermediate was formed during GE formation derived from DPG and MPG in chemical model heated at 200 °C.

  18. NSAIDs and the risk of accidental falls in the elderly: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegeman, Judith; van den Bemt, Bart J F; Duysens, Jacques; van Limbeek, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Accidental falls, especially those occurring in the elderly, are a major health and research topic nowadays. Besides environmental hazards and the physiological changes associated with aging, medication use (e.g. benzodiazepines, vasodilators and antidepressants) and polypharmacy are significant risk factors for falling as well. Exposure to NSAIDs has been associated with accidental falls too, although information on this area is less consistent. Therefore, the main goal of this review is to provide an updated overview of all the evidence published on the risk of falling due to NSAID use thus far. A systematic literature search for material published between 1966 and March 2008 in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Exerpta Medica, Current Contents and Science Citation Index was combined with a check of the reference lists of all the retrieved articles. Validity and data extraction of the eligible articles was assessed by adapted criteria, based on checklists that were originally developed to assess case-control or cohort studies. From the 16 selected articles, two studies were rejected because of clustering of data and one article was excluded because it contained the same data as that in one of the included articles. None of the articles retrieved included a randomized controlled trial. The remaining 13 studies all showed some lack in completeness of their statistical methods, and much variation in reporting of effects. The overall mean age was high in the study populations, leaving the results to be poorly generalizable to a larger population and other age categories. Despite these imperfections, all studies showed an increased risk of falling due to NSAID use (four significant, nine non-significant), and a tendency towards an increased fall risk with NSAID exposure could be noted. The results shown in the present review suggest that an increased risk for accidental falls is probable when elderly individuals are exposed to NSAIDs. The

  19. Leading global projects for professional and accidental project leaders

    CERN Document Server

    Moran, Robert T

    2008-01-01

    This book is a must-read for anyone responsible for projects and initiatives that span functional and geographical divides. Authors Moran and Youngdahl bring extensive experience and learning from industry practice to present a clear and straightforward treatment of the leadership skills and knowledge required to lead projects that are global in nature. They have written the first book of its kind to address the three essential skills of global project leaders - strategic project management, project leadership, and cross-cultural leadership. The authors argue that global project leadership is an essential skill in our project-based world and that we are all either intentional or accidental project leaders. Intentional project leaders pursue formal project management education and even certification whereas accidental project leaders find themselves leading global projects and initiatives as a result of a special assignment or promotion. Moran and Youndahl have found that the vast majority of global projects ...

  20. Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ze-Guo

    2014-04-09

    Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect.

  1. Accidental Electric Shock during Pregnancy: Reflection on a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Awwad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives - Data on fetal effects following accidental electric shock during pregnancy are scarce. We report on a case of accidental maternal electric shock associated with benign fetal arrhythmia in a woman at 28 weeks' gestation. Study Design - Case report. Results - Although electrocution involving low-voltage, low-frequency current has been associated with fatal cardiac arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities, two protective parameters in the present case likely reduced the fetal injury: the dry skin at the site of current entry and the hand-to-hand pathway of current flow. Conclusion - Because the pathophysiology of electric injury is altered during pregnancy, assessment of fetal well-being should be prompted no matter how trivial an incident may appear.

  2. Accidental Electric Shock during Pregnancy: Reflection on a Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwad, Johnny; Hannoun, Antoine; Fares, Farah; Ghazeeri, Ghina

    2013-10-01

    Objectives Data on fetal effects following accidental electric shock during pregnancy are scarce. We report on a case of accidental maternal electric shock associated with benign fetal arrhythmia in a woman at 28 weeks' gestation. Study Design Case report. Results Although electrocution involving low-voltage, low-frequency current has been associated with fatal cardiac arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities, two protective parameters in the present case likely reduced the fetal injury: the dry skin at the site of current entry and the hand-to-hand pathway of current flow. Conclusion Because the pathophysiology of electric injury is altered during pregnancy, assessment of fetal well-being should be prompted no matter how trivial an incident may appear.

  3. Reducing the loss of vaccines from accidental freezing in the cold chain: the experience of continuous temperature monitoring in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, John; Lydon, Patrick; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-02-11

    Accidental freezing of vaccines is a growing threat and a real risk for national immunization programs when the potency of many vaccines can be compromised if these are exposed to sub-zero temperatures in the cold chain. In Tunisia, this issue is compounded by using sub-standard domestic cold chain equipment instead of equipping the program with medical refrigerators designed specifically for storing vaccines and temperature sensitive pharmaceuticals. Against this backdrop, this paper presents the findings of a demonstration project conducted in Tunisia in 2012 that tested the impact of introducing several freeze prevention solutions to mitigate the risk of accidental freezing of vaccines. The main finding is that, despite the continued use of underperforming domestic refrigerators, continuous temperature monitoring using new technologies combined with other technological interventions significantly reduced the prevalence of accidental exposure to freezing temperatures. These improvements were noticed for cold chain storage at regional, district and health center levels, and during the transport legs that were part of the demonstration conducted in the regions of Kasserine in the South-Eastern part of Tunisia. Subsequent to introducing these freeze prevention solutions, the incidence of freeze alarms was reduced and the percent of time the temperatures dropped below the 2 °C recommended threshold. The incidence of freeze alarms at health center level was reduced by 40%. Lastly, the solutions implemented reduced risk of freezing during transport from 13.8% to 1.7%. Although the solution implemented is not optimal in the longer term because domestic refrigerators are used extensively in district stores and health centers, the risk of accidental freezing is significantly reduced by introducing the practice of continuous temperature monitoring as a standard. The management of the cold chain equipment was strengthened as a result which helps protect the potency of

  4. D-transallethrin: An unusual agent for accidental poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Kedari; Rajesh Kulkarni; Chhaya Valvi; Aarti Kinikar; Sandhya Khadse

    2016-01-01

    D-trans allethrin, a pyrethroid, is commonly used as a coil mosquito repellant. There are very few reports of human toxicity due to D-trans allethrin. We present the case of an 11-month-old boy who presented to us with excessive salivation, altered sensorium and convulsions following alleged accidental ingestion of a coil containing D-transallethrin. He required mechanical ventilation for a brief period and made a full recovery. Although rare, the possibility of pyrethroid poisoning should be...

  5. Accidental surface contamination - The effect on trace element analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklyn, C.B. E-mail: franklyn@aec.co.za; Ueckermann, H.; Merkle, R.K.W

    2001-07-01

    We discuss the accidental contamination of samples during a micro-PIXE study of Rh, Pd and Pt partition coefficients in the Fe-S and Ni-S systems. Trace amounts of Ni and Cu, mounted separately in epoxy as markers, were found to be present in various phases in the sections, sometimes selectively in specific mineral phases. This contamination is believed to result from polishing during preparation. Further surface contamination from conductive Ag paste was also observed.

  6. Accidental IV administration of epinephrine instead of midazolam at colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Gado

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug administration errors appear to be a major source of iatrogenic harm to hospitalized patients. They often, particularly in the case of epinephrine, have catastrophic consequences both for the patient and the well-meaning provider. The following incident is a medication error case report which illustrates one way that incorrect medication may be administered. IV epinephrine was accidentally administered instead of midazolam at colonoscopy.

  7. ECMO for Cardiac Rescue after Accidental Intravenous Mepivacaine Application

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Froehle; Haas, Nikolaus A.; Guenther Kirchner; Deniz Kececioglu; Eugen Sandica

    2012-01-01

    Mepivacaine is a potent local anaesthetic and used for infiltration and regional anaesthesia in adults and pediatric patients. Intoxications with mepivacaine affect mainly the CNS and the cardiovascular system. We present a case of accidental intravenous mepivacaine application and intoxication of an infant resulting in seizure, broad complex bradyarrhythmia, arterial hypotension and finally cardiac arrest. The patient could be rescued by prolonged resuscitations and a rapid initiation of ECM...

  8. La prevención de accidentes (3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinchilla, M.

    1966-04-01

    Full Text Available The financial loss due to working accidents is very substantial, quite apart from the actual loss of human lives. Hence avoiding these accidents is a most important matter. The accident index in the various industries shows a rate of increase that is larger than should be the case in proportion to the development of the industries concerned, and the larger number of employees. The fact that these indexes are smaller in many countries, however, shows that these accidents can be considerably reduced if suitable measures are taken to avoid them. In chapter 2 of our magazine, issue no. 178, a variety of reasons were discussed that may originate accidents, although these causes are not directly linked to the accident itself. In this article mention is made of some of the measures that can be taken in the handling of cutting and welding equipment, and also of inflammable liquids, to prevent possible accidents.El peso de los accidentes de trabajo sobre la economía supone cantidades muy grandes que, independientemente del inestimable valor de una vida humana, realzan la importancia de la prevención de accidentes. Los índices de accidentes muestran en diferentes industrias un crecimiento mayor de lo que debería corresponder proporcionalmente, habida cuenta del crecimiento laboral. El hecho de que en distintos países los índices sean inferiores, demuestra que se pueden conseguir buenos frutos si se concede primordial importancia a que los trabajos se realicen con las debidas medidas de seguridad. En el Capítulo 2, número 178 de esta Revista, se detallaron diversas causas que pueden originar un accidente sin estar ligadas en forma directa con una tarea determinada. En el presente trabajo se indican algunas de las medidas que deben observarse en el manejo de los equipos de soldadura y corte, así como en el transvase de líquidos inflamables.

  9. "Dead in hot bathtub" phenomenon: accidental drowning or natural disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Fumiko; Osawa, Motoki; Hasegawa, Iwao; Seto, Yoshihisa; Tsuboi, Akio

    2013-06-01

    Sudden death in a hot bathtub occurs frequently in Japan, particularly among elderly people. This retrospective report describes the epidemiologic circumstances and physical findings at autopsy. In total, 268 victims were found unconscious or dead during tub bathing. After postmortem examination, the manner of death was judged as natural cause in 191 (71.2%) and accidental drowning in 63 (23.5%) cases. Mean age (SD) was 72.1 (15.2) years with no significant difference between males and females. A seasonal difference was evident: the winter displayed the highest frequency. Drowning water inhalation, which was confirmed in 72% of victims, was absent in the others. The most common observations on postmortem examination were cardiac ischemic changes and cardiomegaly. Water inhalation signs were evident in a significantly fewer victims exhibiting these factors. In contrast, inhalational findings were observed more frequently in victims with other backgrounds such as alcohol intake, mobility disturbance, and history of epilepsy. Annual mortality in Japan from accidental drowning in persons aged older than 75 years is 33 deaths per 100,000 population. However, this number may be considerably underestimated as pathologists tend to regard lack of water inhalation as indicating a natural cause of death. Confusion in diagnosis remains consequent to the accidental and natural aspects of "dead in hot bathtub" phenomenon.

  10. Accidental falls involving medical implant re-operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Kevin L; Lau, Edmund; Moore, Tara; Heller, Michelle F

    2009-10-01

    Implantation of medical devices is becoming more prevalent, and as a result, a greater number of patients who fall accidentally are expected to have a medical implant. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) was used to evaluate hospital admissions following accidental falls involving re-operation of existing medical implants (hip, knee, spine, and fracture fixation) from 1990 to 2005. From 1990 to 2005, hospitalisations due to accidental falls on level surfaces increased by 306%, and hospitalisations due to falls from stairs increased by 310%. Falls involving orthopaedic revision surgery (re-operation) are relatively rare, but the incidence has increased by approximately 35%. Hospital stays after falls on level surfaces involving re-operation were 1.0 day (median) longer and cost 50% (median) more than those that did not involve re-operation in 2005. After staircase falls, hospital stays for patients undergoing re-operations were 2.0 days (median) longer and cost 108% (median) more. The greater hospital costs and hospital stay for patients needing re-operations indicate that additional medical treatment was required.

  11. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  12. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-12-31

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  13. Sensitivity of the IRD whole-body counter for in vivo measurements in the case of accidental intakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, B.M.; Lucena, E.A.; Dantas, A.L.A., E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.br, E-mail: eder@ird.gov.br, E-mail: adantas@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil), Laboratorio de Monitoracao In Vivo

    2016-07-01

    Intakes of radionuclides by humans may occur in the fuel cycle, nuclear medicine, biological research and in TENORM industries and in case of accidents involving workers and the general public. In vivo monitoring is recognized as a useful tool for the evaluation of such exposures. The IRD whole-body counter consists of a shielded room equipped with four HPGe and two NaI(Tl) detectors. The system is able to identify and quantify photon emitters in the range from 10 to 3000 keV. The minimum detectable activities for most of the radionuclides of interest allow occupational monitoring as well evaluation of accidental intakes. (author)

  14. Laboratory trials reveal that exposure to extreme raining events prior to metamorphosis affect the post-settlement performance of an estuarine crab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Felisa; Silva Neto, Gina M.; Rosa, Rui; Queiroga, Henrique; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-03-01

    Meteorological forcing can impact planktonic communities, with extreme raining events promoting salinity decreases and triggering larval mortality in estuarine plankton. The present study evaluated how exposure to low salinities prior to metamorphosis of Carcinus maenas megalopae (last larval stage) may affect its ability to metamorphose and the post-metamorphosis performance of juvenile crabs. An extreme raining event that promoted a generalized decrease in salinity (from 25 to 10) in the whole water column of one of the main channels of a coastal lagoon was mimicked in the laboratory. Wild megalopae of C. maenas were collected and kept individually without any food at salinities of 10 or 25 (S10 or S25) until they either died or metamorphosed to the first crab instar (C1). Specimens metamorphosing in 5 days or less following their collection were labeled as early settlers (ES10 and ES25), while those taking more than 5 days were labeled as late settlers (LS10 and LS25). All newly metamorphosed crabs were kept individually until C5 at a salinity of 25 and fed ad libitum, with their intermolt periods and carapace width (CW) being recorded. Osmotic stress did not affect the survival or ability to metamorphose of C. maenas megalopae, with 89% of all larvae in both salinities being able to metamorphose. This result is supported by the ability of this larval stage to hyper-regulate. Nonetheless, an exposure of late settling megalopae to low salinities prior to metamorphosis promotes the occurrence of juvenile crabs with a smaller CW. The deleterious effects of exposing late settling megalopae to low salinities appears to be magnified during early benthic life, with C5 originating from treatment LS10 displaying a significantly smaller CW (4.87 ± 0.28 mm) and lower wet weight (WW) (28.95 ± 4.62 mg). On the other side, C5 originating from ES25 exhibited a significantly higher CW (5.90 ± 0.33 mm) and WW (50.89 ± 8.14 mg). The nutritional vulnerability experienced by

  15. Evaluating the suitability of Hydrobia ulvae as a test species for sediment metal toxicity testing applying a tissue residue approach to metal mixtures in laboratory and field exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Olivia; Rodríguez, Antonio; Blasco, Julián

    2013-05-01

    A major weakness in evaluating the suitability of a biomonitor organism is the poor ability to predict the variability of the bioavailability of metals from measured environmental concentrations. In this study, the intertidal gastropod Hydrobia ulvae was used to evaluate its suitability as a test organism for assessing sediment metal toxicity. Toxicity tests were run with sediments spiked with copper, cadmium and zinc applied both as single metal and as a mixture to investigate toxicological interactions evaluating different lethal and sublethal effects. Dose-response relationships were constructed based both on tissue residue approach and particulate metal concentrations. Because metal-spiked sediments used in routine toxicity tests often do not exhibit the same adsorption/desorption kinetics as the natural sediments, the laboratory results were compared to 10-d bioassays conducted with natural field sediments collected from the Guadalete estuary (SW Spain). Highly significant correlations between tissue residue concentrations and particulate metal concentrations were found for all metal-spiked or field-collected and demonstrated that: (i) H. ulvae readily accumulated copper and cadmium in response to contamination and (ii) dietary uptake was determined to be the most significant route of metal exposure. The comparison of the modeled tissue residue-response curve developed from the mixture tests was in good agreement with the results from the bioassay conducted with field sediments and strongly demonstrated that H. ulvae is also a suitable test organism for assessing copper sediment toxicity. In contrast, the dose-response curve expressed as a function of total particulate metal concentrations would fail in predicting effect, erroneously assessing higher metal toxicity.

  16. Accidental introductions are an important source of invasive plants in the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehan, Nora E; Murphy, Julia R; Thorburn, Lukas P; Bradley, Bethany A

    2013-07-01

    Preventing new plant invasions is critical for reducing large-scale ecological change. Most studies have focused on the deliberate introduction of nonnatives via the ornamental plant trade. However, accidental introduction may be an important source of nonnative, invasive plants. Using Web and literature searches, we compiled pathways of introduction to the United States for 1112 nonnative plants identified as invasive in the continental United States. We assessed how the proportion of accidentally and deliberately introduced invasive plants varies over time and space and by growth habit across the lower 48 states. Deliberate introductions of ornamentals are the primary source of invasive plants in the United States, but accidental introductions through seed contaminants are an important secondary source. Invasive forbs and grasses are the most likely to have arrived accidentally through seed contaminants, while almost all nonnative, invasive trees were introduced deliberately. Nonnative plants invading eastern states primarily arrived deliberately as ornamentals, while a high proportion of invasive plants in western states arrived accidentally as seed contaminants. Accidental introductions may be increasing in importance through time. Before 1850, 10 of 89 (11%) of invasive plants arrived accidentally. After 1900, 20 of 65 (31%) arrived accidentally. Recently enacted screening protocols and weed risk assessments aim to reduce the number of potentially invasive species arriving to the United States via deliberate introduction pathways. Increasing proportions of accidentally introduced invasive plants, particularly associated with contaminated seed imports across the western states, suggest that accidental introduction pathways also need to be considered in future regulatory decisions.

  17. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann-Stanzer, K.; Stenzel, S.

    2009-04-01

    Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. Uncertainties in the meteorological input together with incorrect estimates of the source play a critical role for the model results. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation gives a short introduction to the project and presents the results of task 1 (meteorological input). The results of task 2 are presented by Stenzel and Baumann-Stanzer in this session. For the aim of this project, the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) was used. INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) data were calculated with 1 km horizontal resolution and

  18. Imaging of accidental contamination with F-18-solution; a quick trouble-shooting procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalevi Kairemo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To the best of our knowledge, imaging of accidental exposure to radioactive fluorine-18 (F-18 due to liquid spill has not been described earlier in the scientific literature. The short half-life of F-18 (t½=110 min, current radiation safety requirements, and Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP regulations on radiopharmaceuticals have restrained the occurrence of these incidents. The possibility of investigating this type of incidents by gamma and positron imaging is also quite limited. Additionally, a quick and precise analysis of radiochemical contamination is cumbersome and sometimes challenging if the spills of radioactive materials are low in activity. Herein, we report a case of accidental F-18 contamination in a service person during a routine cyclotron maintenance procedure. During target replacement, liquid F-18 was spilled on the person responsible for the maintenance. The activities of spills were immediately measured using contamination detectors, and the photon spectrum of contaminated clothes was assessed through gamma spectroscopy. Despite protective clothing, some skin areas were contaminated, which were then thoroughly washed. Later on, these areas were imaged, using positron emission tomography (PET, and a gamma camera (including spectroscopy. Two contaminated skin areas were located on the hand (9.7 and 14.7 cm2, respectively, which showed very low activities (19.0 and 22.8 kBq respectively at the time of incident. Based on the photon spectra, F-18 was confirmed as the main present radionuclide. PET imaging demonstrated the shape of these contaminated hot spots. However, the measured activities were very low due to the use of protective clothing. With prompt action and use of proper equipments at the time of incident, minimal radionuclide activities and their locations could be thoroughly analyzed. The cumulative skin doses of the contaminated regions were calculated at 1.52 and 2.00 mSv, respectively. In the follow-up, no skin

  19. Evaluation and treatment of accidental autoinjection of epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyko, Vincent; Cohen, Victor; Jellinek-Cohen, Samantha P; Pearl-Davis, Michelle

    2013-05-01

    A case of accidental autoinjection of epinephrine is described. A 47-year-old man arrived at the emergency department after accidental injection of epinephrine with an autoinjector into his left thumb. His vital signs were stable at admission. The patient was allergic to nuts and thought he may have eaten something containing a pine nut. The patient reported feeling itching in his throat but had no shortness of breath or swollen tongue. He tried to self-administer an epinephrine injection, but it did not inject. While he was checking the device, it accidently injected into his left thumb pad. A review of systems revealed throat discomfort, a tingling sensation of the tongue, and a left-thumb puncture with pain. Physical examination of the left thumb pad revealed a pale, cool thumb with diminished capillary refill and punctuate black discoloration at the site of injection. Topical nitroglycerin paste was applied but had no effect, so terbutaline was ordered. The terbutaline injection was prepared as a 1:1 preparation of terbutaline sulfate 1 mg/mL and 0.9% sodium chloride injection. The immediate effects were the return of color from pale white to red and observable perfusion to the area within seconds. After 20 minutes, the red color remained, with observable perfusion and warmth, in addition to complete neurosensory function. Sixty minutes after terbutaline administration, the patient was discharged home. A 47-year-old man who accidentally injected himself in the thumb with an epinephrine autoinjector was successfully treated with subcutaneous terbutaline. The treatment had an immediate effect, including revascularization and resolution of pain.

  20. Numerical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piskunov, V.N.; Aloyan, A.A.; Gerasimov, V.M.; Pinaev, V.S.; Golubev, A.I.; Yanilkin, Yu.V.; Ivanov, N.V.; Nikonov, S.N.; Kharchenko, A.I. [and others

    1995-05-01

    Statement of work for contract 006 {open_quotes}Mathematical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport{close_quotes} implies that the final result of the activity within this task will be VNIIEF developed techniques which will provide for the prediction of the post-accidental environment. Report [1] presents the description of physical models and calculation techniques which were chosen by VNIIEF to accomplish this task. These techniques were analysed for their capabilities, the areas of their application were defined, modifications within contract 006 were described, the results of test and methodical calculations were presented. Moreover, the experimental data were analysed over the source parameters and contamination measurements which can be used in the comparison with the calculation results. Based an these data this report compares the calculation results obtained with VNIIEF calculation techniques with the LANL-presented experimental results. The calculations which statements and results are given in section 1, included the following processes: explosion cloud ascent dynamics and jet release origin; aerosols kinetics in the release source including composite particle origin in the explosion cloud caused by radioactive substance sorption an the soil particles; contaminant transport in atmosphere and their in-site fallout due to the accidental explosions and fires; atmospheric flow dynamics and industrial contamination transfer over the complicated terrain. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data. Section 2 presents the parameters for a typical source in the explosion accidents based an the experimental results and calculated data from Section 1, as well as contamination patterns were calculated with basic technique {open_quotes}Prognosis{close_quotes}.

  1. Accidental Degeneracy and Berry Phase of Resonant States

    CERN Document Server

    Mondragón, A

    1997-01-01

    We study the complex geometric phase acquired by the resonant states of an open quantum system which evolves irreversibly in a slowly time dependent environment. In analogy with the case of bound states, the Berry phase factors of resonant states are holonomy group elements of a complex line bundle with structure group C*. In sharp contrast with bound states, accidental degeneracies of resonances produce a continuous closed line of singularities formally equivalent to a continuous distribution of "magnetic" charge on a "diabolical" circle, in consequence, we find different classes of topologically inequivalent non-trivial closed paths in parameter space.

  2. Accidente Isquémico Transitorio: la gran oportunidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Dolores Fernández Couto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El ictus constituye la primera causa de muerte en mujeres y la segunda causa de muerte global en España1, así como la primera causa de discapacidad adquirida en la edad adulta y la segunda causa de demencia por detrás de la enfermedad de Alzheimer. El accidente isquémico transitorio (AIT precede al ictus isquémico en un 23% de los casos2. Esta señal de alarma, lejos de poder considerarse banal, constituye una gran oportunidad para la prevención.

  3. Clinical perspectives on osteogenesis imperfecta versus non-accidental injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elaine Maria

    2015-12-01

    Although non-accidental injuries (NAI) are more common in cases of unexplained fractures than rare disorders such as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), ruling out OI and other medical causes of fracture is always indicated. The majority of OI patients can be diagnosed with the help of family history, physical examination, and radiographic findings. In particular, there are a few radiological findings which are seen more commonly in NAI than in OI which may help guide clinician considerations regarding the probability of either of these diagnoses. At the same time, molecular testing still merits careful consideration in cases with unexplained fractures without obvious additional signs of abuse.

  4. Costes e Investigación de Accidentes Laborales

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Quintana, Jon Ander

    2013-01-01

    En España en el año 2011, según datos del Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE), se registraron 581.150 accidentes con baja laboral de los cuales el 88% sucedieron dentro de jornada laboral. Observando estas cifras, es obvio que hay una carencia en el sistema preventivo y, por los tanto, es necesario buscar una solución. Son tres los factores de la baja inversión en prevención: la falta de concienciación de las empresas, la falta del conocimiento de las consecuencias de un...

  5. D-transallethrin: An unusual agent for accidental poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kedari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available D-trans allethrin, a pyrethroid, is commonly used as a coil mosquito repellant. There are very few reports of human toxicity due to D-trans allethrin. We present the case of an 11-month-old boy who presented to us with excessive salivation, altered sensorium and convulsions following alleged accidental ingestion of a coil containing D-transallethrin. He required mechanical ventilation for a brief period and made a full recovery. Although rare, the possibility of pyrethroid poisoning should be kept in mind in children who present with sudden onset unconsciousness or convulsions.

  6. Measurement of accidental coincidences for higher activity sources

    CERN Document Server

    Yull Hwang, H; Jae-Oh, P; Man-Lee, J; Kie-Lee, M

    1999-01-01

    The multi-channel time-scaling (MCTS) technique has been applied for the measurement of accidental coincidences for the cases of higher activity samples in beta-gamma coincidence counting. Two beta samples of sup 1 sup 3 sup 4 Cs were prepared and the nominal activities observed in the beta counter were about 7000 and 11000 s sup - sup 1 , respectively. The obtained true coincidence rates are independent of resolving times and dead times. They are compared with those calculated from the mathematical model derived by Cox and Isham.

  7. Tratamiento de Terapia Ocupacional en el accidente cerebrovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Domingo García, AM

    2006-01-01

    RESUMENEntre los muchos pacientes que necesitan tratamiento rehabilitador en Terapia Ocupacional están los que en la edad adulta han sufrido un accidente cerebrovascular.Uno de los factores de riesgo asociados con más frecuencia a las alteraciones del sistema nervioso central es el progresivo envejecimiento de la población, debido a esto orientaré el siguiente artículo hacia la intervención sobre la población geriátrica.La Terapia Ocupacional ofrece un tratamiento global que abarca las áreas ...

  8. Accidentes de trabajo en un hospital de agudos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Bermúdez B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: El mejor conocimiento de los determinantes y circunstancias de producción de los accidentes laborales, favorecerá la implantación de medidas correctoras. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir la evolución temporal de los accidentes de trabajo (AT y determinar los factores de riesgo de baja médica en el Hospital Dr. Peset de Valencia. MÉTODOS: Descripción y análisis retrospectivo de los accidentes de trabajo producidos en el Hospital Dr. Peset de Valencia durante los años 1992 a 1995. Se estimó por métodos deterministas la tendencia y estacionalidad de las series (índices estacionales, IE. Se aplicó un modelo de regresión logística para identificar los factores pronósticos de baja médica y determinar su probabilidad de ocurrencia . RESULTADOS: Las tasas más elevadas de AT se produjeron entre los trabajadores de cocina y lavandería (10,00 AT por 100 trabajadores-año. Los AT con baja médica mantienen una tendencia cercana a cero siendo febrero el mes con I.E más elevado (IE=139,8. Los que cursan sin baja médica tienen una tendencia positiva (r²=0,23, p<0,0001, siendo mayo el mes de mayor siniestralidad (IE=134,2. La probabilidad de que el accidente curse con baja médica aumenta significativamente con la edad, cuando se produce por la tarde, si ha tenido lugar en cocina/lavandería, y si se trata de un esguince o tendinitis. CONCLUSIONES: la actuación sobre la siniestralidad en los AT que cursen con IT, debería centrarse sobre los trabajos menos cualificados y en las áreas de cocina y lavandería.

  9. ECMO for Cardiac Rescue after Accidental Intravenous Mepivacaine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Froehle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mepivacaine is a potent local anaesthetic and used for infiltration and regional anaesthesia in adults and pediatric patients. Intoxications with mepivacaine affect mainly the CNS and the cardiovascular system. We present a case of accidental intravenous mepivacaine application and intoxication of an infant resulting in seizure, broad complex bradyarrhythmia, arterial hypotension and finally cardiac arrest. The patient could be rescued by prolonged resuscitations and a rapid initiation of ECMO and survived without neurological damage. The management strategies of this rare complication including promising other treatment options with lipid emulsions are discussed.

  10. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

    2009-04-01

    Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). One of the main tasks of this project was 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation introduces the project models used and presents the results of task 2. The results of task 1 are presented by Baumann-Stanzer and Stenzel in this session. For the purpose of this study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAFER System, SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer), COMPAS. A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed in order to reliably predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. The models simulated the accidental release from the mentioned above gases and estimates the potential toxic areas. Since the inputs requirement differ from model to model, and the outputs are based on different criteria for toxic areas and exposure, a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is needed.

  11. Multidisciplinary approach to "accidental" falls in the elderly: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizia, Gianluigi; Testa, Gianluca; Mazzella, Francesca; Cacciatore, Francesco; Ungar, Andrea; Masotti, Giulio; Rengo, Franco; Abete, Pasquale

    2008-06-01

    Falls in the elderly are commonly and often wrongly identified as "accidental". We report a case of an elderly woman admitted to first aid for a trauma due to an accidental fall. Geriatric multidisciplinary evaluation revealed mild cognitive impairment associated with depressive symptoms; both findings made the anamnesis uncertain. Syncope algorithm was applied and "tachy-brady form of sick sinus syndrome" was diagnosed. Differential diagnosis between "accidental" and "apparently accidental" falls in elderly patients is very difficult but a multidisciplinary geriatric evaluation can clarify the correct diagnosis.

