Sample records for accident victims bio-indicateurs

  1. Potential biological indicators of multi-organ damage: Application to radiation accident victims; Bio-indicateurs potentiels d'atteinte multi-organe: application au cas des victimes d'irradiation accidentelles

    Bertho, J.M.; Souidi, M.; Gourmelon, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Dir. de la Radioprotection de l' Homme 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)


    Accidental irradiations induce a complex pathological situation, difficult to assess and to treat. However, recent results describing new biological indicators of radiation-induced damages such as Flt3-ligand, citrulline and oxy-sterol concentration in the plasma, together with results obtained in large animal models of high dose irradiation, allowed a better understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms induced by uncontrolled irradiations. This conducted to leave the classical paradigm of the acute radiation syndrome, described as the association of three individual syndromes, the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastro-intestinal syndrome and the cerebrovascular syndrome, in favour of a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, with the implication of other organs and systems. Follow-up of victims from two recent radiation accidents brings a confirmation of the usefulness of the newly described biological indicators, and also a partial confirmation of this new concept of a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. (authors)

  2. Facial trauma among victims of terrestrial transport accidents

    Sérgio d'Avila; Kevan Guilherme Nóbrega Barbosa; Ítalo de Macedo Bernardino; Lorena Marques da Nóbrega; Patrícia Meira Bento; Efigênia Ferreira e Ferreira


    ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: In developing countries, terrestrial transport accidents - TTA, especially those involving automobiles and motorcycles - are a major cause of facial trauma, surpassing urban violence. OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional census study attempted to determine facial trauma occurrence with terrestrial transport accidents etiology, involving cars, motorcycles, or accidents with pedestrians in the northeastern region of Brazil, and examine victims' socio-demographic characteri...




    The preponderance of males in violence was observed in 82.1% of 2,822 victims of assault (treated for injuries at the emergency unit of a hospital). Sex differences were found for site of occurrence of the violent act. Women became victims of violence most frequently (34.6%) at home and men in the s

  4. [Avalanche accidents and treatment of avalanche victims].

    Skaiaa, Sven Christjar; Thomassen, Øyvind


    Avalanches may be provoked spontaneously or as a result of human activity, and they trigger the need for considerable rescue resources. Avalanche search and rescue operations are complex and characterised by physical and mental stress. The guidelines for resuscitation of avalanche victims may be perceived as complex and abstruse, which can lead to suboptimal treatment and an increased strain on rescue teams. The purpose of this article is to summarise the principles for medical treatment of avalanche victims.

  5. Initial medical management of criticality accident victim; Conduite a tenir aux victimes d'un accident de criticite

    Miele, A.; Bebaron-Jacobs, L


    The extremely severe criticality accidents known to this day, and the subsequent deaths recorded (Sarov 1997 and Tokai Mura 1999), demonstrate the need for sustained surveillance and constant adapted training for the teams in charge of irradiated and/or contaminated victims. The aim of this work group, composed of occupational health services and associated medical biology laboratories, is to present, in leaflet format, the essential data on the documentation and the conduct to be held when facing the victims of a criticality accident. The studies of this work group confirm the difficulties involved in managing this type of accident, both from the dosimetric evaluation point of view and from the therapeutic management point of view. That is why several research themes and perspectives are developed. During the different phases of victim triage, the recommendations given on these leaflets describe the operational conducts to be held. This work will have to be updated according to the evolution in knowledge and means: short and long term effects of exposure to neutrons, multi-competence hospital cooperation, expertise networks related to dosimetric reconstitution. (authors)

  6. Hospitalizations of victims of accidents with venomous animals

    William Campo Meschial


    Full Text Available A descriptive study based on data obtained from a toxicological information and assistance center, from 2007 to 2011. This study aimed to characterize hospitalizations of victims of accidents with venomous animals, in order to support the development of preventive and assistance measures. Data were tabulated using the Epi Info 6.04d® program; and the results were presented in tables and figure. 344 hospitalizations were found, with predominance of male patients (58.1%, from 20 to 59 years (56.8%, mostly in the summer (39.0% spring (27.0%, for snakebites (35.2%. The hospital stay ranged from one to 23 days, with 39.0% of patients hospitalized for two or more days, with two deadly accidents with bees. The profile of the inpatients showed a higher number of cases in the economically active population and in males, the percentage of hospitalizations per animal aggressor differed from morbidity data, giving greater severity of accidents by snakes and bees.

  7. Characteristics of female victims of assault attending a Scottish accident and emergency department.

    Wright, J; Kariya, A


    OBJECTIVE: To compare the characteristics of female victims of assault with those of male victims and to see if there is a difference between female victims of domestic assault and females assaulted by strangers or acquaintances. DESIGN: A two month prospective study (June and July 1995) of all assault victims attending a Scottish accident and emergency (A&E) department. SETTING: A large district general A&E department (the Royal Alexandra Hospital in Paisley) seeing 60,000 new patients per y...

  8. [Types of injuries among victims and dead persons after sea accidents].

    Zakrevskiĭ, Iu N; Manuĭlov, V M; Matveev, R P


    The traumas received by victims in the largest sea catastrophes and accidents, connected with case (hull) damage, overturning and flooding of courts from 1983 to 2010 are considered. It is established that principal views of damages at rescued and victims are sharp hypothermia of light and moderate severity, combined mechanic-cold and mechanic-burn-chemical traumas, drowning. The analysis of the received combined traumas reveals prevalence of heavy damages among the rescued victims in the sea catastrophes and accidents. The size and structure of sanitary losses depends on weight of accident, remoteness from coast, weather conditions, speed of flooding of a vessel, readiness of forces of rescue and the beginning of carrying out of a rescue operation, training of crew and passengers.

  9. Prevaba: a Bayesian Model to Predict the Existence of Victims in car accidents

    TELLES, M.J.


    Full Text Available Road safety is an area which is concerned with both the reduction of accidents as with the care provided to the victims. Several initiatives are proposed to assist with reducing the number of accidents, such as surveillance, awareness campaigns and support equipment to drivers. Other initiatives for prevention and protection are proposed by vehicle manufacturers in terms of requirements of governament entities. As a final resort, that is, in the event of the accident and the victim needs medical attention, this should be done as quickly as possible. To assist in identifying the existence of the victim and the need for medical care, we propose a Bayesian model, called Prevaba, which uses Bayesian Networks (BN, which aims to predict the existence of victims in traffic accidents. In order to validate the model, we developed a prototype that performed the actual data classification in Porto Alegre - RS for the year 2013. The prototype made the classification based on the previous year's data (2012, showing an index above 90% accuracy, taking into account the incorrect classications are only classified as victimless, but actually was has a victim.

  10. The effects of motor vehicle accidents on careers and the work performance of victims

    Johanna C. Diedericks


    Full Text Available Orientation: Research into the long-term effects of motor accidents on the work performance and careers of victims in South Africa is limited. Results of this research are important for employers who must assist the employees after they return to work.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to contribute to research on the effects of the injuries by investigating the relationship between the severity of the injuries and the careers and growth potential of victims.Motivation for the study: Employers could use the information on the effects of the injuries on the careers of victims to plan interventions and job accommodations to retain employees and to manage their well-being and performance.Research design, approach and method: The author conducted a quantitative survey on a purposive sample (N = 199 of adult victims of motor vehicle accidents in 2010 in South Africa. She used descriptive and inferential statistics to analyse the data.Main findings: The author observed a number of significant relationships between the effects of the different injuries on the careers and growth potential of victims.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations and managers need to recognise the physical and psychological effects of injuries victims sustain in motor accidents and the associated responsibility of organisations to accommodate these employees.Contribution/value-add: The findings of the study can add to the literature and provide insights into the consequences of the injuries. They also provide information that can assist organisations to create an awareness of job accommodation and employee wellness of accident victims.


    Tiago Argolo Bittencourt de Oliveira


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the incidence of spinal injuries between 2000-2010 due to motorcycle accidents and the relation to the increase in motorcycle sales in the same period, as well as the anatomical distribution of these spinal injuries. Methods: Data were collected from 1,295 records of patients who have suffered spinal injury resulting from motorcycle accidents admitted to the ward TRM (Spinal Cord Trauma of the Hospital Geral do Estado da Bahia from 2000 to 2010 in this retrospective study. We selected 110 medical records and collected information on sex, age, neurological deficit on admission (according to Frankel scale, diagnosis, and level of injury. Results: Between 2000 and 2010 there was an increase of almost five times in the incidence of patients who have suffered spinal injury due to motorcycle accidents. More than half (51.4% had cervical spine injury, 37.2% thoracic spine injury and 11.34% had lumbar spine injury. Only 34.3% of patients had no neurological deficit on admission and patients with thoracic spine fracture had a higher incidence and severity of lesion. The average age of patients was 30 years. Conclusions: The increased incidence of spinal injuries due motorcycle accidents occurred in the same period in which there was an increase in motorcycle sales in the country. Patients who have suffered those injuries were young, with higher incidence in the cervical and thoracic spinal levels and high rates of neurological deficit.

  12. Head and Maxillofacial Injuries in Child and Adolescent Victims of Automotive Accidents

    Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti


    Full Text Available Background. Victims of motor vehicle accidents may suffer multiple lesions, including maxillofacial injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with head, facial, and maxillofacial injuries in child and adolescent victims of automobile accidents. A cross-sectional study was carried out with analysis of forensic medical reports from the Legal Medical Institute of Campina Grande, Brazil, between January 2008 and December 2011. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was conducted using the chi-square test (α = 0.05. From 1613 medical reports analyzed, the sample is composed 232 (14.4% reports referring to child and adolescent victims of automobile accidents aged 0–19 years of both sexes. Victims were mostly adolescents aged from 15 to 19 years (64.2%, males (73.7%, and motorcyclists (51.3%. More than half of the victims had single lesions (54.3% located in the head (20.7% and face (21.6%. Head injuries occurred more frequently in children aged 0–4 years (53.8%, PR = 5.065, 95% CI = 1.617–5.870 and pedestrians (30.4%, PR = 2.039, 95% CI = 1.024–4.061, while facial and maxillofacial injuries occurred in higher proportion among females (31.1%, PR = 0.489, 95% CI = 0.251–0.954. Our findings suggest that accidents involving motorcyclists are the most prevalent, affecting male adolescents aged from 15 to 19 years, resulting in a high frequency of injuries in the head and face regions.

  13. Elderly patients attended in emergency health services in Brazil: a study for victims of falls and traffic accidents.

    de Freitas, Mariana Gonçalves; Bonolo, Palmira de Fátima; de Moraes, Edgar Nunes; Machado, Carla Jorge


    The article aims to describe the profile of elderly victims of falls and traffic accidents from the data of the Surveillance Survey of Violence and Accidents (VIVA). The VIVA Survey was conducted in the emergency health-services of the Unified Health System in the capitals of Brazil in 2011. The sample of elderly by type of accident was subjected to the two-step cluster procedure. Of the 2463 elderly persons in question, 79.8% suffered falls and 20.2% were the victims of traffic accidents. The 1812 elderly who fell were grouped together into 4 clusters: Cluster 1, in which all had disabilities; Cluster 2, all were non-white and falls took place in the home; Cluster 3, younger and active seniors; and Cluster 4, with a higher proportion of seniors 80 years old or above who were white. Among cases of traffic accidents, 446 seniors were grouped into two clusters: Cluster 1 of younger elderly, drivers or passengers; Cluster 2, with higher age seniors, mostly pedestrians. The main victims of falls were women with low schooling and unemployed; traffic accident victims were mostly younger and male. Complications were similar in victims of falls and traffic accidents. Clusters allow adoption of targeted measures of care, prevention and health promotion.

  14. Mortality pattern according to autopsy findings among traffic accident victims in Yazd, Iran

    Yashar Moharamzad; Hamidreza Taghipour; Nader Hodjati Firoozabadi; Abolfazl Hodjati Firoozabadi; Mojtaba Hashemzadeh; Mehdi Mirjalili; Abed Namavari


    Objective: To describe mortality pattern and to deter-mine undiagnosed fatal injuries according to autopsy find-ings among road traffic accident victims in Yazd, Iran. Methods: In this retrospective study, 251 victims of road traffic accidents who were admitted to a tertiary trauma hospital over a two-year period (2006 and 2007) and received medical cares were included. Hospital records were reviewed to gather demographic characteristics, road user type, and medical data. Autopsy records were also reviewed to determine actual causes of death and possible undiagnosed injuries occurred in the initial assessment of the emergency unit or during hospitalization. Results: There were 202 males (80.5%) and 49 females (19.5%). The mean (±SD) age of fatalities was 34.1 (±21.5) years. Pedestrian-vehicle accidents were the most common cause of trauma (100 cases, 39.8%). The most common cause of death was central nervous system injury ( 146 cases, 58.1%). The other causes were skull base fractures (10%), internal bleeding (8%), lower limb hemorrhage (8%), skull vault fractures (4%), cervical spinal cord injury (3.6%), airway com-promise (3.2%), and multifactor cases (5.1%), respectively.Thirtysix fatal injuries in 30 victims (12%) mainly contributed to death according to autopsy, but were not diagnosed in initial assessments. The head (72.2%) and cervical spine (13.8%) regions were the two most common sites for undiagnosed injuries. Conclusion: Training courses for emergency unit medical staff with regard to interpreting radiological findings of head and neck and high clinical suspicion for cervical spine injuries are essential to improve the quality of early hospital care and reduce the mortality and morbidity of traffic accident patients.


    Nalu Rodrigues Felix


    Full Text Available This isa descriptive studywith a quantitative approach, aiming to characterize the profileof victims ofmotorcycle accidents attended by the Fire Departmentat Sinop-MT. Thepopulation consisted of473vítimas. Data analysiswas performed usingdescriptive statistics.The survey resultsrevealed thatmost victimsofmotorcycle accidentswere male(61.3% aged15 to 35 years, beingthe maindriver of themotorcyclevictimattendedby professionals from thefire departmentandbody regioninjuries weremost affectedbytheupper and lower limbsrepresenting78.4%. Given our resultshas beenthe expectationthat thisstudy willdraw attention tothe high rates ofvictimsof traffic accidentsinvolving motorcyclesat Sinop-MT, which are having theirlives cut shortorimpairedtheir quality.

  16. Severe immune dysfunction after lethal neutron irradiation in a JCO nuclear facility accident victim.

    Nagayama, Hitomi; Ooi, Jun; Tomonari, Akira; Iseki, Tohru; Tojo, Arinobu; Tani, Kenzaburo; Takahashi, Tsuneo A; Yamashita, Naohide; Shigetaka, Asano


    The optimal treatment for the hematological toxicity of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is not fully established, especially in cases of high-dose nonuniform irradiation by mixed neutrons and gamma-rays, because estimation of the irradiation dose (dosimetry) and prediction of autologous hematological recovery are complicated. For the treatment of ARS, we performed HLA-DRB1-mismatched unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation (CBT) for a nuclear accident victim who received 8 to 10 GyEq mixed neutron and gamma-ray irradiation at the JCO Co. Ltd. nuclear processing facility in Tokaimura, Japan. Donor/ recipient mixed chimerism was attained; thereafter rapid autologous hematopoietic recovery was achieved in concordance with the termination of immunosuppressants. Immune function examined in vitro showed recovery of the autologous immune system was severely impaired. Although the naive T-cell fraction and the helper T-cell subtype 1 fraction were increased, the mitogenic responses of T-cells and the allogeneic mixed leukocyte reaction were severely suppressed. Endogenous immunoglobulin production was also suppressed until 120 days after the accident. Although skin transplantation for ARS was successful, the patient died of infectious complications and subsequent acute respiratory distress syndrome 210 days after the accident. These results suggest that fast neutrons in doses higher than 8 to 10 Gy cause complete abrogation of the human immune system, which may lead to fatal outcome even if autologous hematopoiesis recovers. The roles of transplantation, autologous hematopoietic recovery, chimerism, immune suppression, and immune function are discussed.

  17. Effects of early nightmares on the development of sleep disturbances in motor vehicle accident victims.

    Kobayashi, Ihori; Sledjeski, Eve M; Spoonster, Eileen; Fallon, William F; Delahanty, Douglas L


    The present study prospectively examined the extent to which trauma-related nightmares affected the subsequent development of insomnia symptoms in 314 motor vehicle accident (MVA) victims. Participants were assessed in-hospital and at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 1 year post-MVA. Hierarchical linear regression analyses showed that 6-week PTSD symptoms (PTSS) and 3-month nightmares, but not 2-week nightmares were positively associated with sleep onset and maintenance problems reported at 3-month post-MVA. Nightmares reported at 3-months post-MVA were positively associated with 1-year sleep maintenance problems. These findings highlight the dynamic relationship between PTSS and sleep problems as well as the potential importance of early intervention for trauma-related nightmares as a means to prevent sleep problems after a traumatic experience.

  18. Absidia Corymbifera in an immune competent accident victim with multiple abdominal injuries: case report

    Marchesini Laura


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report a case of mucormycosis in a healthy 17-year-old accident victim with multiple abdominal injuries which was caused by infection with Absidia Corymbifera, a ubiquitous saphrophyte in the ground. Case presentation The patient was admitted to hospital with massive abdominal trauma. During an 8-hour emergency operation he received transfusions of compacted red blood cells, plasma, platelets and hemagel. He developed a crush syndrome with acute renal failure, resolved with extra-corporeal dialysis and had to undergo splenectomy because of spleen hematoma. As wound secretion and central venous catheter (CVC blood cultures and drainage fluid were positive for Enterococcus Faecium, Providentia Rettgeri, Hafnia Alvei and Candida Albicans, tecoplanin, metronidazole, imipenem, and flucanozole were administered. Although the CVC was changed high fever persisted and discharge continued from the large abdominal wound. Repeated tampons in different sections and wound secretion smears were positive for A. corymbifera. Flucanozole was stopped and liposomal amphotericin (Ambisome; 5 mg/Kg i.v. given for over 3 months. The patient improved; fever gradually disappeared. After 8 days, tampons and wound secretion smears were negative for A. corymbifera. No other fungal infections developed. Drainage fluid was later positive for tecoplanin-resistant E. faecium and Pseudomonas Aeroginosa responding only to meropenem and ciprofloxacin. Abdominal computerized tomography visualized fluid accumulation around the iliac-femoral bypass. Abcess was ruled out when scintigraphy showed no tracer uptake. The lesion was drained. Drainage fluid cultures were negative for bacteria and fungi. Fluid accumulation gradually disappeared with prolonged antibiotic and antifungal therapy. One year after the accident the patient is in good health, with normal quality of life. Conclusion Successful outcome was due to early, specific antifungal therapy, at

  19. Managing the identification of the mortal victims run over by a train in the Castelldefels railway accident (Barcelona).

    Barbería, Eneko; Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Galtés, Ignasi; Subirana-Domenech, Mercé; Puigbarraca-Sol, Lourdes; Vidal-Gutiérrez, Claudina; Valverde-Villarreal, Juan Luis; Castellà-García, Josep; Medallo-Muñiz, Jordi


    The identification of disaster victims is the formal, organized process of identifying multiple bodies after an incident with multiple victims. The appropriate management of these incidents, particularly of the bodies, is one of the most crucial aspects of disaster response and its importance has led to the evolution of the concept of Disaster Victim Management. The aim of this study is to report how the process of identifying the 12 mortal victims of a railway accident in June 2010 in Castelldefels (Barcelona) was managed. The methodology used complied with the National Protocol for medical forensic and scientific police response to mass casualty incidents. The family assistance center also served as an ante mortem (AM) office. Despite the fragmentation of the bodies, all the victims were identified satisfactorily. The main problems observed during the management of the disaster were due to the state of the bodies, which raised many doubts as to the number of fatalities. The experience prompted a proposal to establish some recommendations on limiting the number of fragments to be analyzed genetically. We would like to stress the importance of setting up a Data Integration Center which brought together all the participating institutions, and collected and supervised all the different identification reports in a single comprehensive text addressed to the competent legal authority.


    P. A. Sheeju


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Motor vehicle crashes are a major cause of fatality all over the world. By 2020, motor vehicle injury is projected to become the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease in the world. Motor cyclists are about 25 times more likely than car occupants to die in Road Traffic Accidents. Data on the incidence and types of crashes is required to guide safety policy. Knowledge of how injuries are caused and of what type they are of valuable instrument for identifying interventions and monitoring the effectiveness of intervention. The present study was done to find out the factors that contribute for motor cycle crashes and to study the injury pattern seen in helmeted and non-helmeted victims. MATERIAL AND METHODS Victims of two wheeler accidents brought for autopsy in a Govt. Medical College were studied from October 2010 to August 2011. Two wheelers include motor cycles, scooters and mopeds. Bicycles were excluded from the study. Accidents include all types; against all types of vehicles running on the road, collision with any object, surface or any animal or fall from vehicle. The details of the accident were collected in a printed proforma from relative/witnesses and from police officials. The injuries were entered in the specific columns of proforma. Data was analysed with MS Excel. RESULTS Death due to head injury is more in non-helmeted (52.5% compared to helmeted drivers (43.8 % whereas injury to chest and abdomen and limbs are more in helmeted. Combination of injuries (Head+Chest+Abdomen predominated in helmeted drivers (18.8% compared to 5% in non-helmeted drivers. Spinal injuries were more in helmeted than in non-helmeted. CONCLUSION The pattern of head injury was analysed in detail in helmeted and non-helmeted drivers. This will help in detailing of pattern of head injury in both groups.

  1. Diagnostic characterization of services providing care to victims of accidents and violence in five Brazilian state capitals

    Suely Ferreira Deslandes


    Full Text Available This article characterizes the services providing care to victims in five Brazilian regions with high violence and accident rates. It analyzes care activities and strategies, the profile of the teams, the conditions of installations, equipment and supplies, integrated care and registration services and the opinion of health managers with respect to the needs and requirements for a better care to the victims. The sample is composed by 103 services: 34 from Recife, 25 from Rio de Janeiro, 18 from Manaus, 18 from Curitiba and 8 from Brasília. The still preliminary results indicate: lower number of services focusing on the elderly; scarce investment in preventive actions; the principal actions carried out are social assistance, ambulatory and hospital care and psychological assistance; patients received from Basic Health Units require attention of the communities and families; need for investment in capacity building programs for professionals; precarious registries, data handled manually. The wording of the National Policy for Reduction of Morbidity and Mortality from Accidents and Violence is not well-known and there is a lack of articulation among and inside sectors and between prehospital and emergency care services. Rehabilitation services are insufficient in all cities.

  2. Induced chromosome aberrations analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Eight years follow up of the Goiania radiation accident victims

    Natarajan, A.T.; Santos, S.J.; Darroudi, F.; Hadjidikova, V.; Vermeulen, S.; Chatterjee, S.; Van de Berg, M.; Grigorova, M. [Leiden University Medical Centrum LUMC, Department of Radiation Genetics and Chemical Mutagenesis, Wassenaarseweg 72, 2333 AL Leiden (Netherlands); Sakamoto-Hojo, E.T. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Granath, F. [Department of Mathematical Statistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Ramalho, A.T. [Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry, National Commission of Nuclear Energy, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Curado, M.P. [Foundation Leide das Neves Ferreira, Goiania (Brazil)


    The radiation accident in focus here occurred in a section of Goiania (Brazil) where more than a hundred individuals were contaminated with on September 1987. In order to estimate the absorbed radiation doses, initial frequencies of dicentrics and rings were determined in 129 victims [A.T. Ramalho, PhD Thesis, Subsidios a tecnica de dosimetria citogenetica gerados a partir da analise de resultados obtidos com o acidente radiologico de Goiania, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1992]. We have followed some of these victims cytogenetically over the years seeking for parameters that could be used as basis for retrospective radiation dosimetry. Our data on translocation frequencies obtained by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) could be directly compared to the baseline frequencies of dicentrics available for those same victims. Our results provided valuable information on how precise these estimates are. The frequencies of translocations observed years after the radiation exposure were two to three times lower than the initial dicentrics frequencies, the differences being larger at higher doses (>1 Gy). The accuracy of such dose estimates might be increased by scoring sufficient amount of cells. However, factors such as the persistence of translocation carrying lymphocytes, translocation levels not proportional to chromosome size, and inter-individual variation reduce the precision of these estimates

  3. Causes and Severity of Fatal Injuries in Autopsies of Victims of Fatal Traffic Accidents

    F Panahi


    Full Text Available Introduction: In this retrospective study, we decided to determine the death causes and severity of injuries in traffic accidents according to reports of the forensic medical center of Yazd. Methods: A total of 251 fatalities due to traffic accidents that had undergone autopsy examinations at the Yazd forensic medicine center from2006 till 2008 were included in the study by census method. Data regarding gender, road user type, type of vehicle (car, motorcycle, autobus or minibus, consciousness level, and intensive care unit (ICU admission was gathered. For evaluation of injury severity, we used Injury Severity Score (ISS. Results: The population under study consisted of 202 men (80.5% and 49 women (19.5% with an average age of 34.1 years (range: 1-89 years. Motorcycle-pedestrian accidents were the most common type of injury (100, 39.8%. Head (220, 87.6% and face (169, 67.3% were the two most common sites of injuries. Mean (±SD of ISS was 23.2 (±10.4. According to autopsy records, the main cause of death was head trauma (146, 58.1%. Conclusion: Public awareness in terms of primary prevention of road accidents should be considered important. Also, regarding the high prevalence of brain injuries and complications associated with skull fractures, accessibility to neurosurgeons and availability of imaging devices have an important role in decreasing the mortality rate of traffic accidents.

  4. A qualitative study analyzing access to physical rehabilitation for traffic accident victims with severe disability in Brazil.

    Sousa, Kelienny de Meneses; Oliveira, Wagner Ivan Fonsêca de; Melo, Laiza Oliveira Mendes de; Alves, Emanuel Augusto; Piuvezam, Grasiela; Gama, Zenewton André da Silva


    Purpose To identify access barriers to physical rehabilitation for traffic accident (TA) victims with severe disability and build a theoretical model to provide guidance towards the improvement of these services. Methods Qualitative research carried out in the city of Natal (Northeast Brazil), with semi-structured interviews with 120 subjects (19 key informer health professionals and 101 TA victims) identified in a database made available by the emergency hospital. The interviews were analyzed using Alceste software, version 4.9. Results The main barriers present in the interviews were: (1) related to services: bureaucratic administrative practises, low offer of rehabilitation services, insufficient information on rehabilitation, lack of guidelines that integrate hospital and ambulatory care and (2) related to patients: financial difficulties, functional limitations, geographic distance, little information on health, association with low education levels and disbelief in the system and in rehabilitation. Conclusion The numerous access barriers were presented in a theoretical model with causes related to organizational structure, processes of care, professionals and patients. This model must be tested by health policy-makers and managers to improve the quality of physical rehabilitation and avoid unnecessary prolongation of the suffering and disability experienced by TA survivors. Implications for rehabilitation Traffic accidents (TAs) are a global health dilemma that demands integrality of preventive actions, pre-hospital and hospital care and physical rehabilitation (PR). This study lays the foundation for improving access to PR for TA survivors, an issue of quality of care that results in preventable disabilities. The words of the patients interviewed reveal the suffering of victims, which is often invisible to society and given low priority by health policies that relegate PR to a second plan ahead of prevention and urgent care. A theoretical model of the

  5. No 3025. Proposal of law aiming at the acknowledgement and indemnification of the people victim of nuclear tests or accidents; N. 3025. Proposition de loi visant a la reconnaissance et a l'indemnisation des personnes victimes des essais ou accidents nucleaires

    Taubira, Ch.; Giacobbi, P.; Ayrault, J.M.; Lurel, V.; Montebourg, A.; Dosiere, R.; Floch, J.; Adam, P.; Andrieux, S.; Aubron, J.M.; Bacquet, J.P.; Bapt, G.; Bascou, J.; Beauchaud, J.C.; Blazy, J.P.; Blisko, S.; Bloche, P.; Bois, J.C.; Boisserie, D.; Bourguignon, P.; Bousquet, D.; Carcenac, Th.; Carrillon-Couvreur, M.; Charzat, M.; Claeys, A.; Cohen, P.; Darciaux, C.; Dasseux, M.; David, M.; Dehoux, M.; Derosier, B.; Dolez, M.; Dose, F.; Ducout, P.; Dufau, J.P.; Dumas, W.; Dumont, J.L.; Dupre, J.P.; Durand, Y.; Duriez, O.; Emmanuelli, H.; Facon, A.; Francaix, M.; Gaillard, G.; Gautier, N.; Genisson, C.; Giraud, J.; Guinchard, P.; Habib, D.; Hoffman-Rispal, D.; Imbert, F.; Jalton, E.; Janquin, S.; Kucheida, J.P.; Lacuey, C.; Lambert, J.; Lamy, F.; Lang, J.; Le Bouillonnec, J.Y.; Le Bris, G.; Le Garrec, J.; Le Roux, B.; Lebranchu, M.; Lemasle, P.; Lepetit, A.; Leroy, J.C.; Liebgott, M.; Lignieres-Cassou, M.; Loncle, F.; Madrelle, B.; Masse, Ch.; Mathus, D.; Migaud, D.; Mignon, H.; Nayrou, H.; Neri, A.; Oget, M.R.; Paul, Ch.; Perez, J.C.; Perol-Dumont, M.F


    This proposal of law aims at establishing the presumption of a relation between nuclear tests or accidents with the pathologies developed later on by the people present at that time in the contaminated areas. The proposal aims also at establishing an equality among the victims and at making up the juridical framework necessary for the government to proceed to the compensation of victims damages. (J.S.)

  6. The dental identification of victims of an aircraft accident in Malaysia.

    Nambiar, P; Jalil, N; Singh, B


    On 15 September 1995 a Malaysian Airlines (MAS) Fokker 50 plane plunged while descending and crashed, killing thirty-four passengers aboard. The dental disaster victim identification team comprising dental surgeons from the Dental faculty, University of Malaya; Ministry of Health, Sabah; and the Malaysian Defence Forces played an active role in the identification process. Most of the bodies were badly mutilated, disfigured and severely incinerated. Problems were encountered due to inadequate facilities and space at the mortuary. Difficulties were also encountered during the procurement and deciphering of information from dental records. This disaster has however created greater awareness amongst Malaysians of the important role of forensic odontology in mass disasters.

  7. Proposition of law relative to the admission and compensation of victims of nuclear tests or accidents; Proposition de Loi relative a la reconnaissance et a l'indemnisation des victimes des essais ou accidents nucleaires



    The present proposition of law has for object to come up to the expectations of persons having participated to nuclear weapons test made by France between the 13. february 1960 and the 27 january 1996, in Sahara or French polynesia. The consequences on health can not be ignored even after several decades of years. Decades of veterans have for several years, have got involve in justice procedures to be entitled to obtain compensation in damage repair they assign to the nuclear tests. Some courts of justice have, for years, recognized the legitimacy of these claims and the judgements cite irradiation consequences able to be revealed late even several decades after the radiation exposure. Other states have adopted laws of compensation for the victims of their populations, civil or military ones. In addition, the Chernobylsk accident released in atmospheres important quantities of radioactive products. populations have been contaminated and must be also in account. That is why this proposition of law comes today to be adopted. (N.C.)

  8. Bicycle accidents.

    Lind, M G; Wollin, S


    Information concerning 520 bicycle accidents and their victims was obtained from medical records and the victims' replies to questionnaires. The analyzed aspects included risk of injury, completeness of accident registrations by police and in hospitals, types of injuries and influence of the cyclists' age and sex, alcohol, fatigue, hunger, haste, physical disability, purpose of cycling, wearing of protective helmet and other clothing, type and quality of road surface, site of accident (road junctions, separate cycle paths, etc.) and turning manoeuvres.

  9. Differences between attendance in emergency care of male and female victims of traffic accidents in Porto alegre, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil

    Raquel Forgiarini Saldanha


    Full Text Available Driving under the influence of alcohol/ drugs (DUI is a well-established risk factor for traffic accidents, and men and women have different consumption patterns. The scope of this paper is to analyze differences in alcohol and drug consumption, as well as on behavior associated with traffic accidents among men and women. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 609 sequential traffic accident victims attended in emergency care from Porto Alegre. Subjects gave a structured interview, were breathalyzed and had a saliva test for alcohol/drug screening. Results showed that women were mainly passengers or pedestrians (p < 0.001. There was no significant difference in positive blood alcohol concentration. However, men reported more binge drinking and THC use, while women had more benzodiazepine in their saliva (p<0.05. This is the first Brazilian study to compare alcohol and drug use among men and women who were the victims of traffic accidents. Results point to differences in the pattern of substance abuse, as well on risk behavior. Data may be useful for specific prevention strategies that take gender differences into consideration.

  10. Organochlorine pesticide levels in blood serum samples taken at autopsy from auto accident victims in Veracruz, Mexico.

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Carvajal, Octavio; Infanzón, Rosa M; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Trujillo, Patricia; Hart, Mary Maxwell


    Samples of human blood sera (N = 118) for the determination of organochlorine pesticide levels were obtained at autopsy from auto accident victims in Veracruz, Mexico, during the years 2000 and 2001. The presence of hexachlorobenzene (HCH), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT), and o,p'-DDT was confirmed by gas-liquid-electron-capture detection chromatography. During the years 2000 and 2001, the respective mean levels of (a) HCB, (b) beta-HCH, (c) p,p'-DDE, (d) o,p'-DDT, (e) p,p'-DDT, and (f) total DDT were (a) 2.1 ng/ml and 1.4 ng/ml, (b) 3.0 ng/ml and 3.6 ng/ml, (c) 21.1 ng/ml and 23.8 ng/ml, (d) 1.2 ng/ml and 0.8 ng/ml, (e) 3.3 ng/ml and 2.5 ng/ml, and, finally, (f) 25.4 ng/ml and 27.1 ng/ml, respectively. High levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides were--and continue to be--present in the blood of individuals who live in Mexico. Levels of insecticide metabolites (e.g., beta-HCH, p,p'-DDE) in blood have increased during recent years (1997-2001), but levels of p,p'-DDT decreased in 2001 because the use of DDT for the control of malaria in Mexico was restricted.

  11. Epidemiology of Urban Traffic Accident Victims Hospitalized More Than 24 Hours in a Level III Trauma Center, Kashan County, Iran, During 2012-2013

    Mahdian, Mehrdad; Sehat, Mojtaba; Fazel, Mohammad Reza; Moraveji, Alireza; Mohammadzadeh, Mahdi


    Background: Urban traffic accidents are an extensively significant problem in small and busy towns in Iran. This study tried to explore the epidemiological pattern of urban traffic accidents in Kashan and Aran-Bidgol cities, Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to assess various epidemiological factors affecting victims of trauma admitted to a main trauma center in Iran. Patients and Methods: During a retrospective study, data including age, sex, injury type and pattern, outcome, hospital stay and treatment expenditures regarding urban Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) for one year (March 2012-March 2013) were obtained from the registry of trauma research center, emergency medical services and deputy of health of Kashan University of Medical Sciences. One-way ANOVA and chi-square tests were used to analyze data using SPSS version 16.0. P value Young motorcyclist men with the rate of more than 103 per 10000 were the most vulnerable group. The most common injury was head injury (73.6%) followed by lower limb injury (33.2%). A significant association was found between mechanism of injury and head, lower limb, multiple injuries and high risk age group. Conclusions: Urban RTAs are one of the most important problems in Kashan and Aran-Bidgol cities, which impose a great economic burden on health system. Motorcyclists are the most vulnerable victims and multiple trauma and head injury are seen among them extensively. PMID:26101765

  12. Epidemiology of Urban Traffic Accident Victims Hospitalized More Than 24 Hours in a Level III Trauma Center, Kashan County, Iran, During 2012-2013



    Full Text Available Background Urban traffic accidents are an extensively significant problem in small and busy towns in Iran. This study tried to explore the epidemiological pattern of urban traffic accidents in Kashan and Aran-Bidgol cities, Iran. Objectives This study aimed to assess various epidemiological factors affecting victims of trauma admitted to a main trauma center in Iran. Patients and Methods During a retrospective study, data including age, sex, injury type and pattern, outcome, hospital stay and treatment expenditures regarding urban Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs for one year (March 2012-March 2013 were obtained from the registry of trauma research center, emergency medical services and deputy of health of Kashan University of Medical Sciences. One-way ANOVA and chi-square tests were used to analyze data using SPSS version 16.0. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results A total of 1723 victims (82.6% male, sex ratio of almost 5:1 were considered in this study. Mortality rate in trauma cases hospitalized more than 24 hours during our study was 0.8%. Young motorcyclist men with the rate of more than 103 per 10000 were the most vulnerable group. The most common injury was head injury (73.6% followed by lower limb injury (33.2%. A significant association was found between mechanism of injury and head, lower limb, multiple injuries and high risk age group. Conclusions Urban RTAs are one of the most important problems in Kashan and Aran-Bidgol cities, which impose a great economic burden on health system. Motorcyclists are the most vulnerable victims and multiple trauma and head injury are seen among them extensively.

  13. Characterization of motorcycle accident victims attended by the mobile emergency service (SAMU-192, Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil - 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v34ispec.11524

    Betise Mery Alencar Sousa Macau Furtado


    Full Text Available This study described the epidemiological characteristics of victims of accidents involving motorcycles, attended by the Mobile Emergency Service (SAMU-192 in the city of Recife (PE in 2006. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study that analyzed a sample of 703 cases. The results showed that 81.8% were male, aged 20 to 29 years. It was noted that 406 of them were wearing a helmet at the time of the accident. The accidents occurred most frequently on Sundays (19.3% between 18:00 and 24:00 hours (0.28%. The extremities were the most affected body segment, with 341 occurrences. Regarding the severity of injuries, it was found that 37.6% were superficial or mild (scrapes, cuts and bruises. These results demonstrate the need for educational campaigns to encourage the use of personal protective equipment among motorcyclists. The best way to reduce the risks and damages from motorcycle accidents is through primary prevention. For this, are needed integrated intersectoral actions aimed at reducing the incidence and severity of injuries.  

  14. Review of the correlation between results of cytogenetic dosimetry from blood lymphocytes and EPR dosimetry from tooth enamel for victims of radiation accidents.

    Khvostunov, I K; Ivannikov, A I; Skvortsov, V G; Nugis, V Yu; Golub, E V


    The goal of this study was to compare dose estimates from electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry with teeth and cytogenetic dosimetry with blood lymphocytes for 30 victims of radiation accidents. The whole-body exposures estimated by tooth enamel EPR dosimetry were ranging from 0.01 to 9.3 Gy. Study group comprised victims exposed to acute and prolonged irradiation at high and low dose rate in different accidents. Blood samples were taken from each of them for cytogenetic analysis. Aberrations were scored and analysed according to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) guidelines for conventional and FISH analysis. Tooth samples were collected in dental clinics after they had been extracted during ordinary practice. EPR dosimetry was performed according to the IAEA protocol. EPR dosimetry showed good correlation with dosimetry based on chromosomal analysis. All estimations of cytogenetic dose below detection limit coincide with EPR dose estimates within the ranges of uncertainty. The differences between cytogenetic and EPR assays may occur in a case of previous unaccounted exposure, non-homogeneous irradiation and due to contribution to absorbed dose from neutron irradiation.

  15. Report made in the name of the Commission of cultural affairs, familial and social on the law proposition (n.1258) of Misses Christiane Taubira relative to the admission and the indemnification of the victims of the nuclear weapons tests or nuclear accidents; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires culturelles, familiales et sociales sur la proposition de loi (n. 1258) de Mme christiane taubira relative a la reconnaissance et a l'indemnisation des victimes des essais ou accidents nucleaires



    The present proposition of law has for object to come up to the expectations of persons having participated to nuclear weapons test made by France between the 13. february 1960 and the 27 january 1996, in Sahara or French polynesia. The consequences on health can not be ignored even after several decades of years. Furthermore, the present proposition of law chooses to extend this measure to the victims of nuclear accidents. The Chernobylsk accident has shown that the French territory did not avoid to a risk inherent to this kind of activity. This project makes a census of the different nuclear tests with incidents, different accidents in France and the different kind of pathologies among the veterans and their progeny. The different steps for the victims to claim are detailed. Other states have adopted laws of compensation for the victims of their populations, civil or military ones. That is why this proposition of law comes today to be adopted. (N.C.)

  16. 137Cesium-induced chromosome aberrations analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization: eight years follow up of the Goiânia radiation accident victims.

    Natarajan, A T; Santos, S J; Darroudi, F; Hadjidikova, V; Vermeulen, S; Chatterjee, S; Berg, M; Grigorova, M; Sakamoto-Hojo, E T; Granath, F; Ramalho, A T; Curado, M P


    The radiation accident in focus here occurred in a section of Goiânia (Brazil) where more than a hundred individuals were contaminated with 137Cesium on September 1987. In order to estimate the absorbed radiation doses, initial frequencies of dicentrics and rings were determined in 129 victims [A.T. Ramalho, PhD Thesis, Subsidios a tecnica de dosimetria citogenetica gerados a partir da analise de resultados obtidos com o acidente radiologico de Goiânia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1992]. We have followed some of these victims cytogenetically over the years seeking for parameters that could be used as basis for retrospective radiation dosimetry. Our data on translocation frequencies obtained by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) could be directly compared to the baseline frequencies of dicentrics available for those same victims. Our results provided valuable information on how precise these estimates are. The frequencies of translocations observed years after the radiation exposure were two to three times lower than the initial dicentrics frequencies, the differences being larger at higher doses (>1 Gy). The accuracy of such dose estimates might be increased by scoring sufficient amount of cells. However, factors such as the persistence of translocation carrying lymphocytes, translocation levels not proportional to chromosome size, and inter-individual variation reduce the precision of these estimates.