  12. Accidental and experimental Closantel intoxication in Uruguayan sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Rivero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An outbreak of Closantel intoxication in sheep in Uruguay is described. The outbreak occurred in a group of 1300 weaning lambs treated orally with a 10% solution of Closantel. One hundred forty eight lambs showed clinical signs of intoxication and 14 died. The clinical signs included mydriasis, nystagmus, and negative pupillary reflex, bilateral blindness, bump into objects, and lateral movement of the head. No macroscopic lesions were observed. The histological lesions of the retina were cytoplasmic vacuolization in ganglion cells and in cells of the inner and outer nuclear layers with different degrees of atrophy. Vacuolization and axonal degeneration were observed in the optic nerve, with multifocal areas of fibrosis and infiltration by lymphocytes and Gitter cells. To reproduce the intoxication, four sheep were given two, four and 10 times the therapeutic dose of Closantel (0.1g/kg of BW. Only the animals receiving 10 times the recommended dose showed clinical signs. The histological examination of the lesions in experimental sheep showed similar results to those described in the accidental outbreak, except for the absence of optic nerve fibrosis and inflammation, characterizing an acute phase. Axonal myelin sheaths loss, fibroblasts and collagen fibers were observed in the ultrastructural study of the optic nerve of accidental intoxicated animals. The optic nerve of experimentally intoxicated animals had vacuoles that separated the myelin sheaths of axons. To prevent outbreaks it is suggested to weigh the animals before Closantel administration to avoid errors in dose calculation.

  13. Accidental acute alcohol intoxication in infants: review and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minera, Gabriella; Robinson, Evan

    2014-11-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication in children younger than 18 months old is both rarely documented and rarely fatal. Previous case reports suggest hypoglycemia and faster than normal rates of alcohol elimination found in children with acute alcohol intoxication compared with adults, but data are lacking. A 2-month-old infant presented with a decreased mental status after accidental ingestion of alcohol. He was diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication, with a blood alcohol level of 330 mg/dL and was hyperglycemic (167 mg/dL). Alcohol elimination rate was calculated to be 21.6 mg/dL/h, similar to that in adults. To our knowledge, this case is the second youngest documented patient with accidental alcohol intoxication via ingestion in the United States. We present a rare case report of acute alcohol intoxication in an infant and a review of the literature. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Although rare in the literature, poison control data suggests that alcohol poisoning in very young children is not rare. Emergency physicians should be prepared for the management of infants with alcohol poisoning. This case report and review brings attention to this subject and briefly discusses ethanol metabolism in infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Accidental childhood death and the role of the pathologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, R W

    2000-01-01

    The following study provides an overview of accidental childhood death. This study is based on a review of 369 cases of fatal childhood accidents taken from the records of the Department of Histopathology, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, Australia, over a 34-year period from 1963 to 1996. Data provide information on deaths due to motor vehicle accidents, drownings, accidental asphyxia, burns, poisonings, electrocution, and miscellaneous trauma. In addition, certain categories have undergone further examination, including asphyxial deaths due to unsafe sleeping environments and unsafe eating practices, drowning deaths, and deaths on farms, following identification of significant child safety problems in these areas as part of the "Keeping Your Baby and Child Safe" program. Previously unrecognized dangers to children detected through this program include mesh-sided cots, V-shaped pillows, and certain types of stroller-prams. The production of information pamphlets and packages for parents and the recall of certain dangerous products following recommendations made by pathologists demonstrate that pediatric and forensic pathologists have an important role to play in preventive medicine issues and in formulating public health strategies.

  15. Pathological Findings in Accidental Electrocution in a Horse (Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Florin Gal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the veterinarians are dealing with a number of cases that require forensic expertise. Such a circumstance could be the accidental electrocution in animals, one of the causes of unnatural death. There is a scarcity with reference to the pathological findings in veterinary forensic medicine. In this paper, we present the main lesions that occurred in a horse with accidental electrocution that was presented for complete necropsy survey. A horse corpse was sent to the Pathology Department (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Romania for a full medical survey. Preliminary results and external examination: the body was in rigor mortis; from the nasal cavities drained out reddish foam and in the mouth was observed the presence of ingested feed (straw that was not chewed, suggesting a quick death. The findings detected after internal examination of the carcass were poor blood coagulability, haemorrhagic diathesis throughout the body, with haemorrhages of various sizes in different body regions (e.g., muscles of the withers, in the gluteal muscle, the mucosa of epiglottis, larynx, trachea, in the interstitium of the lung, and ecchymosis in the left kidney. Some other lesions detected were infarcts and haemorrhages in the fundic region of the stomach’s mucosa. In electrocution, haemorrhages are most often located in the respiratory tract, aspect observed in our case too. However, the diagnosis of electrocution has to corroborate the necropsy findings (which are not specific, with some other data such as the fulminant death and inspection of power source.

  16. accidentes y otras causas violentas en la sierra de Sonora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Eloy Rivas Sánchez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación sociológica cuyo objeto fue explorar el papel que ha jugado el modelo hegemónico de masculinidad en la ocurrencia de muertes derivadas de accidentes y varias formas de ejercicio de la violencia en una comunidad rural de la sierra de Sonora. Estos resultados difieren de aquellos que tradicionalmente los estudios de las masculinidades han mostrado para México y América Latina. El modelo dominante de masculinidad en las comunidades estudiadas no ha condicionado significativamente la ocurrencia de las muertes por accidentes y otras causas violentas. La responsabilidad, la disciplina y el respeto hacia las personas consideradas socialmente débiles (mujeres, ancianos y niños, principalmente son características que debe poseer un hombre de verdad en las comunidades estudiadas. El apego de los hombres a estas formas de comportamiento y su temor a perder honorabilidad como hombre de verdad si se desvían de estas normas de conducta los ha llevado a evitar una serie de prácticas temerarias que pudieron poner en riesgo su vida y la de otras personas.

  17. Potential radiological exposure rates resulting from hypothetical dome failure at Tank W-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The main plant area at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contains 12 buried Gunite tanks that were used for the storage and transfer of liquid radioactive waste. Although the tanks are no longer in use, they are known to contain some residual contaminated sludges and liquids. In the event of an accidental tank dome failure, however unlikely, the liquids, sludges, and radioactive contaminants within the tank walls themselves could create radiation fields and result in above-background exposures to workers nearby. This Technical Memorandum documents a series of calculations to estimate potential radiological exposure rates and total exposures to workers in the event of a hypothetical collapse of a Gunite tank dome. Calculations were performed specifically for tank W-10 because it contains the largest radioactivity inventory (approximately half of the total activity) of all the Gunite tanks. These calculations focus only on external, direct gamma exposures for prescribed, hypothetical exposure scenarios and do not address other possible tank failure modes or routes of exposure. The calculations were performed with established, point-kernel gamma ray modeling codes.

  18. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - utility for the fire brigades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

    2009-09-01

    Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios”), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Viennese fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program of the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. For the purpose of our study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Trace (Safer System), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer). A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed, with the models above, in order to predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. Furthermore, the application of the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in case of toxic release was

  19. Evaluation of occupational exposure to chemicals in research and development laboratories in the petrochemical industry; Avaliacao da exposicao ocupacional a substancias quimicas em laboratorios de pesquisa e desenvolvimento na area petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebelo, Paulo Antonio de Paiva [Seguranca, Meio Ambiente, Eficiencia Energetica e Saude (SMES). Gerencia de Saude (Brazil)], e-mail: prebelo@petrobras.com.br; Coeli, Medina [Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao do Rio de Janeiro (UN-RIO). Gerencia de Seguranca(Brazil)], e-mail: leo.medina@petrobras.com.br; Rosa, Henrique Vicente Della; Nascimento, Elizabeth de Souza [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas (Brazil)], e-mails: hdellarosa@toxikon.com, esnasci@usp.br

    2009-04-15

    A sectional study was conducted on workers in 137 laboratories, 30 pilot units and support areas of a research center in order to evaluate the level of occupational exposure based on environmental measurements from the 2004's workplace environmental protection program with the aim of assessing the risk of health injury arising from occupational exposure to chemical agents. The recognition task was developed using interviews and secondary data from safety programs covering health and environmental risks of all procedures, facilities / equipment and activities. 2,738 cases of exposure were identified, involving exposure to 484 chemicals (with 246 agents and 238 chemicals mixtures), ranging in purity and concentration, found in 243 jobs. The target population comprised 1,563 workers exposed to chemical agents, subdivided into 168 different Homogeneous Group of Expose with an average of 4.55 employees per group. In each workplace were identified, on average, 4.91 HGE and, on average, 3.73 chemicals. Regarding the 2,738 cases of chemical agents versus activity, in 14% of the cases (382 cases) there was daily exposure, in 82.1% (2,249 cases) the frequency of use varied from two to three times a week and in the remaining 3.9% (107 cases) the use was sporadic, about once a week or less. Nine of the ten most frequently used substances were hydrocarbons. 977 samples (485 samples of chemicals and 492 samples of benzene) were measured. Out of the total number of measurements taken, 91.9% of the evaluations corresponding to 92.5% of workers who work with chemicals, presented environmental measurement results below the action level, demonstrating, therefore, exposure to low concentrations.Chemical were found in most areas of work and accounts for 81% of occupational exposure in the evaluated laboratories. There is evidence of presence of one given substance in various locations, as well as of a great diversity of frequently used chemicals, since in every workplace 3

  20. Tritium Research Laboratory safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, D.A.

    1979-03-01

    Design and operational philosophy has been evolved to keep radiation exposures to personnel and radiation releases to the environment as low as reasonably achievable. Each experiment will be doubly contained in a glove box and will be limited to 10 grams of tritium gas. Specially designed solid-hydride storage beds may be used to store temporarily up to 25 grams of tritium in the form of tritides. To evaluate possible risks to the public or the environment, a review of the Sandia Laboratories Livermore (SLL) site was carried out. Considered were location, population, land use, meteorology, hydrology, geology, and seismology. The risks and the extent of damage to the TRL and vital systems were evaluated for flooding, lightning, severe winds, earthquakes, explosions, and fires. All of the natural phenomena and human error accidents were considered credible, although the extent of potential damage varied. However, rather than address the myriad of specific individual consequences of each accident scenario, a worst-case tritium release caused indirectly by an unspecified natural phenomenon or human error was evaluated. The maximum credible radiological accident is postulated to result from the release of the maximum quantity of gas from one experiment. Thus 10 grams of tritium gas was used in the analysis to conservatively estimate the maximum whole-body dose of 1 rem at the site boundary and a maximum population dose of 600 man-rem. Accidental release of this amount of tritium implies simultaneous failure of two doubly contained systems, an occurrence considered not credible. Nuclear criticality is impossible in this facility. Based upon the analyses performed for this report, we conclude that the Tritium Research Laboratory can be operated without undue risk to employees, the general public, or the environment. (ERB)

  1. Annual course of retraining for the occupational exposure personnel of the laboratory of internal dosimetry; Curso anual de reentrenamiento para el POE del laboratorio de dosimetria interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro L, M.M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2002-09-15

    The general objective of this report is to instruct the personnel in the basic concepts of radiological protection and in the Manual of Procedures of Radiological Safety of the Laboratory of Internal Dosimetry. Also, to exchange experiences during the activities that are carried out in the laboratory and in the knowledge of abnormal situations. The referred Manual consists of 14 procedures and 5 instructions which are listed in annex of this document. The content of this course consists of three topics: 1. Basic principles of radiological protection to reduce the received dose equivalent. 2. Use of radiation measurer equipment. 3. Emergency procedures of the laboratory of internal dosimetry. (Author)

  2. Two Cases of Accidental Injection of Epinephrine into a Digit Treated with Subcutaneous Phentolamine Injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P. Bodkin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental injection into the digit from an epinephrine autoinjection device can cause discoloration, pain, and paresthesias. Although loss of digit is rare, treatment in the emergency department is commonly aimed at vasodilation of the affected tissue. We report two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into the digits that were successfully treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injection with no adverse events.

  3. Involving Parents in Indicated Early Intervention for Childhood PTSD Following Accidental Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobham, Vanessa E.; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome…

  4. A novel method to detect accidental oesophageal intubation based on ventilation pressure waveforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmar, Alain F.; Absalom, Anthony; Monsieurs, Koenraad G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Emergency endotracheal intubation results in accidental oesophageal intubation in up to 17% of patients. This is frequently undetected thereby adding to the morbidity and mortality. No current method to detect accidental oesophageal intubation in an emergency setting is both highly sensi

  5. Accidental Perforation of Endotracheal Tube during Orthognathic Surgery for Maxillary Prognathism - a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Jain

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary prognathism(excess is a congenital anomaly characterized by facial disfigurement. Accidental perforation of endotracheal tube during corrective surgery is not an uncommon complication. A case of accidental perforation of endotracheal tube during surgery and its management is presented here.

  6. Two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into a digit treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, Ryan P; Acquisto, Nicole M; Gunyan, Holly; Wiegand, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Accidental injection into the digit from an epinephrine autoinjection device can cause discoloration, pain, and paresthesias. Although loss of digit is rare, treatment in the emergency department is commonly aimed at vasodilation of the affected tissue. We report two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into the digits that were successfully treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injection with no adverse events.

  7. [Accidental hypothermia in adults: taking charge by the SAMU of Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deny, N; Bresard, D; Bertrand, J; Poisvert, M

    1990-02-01

    Thirty one cases of accidental hypothermia have been taken in care by the SAMU de Paris during the year of 1987. The accidental hypothermias happening in the cities are, most of the time, moderated and not very serious. The search for a cause is a prime necessity. The prognosis is based on that search to guide and advise the patients.

  8. Brugada syndrome unmasked by accidental inhalation of gasoline vapors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranjcec, Darko; Bergovec, Mijo; Rougier, Jean-Sébastien

    2007-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the gene SCN5A can cause Brugada syndrome (BrS), which is an inherited form of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. We report the case of a 46-year-old patient, with no previous medical history, who had ventricular fibrillation after accidental inhalation of gasoline...... vapors. His electrocardiogram (ECG) showed a typical type-1 BrS pattern that persisted after the acute event. Genetic investigations allowed the identification of a novel SCN5A mutation leading to a frame-shift and early termination of the channel protein. Biochemical and cellular electrophysiology...... experiments confirmed the loss-of-function of the mutant allele. The patient was implanted with a cardioverter/defibrillator....

  9. Comparative toxicology of intentional and accidental heroin overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darke, Shane; Duflou, Johan; Torok, Michelle

    2010-07-01

    The demographic and toxicological characteristics of deliberate (SUI, n = 50) and accidental (ACC, n = 927) fatal heroin overdose cases were examined. SUI cases were more likely to be female, had lower body mass indices, were more likely to be enrolled in treatment and less likely to have hepatic pathology. The median blood morphine concentration of SUI cases was significantly higher than that of ACC cases (0.70 vs. 0.40 mg/L, p 1 mg/L were seen among 38.0% of SUI cases compared to 13.9% of ACC cases. Being a member of the SUI group remained a significant independent predictor of higher morphine concentrations after controlling for the effects of potential confounders (p cocaine (p overdose cases, rather than overdose being a parasuicidal phenomenon per se.

  10. Accidental intraoral formalin injection: a rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakant Dandriyal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Formalin is a hazardous chemical that needs cautious handling and special storage. Owing to its disinfectant and fixative (i.e. for preserving pathologic tissue specimens in histopathology properties, it is widely used in dentistry. Although, the terms formaldehyde and formalin are often confused as being identical, these are different as to the concentrations of the primary component i.e. formaldehyde. In fact, the common fixative available as 10% neutral buffered formalin is actually a 4% solution of formaldehyde (i.e., a 10% solution made from a 37-40% commercially pure formaldehyde solution. This case report describes an unfortunate case of accidental injection instead of local anesthetic, of formalin into the pterygomandibular space in a 35-year old woman during inferior alveolar nerve block for surgical removal of impacted lower right third molar and its successful management by cautious debridement (under both local and general anesthesia and empirical drug therapy (utilizing analgesics and antibiotics.

  11. Accidental intraoral formalin injection: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandriyal, Ramakant; Giri, Kolly Yada; Alam, Sarwar; Singh, Aishwarya Pratap

    2014-10-30

    Formalin is a hazardous chemical that needs cautious handling and special storage. Owing to its disinfectant and fixative (i.e. for preserving pathologic tissue specimens in histopathology) properties, it is widely used in dentistry. Although, the terms formaldehyde and formalin are often confused as being identical, these are different as to the concentrations of the primary component i.e. formaldehyde. In fact, the common fixative available as 10% neutral buffered formalin is actually a 4% solution of formaldehyde (i.e., a 10% solution made from a 37-40% commercially pure formaldehyde solution). This case report describes an unfortunate case of accidental injection instead of local anesthetic, of formalin into the pterygomandibular space in a 35-year old woman during inferior alveolar nerve block for surgical removal of impacted lower right third molar and its successful management by cautious debridement (under both local and general anesthesia) and empirical drug therapy (utilizing analgesics and antibiotics).

  12. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODELLING OF ACCIDENTAL FLOOD WAVES PROPAGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorand Catalin STOENESCU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The study presented in this article describes a modern modeling methodology of the propagation of accidental flood waves in case a dam break; this methodology is applied in Romania for the first time for the pilot project „Breaking scenarios of Poiana Uzului dam”. The calculation programs used help us obtain a bidimensional calculation (2D of the propagation of flood waves, taking into consideration the diminishing of the flood wave on a normal direction to the main direction; this diminishing of the flood wave is important in the case of sinuous courses of water or with urban settlements very close to the minor river bed. In the case of Poiana Uzului dam, 2 scenarios were simulated with the help of Ph.D. Eng. Dan Stematiu, plausible scenarios but with very little chances of actually producing. The results were presented as animations with flooded surfaces at certain time steps successively.

  13. Accidental endoscopic finding of Anisakis simplex in human colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Aloia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anisakidosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the ingestion of nematodes belonging to the family of Anisakidae. Human infection is caused by intake of raw or undercooked sea fish and cephalopods infested by Anisakis larvae. We present a case of accidental endoscopic finding of an alive nematode adhering to distal ascending colon in a 32 years old man, submitted to colonoscopy owing to recent onsets of rectal bleeding of likely hemorrhoidal origin. The nematode, removed from colon by means of biopsy forceps, has been identified as L3 larvae of A. simplex by a light microscope. Histological examination of intestinal mucosa showed a mild fibrosis of lamina propria, characterized by focal lymphocytic inflammation and scattered infiltration of eosinophils. The patient reported the intake of marinated anchovies 3 days before endoscopic examination.

  14. Correcting for accidental correlations in saturated avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, J A; Chandrasekara, R; Tang, Z; Cheng, C; Ling, A

    2016-02-22

    In this paper we present a general method for estimating rates of accidental coincidence between a pair of single photon detectors operated within their saturation regimes. By folding the effects of recovery time of both detectors and the detection circuit into an "effective duty cycle" we are able to accomodate complex recovery behaviour at high event rates. As an example, we provide a detailed high-level model for the behaviour of passively quenched avalanche photodiodes, and demonstrate effective background subtraction at rates commonly associated with detector saturation. We show that by post-processing using the updated model, we observe an improvement in polarization correlation visibility from 88.7% to 96.9% in our experimental dataset. This technique will be useful in improving the signal-to-noise ratio in applications which depend on coincidence measurements, especially in situations where rapid changes in flux may cause detector saturation.

  15. Siquieros accidental painting technique: a fluid mechanics point of view

    CERN Document Server

    Zetina, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This is an entry for the Gallery of Fluid Motion of the 65th Annual Meeting of the APS-DFD (fluid dynamics video). This video shows an analysis of the 'accidental painting' technique developed by D.A. Siqueiros, a famous Mexican muralist. We reproduced the technique that he used: pouring layers of paint of different colors on top of each other. We found that the layers mix, creating aesthetically pleasing patterns, as a result of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Due to the pigments used to give paints their color, they can have different densities. When poured on top of each other, if the top layer is denser than the lower one, the viscous gravity current undergoes unstable as it spread radially. We photograph the process and produced slowed-down video to visualize the process.

  16. Subtraction of "accidentals" and the validity of Bell tests

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, C H

    1999-01-01

    In some key Bell experiments, including two of the well-known ones by Alain Aspect, 1981-2, it is only after the subtraction of ``accidentals'' from the coincidence counts that we get violations of Bell tests. The data adjustment, producing increases of up to 60% in the test statistics, has never been adequately justified. Few published experiments give sufficient information for the reader to make a fair assessment. There is a straightforward and well known realist model that fits the unadjusted data very well. In this paper, the logic of this realist model and the reasoning used by experimenters in justification of the data adjustment are discussed. It is concluded that the evidence from all Bell experiments is in urgent need of re-assessment, in the light of all the known ``loopholes''. Invalid Bell tests have frequently been used, neglecting an improved one derived by Clauser and Horne in 1974. ``Local causal'' explanations for the observations have been wrongfully neglected.

  17. Preparing a Community Hospital to Manage Work-related Exposures to Infectious Agents in BioSafety Level 3 and 4 Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Risi, George F.; Bloom, Marshall E.; Hoe, Nancy P.; Arminio, Thomas; Carlson, Paul; Powers, Tamara; Feldmann, Heinz; Wilson, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Construction of new BioSafety Level (BSL) 3 and 4 laboratories has raised concerns regarding provision of care to exposed workers because of healthcare worker (HCW) unfamiliarity with precautions required. When the National Institutes of Health began construction of a new BSL-4 laboratory in Hamilton, Montana, USA, in 2005, they contracted with St. Patrick Hospital in Missoula, Montana, for care of those exposed. A care and isolation unit is described. We developed a training program for HCWs...

  18. Use of Vaccinia Virus Smallpox Vaccine in Laboratory and Health Care Personnel at Risk for Occupational Exposure to Orthopoxviruses - Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Brett W; Harms, Tiara J; Reynolds, Mary G; Harrison, Lee H

    2016-03-18

    On June 25, 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended routine vaccination with live smallpox (vaccinia) vaccine (ACAM2000) for laboratory personnel who directly handle 1) cultures or 2) animals contaminated or infected with replication-competent vaccinia virus, recombinant vaccinia viruses derived from replication-competent vaccinia strains (i.e., those that are capable of causing clinical infection and producing infectious virus in humans), or other orthopoxviruses that infect humans (e.g., monkeypox, cowpox, and variola) (recommendation category: A, evidence type 2 [Box]). Health care personnel (e.g., physicians and nurses) who currently treat or anticipate treating patients with vaccinia virus infections and whose contact with replication-competent vaccinia viruses is limited to contaminated materials (e.g., dressings) and persons administering ACAM2000 smallpox vaccine who adhere to appropriate infection prevention measures can be offered vaccination with ACAM2000 (recommendation category: B, evidence type 2 [Box]). These revised recommendations update the previous ACIP recommendations for nonemergency use of vaccinia virus smallpox vaccine for laboratory and health care personnel at risk for occupational exposure to orthopoxviruses (1). Since 2001, when the previous ACIP recommendations were developed, ACAM2000 has replaced Dryvax as the only smallpox vaccine licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and available for use in the United States (2). These recommendations contain information on ACAM2000 and its use in laboratory and health care personnel at risk for occupational exposure to orthopoxviruses.

  19. Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding risk of HIV infection through accidental needle stick injuries among dental students of Raichur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadavalli Guruprasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Injuries from occupational accidents are associated with agents of biological risk, as they are the gateway to serious and potentially lethal infectious diseases that can be spread by contact between people. Several studies have demonstrated that dental students are among the most vulnerable to blood borne exposure. Materials and Methods: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding risk of HIV transmission through accidental needle stick injury amongst dental students and providing supportive and proper guidelines regarding needle stick injuries and HIV infection. Study Design: This was a cross sectional study done at a dental college attached to a tertiary care hospital which included third, fourth year students and interns. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using Chi square test. Results: Of the 120 students 13(11% were not even aware that virus could be transmitted through infected needle. A significant proportion of the third year students i.e. 27 (67.5% were not aware of correct method of disposal of disposable needles and syringes as against interns 17(42.5%. Around 31(26% said that they would promote active bleeding at the site of injury and 37(30% said they would take post exposure prophylaxis. Conclusion: Dental professionals are at a risk of occupational acquisition of HIV primarily due to accidental exposure to infected blood and body fluids. There is a need of correcting the existing misconceptions through education programmes early in the course and providing supportive and proper guidelines regarding needle stick injuries and HIV infection.

  20. Bioassay Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Bioassay Laboratory is an accredited laboratory capable of conducting standardized and innovative environmental testing in the area of aquatic ecotoxicology. The...

  1. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory The Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose...

  2. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics LaboratoryThe Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose of...

  3. Characterization and Comparison of Injuries Caused by Accidental and Non-accidental Blunt Force Trauma in Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarapanich, Nida P; McCobb, Emily C; Reisman, Robert W; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Intarapanich, Pichai P

    2016-07-01

    Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) are often difficult to distinguish from non-accidental injury (NAI). This retrospective case-control study compared animals with known MVA trauma against those with known NAI. Medical records of 426 dogs and cats treated after MVA and 50 after NAI were evaluated. Injuries significantly associated with MVA were pelvic fractures, pneumothorax, pulmonary contusion, abrasions, and degloving wounds. Injuries associated with NAI were fractures of the skull, teeth, vertebrae, and ribs, scleral hemorrhage, damage to claws, and evidence of older fractures. Odds ratios are reported for these injuries. MVA rib fractures were found to occur in clusters on one side of the body, with cranial ribs more likely to fracture, while NAI rib fractures were found to occur bilaterally with no cranial-caudal pattern. Establishing evidence-based patterns of injury may help clinicians differentiate causes of trauma and may aid in the documentation and prosecution of animal abuse. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. FACTORES DE RIESGO QUE OCASIONAN ACCIDENTES LABORALES EN EL PERSONAL DE ENFERMERÍA DE UNA CLÍNICA ACREDITADA DE LA CIUDAD DE AREQUIPA, 2007-2008

    OpenAIRE

    GARCIA SUTTA, PATRICIA CONCEPCION

    2014-01-01

    FACTORES DE RIESGO CONCEPTUALIZACIÓN TIPOS RIESGOS NO MECÁNICOS RUIDOS RADIACIONES IONIZANTES ILUMINACIÓN CALOR FRÍO RIESGOS FÍSICOS MECÁNICOS RIESGOS QUÍMICOS RIESGOS ERGONÓMICOS POSTURA RIESGOS BIOLÓGICOS CARGA DE TRABAJO LABORAL DEFINICIÓN ACCIDENTES LABORALES ACCIDENTE CAUSAS BÁSICAS Y CAUSAS INMEDIATAS ACCIDENTES LABORALES CAUSAS DE LOS ACCIDENTES TIPOS DE ACCIDENTE TIPOS DE ACCIDENTES LABORALES

  5. FACTORES DE RIESGO QUE OCASIONAN ACCIDENTES LABORALES EN EL PERSONAL DE ENFERMERÍA DE UNA CLÍNICA ACREDITADA DE LA CIUDAD DE AREQUIPA, 2007-2008

    OpenAIRE

    GARCIA SUTTA, PATRICIA CONCEPCION

    2014-01-01

    FACTORES DE RIESGO CONCEPTUALIZACIÓN TIPOS RIESGOS NO MECÁNICOS RUIDOS RADIACIONES IONIZANTES ILUMINACIÓN CALOR FRÍO RIESGOS FÍSICOS MECÁNICOS RIESGOS QUÍMICOS RIESGOS ERGONÓMICOS POSTURA RIESGOS BIOLÓGICOS CARGA DE TRABAJO LABORAL DEFINICIÓN ACCIDENTES LABORALES ACCIDENTE CAUSAS BÁSICAS Y CAUSAS INMEDIATAS ACCIDENTES LABORALES CAUSAS DE LOS ACCIDENTES TIPOS DE ACCIDENTE TIPOS DE ACCIDENTES LABORALES

  6. Portal venous gas emboli after accidental ingestion of concentrated hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Rebekah A; Schmidt, Suzanne M

    2013-09-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is a common household product. It is clear and odorless making it easy to confuse with water, especially when improperly stored. Concentrated formulations are also available for consumer purchase. We report a case of hydrogen peroxide ingestion in a child and discuss the potential consequences and treatment of such an exposure. A 12-year-old boy accidentally ingested a sip of concentrated hydrogen peroxide. He rapidly developed hematemesis and presented to the Emergency Department. His initial work-up was unremarkable, and his symptoms resolved quickly. However, diffuse gas emboli were found within the portal system on abdominal computed tomography. The child was treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy and later found to have gastric irritation as well as an ulcer on endoscopy. He recovered fully from the incident. We present this case to increase awareness of the dangers of hydrogen peroxide ingestion in children. Fortunately, the child in this case recovered fully, but emergency physicians should be aware of the potential consequences and therapeutic options. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1980-December 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Rittmaster, R.S.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report updates, for 1980 through 1982, the results of continuing medical surveillance of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in March 1954. The originally exposed Marshallese population comprised 64 persons on Rongelap Atoll who each received, on the average, an estimated 190 rads of absorbed external gamma radiation, 18 on Ailingnae Atoll who received 110 rads, and 159 on Utirik who received 11 rads. There were, in addition, 3 persons in utero on Rongelap, 1 person in utero on Ailingnae, and 8 persons in utero on Utirik who are considered exposed. The recipients of primary medical care include exposed and comparison populations as well as a rather large number of additional beneficiaries who are seen on a humanitarian basis of practical need and resource availability. In recent years, about 1400 people have been seen annually. This report, however, deals with four clearly defined groups: the remaining individuals who were exposed to radioactive fallout on Rongelap, Ailingnae, and Utirik in 1954 (including those in utero), and a comparison population of individuals from Rongelap who were unexposed. The number of persons now in each exposure category are 51, 12, 116, and 137, respectively. 100 references, 4 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

  8. Modelling accidental hypothermia effects on a human body under different pathophysiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccarelli, Alberto; Boileau, Etienne; Parthimos, Dimitris; Nithiarasu, Perumal

    2017-06-05

    Accidental exposure to cold water environment is one of the most challenging situations in which hypothermia occurs. In the present work, we aim to characterise the energy balance of a human body subjected to such extreme environmental conditions. This study is carried out using a recently developed computational model and by setting boundary conditions needed to simulate the effect of cold surrounding environment. A major finding is the capacity of the body core regions to maintain their temperature high for a substantial amount of time, even under the most extreme environmental conditions. We also considered two disease states that highlight the spectrum of possible pathologies implicated in thermal regulation of the human body. These states are (i) cardiomyopathy, which affects the operating capacity of the heart, and (ii) malnutrition, which directly impairs the body's ability to regulate heat exchange with the environment. We have found that cardiomyopathy has little influence on the thermal balance of the human body, whereas malnutrition has a profound negative effect on the thermal balance and leads to dramatic reduction in core temperature.