  17. [Carbon monoxide poisoning: clinical features of the victims of the explosion accident of Mitsui-Miike Mikawa coal mine 50 years ago].

    Kato, Motohiro


    Clinical features of carbon monoxide poisoning have been described in 24 victims of an intense explosion accident of the Mitsui-Miike Mikawa coal mine in Japan 50 years ago; these victims were admitted to the Kyushu University Hospital as they suffered from severe poisoning. In the early stage of poisoning, all victims showed disturbed state of consciousness, varying in duration from 5.5 hours to 3 months, and the duration of unconsciousness was closely correlated to the clinical severity in the late stage. Some of the severely poisoned patients showed a transient stage of apallic syndrome. After recovery from unconsciousness, all patients presented with severe amnestic syndrome and loss of initiative. Neurologically, the extrapyramidal signs were prominent in the early stage, which gradually improved in the late stage. Variable types of agnosia and apraxia were apparent in some of the severely and moderately poisoned patients in the late stage, with prominent Gerstmann syndrome and visual-visuospatial agnosias. Since these signs showed poor improvement, the agnosia and apraxia, as well as impaired intellectual ability, remained as a sequela of the poisoning, and were one of the major causes of deficits of the patients in their daily life activities in the late stage.

  18. Characterization of victims of aggression and transportation accidents treated at the Forensic Medicine and Dentistry Institute - Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil - 2010

    Sergio d'Avila


    Full Text Available The objective of this cross-sectional census study was to characterize agression and land-based transport accidents in a city in the Northeast of Brazil. Data was analyzed from live victims who were treated at a forensic service (N = 2.379. In the descriptive analysis, the majority of events were represented by aggression (71.6%; which occurred on weekdays (65%, with 35.1% at night. Trauma occurred to the whole body (63.6% and to soft tissue (74.2%. On the basis of multiple correspondence analysis, two dimensions were formed: the first dimension (internal reliability = 0.654 was formed by the cause of the event, the trauma and the age group and the second dimension (reliability = 0.514, by age group, occupation and civil status. Three groups with distinct profiles were formed for accidents and aggression: young women who suffered aggression, with trauma to the face and soft tissues during the evening and at weekends; adult men who suffered car accidents, in the morning and on work days; and retired elderly widowers, who were run over.

  19. Characterization of victims of aggression and transportation accidents treated at the Forensic Medicine and Dentistry Institute - Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil - 2010.

    d'Avila, Sergio; Campos, Ana Cristina; Cavalcante, Gigliana Maria Sobral; Silva, Carlos Jose de Paula; da Nóbrega, Lorena Marques; Ferreira, Efigenia Ferreira E


    The objective of this cross-sectional census study was to characterize agression and land-based transport accidents in a city in the Northeast of Brazil. Data was analyzed from live victims who were treated at a forensic service (N = 2.379). In the descriptive analysis, the majority of events were represented by aggression (71.6%); which occurred on weekdays (65%), with 35.1% at night. Trauma occurred to the whole body (63.6%) and to soft tissue (74.2%). On the basis of multiple correspondence analysis, two dimensions were formed: the first dimension (internal reliability = 0.654) was formed by the cause of the event, the trauma and the age group and the second dimension (reliability = 0.514), by age group, occupation and civil status. Three groups with distinct profiles were formed for accidents and aggression: young women who suffered aggression, with trauma to the face and soft tissues during the evening and at weekends; adult men who suffered car accidents, in the morning and on work days; and retired elderly widowers, who were run over.

  20. Proposition of law aiming to the recognition and indemnification of persons victims of nuclear tests or nuclear accident; Proposition de loi visant a la reconnaissance et a l'indemnisation des personnes victimes des essais ou accidents nucleaires



    The present proposition of law has for object to establish the presumption of a relationship between on the one hand the nuclear weapons tests and on the other hand the pathologies developed by the civil or military personnel having worked on the concerned sites as well as the populations present in the contaminated areas. the present proposition aims to establish equality between the victims and to create the legal framework that will allow the state to proceed to the just compensations of damages imposed by actions then considered as national interest. (N.C.)

  1. The importance of post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) in confrontation with conventional forensic autopsy of victims of motorcycle accidents.

    Moskała, Artur; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Kluza, Piotr; Romaszko, Karol; Lopatin, Oleksij


    Since traffic accidents are an important problem in forensic medicine, there is a constant search for new solutions to help with an investigation process in such cases. In recent years there was a rapid development of post-mortem imaging techniques, especially post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). In our work we concentrated on a potential advantage of PMCT in cases of motorcycle accident fatalities. The results of forensic autopsy were compared with combined results of the autopsy and PMCT to check in which areas use of these two techniques gives statistically important increase in number of findings. The hypothesis was confirmed in case of pneumothorax and fractures of skull, spine, clavicle, scapula, lower leg bones. As for majority of other bone fractures locations and brain injures there were single cases with pathologies visible only in PMCT, but too few to reach expected level of p-value. In case of injuries of solid organs and soft tissues statistical analysis did not confirmed any advantage of unenhanced PMCT use. On the whole it has been shown that PMCT used as an adjunct to forensic autopsy can cause an increase in information about vitally important regions in case of motorcycle accident fatalities.

  2. Hipertensão intracraniana em vítimas fatais de acidente de trânsito Increased intracranial pressure in victims of fatal road traffic accident



    Full Text Available Foi realizada análise morfológica, macro e microscópica, das lesões encefálicas de 120 vítimas fatais de acidente de trânsito. A hérnia para-hipocampal, a hemorragia de Duret e o infarto médio-basal occipital, indicadores fidedignos de que o paciente apresentou hipertensão intracraniana (HIC, ocorreram em 43 pacientes (35,8%. A HIC no trauma cranioencefálico é causada pela tumefação cerebral congestiva e pelos hematomas intracranianos. Na presente casuística foram observados 3 hematomas extradurais (7,0%, 9 hematomas subdurais agudos (20,9%, 6 hematomas intracerebrais (14%, 6 explosões lobares (14% e 9 tumefações cerebrais congestivas (20,9%.A morphological study, macro and microscopical, was made of brain lesions in 120 victims of fatal road traffic accidents. Parahipoccampal hernia, Duret haemorrhage and infarction in the medio-basal occipital lobe, clear evidence of raised intracranial pressure, occurred in 43 (35.8% patients. The increased intracranial pressure from the head injury is caused by brain swelling and by intracranial haematomas. In this series 3 cases of extradural haematomas (7.0%, 9 of subdural haematomas (20.9%, 6 of intracerebral haematomas (14%, 6 of burst lobe (14% and 9 of brain swelling (20.9% were observed.

  3. The "seat belt mark" sign: a call for increased vigilance among physicians treating victims of motor vehicle accidents.

    Velmahos, G C; Tatevossian, R; Demetriades, D


    The use of seat belts is shown to cause a specific pattern of internal injuries. Skin bruise corresponding to the site of the seat belt is known as the "seat belt mark" (SBM) sign and is associated with a high incidence of significant organ injuries. No study has yet defined the exact incidence of injuries requiring intervention at the presence of this sign. The objective of this study was to find the incidence of surgically correctable injuries in belted car occupants with a SBM sign and to define strategies of early detection and treatment of such injuries. The prospective study included consecutive patients involved in road traffic accidents who were admitted at an academic Level I trauma center. Of 650 car occupants, 410 (63%) were restrained and 77 (12%) had a SBM across the abdomen, chest or neck. The injuries of these 77 patients were compared with the injuries of belted patients without an SBM sign. Of patients with SBMs, 9 per cent had neck bruises, 32 per cent had chest bruises, 40 per cent had abdominal bruises, and 19 per cent had bruises in multiple sites. No significant neck injuries were detected. Three patients were found to have myocardial contusion, and 10 patients had intra-abdominal injuries (predominantly bowel and mesenteric lacerations) requiring laparotomy. There was a near 4-fold increase in thoracic trauma (22.5% versus 6%; P=0.01) and a near 8-fold increase in intra-abdominal trauma (23% versus 3%; P evaluation by specific diagnostic tests is not justified; rather, a high index of suspicion with a low threshold for appropriate diagnostic evaluation and/or surgical exploration should be maintained for the optimal management of such patients.

  4. Sobrecarga dos cuidadores de idosos com acidente vascular cerebral Sobrecarga de los cuidadores de ancianos con accidente cerebrovascular Burden on caregivers of elderly victims of cerebrovascular accident

    Roberta Amorim Pereira


    assess the burden on caregivers of elderly victims of cerebrovascular accident (CVA and to correlate it with care hours, the elderly people's age and functional independence. This cross-sectional study counted the participation of 62 elderly individuals with CVA and their caregivers. The instrument used contained socio-demographic and economic variables, the Mini-Mental Status Examination, the Functional Independence Measure (FIM and the Zarit Scale. The possible correlations between the Zarit scale scores and the other variables were assessed using Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. Most caregivers were adults, children of the victims, married, and female. The mean Zarit score was 34.92(15.8. The FIM showed a negative correlation with caregiver burden, but no correlation with age and number of care hours. The burden on most of the caregivers ranged from moderate to severe and seems to be related to the level of functional independency of the elderly.

  5. Características das vítimas por acidentes de transporte terrestre em município da Região Sul do Brasil Victims' characteristics by road accidents in a city of Southern Brazil

    Selma Maffei de Andrade


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a magnitude da morbimortalidade por acidentes de transporte terrestre e as características das vítimas. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas 3.643 vítimas de acidentes de transporte terrestre ocorridos em Londrina, Paraná, no primeiro semestre de 1996, abrangendo as registradas pela Polícia Militar, as que morreram no local do evento ou no trajeto para o hospital, além das atendidas em serviços de pronto-socorro ou internadas pelo Sistema Único de Saúde. Foi observado um prazo de 180 dias para verificar ocorrência de óbito. RESULTADOS: Os coeficientes de incidência de agravos e de mortalidade médios por acidentes de transporte terrestre foram de 1582,2 e 29,0 por 100.000 habitantes, respectivamente. Esses coeficientes, entretanto, mostraram grande variabilidade em relação a diversas características (local de residência, sexo, idade e categoria da vítima. Motociclistas representaram o principal tipo de vítima, seguidos por ciclistas e pedestres, perfazendo, juntos, 76,9% do total de vítimas e 81,5% das que morreram. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados revelam que os acidentes de transporte terrestre constituem-se importante causa de morbimortalidade e sugerem a necessidade de estratégias específicas de prevenção com vistas a reduzir esses eventos, principalmente os que envolvem os usuários mais vulneráveis da via pública.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the magnitude of morbidity and mortality and describe some of the characteristics of road accident victims. METHODS: The study population was composed of 3,643 victims of road accidents which occurred in Londrina, PR (Brazil, during the first semester of 1996. There were included victims from accidents registered by the Military Police, those who died at the accident scenario or on their way to the hospital, those who received emergency care or were hospitalized through the Unified Care System. It was observed a period of 180 days for death verification. RESULTS: The mean incidence

  6. Radiometric evaluation of graves of victims of the accident with Cesium 137 in Goiania, GO, Brazil: 25 years after; Avaliacao radiometrica das sepulturas das vitimas do acidente com o Cesio 137 em Goiania: 25 anos apos

    Lage, Leonardo B.; Correa, Rosangela da S.; Santos, Eliane E. dos, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil); Freitas-Junior, Ruffo, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Programa de Mastologia


    Twenty-five years after the radiation accident in Goiania, this study aims to evaluate the radiological situation in the area demarcated by the graves of the victims of the accident with cesium-137. Radiometric survey was carried out on the surface that encompasses the four graves and vicinity, from a pre-established mesh. Dose rate measurements were carried out, using the IdentFINDER equipment, positioned at 1 m height from the ground. The values of dose rates at the points measured ranged from 0.03 to 0.07 μSv/h. This variation of dose rate is less than those obtained in the local graveyard and are in the range of background radiation observed in Goiania. Considering the results obtained 25 years after the accident, it was concluded that engineering barriers adopted at that time are effective, stating the place absolutely safe from a radiological point of view, both for the individual from the public as to the environment.

  7. Benefits of immediate EMDR vs. eclectic therapy intervention for victims of physical violence and accidents at the workplace: a pilot study.

    Brennstuhl, Marie-Jo; Tarquinio, Cyril; Strub, Lionel; Montel, Sebastien; Rydberg, Jenny Ann; Kapoula, Zoi


    This study focuses on 34 victims of aggression at the workplace, less than 48 hours following the incident of aggression. We compared victims who received an EMDR emergency protocol (URG-EMDR; n = 19) that we developed with those who received a method of intervention called eclectic therapy (n = 15). The results show that URG-EMDR therapy, provided within 48 hours, resulted in a greater decrease in perceived stress and a lower PCL-S score than eclectic therapy did. The scores were lower in both groups after 24 hours, and after 3 months, the drop was significantly greater among the victims treated with the URG-EMDR protocol; none of the EMDR-treated patients exhibited symptoms of posttraumatic stress.

  8. Victims of Occupational Injuries: A Comparison between Migrants and Italians. Results of a survey conducted in Trentino in 2009 / Vittime di infortunio sul lavoro : una comparazione tra italiani e stranieri. Risultati di una ricerca condotta in Trentino nel 2009 / Victimes d’accidents du travail: une comparaison entre travailleurs immigrés et italiens. Résultats d’une enquête conduite en 2009 en Trentin

    Martinello Daniela


    analisi statistica, quali fattori possono aiutare a spiegare la maggiore vittimizzazione degli stranieri. Il presente saggio risponderà alle seguenti domande: Chi è la vittima? Con che frequenza è stata vittimizzata? Qual è la gravità degli infortuni subiti? Quale la tendenza alla non denuncia? Quali le caratteristiche personali (età, genere, ecc. della vittima? E la sua storia professionale? Quali le caratteristiche dell’azienda in cui lavora e il livello di conformità alle norme sulla Salute e Sicurezza nell’azienda stessa? Infine, sono presentati i fattori che possono aiutare a spiegare la maggiore vittimizzazione degli stranieri nel fenomeno e sono indicate alcune possibili direzioni di azione per contrastare la problematica degli infortuni sul lavoro. Cet article attire l’attention sur les victimes d’accidents du travail et, de manière plus spécifique, sur les différences entre travailleurs italiens et immigrés. Une enquête de terrain a été conduite dans la région du Trentin : un questionnaire a été soumis à deux groupes de victimes d’accidents du travail, l'un composé de travailleurs italiens (300 répondants et l'autre d’immigrés (200 répondants. Cette étude a permis d'atteindre les objectifs suivants : vérifier si les travailleurs étrangers sont plus vulnérables aux accidents du travail que les italiens ; décrire le profil des victimes d’accidents du travail (aussi bien italiennes qu’immigrantes ; à travers l'analyse statistique, identifier les facteurs qui peuvent contribuer à expliquer la plus haute proportion de victimes parmi les immigrés.Ensuite, cet article s’attache à répondre aux questions suivantes : Qui est la victime ? Combien de fois est-elle victime ? Quelle est la gravité des accidents subis ? Qu'en est-il de la propension des victimes à ne pas porter plainte ? Quelles sont les caractéristiques personnelles (âge, genre, etc. et l’histoire professionnelle de la victime ? Quelles sont les caractéristiques de

  9. Success Rate of Pre-hospital Emergency Medical Service Personnel in Implementing Pre Hospital Trauma Life Support Guidelines on Traffic Accident Victims

    Gholipour, Changiz; Vahdati, Samad Shams; NOTASH, Mehdi; MIRI, Seyed Hassan; Ghafouri, Rouzbeh Rajaei


    SUMMARY Objectives Road traffic injuries are responsible for a vast number of trauma-related deaths in middle- and low-income countries. Pre-hospital emergency medical service (PHEMS) provides care and transports the injured patients from the scene of accident to the destined hospital. The PHEMS providers and paramedics were recently trained in the Pre Hospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS) guidelines to improve the outcome of trauma patients in developing countries. We decided to carry out a s...

  10. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl



    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  11. [Violence and accidents among older and younger adults: evidence from the Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA), Brazil].

    Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Sá, Naíza Nayla Bandeira de; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda


    Data from the Brazilian Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA) in 2009 were used to examine socio-demographic characteristics, outcomes, and types of accidents and violence treated at 74 sentinel emergency services in 23 Brazilian State capitals and the Federal District. The analysis included 25,201 individuals aged > 20 years (10.1% > 60 years); 89.3% were victims of accidents and 11.9% victims of violence. Hospitalization was the outcome in 11.1% of cases. Compared to the general population, there were more men and non-white individuals among victims of accidents, and especially among victims of violence. As compared to younger adults (20-59 years), accidents and violence against elderly victims showed less association with alcohol, a higher proportion of domestic incidents, more falls and pedestrian accidents, and aggression by family members. Policies for the prevention of accidents and violence should consider the characteristics of these events in the older population.

  12. Les accidents de la route liés à une activité professionnelle. In: Le véritable enjeu de l'insécurité routière : la victime

    Charbotel, B.


    Deux types d'accidents de la route sont liés au travail : les accidents de trajet entre le domicile et le travail et les accidents survenant en mission pour l'employeur. Les accidents de la route en mission sont, dans de nombreux pays, la première cause d'accident mortel du travail (de 20 a 40 % des accidents du travail mortels). En France, près de 40 % des accidents du travail mortels sont des accidents de la route, et le taux de 60 % des accidents mortels est atteint si l'on comptabilise le...

  13. Determination of 32P in urine for early estimation of the neutron exposure level for three victims of the JCO criticality accident.

    Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Takeda, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Kiriko; Watanabe, Yoshito; Kouno, Fuyuki; Kuroda, Noriko; Kim, Hee Sun; Yukawa, Masae


    In the criticality accident which occurred on 30 September 1999 at a uranium conversion facility in Tokai-mura, Japan, three workers were severely exposed to neutron and gamma-ray irradiation. Preliminary estimations of doses from blood properties and 24Na concentration in blood were 16-20, 6-10 and 1-4 gamma-ray gray-equivalent (gammaGyEq) respectively for the three workers. For apparent dose estimation, neutron-induced radionuclides in biological materials such as blood, hair and urine were measured. Accordingly, we detected 32p in urine samples. The concentration ratios of 32P in the urine for the three workers showed a similar tendency to those of 24Na in blood. This result indicated that the radioactivity of 32P in urine could be used to estimate the neutron exposure level.

  14. Padrão das lesões nas vítimas de acidentes de motocicleta Injury patterns in motorcycle accident victims

    Maria Sumie Koizumi


    Full Text Available Apresenta-se uma análise do padrão das injúrias nas vítimas de acidentes de motocicleta internadas num hospital governamental de ensino, do Município de São Paulo, o qual conta com um serviço de emergência de referência. Ficou confirmado que nas vítimas internadas predominam os jovens, do sexo masculino e que a grande maioria recebe alta do hospital. Quanto às injúrias, verificou-se predomínio das classificadas no grau de intensidade leve (ISS de 1 a 9 e as lesões mais freqüentes foram as fraturas de membros e pelve, os ferimentos de superfície externa, os traumatismos crânio-encefálicos e as luxações de membros e pelve. Nas que faleceram, além das fraturas de membros e pelve, as lesões de órgãos abdominais e traumatismos crânio-encefálicos preponderaram e a ISS foi superior a 20. Nos pacientes com trauma de crânio, constatou-se relação direta entre escores altos da Escala de Coma de Glasgow e baixos da ISS e vice-versa.An analysis of the injury patterns presented by inpatients of a government teaching hospital, known as one of the emergency centers of S. Paulo city, Brazil, is given the majority of victims are young, male adults and most of them were later discharged from the hospital. In relation to the injuries the majority of the patients were classified as being of minor injury grade (ISS between 1 and 9 and the most frequent injuries were extremity and pelvic fractures, surface trauma, traumatic brain injury and extremity and pelvic dislocations. Besides extremity and pelvic fractures, the victims who died showed abdominal organ injury and traumatic brain injury and the ISS was over 20. Head injury patients who had a high Glasgow Coma Scale score had a low ISS and vice-versa.

  15. [Characteristic of the fractures of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae in the victims of a traffic accident found in the passenger compartment of a modern motor vehicle].

    Pigolkin, Yu I; Dubrovin, I A; Sedykh, E P; Mosoyan, A S


    The objective of the present work was to study peculiar features of the injuries to three spinal regions in the victims of a head-on car collision found in the passenger compartments of modern motor vehicles equipped with seat belts and other safety means. It was shown that most frequent fatal injuries to the driver include the fractures of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae. These injuries are much less frequent in the passengers occupying the front and the right back seats. The multilayer and multiple character of the fractures in different parts of the spinal column in the car drivers is attributable to more pronounced spine flexion and extension associated with injuries of this kind. The fractures of the lower cervical vertebrae in the front seat passengers occur more frequently than injuries of a different type whereas the passengers of the back seats most frequently experience fractures of the upper cervical vertebrae. The passengers of the left back seat less frequently suffer from injuries to the thoracic spine than from the fractures of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae. The passengers of the central back seat most frequently experience fractures of the thoracic part of the vertebral column and the passengers occupying the right back seat fractures of the lumbar vertebrae.