  9. Accidental Children Poisoning With Methadone: An Iranian Pediatric Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayena JABBEHDARI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Jabbehdari S, Farnaghi F, Shariatmadari SF, Jafari J, Mehregan FF, Karimzadeh P. Accidental Children Poisoning With Methadone: An Iranian Pediatric Sectional Study. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Autumn;7(7: 32-34.ObjectiveToxic poisoning with methadone is common in children in Iran. Our study was carried out due to the changing pattern of methadone poisoning in recent years and increasing methadone toxicity. Materials & MethodsIn this descriptive-sectional study, all of the methadone poisoned children younger than 12 years who were admitted to the Loghman Hakim Hospital in 2012, were assessed. Clinical symptoms and signs, para-clinical findings, and treatment were evaluated. ResultsIn this study, 16 boys and 15 girls who had been poisoned by methadone were enrolled. The mean age of patients was 55 months. All patients had been poisoned randomly or due to parent’s mistakes. The mean time of symptoms onset after methadone consumption was 1 hour and 30 Min, indicating a relatively long time after onset of symptoms.Clinical findings were drowsiness (75%, miotic pupil (68 %, vomiting (61%, rapid shallow breathing (57% and apnea (40%. In paraclinical tests, respiratory acidosis (69% and leukocytosis (55.2% were seen. The most important finding was increase in distance of QT in ECG (23.8%. The mean time of treatment with naloxone infusion was 51 hours. Three percent of patients had a return of symptoms after discontinuation of methadone. In patients with apnea, a longer course of treatment was required, and this difference was significant. Also, 17% of patients with apnea had aspiration pneumonia, which was statistically significant. ConclusionWe suggest long time treatment with naloxone and considering the probability of return of symptoms after discontinuation of methadone.ReferencesGoldfrank L, Flomenbaum N, Lewin N. Goldfrank’s Toxicologic Emergencies. 7th ed. McGraw–Hill 2002; p. 590-607.Schelble DT. Phosgene and

  10. La prevención de accidentes (2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinchilla, M.

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Everyone prefers to work in those organizations where their dignity of human beings is respected. One of the most efficient means at the disposal of any firm, to improve the morale of the individual employees, and to establish a spirit of cooperation between the individual and the firm, is to set up a program of accident benefit. It will avoid direct and indirect losses due to working accidents, as analyzed in a previous article, and it will make it possible to improve total performance of each worker, since he will work in a more favorable environment, free from worry about potential danger to his person. It is almost impossible to describe in detail all those items that should be taken into account in a safety program. None the less, and as an indication of their diversity, some sources of danger are mentioned in this chapter, which are closely connected with human safety, such as public curiosity, travelling from one place to another, cleanliness and order.Todas las personas prefieren desempeñar sus tareas en aquellas organizaciones que tienen hacia ellos las consideraciones correspondientes a un ser humano. Uno de los medios más eficaces a disposición de cualquier empresa para elevar la moral del individuo y para crear un lazo de cooperación común entre el individuo y la empresa, es la de llevar a cabo un programa de prevención de accidentes, programa que redundará en el doble fruto: evitar las pérdidas directas e indirectas causadas por los accidentes de trabajo que se detallaron en un trabajo anterior, y conseguir aumentar el rendimiento del operario al hacerle un ambiente más grato por la preocupación que se demuestra hacia su persona. Es casi imposible detallar todos aquellos puntos que se deben tener en cuenta en un programa de seguridad; sin embargo, y como exponente de su diversidad, se señalan en este capítulo algunas causas, que, sin estar ligadas directamente con el trabajo individual, no obstante se encuentran

  11. Factores de riesgo asociados a los accidentes en el hogar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Arlaes Yero

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio analítico retrospectivo (caso-control sobre accidentes en el hogar ocurridos en la población de dos consultorios de médicos de familia del área centro en el municipio Sancti Spiritus, durante el año 1996. Se tuvo en cuenta la ocurrencia de estos eventos en la población general, la incidencia estuvo representada por 77 casos y se escogió como grupo control el resto de la población. Como resultado se observó que los accidentes del hogar (AH son más frecuentes en mujeres en edades avanzadas, con una distribución temporal mayor en el cuarto trimestre del año. Los AH fueron más frecuentes en los individuos que ingieren psicofármacos en las edades extremas de la vejez. El horario de ocurrencia más frecuente fue el de la tarde; y los lugares, la cocina y el patio. Como tipo de lesión predominó la contusión y la herida. Se concluyó además que la presencia de factores predisponentes constituyen riesgo de gran magnitud en la aparición de los AHAn analytical retrospective study (case-control about home accidents occurred among the population of 2 family physician’s offices in the central area of the municipality of Sancti Spiritus, during 1996, was conducted. The occurrence of such events in the general population was taken into account. Incidence was represented by 77 cases and the rest of the population was chosen as a control group. As a result, it was observed that home accidents were more frequent in aged women, with a greater temporary distribution in the fourth trimester of the year. Home accidents took place more frequently in those individuals taking psychotropic drugs a extreme advanced ages. Most of the accidents occurred in the afternoon, and the kitchen and the backyard were the commonest places. Contusions and wounds were the predominant injuries. It was concluded that the presence of predisposing factors is a high risk for the occurrence of home accidents

  12. Optimization of exposure and countryside waste management for different accidental radioactive release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guétat, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    Since the Fukushima accident, Japanese scientists have been intensively monitoring ambient radiations in the highly contaminated territories situated within 80 km of the nuclear site. The surveys that were conducted through mainly carborne, airborne and in situ gamma-ray measurement devices, enabled to efficiently characterize the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of air dose rates induced by Caesium-134 and Caesium-137 in the terrestrial systems. These measurements revealed that radiation levels decreased at rates greater than expected from physical decay in 2011-2012 (up to a factor of 2), and dependent on the type of environment (i.e. urban, agricultural or forest). Unlike carborne measurements that may have been strongly influenced by the depuration of road surfaces, no obvious reason can be invoked for airborne measurements, especially above forests that are known to efficiently retain and recycle radiocaesium. The purpose of our research project is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the data acquired by Japanese, and identify the environmental mechanisms or factors that may explain such decays. The methodology relies on the use of a process-based and spatially-distributed dynamic model that predicts radiocaesium transfer and associated air dose rates inside/above a terrestrial environment (e.g., forests, croplands, meadows, bare soils and urban areas). Despite the lack of site-specific data, our numerical study predicts decrease rates that are globally consistent with both aerial and in situ observations. The simulation at a flying altitude of 200 m indicated that ambient radiation levels decreased over the first 12 months by about 45% over dense urban areas, 15% above evergreen coniferous forests and between 2 and 12% above agricultural lands, owing to environmental processes that are identified and discussed. In particular, we demonstrate that the decrease over evergreen coniferous regions might be due the combined effects of canopy depuration (through biological and physical mechanisms) and the shielding of gamma rays emitted from the forest floor by vegetation. Our study finally suggests that airborne surveys might have not reflected dose rates at ground level in forest systems, which were predicted to slightly increase by 5 to 10% during the same period of time.

  13. Evaporative deposition patterns of bacteria from a sessile drop: effect of changes in surface wettability due to exposure to a laboratory atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Kyle F; Maier, Raina M; Norris, Theresa A; Beam, Brooke M; Mudalige, Anoma; Pemberton, Jeanne E; Curry, Joan E

    2010-05-18

    Evaporative deposition from a sessile drop is a simple and appealing way to deposit materials on a surface. In this work, we deposit living, motile colloidal particles (bacteria) on mica from drops of aqueous solution. We show for the first time that it is possible to produce a continuous variation in the deposition pattern from ring deposits to cellular pattern deposits by incremental changes in surface wettability which we achieve by timed exposure of the mica surface to the atmosphere. We show that it is possible to change the contact angle of the drop from less than 5 degrees to near 20 degrees by choice of atmospheric exposure time. This controls the extent of drop spreading, which in turn determines the architecture of the deposition pattern.

  14. Funciones superiores en pacientes con accidente cerebro vascular.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rodríguez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios realizados en Chile hasta la fecha no permiten detectar de manera significativa el deterioro neuropsicológico causado por el accidente cerebro vascular (ACV y el impacto que éste tiene en el paciente a nivel de su desenvolvimiento diario y familiar. Con base a esto el objetivo de esta investigación fue elaborar un perfil de deterioro neuropsicológico de las diversas funciones cerebrales superiores causado por un ACV, en un grupo de 50 pacientes de la Unidad de Medicina Física del Hospital San José al cuál se le administró un Protocolo de Evaluación Neuropsicológica, comparándose luego con un grupo control de 50 sujetos evaluados con el mismo protocolo. Se encuentra que sobre un 20% de la población con ACV evaluada presenta deterioro en al menos uno de los ítems evaluados, siendo las funciones ejecutivas, la memoria a largo plazo y la memoria a corto plazo las áreas mayoritariamente afectada en la población evaluada.

  15. Individual dose due to radioactivity accidental release from fusion reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Baojie; Ni, Muyi; Wei, Shiping

    2017-04-05

    As an important index shaping the design of fusion safety system, evaluation of public radiation consequences have risen as a hot topic on the way to develop fusion energy. In this work, the comprehensive public early dose was evaluated due to unit gram tritium (HT/HTO), activated dust, activated corrosion products (ACPs) and activated gases accidental release from ITER like fusion reactor. Meanwhile, considering that we cannot completely eliminate the occurrence likelihood of multi-failure of vacuum vessel and tokamak building, we conservatively evaluated the public radiation consequences and environment restoration after the worst hypothetical accident preliminarily. The comparison results show early dose of different unit radioactivity release under different conditions. After further performing the radiation consequences, we find it possible that the hypothetical accident for ITER like fusion reactor would result in a level 6 accident according to INES, not appear level 7 like Chernobyl or Fukushima accidents. And from the point of environment restoration, we need at least 69 years for case 1 (1kg HTO and 1000kg dust release) and 34-52years for case 2 (1kg HTO and 10kg-100kg dust release) to wait the contaminated zone drop below the general public safety limit (1mSv per year) before it is suitable for human habitation.

  16. Tratamiento endovascular del accidente vascular encefálico agudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. G. Francisco Mena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La alternativa de terapia neuroendovascular para un tratamiento del accidente vascular encefálico agudo es una área de la medicina en rápida expansión. El rescate endovascular del infarto cerebral agudo tiene como principal objetivo la rápida reperfusión del vaso ocluido utilizando la trombolisis intra-arterial cerebral y distintos métodos de trombectomía mecánica o colocación permanente de neurostent. El tratamiento neuro-endovascular de la hemorragia subaracnoidea aguda aneurismática también se ha establecido como la terapia de elección e incluye la embolización convencional con coils del aneurisma cerebral roto o utilizando técnica de embolización balón o stent asistido o colocación primaria de stent con tecnología de divertidor de flujo. Además, con la terapia endovascular se puede efectuar angioplastía farmacológica y mecánica del vasoespasmo cerebral.

  17. Accidental deaths caused by electricity in Sweden, 1975-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Richard; Bylund, Per-Olof; Eriksson, Anders

    2006-11-01

    This study analyzes accidental fatalities caused by electricity--at work and during leisure time--to evaluate risk factors, the role of alcohol, and to identify possible preventive strategies. In Sweden, data on fatalities by electrocution from 1975 through 2000 were collected from the National Cause-of-Death Register. Additional cases were found in the archives of The Swedish National Electrical Safety Board. Suicides and deaths by lightning were excluded. Two hundred and eighty-five deaths were found, including occupational (n=132), leisure time (n=151), and unknown (n=2). Most deaths were caused by aerial power lines, and the most common place for an electrical injury was a railway area or residential property. Postmortem blood from 20% (n=47) of the tested cases was found positive for alcohol, and these persons were killed mainly during leisure time. During the study period, the overall incidence of electricity-related fatalities has decreased, in spite of increased use of electricity. This indicates that safety improvements have been successful.

  18. Pre-accidental situations highlighted by RECUPERARE method and data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matahri, N. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2006-07-01

    RECUPERARE method has been developed for operating feedback analysis and built on the French Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) principles. It is used to study the causes of human errors or technical failures occurred in French PWRs and the recovery process of events. Based on an event classification (6 categories) model according to the nature of the link between failure and recovery, the identified and recorded data are: the causes of the defects (technical, human, organizational) and the context in which they appear; the factors of the recovery performance (depending on technical and organizational aspects); a chronological analysis, designed to collect delays between failures and their detection/recovery for each event. About 3600 events reported in French PWRs (1997-2003) had been reviewed through this model. Initially, the weight of factors and the most important factors, which influenced the detection and recovery delay, are defined. For this purpose, the regression Partial Least Square (PLS) is used. Then, to link RECUPERARE results with pre-accidental data, conditional probabilities of events linked between them by a cause and effect relationship are calculated. For this, the Bayesian method with the Bayesian network is built with the PLS obtained results and applied. This constitutes a first approach to take into account in HRA the human and organizational factors highlighted by operating feedback. (author)

  19. Calidad de vida de cuidadores de adultos con accidente cerebrovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INNA ELIDA FLÓREZ TORRES

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir la calidad de vida de los cuidadores familiares de adultos con secuelas de accidente cerebrovascular, en Cartagena, Colombia. Método: estudio descriptivo cuantitativo realizado durante el segundo semestre de 2008. Muestra no probabilística por conveniencia de 97 cuidadores. Se empleó el instrumento propuesto por Ferrell et ál. Para valorar cada uno de los bienestares que integran la calidad de vida se utilizaron medidas de tendencia central y coeficiente de variación. Resultados: el grupo de cuidadores presentó en el bienestar físico un promedio de 11,1 con relación al máximo puntaje, lo que indica el peor estado de salud; los bienestares psicológico y social tuvieron promedios de 48,8 y 21,9, respectivamente, con menor afectación. El mejor estado se halló en el bienestar espiritual, con promedio de 22,6. Conclusiones: la experiencia de ser cuidador modifica de manera importante la calidad de vida de las personas; los cuidadores, como fuente importante de cuidado informal, requieren apoyo de los sistemas de salud y, como parte de este, de los profesionales de enfermería.

  20. Accidental intoxication with hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Smędra-Kaźmirska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a fatal case of accidental ingestion of a mixture of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. The man was admitted to hospital, where appropriate treatment, adequate to his condition, was instituted. Numerous ventricular fibrillation episodes, for which the patient was defibrillated repeatedly, were observed during the period of hospitalization. The patient was in a critical condition, with progressive symptoms of hypovolemic shock and multiorgan failure. On the next day after admission, signs of electromechanical dissociation progressing to asystole were noted. The instituted resuscitation procedure proved ineffective and the patient died. Autopsy revealed brownish discoloration of the esophageal, gastric, and small intestinal mucous membranes. Numerous ulcerations without signs of perforation were found both in the esophagus and in the stomach. The mucous membrane of the small intestine demonstrated focal rubefactions, whereas no focal lesions of the large intestinal mucosa were seen. Microscopic investigation of the biopsy specimens collected from the stomach, duodenum and small intestine revealed mucous membrane necrosis foci, reaching the deeper layers of the wall of these organs. The mucous membrane of the large intestine was congested. Bioptates obtained from the lungs indicated the presence of hemorrhagic infarcts and focal extravasations. Poisoning with the aforementioned acids with consequent necrosis of the esophageal, gastric, duodenal and small intestinal walls with hemorrhages to the gastrointestinal tract, as well as extravasations and hemorrhagic infarcts in the lungs was considered to be the cause of death.

  1. Accidental intoxication with hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smędra-Kaźmirska, A; Kędzierski, M; Barzdo, M; Jurczyk, Ap; Szram, S; Berent, J

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a fatal case of accidental ingestion of a mixture of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. The man was admitted to hospital, where appropriate treatment, adequate to his condition, was instituted. Numerous ventricular fibrillation episodes, for which the patient was defibrillated repeatedly, were observed during the period of hospitalization. The patient was in a critical condition, with progressive symptoms of hypovolemic shock and multiorgan failure. On the next day after admission, signs of electromechanical dissociation progressing to asystole were noted. The instituted resuscitation procedure proved ineffective and the patient died. Autopsy revealed brownish discoloration of the esophageal, gastric, and small intestinal mucous membranes. Numerous ulcerations without signs of perforation were found both in the esophagus and in the stomach. The mucous membrane of the small intestine demonstrated focal rubefactions, whereas no focal lesions of the large intestinal mucosa were seen. Microscopic investigation of the biopsy specimens collected from the stomach, duodenum and small intestine revealed mucous membrane necrosis foci, reaching the deeper layers of the wall of these organs. The mucous membrane of the large intestine was congested. Bioptates obtained from the lungs indicated the presence of hemorrhagic infarcts and focal extravasations. Poisoning with the aforementioned acids with consequent necrosis of the esophageal, gastric, duodenal and small intestinal walls with hemorrhages to the gastrointestinal tract, as well as extravasations and hemorrhagic infarcts in the lungs was considered to be the cause of death.

  2. Prolonged Toxic Encephalopathy following Accidental 4-Aminopyridine Overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ballesta Méndez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP is a drug that is used to improve motor fatigue in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS. Medication error can occur, as commercial preparation may not be available in some countries. Case Presentation. A 58-year-old woman with progressive MS presented with status epilepticus. She was receiving 4-AP for more than 3 years. The symptoms started soon after the ingestion of a single pill that was supposed to contain 10 mg 4-AP, but further investigations revealed that each pill had been inadvertently prepared with an 100 mg 4-AP concentration. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU for appropriate management (orotracheal intubation, sedation, and antiepileptic drugs. The first electroencephalogram (EEG showed abundant irregular spike-waves on the left central regions. Neurological condition gradually improved from day 7, while the EEG did not reveal any more electrical seizures but was still consistent with toxic encephalopathy. The patient stayed in the ICU until day 13. At discharge from the rehabilitation ward (2.5 months later, the patient had not yet recovered her previous cognitive and functional condition. Conclusion. A single 100 mg 4-AP accidental overdose may cause serious immediate complications, with a slow and incomplete neurological recovery.

  3. ¿Accidente industrial o amputación deliberada?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponce, Paola

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los diferentes aspectos de la práctica de amputaciones durante el período victoriano de Inglaterra tales como: las causas que llevaron a tal práctica, los métodos y técnicas quirúrgicos usados durante el S. XIX así como la evidencia de atrofia y/o asimetría por causa del desuso. Tres casos de amputaciones fueron encontrados en una población industrial en el cementerio Victoriano de St. Pete s Collegiate Church en Wolverhampton (West Midlands, Inglaterra. Las amputaciones fueron realizadas en el miembro superior de una mujer (HB53 y los miembros inferiores de dos hombres (HB86 y (HB129. Se concluye que en los tres casos los individuos sobrevivieron a las amputaciones y que estas fueron realizadas mucho tiempo antes de la muerte. Dos de ellas fueron probablemente realizadas mediante cirugía (HB86 y HB129 mientras que la tercera (HB53 podría ser el resultado de un accidente industrial.

  4. [Gonococcal vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls: sexual abuse or accidental transmission?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daval-Cote, M; Liberas, S; Tristan, A; Vandenesch, F; Gillet, Y

    2013-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis is the most frequent gynecologic pathology among prepubertal females. An infectious cause is found in 30% of cases and is highly associated with the presence of vaginal discharge upon examination. Neisseria gonorrhoeae may be one of the causative agents. Since N. gonorrhoeae is a common sexually transmitted disease, sexual abuse should be considered in the pediatric setting. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl with N. gonorrhoeae vulvovaginitis. Her previous history, multiple interviews with the patient and her parents, and clinical examination showed no evidence or signs of sexual abuse. Both parents presented gonorrhea, urethritis for the father and vaginitis for the mother. The discrepancy between pediatric evaluation and the presence of a bacterium associated with sexually transmitted disease led us to consider other means of contamination. Previous studies have shown that other routes of transmission are possible but are often neglected. Hence, contamination can be transmitted by the hands or mostly through passive means (towels, rectal thermometer, etc.). Many epidemics have been noted in group settings with young girls with no evidence of sexual transmission. Therefore, we concluded that this patient's infection was likely an accidental transmission within her family. The acknowledgement of these transmission routes is very important in order to avoid misguided suspicion of sexual abuse and the possible traumatic family and psychosocial consequences.

  5. Accidental macular hole following Neodymium:YAG posterior capsulotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Mihnea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Posterior capsular opacification (PCO is the commonest complication of cataract surgery, occurring in up to one-third of patients in a period of five years. The treatment of choice is the Neodymium:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy. This treatment can be associated with several complications, some of them severe. A rare complication of this procedure is the accidental induced macular hole. Case Outline. A 54-year-old female patient was referred to our Department because of a severe loss of vision and a central scotoma at the right eye. The patient underwent a Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy 2 days ago, for a PCO. The fundus examination at presentation revealed a round retinal defect in the macular region, a massive inferior preretinal hemorrhage and a mild vitreous hamorrhage. A 6-months follow-up of the case, including retinography and fluorescein angiography, is presented. Conclusion. Although the Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy is a safe, noninvasive, and effective outpatient procedure to improve vision hindered by PCO, it must be recognized that it carries a low but definite risk of serious complications. Physicians and patients should be aware of these rare but severe complications regarding this otherwise safe procedure. Fortunately, most of the complications related to this procedure are transient and can be managed by proper medication.

  6. Accidental Cutaneous Burns Secondary to Salbutamol Metered Dose Inhaler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Kale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of accidental cutaneous burns caused by salbutamol metered dose inhaler. A 9-year-old boy underwent dental extraction at a children's hospital and was incidentally noted to have burn injuries on dorsum of both hands. On questioning, the boy revealed that a few days ago his 14-year-old brother, who is an asthmatic, playfully sprayed his salbutamol metered dose inhaler on the back of both his hands with the inhaler's mouth piece being in direct contact with the patient's skin. On examination, there was a rectangular area of erythema with superficial peeling on the dorsum of both hands, the dimensions of which exactly matched those of the inhaler's mouthpiece. It is possible that the injury could have been a chemical burn from the pharmaceutical/preservative/propellant aerosol or due to the physical effect of severe cooling of the skin or mechanical abrasive effect of the aerosol blasts or a combination of some or all the above mechanisms. This case highlights the importance of informing children and parents of the potentially hazardous consequences of misusing a metered dose inhaler.

  7. Analysis of the Exposure Levels and Potential Biologic Effects of the PAVE PAWS Radar System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    purported effects of microwave exposure, cataract induction is the only irreversible alteration repgted to have occurred in humans as a result of accidental ...Czerski12 ) described the cases of two long-term radar technicians wh2 were accidentally exposed to microwave power densities of 30-70 mW/cmZ. These power...of the children had never revealed a harmful effect. OTHER EFFECTS There is no evidence of significant microwave-induced immunologic, cerebrovascular

  8. Prevalence of occupational exposure to blood and body secretions and its related effective factors among health care workers of three Emergency Departments in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Farsi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accidental exposure to blood and body secretions is frequent among health care workers (HCWs. They are at risk of acquiring blood-borne diseases. In this study, we have investigated the prevalence and risk factors of occupational exposure among the HCWs of the Emergency Departments (ED at three teaching hospitals in Tehran. Materials and Methods: We conducted this observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study using a self-reporting 25-question survey, related to occupational exposures, in February 2010. It was carried out among 200 HCWs (specialist physicians, residents, medical interns, nurses, laboratory personnel, housekeepers, cleaners, and others, who were working in the EDs of the three teaching hospitals of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The age, sex, and job category of the HCWs suffering from the injury were determined, as also the risk factors responsible for the exposure of the HCWs. Results: One hundred and fifteen (57.5% of the 200 HCWs had had at least one episode of blood or body fluid exposure in their professional life. Hollow-bore needles accounted for the highest amount of injuries, with 41.5%, followed by suture needles (18.5%. The most prevalent procedures associated with injuries were suturing (17.5% and recapping used syringes (16.5%, respectively. All the specialist doctors in this study reported at least one exposure. The percentage of exposure in the other participants of our study was 74.3% for ED residents, 61.1% for laboratory technicians, 51.9% for nurses, and 51% for medical interns. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that male gender, recapping needles, and job profession were independently associated with exposure to blood or body fluids. Conclusion: High prevalence of occupational exposure in this study emphasized the importance of promoting awareness, training, and education for the HCWs, for preventive strategies, and also reporting of occupational exposure to blood and

  9. Parental response to child injury: examination of parental posttraumatic stress symptom trajectories following child accidental injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Le Brocque, Robyne M; Hendrikz, Joan; Kenardy, Justin A

    2010-01-01

    Trajectory analyses were used to empirically differentiate patterns of posttraumatic stress symptoms in parents following child accidental injury and explore the relationship between parent and child recovery patterns. Parent (n = 189...

  10. Romance, recognition and revenge in Marie Clements's The Unnatural and Accidental Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bamford, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This essay considers the relationship of Marie Clements's The Unnatural and Accidental Women to European traditions of drama and folk narrative, and especially its relation to the genres of revenge tragedy and romance...

  11. Inhaled surfactant in the treatment of accidental talc powder inhalation: a new case report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matina, Federico; Collura, Mirella; Maggio, Maria Cristina; Vitulo, Patrizio; Lo Piparo, Caterina; Corsello, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    .... Although the use of baby powder has been discouraged from many authors and the reports of its accidental inhalation have been ever more rare, sometimes new cases with several fatalities have been reported...

  12. NSAIDs and the risk of accidental falls in the elderly: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegeman, J.; Bemt, B.J.F. van den; Duysens, J.E.J.; Limbeek, J. van

    2009-01-01

    Accidental falls, especially those occurring in the elderly, are a major health and research topic nowadays. Besides environmental hazards and the physiological changes associated with aging, medication use (e.g. benzodiazepines, vasodilators and antidepressants) and polypharmacy are significant

  13. Insertion of an intrathecal catheter following accidental dural puncture : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesen, M.; Kloehr, S.; Rossaint, R.; Walters, M.; Straube, S.; van de Velde, M.

    Background: Inserting an intrathecal catheter after accidental dural puncture in parturients to prevent postdural puncture headache is becoming increasingly popular. We aimed to identify relevant published articles investigating this intervention and subject data to a meta-analysis. Methods: A

  14. Management options for accidental injection of epinephrine from an autoinjector: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathez Christian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Epinephrine autoinjector devices are used with increasing frequency to treat severe anaphylactic reactions. Accidental injection, usually involving a finger, is a potential complication. Case presentation A physician in a Family Practice training program accidentally injected epinephrine into his left thumb while reading the operating instructions of an autoinjector (Epipen®. He developed swelling, pallor, and pain in the thumb. Treatment included topical nitroglycerin, oral vasodilators and warming of the thumb. As expected, none caused an immediate response; however, after 8 hours, the thumb was pink and warm. There was full recovery 2 months after the accident. We reviewed the treatment of accidental epinephrine injection, and found that the use of parenteral adrenergic alpha blocker phentolamine would have produced immediate recovery. Conclusions All health professionals concerned with the use of epinephrine autoinjectors should receive adequate instruction on their use. A regimen for management of accidental epinephrine injection, in particular the use of phentolamine, should be emphasized.

  15. Chromosome aberrations as biomarkers of radiation exposure: Modelling basic mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarini, F.; Ottolenghi, A.

    The space radiation environment is a mixed field consisting of different particles having different energies, including high charge and energy (HZE) ions. Conventional measurements of absorbed doses may not be sufficient to completely characterise the radiation field and perform reliable estimates of health risks. Biological dosimetry, based on the observation of specific radiation-induced endpoints (typically chromosome aberrations), can be a helpful approach in case of monitored exposure to space radiation or other mixed fields, as well as in case of accidental exposure. Furthermore, various ratios of aberrations (e.g. dicentric chromosomes to centric rings and complex exchanges to simple exchanges) have been suggested as possible fingerprints of radiation quality, although all of them have been subjected to some criticisms. In this context a mechanistic model and a Monte Carlo code for the simulation of chromosome aberration induction were developed. The model, able to provide dose-responses for different aberrations (e.g. dicentrics, rings, fragments, translocations, insertions and other complex exchanges), was further developed to assess the dependence of various ratios of aberrations on radiation quality. The predictions of the model were compared with available data, whose experimental conditions were faithfully reproduced. Particular attention was devoted to the scoring criteria adopted in different laboratories and to possible biases introduced by interphase death and mitotic delay. This latter aspect was investigated by taking into account both metaphase data and data obtained with Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC).

  16. Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from

  17. Occupational Blood Exposure among Health Care Personnel and Hospital Trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hajjaji Darouiche

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood and body fluid Exposure is a major occupational safety problems for health care workers. Therefore, we conducted a descriptive and retrospective study to identify the characteristics of blood exposure accidents in health care settings which lasted five years (2005-2009 at the two university hospitals of Sfax. We have 593 blood exposure accidents in health care settings 152 (25.6% health personnel and 441 (74.4% trainees' doctors, nurses and health technicians. The mechanism of blood and body fluid exposure was accidental needle-stick injury in 78.9% of health staff, and 81% of trainees, accidental cut in 14.7% of health workers and 10.2% of trainees. The increasing severity of blood exposure accidents is linked to the lack of safe behavior against this risk.

  18. Occupational blood exposure among health care personnel and hospital trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjaji Darouiche, M; Chaabouni, T; Jmal Hammami, K; Messadi Akrout, F; Abdennadher, M; Hammami, A; Karray, H; Masmoudi, M L

    2014-01-01

    Blood and body fluid Exposure is a major occupational safety problems for health care workers. Therefor We conducted a descriptive and retrospective study to identify the characteristics of blood exposure accidents in health care settings which lasted five years (2005-2009) at the two university hospitals of Sfax. We have 593 blood exposure accidents in health care settings 152 (25.6%) health personnel and 441 (74.4%) trainees' doctors, nurses and health technicians. The mechanism of blood and body fluid exposure was accidental needle-stick injury in 78.9% of health staff, and 81% of trainees, accidental cut in 14.7% of health workers and 10.2% of trainees. The increasing severity of blood exposure accidents is linked to the lack of safe behavior against this risk.

  19. Inhaled Surfactant in the treatment of accidental Talc Powder inhalation: a new case report

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Piparo Caterina; Vitulo Patrizio; Maggio Maria; Collura Mirella; Matina Federico; Corsello Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The use of talcum powder is incorrectly part of the traditional care of infants. Its acute aspiration is a very dangerous condition in childhood. Although the use of baby powder has been discouraged from many authors and the reports of its accidental inhalation have been ever more rare, sometimes new cases with several fatalities have been reported. We report on a patient in which accidental inhalation of baby powder induced severe respiratory difficulties. We also point out the bene...

  20. Simple battery armor to protect against gastrointestinal injury from accidental ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Laulicht, Bryan; Traverso, Giovanni; Deshpande, Vikram; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Accidental battery ingestion in children is a recognized source of significant morbidity and mortality. To mitigate the risks of accidental battery ingestion, legislation has been introduced to regulate the locking of battery compartments. Regulation of battery housings has translated into modest reductions in the number of battery ingestion cases reported. We report here the fabrication of waterproof, pressure-sensitive battery coatings that are nonconductive in the low-pressure gastrointest...

  1. Methods for study of cardiovascular adaptation of small laboratory animals during exposure to altered gravity. [hypothermia for cardiovascular control and cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, V.

    1973-01-01

    Several new techniques are reported for studying cardiovascular circulation in small laboratory animals kept in metabolic chambers. Chronical cannulation, miniaturized membrane type heart-lung machines, a prototype walking chamber, and a fluorocarbon immersion method to simulate weightlessness are outlined. Differential hypothermia work on rat cancers provides localized embedding of radionuclides and other chemotherapeutical agents in tumors and increases at the same time blood circulation through the warmed tumor as compared to the rest of the cold body. Some successful clinical applications of combined chemotherapy and differential hypothermia in skin cancer, mammary tumors, and brain gliomas are described.

  2. Public agencies in Serbia accidental error or bad intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milkov Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available English term 'agency' has appeared in the Serbian legal system after the political changes in 2000. At first, the Law on Ministries in 2004 created bodies of state administration under the name of the agency and administrative organizations and in 2005 has been passed the Law on Public Agencies, which provides agencies as autonomous entities that are not directly part of the state administration. In addition, in the last ten years in Serbia was created a whole range of subjects of different legal status under the name of the agency. It should be borne in mind that the organization and structure of public administration in Serbia are mostly based on the Germanic tradition and that Serbia has long used the German term for persons performing administrative activities: 'Verwaltungsorgan'. Without any objective need, in addition to traditional forms of bodies performing administrative activities in Serbia has been created a new form called the agency. This has only brought the confusion into by then relatively harmonized system of governance structures, where the name of the former administration and some other subjects changed to agencies and some new, who previously did not exist, have been also created. This has led to the growth of covert administration. Agency name is not unknown in the world and in the US is used since the 18th century. However, instead of the name in English is translated into Serbian language in an adapted way, as it corresponds to the traditional Serbian terminology, this accidental error later turned into a bad intention of creating an ever-larger number of entities called agency.

  3. Preparing a community hospital to manage work-related exposures to infectious agents in BioSafety level 3 and 4 laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risi, George F; Bloom, Marshall E; Hoe, Nancy P; Arminio, Thomas; Carlson, Paul; Powers, Tamara; Feldmann, Heinz; Wilson, Deborah

    2010-03-01

    Construction of new BioSafety Level (BSL) 3 and 4 laboratories has raised concerns regarding provision of care to exposed workers because of healthcare worker (HCW) unfamiliarity with precautions required. When the National Institutes of Health began construction of a new BSL-4 laboratory in Hamilton, Montana, USA, in 2005, they contracted with St. Patrick Hospital in Missoula, Montana, for care of those exposed. A care and isolation unit is described. We developed a training program for HCWs that emphasized the optimal use of barrier precautions and used pathogen-specific modules and simulations with mannequins and fluorescent liquids that represented infectious body fluids. The facility and training led to increased willingness among HCWs to care for patients with all types of communicable diseases. This model may be useful for other hospitals, whether they support a BSL-4 facility, are in the proximity of a BSL-3 facility, or are interested in upgrading their facilities to prepare for exotic and novel infectious diseases.

  4. Photometrics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Photometrics Laboratory provides the capability to measure, analyze and characterize radiometric and photometric properties of light sources and filters,...

  5. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR).DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  6. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  7. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  8. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR). DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  9. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  10. Genotypic and phenotypic modifications of Neisseria meningitidis after an accidental human passage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Omer

    Full Text Available A scientist in our laboratory was accidentally infected while working with Z5463, a Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A strain. She developed severe symptoms (fever, meningism, purpuric lesions that fortunately evolved with antibiotic treatment to complete recovery. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis confirmed that the isolate obtained from the blood culture (Z5463BC was identical to Z5463, more precisely to a fourth subculture of this strain used the week before the contamination (Z5463PI. In order to get some insights into genomic modifications that can occur in vivo, we sequenced these three isolates. All the strains contained a mutated mutS allele and therefore displayed an hypermutator phenotype, consistent with the high number of mutations (SNP, Single Nucleotide Polymorphism detected in the three strains. By comparing the number of SNP in all three isolates and knowing the number of passages between Z5463 and Z5463PI, we concluded that around 25 bacterial divisions occurred in the human body. As expected, the in vivo passage is responsible for several modifications of phase variable genes. This genomic study has been completed by transcriptomic and phenotypic studies, showing that the blood strain used a different haemoglobin-linked iron receptor (HpuA/B than the parental strains (HmbR. Different pilin variants were found after the in vivo passage, which expressed different properties of adhesion. Furthermore the deletion of one gene involved in LOS biosynthesis (lgtB results in Z5463BC expressing a different LOS than the L9 immunotype of Z2491. The in vivo passage, despite the small numbers of divisions, permits the selection of numerous genomic modifications that may account for the high capacity of the strain to disseminate.

  11. Assessment of methodologies for analysis of the dungeness B accidental aircraft crash risk.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2010-09-01

    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has requested Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to review the aircraft crash methodology for nuclear facilities that are being used in the United Kingdom (UK). The scope of the work included a review of one method utilized in the UK for assessing the potential for accidental airplane crashes into nuclear facilities (Task 1) and a comparison of the UK methodology against similar International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) methods (Task 2). Based on the conclusions from Tasks 1 and 2, an additional Task 3 would provide an assessment of a site-specific crash frequency for the Dungeness B facility using one of the other methodologies. This report documents the results of Task 2. The comparison of the different methods was performed for the three primary contributors to aircraft crash risk at the Dungeness B site: airfield related crashes, crashes below airways, and background crashes. The methods and data specified in each methodology were compared for each of these risk contributors, differences in the methodologies were identified, and the importance of these differences was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. The bases for each of the methods and the data used were considered in this assessment process. A comparison of the treatment of the consequences of the aircraft crashes was not included in this assessment because the frequency of crashes into critical structures is currently low based on the existing Dungeness B assessment. Although the comparison found substantial differences between the UK and the three alternative methodologies (IAEA, NRC, and DOE) this assessment concludes that use of any of these alternative methodologies would not change the conclusions reached for the Dungeness B site. Performance of Task 3 is thus not recommended.

  12. Effective post-exposure treatment of Ebola infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Feldmann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola viruses are highly lethal human pathogens that have received considerable attention in recent years due to an increasing re-emergence in Central Africa and a potential for use as a biological weapon. There is no vaccine or treatment licensed for human use. In the past, however, important advances have been made in developing preventive vaccines that are protective in animal models. In this regard, we showed that a single injection of a live-attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vector expressing the Ebola virus glycoprotein completely protected rodents and nonhuman primates from lethal Ebola challenge. In contrast, progress in developing therapeutic interventions against Ebola virus infections has been much slower and there is clearly an urgent need to develop effective post-exposure strategies to respond to future outbreaks and acts of bioterrorism, as well as to treat laboratory exposures. Here we tested the efficacy of the vesicular stomatitis virus-based Ebola vaccine vector in post-exposure treatment in three relevant animal models. In the guinea pig and mouse models it was possible to protect 50% and 100% of the animals, respectively, following treatment as late as 24 h after lethal challenge. More important, four out of eight rhesus macaques were protected if treated 20 to 30 min following an otherwise uniformly lethal infection. Currently, this approach provides the most effective post-exposure treatment strategy for Ebola infections and is particularly suited for use in accidentally exposed individuals and in the control of secondary transmission during naturally occurring outbreaks or deliberate release.

  13. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, Robin D; Little, Edward E; Puglis, Holly J; Scott, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A

    2014-10-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model-normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution.

  14. Análisis de accidentes severos en contenciones nucleares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goicolea Ruigómez, José María

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis for severe accidents has recently been added to the long list of requisites imposed on nuclear power plants. In this work we study the rationale and justiflcation for this type of analysis. Calculations for the structural response of the containment buildings can be performed on the computer using advanced nonlinear Finite Element codes. A state of the art review of these methods is carried out, proposing a methodology based on analysis by numerical methods with experimental validation. Additionally we present some results obtained by the authors for the analysis of both reinforced concrete and steel containments. The concluding remarks show the validity of the proposed methodology, as well as the evidence of a large security margin in the containments, due mainly to the conservatisms in the design stage.

    El análisis frente a accidentes severos ha venido a añadirse recientemente a la larga lista de requisitos impuestos a las centrales nucleares. En este trabajo se pretende estudiar la problemática y justificación de este tipo de análisis. El cálculo de la respuesta de la contención se puede realizar en el ordenador mediante métodos avanzados de elementos finitos no lineales. Se hace una revisión del estado de la técnica en estos métodos, proponiendo una metodología basada en el análisis mediante modelos numéricos con validación experimental. Se presentan asimismo los resultados de análisis realizados, para contenciones tanto de hormigón armado como metálicas. Las conclusiones del trabajo establecen la validez de la metodología empleada, así como la constatación de un amplio margen de seguridad existente en las contenciones evaluadas, debido a los conservadurismos del proceso de diseño original.

  15. Severe adverse effects related to dermal exposure to a glyphosate-surfactant herbicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariager, T P; Madsen, P V; Ebbehøj, N E

    2013-01-01

    This is a case of severe chemical burns following prolonged accidental exposure to a glyphosate-surfactant herbicide. The patient developed local swelling, bullae and exuding wounds. Neurological impairment followed affecting finger flexion and sensation with reduced nerve conduction. Imaging...... revealed oedema of the soft tissue and juxta-articular osteopenia, and a causal relationship to exposure is suggested....

  16. Retrospective detection of exposure to organophosphates: analysis in blood of human beings and rhesus monkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polhuijs, M.; Langenberg, J.P.; Noort, D.; Hulst, A.G.; Benschop, H.P.; Jong, L.P.A. de

    1999-01-01

    The terrorist attacks with nerve agents in Japan as well as the ongoing debate on a possible relationship between the so-called Gulf War Syndrome and accidental exposure to traces of nerve agents have made clear that improved methods for detection of exposure to organophosphates are needed. Low leve

  17. Accidentes de trabajo fatales y violencia interpersonal en Brasil, 2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Sousa Santana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se estima la mortalidad proporcional por accidentes de trabajo provocados por violencia interpersonal en Brasil, entre 2000 y 2010. Se analizaron los datos del Sistema de Información sobre Mortalidad, basados en los informes estadísti- cos de defunción del Ministerio de Salud de Brasil, los cuales incluyen un campo para el registro de accidentes de trabajo que debe ser completado en toda defunción por causas externas. Se identificaron 1.368.732 casos de defunciones por causas externas, 31.576 (2,3% por accidentes de trabajo y solo 226 (0,02% por accidentes de trabajo con violen- cia interpersonal. Cerca del 80% de los informes estadísticos de defunción no tenían el campo “accidente de trabajo” completado. La mayor cantidad de casos ocurrió entre hom- bres (94,3% de 25-34 años, con nivel de escolaridad medio, ubicados en la región sudeste y noreste, que trabajan principalmente en la producción de bienes y servicios industriales y la actividad agropecuaria. La mayoría de los casos fueron causados por armas de fuego, seguidos por armas blancas, con un aumento relativo de estos últimos en el período estu- diado. Los resultados sugieren un gran subregistro de diagnósticos que reconocen la rela- ción con el trabajo. Se hace necesaria una mejor capacitación en el llenado de los informes estadísticos, así como estudios que cuantifiquen el subregistro de accidentes de trabajo y accidentes de trabajo con violencia interpersonal.

  18. Activities developed by the biological dosimetry laboratory of the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear - ARN of Argentina; Actividades desarrolladas por el laboratorio de dosimetria biologica de la Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear de Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radl, A.; Sapienza, C.E.; Taja, M.R.; Bubniak, R.; Deminge, M.; Di Giorgio, M., E-mail: csapienza@arn.gob.ar [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Biological dosimetry (DB) allows to estimate doses absorbed in individuals exposed to ionizing radiation through the quantification of stable and unstable chromosome aberrations (SCA and UCA). The frequency of these aberrations is referred to a calibration dose response curve (in vitro) to determine the doses of the individual to the whole body. The DB is a necessary support for programs of national radiation protection and response systems in nuclear or radiological emergencies in the event of accidental or incidental, single overexposure or large scale. In this context the Laboratory of Dosimetry Biological (LDB) of the Authority Regulatory Nuclear (ARN) Argentina develops and applies different dosimeters cytogenetic from four decades ago. These dosimeters provide a fact more within the whole of the information necessary for an accidental, complementing the physical and clinical dosimetry exposure assessment. The most widely used in the DB biodosimetric method is the quantification of SCA (dicentrics and rings Central) from a sample of venous blood. The LDB is accredited for the trial, under rules IRAM 301: 2005 (ISO / IEC 17025: 2005) and ISO 19238:2004. Test applies to the immediate dosimetry evaluation of acute exposures, all or a large part of the body in the range 0,1-5 Gy. In this context the LDB is part of the Latin American network of DB (LBDNet), BioDoseNet-who and response system in radiological emergencies and nuclear IAEA-RANET, being enabled to summon the LBDNet if necessary.

  19. A structural equation model of soil metal bioavailability to earthworms: confronting causal theory and observations using a laboratory exposure to field-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumelle, Léa; Vile, Denis; Lamy, Isabelle; Vandenbulcke, Franck; Gimbert, Frédéric; Hedde, Mickaël

    2016-11-01

    Structural equation models (SEM) are increasingly used in ecology as multivariate analysis that can represent theoretical variables and address complex sets of hypotheses. Here we demonstrate the interest of SEM in ecotoxicology, more precisely to test the three-step concept of metal bioavailability to earthworms. The SEM modeled the three-step causal chain between environmental availability, environmental bioavailability and toxicological bioavailability. In the model, each step is an unmeasured (latent) variable reflected by several observed variables. In an exposure experiment designed specifically to test this SEM for Cd, Pb and Zn, Aporrectodea caliginosa was exposed to 31 agricultural field-contaminated soils. Chemical and biological measurements used included CaC12-extractable metal concentrations in soils, free ion concentration in soil solution as predicted by a geochemical model, dissolved metal concentration as predicted by a semi-mechanistic model, internal metal concentrations in total earthworms and in subcellular fractions, and several biomarkers. The observations verified the causal definition of Cd and Pb bioavailability in the SEM, but not for Zn. Several indicators consistently reflected the hypothetical causal definition and could thus be pertinent measurements of Cd and Pb bioavailability to earthworm in field-contaminated soils. SEM highlights that the metals present in the soil solution and easily extractable are not the main source of available metals for earthworms. This study further highlights SEM as a powerful tool that can handle natural ecosystem complexity, thus participating to the paradigm change in ecotoxicology from a bottom-up to a top-down approach.

  20. Selection of food combinations to optimize survival, growth, and reproduction of the amphipod Hyalella azteca in static-renewal, water-only laboratory exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy; Major, Kaley M

    2016-10-01

    Although standardized sediment toxicity testing methods have been developed for the amphipod Hyalella azteca, no standardized chronic water-only toxicity testing methods have been established. Furthermore, optimal feeding and water quality conditions for culturing and toxicity testing with this species remained unclear. The objective of the present study was to determine the food or combination of foods that best promotes survival, growth, and reproduction of the US Lab strain of Hyalella azteca under 42-d, water-only, static-renewal testing conditions. The authors conducted 7 42-d control (no toxicant) tests with various combinations of food (including Tetramin, yeast-cereal leaves-trout chow, diatoms, wheatgrass, alfalfa, and maple leaves) and substrate types (clean "unconditioned" Nitex screens vs "conditioned" Nitex screens that were colonized by live biofilms). Over all treatments, survival ranged from 18% to 96%, dry weight per individual from 0.084 mg to 1.101 mg, and reproduction from 0 young/female to 28.4 young/female. Treatments that included Tetramin tended to result in better performance than those that did not. In particular, treatments that included Tetramin and either conditioned screens or diatoms consistently had high survival, weight, and reproduction values as well as low variability among replicates (measured as coefficient of variation). A ramped Tetramin plus diatom suspension feeding regime appears to have the greatest potential to produce consistently good performance across laboratories using static-renewal systems. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2407-2415. © 2016 SETAC.

  1. Use of the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor to assess behavioral changes of Poecilia reticulata (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) and Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in response to acid mine drainage: laboratory exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohti, Azmah; Shuhaimi-Othman, Mohammad; Gerhardt, Almut

    2012-09-01

    The behavioral responses of guppy Poecilia reticulata (Poeciliidae) and prawn Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Palaemonidae) individuals exposed to acid mine drainage (AMD) were monitored online in the laboratory with a Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor™ (MFB). These responses were compared to those to reference water acidified to the respective pH values (ACID). Test animals in the juvenile stage were used for both species and were exposed to AMD and ACID for 24 hours. The stress behaviors of both test animals consisted mainly of decreased activity in AMD and increased activity in ACID, indicating that the metals in the AMD played a role as a stress factor in addition to pH. The locomotor activity levels of guppies and prawns for the ACID treatment were higher than the locomotor activity levels for the AMD treatment with increasing pH value. For guppies, significant differences were observed when specimens were exposed to AMD and ACID at pH 5.0 and 6.0; the percentage activities were only 16% and 12%, respectively, for AMD treatment, whereas for ACID treatment, the percentage activities were 35% and 40%, respectively, similar to the value of 36% for the controls. Similar trends were also observed for prawns, for which the percentage activities were only 6% and 4%, respectively, for AMD treatment, whereas for ACID treatment, the percentage activities were 31% and 38%, respectively, compared to 44% in the controls. This study showed that both species are suitable for use as indicators for ecotoxicity testing with the MFB.

  2. Laboratory animal allergy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, A.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the study presented in this thesis was to estimate the prevalence rate of laboratory animal allergy and to determine its association with risk factors, like allergen exposure level, atopy, gender and other host factors. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 540 workers

  3. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Kunz, James L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th–82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  4. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Dorman, Rebecca A; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A; Kunz, James L; Hardesty, Doug K

    2014-10-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th-82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  5. Risk of potential radiation accidental situations at TESLA accelerator installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spasic Jokic, Vesna [TESLA Accelerator Installation, Lab. of Physics, VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia); Orlic, Milan [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Lab. of radioisotopes, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia); Djurovic, Branka [Military Medical Academy, Radiation Protection Dept., Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia)

    2006-07-01

    The main aim of this paper is to recognize some of the numerous risks of potential exposure and to quantify requirements and probability of failure of radiation protection system due to design event tree. Nature of design and construction of Tesla Accelerator Installation (T.A.I.) make possibility of potential exposure as a result of proven design and modification, trade off, human error as well as defense in depth. In the case of potential exposure human risk is the result of two random events: first, the occurrence of the event that causes the exposure, and the second, the appearance of a harmful effect. The highest doses during potential exposure at T.A.I. can be received at the entrance to primary beam space (V.I.N.C.Y. cyclotron vault) as well as in space with target for fluorine production, high energy experimental channels, proton therapy channel and channel for neutron researches. Expected values of prompt radiation equivalent dose rate in the cyclotron vault is considerably high, in order of 10 Sv/h. Serious problem deals with such large research installation is a number of workers, as visiting research workers of different educational levels and people in Institute who are not professionally connected with ionizing radiation. They could cause willing or unwilling opening of the cyclotron vault doors. Considering some possible scenarios we assumed that during 7000 working hours per year it is reasonably to expect 300 unsafe entries per year. It can be concluded that safety system should be designed so that probability of failure of radiation protection system has to be less than 1.9 10{sup -6}. (authors)

  6. Causes of accidental childhood deaths in China in 2010: A systematic review and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Yee Chan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Infectious causes of childhood deaths in the world have decreased substantially in the 21st century. This trend has exposed accidental deaths as an increasingly important future challenge. Presently, little is known about the cause structure of accidental childhood deaths in low– and middle–income country (LMIC settings In this paper, we aim to establish cause structure for accidental deaths in children aged 0–4 years in China in the year 2010. Methods In this paper, we explored the database of 208 multi–cause child mortality studies in Chinese that formed a basis for the first published estimate of the causes of child deaths in China (for the year 2008. Only five of those studies identified specific causes of accidental deaths. Because of this, we searched the Chinese medical literature databases CNKI and WanFang for single–cause mortality studies that were focused on accidental deaths. We identified 71 further studies that provided specific causes for accidental deaths. We used epidemiological modeling to estimate the number of accidental child deaths in China in 2010 and to assign those deaths to specific causes. Results In 2010, we estimated 314 581 deaths in children 0–4 years in China, of which 31 633 (10.1% were accidental. Accidental deaths contributed 7240 (4.0% of all deaths in neonatal period, 8838 (10.5% among all post–neonatal infant deaths, and 15 554 (31.7% among children with 1–4 years of age. Among four tested models, the most predictive was used to establish the likely cause structure of accidental deaths in China. We estimated that asphyxia caused 9490 (95% confidence interval (CI 8224–11 072, drowning 5694 (95% CI 5061–6327, traffic accidents 3796 (95% CI3163–4745, poisoning 3163 (95% CI 2531–3796 and falls 2531 (95% CI 2214–3163 deaths. Based on medians from a few rare studies, we also predict 633 (95% CI 316–1265 deaths to be due to burns and 316 (95% CI 0–633 due to falling objects

  7. Patterns and Trends in Accidental Poisoning Deaths: Pennsylvania's Experience 1979-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren C Balmert

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine county and state-level accidental poisoning mortality trends in Pennsylvania from 1979 to 2014.Crude and age-adjusted death rates were formed for age group, race, sex, and county for accidental poisonings (ICD 10 codes X40-X49 from 1979 to 2014 for ages 15+ using the Mortality and Population Data System housed at the University of Pittsburgh. Rate ratios were calculated comparing rates from 1979 to 2014, overall and by sex, age group, and race. Joinpoint regression was used to detect statistically significant changes in trends of age-adjusted mortality rates.Rate ratios for accidental poisoning mortality in Pennsylvania increased more than 14-fold from 1979 to 2014. The largest rate ratios were among 35-44 year olds, females, and White adults. The highest accidental poisoning mortality rates were found in the counties of Southwestern Pennsylvania, those surrounding Philadelphia, and those in Northeast Pennsylvania near Scranton.The patterns and locations of accidental poisoning mortality by race, sex, and age group provide direction for interventions and policy makers. In particular, this study found the highest rate ratios in PA among females, whites, and the age group 35-44.

  8. Childhood death attributable to trauma: is there a difference between accidental and abusive fatal injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Henry W; Vander Velden, Heidi; Kreykes, Nathaniel S; Reid, Samuel

    2013-09-01

    Trauma is a leading cause of death among children worldwide. Detailed knowledge of the epidemiology of childhood fatal injuries is necessary for preventing injuries. To determine clinical differences between children who were treated in an emergency department for accidental or abusive injuries. A retrospective review of all deceased patients who were treated in two urban pediatric emergency departments between 1998 and 2010 was performed. Patients were categorized into two groups, accidental and abusive, for comparison. A total of 1498 patients died during the study period, with 124 deaths being attributable to injury for a rate of 9.5 injury-related deaths per year. Most fatal injuries were accidental. Children with abusive fatal injuries were younger and more likely to have been seen for an injury in a clinic or emergency department within 2 months of their death. Eighty-two percent of abusive fatal injuries had documented subdural hematomas, whereas only 7.2% of accidental fatal injuries had a subdural hematoma documented. Nearly 50% of abusive fatal injuries had retinal hemorrhages reported, although no child with an accidental fatal injury had this type of injury documented. Younger children, especially those previously seen in an emergency department or clinic for injury, are more likely to sustain an abusive fatal injury. Sentinel physical findings associated with abusive fatal injuries include subdural hematomas and retinal hemorrhages, and the presence of these findings should prompt an investigation into the circumstances of injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Temporal and regional variations in accidental deaths of elderly people in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibayashi, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Ryo; Nakao, Ken-Ichiro

    2013-07-01

    To ascertain the characteristics of accidental deaths of elderly people in urban and rural areas, we analyzed the deaths of elderly people over the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, in three geographic areas: nationwide, in the 23 wards of the metropolis of Tokyo, and in Saga prefecture. In addition, to assess the regional variation in accidental deaths of the elderly, we aggregated the numbers of accidental deaths of elderly people for each of Japan's prefectures in the year 2009 and categorized the deaths by accident type. The results showed that nationwide, deaths due to threats to breathing, falls, and drowning and submersion are increasing, while deaths due to transport accidents are decreasing, indicating a need for measures to prevent deaths from accidents other than transport accidents. In the urban areas of Tokyo's 23 wards, there is an increasing incidence of deaths due to falls, which is likely due to the high number of structures such as buildings and railway stations that elderly people need to negotiate. In urban areas, measures to reduce the incidence of accidental deaths need to focus on improving the physical environment to help prevent falls. In the rural locality of Saga prefecture, increasing numbers of elderly people are dying by drowning and submersion. The results of analysis of accidents in all prefectures of Japan by accident type show that the causes of accidental deaths of elderly people vary regionally, suggesting that accident prevention measures for elderly people need to consider the characteristics of the locality.

  10. Automatic opening system for radioactive source in teaching laboratory; Sistema automatico de abertura de fonte radiativa em laboratorio de ensino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seren, Maria Emilia Gibin, E-mail: mseren@ifi.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (LEB/IFGW/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin. Lab. de Ensino em Fisica Medica; Gaal, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir@ifi.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (LEB/IFGW/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin. Lab. de Eletronica e Eletricidade; Rodrigues, Varlei, E-mail: varlei@ifi.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DFA/IFGW/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada; Morais, Sergio Luiz de, E-mail: ceelinho@ifi.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (CST-Mec/IFGW/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin. Oficina Mecanica

    2013-07-01

    Compton scattering phenomenon is experimentally studied during the medical physics laboratory course at the University of Campinas (UNICAMP). The Teaching Laboratory of Medical Physics from IFGW/UNICAMP has a structure for its development: a fixed {sup 137}Cs sealed source with activity 610.5MBq, whose emitted radiation collides on a target, and a scintillation detector that turns around the target and detects scattered photons spectrum. {sup 137}Cs source is stored in a lead shield with a collimating window for the gamma radiation emitted with energy of 0.662MeV. This source is exposed only when attenuation barrier protecting the collimating window is opened. The process of opening and closing the attenuation barrier may deliver radiation dose to users when done manually. Taking into account the stochastic harmful effects of ionizing radiation, the objective of this project was to develop an automatic exposure system of the radioactive source in order to reduce the dose during the Compton scattering experiment. The developed system is micro controlled and performs standard operating routines and responds to emergencies. Electromagnetic lock enables quick closing barrier by gravity in case of interruption of electrical current circuit. Besides reducing the total dose of lab users, the system adds more security in the routine since it limits access to the source and prevents accidental exposure. (author)

  11. Invaders in hot water: a simple decontamination method to prevent the accidental spread of aquatic invasive non-native species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lucy G; Dunn, Alison M; Rosewarne, Paula J; Stebbing, Paul D

    Watersports equipment can act as a vector for the introduction and spread of invasive non native species (INNS) in freshwater environments. To support advice given to recreational water users under the UK Government's Check Clean Dry biosecurity campaign and ensure its effectiveness at killing a range of aquatic INNS, we conducted a survival experiment on seven INNS which pose a high risk to UK freshwaters. The efficacy of exposure to hot water (45 °C, 15 min) was tested as a method by which waters users could 'clean' their equipment and was compared to drying and a control group (no treatment). Hot water had caused 99 % mortality across all species 1 h after treatment and was more effective than drying at all time points (1 h: χ(2) = 117.24, p water or drying, 6/7 of these species survived for 16 days, highlighting the importance of good biosecurity practice to reduce the risk of accidental spread. In an additional experiment the minimum lethal temperature and exposure time in hot water to cause 100 % mortality in American signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus), was determined to be 5 min at 40 °C. Hot water provides a simple, rapid and effective method to clean equipment. We recommend that it is advocated in future biosecurity awareness campaigns.