  16. Understanding victimization

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn


    that the probability of being victimized is increasing in income, but at a diminishing rate. The effect of income is dependent on the type of crime, and poorer households are vulnerable. While less at risk of victimization, they suffer relatively greater losses when such shocks occur. Lower inequality and increased...... community level employment emerge as effective avenues to less crime...

  17. Understanding Victimization

    Barslund, Mikkel; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn


    that the probability of being victimized is increasing in income, but at a diminishing rate. The effect of income is dependent on the type of crime, and poorer households are vulnerable. While less at risk of victimization, they suffer relatively greater losses when such shocks occur. Lower inequality and increased...... community level employment emerge as effective avenues to less crime....

  18. Fatores associados ao uso de serviço de atenção pré-hospitalar por vítimas de acidentes de trânsito Factors associated with pre-hospital care in victims of traffic accidents

    Roberto Marini Ladeira


    Full Text Available Em um estudo de corte transversal foram avaliadas as características das vítimas de acidentes de trânsito ocorridos em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, com o objetivo de conhecer as características dos acidentes e das vítimas que usaram o serviço de atendimento pré-hospitalar, e investigar se o uso deste serviço está associado a um menor tempo até o atendimento hospitalar. Participaram do estudo todas as 1.564 vítimas de acidente de trânsito atendidas nos três maiores hospitais públicos de referência para emergência na cidade entre 10 de novembro e 14 de dezembro de 2003. As associações foram investigadas utilizando-se razões de prevalência obtidas por regressão de Poisson. Os resultados mostraram que 49,7% das vítimas usaram o serviço de atendimento pré-hospitalar, sendo a utilização menor entre ocupantes de bicicleta e pedestres. A gravidade (AIS = 2 e AIS ³ 3, idade (30-39 anos, 40-49, ³ 50 anos, relato de uso de álcool e tempo de admissão hospitalar This was a cross-sectional study of all victims of traffic accidents in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, admitted to the three largest public hospitals in the city from November 10 to December 14, 2003, to identify characteristics associated with the use of pre-hospital emergency treatment and investigate whether the time between the accident and hospital admission was shorter among these victims. The association between pre-hospital treatment and target variables was assessed by prevalence ratios obtained from Poisson regression. Among 1,564 victims, 778 (49.7% were transported in vehicles with pre-hospital treatment. Pre-hospital treatment was less common for bicyclists and pedestrians. The prevalence ratio was higher among victims with more severe injuries (AIS = 2 and AIS ³ 3, older victims (30-39 years, 40-49 years, ³ 50 years, those who reported alcohol use, and when the time between accident and hospital admission was less than 60 minutes

  19. Childhood Victimization and Crime Victimization

    McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz


    The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…

  20. Motociclistas vítimas de acidentes de trânsito em município da região Sul do Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i1.2303 Motorcyclist victims of road accidents in a municipality of the South Region of Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i1.2303

    Darli Antonio Soares


    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de conhecer as vítimas motociclistas que sofreram acidente de trânsito no perímetro urbano de Maringá, Estado do Paraná, em 1995. Foram analisadas 599 vítimas motociclistas registradas nos Boletins de Ocorrência, fichas de atendimento ambulatorial, prontuários e declarações de óbito. Os resultados evidenciam predominância do sexo masculino, concentração na faixa etária de 20-29 anos, sendo em sua maioria residentes em Maringá. Na avaliação da gravidade dos acidentes, verificou-se a letalidade de 3,2%, com concentração dos óbitos nas primeiras 24 horas e um elevado percentual de internação. A cabeça foi a região do corpo mais afetada, seguida dos membros inferiores e superiores. Ferimentos e fraturas foram os tipos de lesão mais freqüentes. O estudo confirma as informações descritas na literatura, que alertam para a relevância dos acidentes envolvendo motociclistas jovens e aponta para a necessidade de centrar esforços no sentido de adotar medidas preventivas e melhorar a qualidade de assistência às vítimas de acidentes de trânsito.The present study was accomplished with the purpose of characterizing the victims of road accidents with motorcycles in the urban area of Maringá - Paraná State, in 1995. It was analyzed 599 victims recorded in official reports who were admitted for hospital treatment, as well as victims who died at the place of the accident. The results show the predominance of males, 20-29 years of age, mainly residents of Maringá. Evaluating the severity of accidents, it was verified that 3.2% were lethal, with most deaths occurring in the first 24 hours. Data also revealed a high percentage of hospitalization. The body part most affected was the head, followed by upper and lower limbs. Wounds and fractures were the most frequent lesions. The study corroborates information described in literature, alerting to the relevance of accidents involving

  1. Análise dos serviços hospitalares clínicos aos idosos vítimas de acidentes e violências Analysis of hospital clinical services to elderly victims of accidents and violence

    Maria Luiza Carvalho de Lima


    Full Text Available O aumento de idosos na população e a vida mais ativa permitem maior exposição a acidentes e violências nessa população. Realizou-se uma análise diagnóstica dos serviços hospitalares de atendimento às urgências e emergências às vítimas de acidentes e violências na população idosa de cinco capitais do Brasil. A investigação foi fundamentada nos princípios da triangulação de métodos, integrando as abordagens quantitativa, com a aplicação de questionários aos gestores e profissionais de serviços de atenção hospitalar, e qualitativa, em que foram realizadas entrevistas com gestores e profissionais. Com base nas diretrizes das políticas estudadas, observou-se que nenhuma das capitais cumpriu todos os requisitos, apresentando um atendimento deficiente caracterizado pela falta de estrutura para manter um acompanhante para o idoso, encaminhamentos para serviços de referência, protocolos clínicos específicos, fichas de notificação, suporte aos idosos, capacitação profissional e definição do fluxo para tal população. Os resultados demonstraram que os serviços de saúde selecionados não apresentam o perfil adequado e integral necessário ao atendimento aos idosos, demonstrando a necessidade de adequação desses serviços para o cumprimento das diretrizes das políticas analisadas.The increase of elderly population and more active life allow a greater exposure to accidents and violence in this population. A diagnostic analysis of hospital services for emergency and urgent care to victims of accidents and violence in the elderly population was carried out in five capitals of Brazil. The research was based on the principles of triangulation of methods, including quantitative approaches, through the application of questionnaires to managers and pre-hospital, hospital and rehabilitation service professionals, as well as qualitative, in which interviews were made with managers and professionals and with those in

  2. Cyberstalking victimization

    Vilić Vida


    Full Text Available Global social networks contributed to the creation of new, inconspicuous, technically perfect shape of criminality which is hard to suppress because of its intangible characteristics. The most common forms of virtual communications’ abuse are: cyberstalking and harassment, identity theft, online fraud, manipulation and misuse of personal information and personal photos, monitoring e-mail accounts and spamming, interception and recording of chat rooms. Cyberstalking is defined as persistent and targeted harassment of an individual by using electronic communication. The victim becomes insecure, frightened, intimidated and does not figure out the best reaction which will terminate the harassment. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance and necessity of studying cyberstalking and to point out its forms in order to find the best ways to prevent this negative social phenomenon. Basic topics that will be analyzed in this paper are the various definitions of cyberstalking, forms of cyberstalking, and the most important characteristics of victims and perpetators.

  3. Acute subdural hematoma and diffuse axonal injury in fatal road traffic accident victims: a clinico-pathological study of 15 patients Hematoma subdural agudo e lesão axonal difusa em vítimas fatais de acidente de trânsito: estudo clínico-patológico de 15 pacientes

    Sebastião Nataniel Silva Gusmão


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although acute subdural hematoma (ASDH and diffuse axonal injury (DAI are commonly associated in victims of head injury due to road traffic accidents, there are only two clinico-pathological studies of this association. We report a clinical and pathological study of 15 patients with ASDH associated with DAI. METHOD: The patients were victims of road traffic accidents and were randomly chosen. The state of consciousness on hospital admission was evaluated by the Glasgow coma scale. For the identification of axons the histological sections of the brain were stained with anti-neurofilament proteins. RESULTS: Twelve of the 15 patients were admitted to hospital in a state of coma; in three patients, the level of consciousness was not evaluated, as they died before hospital admission. CONCLUSION: The poorer prognosis in patients with ASDH who lapse into coma immediately after sustaining a head injury, as described by several authors, can be explained by the almost constant association between ASDH and DAI in victims of fatal road traffic accidents.OBJETIVO: Embora o hematoma subdural agudo (HSDA e a lesão axonal difusa (LAD estejam frequentemente associados em vítimas de trauma crânio-encefálico causado por acidentes de trânsito, há somente dois estudos clínico-patológicos sobre esta associação. Relatamos o estudo clínico-patológico de 15 pacientes com HSDA associado com LAD. MÉTODO: Os pacientes, vítimas de acidentes de trânsito, foram selecionados aleatoriamente. O estado de consciência à admissão hospitalar foi avaliado pela escala de coma de Glasgow. Para a identificação dos axônios, os cortes histológicos do cérebro foram corados com antisoro anti-proteínas do neurofilamento. RESULTADOS: Doze dos 15 pacientes foram admitidos no hospital em estado de coma; em três pacientes, o nível de consciência não foi avaliado, pois eles faleceram antes da admissão hospitalar. CONCLUSÃO: O pior prognóstico em pacientes

  4. The prehospital management of avalanche victims.

    Kornhall, Daniel K; Martens-Nielsen, Julie


    Avalanche accidents are frequently lethal events with an overall mortality of 23%. Mortality increases dramatically to 50% in instances of complete burial. With modern day dense networks of ambulance services and rescue helicopters, health workers often become involved during the early stages of avalanche rescue. Historically, some of the most devastating avalanche accidents have involved military personnel. Armed forces are frequently deployed to mountain regions in order to train for mountain warfare or as part of ongoing conflicts. Furthermore, military units are frequently called to assist civilian organised rescue in avalanche rescue operations. It is therefore important that clinicians associated with units operating in mountain regions have an understanding of, the medical management of avalanche victims, and of the preceding rescue phase. The ensuing review of the available literature aims to describe the pathophysiology particular to avalanche victims and to outline a structured approach to the search, rescue and prehospital medical management.

  5. 49. Biological dose assessment by the analyses of chromosomal aberrations and CB micronuclei in two victims accidentally exposed to 60Co gamma-rays


    @@Biological doses were estimated by using the yields of dicentrics plus rings(dic+r) and cytokinesis-block micronuclei (CBMN) for two victims of the 60Co radiation source accident occurred on Mar 6,2001 in the City of Xuchang(victim A), and Jun 26,2001 in the City of Kaifeng(victim B), Henan Province, respectively. The whole blood of the victim A (male, 37 years old) and the victim B (female, 27 years old)

  6. Types of rape victimization

    Novaković Milan


    Full Text Available Introduction: Behavior of rape victims is an enigma associated with the following phenomena: poverty, transition, legal weaknesses, and unintegrated mental health network. The aim of the study was to investigate rape victimization in relation to anomie, stress and postwar transition-related weaknesses in B&H in the period 1996-2005; and perform a personal analysis of rape victims. Material and methods: The experimental group consisted of rape victims receiving psychiatric treatment: non-violent victimization (n=125. It included random female victims with mental diseases: victimization by abuse of power and unclear victimization. The control group consisted of violent victimization victims (n=125, females. This was a multicentric, longitudinal, prospective study. Intercorrelation, univariate and canonical discrimination analyses were performed. Results Rape offenders were of male gender (c2 = 29.970 statistical significance p<0.001, from broken families was (c2 = 0.830, migration (c2 = 0.064, and heredity (c2 = 0.406. Victimization was classified as non-violent, social, unclear and violent. Non-violent victimization occurred in 19.03% (2001 to 24.46% (2004. Abuse of mental patients was recorded in 16.08% (2002 and 22.61% (2000, and abuse of power in 2.12% (2000 and 3.55% (2000, whereas unclear rape occurred in 0.88% (2004 and 1.74% (2002. We have found that patients from the primary group are significantly more anxious and depressed in total score and in individual items. Conclusion: Non-violent victimization was committed by persons with impaired intelligence, acute psychotic crisis, and substance abuse. Social victimization and criminally unclear rapes were of transitional character. Victimization was caused by (postwar anomy, poverty, stress and violence. It is given insufficient significance because of high prevalence and "dark number" of victims. The study emphasizes the role of psychiatry as well as weakness of the system in the

  7. Characterization of motorcycle accident victims attended by the mobile emergency service (SAMU-192, Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil = Caracterização das vítimas de acidentes de motocicleta atendidas pelo serviço de atendimento móvel de urgência (SAMU-192, Recife, Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Flávia Gomes Medeiros Fernandes da Costa


    Full Text Available This study described the epidemiological characteristics of victims of accidents involving motorcycles, attended by the Mobile Emergency Service (SAMU-192 in the city of Recife (PE in 2006. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study that analyzed a sample of 703 cases. The results showed that 81.8% were male, aged 20 to 29 years. It was noted that 406 of them were wearing a helmet at the time of the accident. The accidents occurred most frequently on Sundays (19.3% between 18:00 and 24:00 hours (0.28%. The extremities were the most affected body segment, with 341 occurrences. Regarding the severity of injuries, it was found that 37.6% were superficial or mild (scrapes, cuts and bruises. These results demonstrate the need for educational campaigns to encourage the use of personal protective equipment among motorcyclists. The best way to reduce the risks and damages from motorcycle accidents is through primary prevention. For this, are needed integrated intersectoral actions aimed at reducing the incidence and severity of injuries.Descrevem-se as características epidemiológicas das vítimas de acidentes envolvendo motocicletas atendidas pelo Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência (SAMU-192, da cidade do Recife (PE, no ano de 2006. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo de corte transversal, no qual foi analisada uma amostra de 703 atendimentos. Os resultados mostraram que 81,8% eram do sexo masculino, na faixa etária entre 20 e 29 anos. Observou-se que 406 motociclistas utilizavam o capacete no momento do acidente. Os acidentes ocorreram com maior frequência no domingo (19,3%, no horário compreendido entre as 18h e 24h (0,28%. As extremidades foram o segmento do corpo mais atingidos com 341 ocorrências. Quanto à gravidade das lesões, verificou-se que 37,6% eram superficiais ou de baixa gravidade (escoriações, cortes e contusões. Esses resultados são importantes para demonstrar a necessidade de campanhas educativas incentivando o uso

  8. Paragliding accidents in remote areas.

    Fasching, G; Schippinger, G; Pretscher, R


    Paragliding is an increasingly popular hobby, as people try to find new and more adventurous activities. However, there is an increased and inherent danger with this sport. For this reason, as well as the inexperience of many operators, injuries occur frequently. This retrospective study centers on the helicopter rescue of 70 individuals in paragliding accidents. All histories were examined, and 43 patients answered a questionnaire. Nineteen (42%) pilots were injured when taking off, 20 (44%) during the flight, and six (13%) when landing. Routine and experience did not affect the prevalence of accident. Analysis of the causes of accident revealed pilot errors in all but three cases. In 34 rescue operations a landing of the helicopter near the site of the accident was possible. Half of the patients had to be rescued by a cable winch or a long rope fixed to the helicopter. Seven (10%) of the pilots suffered multiple trauma, 38 (54%) had injuries of the lower extremities, and 32 (84%) of them sustained fractures. Injuries to the spine were diagnosed in 34 cases with a fracture rate of 85%. One patient had an incomplete paraplegia. Injuries to the head occurred in 17 patients. No paraglider pilot died. The average hospitalization was 22 days, and average time of working inability was 14 weeks. Fourteen (34%) patients suffered from a permanent damage to their nerves or joints. Forty-three percent of the paragliders continued their sport despite the accident; two of them had another accident. An improved training program is necessary to lower the incidence of paragliding accidents. Optimal equipment to reduce injuries in case of accidents is mandatory. The helicopter emergency physician must perform a careful examination, provide stabilization of airways and circulation, give analgesics, splint fractured extremities, and transport the victim on a vacuum mattress to the appropriate hospital.

  9. The Victims of Road Traffic in the Territory of Kosovo and the Way of Their Compensation-Indemnity

    MSc. Halim Kuliqi


    Full Text Available Taking into account the fact that in the world the road traffic accidents happen very often and go up to very large numbers, which often are also very disturbing, then there is an indispensable need to study this problem, because without identifying the problem and its causes then it can neither be fought nor prevented. The significance of this paper lays on the presentation of some data regarding the number of accidents and their victims, the ways of compensation for the damage and the presentation of some measures in order to protect the victims of accidents from secondary victimization. This paper fills a scientific gap for victims of accidents and their way of compensation, which until now for the case of Kosovo has been not addressed significantly in terms of theory and practice also. For the presentation and the development of this issue have been used statistical method, comparative method and among others also the case study methods. In other words, the main purpose of this paper is to present data that expose the difficulties for the realization of the right of victims after suffering accidents and also to propose some norms that would protect the victims from secondary victimization, as victims after suffering a traffic accident may be hurt again until the realization of their demand for compensation according to the law.

  10. Accident Statistics

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  11. Sports Accidents



    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  12. [The effect of vitamin- and beta-carotene-enriched products on the vitamin A allowance and the concentration of different carotenoids of the blood serum in victims of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station].

    Iakushina, L M; Taranova, A G; Pokrovskaia, G R; Shatniuk, L N; Spirichev, V B


    The results of clinical trials of efficiency of foods enriched by vitamins and beta-carotene in people suffered from Chernobyl's accident are presented. The level of beta-carotene in clinical diets was the same during trial. Daily consumption of enriched food supplying ingestion of 4-5 mg of beta-carotene increased the level of beta-carotene in serum by 2-4 times. The concentration of total carotenoides in serum was increased by 1.6 times practically at the expense of beta-carotene.

  13. 早熟凝集染色体环法在山西太原事故受照射者生物剂量估算中的应用%Biological dose estimation by prematurely condensed chromosomes ring assay for five victims in Shanxi Taiyuan radiation accident

    姚波; 艾辉胜; 李玉芳; 白娟; 周振山; 王军良; 满秋红; 邱丽娟; 刘广贤; 郭梅


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of prematurely drug induced condensed chromosomes ring (PCC-R) assay in estimating the biological doses in the victims of radiation accident. METHODS:Samples of peripheral blood were collected from the five victims (subjects 1-5) of the radiation accident of Taiyuan,Shanxi,16 hours after the accident. Bone marrow samples were collected 23 h after and peripheral blood sample 24 h after the accident from subject 1. The frequencies of PCC-R in PCC cells obtained by Okadaic acid (OA) induction were counted. A biological dose estimation was performed by a dose-effect curve of PCC-R (1-20 Gy). The frequencies of the PCC-R for the 4 victims (subjects 2-5) were analyzed 31 days after the accident. The results from PCC-R assay were verified by dicentrics plus centric rings (dic+r),Cytokinesis-block micronuclei (CBMN) assay and physical method. RESULTS:No or rare PCC cells were observed in the peripheral blood cultures from subject 1. However,PCC cells were obtained from bone marrow cultures in subject 1 and in peripheral blood cultures from subject 2-5. The doses estimated for subject 1-5 were 12.4,3.6,3.2,1.7 and 1.5 Gy, respectively. A decrease of PCC-R frequencies were observed 31 days after the accident,and the extent of the decrease were 51%,69%,69% and 44% for the subjects 2-5,respectively,compared with the data 16 h after the accident. The estimated doses were in accordance with those doses estimated by dic+r,CBMN assay,physical method and clinical symptoms. CONCLUSION:Drug induced PCC-R assay is convenient and rapid,and the new curve of PCC-R is accurate and reliable. It is especially suitable for estimating higher dose of irradiation. However,blood samples should be collected as soon as possible and should be done within one month after the accident.%目的:探讨药物诱导的早熟凝集染色体环 (prematurely condensed chromosomes ring,PCC-R)分析方法在辐射事故受照射者生

  14. Typologie des Accidents Cyclistes

    Amoros, Emmanuelle; BILLOT-GRASSET, Alice; Hours, Martine


    L'usage du vélo est en hausse en ville ; cette pratique est encouragée dans le cadre du développement durable et de la lutte contre la sédentarité. Pour accompagner cela, il faut réduire les risques d'accident, et pour ce faire, mieux les connaître. Nous utilisons le Registre des victimes de la circulation routière du Rhône, basé sur les services hospitaliers (dont les urgences) ; il est quasi-exhaustif : env. 1100 blessés à vélo/an versus 120 dans les données officielles. L'ensemble des cycl...

  15. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria.

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef


    The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction.