  12. Tratamiento de Terapia Ocupacional en el accidente cerebrovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo García, AM

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEntre los muchos pacientes que necesitan tratamiento rehabilitador en Terapia Ocupacional están los que en la edad adulta han sufrido un accidente cerebrovascular.Uno de los factores de riesgo asociados con más frecuencia a las alteraciones del sistema nervioso central es el progresivo envejecimiento de la población, debido a esto orientaré el siguiente artículo hacia la intervención sobre la población geriátrica.La Terapia Ocupacional ofrece un tratamiento global que abarca las áreas funcional, motriz, sensorial, perceptivo y cognitiva. No debemos olvidar el asesoramiento realizado al paciente, a la familia y/ o cuidadores sobre el manejo de la persona que ha sufrido un ictus, la adaptación del entorno y la prescripción, uso y manejo de ayudas técnicas cuando sea necesario.Las propuestas terapéuticas que expondré a continuación, no son recetas únicas que se puedan emplear del mismo modo en todos las personas que hayan sufrido un ictus. Con cada paciente será necesario una evaluación individualizada de su situación y una adaptación de la terapia según sus déficit específicos.La meta final de la Terapia Ocupacional es la integración óptima del paciente dentro de su entorno familiar y social, con el mayor grado de autonomía posible.ABSTRACTAmong the patients who need Occupational Therapy’s rehabilitation treatment, there are those who have suffered a cerebrovascular damage when elderly.People’s gradual ageing is one of the risk factors in the nervous central system’s alterations and this is why I am going to write about intervention on geriatric population.The Occupational Therapy’s rehabilitation treatment works on the functional, motor, sensorial, perceptive and cognitive areas. Moreover, we should not forget to advise the patient and his/her family or caregivers about the way of treating ,the environment’s adaptation, the prescription and use of technical aids when needed.The following therapeutic

  13. Accidental and deliberate microbiological contamination in the feed and food chains--how biotraceability may improve the response to bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson, Rickard; van Rotterdam, Bart; Fach, Patrick; De Medici, Dario; Fricker, Martina; Löfström, Charlotta; Agren, Joakim; Segerman, Bo; Andersson, Gunnar; Wielinga, Peter; Fenicia, Lucia; Skiby, Jeffrey; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2011-03-01

    A next frontier of the global food safety agenda has to consider a broad spectrum of bio-risks, such as accidental and intentional contaminations in the food and feed chain. In this article, the background for the research needs related to biotraceability and response to bioterrorism incidents are outlined. Given the current scale of international trade any response need to be considered in an international context. Biotraceability (e.g. the ability to use downstream information to point to processes or within a particular food chain that can be identified as the source of undesirable agents) is crucial in any food-born outbreak and particular in the response to bioterrorism events. In the later case, tested and proven biotraceability improves the following: (i) international collaboration of validated tracing tools and detection methods, (ii) multi-disciplinary expertise and collaboration in the field of food microbiology and conceptual modeling of the food chain, (iii) sampling as a key step in biotracing (iv) optimized sample preparation procedures, including laboratory work in Biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratories, (v) biomarker discovery for relevant tracing and tracking applications, and (vi) high-throughput sequencing using bio-informatic platforms to speed up the characterization of the biological agent. By applying biotraceability, the response phase during a bioterrorism event may be shortened and is facilitated for tracing the origin of biological agent contamination.

  14. Accidental bullous phototoxic reactions to bergamot aromatherapy oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddu, S; Kerl, H; Wolf, P

    2001-09-01

    Oil of bergamot is an extract from the rind of bergamot orange (Citrus aurantium ssp bergamia) that has a pleasant, refreshing scent; until a few years ago it had been widely used as an ingredient in cosmetics but was restricted or banned in most countries because of certain adverse effects. More recently, oil of bergamot preparations have been gaining renewed popularity in aromatherapy. Oil of bergamot possesses photosensitive and melanogenic properties because of the presence of furocoumarins, primarily bergapten (5-methoxypsoralen [5-MOP]). However, 5-MOP is also potentially phototoxic and photomutagenic. Despite its increasing application, there are only a few recent reports of phototoxic reactions to bergamot aromatherapy oil. We describe two patients with localized and disseminated bullous phototoxic skin reactions developing within 48 to 72 hours after exposure to bergamot aromatherapy oil and subsequent ultraviolet exposure. One patient (case 2) had no history of direct contact with aromatherapy oil but developed bullous skin lesions after exposure to aerosolized (evaporated) aromatherapy oil in a sauna and subsequent UVA radiation in a tanning salon. This report highlights the potential health hazard related to the increasing use of psoralen-containing aromatherapy oils.

  15. Computational Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains a number of commercial off-the-shelf and in-house software packages allowing for both statistical analysis as well as mathematical modeling...

  16. Analytical Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s analytical laboratories in Pittsburgh, PA, and Albany, OR, give researchers access to the equipment they need to thoroughly study the properties of materials...

  17. Geomechanics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Geomechanics Laboratory allows its users to measure rock properties under a wide range of simulated service conditions up to very high pressures and complex load...

  18. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  19. Materiales didácticos para los contenidos de enfermedad y accidente en la etapa infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Bocos Urdiales, Elías Javier

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo, es una programación didáctica, que responde a la necesidad de crear materiales para la enseñanza dedicada a la actuación y prevención de accidentes y enfermedades tanto en lo personal, como en lo colectivo tanto en el aula como en los pasillos, patio y zonas comunes. En relación a los accidentes se realizaran materiales para la prevención de los accidentes en el ámbito del centro escolar; y además de la prevención daremos pautas de actuación a los alumnos de tal manera que se...

  20. Increasing US mortality due to accidental poisoning: the role of the baby boom cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miech, Richard; Koester, Steve; Dorsey-Holliman, Brook

    2011-04-01

    In this study we examine whether the recent, sharp increase in mortality in the United States due to accidental poisoning since 2000 is the result of the aging of the baby boom cohort or, instead, a historical trend apparent among decedents of all ages. We conducted an age-period-cohort analysis using data from the US Vital Statistics and the US Census covering the period 1968-2007. The United States population aged 15-64 years. Cause of death and demographic data as recorded on death certificates. The increase in mortality due to accidental poisoning since the year 2000 stems primarily from a historical period effect across all ages for whites, but results in large part from a rate spike in the baby boom cohort among blacks. For all demographic groups baby boomers had higher odds of death due to accidental poisoning than the cohorts that came before and after them. Historical influences acting across all ages led to an increase in accidental poisoning mortality that was almost 10-fold for whites and threefold for blacks over the study period. While the recent, sharp increase in accidental poisoning mortality stems in part from the aging of the baby boom cohort, substantially more of the increase results from influences unique to recent years that have affected all age groups. These results point to the need to bolster overdose prevention programs and policies as the historical increase in accidental poisoning mortality appears to continue unabated. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Insomnia medication use and the probability of an accidental event in an older adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Y Avidan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Alon Y Avidan1, Liisa A Palmer2, Justin F Doan3, Robert W Baran31UCLA Department of Neurology, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Thomson Reuters, Washington, DC, USA; 3Takeda Global Research and Development Center, Deerfield, IL, USAObjective: This study examined the risk of accidental events in older adults prescribed a sedating antidepressant, long-acting benzodiazepine, short-acting benzodiazepine, and nonbenzodiazepine, relative to a reference group (selective melatonin receptor agonist.Methods: This was a retrospective cohort analysis of older adults (≥65 years with newly initiated pharmacological treatment of insomnia. Data were collected from the Thomson MarketScan® Medicare Supplemental and Coordination of Benefits databases (January 1, 2000, through June 30, 2006. Probit models were used to evaluate the probability of an accidental event.Results: Data were analyzed for 445,329 patients. Patients taking a long-acting benzodiazepine (1.21 odds ratio [OR], short-acting benzodiazepine (1.16 OR, or nonbenzodiazepine (1.12 OR had a significantly higher probability of experiencing an accidental event during the first month following treatment initiation compared with patients taking the reference medication (P < 0.05 for all. A significantly higher probability of experiencing an accidental event was also observed during the 3-month period following the initiation of treatment (1.62 long-acting benzodiazepine, 1.60 short-acting benzodiazepine, 1.48 nonbenzodiazepine, and 1.56 sedating antidepressant; P < 0.05.Conclusions: Older adults taking an SAD or any of the benzodiazepine receptor agonists appear to have a greater risk of an accidental event compared with a reference group taking an MR.Keywords: insomnia, accidental events, benzodiazepine receptor agonist, melatonin receptor agonist, older adults

  2. Comparison of intracranial computed tomographic (CT) findings in pediatric abusive and accidental head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hymel, K.P. [University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 1056 East 19th Avenue, Denver, CO 80218 (United States); Rumack, C.M. [University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 1056 East 19th Avenue, Denver, CO 80218 (United States); Hay, T.C. [University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 1056 East 19th Avenue, Denver, CO 80218 (United States); Strain, J.D. [University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 1056 East 19th Avenue, Denver, CO 80218 (United States); Jenny, C. [University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 1056 East 19th Avenue, Denver, CO 80218 (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Background. Child abuse specialists rely heavily on diagnostic neuroimaging. Objectives. Study objectives were: (1) to compare the frequencies of six specific intracranial CT abnormalities in accidental and non-accidental pediatric head trauma, and (2) to assess interobserver agreement regarding these CT findings. Materials and methods. Three pediatric radiologists blindly and independently reviewed cranial CT scans of pediatric patients who sustained closed head trauma between 1991 and 1994. All patients were less than 4 years of age. Study cases included thirty-nine (50 %) with non-accidental head trauma and thirty-nine (50 %) with accidental head trauma. Each scan was evaluated for the presence or absence of the following six intracranial findings: (1) interhemispheric falx hemorrhage, (2) subdural hemorrhage, (3) large (non-acute) extra-axial fluid, (4) basal ganglia edema, (5) posterior fossa hemorrhage, and (6) frontal-parietal shearing tear(s). Interobserver agreement was calculated as the percentage of total cases in which all reviewers agreed a specific CT finding was present or absent. Diagnosis required independent agreement by all three pediatric radiologists. The frequencies of these six intracranial CT abnormalities were compared between the two study groups by Chi-square analysis and Fisher`s exact test. Results. Interobserver agreement between radiologists was greater than 80 % for all lesions evaluated, with the exception of frontal-parietal shearing tear(s). Interhemispheric falx hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage, large (non-acute) extra-axial fluid, and basal ganglia edema were discovered significantly more frequently in non-accidental trauma (P {<=}.05). Conclusion. Although not specific for child abuse, discovery of these intracranial CT abnormalities in young patients should prompt careful evaluation of family and injury circumstances for indicators of non-accidental trauma. (orig.). With 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Fire-eater's pneumonia: two case reports of accidentally aspirated paraffin oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Ozlem; Bektas, Fırat; Sayrac, Ali Vefa; Senay, Engin

    2012-04-01

    Fire-eater's pneumonia is a chemical pneumonitis that can develop after accidental aspiration of liquid hydrocarbon-based fuel during a flame-blowing or a fire-eating performance. Typical findings of the patient are similar with any infectious pneumonia: chest pain, shortness of breath, cough, fever, and hemoptysis can be seen. We report two cases of acute paraffin oil-induced pneumonia due to accidental aspiration during fire-eating performance. The symptoms and course of respiratory manifestations and the treatment strategies of fire-eater's pneumonia are reviewed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhaled Surfactant in the treatment of accidental Talc Powder inhalation: a new case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Piparo Caterina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of talcum powder is incorrectly part of the traditional care of infants. Its acute aspiration is a very dangerous condition in childhood. Although the use of baby powder has been discouraged from many authors and the reports of its accidental inhalation have been ever more rare, sometimes new cases with several fatalities have been reported. We report on a patient in which accidental inhalation of baby powder induced severe respiratory difficulties. We also point out the benefits of surfactant administration. Surfactant contributed to the rapid improvement of the medical and radiological condition, preventing severe early and late complications and avoiding invasive approaches.

  5. El estudio del factor humano en accidentes de aviación

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Rubio, Lina María

    2010-01-01

    El factor humano ha sido considerado causa o contribución del 70 al 80% de los accidentes de aviación en el mundo, y constituye una prioridad en investigación para la seguridad aérea. Las estadísticas muestran que los índices y causas de accidentes de aviación se mantienen constantes, e identifican una importante diferencia entre regiones. La investigación científica requiere de nuevas y complementarias aproximaciones para la explicación y comprensión del factor humano en aviación. Los médico...

  6. Inhaled surfactant in the treatment of accidental talc powder inhalation: a new case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matina, Federico; Collura, Mirella; Maggio, Maria Cristina; Vitulo, Patrizio; Lo Piparo, Caterina; Corsello, Giovanni

    2011-09-27

    The use of talcum powder is incorrectly part of the traditional care of infants. Its acute aspiration is a very dangerous condition in childhood. Although the use of baby powder has been discouraged from many authors and the reports of its accidental inhalation have been ever more rare, sometimes new cases with several fatalities have been reported. We report on a patient in which accidental inhalation of baby powder induced severe respiratory difficulties. We also point out the benefits of surfactant administration. Surfactant contributed to the rapid improvement of the medical and radiological condition, preventing severe early and late complications and avoiding invasive approaches.

  7. A tunnel shape defect on maxillary bone after accidental injection of formocresol instead of anesthetic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ege, Bilal; Demirkol, Mehmet; Mustafa, Rawand; Aras, Mutan Hamdi

    2014-09-01

    Accidental injection or leakages of various chemical disinfectants used during root canal preparation into adjacent tissues have been shown to have deleterious effects on surrounding tissue. Formocresol (FC) is an effective intracanal disinfectant used in endodontic procedures. However, it is known to have harmful effects into adjacent tissues. The aim of this article is to present an unusual case in which a 28-year-old male patient developed gingival and bone necrosis after the accidental injection of FC instead of local anesthetic solution for tooth extraction and to review cases in the literature where complications have occurred due to the use of FC.

  8. Long-term follow-up after accidental gamma irradiation from a {sup 192}Ir source in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mollah, A.S.; Begum, A.; Begum, R. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2006-07-01

    A industrial radiographer was accidentally over -exposed to high dose of ionizing radiation from an {sup 192}Ir source pellet during radiograph y of weld-joints in gas pipe-lines on June 10, 1985 in Bangladesh. The source, housed in a portable exposure assembly, had an activity of about 1850 GBq. A guide -tube was used to control the transfer of the source from safe storage position to the exposure position and vice versa. For radiography, the ti p of the guide tube was to be fixed to the weld -joint while the source was cranked to the exposure position. Following the elapse of the preset exposure time the source had to be cranked back to the safe stor age position. This procedure was to be repeated for each radiographic exposure. Symptoms of high radiation exposure occurred immediately after the accident and skin erythema developed leading to progressive tissue deteriorations. Biological effects such as mild vomiting, malaise, nausea and diarrhea occurred within a short period after the accident. Skin erythema, swelling and tenderness of the palmar surfaces and the tips of the thumbs, index fingers and middle fingers of the both hands accompanied by severe pain and inflammation developed within 7 days of the mishap. The inflammatory changes characterized by redness and bullae spread over the affected fingers with severe pain and agony within a few days. The finger -tips developed abscesses with enormous pus formation and the affected finger nails fell off. He also developed toothache. At this stage a medical practitioner made some surgical dressings and prescribed antibiotics. During the first six months the most serious health disorder was local necroses of the skin and the deep layers of the palmar side of the affected fingers with sharply delineated injuries. The clinical findings were consistent with those reported elsewhere under similar accident conditions. The consequences of this over-exposure are being followed up to assess the long-term effects of

  9. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO EXTERNAL RADIATION IN SWITZERLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, S; Baechler, S; Damet, J; Elmiger, R; Frei, D; Giannini, S; Leupin, A; Sarott, F; Schuh, R

    2016-09-01

    Individual monitoring for both external and internal exposures is well regulated in Switzerland. The article gives an overview on the occupational exposure to external radiation of workers based on the data collected in the Swiss national dose registry (NDR) in 2013. The NDR records the monthly doses of radiation workers since the introduction of ICRP 60 recommendations and is manifested in the Swiss ordinance since 1994. Annual dose limits for effective dose are typically exceeded once a year in Switzerland, mostly in medicine. The NDR is a useful optimisation tool to identify and characterise areas with the highest exposures. While exceeded dose limits were often related to accidental acute exposure in the past, they are now more related to continuous exposure during normal work, especially in medicine.

  10. Accidental introduction of viruses into companion animals by commercial vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evermann, James F

    2008-07-01

    The use of biologics in veterinary medicine has been of tremendous value in safeguarding our animal populations from debilitating and oftentimes fatal disease. This article reviews the principles of vaccination and the extensive quality control efforts that are incorporated into preparing the vaccines. Examples of adverse events that have occurred in the past and how enhanced vigilance at the level of the veterinarian and the veterinary diagnostic laboratory help to curtail these events are discussed. Emphasis on understanding the ecology of viral infections in dogs and cats is introduced, together with the concepts of the potential role of vaccines in interspecies spread of viruses.

  11. The Proceedings of the Hypobaric Decompression Sickness Workshop Held in Armstrong Laboratory, Brooks AFB, Texas on 16-18 October 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction induced by high altitude exposure elicits rapid and sustained elevation of right heart pressure (25, 26). Accidental ... cerebrovascular resistance (CVR), and intracranial pressure. The relation is complex since the CVR is a function of the blood pressure as the system...26, 190-9 (1976). 8. Kolesari, G.L. and E.P. Kindwall. Survival following accidental decompression to an altitude greater than 74,000 feet (22,555 m

  12. Accidentes ocupacionales y conocimiento sobre precauciones universales en internos universitarios costarricenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Rivera-Valdivia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivo: los internos universitarios (estudiantes de medicina en su último año son vulnerables a accidentes ocupacionales con agujas y otros objetos cortantes, especialmente debido a su inexperiencia y falta de entrenamiento aunados a su deseo de realizar una serie de nuevas actividades y procedimientos. No existe información en nuestro país con respecto a la frecuencia de este tipo de accidentes en internos universitarios de la carrera de medicina. El objetivo del presente estudio fue estudiar la frecuencia y tipo de accidentes ocupacionales sufridos con mayor frecuencia por internos de medicina y evaluar su conocimiento sobre precauciones universales. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal a través de una encuesta directa y anónima. De todos los internos de medicina que trabajaban en el Valle Central de octubre de 2001 a enero de 2002 se seleccionó una muestra aleatoria de 201 internos (poder 95%, error 5%. A la población seleccionada se le aplicó una encuesta precodificada, la cual consistía en 20 preguntas estructuradas, la mayoría cerradas y tres abiertas relacionadas con la ocurrencia de accidentes ocupacionales en los médicos internos, número, tipo, acciones tomadas tras el accidente y conocimientos sobre precauciones universales. Posteriormente se hizo un análisis descriptivo de los resultados obtenidos. Resultados: de todos los participantes, 90% habían trabajado más de 3 meses como médicos internos. Más de la mitad habían realizado al menos 3 meses de rotación en una área médica y 3 meses en una área quirúrgica. La muestra incluyó estudiantes de 5 universidades diferentes. Sólo un 37% de los internos encuestados habían recibido la vacunación contra virus de la hepatitis B. Del total de internos, 64% admitió haber sufrido al menos un accidente ocupacional con sangre de algún paciente, un 20% admitió haber sufrido 3 o 4 accidentes. De los internos que

  13. Accidental human laser retinal injuries from military laser systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuck, Bruce E.; Zwick, Harry; Molchany, Jerome W.; Lund, David J.; Gagliano, Donald A.

    1996-04-01

    The time course of the ophthalmoscopic and functional consequences of eight human laser accident cases from military laser systems is described. All patients reported subjective vision loss with ophthalmoscopic evidence of retinal alteration ranging from vitreous hemorrhage to retinal burn. Five of the cases involved single or multiple exposures to Q-switched neodymium radiation at close range whereas the other three incidents occur over large ranges. Most exposures were within 5 degrees of the foveola, yet none directly in the foveola. High contrast visual activity improved with time except in the cases with progressive retinal fibrosis between lesion sites or retinal hole formation encroaching the fovea. In one patient the visual acuity recovered from 20/60 at one week to 20/25 in four months with minimal central visual field loss. Most cases showed suppression of high and low spatial frequency contrast sensitivity. Visual field measurements were enlarged relative to ophthalmoscopic lesion size observations. Deep retinal scar formation and retinal traction were evident in two of the three cases with vitreous hemorrhage. In one patient, nerve fiber layer damage to the papillo-macular bundle was clearly evident. Visual performance measured with a pursuit tracking task revealed significant performance loss relative to normal tracking observers even in cases where acuity returned to near normal levels. These functional and performance deficits may reflect secondary effects of parafoveal laser injury.

  14. Effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on survival, development, growth and sex ratios of wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles. II: agriculturally relevant exposures to Roundup WeatherMax® and Vision® under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanctôt, C; Navarro-Martín, L; Robertson, C; Park, B; Jackman, P; Pauli, B D; Trudeau, V L

    2014-09-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are currently the most commonly used herbicides in the world. They have been shown to affect survival, growth, development and sexual differentiation of tadpoles under chronic laboratory exposures but this has not been investigated under more environmentally realistic conditions. The purpose of this study is (1) to determine if an agriculturally relevant exposure to Roundup WeatherMax®, a relatively new and understudied formulation, influences the development of wood frog tadpoles (Lithobates sylvaticus) through effects on the mRNA levels of genes involved in the control of metamorphosis; (2) to compare results to the well-studied Vision® formulation (containing the isopropylamine salt of glyphosate [IPA] and polyethoxylated tallowamine [POEA] surfactant) and to determine which ingredient(s) in the formulations are responsible for potential effects on development; and (3) to compare results to recent field studies that used a similar experimental design. In the present laboratory study, wood frog tadpoles were exposed to an agriculturally relevant application (i.e., two pulses) of Roundup WeatherMax® and Vision® herbicides as well as the active ingredient (IPA) and the POEA surfactant of Vision®. Survival, development, growth, sex ratios and mRNA levels of genes involved in tadpole metamorphosis were measured. Results show that Roundup WeatherMax® (2.89 mg acid equivalent (a.e.)/L) caused 100% mortality after the first pulse. Tadpoles treated with a lower concentration of Roundup WeatherMax® (0.21 mg a.e./L) as well as Vision® (2.89 mg a.e./L), IPA and POEA had an increased condition factor (based on length and weight measures in the tadpoles) relative to controls at Gosner stage (Gs) 36/38. At Gs42, tadpoles treated with IPA and POEA had a decreased condition factor. Also at Gs42, the effect on condition factor was dependent on the sex of tadpoles and significant treatment effects were only detected in males. In most cases

  15. 36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT UNLAWFUL OR ACCIDENTAL REMOVAL, DEFACING, ALTERATION, OR DESTRUCTION OF RECORDS § 1230.10 Who is... destruction, removal, alteration or defacement of records; (c) Implement and disseminate policies and... preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records?...

  16. Optimisation of the digital radiographic imaging of suspected non-accidental injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offiah, Amaka

    Aim: To optimise the digital (radiographic) imaging of children presenting with suspected non-accidental injury (NAI). Objectives: (i) To evaluate existing radiographic quality criteria, and to develop a more suitable system if these are found to be inapplicable to skeletal surveys obtained in suspected NAI. (ii) To document differences in image quality between conventional film-screen and the recently installed Fuji5000R computed radiography (CR) system at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, (iii) To document the extent of variability in the standard of skeletal surveys obtained in the UK for suspected NAI. (iv) To determine those radiographic parameters which yield the highest diagnostic accuracy, while still maintaining acceptable radiation dose to the child, (v) To determine how varying degrees of edge-enhancement affect diagnostic accuracy. (vi) To establish the accuracy of soft compared to hard copy interpretation of images in suspected NAI. Materials and Methods: (i) and (ii) Retrospective analysis of 286 paediatric lateral spine radiographs by two observers based on the Commission of European Communities (CEC) quality criteria, (iii) Review of the skeletal surveys of 50 consecutive infants referred from hospitals throughout the United Kingdom (UK) with suspected NAI. (iv) Phantom studies. Leeds TO. 10 and TO. 16 test objects were used to compare the relationship between film density, exposure parameters and visualisation of object details, (iv) Clinical study. Anteroposterior and lateral post mortem skull radiographs of six consecutive infants were obtained at various exposures. Six observers independently scored the images based on visualisation of five criteria, (v) and (vi) A study of diagnostic accuracy in which six observers independently interpreted 50 radiographs from printed copies (with varying degrees of edge-enhancement) and from a monitor. Results: The CEC criteria are useful for optimisation of imaging parameters and allow the detection

  17. Intraperitoneal granulomatous foreign body reaction after accidental perforation of the abdominal wall. Case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanng, C; Winther-Nielsen, H; Hougen, H P

    2013-01-01

    After an accidental perforation by a wooden stake of the abdominal wall and distal ileum a 28-year-old man developed an aggressive granulomatous foreign body reaction of the greater omentum with high fever and abdominal pain. The patient was cured by omental resection and prednisone treatment....

  18. Abbreviata terrapenis (Nematoda: Physalopteridae): an accidental parasite of the banded rock rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus klauberi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Stephen R; Bursey, Charles R; Holycross, Andrew T

    2002-04-01

    The nematode, Abbreviata terrapenis (Physalopteridae) was found in 16 (6%) of 267 banded rock rattlesnakes (Crotalus lepidus klauberi) from Arizona and New Mexico. Abbreviata terrapenis in C. lepidus represents an accidental parasite in that "infection" was acquired by the ingestion of lizard prey. Feeding captive snakes on wild-caught lizards poses a risk of introducing nematodes to the snakes.

  19. The accidental city : violence, economy and humanitarianism in Kakuma refugee camp Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this research I examine social ordering processes in Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya. I view the camp as an accidental city, by which I challenge the image of the camp as a temporary and artificial waiting space or a protracted refugee crisis per se. The reference to the city is both

  20. Management of accidental dural puncture and post-dural puncture headache after labour: a Nordic survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darvish, B; Gupta, A; Alahuhta, S

    2011-01-01

    a major risk with epidural analgesia is accidental dural puncture (ADP), which may result in post-dural puncture headache (PDPH). This survey was conducted to explore the incidence of ADP, the policy for management of PDPH and the educational practices in epidural analgesia during labour...

  1. Accidentes ofídicos en Yopal y Leticia, Colombia, 1996-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pineda

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available El accidente ofídico presenta un elevado impacto sobre la morbimortalidad en la Amazonia y la Orinoquia colombianas. En este estudio se revisaron prospectivamente los casos ocurridos en los hospitales de Leticia y Yopal durante el período comprendido entre septiembre de 1996 y junio de 1997. El 57% de los accidentes estudiados ocurrieron en Leticia. El 54% de los accidentes se presentaron en hombres y el grupo de edad más comprometido fue el de 15 a 44 años (41%. El 57% de los casos ocurrió a campo abierto y el pico de accidentalidad se presentó entre las 17 y las 18 horas. El 82% de las mordeduras fue en miembros inferiores. Se presentó un fallecimiento (1,8% en Yopal y se practicaron 3 fasciotomías y 2 amputaciones; el 16% de los casos presentó infección secundaria. Las horas vespertinas presentan el mayor riesgo de accidente durante la jornada diaria. A pesar del uso generalizado de antibióticos, la infección secundaria fue frecuente en esta serie de casos.

  2. The accidental city : violence, economy and humanitarianism in Kakuma refugee camp Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this research I examine social ordering processes in Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya. I view the camp as an accidental city, by which I challenge the image of the camp as a temporary and artificial waiting space or a protracted refugee crisis per se. The reference to the city is both metaphorical

  3. Estrategia de Inversiones Basada en Accidentes Aéreos: ¿Hay Retornos Anormales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rosa Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo buscó investigar si una estrategia de inversiones basada en accidentes aéreos generaría retornos anormales. Fue efectuado un estudio de eventos considerándose todos los accidentes aéreos ocurridos en el período de 1998 a 2009 y los datos de las compañías aéreas y de los fabricantes de las respectivas aeronaves que poseían acciones negociadas en las bolsas de valores, cuando del acontecimiento del evento. Los tests realizados se basaron en el modelo de Campbel, Lo y Mackinlay (1997, para definición de retornos anormales, por medio de una regresión lineal entre el retorno de las acciones de esas empresas y el retorno del portafolio de mercado utilizado como benchmark. Así fue posible proyectar los retornos futuros esperados para las acciones de las compañías aéreas y fabricantes y compararlos a los resultados efectivamente obtenidos en el acontecimiento del evento. El resultado obtenido sugiere que una estrategia de inversiones basada en accidentes aéreos sería viable y que retornos anormales podrían ser obtenidos en el período inmediatamente posterior a un accidente aéreo.

  4. The Costs of Cultural Change: Accidental Injury and Modernization among the Papago Indians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberg, Robert A.; Gallagher, Mary M.

    1972-01-01

    Several theories are examined suggesting that stress associated with modernization is responsible for excesses of accidental injuries among American Indians. A preliminary version of this paper was presented at the annual meetings of the American Anthropological Association, New York, 1971. (FF)

  5. INTERNAL BALLOON TAMPONADE - A NONSURGICAL METHOD FOR REMOVAL OF ACCIDENTALLY PLACED SHEATHS FROM THE SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDIJK, RB; DENHEIJER, P; DEMUINCK, E; LIE, KI

    1993-01-01

    One of the possible complications of subclavian vein puncture is accidental puncture of the subclavian artery. If this is not noted immediately after the puncture, insertion of a large bore sheath in the subclavian artery is likely to follow. We describe our experience with a new method that enables

  6. Accidental Epipen injection into a digit - the value of a Google search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M. J. A.; Purushotham, A. D.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the lack of awareness by the clinicians consulted of the most suitable treatment for accidentally injected epinephrine, this patient was successfully treated due mainly to the ability of clinicians on-site to access the Internet in the A&E department. A broad search engine such as Google can be an invaluable tool in finding important clinical information rapidly. PMID:15140311

  7. Accidental Epipen injection into a digit - the value of a Google search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M J A; Purushotham, A D

    2004-05-01

    Despite the lack of awareness by the clinicians consulted of the most suitable treatment for accidentally injected epinephrine, this patient was successfully treated due mainly to the ability of clinicians on-site to access the Internet in the A&E department. A broad search engine such as Google can be an invaluable tool in finding important clinical information rapidly.

  8. [Accidental injection of adrenaline in a finger with EpiPen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspersen, J; Vedsted, P

    1998-11-01

    We report a case of accidental injection of 0.3 mg epinephrine in the right pollux. The actual case was treated with systemic nitroglyceride and immersion of the finger in hot water. A review of the literature shows that the adequate treatment is local infiltration with Phentholamine Mesylate. There is a need to describe this treatment in conventional literature.

  9. Tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial en accidente cerebrovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Luna Vela, Fredy Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Revisión sistemática de la literatura en la que se discuten las controversias del manejo de la presión arterial en las emergencias neurológicas agudas cerebrovasculares como accidente cerebrovascular isquémico, hemorrágico y hemorragia subaracnoidea.

  10. Youth versus adult "weightlifting" injuries presenting to United States emergency rooms: accidental versus nonaccidental injury mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D; Quatman, Carmen E; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J; Hewett, Timothy E

    2009-10-01

    Resistance training has previously been purported to be unsafe and ineffective in children. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate resistance training-related injuries presenting to U.S. emergency rooms by age, type, and mechanism of injury. We hypothesized that older athletes would sustain greater percentages of joint sprains and muscle strains, whereas younger athletes would sustain a greater percentage of accidental injuries that would result in an increased percentage of fractures in youths. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was queried from 2002 to 2005 using the CPSC code for "Weightlifting." Subjects between the ages of 8 and 30 were grouped by age categories 8 to 13 (elementary/middle school age), 14 to 18 (high school), 19 to 22 (college), and 23 to 30 (adult). Injuries were classified as "accidental" if caused by dropped weight or improper equipment use. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare accidental injuries between age groups. The sample consisted of 4,111 patients. Accidental injuries decreased (p 14 to 18 > 19 to 22 years = 23 to 30 years. Conversely, sprain/strain injuries increased in each successive age group (p children have lower risk of resistance training-related joint sprains and muscle strains than adults. The majority of youth resistance training injuries are the result of accidents that are potentially preventable with increased supervision and stricter safety guidelines.

  11. Insertion of an intrathecal catheter following accidental dural puncture : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesen, M.; Kloehr, S.; Rossaint, R.; Walters, M.; Straube, S.; van de Velde, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inserting an intrathecal catheter after accidental dural puncture in parturients to prevent postdural puncture headache is becoming increasingly popular. We aimed to identify relevant published articles investigating this intervention and subject data to a meta-analysis. Methods: A syste

  12. INTERNAL BALLOON TAMPONADE - A NONSURGICAL METHOD FOR REMOVAL OF ACCIDENTALLY PLACED SHEATHS FROM THE SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDIJK, RB; DENHEIJER, P; DEMUINCK, E; LIE, KI

    One of the possible complications of subclavian vein puncture is accidental puncture of the subclavian artery. If this is not noted immediately after the puncture, insertion of a large bore sheath in the subclavian artery is likely to follow. We describe our experience with a new method that enables

  13. Multiple scattering and accidental coincidences in the J-PET detector simulated using GATE package

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalski, P; Wiślicki, W; Raczyński, L; Bednarski, T; Białas, P; Bułka, J; Czerwiński, E; Gajos, A; Gruntowski, A; Kamińska, D; Kapłon, Ł; Kochanowski, A; Korcyl, G; Kowal, J; Kozik, T; Krzemień, W; Kubicz, E; Niedźwiecki, Sz; Pałka, M; Rudy, Z; Salabura, P; Sharma, N G; Silarski, M; Słomski, A; Smyrski, J; Strzelecki, A; Wieczorek, A; Wochlik, I; Zieliński, M; Zoń, N

    2015-01-01

    Novel Positron Emission Tomography system, based on plastic scintillators, is developed by the J-PET collaboration. In order to optimize geometrical configuration of built device, advanced computer simulations are performed. Detailed study is presented of background given by accidental coincidences and multiple scattering of gamma quanta.

  14. [Risk of acute hepatic insufficiency in children due to chronic accidental overdose of paracetamol (acetaminophen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hameleers-Snijders, P.; Hogeveen, M.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Kramers, C.; Draaisma, J.M.T.

    2007-01-01

    Two girls aged 4 and 3 years, respectively, experienced acute liver failure due to accidental ingestion of supratherapeutic doses of paracetamol (90 mg/kg/day or more). Recognition of chronic paracetamol intoxication as a cause of acute hepatic failure is often delayed. It is important to consider t

  15. La configuraci??n jur??dica del accidente de trabajo

    OpenAIRE

    S??nchez P??rez, Jos??

    2013-01-01

    Esta obra incorpora un an??lisis global del accidente de trabajo y su configuraci??n jur??dica. Analiza su evoluci??n hist??rica e incorpora una selecci??n de m??s de 300 sentencias del Tribunal Supremo que permiten identificar su contenido.

  16. [Factors associated with the danger of accidental falls among institutionalized elderly individuals: an integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Erika Carla Cavalcanti; Marques, Ana Paula de Oliveira; Leal, Márcia Carréra Campos; Barros, Benvinda Pereira de

    2014-08-01

    The scope of this research is to identify the major risk factors associated with accidental falls among the elderly. It involves an integrative review of the literature between 2002 and 2012 in English and Portuguese. The selection of articles was based on the following key words in the Lilacs, Medline and BDENF databases: accidental falls, homes for the elderly and health services. In the final sample 19 articles were selected, of which 11 were national and 8 were international. They indicate that the major factors related to the risk of accidental falls in Homes for the Elderly are: being female, being diagnosed with chronic disease, treatment with benzodiazepine, earlier cases of accident falls, and mobility restriction. The research reveals that architectonic and furniture inadequacies in Homes for the Elderly may be predisposing factors for accidental falls. Analysis of the articles reveals the need for further longitudinal studies and, consequently, enhanced monitoring of the conditions of the functional capacity of the elderly, especially the risks related to falls, considered one of the leading causes of death among institutionalized elderly individuals.

  17. Accidental Explosions and Effects of Blast Leakage into Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    3/2 O.75(d’/b )-O.4 (8) 3/2 < d/b0 ,[(0.75)(3A r -/P - 1)] [(2d, + b•0 )/ (IS),(7) dlIb 0 [(0.75)(3Ar-d3 - 1)] (Ar)% (1b), (14) b 0 -a opening width...47522 Technical Library ATTh: ORDAI-CLJ- L kberdeen Proving Grund, HD 21010 AL-6 Technical Library ATTM- .. DAR-TSO-S Aberdeen Proving Groumd. I...21005 Bonet geapons Laboratory Technical library 4’M:N: DRMR- LCS-fL Vatervliv, NY 12189 Ainnn & Whitney (10) 2 Vor1A Trade Center Nw Y’hrk. W4 10048

  18. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  19. Laboratory Building.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  20. Differences between hospital- and community-acquired blood exposure incidents revealed by a regional expert counseling center.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, P.T. van; Pelk-Jongen, M.; Boer, E. de; Voss, A.; Wijkmans, C.; Schneeberger, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: One year (2003) regional analysis of all blood exposure incidents from hospitals as well as from the community. DESIGN: Establishment of an easily accessible regional expert counseling center, operating 24 h a day, for all accidental blood exposures. Tasks of the center were to register i

  1. Differences between hospital- and community-acquired blood exposure incidents revealed by a regional expert counseling center.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, P.T. van; Pelk-Jongen, M.; Boer, E. de; Voss, A.; Wijkmans, C.; Schneeberger, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: One year (2003) regional analysis of all blood exposure incidents from hospitals as well as from the community. DESIGN: Establishment of an easily accessible regional expert counseling center, operating 24 h a day, for all accidental blood exposures. Tasks of the center were to register i

  2. Visualization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  3. Dynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Dynamics Lab replicates vibration environments for every Navy platform. Testing performed includes: Flight Clearance, Component Improvement, Qualification, Life...

  4. Psychology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides testing stations for computer-based assessment of cognitive and behavioral Warfighter performance. This 500 square foot configurable space can...

  5. Propulsion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Lab simulates field test conditions in a controlled environment, using standardized or customized test procedures. The Propulsion Lab's 11 cells can...

  6. Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: To conduct fundamental studies of highway materials aimed at understanding both failure mechanisms and superior performance. New standard test methods are...

  7. Analytical Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Analytical Labspecializes in Oil and Hydraulic Fluid Analysis, Identification of Unknown Materials, Engineering Investigations, Qualification Testing (to support...

  8. Study of a new possibility to predict the behavior of high - performance anticorrosive protections applied on steel after their exposure in natural aggressive environments, respectively in laboratory accelerated conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina POPA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the global warming, notable changes in the climatic regime of Romania were observed in the last 40-50 years by increasing of the maximum temperatures and decreasing of the minimum temperatures characteristic for each season. This paper makes reference to an experimental research regarding the actual severity of the Romanian climate and its effects toward some performant anticorrosive coatings applied on steel. Such performant anticorrosive protection systems were exposed in situ – marine and alpine environment - and in parallel, aiming to simulate the severe climatic actions through laboratory accelerated environments - neutral salt fog, condensation and temperature variations. The graphical representation and the interpretation of the adhesion to the steel surface by means of the variation of the class into which the paint was framed after performing the cross-cut test during the exposure provided information concerning a new possibility to predict the evolution of the degradation of the paint, by means of this characteristic experimentally determined.

  9. Acidentes de trabalho com instrumentos perfurocortantes entre os trabalhadores de enfermagem Accidentes de trabajo con instrumentos perforo cortantes entre enfermeros trabajadores Accidents with sharp instruments among nursing workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Maria Mansano Sarquis

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo analisou os acidentes de trabalho ocorridos com trabalhadores de enfermagem, de um hospital público, provocados por instrumentos perfurocortantes. A instituição campo de estudo foi um hospital público do interior de São Paulo. A população foi composta por 787 trabalhadores de enfermagem. Na coleta de dados foram usados dois instrumentos: o primeiro foi o questionário que se destinou ao levantamento dos dados referentes aos acidentes de trabalho ocorridos no ano de 1996; o segundo foi a entrevista realizada com estes trabalhadores que sofreram acidentes com instrumentos perfurocortantes. Os resultados encontrados mostram a significativa freqüência desse tipo de acidente entre os auxiliares de enfermagem. A interação do trabalhadores de enfermagem com instrumentos perfurocortantes, indica a grande exposição aos riscos biológicos e às graves doenças.El presente estudio analizó los accidentes de trabajo ocurridos con enfermeros trabajadores, de un hospital público, ocasionados por instrumentos perforo cortantes. La institución campo de estudio fue un hospital público del interior de San Pablo. La población fue compuesta por 787 enfermeros trabajadores. En la coleta de datos fueran usados dos instrumentos: el primer fue un cuestionario que se destinó al examen de datos referentes a los accidentes de trabajo ocurridos en el ano de 1996; el segundo fue una cita con estos trabajadores que sufrieron accidentes con instrumentos perforo cortantes. Los resultados mostran la significativa frecuencia de ese tipo de accidente entre los auxiliares de enfermero. La interacción de los enfermeros trabajadores con instrumentos perforo cortantes indica la grande exposición a los riesgos biológicos y a las graves enfermedades.The present study analyzed the accidents happened at work with the nursing staff of a public hospital, provoked by sharp instruments. All the nursing staff composed the study population. In the

  10. Learning Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Lyn; Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Considers the school library media center as an information learning laboratory. Topics include information literacy; Kuhlthau's Information Search Process model; inquiry theory and approach; discovery learning; process skills of laboratory science; the information scientist; attitudes of media specialists, teachers, and students; displays and Web…

  11. Wrist fracture in a 6-year-old girl after an accidental electric shock at low voltages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyron, P A; Cathala, P; Vannucci, C; Baccino, E

    2015-03-01

    Bone injuries related to electric shocks are usually seen with high-voltage current exposure or with additional traumas, such as falls. Few cases of fractures after electric shocks at low-voltages (with no direct blunt trauma) are reported in the literature. They result from electrically-induced tetanic muscle contractions. Most of them involve the proximal appendicular skeleton, while distal fractures of limbs are uncommon. We report the case of a 6-year-old girl who suffered local superficial burns of the hand and a distal radius buckle-type fracture after sustaining a 230-V electric shock. The accident occurred while the girl was touching with the right hand the metallic stand of a non-insulated street lamp. She felt a sudden jolt and managed to pull her hand free quickly, without falling or losing consciousness. The superficial burns of the hand were consistent with Jellinek's electric marks, while the buckle fracture of the radius was consistent with a forceful contraction of the flexor muscles of the hand. Only four cases of radius fractures resulting from accidental electric shocks at low voltages have been previously reported in the literature. All of them involved pediatric patients, suggesting that a child's vulnerability to this kind of fracture may exist. The present case is the youngest one ever described.

  12. Physical reconstruction of the radiological accident of Chilca (Lima - Peru); Reconstruccion fisica del accidente radiologico de Chilca (Lima - Peru)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachos, A. [Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas, Departamento de Radioterapia, Av. Angamos Este 2520, Surquillo, Lima (Peru); Marquez, J. F., E-mail: alachosd1271@yahoo.com [Univesidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, C. German Amezaga 375, Ciudad Univesitaria, Lima (Peru)

    2014-08-15

    The radiological accident happened in the Chilca District, the Canete County at 60 km to the south of Lima-Peru, during the night of January 11 to 12, 2012. The physical reconstruction of the accident was carried out in January 21, 2012, by means of the information gathering administrative and technical of the radioactive source as well as of the installation, the personnel and the involved procedures in the accidental event, information of the space geometry where the event took place. The preliminary information indicates that the source could have been locked in the guide tube of the equipment, next to the collimator in the first takes radiographic. The radiation monitors were not activated on the procedure, impeding this way, not to realize the flaw and causing that the personnel were exposed to the radiation during the whole work period. Their hands and especially their fingers would have been only to some millimeters of the source. With the obtained information and the measurements of the exposure rates of the radioactive source, was carried out the dose calculation to total body, the dose received in the hands and the dose received in the index finger of the left hand. The accident happened by operative procedure breach, by lack of training of the operators. The physical reconstruction of the accident contributes fundamental information for the decisions taking in the medical management of the accidents by radiation. (author)

  13. Radioecological studies on terrestrial food chain analysis for accidental release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Lee, Jeong Ho; Lee, Hyun Duk [and others

    2000-03-01

    For investigating the contamination pathways of major radionuclides in staple food crops, greenhouse experiments in which rice, Chines cabbage and radish were exposed to mixed {gamma} radionuclides of Mn-54, Co-60, Sr-85, Ru-103 and Cs-134 and H-3 at different growth stages, were conducted to generate data on parameters concerning the direct contamination of those crops. Experiments of the exposure to iodine gas were also performed for rice and radish at their various growth stages to obtain contamination parameters of elemental iodine. Based on data obtained from the experiments mentioned above, a database program was constructed to make it possible to search parameter values for different radionuclides, crops and deposition times in an easy way have an graphic output of the variation in the contamination parameter with deposition times. Paddy-field soils were collected from 5 or 6 places around Kori and Youngkwang NPPs and physicochemical properties and background radioactivity levels of the soils were investigated. Soil-to-rice transfer factors of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in the collected soils were determined for different RI application times. For Kori soils, transfer factors were also measured in the second year to investigate the yearly variation. In addition, the conceptual design of an automatized experimental greenhouse was performed to be used as a basic material for a detailed design for the construction in the future.

  14. IPSN monitoring capabilities and information networks in accidental situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmet, D.; Robeau, D.

    1992-12-31

    In 1989, a Radiological Transmission and Early Warning System (SYTAR) came into being in order to harmonize radioactivity surveillance methodologies and furthermore to trigger off an alert throughout the networks whenever an unusual degree of radioactivity is detected. SYTAR is a remote permanent system linking up a national electronic access and the radiation protection services of nuclear facilities located on the mainland. The structure of the network are particularly presented in the framework of a drill organized on october 1991 in the south-east of France. During this drill, an accident was simulated on a ghost nuclear power plant located in the Cadarache Nuclear Center. A large number of samples were taken from filtered aerosols, soils, grass, milk, vegetables, food stuff; they were contaminated with Caesium 137 and Iodine 131 before to be sent to laboratories for measurements. The results of measurements were transmitted to the actors of the drill using SYTAR network. They permit to determine the exclusion area, the radiological impacts and counter-measures. (author).

  15. Acute radiation enteritis caused by dose-dependent radiation exposure in dogs: experimental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenda; Chen, Jiang; Xu, Liu; Li, Hongyu; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2014-12-01

    Accidental or intended radiation exposure in mass casualty settings presents a serious and on-going threat. The development of mitigating and treating agents requires appropriate animal models. Unfortunately, the majority of research on radiation enteritis in animals has lacked specific assessments and targeted therapy. Our study showed beagle dogs, treated by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for abdominal irradiation, were administered single X-ray doses of 8-30 Gy. The degree of intestinal tract injury for all of the animals after radiation exposure was evaluated with regard to clinical syndrome, endoscopic findings, histological features, and intestinal function. The range of single doses (8 Gy, 10-14 Gy, and 16-30 Gy) represented the degree of injury (mild, moderate, and severe, respectively). Acute radiation enteritis included clinical syndrome with fever, vomiting, diarrhea, hemafecia, and weight loss; typical endoscopic findings included edema, bleeding, mucosal abrasions, and ulcers; and intestinal biopsy results revealed mucosal necrosis, erosion, and loss, inflammatory cell infiltration, hemorrhage, and congestion. Changes in serum diamine oxides (DAOs) and d-xylose represented intestinal barrier function and absorption function, respectively, and correlated with the extent of damage (P enteritis, thus obtaining a relatively objective evaluation of intestinal tract injury based on clinical performance and laboratory examination. The method of assessment of the degree of intestinal tract injury after abdominal irradiation could be beneficial in the development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies for acute radiation enteritis.

  16. Modelling of accidental released toxic gases for emergency responders in Austria, Kosovo and Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Sirma; Baumann-Stanzer, Kathrin; Gashi, Salih; Thaci, Bashkim; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Spassova, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. A number of models for the prediction and simulation of hazard areas affected by accidental releases of toxic gases are available worldwide. Modelling accidental releases may be required for a variety of reasons: for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), for preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management (e.g. in the frame of the SEVESO directive). Depending on the demand and the particular purposes, the choice of the appropriate model is up to the authorities. The one year project was funded by the Austrian Science and research liaison Office (ASO, www.aso.zsi.at) as a part of the program: Research Cooperation and Networking between Austria, the public higher education institutions in Kosovo and South Eastern Europe. The project was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG, http://www.zamg.ac.at) in cooperation with the University of Prishtina (Kosovo, www.uni-pr.edu and the National Institute of meteorology and Hydrology (NIHM Bulgaria, www.meteo.bg). One of the main purposes of the project was to provide the both partners with basic knowledge in modelling with accidental release of toxic gases, based on the practical experience of the meteorologists from the ZAMG in the area. This knowledge can be used as scientific response to society driven current or upcoming problems especially in Kosovo. The activities involved know-how transfer on European standards and practice among the project partners, as well as joint efforts to adapt and disseminate the scientific methods and results in Kosovo. Within the project, the partners from Kosovo and Bulgaria were introduced to the atmospheric dispersion model (ALOHA - Areal

  17. The Nosoi commute: a spatial perspective on the rise of BSL-4 laboratories in cities

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Recent H5N1 influenza research has revived the debate on the storage and manipulation of potentially harmful pathogens. In the last two decades, new high biosafety (BSL-4) laboratories entered into operation, raising strong concerns from the public. The probability of an accidental release of a pathogen from a BSL-4 laboratory is extremely low, but the corresponding risk -- defined as the probability of occurrence multiplied by its impact -- could be significant depending on the pathogen spec...

  18. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  19. Audio Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides an environment and facilities for auditory display research. A primary focus is the performance use of binaurally rendered 3D sound in conjunction...

  20. Elastomers Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Primary capabilities include: elastomer compounding in various sizes (micro, 3x5, 8x12, 8x15 rubber mills); elastomer curing and post curing (two 50-ton presses, one...

  1. Acute expanded perlite exposure with persistent reactive airway dysfunction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chung-Li; Wang, Jung-Der; Chu, Po-Chin; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon

    2010-01-01

    Expanded perlite has been assumed as simple nuisance, however during an accidental spill out in Taiwan, among 24 exposed workers followed for more than 6 months, three developed persisted respiratory symptoms and positive provocation tests were compatible with reactive airway dysfunction syndrome. During simulation experiment expanded perlite is shown to be very dusty and greatly exceed current exposure permission level. Review of literature and evidence, though exposure of expanded perlite below permission level may be generally safe, precautionary protection of short term heavy exposure is warranted.

  2. Multifocal Inflammatory Leukoencephalopathy Induced by Accidental Consumption of Levamisole: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghanbari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Levamisole is an anthelmintic agent and also immunostimulant drug which is used to treat colorectal cancer. The present study aimed to show accidental consumption of levamisole alone induced multifocalinflammatory leukoencephalopathy. A 53-year-old male was admitted to the Neurology Department of Farabi Hospital(Kermanshah, Iran with walking inability and recognition disorder. Following clinical examinations, the patient diagnosed as multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy following levamisole consumption.The patient was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone followed by prednisolone. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was done 1 month later and did not show a reduction or remission in the lesions. History of the patient showed that he had accidentally consumed levamisole 8 months ago. It seems that the consumption of levamisole can induce multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy and delayed treatment of the patient with corticosteroid cannot diminish the neurotoxicity of levamisole. In addition, the cytotoxic dose of levamisole induces irreversible multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy.

  3. Multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy induced by accidental consumption of levamisole: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariaslani, Payam; Ghanbari, Parvin

    2012-01-01

    Levamisole is an anthelmintic agent and also immunostimulant drug which is used to treat colorectal cancer. The present study aimed to show accidental consumption of levamisole alone induced multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy. A 53-year-old male was admitted to the Neurology Department of Farabi Hospital (Kermanshah, Iran) with walking inability and recognition disorder. Following clinical examinations, the patient diagnosed as multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy following levamisole consumption.The patient was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone followed by prednisolone. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was done 1 month later and did not show a reduction or remission in the lesions. History of the patient showed that he had accidentally consumed levamisole 8 months ago. It seems that the consumption of levamisole can induce multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy and delayed treatment of the patient with corticosteroid cannot diminish the neurotoxicity of levamisole. In addition, the cytotoxic dose of levamisole induces irreversible multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy. PMID:24250864

  4. Photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers enabled by an accidental Dirac point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Song Liang; Lu, Ling; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-12-02

    A photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser (PCSEL) includes a gain medium electromagnetically coupled to a photonic crystal whose energy band structure exhibits a Dirac cone of linear dispersion at the center of the photonic crystal's Brillouin zone. This Dirac cone's vertex is called a Dirac point; because it is at the Brillouin zone center, it is called an accidental Dirac point. Tuning the photonic crystal's band structure (e.g., by changing the photonic crystal's dimensions or refractive index) to exhibit an accidental Dirac point increases the photonic crystal's mode spacing by orders of magnitudes and reduces or eliminates the photonic crystal's distributed in-plane feedback. Thus, the photonic crystal can act as a resonator that supports single-mode output from the PCSEL over a larger area than is possible with conventional PCSELs, which have quadratic band edge dispersion. Because output power generally scales with output area, this increase in output area results in higher possible output powers.

  5. Accidental Displacement of Third Molar into the Sublingual Space: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Jorge

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful extraction of third molars depends on preoperative diagnosis and planning. Gold standard preoperative examinations are performed through computed tomography, decreasing risks and avoiding potential accidents. The present report highlights the value of preoperative examinations in face of accidentally displaced third molars. Methods: An 18-years-old female patient underwent a third mandibular molar extraction with a general dentist. Accidentally, the mandibular left third molar was displaced into the sublingual space, making necessary a second surgical step. The surgery was interrupted and the patient was referred to an expert in maxillofacial surgery. Results: After 21 days awaiting an asymptomatic health status, the second surgical step was successfully performed using multislice computed tomography as preoperative imaging guide. Conclusions: The present case report highlights the clinical usefulness of imaging planning and informed consents in face of legal and ethic potential complaints.

  6. Marine oil spill risk mapping for accidental pollution and its application in a coastal city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Dongdong; Liang, Bin; Bao, Chenguang; Ma, Minghui; Xu, Yan; Yu, Chunyan

    2015-07-15

    Accidental marine oil spill pollution can result in severe environmental, ecological, economic and other consequences. This paper discussed the model of Marine Oil Spill Risk Mapping (MOSRM), which was constructed as follows: (1) proposing a marine oil spill risk system based on the typical marine oil spill pollution accidents and prevailing risk theories; (2) identifying suitable indexes that are supported by quantitative sub-indexes; (3) constructing the risk measuring models according to the actual interactions between the factors in the risk system; and (4) assessing marine oil spill risk on coastal city scale with GIS to map the overall risk. The case study of accidental marine oil spill pollution in the coastal area of Dalian, China was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The coastal areas of Dalian were divided into three zones with risk degrees of high, medium, and low. And detailed countermeasures were proposed for specific risk zones.

  7. [The prevalence of accidental poisoning in a hospital pediatric unit of Latium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraoni, F; Protano, C; Bini, V; Lizzi, R

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the trend of accidental poisoning among children, over a period of fifteen years, from 1990 to 2004, in the pediatric wards of a hospital in Latium (Italy). The prevalence of childhood poisoning was calculated based on the medical records of the pediatric unit of the hospital. The derived data was divided into different categories according to age, gender and types of poisoning. The results of this study show a decrease in accidental pediatric poisoning; according to the literature the frequency of poisoning was higher in males, under the age of 2 years, than females. Trends show an increase in pharmaceutical poisonings. The present study underlines the need for continuous information on prevention and educational programs organized by the Institutions, territorial sanitary services and GP with the aim of increasing the awareness of parents regarding the risk factors of poisoning.

  8. Accidental versus operational oil spills from shipping in the Baltic Sea: risk governance and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Björn

    2011-03-01

    Marine governance of oil transportation is complex. Due to difficulties in effectively monitoring procedures on vessels en voyage, incentives to save costs by not following established regulations on issues such as cleaning of tanks, crew size, and safe navigation may be substantial. The issue of problem structure is placed in focus, that is, to what degree the specific characteristics and complexity of intentional versus accidental oil spill risks affect institutional responses. It is shown that whereas the risk of accidental oil spills primarily has been met by technical requirements on the vessels in combination with Port State control, attempts have been made to curb intentional pollution by for example increased surveillance and smart governance mechanisms such as the No-Special-Fee system. It is suggested that environmental safety could be improved by increased use of smart governance mechanisms tightly adapted to key actors' incentives to alter behavior in preferable directions.

  9. A Precise Analytic Delayed Coincidence Efficiency and Accidental Coincidence Rate Calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Jingyi; Chen, Shaomin

    2013-01-01

    In a delayed coincidence experiment, for example, the recent reactor neutrino oscillation experiments, a precise analytic determination of the delayed coincidence signal efficiency and the accidental coincidence background rate is important for the high accuracy measurement of the oscillation parameters and to understand systematic uncertainties associated with fluctuations in muon rate and random background rate. In this work, a data model is proposed to describe the full time sequence of all possible events on the live time axis. The acceptance of delayed coincidence signals, the rate of accidental backgrounds and other coincidence possibilities are calculated by assuming that all of the `net muons' are uniformly distributed on the live time axis. The intrinsic relative uncertainties in the event rates are at the $10^{-5}$ level for all combinations. The model and predictions are verified with a high statistics Monte Carlo study with a set of realistic parameters.

  10. Multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy induced by accidental consumption of levamisole: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariaslani, Payam; Ghanbari, Ali; Ghanbari, Parvin

    2012-01-01

    Levamisole is an anthelmintic agent and also immunostimulant drug which is used to treat colorectal cancer. The present study aimed to show accidental consumption of levamisole alone induced multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy. A 53-year-old male was admitted to the Neurology Department of Farabi Hospital (Kermanshah, Iran) with walking inability and recognition disorder. Following clinical examinations, the patient diagnosed as multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy following levamisole consumption.The patient was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone followed by prednisolone. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was done 1 month later and did not show a reduction or remission in the lesions. History of the patient showed that he had accidentally consumed levamisole 8 months ago. It seems that the consumption of levamisole can induce multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy and delayed treatment of the patient with corticosteroid cannot diminish the neurotoxicity of levamisole. In addition, the cytotoxic dose of levamisole induces irreversible multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy.