  16. Explosão lobar em vítimas fatais de acidente de trânsito: frequência e associação com outras lesões encefálicas traumáticas Burst lobe in victims of fatal road traffic accident: frequency and association with other head injury lesions



    Full Text Available Realizou-se análise morfológica, macro e microscópica, das lesões encefálicas de 120 vítimas fatais de acidente de trânsito. A explosão lobar foi observada em 12 pacientes (10,0%. O lobo acometido foi o frontal em seis pacientes (50,0%, o temporal em dois (16,7% e ambos em quatro (33,3%. A fratura de crânio ocorreu em 8 (66,7% pacientes e a hipertensão intracraniana em metade dos casos. Nove pacientes foram admitidos em coma e três faleceram imediatamente após o acidente. Todos os casos de explosão lobar estavam associados a lesão axonal difusa, associação essa que explica a alteração grave de consciência observada à admissão dos pacientes.A morphological study, macro and microscopical, was made of brain lesions in 120 victims of fatal road traffic accidents. Burst lobes were identified in 12 (10.0% of the patients. It occurred in the frontal lobe in 6 (50.0% patients, in the temporal lobe in 2 (16.7% and in both lobes in 4 (33.3% patients. A skull fracture occurred in 8 (66.7% patients and intracranial hipertension occurred in half of cases. Nine patients were admitted in coma and three patients died immediately after the road traffic accident. All cases of burst lobes were associated with diffuse axonal injury, which explains the severe alteration of consciousness observed at the patients' admission.

  17. Fatal aviation accidents in Lower Saxony from 1979 to 1996.

    Ast, F W; Kernbach-Wighton, G; Kampmann, H; Koops, E; Püschel, K; Tröger, H D; Kleemann, W J


    So far no national or regional studies have been published in Germany regarding the number of fatal aviation accidents and results of autopsy findings. Therefore, we evaluated all fatal aviation accidents occurring in Lower Saxony from 1979 to 1996. A total of 96 aviation accidents occurred in this period involving 73 aeroplanes. The crashes resulted in the death of 154 people ranging in age from 19 to 68 years. The greatest number of victims in a single crash of an aircraft was (n=7). Other types of fatal accidents were crashes of aircraft and helicopter while on the ground (n=5), hot-air balloons (n=2), parachutes (n=10), hang glider accidents (n=5) and the striking of a bystander by a model airplane. Autopsies were performed on 68 of the 154 victims (44.2%), including 39 of the 73 pilots (53.4%). Some of the autopsies yielded findings relevant to the cause of the accident: gunshot wounds, the presence of alcohol or drugs in blood and preexisting diseases. Our findings emphasize the need for autopsy on all aviation accident victims, especially pilots, as this is the only reliable method to uncover all factors contributing to an accident.

  18. Accidents involving off-road motor vehicles in a northern community.

    Hasselback, P; Wilding, H R


    The increasing number of accidents associated with off-road motor vehicles used for recreational purposes prompted this prospective study. During 1985 the records of victims of all motor vehicle accidents who were seen at the Hudson Bay Union Hospital, Hudson Bay, Sask., were studied; patients involved in on-road vehicle accidents were included for comparison. Emphasis was placed on age, vehicle type, mechanism of accident, injury severity and the use of safety features. Almost half of the vi...

  19. Secondary victims of rape

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Bak, Rikke; Elklit, Ask


    Rape is often a very traumatic experience, which affects not only the primary victim (PV) but also his/her significant others. Studies on secondary victims of rape are few and have almost exclusively studied male partners of female rape victims. This study examined the impact of rape on 107...... secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels...... of social support for the respondent, and feeling let down by others. The respondents were generally interested in friend-, family-, and partner-focused interventions, particularly in receiving education about how best to support a rape victim...

  20. Tumefação cerebral congestiva em vítimas fatais de acidente de trânsito: frequência e associação com outras lesões cranioencefálicas Congestive brain swelling in victims of fatal road traffic accidents: frequency and association with other head injury lesions



    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo anatomopatológico macro e microscópico do encéfalo de 120 vítimas fatais de acidente de trânsito. A tumefação cerebral congestiva (TCC ocorreu em 21 (17,5% pacientes. Consoante com a tumefação cerebral, que determina aumento volumétrico do encéfalo, foi encontrado aumento do peso médio do encéfalo. A contusão cerebral foi a lesão mais frequentemente associada com a TCC (76,2%, enquanto os hematomas intracranianos foram observados em quase metade dos casos.A morphological study, macro and microscopical, was made of brain lesions in 120 victims of fatal road traffic accidents. Congestive brain swelling occurred in 21 (17.5% patients. Owing to the brain swelling that increases the brain volume, an increase of brain weight was also observed. Brain contusion was the most frequent lesion associated with congestive brain swelling (76.2%, while the intracranial haematomas were observed in almost half of the cases.

  1. Decision Tree Model for Non-Fatal Road Accident Injury

    Fatin Ellisya Sapri


    Full Text Available Non-fatal road accident injury has become a great concern as it is associated with injury and sometimes leads to the disability of the victims. Hence, this study aims to develop a model that explains the factors that contribute to non-fatal road accident injury severity. A sample data of 350 non-fatal road accident cases of the year 2016 were obtained from Kota Bharu District Police Headquarters, Kelantan. The explanatory variables include road geometry, collision type, accident time, accident causes, vehicle type, age, airbag, and gender. The predictive data mining techniques of decision tree model and multinomial logistic regression were used to model non-fatal road accident injury severity. Based on accuracy rate, decision tree with CART algorithm was found to be more accurate as compared to the logistic regression model. The factors that significantly contribute to non-fatal traffic crashes injury severity are accident cause, road geometry, vehicle type, age and collision type.

  2. Victimization of Obese Adolescents

    Robinson, Sabrina


    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…

  3. Yoga and victims

    Nikolić-Ristanović Vesna


    Full Text Available In this paper the findings of literature review and explorative empirical research of yoga application in the work with victims of various forms of sufferings is presented. The largest notion of victim is accepted, which encompasses victims of crime, victims of human rights violations (including convicted persons, as well as victims of war, natural disasters and other sufferings. After determination of the notion of victim and yoga, the review and analyses of research findings and direct experiences with the application of yoga in victim support and victimisation prevention worldwide and in Serbia, is done. The author’s research findings as well as personal experiences with the application of yoga in the work with prisoners in prison for women in Pozarevac (Serbia, within the workshops that Victimology Society of Serbia implemented during 2012/2013, are presented as well. In the conclusions, contribution of yoga to holistic approach to victim support as well as important role that yoga may have in prevention of victimisation and criminalisation, is stressed. The importance of yoga for support of prisoners as the part of preparation for re-entry and with the aim to prevent recidivism, as well as to enable their more successful reintegration into the society, is particularly emphasised. The paper is based on the research implemented by the author for the purpose of writing the final essey at the course for yoga instructors on International yoga academy, Yoga Allience of Serbia.

  4. Victims of Rape.

    Krasner William; And Others

    A scientific, multidisciplinary examination of the social and psychological effects of rape upon female victims is presented, which is then correlated with: (1) the circumstances that surrounded the rape; (2) the victim's personality and social adaptation before she was raped; and (3) the support available from organizations and people who were…

  5. Criminal Victimization 1987.

    Shim, Kelly H.; DeBerry, Marshall M.


    This bulletin presents National Crime Survey (NCS) data updating the preliminary estimates of crime victimization in 1987, which were released in March, 1988. Statistics are presented which show that the overall level of crime increased marginally, while the victimization rate remained stable over the year. The NCS practice of measuring both…

  6. Victimization of Children.

    Finkelhor, David; Dziuba-Leatherman, Jennifer


    Outlines a general theory of childhood victimology, with a typology that characterizes abuse as extraordinary, acute, or pandemic. Efforts to prevent childhood victimization must recognize its differential character and the importance of the child's stage of development in recognizing and dealing with victimization. (SLD)

  7. Accident: Reminder


    There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

  8. [Accidents of fulguration].

    Virenque, C; Laguerre, J


    Fulguration, first electric accident in which the man was a victim, is to day better known. A clap of thunder is decomposed in two elements: lightning, and thunder. Lightning is caused by an electrical discharge, either within a cloud, or between two clouds, or, above all, between a cloud and the surface of the ground. Experimental equipments owned by the French Electricity Company and by the Atomic Energy Commission, have allowed to photograph lightnings and to measure certain physical characteristics (Intensity variable between 25 to 100 kA, voltage variable between 20 to 1 000 kV). The frequency of storms was learned: the isokeraunic level, in France, is about 20, meaning that thunder is heard twenty days during one year. Man may be stricken by thunder by direct hit, by sudden bursting, by earth current, or through various conductors. The electric charge which reached him may go to the earth directly by contact with the ground or may dissipate in the air through a bony promontory (elbow). The total number of victims, "wounded" or deceased, is not now known by statistics. Death comes by insulation breakdown of one of several anatomic cephalic formations: skull, meninx, brain. Many various lesions may happen in survivors: loss of consciousness, more or less long, sensorial or motion deficiencies. All these signs are momentary and generally reversible. Besides one may observe much more intense lesions on the skin: burns and, over all, characteristic aborescence (skin effect by high frequency current). The heart is protected, contrarily to what happens with industrial electrocution. The curative treatment is merely symptomatic : reanimation, surgery for burns or associated traumatic lesions. A prevention is researched to help the lonely man, in the country or in the mountains in the houses (lightning conductor, Faraday cage), in vehicles (aircraft, cars, ships). The mysterious and unforseeable character of lightning still stays, leaving a door opened for numerous


    Diksha Sapkota


    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic accidents, considered as global tragedies, are in increasing trend however, the safety situation is very severe in developing countries incurring substantial amount of human, economic and social costs. Motorcycle crashes, the commonest form, occur mostly on economically active population. However, there is limited coverage of studies on economic burden of motorcycle crashes. This study aims to estimate the total cost and DALYs lost due to motorbike accidents among victims of Kathmandu Valley.Materials and Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among the patients having history of motorbike accidents within past twelve months and at least 3 months from the date of data collection. Interview was conducted using proforma among 100 victims of accidents and their care giver in case of death from November 15, 2014 to May 15, 2015. Cost estimation of motorbike accident was done based on human capital approach. Data collection tool was pretested and collected data were analyzed by SPSS and Microsoft excel. Results: Males (79% belonging to the economically productive age group shared the highest proportion among total accidents victims. Most common reason for accidents was reported to be poor road condition (41%. Indirect cost was found to be significantly higher than direct costs highlighting its negative impact on economy of family and nation due to productivity loss. Total Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs lost per person was found to be 490 years and national estimation showed large burden of motorbike accidents due to huge DALY loss.Conclusions: For low resource countries like Nepal, high economic costs of motorbike accidents can pose additional burden to the fragile health system. These accidents can be prevented, and their consequences can be alleviated. There is an urgent need for reinforcement of appropriate interventions and legislation to decrease the magnitude of it and its associated grave

  10. Atendimento de reabilitação à pessoa idosa vítima de acidentes e violência em distintas regiões do Brasil Rehabilitation service to the elder person victim of accidents and violence on different regions of Brazil

    Adalgisa Peixoto Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Objetiva-se descrever a estrutura e caracterizar o atendimento prestado por serviços de reabilitação que atendem idosos vítimas de acidentes e violência, baseando-se nas principais políticas públicas de saúde dirigidas à população idosa no país. Seguindo os princípios da triangulação de métodos, aplicou-se um questionário a 19 serviços de reabilitação (cinco em Manaus, sete em Recife, dois em Brasília, dois no Rio de Janeiro e três em Curitiba composto por 27 questões referentes à estrutura e organização do serviço e registro dos dados. Foram entrevistados gestores e profissionais sobre fluxo, caracterização e especificidades do atendimento ao idoso, redes de proteção, avaliação dos serviços e sugestões. Os serviços de Manaus e Brasília estão mais bem preparados para atender aos idosos vítimas de acidentes e violência. Os de Brasília sobressaem nas questões mais específicas ao atendimento do idoso. As unidades de reabilitação de Recife apresentam-se menos preparadas, especialmente nos itens de suporte laboratorial, capacitação de profissionais para identificar e atender os casos de idosos em situação de violência, registro e análise dos dados. Conclui-se que o atendimento de reabilitação apresenta grandes fragilidades na implantação das políticas públicas e na inserção do tema da violência.The purpose of this work is to describe the structure and characterize the services offered for rehabilitation of elder people, victims of accidents and violence, based on the main public policies of health for this population in Brazil. Following the principles of the triangulation method, a 27 question questionnaire was applied to 19 rehabilitation services (five in Manaus, seven in Recife, two in Brasília, two in Rio de Janeiro and three in Curitiba about structure and organization of the service besides data registration. Managers and health professionals were interviewed about the flow

  11. Diagnostic characterization of services providing care to victims of accidents and violence in five Brazilian state capitals Caracterização diagnóstica dos serviços que atendem a vítimas de acidentes e violências em cinco capitais brasileiras

    Suely Ferreira Deslandes


    Full Text Available This article characterizes the services providing care to victims in five Brazilian regions with high violence and accident rates. It analyzes care activities and strategies, the profile of the teams, the conditions of installations, equipment and supplies, integrated care and registration services and the opinion of health managers with respect to the needs and requirements for a better care to the victims. The sample is composed by 103 services: 34 from Recife, 25 from Rio de Janeiro, 18 from Manaus, 18 from Curitiba and 8 from Brasília. The still preliminary results indicate: lower number of services focusing on the elderly; scarce investment in preventive actions; the principal actions carried out are social assistance, ambulatory and hospital care and psychological assistance; patients received from Basic Health Units require attention of the communities and families; need for investment in capacity building programs for professionals; precarious registries, data handled manually. The wording of the National Policy for Reduction of Morbidity and Mortality from Accidents and Violence is not well-known and there is a lack of articulation among and inside sectors and between prehospital and emergency care services. Rehabilitation services are insufficient in all cities.Este artigo caracteriza serviços que atendem as vítimas em capitais das cinco regiões brasileiras com altos índices de violências e acidentes. Analisam-se atividades e estratégias de atendimento, perfil das equipes, condições das instalações, equipamentos e insumos, serviços integrados de atenção e de registro de agravos e a ótica de gestores de saúde sobre demandas e necessidades para uma atenção de qualidade às vítimas. O acervo se constitui de 103 serviços: 34 de Recife, 25 de Rio de Janeiro, 18 de Manaus, 18 de Curitiba e 8 de Brasília. Os resultados ainda preliminares indicam: menor número de serviços com atendimentos voltados a idosos; pouco

  12. Occupational accidents involving biological material among public health workers.

    Chiodi, Mônica Bonagamba; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz


    This descriptive research aimed to recognize the occurrence of work accidents (WA) involving exposure to biological material among health workers at Public Health Units in Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil. A quantitative approach was adopted. In 2004, 155 accidents were notified by means of the Work Accident Communication (WAC). Sixty-two accidents (40%) involved exposure to biological material that could cause infections like Hepatitis and Aids. The highest number of victims (42 accidents) came from the category of nursing aids and technicians. Needles were responsible for 80.6% of accidents and blood was the biological material involved in a majority of occupational exposure cases. This subject needs greater attention, so that prevention measures can be implemented, which consider the peculiarities of the activities carried out by the different professional categories.

  13. Learning From Biomarkers in Victims Accidentally Exposed to Ionizing Radiation

    Yan Wang; Liqing Du; Chang Xu; Qin Wang; Zhiyi Song; Jianxiang Liu; Xu Su


    Biomarkers,such as chromosome aberration and micronuclei assays,prove to be reliable for facilitating clinical diagnosis in radiation accidents.In a radiation accident in India,chromosomal aberration,γ-H2AX,as well as other blood markers,were detected in accidentally exposed victims.This multi-parametric approach aided in confirming that individuals had been exposed by ionizing radiation.However,doses were impossible to estimate because of a 30-day delay in accident awareness.Exposure dose for victims was estimated using a dose-response curve previously established.Dose estimation,blood cell depletion kinetics,and no appearance of prodromal symptoms suggested that doses of exposure were low.Hematologic investigation,sampling time,and chromosome aberration scoring were all proposed according to data from the victims exposed to 60Co.Finally,knowledge regarding chromosome aberration analysis and the importance of international co-operation and assistance should be shared from this accident.

  14. Análise comparativa entre as lesões encontradas em motociclistas envolvidos em acidentes de trânsito e vítimas de outros mecanismos de trauma fechado Comparative analysis of injuries observed in motorcycle riders involved in traffic accidents and victims of other blunt trauma mechanisms

    José Gustavo Parreira


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar uma análise comparativa entre as lesões encontradas em motociclistas envolvidos em acidentes de trânsito e vítimas de outros mecanismos de trauma fechado. MÉTODOS: Análise dos protocolos (colhidos prospectivamente dos traumatizados com idade superior a 13 anos, admitidos de 10/06/2008 a 01/09/2009, vítimas de trauma fechado. Foram coletadas informações sobre mecanismo de trauma, dados vitais à admissão, exames complementares, lesões e tratamento. A estratificação da gravidade do trauma e das lesões foi realizada pelo cálculo dos índices de trauma: RTS, escala de coma de Glasgow (ECG, AIS, ISS e TRISS. Comparamos as variáveis entre os motociclistas (grupo A e os demais (grupo B. Consideramos graves as lesões com AIS > 3. Para a análise estatística, utilizamos os testes t de Student, Mann Whitney, qui-quadrado e Fisher, considerando p OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comparative analysis of the lesions found among motorcycle riders involved in traffic accidents and victims of other mechanisms of blunt trauma. METHODS: Analysis of data prospectively collected on protocols for trauma patients older than 13 years, admitted from 06/10/2008 to 09/01/2009, victims of blunt trauma. Data collected included trauma mechanism, vital signs at admission, laboratory tests, injuries, and treatment.Stratification of trauma and lesion severity was performed by calculating the trauma index: Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, Revised Trauma Score (RTS, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS, Injury Severity Score (ISS and TRISS. We compared the variables between motorcycle riders (group A and the others (group B. Severe injuries were considered when AIS > 3. For statistical analysis, we used Student's t, Mann Whitney, chi-square and Fisher's test, with p < 0.05 considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The study included 3,783 blunt trauma victims, aged 14 to 99 years, of which 76.0% were males. The most frequent trauma mechanisms were accidents

  15. Victim-induced criminality.

    Fooner, M


    In summary, there are certain issues that need to be dealt with if a coherent system of victim compensation is to be created. 1) Is the victim's entitlement to compensation qualified by his behavior in connection with the crime? If a Texas tycoon visits a clip joint, flashes a fat roll of bills, and gets hit on the head and rolled, is he entitled to compensation? If a man enters into a liaison with another's wife and gets shot by the husband, should his dependents be compensated? If a woman goes walking alone in a disreputable neighborhood and is assaulted, is she entitled to compensation? Unless the answer to such questions is a flat "yes," the adjudication of victim compensation as a "right" would be embarkation upon a vast sea of confusion. On the surface it may seem simpler to bypass the issue of "right" and declare for victim compensation as a matter of social policy-a logical extension of the welfare state approach. But the apparent simplicity may quickly prove illusory, in light of the second issue. 2) Is the victim's entitlement to compensation on the basis of indigency to be qualified by the requirement that an offender be apprehended and his guilt determined by a court? There are two levels to this problem. First, if a severely injured man reports to police that he has been mugged and robbed and if the police cannot apprehend a suspect, how is the administrator of compensation to know that the man is in fact the victim of a crime? The administrator of compensation must determine whether the episode was a criminal act or an argument-and who started it, and who precipitated the violence. What shall be the role of the witnesses, and of investigators? More important is the second level of the problem: How will law-enforcement of ficials and the courts evaluate the testimony of the victim if compensation of the victim may be at stake? In the evaluation of proposals for victim compensation, criminologists may need to think very hard about such questions and

  16. Cyber-Victimized Students

    Kaitlyn N. Ryan


    Full Text Available Bullying is a common topic in the media and academic settings. Teachers are regularly expected to provide curriculum and intervene regarding all forms of bullying, including cyber-bullying. Altering the behaviors of those who bully is often the focus of interventions, with less attention being placed on victim impact. The purpose of this article was to provide educators with a review of evidence regarding the occurrence, impact, and interventions for victims of cyber-bullying. Evidence reveals that cyber-bullying can have emotional, social, and academic impacts but that there are very few documented, and even fewer evidence-based, programs for victims of cyber-bullying. We conclude by proposing that school-wide programs and support be developed and provided to victims.