  11. Salade malade: malignant ventricular arrhythmias due to an accidental intoxication with Aconitum napellus

    OpenAIRE

    Weijters, B.J.; Verbunt, R.J.A.M.; Hoogsteen, J.; Visser, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    Intoxication with Aconitum napellus is rare in our regions. Aconite alkaloids can cause ventricular arrhythmia by a prolonged activation of sodium channels. Because the margin of safety is low between the analgesic and toxic dose, intoxication is not rare when Aconite is used in herbal medicine. We present a case in which a 39-year-old male was accidentally intoxicated with Aconite. Even though no antidote or adequate therapy is available he was successfully resuscitated. (Neth Heart J 2008;1...

  12. The Impacts of Air Temperature on Accidental Casualties in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pan; Wang, Shigong; Fan, Xingang; Li, Tanshi

    2016-01-01

    Emergency room (ER) visits for accidental casualties, according to the International Classification of Deceases 10th Revision Chapters 19 and 20, include injury, poisoning, and external causes (IPEC). Annual distribution of 187,008 ER visits that took place between 2009 and 2011 in Beijing, China displayed regularity rather than random characteristics. The annual cycle from the Fourier series fitting of the number of ER visits was found to explain 63.2% of its total variance. In this study, the possible effect and regulation of meteorological conditions on these ER visits are investigated through the use of correlation analysis, as well as statistical modeling by using the Distributed Lag Non-linear Model and Generalized Additive Model. Correlation analysis indicated that meteorological variables that positively correlated with temperature have a positive relationship with the number of ER visits, and vice versa. The temperature metrics of maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures were found to have similar overall impacts, including both the direct impact on human mental/physical conditions and indirect impact on human behavior. The lag analysis indicated that the overall impacts of temperatures higher than the 50th percentile on ER visits occur immediately, whereas low temperatures show protective effects in the first few days. Accidental casualties happen more frequently on warm days when the mean temperature is higher than 14 °C than on cold days. Mean temperatures of around 26 °C result in the greatest possibility of ER visits for accidental casualties. In addition, males were found to face a higher risk of accidental casualties than females at high temperatures. Therefore, the IPEC-classified ER visits are not pure accidents; instead, they are associated closely with meteorological conditions, especially temperature. PMID:27827842

  13. The Impacts of Air Temperature on Accidental Casualties in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Ma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Emergency room (ER visits for accidental casualties, according to the International Classification of Deceases 10th Revision Chapters 19 and 20, include injury, poisoning, and external causes (IPEC. Annual distribution of 187,008 ER visits that took place between 2009 and 2011 in Beijing, China displayed regularity rather than random characteristics. The annual cycle from the Fourier series fitting of the number of ER visits was found to explain 63.2% of its total variance. In this study, the possible effect and regulation of meteorological conditions on these ER visits are investigated through the use of correlation analysis, as well as statistical modeling by using the Distributed Lag Non-linear Model and Generalized Additive Model. Correlation analysis indicated that meteorological variables that positively correlated with temperature have a positive relationship with the number of ER visits, and vice versa. The temperature metrics of maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures were found to have similar overall impacts, including both the direct impact on human mental/physical conditions and indirect impact on human behavior. The lag analysis indicated that the overall impacts of temperatures higher than the 50th percentile on ER visits occur immediately, whereas low temperatures show protective effects in the first few days. Accidental casualties happen more frequently on warm days when the mean temperature is higher than 14 °C than on cold days. Mean temperatures of around 26 °C result in the greatest possibility of ER visits for accidental casualties. In addition, males were found to face a higher risk of accidental casualties than females at high temperatures. Therefore, the IPEC-classified ER visits are not pure accidents; instead, they are associated closely with meteorological conditions, especially temperature.

  14. Current controversies in the interpretation of non-accidental head injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspan, Tim [Imaging Centre, University Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    The field of non-accidental injury (NAI) has been the subject of a number of theories and hypotheses of variable merit. Concerning injuries that occur within the intracranial compartment, much research has been undertaken to investigate the cause of SDH and parenchymal brain injury. Much, however, remains contentious, particularly regarding the medicolegal aspects of suspected child abuse. Issues that present the greatest challenges will be addressed. (orig.)

  15. Artritis tuberculosa - Autoinoculación en profesional sanitario por accidente laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Los autores describen un caso de monoartritis tuberculosa en un médico traumatólogo previamente sano, por inoculación accidental durante el drenaje quirúrgico de una artritis séptica. El tratamiento oral con fármacos antituberculosos y el drenaje quirúrgico fueron suficientes, sin tener que recurrir a la sinovectomía.

  16. Accidental PUVA burns, vitiligo and atopic diathesis resulting in prurigo nodularis: a logical but undocumented rarity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shyam Bhanushankar; Wollina, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Vitiligo is a dreaded disease in India due to its social and cultural consequences. PUVA and PUVAsol are the main treatment modalities for vitiligo vulgaris. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of accidental PUVA burns eventuating in prurigo nodularis lesions to be reported in a female patient who was undergoing home PUVA therapy. The itch is so prominent and disabling that the focus of the patient has shifted from treating her vitiligo to ameliorating the pruritus. PMID:23197209

  17. Cuidado popular de familias con un adulto mayor sobreviviente del primer accidente cerebrovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Lucero López-Díaz; Fabiola Castellanos-Soriano; Esperanza Muñoz-Torres

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el accidente cerebrovascular afecta a numerosas personas en el mundo y se constituye en la principal causa de muer- te. Los sobrevivientes pueden padecer discapacidad y sufrir modificaciones en las actividades cotidianas. La familia es el principal apoyo del sobreviviente y al ser parte de una misma cultura, construye acciones de cuidado en búsqueda del bienestar. Objetivo: describir las acciones del cuidado popular de las familias con un adulto mayor sobreviviente del prim...

  18. Analizan partículas calientes del accidente nuclear de Palomares

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Investigadores pertenecientes al Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, CNA, (Universidad de Sevilla-Junta de Andalucía-CSIC) en colaboración con la Organización Internacional de la Energía Atómica (IAEA), han llevado a cabo me didas de elementos transuránicos en partículas calientes procedentes de accidentes nucleares tales como el de Thule (Groenlandia) o Palomares (España).

  19. [Fatal accidental mixed poisoning of 3 men at the same time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnasch, P; Reiter, A; Meissner, C; Oehmichen, M

    1999-01-01

    The case history presented reports on three 30- to 40-years-old men, who were found dead in a party like situation in the living room. The toxicological investigation proved alcohol and THC as well as therapeutic Flunitrazepam- and Pentobarbital levels and toxic 7- Amino-Flunitrazepam concentrations. The background of this surprising scene led up to the conclusion of an accidental death caused by a mixed intoxication.

  20. Exposure Forecaster

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Exposure Forecaster Database (ExpoCastDB) is EPA's database for aggregating chemical exposure information and can be used to help with chemical exposure...

  1. Los accidentes laborales, su impacto económico y social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Antonio Cisneros-Prieto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo investigativo aborda la problemática de los accidentes de trabajo en las empresas estatales en la provincia Holguín y la importancia de la determinación efectiva de las causas que los provocan, a partir del análisis del comportamiento de los indicadores emitidos por la Oficina Nacional de Estadística e Información (ONEI hasta el año 2014. Se analiza el comportamiento, en el período comprendido entre el 2011-2014, de las cifras de trabajadores lesionados y fallecidos, y se evalúa el impacto humano, económico y social de la accidentalidad en las empresas y la sociedad. Se demuestra un incremento en el indicador “Días perdidos por accidentados”, siendo la principal lectura de este comportamiento el aumento de la gravedad de los accidentes de trabajo, este es un elemento que generalmente las organizaciones no valoran en su verdadera magnitud como un significativo impacto negativo de su eficiencia económica y financiera. Se presenta un enfoque sobre las potencialidades de la comunicación en función de la solución o atenuación de la ocurrencia de los accidentes y en consecuencia ladisminución del costo financiero y social de esta compleja problemática.

  2. Mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito en Bayamo, Cuba 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlines Piña-Tornés

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de describir la mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito en Bayamo, Cuba, en el año 2011 se realizó una revisión de los pacientes lesionados y fallecidos a causa de accidentes de tránsito, registrados en Hospital Carlos M. de Céspedes. Se atendieron en emergencias 1365 lesionados, predominando el grupo etario de 25 a 44 años con 372 pacientes (27,3%, y el sexo masculino con 1071 (78,5%. Fallecieron 46 personas, en su mayoría del mismo grupo de edad y de sexo masculino. Los traumatismos múltiples (52,6% y cráneofaciales (34,2% fueron las localizaciones predominantes. Se destacaron los atropellos por vehículo de motor con mortalidad del 26,3%. En conclusión, la mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito predomina en adultos jóvenes masculinos; cuyas consecuencias fatales son debido a traumatismos múltiples por atropellos.

  3. Decay Heat Removal and Transient Analysis in Accidental Conditions in the EFIT Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomino Bandini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a conceptual design of an industrial-scale transmutation facility (EFIT of several 100 MW thermal power based on accelerator-driven system (ADS is addressed in the frame of the European EUROTRANS Integral Project. In normal operation, the core power of EFIT reactor is removed through steam generators by four secondary loops fed by water. A safety-related decay heat removal (DHR system provided with four independent inherently safe loops is installed in the primary vessel to remove the decay heat by natural convection circulation under accidental conditions which are caused by a loss-of-heat sink (LOHS. In order to confirm the adequacy of the adopted solution for decay heat removal in accidental conditions, some multi-D analyses have been carried out with the SIMMER-III code. The results of the SIMMER-III code have been then used to support the RELAP5 1D representation of the natural circulation flow paths in the reactor vessel. Finally, the thermal-hydraulic RELAP5 code has been employed for the analysis of LOHS accidental scenarios.

  4. Shape measurement tools in footwear analysis: a statistical investigation of accidental characteristics over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, H David; Gross, Susan; Langenburg, Glenn; Bush, Peter J; Bush, Mary A

    2013-10-10

    Presence of accidental characteristics on footwear strengthens the linkage of a given piece of footwear to a footwear impression left at a crime-scene. Thus an understanding of rate of appearance and disappearance of these characteristics is of importance. Artificial cut-marks, 1-3mm in depth, were cut into outsoles of 11 pairs of athletic shoes. Loss of these cut-marks and acquisition of new accidental characteristics/wear patterns were monitored over a seven-week time-span. Feature-vector methods were used to acquire multivariate data on wear/acquisition rates. A repeatability study indicated the feature vector method could detect small differences among shoes relative to measurement uncertainty. The shoes displayed a strong retention of artificial cut-marks over the study interval. Net rate of wear was 0.1% of the textured area of the shoe per week, predominantly in the heel and ball area. Results indicate accidental characteristics can reasonably be expected to persist over time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cuidado popular de familias con un adulto mayor sobreviviente del primer accidente cerebrovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucero López-Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el accidente cerebrovascular afecta a numerosas personas en el mundo y se constituye en la principal causa de muer- te. Los sobrevivientes pueden padecer discapacidad y sufrir modificaciones en las actividades cotidianas. La familia es el principal apoyo del sobreviviente y al ser parte de una misma cultura, construye acciones de cuidado en búsqueda del bienestar. Objetivo: describir las acciones del cuidado popular de las familias con un adulto mayor sobreviviente del primer accidente cerebrovascular. Método: estudio etnográfico, con observación participante y entrevistas en profundidad. Participaron siete familias bogotanas (siete adultos mayores entre los dos y diez meses posteriores al primer accidente cerebrovascular y los siete cuidadores principales respectivos. Resultados: cuidadores y adulto mayor comparten acciones de cuidado para la recuperación, relacionadas con la alimentación, el cuidado personal y la ingesta de medicamentos permeadas por la creencia religiosa, fuente de soporte y vínculo afectivo. Conclusión: conocer el cuidado popular de esta población posibilita proponer acciones culturalmente congruentes con sus valores y creencias para potencializar las ca- pacidades familiares e intermediar en los procesos de tratamiento.

  6. Humeral fracture in non-ambulant infants - a possible accidental mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somers, John M.; Halliday, Katharine E. [Nottingham University Hospitals, Radiology Department, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Chapman, Stephen [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    Humeral fracture in a non-ambulant infant younger than 1 year is suspicious for a non-accidental injury unless there is a credible accidental explanation. A previously unrecognised accidental mechanism was described in 1996 whereby a 5-month-old infant was rolled by a 3-year-old sibling from a prone to a supine position. To investigate the widely accepted view that an infant with limited mobility cannot sustain a fracture of the humerus by his or her own actions in the absence of the intervention of an external party. We present seven cases of non-ambulant infants between 4 and 7 months of age in whom an isolated humeral fracture was the only injury present. In each case the caregiver described the fracture occurring when the child rolled over, trapping the dependent arm, without the intervention of another party. There is no proof for this mechanism in the form of an independent witness or video recording. However, we propose that this mechanism is worthy of further consideration as a rare and unusual cause for the injury. Further study is required. (orig.)

  7. Mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito en Bayamo, Cuba 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlines Piña-Tornés

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de describir la mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito en Bayamo, Cuba, en el año 2011 se realizó una revisión de los pacientes lesionados y fallecidos a causa de accidentes de tránsito, registrados en Hospital Carlos M. de Céspedes. Se atendieron en emergencias 1365 lesionados, predominando el grupo etario de 25 a 44 años con 372 pacientes (27,3%, y el sexo masculino con 1071 (78,5%. Fallecieron 46 personas, en su mayoría del mismo grupo de edad y de sexo masculino. Los traumatismos múltiples (52,6% y cráneofaciales (34,2% fueron las localizaciones predominantes. Se destacaron los atropellos por vehículo de motor con mortalidad del 26,3%. En conclusión, la mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito predomina en adultos jóvenes masculinos; cuyas consecuencias fatales son debido a traumatismos múltiples por atropellos.

  8. Accidental hanging: a novel mobile suspension apparatus partially hidden inside the clothes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodikara, Sarathchandra

    2012-12-01

    Accidental hanging is uncommon. An immobile/fixed and exposed suspension apparatus is seen in almost all cases of hanging. A 50-year-old man, who was drunk, was trying to steal an iron rod by hiding it under his clothing. To secure hiding, he attached it to his body by a loose ligature around the neck, the waist belt of the sarong, and another band around the waist and by his underwear. Sometime later, because of ethanol intoxication, he fell asleep in the sitting position. While he was sitting on the floor, the iron rod was lifted up accidentally, and its upper end was wedged against the wall behind the victim, and the lower end was fixed against the floor. When he fell asleep, the weight of the tilted head acted as the constricting force compressing the neck by the ligature that was used to attach the iron rod to the neck. The cause of death was concluded as hanging in a man with ethanol intoxication. This case highlights a novel mobile suspension apparatus partially hidden inside the clothes, in a case of accidental hanging. A similar case has not been reported in the forensic literature.

  9. Accidental Carbon Monoxide Poisonings in Adana, Turkey: A 14-year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Darçın

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Carbon monoxide (CO is often referred to as the “silent killer” because its victims cannot see it, smell it or taste it. CO is responsible for a large percentage of the accidental poisonings and deaths reported throughout the world. CO poisoning therefore is considered a serious global health threat. The aim of the present study was to describe the cases of CO poisoning in a rural areas of Adana, Turkey between 2002 and 2015 based on data collected from incident reports. Methods: The cases of accidental CO poisoning were statistically analyzed. During that period, 74 incidents occurred and 154 people were poisoned by accidental CO poisoning. Results: The results of this analysis indicate that men and adults aged ≥65 years were more likely to die from CO poisoning than others. The number of CO poisoning cases was highest during the heating season. The majority (72% of poisoning resulting in hospitalization with a life-threatening condition or death occurred within the home. Conclusion: CO poisoning is a serious danger. People must be informed about this hazard. By educating risk groups about the dangers of CO poisoning, it is possible to save many lives as well as reduce the health risks.

  10. Accidental Coverage of Both Renal Arteries during Infrarenal Aortic Stent-Graft Implantation: Cause and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Marcello Bracale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to report a salvage maneuver for accidental coverage of both renal arteries during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR of an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA. A 72-year-old female with a 6 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm was treated by endovascular means with a standard bifurcated graft. Upon completing an angiogram, both renal arteries were found to be accidentally occluded. Through a left percutaneous brachial approach, the right renal artery was catheterized and a chimney stent was deployed; however this was not possible for the left renal artery. A retroperitoneal surgical approach was therefore carried out with a retrograde chimney stent implanted to restore blood flow. After three months, both renal arteries were patent and renal function was not different from the baseline. Both endovascular with percutaneous access via the brachial artery and open retroperitoneal approaches with retrograde catheterization are feasible rescue techniques to recanalize the accidentally occluded renal arteries during EVAR.

  11. An atypical case of successful resuscitation of an accidental profound hypothermia patient, occurring in a temperate climate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, E

    2010-03-01

    Cases of accidental profound hypothermia occur most frequently in cold, northern climates. We describe an atypical case, occurring in a temperate climate, where a hypothermic cardiac-arrested patient was successfully resuscitated using extracorporeal circulation (ECC).

  12. Fallopian tube insertion into the uterine cavity discovered accidentally during laparoscopic retrieval of a misplaced coil from the pelvic cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Panayotidis, Costas; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Nisolle, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This article presents for the first time in the literature a case of fallopian tube insertion into the uterine cavity discovered accidentally during laparoscopic retrieval of a misplaced coil from the pelvic cavity. Peer reviewed

  13. Accumulation of plutonium in mammalian wildlife tissues following dispersal by accidental-release tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, M P; Child, D P; Caffrey, E A; Davis, E; Harrison, J J; Hotchkis, M A C; Payne, T E; Ikeda-Ohno, A; Thiruvoth, S; Twining, J R; Beresford, N A

    2016-01-01

    We examined the distribution of plutonium (Pu) in the tissues of mammalian wildlife inhabiting the relatively undisturbed, semi-arid former Taranaki weapons test site, Maralinga, Australia. The accumulation of absorbed Pu was highest in the skeleton (83% ± 6%), followed by muscle (10% ± 9%), liver (6% ± 6%), kidneys (0.6% ± 0.4%), and blood (0.2%). Pu activity concentrations in lung tissues were elevated relative to the body average. Foetal transfer was higher in the wildlife data than in previous laboratory studies. The amount of Pu in the gastrointestinal tract was highly elevated relative to that absorbed within the body, potentially increasing transfer of Pu to wildlife and human consumers that may ingest gastrointestinal tract organs. The Pu distribution in the Maralinga mammalian wildlife generally aligns with previous studies related to environmental exposure (e.g. Pu in humans from worldwide fallout), but contrasts with the partitioning models that have traditionally been used for human worker-protection purposes (approximately equal deposition in bone and liver) which appear to under-predict the skeletal accumulation in environmental exposure conditions.

  14. El subregistro de accidentes de trabajo en una Unidad de Medicina Familiar del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Subregistro de accidentes de trabajo en asegurados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Pérez Martínez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar el subregistro de los accidentes de trabajo en una Unidad de Medicina Familiar (UMFX escogida, inicialmente atendidos en el servicio de urgencias de un Hospital General de Zona (HGZ, del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS en el año 2002. Material y métodos: Es un estudio transversal que utilizó información de la fuente original del HGZ que otorga la primera atención médica. Se elaboró una cédula de registro con las diversas fuentes de información, efectuando confrontación, seguimiento y análisis estadístico de las mismas. Resultados: De 6551 probables accidentes de trabajo atendidos en el HGZ, se seleccionaron 821 casos adscritos a la UMFX escogida. Se conformaron tres grupos de acuerdo con su dictamen: Grupo I= SÍ de trabajo, 35.4% (290; Grupo II=NO de trabajo, 4.6% (38, y el Grupo III= no calificados y atendidos en urgencias, 60%(493; este último representa el subregistro de los accidentes de trabajo. Conclusiones: El subregistro del 60% es de los más altos reportado en la literatura, lo cual representa para el IMSS, los trabajadores y el país graves repercusiones económicas y sociales no cuantificadas.Objective: To determine the Occupational Accidents Subregistry at a selected Family Medicine Unit (FMUX initially treated at a Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS General Zone Hospital (HGZ during the year 2002. Materials and Methods: This is a transversal study utilizing information from the original source, the HGZ primary-care hospital-facility. We elaborated a registry permit with diverse information sources, and conducted confrontation, followup, and statistical analysis of these sources. Results: Of 6,551 probable occupational accidents treated at the HGZ Emergency Room, we selected 821 cases ascribed to the selected FMUX. We made up three groups according these dictates: Group I = YES, occupational, 35.4% (290; Group II = NO, occupational, 4.6% (38, and Grupo III = not qualified and

  15. In Vivo Nanodetoxication for Acute Uranium Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guzmán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accidental exposure to uranium is a matter of concern, as U(VI is nephrotoxic in both human and animal models, and its toxicity is associated to chemical toxicity instead of radioactivity. We synthesized different PAMAM G4 and G5 derivatives in order to prove their interaction with uranium and their effect on the viability of red blood cells in vitro. Furthermore, we prove the effectiveness of the selected dendrimers in an animal model of acute uranium intoxication. The dendrimer PAMAM G4-Lys-Fmoc-Cbz demonstrated the ability to chelate the uranyl ion in vivo, improving the biochemical and histopathologic features caused by acute intoxication with uranium.

  16. Trends of Non-Accidental, Cardiovascular, Stroke and Lung Cancer Mortality in Arkansas Are Associated with Ambient PM2.5 Reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Cecile G. Chalbot

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular and stroke mortality rates in Arkansas are among the highest in the USA. The annual trends of stroke and cardiovascular mortality are barely correlated to smoking cessation; while the prevalence of risk factors such as obesity; cholesterol and hypertension increased over the 1979–2007 period. The study determined the effect of chronic exposure to PM2.5 on non-accidental; cardiovascular; stroke and lung cancer mortality in Arkansas over the 2000–2010 period using the World Health Organization’s log-linear health impact model. County chronic exposures to PM2.5 were computed by averaging spatially-resolved gridded concentrations using PM2.5 observations. A spatial uniformity was observed for PM2.5 mass levels indicating that chronic exposures were comparable throughout the state. The reduction of PM2.5 mass levels by 3.0 μg/m3 between 2000 and 2010 explained a significant fraction of the declining mortality. The effect was more pronounced in southern and eastern rural Arkansas as compared to the rest of the state. This study provides evidence that the implementation of air pollution regulations has measurable effects on mortality even in regions with high prevalence of major risk factors such as obesity and smoking. These outcomes are noteworthy as efforts to modify the major risk factors require longer realization times.

  17. Development of management tools for accidental radiological contamination of the French coastal areas - Development of management tools for accidental radiological contamination in the French marine coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffa, C.; Charmasson, S. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/LERCM - Antenne de Radioecologie Marine, Centre Ifremer, Zone portuaire de Bregaillon, 13507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Bailly du Bois, P.; Fievet, B. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/LRC (France); Couvez, C.; Renaud, P. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/DIR (France); Didier, D. [IRSN/PRP-CRI/SESUC/BMTA (France)

    2014-07-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident led to the most important accidental release of artificial radionuclides into the sea. This accident has underlined the importance of being able to adequately reproduce the fate of radioactive releases and to estimate their consequences for the marine environment. For its Crisis Centre, the French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has operational tools, in order to help experts and decision makers in case of any atmospheric accidental release and terrestrial environment contamination. The on-going project aims to develop tools to manage any marine contamination of the French coastal areas. We should be able to evaluate and anticipate the marine post-accidental situation: contaminated areas localization and contamination levels, and possible consequences. Many sites has be considered as potential source terms into the sea: the Coastal Nuclear Power Plants, the La Hague reprocessing Plant, the Brest and Toulon Military Harbours as home-ports of nuclear powered vessels, and different river mouths (Rhone River, Gironde, Loire, Seine) that could be contaminated by upstream accidental release. To achieve this goal, two complementary approaches are developed: Marine sheets and a dedicated modelling tool (STERNE). - Marine sheets aim to summarize marine environment characteristics for the different sites, identify potential stakes for human protection such as aquaculture areas, beaches, or industrial water intakes, and ecological stakes. Whenever possible, a local climatology (main currents depending on meteorological or tide conditions) that could be a support to first environmental measurement strategy is proposed. A list of available local contacts for any operational management is also provided. - The modelling tool, STERNE (Simulation du Transport et du transfert d'Elements Radioactifs dans l'environNEment marin), must predict radionuclide dispersion and contamination of water, marine species and sediments

  18. Hazards analysis for the E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory x-ray absorption experiments to be performed at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelstein, N.M.; Shuh, D.K.; Bucher, J.B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this experiment is to determine the oxidation state(s) of neptunium (Np) in mouse skeleton and in soft tissue by X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES). If Np is present in sufficient concentration, X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) data will be obtained in order to further identify the Np species present. These data will be crucial in understanding the metabolic pathway of Np in mammals which will help in the design of reagents which can eliminate Np from mammals in the event of accidental exposure. It is proposed to run these experiments at the Standard Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). This laboratory is a DOE national user facility located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The {sup 237}Np nucleus decays by the emission of an alpha particle and this particle emission is the principal hazard in handling Np samples. This hazard is mitigated by physical containment of the sample which stops the alpha particles within the containment. The total amount of Np material that will be shipped to and be at SSRL at any one time will be less than 1 gram. This limit on the amount of Np will ensure that SLAC remains a low hazard, non-nuclear facility. The Np samples will be solids or Np ions in aqueous solution. The Np samples will be shipped to SSRL/SLAC OHP. SLAC OHP will inventory the samples and swipe the containers holding the triply contained samples, and then bring them to the SSRL Actinide trailer located outside building 131. The QA counting records from the samples, as measured at LBNL, will be provided to SSRL and SLAC OHP prior to the arrival of the samples at SLAC OHP. In addition, strict monitoring of the storage and experimental areas will be performed in accordance with SLAC/OHP radiation protection procedures to ensure against the release of contamination.

  19. 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: summary of main findings and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, J J; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H M G; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Cook, T M

    2014-10-01

    We present the main findings of the 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA). Incidences were estimated using reports of accidental awareness as the numerator, and a parallel national anaesthetic activity survey to provide denominator data. The incidence of certain/probable and possible accidental awareness cases was ~1:19,600 anaesthetics (95% confidence interval 1:16,700-23,450). However, there was considerable variation across subtypes of techniques or subspecialities. The incidence with neuromuscular block (NMB) was ~1:8200 (1:7030-9700), and without, it was ~1:135,900 (1:78,600-299,000). The cases of AAGA reported to NAP5 were overwhelmingly cases of unintended awareness during NMB. The incidence of accidental awareness during Caesarean section was ~1:670 (1:380-1300). Two-thirds (82, 66%) of cases of accidental awareness experiences arose in the dynamic phases of anaesthesia, namely induction of and emergence from anaesthesia. During induction of anaesthesia, contributory factors included: use of thiopental, rapid sequence induction, obesity, difficult airway management, NMB, and interruptions of anaesthetic delivery during movement from anaesthetic room to theatre. During emergence from anaesthesia, residual paralysis was perceived by patients as accidental awareness, and commonly related to a failure to ensure full return of motor capacity. One-third (43, 33%) of accidental awareness events arose during the maintenance phase of anaesthesia, mostly due to problems at induction or towards the end of anaesthesia. Factors increasing the risk of accidental awareness included: female sex, age (younger adults, but not children), obesity, anaesthetist seniority (junior trainees), previous awareness, out-of-hours operating, emergencies, type of surgery (obstetric, cardiac, thoracic), and use of NMB. The following factors were not risk factors for accidental awareness: ASA physical status, race, and use or omission

  20. Construction and operation of the Howard T. Ricketts Laboratory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.; Stull, L.; Butler, J.; Chang, Y.; Allison, T.; O' Rourke, D.

    2006-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has proposed to partially fund the construction of the Howard T. Ricketts (HTR) regional biocontainment laboratory (RBL) by the University of Chicago at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Illinois. The HTR Laboratory (HTRL) would be constructed, owned, and operated by the University of Chicago on land leased to it by DOE. The preferred project site is located north of Eastwood Drive and west of Outer Circle Road and is near the biological sciences building. This environmental assessment addresses the potential environmental effects resulting from construction and operation of the proposed facility. The proposed project involves the construction of a research facility with a footprint up to approximately 44,000 ft{sup 2} (4,088 m{sup 2}). The proposed building would house research laboratories, including Biosafety Level 2 and 3 biocontainment space, animal research facilities, administrative offices, and building support areas. The NIH has identified a need for new facilities to support research on potential bioterrorism agents and emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, to protect the nation from such threats to public health. This research requires specialized laboratory facilities that are designed, managed, and operated to protect laboratory workers and the surrounding community from accidental exposure to agents. The proposed HTRL would provide needed biocontainment space to researchers and promote the advancement of knowledge in the disciplines of biodefense and emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Several alternatives were considered for the location of the proposed facility, as well as a no action alternative. The preferred alternative includes the construction of a research facility, up to 44,000 ft{sup 2} (4,088 m{sup 2}), at Argonne National Laboratory, a secure government location. Potential impacts to natural and cultural resources have been

  1. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  2. [Prenatal exposure to birth control pills: risk of fetal death and congenital malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellesen, Rikke; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2006-06-19

    About 1% of pregnant women uses oral contraceptives during the first part of their pregnancy and thereby exposes their offspring to artificial estrogens. Artificial estrogens, such as oral contraceptives, accidentally used during pregnancy may have a negative impact on the fetus. This article reviews the literature on prenatal exposure to oral contraceptives and the risk of congenital malformations and fetal death. The conclusion is that prenatal exposure to oral contraceptives may be associated with a slightly elevated risk of certain specific congenital malformations.