  17. 山西忻州事故中宫内受照胎儿出生后第16年随访%Follow-up of victim exposed in uterus 16 years after Xinzhou radiation accident

    梁莉; 王文学; 张淑兰; 贾廷珍; 刘青杰; 马力文; 苏旭; 张照辉; 秦斌; 陈森


    目的 随访1992年11月山西忻州辐射事故中意外受到60Co源照射的妊娠妇女"芳"所产女婴"京"的生长发育情况,以观察研究宫内照射的远期效应及其现实意义.方法 除了进行一般医学检查外,应用染色体畸变分析方法 和荧光原位杂交(FISH)方法 检测染色体非稳定性畸变率和稳定性畸变率,中国修订韦氏儿童智力量表(C_WISC)检测智商水平.结果 无恶性肿瘤及遗传性疾病家族史;"京"易感冒,但无其他疾患;月经和体格发育正常;不能进行简单数字加减运算,但可进行简单语言交流和写作等.常规实验室检查果均正常.染色体未见非稳定性畸变;FISH检测显示,染色体易位率为2.3%,提示染色体损伤剂量为0.61 Gy,推算"京"当年受到辐射的生物剂量为1.85 Gy.超声检查示结节性甲状腺肿.中国修订韦氏儿童智力量表(C_WISC)测验结果显示言语、操作和全量表智商分别为51、50和46,总智力优于0.01%的人群,低于99.90%的人群.结论 宫内受照未影响"京"出生后的体格发育,对其智力发育有严重影响;目前尚无恶性肿瘤的证据.%Objective To observe and study the late effects of intrauterine exposure to irradiation.Methods A 16-year-old girl,borne by a woman exposed to 60Co irradiation during the Xinzhou radiation accident 16 years ago underwent inquiry,general medical examination.Conventional chromosome aberration analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to examine non-stability and stability chromosome aberrations,and China revised Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (C_WISC)was used to detect IQ level.Results Inquiry revealed no history of carcinoma and no family history of hereditary diseases.The girl often caught cold when she was a child,but she hadn' t any other diseases.Menarche occurred when she was 12 years old,and she had not suffered from dysmenorrhea.Her development of body frame constitution was normal.She could

  18. Atendimento e seguimento clínico especializado de profissionais de enfermagem acidentados com material biológico Atención y seguimiento clínico especializado de profesionales de enfermería accidentados con material biológico Care and specialized clinical follow-up of nursing professionals who have been victims of accidents with biological material

    Flaviana Regina Pimenta


    ógicos.This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the conduct of nursing professionals who had been victims of accidents with biological material in a teaching hospital in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, regarding their care and specialized clinical follow-up. The study population consisted of 1,215 nursing professionals, who were interviewed individually between 2010 and 2011. Of the 1,215 nursing professionals interviewed, 636 (52.3% reported having experienced accidents with biological material; of this population, 182 (28.6% didn't sought specialized care. The most frequent reason reported for not seeking care was believing that it was a low-risk accident. The reasons professionals do not seek care and do not complete treatment and the clinical follow-up can contribute to strategies to increase professionals' adherence to prophylaxis measures after occupational exposure to biological material.

  19. Analyzing the role of climatic factors on road accidents (Case study: Ardabil-Parsabad road in Ardabil Province, Iran)

    Sadegheh Alizadeh


    Road accidents and their fatalities are among the currentchallenges human society facing, which in turn resulting in huge social and economiccosts on the countries. Thedeveloping countries are the biggest victims of the road accidents such that inthese countries, road accidents are considered asthe major cause of death. Unfortunately, Iran is amongthe countries in which the rate of road accidents is high. Among thedriving factors that affect road safety and transport isclimate. Ardabil-Parsab...

  20. Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Galstyan I.A.


    Full Text Available Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS, developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

  1. Self-reported accidents

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth


    The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....




    Full Text Available

    Introduction. Car accident mortality is the third order causes of death in the USA, following cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Given present survival and outcome Iranian data, more than 14,000 patients die annually in road accidents. Having a valid and reliable data could be useful in reduce mortality and morbidity reduction.
    Methods. Twenty five percent of total traumatic patients in Isfahan were selected (N=2809 at the time of study (1997-1998. Forty five percent of them with car accident were asked about causes of accidents and risk factors for the severity and type of injuries were recorded based on International Classification of Disease 10.
    Results. Most of the victims were young (10-20 years old, students and industrial workers. Statistically unreasonable numbers of cars without extension of roads and high ways, using old and unsafe cars will affects on accidents.
    Discussion. In comparison with European and some Asian countries, Iran has unacceptable road accidents and it seems necessary to pay more attention to stop the current increasing data.


  3. Fatal motorcycle accidents in Fars Province, Iran:a community-based survey

    Seyed Taghi Heydari; Payam Peymani; Seyed Mehdi Ahmadi; Maryam Dehghankhalili; Hassan Joulaei; Kamran B. Lankarani; Najmeh Maharlouei; Ali Foroutan; Yaser Sarikhani; Fariborz Ghaffarpasand; Arya Hedjazi; Mohammad Zarenezhad; Ghasem Moafian; Mohammad Reza Aghabeigi


    Objective:To identify the main characteristics of victims of motorcycle accidents in Fars Province,Iran.Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fars Province which has the fourth largest population of all 31 provinces in lran from March 2009 to June 2010.We included data from all 542 recorded cases of fatalities due to motor vehicle accidents.Data were recorded from the forensic medicine registry consisting of demographic and accident-related information.Demographic information consisted of name,age,sex,status of fatal victim (motorcycle driver vs passenger) and educational level.Results:Of the 2 345 autopsy records from the forensic medicine archives,542 (23.1%) gave the cause of death as motor vehicle accidents.Mean age of these victims was (31.4± 16.5) years,and the male to female ratio was 28.Head injury was the most common cause of death in these victims,and overall they tended to have a low level of education.Motorcycle accidents frequently involved younger age groups (15-35 years),and head trauma related with non-use of a helmet was the most common cause of death.Conclusions:Head injury is frequent among victims in the province we studied.This situation may be related to the victims' low socioeconomic status and little education regarding traffic laws leading to speeding and disregard of these laws along with their weak enforcement.

  4. Biological dose estimation in the victim exposed to the iridium-192 in a radioactive source-loss accident in Nanjing City%南京铱-192放射源丢失事故受照者生物剂量估算

    秦永春; 周献锋; 熊晓芸; 姜秋霞; 史晓东; 王福如; 余宁乐


    Objective To estimate the biological dose by the chromosome aberration analysis in a victim suffered in the radioactive source-loss accident in Nanjing City .Methods Peripheral blood sample of the victim was collected 6 days after radioactive exposure . Individual radioactive biological dose was estimated by identifying the aberration of the dicentrics plus centric rings in the metaphase chromosome of cells .The distribution of chromosome aberration was tested by the Poisson distribution .Impure Poisson distribution was used to estimate the radiation dose .Results Among the 353 cells observed at metaphase , 75 aberration of dicentrics plus centric rings were found , 43 cells had 1 aberration and 7 cells had 2 aberrations.Moreover, there were 3 multi-aberration cells with 3, 4 and 11 aberrations respectively .The average individual radiation dose was estimated to be 1.52 Gy, which was consistent with the clinical diagnosis as mild acute bone marrow radiation disease .The Poisson distribution u test revealed that the patient suffered from nonhomogeneous radiation . By the impure Poisson distribution test , the radiation exposure proportion of the whole body was estimated to be 55%and the average dose was 3.02 Gy.Conclusion The biological dose estimation was successfully performed , the results showed that this was a case of nonhomogeneous irradiation .%目的:采用染色体畸变分析法对南京放射源丢失事故中的受照者进行生物剂量估算。方法照后6天采集受照者周围血进行培养,分析其中期分裂细胞双着丝粒体+着丝粒环畸变(以下简称“双+环畸变”)情况,并进行生物剂量估算,对双+环畸变在细胞间的分布进行Poisson分布u检验,采用不纯Poisson分布法估计受照份额。结果观察的353个中期分裂细胞中,发现双+环畸变共75个;其中,含1个双+环畸变的有43个细胞,含2个双+环畸变的有7个细胞,此外还

  5. O trabalho em equipe no atendimento pré-hospitalar à vítima de acidente de trânsito El trabajo en equipo en la atención prehospitalaria a las víctimas de accidente de tráfico Prehospital teamwork life support service for traffic accident victims

    Waleska Antunes da Porciúncula Pereira


    this study is to characterize prehospital teamwork service for traffic accident victims, identifying the actors' activities, the teamwork and the relations with actors from other areas. This is a qualitative study, in which data collection took place by observing the events that occurred at a public service in the city of Porto Alegre, in addition to interviews with each professional involved in the service. The results showed that prehospital care is founded on teamwork and that the understanding among professionals should go beyond the historical hierarchic relation existing in health organizations. There is a need to value the broad field of knowledge, which is associated with the core of care activities that meet most trauma victim needs.

  6. Victimization and pain

    Małgorzata K. Szerla


    Full Text Available Pain has several causes. It can be caused not only by operative trauma or cancer. Some patients suffer from pain as a result of being victims of violence. The aim of the study was to introduce diagnosis and treatment of pain problems in patients who are victims of violence, from a physician’s and a psychologist’s common perspective. Physical pain-related primary effects experienced by the victims of domestic violence go far beyond the results which are noticeable directly and confirmed visually in a forensic examination. In the present paper we introduce an ‘invisible’ group of secondary effects of violence. They appear in time, often after several years, in the form of a variety of psychosomatic disorders. The body is devastated insidiously and the secondary effects are visible as vegetative symptoms, a variety of psychosomatic disorders and pain, difficult to diagnose and treat.

  7. Vítimas fatais e anos de vida perdidos por acidentes de trânsito em Minas Gerais, Brasil Víctimas fatales y años de vida perdidos por accidentes de tráfico en Minas Gerais, Brasil Fatal traffic accidents victims and potential years of life lost in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Fernanda Carolina Camargo


    áfico. Complejo es su impacto en el sector de la salud, principalmente por la pérdida de personas en edad productiva. Ante los resultados presentados, se espera contribuir para el fomento de nuevas posibilidades de enfrentamiento de ese agravo.Study aims to analyze the profile of fatal traffic accidents victims and quantify the impact of these deaths by the potential years of life lost (PYLL, in Minas Gerais, Brazil. We used an epidemiological approach for records of the Mortality Information from the Department of the Brazilian Unified Health. Between 1996 and 2007, there were 38.395 deaths, an annual average of 17.61 deaths per 100.000 inhabitants. There were 8894.46 PYLL per 100,000 inhabitants, performing 43.24 PYLL per death. Men, 20 to 59 years old, were the main casualties. This mortality ascended among the elderly. Generally, traffic accidents result from disorders in urban infrastructure, risky behavior of drivers and pedestrians, inefficiencies in the regulation/supervision of traffic. It is Complex, the impact on the health sector, mainly the loss of people of working age. Facing the results presented, it is expected to contribute to the development of new possibilities for confronting this disease


    Laísla Alves Moura


    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Objetivo: Analisar as ocorrências por trauma do Atendimento Pré-Hospitalar (APH do corpo de Bombeiros do município de Joinville/SC, entre os meses de janeiro e julho de 2008. Método: A coleta de dados foi realizada a partir da análise dos documentos arquivados do Corpo de Bombeiros no período de janeiro a julho de 2008. Resultados: O trauma por acidente automobilístico atinge principalmente jovens do sexo masculino e pode-se perceber que o corpo de bombeiros, apesar dos serviços do SAMU, ainda é considerado uma referência ao atendimento de urgências e emergências da população. Conclusões: Faz-se necessários campanhas educativas e de direção defensiva para esta população, visando minimizar os acidentes. E também capacitações para os serviços de atendimento pré-hospitalar a fim de atender de forma efetiva e eficaz as ocorrências.

  9. Childhood Victimization and Lifetime Revictimization

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J.; Dutton, Mary Ann


    Objective: To examine the fundamental hypothesis that childhood victimization leads to increased vulnerability for subsequent (re)victimization in adolescence and adulthood and, if so, whether there are differences in rates of experiencing traumas and victimizations by gender, race/ethnicity, and type of childhood abuse and/or neglect. Methods:…

  10. Adolescent sexual victimization

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P


    at baseline and first time APSV during a 6-month period. Data analysis was a binary logistic regression analysis. Number of sexual partners and displaying sexual risk behaviors significantly predicted subsequent first time peer-on-peer sexual victimization, whereas a history of child sexual abuse, early...

  11. Development of Database for Accident Analysis in Indian Mines

    Tripathy, Debi Prasad; Guru Raghavendra Reddy, K.


    Mining is a hazardous industry and high accident rates associated with underground mining is a cause of deep concern. Technological developments notwithstanding, rate of fatal accidents and reportable incidents have not shown corresponding levels of decline. This paper argues that adoption of appropriate safety standards by both mine management and the government may result in appreciable reduction in accident frequency. This can be achieved by using the technology in improving the working conditions, sensitising workers and managers about causes and prevention of accidents. Inputs required for a detailed analysis of an accident include information on location, time, type, cost of accident, victim, nature of injury, personal and environmental factors etc. Such information can be generated from data available in the standard coded accident report form. This paper presents a web based application for accident analysis in Indian mines during 2001-2013. An accident database (SafeStat) prototype based on Intranet of the TCP/IP agreement, as developed by the authors, is also discussed.

  12. Development of Database for Accident Analysis in Indian Mines

    Tripathy, Debi Prasad; Guru Raghavendra Reddy, K.


    Mining is a hazardous industry and high accident rates associated with underground mining is a cause of deep concern. Technological developments notwithstanding, rate of fatal accidents and reportable incidents have not shown corresponding levels of decline. This paper argues that adoption of appropriate safety standards by both mine management and the government may result in appreciable reduction in accident frequency. This can be achieved by using the technology in improving the working conditions, sensitising workers and managers about causes and prevention of accidents. Inputs required for a detailed analysis of an accident include information on location, time, type, cost of accident, victim, nature of injury, personal and environmental factors etc. Such information can be generated from data available in the standard coded accident report form. This paper presents a web based application for accident analysis in Indian mines during 2001-2013. An accident database (SafeStat) prototype based on Intranet of the TCP/IP agreement, as developed by the authors, is also discussed.

  13. Relation between workplace accidents and the levels of carboxyhemoglobin in motorcycle taxi drivers

    Luiz Almeida da Silva


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate the relation between workplace accidents and the levels of carboxyhemoglobin found in motorcycle taxi drivers. METHOD: correlational, quantitative study involving 111 workers and data obtained in July 2012 through a questionnaire to characterize the participants and blood collection to measure carboxyhemoglobin levels. RESULT: 28.8% had suffered workplace accidents; 27.6% had fractured the lower limbs and significant symptoms of carbon monoxide exposure were verified in smokers. The carboxyhemoglobin levels were higher among smokers and victims of workplace accidents. CONCLUSION: motorcycle taxi drivers had increased levels of carboxyhemoglobin, possibly due to the exposure to carbon monoxide; these levels are also increased among smokers and victims of workplace accidents. The study provides advances in the knowledge about occupational health and environmental science, and also shows that carboxyhemoglobin can be an indicator of exposure to environmental pollutants for those working outdoors, which can be related to workplace accidents.

  14. Associated factors to the occurrence of motorcycle accident in the perception of hospitalized motorcyclist

    Augediva Maria Jucá Pordeus


    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the social demographic characteristics of injured motorcyclists admitted into an emergency hospital and their perception about the accident. Methods: Across-sectional study conducted between October and December 2007 with a sample of 209 patients who were victims of motorcycle accidents. A form was applied for data collection and the data were submitted to frequency analysis. The studied variables comprised social demographic data; conditions of the accident; the use of alcohol and the perception of the victim in relation to the accident. Results: Out of 209 interviewed patients, 183 (88% were male, 88 (42% were aged 21 to 30 years; 147 (65.9% were from different counties of the accident site, 89 (53.9% were not licensed riders; 93 (56.3% did not wear a helmet and 113 (54.4% reported drinking alcohol before the accident. Regarding the perception of the victims about the cause of the accident, 90 (43% highlighted the inappropriate behavior of their own rider. Conclusion: The study revealed that among injured motorcyclists, prevailed males, young and single, who did not wear helmet at the time of the accident, who were not legally qualified to drive a motorcycle and who recognize as the main cause of theseaccidents their own inadequate behavior.

  15. Evolutionary personality psychology and victimology : Sex differences in risk attitudes and short-term orientation and their relation to sex differences in victimizations

    Fetchenhauer, Detlef; Rohde, Percy A.


    Men are more often victims of events like car accidents or (violent) crimes than women with the sole exception of sexual assault. Based on the theory of sexual selection, it has been argued that these sex differences in both perpetration and victimization rates can be attributed to sex differences i

  16. Evolutionary personality psychology and victimology - Sex differences in risk attitudes and short-term orientation and their relation to sex differences in victimizations

    Fetchenhauer, D; Rohde, PA


    Men are more often victims of events like car accidents or (violent) crimes than women with the sole exception of sexual assault. Based on the theory of sexual selection, it has been argued that these sex differences in both perpetration and victimization rates can be attributed to sex differences i

  17. Fatal motorcycle accidents in Fars Province, Iran: a com-munity-based survey

    Heydari Seyed Taghi


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To identify the main character-istics of victims of motorcycle accidents in Fars Province, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fars Province which has the fourth largest population of all 31 provinces in Iran from March 2009 to June 2010. We included data from all 542 recorded cases of fatalities due to motor vehicle accidents. Data were recorded from the foren-sic medicine registry consisting of demographic and acci-dent-related information. Demographic information con-sisted of name, age, sex, status of fatal victim (motorcycle driver vs passenger and educational level. Results: Of the 2 345 autopsy records from the foren-sic medicine archives, 542 (23.1% gave the cause of death as motor vehicle accidents. Mean age of these victims was (31.4±16.5 years, and the male to female ratio was 28. Head injury was the most common cause of death in these victims, and overall they tended to have a low level of education. Motorcycle accidents frequently involved younger age groups (15-35 years, and head trauma related with non-use of a helmet was the most common cause of death. Conclusions: Head injury is frequent among victims in the province we studied. This situation may be related to the victims’ low socioeconomic status and little education regarding traffic laws leading to speeding and disregard of these laws along with their weak enforcement. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Motorcycles; Iran

  18. Sprain of the neck in clinically treated patients in The Netherlands : An inventory of different categories of car accidents

    Versteegen, GJ; Kingma, J; ten Duis, HJ


    Different categories of car accidents of victims with sprain of the neck were investigated for both drivers and passengers. The predominant category of the car crash was a collision with another car for drivers as well as for passengers. The second cause was unknown. The distribution of the accident

  19. Between "Victims" and "Criminals"

    Plambech, Sine


    This article is about the lives of Nigerian sex workers after deportation from Europe, as well as the institutions that intervene in their migration trajectories. In Europe, some of these women's situations fit the legal definitions of trafficking, and they were categorized as “victims of human t...... processes create a hierarchical structure in which the violence women experience in the sex industry in Europe is imagined to be worse than the everyday violence they experience at home....... trafficking”; others were categorized as undocumented migrants—“criminals” guilty of violating immigration laws. Despite the growing political attention devoted to protecting victims of trafficking, I argue that in areas of Nigeria prone to economic insecurity and gender-based violence, the categories...

  20. Cyber-Victimized Students

    Kaitlyn N. Ryan; Tracey Curwen


    Bullying is a common topic in the media and academic settings. Teachers are regularly expected to provide curriculum and intervene regarding all forms of bullying, including cyber-bullying. Altering the behaviors of those who bully is often the focus of interventions, with less attention being placed on victim impact. The purpose of this article was to provide educators with a review of evidence regarding the occurrenc...

  1. Procedure for the classification of professional accidents of members of the personnel – REMINDER

    HR Department


    HR Department would like to remind members of the personnel that, according to the procedure for an accident deemed to be occupational and according to paragraph 29 of Administrative Circular No. 14 (Rev.2), they are requested to complete an accident declaration form (HS 50) within ten working days after the accident has occurred*). Once this deadline has passed, HR Department will be unable to proceed with the classification of the accident and, consequently, medical expenses that may arise linked to this accident will be reimbursed under the non-occupational scheme. In addition, any request for the classification of occupational accidents must be accompanied by a medical certificate detailing the bodily injuries resulting from the accident in question.   _______________ *) Or within three months of its occurrence if the victim or his beneficiaries are materially unable to meet this deadline.

  2. [Drivers of advanced age in traffic accidents].

    Bilban, Marjan


    The elderly are vulnerable and potentially unpredictable active participants in traffic who deserve special attention. Longer life expectancy entails a greater number of senior drivers, that is, persons with various health problems and difficulties accompanying old age. At the turn of the millennium, the share of population aged 65 or more in Slovenia was around 13%, and in 25 years it will be near as much as 19%. The share of drivers from this age group was 28% a year ago, and it is expected to reach about 54%. Numerous studies have shown that there are many differences in driving attitude between the young and the elderly. The young are by large active victims, and their main offense and cause of accident is speeding, while the elderly are more passive and their main offense is ignoring and enforcing the right of way. This paper focuses on the differences in the occurrence and type of injuries between the young and the elderly drivers, based on an analysis of all road accidents in Slovenia in the period between 1998-2000. Older people (over 65) caused only 4.7% of all road accidents (16.7% of all accidents involving pedestrians, 11.5% of all involving cyclists, 2.7% involving motorcyclists and 5% of all accidents involving car drivers). Of all accidents, 89.3% were without injuries, and the fatal outcome was registered in 0.4% accidents. Among the elderly (65-74 years of age), however, this share was 1%, and rising to 2.7% with the age 75 and above. By calculating the weight index, which discriminates between minor and severe injuries, and the fatal outcome, it was established that age groups 65-74 and > or = 75 cause three and five times greater damage, respectively than age groups from 18 to 54 years. With years, psychophysical changes lead to a drop in driving ability, which in turn increases the risk of road accidents. It is true that elderly people cause less traffic accidents (and also drive less) than the young, but when they are involved in an accident

  3. Análise diagnóstica dos serviços de reabilitação que assistem vítimas de acidentes e violências em Recife Diagnostic analysis of the rehabilitation services that attend victims of accidents and violence in Recife

    Maria Luiza Carvalho de Lima


    Full Text Available Este artigo visa analisar os serviços de reabilitação em Recife, confrontando com o que preconiza a Política Nacional de Redução de Morbimortalidade (PNMRAV. O estudo foi realizado em seis unidades/serviços de reabilitação, sendo cinco municipais e uma ONG conveniada ao SUS. A investigação desenvolveu-se com entrevista semi-estruturada destinada ao gestor da Atenção à Saúde de Pessoa com Deficiência, objetivando o mapeamento da rede, e questionário aplicado aos gerentes dos serviços para identificar as unidades e suas atividades, estrutura e organização desses serviços. A rede de atenção à reabilitação no município do Recife não cumpre satisfatoriamente as diretrizes da PNRMAV por apresentar número reduzido de serviços/programas; falta de uma equipe multidisciplinar; falta de aporte tecnológico; deficiente articulação intra e intersetorial; pouca integração entre a vítima e a família para a reinserção familiar e social e incipientes atividades de prevenção e promoção. Conclui-se que há um esforço em adequar as ações a esse grupo populacional; no entanto, existem significativos déficits de cobertura, de pessoal, de equipamentos, de registro de informação e de articulação entre os vários níveis da rede de saúde.This paper aims to analyze the rehabilitation services in Recife, Brazil, confronting it with what the National Policy for Decreasing Morbimortality from Accidents and Violence (NPDMAV professes. Six units of rehabilitation services were analyzed; five were from municipal administration and the other was an ONG on an agreement with SUS. A partial structured interview was conducted with the person in charge for the Attention to the Disable Person's Health aiming to map the network. Also a questionnaire was applied to the managers of the six services aiming to identify the unit and its activities, structure and organization. The Rehabilitation Assistance network in Recife do not meet the

  4. Relação entre a gravidade do trauma e padrões de analgesia utilizados em acidentados de transporte Relación entre la gravedad del trauma y los estándares de analgesia utilizados en accidentados de tránsito Relationship between trauma severity and analgesia standarts used in traffic accident victims

    Ana Maria Calil


    estudios en un área con tantas lagunas de conocimiento en nuestro medio.This is a first-time study in Brazil, which identified the relations between the analgesic standard and trauma severity. To do this, an analysis was performed in a population of 200 traffic accident victims admitted for treatment at the emergency unit of a referral hospital for trauma care in the city of São Paulo. Trauma and lesion severity were characterized by anatomic severity indexes. Based on the analysis of the analgesic therapy, analgesia standards were constructed, founded on the World Health Organization analgesic scale. The results permitted to identify the statistic association between trauma severity and distinct analgesia standards. The dissemination of these findings could serve as the basis to design analgesia protocols in trauma and improve care quality, besides encouraging the development of studies in an area with so many knowledge gaps.

  5. Dynamic analysis on three indexes of biological dose estimation of the victim exposed to 192Ir radiation source at "5.7" accident in Nanjing%南京“5.7”192Ir放射事故患者三种生物剂量估算指标的衰变规律探讨

    戴宏; 刘玉龙; 王优优; 冯骏超; 赵骅; 刘青杰; 郭凯琳


    目的 观察南京“5.7”192Ir放射事故患者受照后不同采血时间对生物剂量估算的影响,探讨3种生物剂量估算指标在体内的自然衰减规律.方法 事故后5、40和280 d,采集患者的外周血,分别进行外周血淋巴细胞染色体“双着丝粒+环”(“dic+r”)畸变分析、胞质分裂阻滞微核(CBMN)分析、核质桥+融合+马蹄形+环(NPB +FHC)分析.观察受照后不同时间染色体“dic+r”畸变、微核、NPB+FHC衰变情况及对生物剂量估算结果的影响.结果 与事故后5d的估算剂量相比,在40和280 d,染色体“dic+r”畸变分析估算的剂量分别下降34%和49%,CBMN的估算结果分别下降48%和79%,NPB+FHC的估算结果分别下降48%和75%.结论 本例事故患者受照后3种生物剂量估算指标在体内呈进行性下降,染色体“dic+r”/细胞的半衰期为40 d,3个指标在40 d时剂量估算结果与5d时比较,相对偏差>20%.%Objective To explore the natural attenuation pattern of three biological dose estimation indexes in vivo by investigating the effect on biological dosimetry of peripheral blood sampling at different time points from the victim partially exposed to 192Ir radiation source at " 5.7" accident in Nanjing.Methods Peripheral blood of the patient was collected on days 5,40 and 280 after exposure,respectively.The yields of dicentrics plus rings chromosomes ("dic + r"),cytokinesis-block micronuclei (CBMN) and nucleoplasmic bridge + fusion + horse shoe + circular(NPB + FHC) were analyzed.The dynamic reduction and dose estimation were both observed using the biomarkers mentioned above after exposure.Results Compared to the estimates on days 5 after exposure,the dose values estimated on days 40 and 280 decreased by 34% and 49% for " dic + r" method,48% and 79% for the CBMN assay,and 48% and 75% for NPN + FHC method,respectively.Conclusions Three biological dose estimation indexes show a progressive decrease in vivo

  6. Accident characteristics of injured motorcyclists in Malaysia.

    Pang, T Y; Umar, R S; Azhar, A A; Ahmad, M M; Nasir, M T; Harwant, S


    This study examines the accident characteristics of injured motorcyclists in Malaysia. The aim of this study is to identify the characteristics of motorcyclists who are at higher fatality risk and subsequently be the targeted group for the fatality-reduction countermeasures. A total of 412 motorcycle crash victims with serious or fatal injuries were analysed. The results showed that the injured motorcyclists were predominant young, novice riders of less than 3 years licensure and male. A fatal outcome was more likely to be associated with a larger engine capacity motorcycle, collision with a heavy vehicle, head on collision, and collision at a non-junction road. In contrast, a non-fatal outcome was more likely to be associated with a small engine capacity motorcycle, collision with another motorcycle or passenger car, junction accidents, and side or rear collisions.

  7. Trauma in the elderly caused by traffic accident: integrative review

    Ana Maria Ribeiro dos Santos


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To describe the scientific knowledge produced about trauma in the elderly caused by traffic accidents in healthcare area studies. METHODS Integrative review of studies from 2003 to 2013 searched in LILACS, SciELO, PubMed and CINHAL databases. We used combination of the descriptors injuries, wounds and accidents, in English, Portuguese and Spanish languages. RESULTS 32 studies were selected. In the thematic analysis, three categories emerged: epidemiological data from traffic accidents involving elderly; traffic accidents with elderly pedestrians; and trauma care in the elderly. We observed increased incidence of trauma in most countries and pedestrians represented a large part of the victims. Among these, the elderly are the most vulnerable group. CONCLUSION Studies showed that trauma care in the elderly need protocols and professionals with training in gerontology specialized in trauma care services.

  8. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    Sasamoto, Yukuo


    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).

  9. The regional commission for medical accidents and nosocomial infections set up by French law.

    Bartoli, C; Piercecchi-Marti, M D; Pelissier-Alicot, A L; Cianfarani, F; Leonetti, G


    The regional commission for conciliation and compensation for medical accidents, iatrogenic diseases and nosocomial infections (commission régionale de conciliation et d'indemnisation des accidents médicaux, affections iatrogènes et infections nosocomiales, CRCI) offers victims of such events the possibility of obtaining compensation without recourse to legal proceedings. We suggest various points of view about this commission set up by the French law no. 2002-303 of 4 March 2002: the composition, role and competence of the CRCI; the place of the expert's report; the opinion pronounced by the CRCI and its outcome, the compensation of victims and, finally, interaction with other procedures.

  10. Victim ranking among sex offenders

    Buschman, J.; Wilcox, D.; Spreen, M.; Marshall, B.; Bogaerts, S.


    A previous exploratory study of the Child Molester Empathy Measure (CMEM) focused on the difference between offenders' normal level of general empathy and the way in which a sample of Dutch offenders viewed their own victims. The authors found that, regardless of their level of general victim empath

  11. The dilemmas of victim positioning

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie


    Based on a conceptualization of bullying and relational aggression in groups as an effect of social dynamics rather than individual deficits – this article reflects upon some of the intricate mechanisms and dilemmas involved in victim positioning. Victims of bullying and relational aggression often...

  12. Victims of Bullying in Schools

    Graham, Sandra


    This article provides an overview of current research on bullying (peer victimization, peer harassment) in school, with a focus on victims of such bullying. The 1st section provides a working definition of bullying and its many forms. The 2nd section describes some of the known consequences of being bullied for mental health, physical health, and…

  13. In Memory of Mlassacre Victims


    China's first National Memorial Day for Nanjing Massacre Victims was held on December 13, 2o14. Chinese President Xi Jinping and other Communist Party of China and state leaders were present at the ceremony held at the memorial hall for the massacre victims in Nanjing, diangsu Provinee.

  14. The dilemmas of victim positioning

    Dorte Marie Søndergaard


    Full Text Available This article centres on some of the dilemmas contained within victim positioning. Such dilemmas are often overlooked by the authorities involved with people subjected to relational aggression. 2 For example, when teachers rule out cases of bullying because the victim has 'participated in' or 'laughed at' some of the bullies' initiatives, or when a rape victim's status as a victim is questioned because, in the lead up to the assault, she was supposedly friendly to the rapist. In these cases, it could be useful to explore the reason for the bullying victim's apparent collusion or to better understand the premises for the rape victim's positioning options in relation to the perpetrator. In other words, it could be fruitful to explore the dynamics and dilemmas of the victim position. In this article, I aim to reflect on the motivational conditions of the victim phenomenon. These reflections are based on an analysis of qualitative data produced through interviews with school children as well as on relevant secondary literature.


    B. K. BANIK


    Full Text Available Roads, highways and streets are fundamental infrastructure facilities to provide the transportation for passenger travel and goods movement from one place to another in Sylhet, north–eastern division of Bangladesh with rapid growth of road vehicle, being comparatively developed economic tourist prone area faces severe road traffic accident. Such severe road accidents cause harsh safety hazards on the roads of Sylhet area. This research work presents an overview of the road traffic accident and degraded road safety situation in Sylhet zone which in particular, discusses the key road accident problem characteristics identifying the hazardous roads and spots, most responsible vehicles and related components, conditions of drivers and pedestrians, most victims of accident, effects of accident on society, safety priorities and options available in Sylhet. In this regard, a comprehensive questionnaire survey was conducted on the concerned groups of transportation and detailed accident data was collected from a popular local newspaper. Analysis of the study reveals that Dhaka- Sylhet highway is the most hazardous in road basis and Sylhet Sador thana is the most vulnerable in thana basis in Sylhet region.

  16. Cyberbullying victimization in adolescents’ population

    Nešić Marija


    Full Text Available With the rapid development of communication technology and its wide use by the adolescents, cyberspace became a new risky environment for bullying manifestation and victimization. The significance of the problem lies in the fact that, unlike the traditional bullying, the cyberbullying victimization occurs also out of the school surroundings, it’s characterized by the possible anonymity of the bully, it’s harder to discover it and it could have a much bigger audience. Results of numerous studies show that the prevalence of cyberbullying victimization is 10% to 40% during one school year and that it is related to different negative outcomes - from problems of lower self-esteem to severe psychological and behavioral problems. The aim of the paper is to present basic characteristics and negative outcomes of cyberbullying victimization and also to summarize possible factors which are associated with this form of bullying. Lastly, possible ways of preventive action and coping with cyberbullying victimization will be reviewed.

  17. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    Barat, K


    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  18. Perpetrator or victim?

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    Paper 3: HAN091384 Victim, Perpetrator and Pupil - Teacher Perspectives on Peer Bullying Helle Rabøl Hansen, University of Aarhus This paper investigates the approaches and strategies taken up by two crucial actors in relation to bullying in schools: 1. documents indicating school policies...... on bullying, and 2. teacher strategies in relation to bullying practices among children. The paper analyses the relationship between policy documents and their implied discourses on the one hand and the discourses and understandings taken up by teaches in their everyday interaction with children...... and colleagues on the other hand. The paper is based on empirical data including surveys among 253 teachers from 10 schools, interview with 12 teachers, and observations among teachers in their respectively class and staff rooms. In the analyses punishment and sanctions appear to work as general strategies...

  19. Utility of Lung Ultrasound in Near-Drowning Victims

    Laursen, Christian Borbjerg; Rømhild Davidsen, Jesper; Madsen, Poul Henning


    Drowning and near-drowning are common causes of accidental death worldwide and respiratory complications such as non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, acute respiratory distress syndrome and pneumonia are often seen. In other settings lung ultrasound can accurately diagnose these conditions; hence lung...... ultrasound may have a potential role in the evaluation of drowning or near-drowning victims. In this case report the authors describe a 71-year-old man who was brought to hospital with acute respiratory failure after a near-drowning accident. Lung ultrasound showed multiple B-lines on the anterior...

  20. [Accidents with the "paraglider"].

    Lang, T H; Dengg, C; Gabl, M


    With a collective of 46 patients we show the details and kinds of accidents caused by paragliding. The base for the casuistry of the accidents was a questionnaire which was answered by most of the injured persons. These were questions about the theoretical and practical training, the course of the flight during the different phases, and the subjective point of view of the course of the accident. The patterns of the injuries showed a high incidence of injuries of the spinal column and high risks for the ankles. At the end, we give some advice how to prevent these accidents.

  1. Idosos que foram vítimas de acidentes de trânsito no município de Ribeirão Preto-SP, em 1998 Ancianos que fueron víctimas de accidentes de tránsito en el municipio de Ribeirão Preto, en 1998 Elderly people victimized by traffic accidents in the city of Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil in 1998

    Renata Silveira


    ,7%. Es importante resaltar que 50,9% tuvieron algún tipo de secuela debido al traumatismo sufrido. Este trabajo buscó destacar el tema, enfatizando la importancia de estudios en el área de gerontología asociada a los accidentes de tránsito.The considerable increase in the elderly population is resulting in several studies on the effects of external accidents to the population included in this age band. This study aimed at characterizing the elderly people victimized by traffic accidents and assisted in a public hospital in the City of Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil. A retrospective study was conducted using the data collected by the Epidemiological Surveillance Services of the University of São Paulo at Ribeirão Preto Faculty of Medicine. The data referring to 112 victims aged 60 to 85 years were analyzed from January to December, 1998. In this way, it can be observed that, among them, 56,3% of the victims are males and 42% are aged 60 to 64 years. Most of the subjects were pedestrians (41,4% and their most frequently injured body area was the head (36,7%. It is important to point out that 50,9% had some type of sequel resulting from the trauma. This work aimed at emphasizing such theme by pointing out the importance of studies in the area of gerontology associated with traffic accidents.

  2. Supporting children: Victims of crime, within victim support

    Walle Vande Ilse


    Full Text Available All too often, the victimization of children is automatically associated with child abuse and sexual abuse. However, children are also confronted, either directly or indirectly, with other kinds of criminality. In spite of that children usually do not get appropriate support and assistance. In this paper, the establishment and development of services for the support of children-victims of crime in Belgium, as well as European cooperation in this regard, are described.

  3. Communication and industrial accidents

    As, Sicco van


    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the conc

  4. Accidents - personal factors

    Zaitsev, S.L.; Tsygankov, A.V.


    This paper evaluates influence of selected personal factors on accident rate in underground coal mines in the USSR. Investigations show that so-called organizational factors cause from 80 to 85% of all accidents. About 70% of the organizational factors is associated with social, personal and economic features of personnel. Selected results of the investigations carried out in Donbass mines are discussed. Causes of miner dissatisfaction are reviewed: 14% is caused by unsatisfactory working conditions, 21% by repeated machine failures, 16% by forced labor during days off, 14% by unsatisfactory material supply, 16% by hard physical labor, 19% by other reasons. About 25% of miners injured during work accidents are characterized as highly professionally qualified with automatic reactions, and about 41% by medium qualifications. About 60% of accidents is caused by miners with less than a 3 year period of service. About 15% of accidents occurs during the first month after a miner has returned from a leave. More than 30% of accidents occurs on the first work day after a day or days off. Distribution of accidents is also presented: 19% of accidents occurs during the first 2 hours of a shift, 36% from the second to the fourth hour, and 45% occurs after the fourth hour and before the shift ends.

  5. Accident investigation and analysis

    Kampen, J. van; Drupsteen, L.


    Many organisations and companies take extensive proactive measures to identify, evaluate and reduce occupational risks. However, despite these efforts things still go wrong and unintended events occur. After a major incident or accident, conducting an accident investigation is generally the next ste

  6. Paciente vítima de violência no trânsito: análise do perfil socioeconômico, características do acidente e intervenção do Serviço Social na emergência A patient victim of car traffic violence: an analysis of socioeconomic profile, accident characteristics and Social Services intervention in the emergency room

    Kátia Campos dos Anjos


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar e analisar o perfil dos pacientes; o meio de transporte que causou o acidente; as normas do Código de Trânsito Brasileiro, se foram ou não seguidas; a rede de apoio e as intervenções do Serviço Social. MÉTODO: A pesquisa foi realizada com 100% dos pacientes internados nesta Instituição no período de 15/08/04 a 19/11/04, que foram vítimas de acidente no trânsito. Entrevistamos: 37 condutores de motocicletas, 26 pedestres, 15 condutores de veículo a motor e 06 passageiros, totalizando 84 pacientes. Foram utilizados formulários com questões abertas e fechadas de abordagem quantitativa e qualitativa. Resultado: A maior demanda foi de motociclistas, sendo que 83% são do sexo masculino, jovens com escolaridade até o ensino médio e renda mensal de dois salários mínimos. 62% residem em São Paulo e somente 36,5% possuem vínculo formal de trabalho. A maior parte das fraturas ocorreu nos membros inferiores (54%. Todos os pacientes necessitaram de cuidados após alta hospitalar, sendo que 98% contaram com o apoio familiar. CONCLUSÃO: Os elevados números de acidentes nos indicam que a violência no trânsito pode ser considerada um problema de saúde pública e estudos devem ser realizados para subsidiar as políticas públicas nesta área.OBJECTIVE: To identify and analyze patients' profile; the means of transportation that caused the accident; whether the rules of the Brazilian Traffic Code were respected or not; and the support network and actions of social services. METHODS: A survey was conducted with 100% of the patients admitted in this institution between August 15th and November 19th, 2004, who were victims of car accidents. We interviewed 37 motorcycle riders, 26 pedestrians, 15 drivers and 6 passengers, totaling 84 patients. Forms with open and closed questions, adopting both a quantitative and a qualitative approach were used. RESULTS: The greatest demand was from motorcyclists, of whom 83% were male

  7. Mapping injuries in traffic accident victims: a literature review Identificación de lesiones en víctimas de accidentes de tránsito: revisión sistemática de la literatura Mapeamento das lesões em vítimas de acidentes de trânsito: revisão sistemática da literatura

    Ana Maria Calil


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the body regions most affected in traffic accident victims and to map the trauma and severity of the lesions. A systematic literature review using key words related to traffic accidents, transportation accidents, wounds and injuries found a total of 248 articles. The electronic bases LILACS, MEDLINE, and PAHO were surveyed between the years 1990 and December 2006. This review emphasized a series of conclusive studies about the most frequent body regions involved and the major injuries occurring in these situations. It also indicated information gaps in the Brazilian literature. We believe that these findings are valuable for pre-hospital and intra-hospital teams and point the way to new investigations.El objetivo del estudio fue identificar las regiones corpóreas más afectadas en víctimas de accidentes de transporte e identificar la gravedad de las lesiones y del trauma. Fue realizada una revisión sistemática de la literatura, utilizándose descriptores relacionados a los accidentes de tránsito, accidentes de transporte, heridas y lesiones, totalizando 248 artículos. Las bases electrónicas investigadas fueron LILACS, MEDLINE y PAHO, entre 1990 y diciembre de 2006. Esta revisión destacó una serie de estudios conclusivos sobre las regiones corpóreas más frecuentes y aquellas de mayor gravedad afectadas en esos eventos y apuntó lagunas de conocimiento en la literatura nacional. Pensamos que lo encontrado puede ser de gran importancia para los equipos en los escenarios de prehospitalario e intrahospitalario y apuntan caminos en dirección de nuevas investigaciones.O objetivo do estudo foi identificar as regiões corpóreas mais atingidas em vítimas de acidentes de transporte e mapear a gravidade das lesões e do trauma. Foi realizada revisão sistemática da literatura, utilizando-se descritores relacionados aos acidentes de trânsito, acidentes de transporte, ferimentos e les

  8. Punishment goals of crime victims.

    Orth, Uli


    Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals.