  3. Accidental Hypothermia,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-03

    the pulmonary , digestive, and endocrine systems.16� Cardiovascular Cardiovascular responses in hypothermia are vell described. Following an early...decline. Included in this group are patients with hypothalamic lesions and agenesis of the corpus callosum, termed the Shapiro Syndrome.46 1�...Hypothermia with agenesis of the corpus callosum has also been associated with hypercalcemia and status epilepticus.230 Since experimental sectioning of the

  4. Accidental goodness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Anne

    In postmodern capitalist market economies, management of the single organisation is bound to be guided by several rationales, which are in conflict with each other. For some writers this perception leads to the argument, that conceptions of management should strive towards goals beyond the present...... society. For others, the handling of plural perspectives is just a management discipline. However these positions seem to share a focus on organization as a the arena for the organization of the good. The contribution looks at the management of occupational accidents as an example of striving for good...

  5. [Accidental falls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuchi, Koichi

    2013-06-01

    Falls are common cause of injuries among elderly people, and fractures are the most serious consequence of falls. For seniors, hip fractures are the second major cause of bedridden. The feature and acute care of head injury, spinal cord injury, vertebrae fracture, and hip fracture are described. Just had fracture fixation, the patient can not go back to the original ADL. In order not to become bedridden, both medication and physical examination are important based on the new disease concept of locomotive syndrome. To do so, requires hospital and clinic cooperation. Sufficient cooperation is not currently possible, and spread of liaison service is essential.

  6. Lunar laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  7. Virtual Laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Hut, P

    2006-01-01

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations play a central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simul...

  8. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) adversely affects the life-cycle of the damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bots, Jessica, E-mail: Jessica.bots@ua.ac.b [Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); De Bruyn, Luc, E-mail: luc.debruyn@ua.ac.b [Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO), Kliniekstraat 25, 1070 Brussels (Belgium); Snijkers, Tom, E-mail: tomsnijkers@gmail.co [Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Van den Branden, Bert, E-mail: bvandenbranden@gmail.co [Department PIH Environment, University College West Flanders (HOWEST), Graaf K. 11 de Goedelaan 5, B-8500 Kortrijk (Belgium); Van Gossum, Hans, E-mail: hans.vangossum@ua.ac.b [Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2010-03-15

    We evaluated whether life-time exposure to PFOS affects egg development, hatching, larval development, survival, metamorphosis and body mass of Enallagma cyathigerum (Insecta: Odonata). Eggs and larvae were exposed to five concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 000 mug/L. Our results show reduced egg hatching success, slower larval development, greater larval mortality, and decreased metamorphosis success with increasing PFOS concentration. PFOS had no effect on egg developmental time and hatching or on mass of adults. Eggs were the least sensitive stage (NOEC = 10 000 mug/L). Larval NOEC values were 1000 times smaller (10 mug/L). Successful metamorphosis was the most sensitive response trait studied (NOEC < 10 mug/L). The NOEC value suggests that E. cyathigerum is amongst the most sensitive freshwater organisms tested. NOEC for metamorphosis is less than 10-times greater than the ordinary reported environmental concentrations in freshwater, but is more than 200-times smaller than the greatest concentrations measured after accidental releases. - Long-term laboratory exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid reduces survival and interferes with metamorphosis of Enallagma cyathigerum (Insecta: Odonata).

  9. Menace of childhood non-accidental traumatic brain injuries: A single unit report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI has high rate of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are dearths of reports from developing countries with large paediatric population on trauma; neurosurgery trauma of nonaccidental origin is not an exemption. This study analysed menace of non-accidental TBI in the paediatric population from our center. Materials and Methods: This is a single unit, retrospective study of the epidemiology of non-accidental TBI in children starting from September, 2008 to March, 2014. The management outcomes of the epidemiology of the non-accidental TBI were analysed. Results: Total of 109 children age range from 0 (intra-natal to 16 years with a mean of 5.8 ± 4.6 years (median, 5 years were enrolled into the study. 34 (31.2% were domestic violence, 26 (23.9% street assaults, 16 (14.7% were due to animal assaults and mishaps, 17 (15.6% fall from heights. Seven (6.4% cases of collapsed buildings were also seen during the period. Four (3.7% industrial accidents and two (1.8% were self-inflicted injuries. There were also three (2.8% cases of iatrogenic TBI out of which two infants (1.8% sustained TBI from cesarean section procedure while one patient (0.9% under general anaesthesia felt from the operation bed resulting to severe TBI. Conclusion: Child abuse, unprotected child labour, parental/care-givers negligence are the main cause of nonaccidental TBI. Human right activists and government agents should be incorporated in curtailing the menace.

  10. Numerical research of a super-large cooling tower subjected to accidental loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi; Lin, Feng [Department of Building Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Gu, Xianglin, E-mail: gxl@tongji.edu.cn [Department of Building Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Lu, Xiaoqin [Guangdong Electric Power Design Institute, Guangzhou 510660 (China)

    2014-04-01

    With the continued development of nuclear power plants, more and more super-large cooling towers are to be built in China and around the world. For the safe operation of nuclear power plants, research work has been done on the causes of collapse of cooling towers, collapse modes and the secondary disasters caused by the collapse of cooling towers. However, the collapse modes and the ground vibration induced by the collapse of cooling towers subjected to the accidental loads have not been fully understood. This paper has been focused on the modes and mechanisms behavior of the collapse of cooling towers subjected to accidental loads. Meanwhile, prediction of the ground vibration due to the collapse of the cooling towers has also been completed in a parallel project. Using dynamic finite element program LS-DYNA, a 3D finite element model for a super-large cooling tower was developed and the nonlinear material models were incorporated. In this paper, four types of accidental loads were considered to trigger the collapse or local failure of the tower, including vehicle collision, airplane impact, local explosion and missile attack. It was found that vehicle collision, missile attack and small TNT equivalent explosives (2 kg, 20 kg, 200 kg) might result in local failure of the cooling tower, however, the tower can still keep stable. On the other hand, large TNT equivalent explosives (2000 kg, 4500 kg) could cause severe damages in the inclined columns of the cooling tower, and lead to progressive collapse of the entire cooling tower. The two kinds of TNT equivalent explosives caused the same collapse mode while the collapsing duration was different. The airplane impacted at the throat of the cooling tower caused the local failure of shell structure of the tower, and then the progressive collapse of the cooling tower happened due to the gravitational action. The resulting collapse mode was different from that triggered by the local explosion.

  11. Total imprecision of exposure biomarkers: implications for calculating exposure limits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of the imprecision of exposure biomarkers usually focuses on laboratory performance only. Unrecognized imprecision leads to underestimation of the true toxicity of the exposure. We have assessed the total imprecision of exposure biomarkers and the implications for calculation...... of exposure limits. METHODS: In a birth cohort study, mercury concentrations in cord blood, cord tissue, and maternal hair were used as biomarkers of prenatal methylmercury exposure. We determined their mutual correlations and their associations with the child's neurobehavioral outcome variables at age 7...... years. With at least three exposure parameters available, factor analysis and structural equation modeling could be applied to determine the total imprecision of each biomarker. The estimated imprecision was then applied to adjust benchmark dose calculations and the derived exposure limits. RESULTS...

  12. Salade malade: malignant ventricular arrhythmias due to an accidental intoxication with Aconitum napellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijters, B J; Verbunt, R J A M; Hoogsteen, J; Visser, R F

    2008-01-01

    Intoxication with Aconitum napellus is rare in our regions. Aconite alkaloids can cause ventricular arrhythmia by a prolonged activation of sodium channels. Because the margin of safety is low between the analgesic and toxic dose, intoxication is not rare when Aconite is used in herbal medicine. We present a case in which a 39-year-old male was accidentally intoxicated with Aconite. Even though no antidote or adequate therapy is available he was successfully resuscitated. (Neth Heart J 2008;16:96-9.).

  13. Patologías mentales derivadas de los accidentes de tránsito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginette Campos Villalobos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Toda persona que se expone a un hecho traumático puede reaccionar de diversas maneras. En este artículo se revisan los conceptos de algunas enfermedades mentales relacionadas con accidentes de tránsito basadas en las Clasificaciones Nosográfias Internacionales DSM-IV y CIE 10.Any person exposed to a traumatic event can react in different ways. This article checks the concepts of some mental illnesses related to traffic accidents based on the international classifications (DSM-IV and ICD 10.

  14. The accidental potential of diffractive thinking technologies. Mapping and colouring social differentiation in/of school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunæs, Dorthe; Brown, Rikke; Bjerg, Helle

    This paper presents our joint work with using and developing Donna Haraways concept of thinking technologies for putting research into play in cooperation with practitioners within the field of education. First we shortly present the conceptualization of thinking technologies and why we have found...... this conceptualization useful in our work and cooperation with practitioners. Secondly we present the development of the ‘colour map’ as a specific example of a thinking technology and introduce what we shall coin as the accidental potential of working with research informed thinking technologies on the particular...

  15. Comportamiento general de los accidentes provocados por animales venenosos en colombia, 2006-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Vargas, Ariadna Lorena; Rodríguez Buitrago, Javier Roberto; Díaz González, Gonzalo Jair

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo El conocimiento parcial de estadísticas nacionales acerca de accidentalidad por animales venenosos, con distribución geográfica en Colombia, motiva el estudio de dichas circunstancias. El objetivo fue realizar una línea base de los accidentes por animales venenosos reportados de forma telefónica al Centro de Investigación, Gestión e Información Toxicológica de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (CIGITOX), provenientes de todo el país, y cuyo registro se encontraba en bases de datos ...

  16. Is Project Management Still an Accidental Profession? A Qualitative Study of Career Trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey M. Richardson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the authors used qualitative techniques to look for reoccurring themes related to 87 project managers’ responses to interview questions associated with entry into the field of project management and career progression. The study found that despite the efforts of higher education, professional associations, and their professional development and certifications, the project management remains a destination by accident. Professional project managers do not intend to be project managers but “fall into” the profession. This study provides a conceptual framework for project manager career trajectory that has implications for project management training and mentoring and contributes to the growing literature on the accidental profession.

  17. A model of neutrino mass and dark matter with an accidental symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Ahriche

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a model of radiative neutrino mass that automatically contains an accidental Z2 symmetry and thus provides a stable dark matter candidate. This allows a common framework for the origin of neutrino mass and dark matter without invoking any symmetries beyond those of the Standard Model. The model can be probed by direct-detection experiments and μ→e+γ searches, and predicts a charged scalar that can appear at the TeV scale, within reach of collider experiments.

  18. Accidental ingestion of a barbed wire broach and its endoscopic retrieval: Prevention better than cure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashekar Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of instruments is a potential complication that can occur during dental procedures. We report a case of accidental ingestion of an endodontic barbed wire broach during root canal treatment and its subsequent retrieval by endoscopic methods. Although prevention is the best approach, proper management of such an event is also crucial. The objective of this report is to draw attention to the potentially serious complications that can occur if preventive techniques are not practised, and to discuss the accepted guidelines for management of such an event.

  19. Patologías mentales derivadas de los accidentes de tránsito

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Toda persona que se expone a un hecho traumático puede reaccionar de diversas maneras. En este artículo se revisan los conceptos de algunas enfermedades mentales relacionadas con accidentes de tránsito basadas en las Clasificaciones Nosográfias Internacionales DSM-IV y CIE 10.Any person exposed to a traumatic event can react in different ways. This article checks the concepts of some mental illnesses related to traffic accidents based on the international classifications (DSM-IV and ICD 10).

  20. Forecasting consequences of accidental release: how reliable are current assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohwer, P.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; Miller, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper focuses on uncertainties in model output used to assess accidents. We begin by reviewing the historical development of assessment models and the associated interest in uncertainties as these evolutionary processes occurred in the United States. This is followed by a description of the sources of uncertainties in assessment calculations. Types of models appropriate for assessment of accidents are identified. A summary of results from our analysis of uncertainty is provided in results obtained with current methodology for assessing routine and accidental radionuclide releases to the environment. We conclude with discussion of preferred procedures and suggested future directions to improve the state-of-the-art of radiological assessments.

  1. Accidental capture of vertebrates in small mammal studies in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This report contains a list of vertebrate species caught accidentally by live-traps while conducting capture and recapture studies with small mammals in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. Twentytwo terrestrial vertebrate species were registered: two amphibians, four reptiles, thirteen birds and three mammals. The use of vegetable baits as attractive smells, for example banana and peanut butter, was of great value in terms of the capture of a great diversity of species belonging to a wide range of feeding habitats, including insectivores and carnivores, probably attracted by arthropods that had fed on the baits.

  2. Transferencia del aprendizaje motor en pacientes con antecedentes de accidente cerebrovascular: serie de casos

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Castro-Medina; Mayra Pérez-Páez; Fabiola Moscoso-Alvarado; Clarice Tanaka

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes. La rehabilitación es un proceso de reaprendizaje motor, que mejora el desempeño en términos de adquisición de nuevas habilidades y adaptación o refinamiento de habilidades aprendidas previamente. A pesar de este conocimiento, existen, considerablemente, pocos estudios que describan el aprendizaje motor después de un accidente cerebrovascular (ACV) y la relevancia del mismo en los procesos de rehabilitación y recuperación. Objetivo. Describir la transferencia del aprendizaje moto...

  3. Muertes por enfermedades cardiacas y accidentes cerebrovasculares prevenibles - (Preventable Deaths from Heart Disease and Stroke)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-03

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de septiembre del 2013 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. Más de 800,000 personas en los Estados Unidos mueren cada año a causa de enfermedades cardiacas y accidentes cerebrovasculares. Aprenda cómo controlar todos los principales factores de riesgo.  Created: 9/3/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/3/2013.

  4. Accidental swallowing of a gold cast crown during orthodontic tooth separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharbanda, O P; Varshney, P; Dutta, U

    1995-01-01

    Accidental swallowing of a gold cast crown that became loose after separation with brass wire for orthodontic band placement, is reported. The intervention to remove the ingested crown subsequent to its location in the GI tract on immediate radiographic examination of chest and abdomen included endoscopic examination. Since the crown had past distal to the duodenum it was decided to keep a watch on its movement by daily radiographic examination. The crown passed with excreta on the 5th day uneventfully. Literature on ingestion of foreign bodies of dental origin is reviewed. Possible emergencies and their management is discussed.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Suicide, Accidental, and Undetermined Cause of Death Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Douglas; Coon, Hilary; McGlade, Erin; Callor, W; Byrd, Josh; Viskochil, Joseph; Bakian, Amanda; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah; Grey, Todd; McMahon, William

    2015-01-01

    Suicide determination is not standardized across medical examiners, and many suspected suicides are later classified as accidental or undetermined. The present study investigated patterns between these three groups using a Medical Examiner database and 633 structured interviews with next of kin. There were similarities across all three classification groups, including rates of mental illness and psychiatric symptoms. Those classified suicide were more likely to be male, to have died in a violent fashion, and have a stronger family history of suicide. Physical pain was very common, but acute pain vs. chronic pain distinguished the suicide group. PMID:25057525

  6. Amputación corporal por accidente de trabajo en auxiliar de enfermería

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Finol Muñoz; Gloria Ortega Marín; Julián Domínguez Fernández; Johanna Rivero Colina; Manuel Usero Fernández; Miguel Espejo García

    2014-01-01

    Los auxiliares de enfermería son un rango profesional expuesto a múltiples riesgos por las actividades inherentes a su trabajo, expuestos constantemente a sustancias desinfectantes que sin el uso apropiado de equipos de protección individual, puede provocar efectos adversos y lesiones en el trabajador. Caso Clínico: Mujer de 51 años de edad, auxiliar de enfermería, con antecedentes de Diabetes Mellitus tipo I y Síndrome de Túnel Carpiano. Presenta derrame accidental de líquido mientras llenab...

  7. Estudio de la incidencia de la velocidad en accidentes laterales por incorporación

    OpenAIRE

    Uribe Burcher, Verónica

    2008-01-01

    La necesidad de establecer un modelo adecuado que defina la relación entre la velocidad y la accidentalidad radica en que el conocimiento de dicha relación constituye una herramienta para los encargados del establecimiento de las velocidades límites, por lo que este es un tema ideal para la elaboración de un trabajo final de master. En este proyecto se estableció un alcance que abarca el estudio de accidentes laterales por cruce que son los terceros en mortalidad después de los...

  8. Problems in experimental and mathematical investigations of the accidental thermalhydraulic processes in RBMK nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigmatulin, B.I.; Tikhonenko, L.K. [Engineering Centre (EREC) for Nuclear Plants Safety, Electrogorsk (Russian Federation); Blinkov, V.N. [Aviation Institute, Kharkov (Ukraine)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    In this paper the thermalhydraulic scheme and peculiarities of the boiling water graphite-moderated channel-type reactor RBMK are presented and discussed shortly. The essential for RBMK transient regimes, accidental situations and accompanying thermalhydraulic phenomena and processes are formulated. These data are presented in the form of cross reference matrix (version 1) for system computer codes verification. The paper includes qualitative analysis of the computer codes and integral facilities which have been used or can be used for RBMK transients and accidents investigations. The stability margins for RBMK-1000 and RBMK-1500 are shown.

  9. Accidental Ingestion of Instruments in Pediatric Dental Patients: Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amey Panse

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Very young children are at risk of swallowing or aspirating numerous household things. This risk is enhanced during dental procedures of these children as they tend to be very unco-operative due to their age and lack of maturity to understand the importance of the treatment. Use of physical barriers, sedation or general anesthesia is not practically possible in every child scheduled for dental treatment. Dentist must be able to manage emergency situations in which patients accidentally swallow dental instruments or materials during treatment and procedures. This article presents ingestion of dental objects in 3 children and attempts to discuss the management and prevention of such mishaps.

  10. Accidentes de tránsito fatales en Costa Rica en el 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maikel Vargas Sanabria

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Los accidentes de tránsito en Costa Rica contribuyen significativamente con la tercera causa de muerte en el país en los últimos años: las causas externas, por ello resulta importante conocer el panorama más reciente de las fatalidades causadas por estos eventos. En el presente trabajo se analizarán desde el punto de vista médico legal los accidentes de tránsito fatales, cuyas víctimas fallecieron en el año 2007. Para ello se revisaron todas las autopsias efectuadas (un total de 3003 en el Departamento de Medicina Legal de Costa Rica para ese año. Se obtuvo que una cuarta parte de las mismas se originaron en accidentes de tránsito, lo cual generó una tasa de mortalidad de 16,58 por 100000 habitantes, considerada alta a nivel mundial. El perfil predominante de las víctimas fue: ser de género masculino, en edad económicamente productiva, con accidentes fatales de predominio en la noche, los fines de semana, en las provincias costeras, con fallecimiento en el sitio del hecho por trauma cráneo cervical en ocupantes de automotores o peatones, de los cuales un porcentaje significativo estaba bajo los efectos del alcohol y muy pocos bajo los efectos de otras drogas de abuso. Se insiste en la prevención como la herramienta fundamental para evitarlos.Traffic accidents in Costa Rica have been a contributing cause of death (the third cause of death over the last years; that ’s why its is a mayor issue to know the panorama of the latest fatalities caused by this events. In this article, it will be analyzed from the legal medicine point of view, the fatal transit accidents during the year 2007. For these reason all autopsies (a total of 3003 occurred during that year which were made by the Departamento de Medicina Legal de Costa Rica were reviewed. From these revision, it was obtained that one forth of these autopsies were transit accidents, which means that the mortality rate was 16,58 per 100000 habitants, that is consider high over the

  11. Terapéuticas intervencionistas para el accidente cerebrovascular isquémico

    OpenAIRE

    Rabadán, Alejandra T.; Luciano Sposato; Claudio Mazia

    2010-01-01

    En los últimos 20 años se han desarrollado nuevas opciones para el tratamiento y para la prevención del accidente cerebrovascular (ACV) isquémico, muchas de ellas de carácter intervencionista, tales como la endarterectomía carotídea y la trombolisis intravenosa con activador tisular del plasminógeno. La evidencia científica ha llevado a su difusión y utilización en países desarrollados mientras que en naciones emergentes se observa un retraso en su adopción. Otras modalidades terapéuticas que...

  12. Measurement of accidental coincidences in beta-gamma coincidence counting using non-equal dead times

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, H Y; Cho, Y H; Byun, J I; Kim, T S; Park, T S; Lee, J M

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the multi-channel time-scaling (MCTS) method is particularly suitable for the direct measurement of accidental coincidences even if the dead times of the two counting channels are of different length. We prepared five samples, with activities from 900 to 2100 s sup - sup 1. The dead time of the gamma channel was 12 mu s for all measurements, but for the beta channel it varied from 12 to 20 mu s. The true coincidence rates determined by the MCTS method are compared with those obtained by using conventional technique.

  13. The present status and recent applications of the accidental tritium assessment code UFOTRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskob, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    The computer program UFOTRI can be used for assessing the impact of accidental released tritium in the two chemical forms tritiated water vapour and tritium gas. By applying UFOTRI to potential European sites for ITER, it could be demonstrated that the main goal, the nonevacuation criteria, is fulfilled for the present release limits. Contributions in international studies together with the re-evaluation of experimental data showed that the plant sub-model as well as the soil sub-model are areas for further improvement. (author)

  14. State-of-the-Art Workshops on Medical Countermeasures Potentially Available for Human Use Following Accidental Exposures to Ebola Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahrling, Peter B; Hensley, Lisa E; Barrett, Kevin; Lane, Henry Clifford; Davey, Richard T

    2015-10-01

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola in West Africa has raised a general awareness that at present there are no Ebola-specific medical countermeasures (MCMs) with proven effectiveness. This paper recapitulates discussions held at the 6th International Filovirus Symposium in March 2014 as well as the subsequent design of a randomized clinical trial design for treating Ebola virus-infected patients evacuated from West Africa to the United States. A number of different drugs or biologics were critically reviewed and 3 different postexposure strategies were identified as being farthest along in development; passive immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies, postexposure vaccination with constructs involving viral vectors (such as vesicular stomatitis virus), and antisense compounds directly targeting the viral genome such as modified phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer-based compounds and small interfering RNA products. At the time of the meetings, there were no investigational new drugs (INDs) in place for the candidate MCMs. Developers and sponsors of these candidate products were strongly encouraged to prepare pre-IND packets and submit pre-IND meeting requests to the Food and Drug Administration. Some of these investigational products have already been used under emergency authorizations to treat patients in Africa as well as patients evacuated to the United States or Western Europe.

  15. Dynamics of plasma levels of specific IgE in chlorhexidine allergic patients with and without accidental re-exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opstrup, M S; Poulsen, L K; Malling, H J;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine is an effective disinfectant, which may cause severe allergic reactions. Plasma level of specific IgE to chlorhexidine (ImmunoCAP(®) ) has high estimated sensitivity and specificity when measured within 6 months of allergic reaction, but knowledge of the dynamics over...... longer time periods is lacking and it is unknown whether levels fall below IgE. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the dynamics of specific IgE in chlorhexidine allergic patients...... several years. RESULTS: Overall, 23 patients were included. Specific IgE within hours of reaction was available in eight patients and was >0.35 kUA/L in six of these. During allergy investigations, usually 2-4 months later, specific IgE was >0.35 kUA/L in 22 of 23 patients. In the following months...

  16. Accidentes biológicos en estudiantes de medicina de una universidad peruana: prevalencia, mecanismos y factores de riesgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Inga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Una de las más serias amenazas que enfrentan los estudiantes de medicina durante su práctica clínica es la posibilidad de exposición a accidentes biológicos, debido en la mayoría de los casos a la inexperiencia y el escaso desarrollo de las habilidades manuales. Objetivos: Establecer la frecuencia, mecanismos, circunstancias y factores de riesgo de los accidentes biológicos ocurridos entre estudiantes de medicina. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo observacional de corte transversal. Institución: Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Participantes: Estudiantes de medicina. Metodología: Se aplicó una encuesta estructurada anónima, voluntaria y autoadministrada. Principales medidas de resultados: Accidentes biológicos. Resultados: En total fueron 307 entrevistados. La prevalencia de accidentes biológicos en la población estudiada fue de 51,5% (158/307. La media de accidentes biológicos en el último año fue de 1,06. El 91,1% de los estudiantes del último año presentó al menos un accidente biológico, versus 11,9% en los estudiantes del primer año. Los estudiantes del último año informaron con más frecuencia accidentes de riesgo alto para transmisión de infecciones, siendo 47,6% por pinchazo con objeto punzocortante, y 80,6% tuvo exposición a sangre; los accidentes de riesgo alto son mucho más frecuentes en quirófanos y sala de partos (51,9%. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de accidentes biológicos fue 51,5%, siendo el pinchazo la forma más frecuente. Es necesario desarrollar estrategias que permitan velar por la bioseguridad de los estudiantes de medicina.

  17. Accidentes fuera del trabajo: análisis en el campamento minero de Toquepala 2002-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Gomero Cuadra

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available En general, todas las empresas desarrollan programas para evitar o minimizar los accidentes del trabajo. Sin embargo, existe escasa información técnica relacionado a la prevalencia y costos derivados de los accidentes fuera del trabajo, lo que dificulta el análisis del problema. Objetivo: Revisar y analizar los descansos médicos en los trabajadores de nuestro campamento minero generados por accidentes considerados como particulares o fuera del trabajo. Materiales y métodos: El presente trabajo tiene un diseño transversal periódico, realizado en el Servicio de Salud Ocupacional del Hospital Toquepala. Los diagnósticos médicos fueron informados según el CIE-10 de la OMS. Para la clasificación de accidentes fuera del trabajo, se siguió la del programa de Loss Control Management del DNV, a la cual se le realizaron modificaciones de acuerdo al criterio y experiencia de los autores. Se revisaron 468 y 570 boletas de descanso médico generadas en los años 2002 y 2003 respectivamente. Resultados: Correspondieron al año 2002, 88 (18,8% descansos de accidentes fuera del trabajo, mientras que en el año 2003 fueron 99 (17,37%. La etiología de los accidentes fuera del trabajo fueron: de Transporte 11 (12,5% en el año 2002 y 12 (12,12% en el año 2003; del Hogar 25 (28,41% en el año 2002 y 20 (20,2% en el año 2003; Públicos 21 (23,86% en el año 2002 y 36 (36,36% en el año 2003. Conclusiones: Tenemos valores altos de accidentes fuera del trabajo con relación al número total de accidentes en nuestra empresa en los años 2002 y 2003, sin embargo, ninguno fatal. Además debemos orientar programas preventivos dirigidos hacia la seguridad vial y la buena práctica de deportes. Concluimos que es necesario incorporar el análisis de los accidentes fuera del trabajo con incapacidad temporal dentro del estudio de la morbilidad como parte del Diagnóstico de la Situación de Salud Laboral que confecciona el Médico ocupacional o del Trabajo

  18. Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on to any children you have after the exposure. A lot of radiation over a short period, ... skin burns and reduced organ function. If the exposure is large enough, it can cause premature aging ...

  19. Radiation and Health Technology Laboratory Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bihl, Donald E.; Lynch, Timothy P.; Murphy, Mark K.; Myers, Lynette E.; Piper, Roman K.; Rolph, James T.

    2005-07-09

    The Radiological Standards and Calibrations Laboratory, a part of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) performs calibrations and upholds reference standards necessary to maintain traceability to national standards. The facility supports U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site, programs sponsored by DOE Headquarters and other federal agencies, radiological protection programs at other DOE and commercial nuclear sites and research and characterization programs sponsored through the commercial sector. The laboratory is located in the 318 Building of the Hanford Site's 300 Area. The facility contains five major exposure rooms and several laboratories used for exposure work preparation, low-activity instrument calibrations, instrument performance evaluations, instrument maintenance, instrument design and fabrication work, thermoluminescent and radiochromic Dosimetry, and calibration of measurement and test equipment (M&TE). The major exposure facilities are a low-scatter room used for neutron and photon exposures, a source well room used for high-volume instrument calibration work, an x-ray facility used for energy response studies, a high-exposure facility used for high-rate photon calibration work, a beta standards laboratory used for beta energy response studies and beta reference calibrations and M&TE laboratories. Calibrations are routinely performed for personnel dosimeters, health physics instrumentation, photon and neutron transfer standards alpha, beta, and gamma field sources used throughout the Hanford Site, and a wide variety of M&TE. This report describes the standards and calibrations laboratory.

  20. Opiates, cocaine and alcohol combinations in accidental drug overdose deaths in New York City, 1990-98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Phillip O; Galea, Sandro; Ahern, Jennifer; Leon, Andrew C; Vlahov, David; Tardiff, Kenneth

    2003-06-01

    Accidental drug overdose contributes substantially to mortality among drug users. Multi-drug use has been documented as a key risk factor in overdose and overdose mortality in several studies. This study investigated the contribution of multiple drug combinations to overdose mortality trends. We collected data on all overdose deaths in New York City between 1990 and 1998 using records from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME). We standardized yearly overdose death rates by age, sex and race to the 1990 census population for NYC to enable comparability between years relevant to this analysis. Opiates, cocaine and alcohol were the three drugs most commonly attributed as the cause of accidental overdose death by the OCME, accounting for 97.6% of all deaths; 57.8% of those deaths were attributed to two or more of these three drugs in combination. Accidental overdose deaths increased in 1990-93 and subsequently declined slightly in 1993-98. Changes in the rate of multi-drug combination deaths accounted for most of the change in overdose death rates, whereas single drug overdose death rates remained relatively stable. Trends in accidental overdose death rates within gender and racial/ethnic strata varied by drug combination suggesting different patterns of multi-drug use among different subpopulations. These data suggest that interventions to prevent accidental overdose mortality should address the use of drugs such as heroin, cocaine and alcohol in combination.