  9. REAC/TS Radiation Accident Registry: An Overview

    Doran M. Christensen, DO, REAC/TS Associate Director and Staff Physician Becky Murdock, REAC/TS Registry and Health Physics Technician


    Over the past four years, REAC/TS has presented a number of case reports from its Radiation Accident Registry. Victims of radiological or nuclear incidents must meet certain dose criteria for an incident to be categorized as an “accident” and be included in the registry. Although the greatest numbers of “accidents” in the United States that have been entered into the registry involve radiation devices, the greater percentage of serious accidents have involved sealed sources of one kind or another. But if one looks at the kinds of accident scenarios that have resulted in extreme consequence, i.e., death, the greater share of deaths has occurred in medical settings.

  10. Arthropods of Medical Importance in Brazil: Retrospective Epidemiological Information about Accidents Involving these Animals

    Danon Clemes Cardoso


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The epidemiological information about arthropods bites/sting in Criciúma region no was reported. The aim of this Research was to draw the epidemiologic profile of accidents with arthropods in Criciúma region. Approach: The information regarding accidents with arthropods from 1994-2006 was prospectively collected from SINAN (System of Injury Notification Information files of the 21a Municipal Health Secretary of Criciúma region. Was calculated the frequency for each variable studied and incidence coefficient for period of study. Results: Results were recorded 1821 notifications of accidents with arthropods in region studied. The numbers of occurrence increased along of the years studied. The arthropod that most result in accidents was the spider with 1,126 (75.9% cases followed by Honeybees and others Arthropods with 149 (10.0% cases, Caterpillars including Lonomia genus and others genera (54/3.7% and scorpions with the least number of accidents with 6 (0.4% cases. The incidence of accidents every thousand inhabitants had a significant increase starting in the year of 2000. The majority of accidents occurred in the warmest months, increasing in the spring and summer seasons. Was recorded more than twice of accidents with arthropods in Urban area than in rural areas. The Chi-square test revealed that the frequency of accidents between locations and type of arthropods is different. Likewise, the number the victims and activity type in moment of the bite/sting had been a differ behavior between arthropods type. However, the number of accidents involving victims of male and female gender is equal. Conclusion: Epidemiological studies of this type in the extreme south of Santa Catarina are scarce. Only few studies have reported the patterns of occurrence and incidence of accidents with poisonous animals. These and other studies are of great importance for implementation of measures mitigation programs and education for

  11. A medical follow-up of 137 Cs Goiania radiation accident: un update (1990-1992)

    Brandao-Mello, Carlos Eduardo; Oliveira, Alexandre Rodrigues de [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Farina, Rosana [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil SA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The aim of this paper is to describe the main aftereffects of the 137 Cs accident in the last two years, giving emphasis on clinical, hematological, radiological and psychological aspects. A medical follow-up protocol was established by CNEN and the Leide das Neves Ferreira Foundation of the State of Goias, in order to prospectively follow more than 150 victims. (author). 6 refs.

  12. Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    Korol, N. [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine); Shibata, Yoshisada; Nakane, Yoshibumi


    Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

  13. Victimization Experiences and the Stabilization of Victim Sensitivity

    Mario eGollwitzer


    Full Text Available People reliably differ in the extent to which they are sensitive to being victimized by others. Importantly, victim sensitivity predicts how people behave in social dilemma situations: Victim-sensitive individuals are less likely to trust others and more likely to behave uncooperatively - especially in socially uncertain situations. This pattern can be explained with the Sensitivity to Mean Intentions (SeMI model, according to which victim sensitivity entails a specific and asymmetric sensitivity to contextual cues that are associated with untrustworthiness. Recent research is largely in line with the model’s prediction, but some issues have remained conceptually unresolved so far. For instance, it is unclear why and how victim sensitivity becomes a stable trait and which developmental and cognitive processes are involved in such stabilization. In the present article, we will discuss the psychological processes that contribute to a stabilization of victim sensitivity within persons, both across the life span (ontogenetic stabilization and across social situations (actual-genetic stabilization. Our theoretical framework starts from the assumption that experiences of being exploited threaten a basic need, the need to trust. This need is so fundamental that experiences that threaten it receive a considerable amount of attention and trigger strong affective reactions. Associative learning processes can then explain (a how certain contextual cues (e.g., facial expressions become conditioned stimuli that elicit equally strong responses, (b why these contextual untrustworthiness cues receive much more attention than, for instance, trustworthiness cues, and (c how these cues shape spontaneous social expectations (regarding other people’s intentions. Finally, avoidance learning can explain why these cognitive processes gradually stabilize and become a trait: the trait which is referred to as victim sensitivity.

  14. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko


    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation.

  15. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Rajković Miloš B.


    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  16. Associated factors to the occurrence of motorcycle accident in the perception of hospitalized motorcyclist - doi:10.5020/18061230.2010.p213

    Augediva Maria Jucá Pordeus


    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the social demographic characteristics of injured motorcyclists admitted into an emergency hospital and their perception about the accident. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted between October and December 2007 with a sample of 209 patients who were victims of motorcycle accidents. A form was applied for data collection and the data were submitted to frequency analysis. The studied variables comprised social demographic data; conditions of the accident; the use of alcohol and the perception of the victim in relation to the accident. Results: Out of 209 interviewed patients, 183 (88% were male, 88 (42% were aged 21 to 30 years; 147 (65.9% were from different counties of the accident site, 89 (53.9% were not licensed riders; 93 (56.3% did not wear a helmet and 113 (54.4% reported drinking alcohol before the accident. Regarding the perception of the victims about the cause of the accident, 90 (43% highlighted the inappropriate behavior of their own rider. Conclusion: The study revealed that among injured motorcyclists, prevailed males, young and single, who did not wear helmet at the time of the accident, who were not legally qualified to drive a motorcycle and who recognize as the main cause of these accidents their own inadequate behavior

  17. Identification of Drivers in Traffic Accidents and Determination of Passenger Position in a Vehicle by Finger Marks

    Matej Trapečar


    Full Text Available The following paper aims to illustrate certain investigative activities in the forensic analysis and examination of the scene of traffic accidents. When a traffic accident occurs, the scene must be secured as soon as possible to enable professional and proper forensic investigation. Failure to secure the accident scene might result in losing or contaminating the traces, which makes it more difficult to prove or explain trace evidence in further procedure or even makes such evidence inadmissible. The topic is discussed from the viewpoint of crime scene examination, since analysing and investigating traffic accidents requires a great deal of expertise and attention of the investigators. Complex traffic accidents include feigned accidents, hit-and-run accidents as well as accidents in which the driver and passengers, dead or alive, need to be identified. In identifying the passengers, standard criminal investigation methods as well as police forensic and forensic medicine methods are followed. Such methods include confirming the identities with identity documents, other documents and vehicle ownership, fingerprints, biological traces, fibre traces, contact traces, traces of physical injuries on the driver and passengers, etc. According to the results obtained in fingerprint detection on human skin surfaces, this method can also be applied in confirming physical contact between the driver and the passengers in the accident, e.g. in the event of moving the victims and changing the scene of the accident.   Key words: traffic accidents, accident analysis, driver's identity, passengers' position, finger marks, human skin

  18. Fatal residential fire accidents in the municipality of Copenhagen, 1991-1996

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Gregersen, Markil Ebbe Gregers; Sabroe, Svend


    of the theoretical model in which the variables were part of a causal network. RESULTS: The following five variables seemed to be of most importance: (1) localization of the victim close to the source of ignition (OR = 11), (2) physical handicaps (OR = 5), (3) chronic alcoholism (OR = 7), (4) clothing fires (OR = 24......BACKGROUND: The death rate for fatal fire accidents in Denmark has doubled since 1951, mostly due to an increase in the number of fire accidents associated with smoking. The most common cause of residential fire deaths in Denmark today is smoking, often combined with alcohol intoxication...... or handicap. METHODS: This was a case-control study of fatal fire accidents in private homes in the municipality of Copenhagen from 1991 to 1996. The fatal fire accidents were identified from a police register, and the two non-fatal fire accidents registered immediately before and after each fatal fire were...

  19. Fatal accidents at work in agriculture associated with alcohol intoxication in Lower Silesia in Poland

    Tomasz Jurek


    Full Text Available Background: Determining the prevalence of alcohol intoxication and the level of intoxication in victims of fatal occupational accidents is necessary to improve work safety. The circumstances of the accident and the time between alcohol consumption and death are important factors. Material and Methods: A retrospective review of 18 935 medico-legal autopsy reports and toxicological reports performed in the Department of Forensic Medicine at the Wroclaw Medical University, Poland, in the years 1991–2014. The study protocol included circumstances, time and cause of death, injuries, quantitative testing for the presence of ethyl alcohol, gender and age. Results: There were 98 farm-related fatalities. There were 41.8% (N = 41 of victims who had been intoxicated – 95.1% (N = 39 of them were males aged 19–70 years old, 4,9% (N = 2 were females aged 37–65 years old. In 8 cases the blood alcohol concentration (BAC was 50–150 mg/dl; in 15 cases it was 150–250 mg/dl and in 18 cases it was > 250 mg/dl. In 21 cases, the BAC was determined using alternative material and 76% (N = 16 victims were in the alcohol elimination phase with 19% (N = 4 victims in the alcohol absorption phase. The most common causes of death were traffic accidents, drowning and deaths resulting from being caught in or hit by moving parts of machinery or equipment. Conclusions: Alcohol consumption is a crucial risk factor in fatal agricultural accidents. In order to establish the time of alcohol consumption, all victims of agricultural accidents should be tested for alcohol concentration in their blood and urine or vitreous. Improving safety at work requires that the sobriety of employees should be monitored before and during work. Med Pr 2017;68(1:23–30

  20. Boating Accident Statistics

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  1. Accident resistant transport container

    Andersen, John A.; Cole, James K.


    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  2. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Rajković Miloš B.


    Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eigh...

  3. Intérêt du registre du Rhône pour le suivi des victimes. Vers une meilleure définition du blessé grave, des incidences aux prévalences

    Chiron, M


    Comme tous les registres, le registre du Rhône des victimes d'accidents de la circulation permet de mesurer des incidences. Par exemple : sept personnes sur mille sont blessées chaque année dans un accident de la circulation (dont plus d'une sur cent meurt). Une connaissance précise de l'incidence de telle ou telle lésion traumatique par accident de la circulation est possible, ainsi que celle de la mortalité immédiate. Ainsi une personne sur mille est victime chaque année du 'coup du lapin' ...

  4. Post-mortem forensic identity testing: application of PCR to the identification of fire victim

    José Arnaldo Soares-Vieira


    Full Text Available CONTEXT: DNA analysis has been used with success in the identification of carbonized corpses and victims of large accidents. The analysis requires relatives of crash victims to donate blood for analysis. The relatives are generally willing contribute to the identification by giving a blood sample. OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR for genetic characterization of one victim extensively burned by fire. DESIGN: Case report. CASE REPORT: DNA was extracted from blood of the cardiac chamber, and 15 different loci (D1S80, ApoB, D17S30, D3S1744, D18S849, D12S1090, FGA, D7S820, D1S533, D9S304, HUMCSF1PO, HUMTPOX, HUMTHO1, amelogenin and HLA-DQA1 were analyzed using the PCR technique. Results from all loci typing of the corpse were then compared to that of his alleged biological parents, revealing a genetic compatibility.

  5. Chernobyl operators: criminals or victims?

    Munipov, V M


    The blame for the 1986 Chernobyl disaster has been variously attributed to the operating personnel, the plant management, the design of the reactor, and the lack of adequate safety information in the Soviet nuclear industry. This paper considers a number of design faults, operational shortcomings and human errors that combined in the accident. It examines the sequence of events leading up to the accident, design problems in the reactor and cooling rods, and the course of the accident itself. It considers the ergonomics aspects, and expresses the view that the main cause of the accident was inadequate human-machine interaction. Finally, it stresses the continuing inadequacies of the Soviet nuclear system, and emphasizes that unless the ergonomics lessons are fully learned, a similar disaster could still occur.

  6. Examination and treatment of the male rape victim.

    Schiff, A F


    The number of known male rape victims is on the increase. Rape treatment centers which formerly cared only for female victims have now opened their doors to male victims. The examination and treatment of these victims are discussed.

  7. SESAME: a software tool for the numerical dosimetric reconstruction of radiological accidents involving external sources and its application to the accident in Chile in December 2005.

    Huet, C; Lemosquet, A; Clairand, I; Rioual, J B; Franck, D; de Carlan, L; Aubineau-Lanièce, I; Bottollier-Depois, J F


    Estimating the dose distribution in a victim's body is a relevant indicator in assessing biological damage from exposure in the event of a radiological accident caused by an external source. This dose distribution can be assessed by physical dosimetric reconstruction methods. Physical dosimetric reconstruction can be achieved using experimental or numerical techniques. This article presents the laboratory-developed SESAME--Simulation of External Source Accident with MEdical images--tool specific to dosimetric reconstruction of radiological accidents through numerical simulations which combine voxel geometry and the radiation-material interaction MCNP(X) Monte Carlo computer code. The experimental validation of the tool using a photon field and its application to a radiological accident in Chile in December 2005 are also described.

  8. Men as Victims: "Victim" Identities, Gay Identities, and Masculinities

    Dunn, Peter


    The impact and meanings of homophobic violence on gay men's identities are explored with a particular focus on their identities as men and as gay men. Homosexuality can pose a challenge to conventional masculinities, and for some gay men, being victimized on account of sexual orientation reawakens conflicts about their masculinity that they…

  9. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)


    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  10. Suffering in Silence: The Male Incest Victim.

    Nasjleti, Maria


    The reasons why boys who are victims of incest remain silent are explored in terms of the special meaning of victimization to males. Males' inability to express helplessness and vulnerability is identified as a major contributing factor. (CM)

  11. When a victim becomes violent perpetrator: Violent victimization in childhood, violent criminal behavior in adulthood

    Stevković Ljiljana


    Numerous international research has identified that direct or indirect exposure to violent victimization in a familial context during childhood is a risk factor for violent criminal behavior of victimized children in adulthood. Studies of violent victimization of children in Serbia are rare, and are mostly directed at determining the prevalence, the main characteristics of or the immediate physical, psychological and behavioral consequences of victimization...

  12. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Victims, Bullies and Bully-Victims in Childhood

    Ball, Harriet A.; Arseneault, Louise; Taylor, Alan; Maughan, Barbara; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.


    Background: Three groups of children are involved in bullying: victims, bullies and bully-victims who are both bullies and victims of bullying. Understanding the origins of these groups is important since they have elevated emotional and behavioural problems, especially the bully-victims. No research has examined the genetic and environmental…

  13. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in road traffic accidents attended at public urgent and emergency services.

    Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Souto, Rayone Moreira Costa Veloso; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Lima, Cheila Marina de; Montenegro, Marli de Mesquita Silva


    Injuries resulting from motorcycle road traffic accidents are an important public health issue in Brazil. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of motorcyclists involved in traffic accidents attended in public urgent and emergency services in the state capitals and the Federal District. This is a cross-sectional study based on data from the Violence and Accident Surveillance System (VIVA Survey) in 2014. Data were analyzed according to sociodemographic, event and attendance characteristics. Proportional differences between genders were analyzed by chi-square test (Rao-Scott) with 5% significance level. Motorcyclist-related attendances (n = 9,673) reported a prevalence of men (gender ratio = 3.2), young people aged 20-39 years (65.7%), black / brown (73.6%), paid work (76.4%). Helmet use was reported by 79.1% of the victims, 13.3% had consumed alcohol in the six hours prior to the accident, 41.4% of the events were related to the victim's work. Accidents were more frequent on weekends, in the morning and late afternoon. These characteristics can support the development of public accident prevention policies and health promotion.

  14. Attribution of Fault to Rape Victims.

    Feinman, Saul

    An experimental design, the impact of the marital status, physical attractiveness, amount of victim resistance, and immediate reaction of the victim as well as sex of observer on attributions of fault to hypothetical rape victims were investigated. Participants were 440 undergraduate students at the University of Wyoming. Each participant was…

  15. Emotional Problems in Traditional and Cyber Victimization

    Sjursø, Ida Risanger; Fandrem, Hildegunn; Roland, Erling


    Previous studies show an association between traditional and cyber victimization. However, there seem to be differences in how these forms of being bullied relates to emotional problems in the victims. Few studies focus on symptoms of general anxiety and depression as separate variables when comparing traditional and cyber victimization.…

  16. Prevention of victimization following sexual assaults

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria; Sidenius, Katrine


    Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen is a centre for interdisciplinary research and practice. Goals of the centre are to contribute to the documentation of victimization and to prevent further victimization. Research at the centre aims at the examination of the diversity of conditions...... of women exposed to sexualized coercion and the diversity of perspectives on the events....

  17. Victims and their defenders : A dyadic approach

    Sainio, Miia; Veenstra, René; Huitsing, Gijs; Salmivalli, Christina


    This study focused on the dyadic defending relationships of victimized children in grades 3, 4, and 5 (N = 7481 children from 356 school classes, mean ages 10-12 years). Most of the victims (72.3%) had at least one defender. Being defended was positively related to victims' adjustment and social sta

  18. The Violent Victimization of Children, Adolescents, Adults, and the Elderly: Situational Characteristics and Victim Injury.

    D Kelsay, James; Skubak Tillyer, Marie; Tillyer, Rob; T Ward, Jeffrey


    This study explores the nature and outcome of violent incidents experienced by child, adolescent, adult, and elderly victims. Data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) are used to determine whether there are differences in the situational characteristics—including location, time of day, weapons, and the victim–offender relationship—of violent victimization experiences across the 4 age groups, including whether situational characteristics influence the likelihood of victim injury. Results indicate that victim injury is most prevalent among adult victims and that the situational characteristics of violent incidents vary by victim age, as do the correlates of victim injury. These findings suggest that of the nature of violent victimization should be examined within the context of victim age, and supports research by scholars who have proposed a model of developmental victimology to identify age-specific victimization patterns.

  19. [Psychological support for road accident participants: the program implementation outcome].

    Mikuczewska-Wośko, Aleksandra; Biłyj, Dorota; Tomczyk, Jarosław


    Road accident belongs to one of the categories of traumatic events, and can cause posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The most common psychological consequences of road traffic accidents are the emotional disorders, cognitive deficits (disorders concentration of attention and memory function), impaired social relationships, troubles with performing work duties and physical symp-toms of stress. The article discusses the program of psychological support given to the participants of road accidents, conducted in Wroclaw, its theoretical assumptions and the mode of its implementation. Basic theoretical assumptions of the program are inter alia based on the theories of H. Selye and R. Lazarus. The authors of this article also refer to the so-called therapeutic process of education designed by Everly and Rosenfeld, who recommend that the process of developing self-responsibility be used for therapeutic purposes. This requires clarifying the exact nature of the problem, and then looking for possible remedies. The program is open to all road accident participants (victims, perpetrators, witnesses) and their families. Classes are designed to combine theory (lectures) and practice (exercises). Anxiety and cognitive processes, as well as relaxation training, interpersonal training (eg, assertiveness) and kinesiology are the major areas of activities. Psychological support provided for road accident participants is of intervention--and preventive nature; intervention, as it relates to the consequences ofa specific stressogenic event, namely a road accident; preventive, as it serves the overriding purpose--the improvement of road safety. This article presents the main findings of the program, the results of the survey evaluation, and proposals to develop psychological operations aimed at the road accidents participants.

  20. Rape: Counseling the Traumatized Victim

    Heppner, P. Paul; Heppner, Mary


    There are at least three goals of intensive rape counseling: identifying and accepting feelings, reorienting perceptions, attributions, and self-statements, and resuming a normal lifestyle. Various counseling techniques can be employed to help rape victims restructure cognitions to reduce negative self-evaluations, physical distress, and loss of…

  1. Injury pattern, injury severity, and mortality in 33,495 hospital-admitted victims of motorized two-wheeled vehicle crashes in The Netherlands.

    Leijdesdorff, H.A. Siegerink, B. Sier, C.F. Reurings, M.C. & Schipper, I.B.


    Road traffic accidents involving motorized two-wheeled vehicle (MTV) riders often result in severe morbidity and mortality. The aim of this nationwide study is to describe the influence of the type of motorized two-wheeled vehicle on the patient injury severity and mortality on hospitalization, after MTV accidents in The Netherlands. Data from the Institute for Road Safety Research and the Hospital Trauma Databases were analyzed. All MTV crash victims admitted to Dutch hospitals from 1993 to ...

  2. Numerical dosimetric reconstruction of a radiological accident in South America in April 2009.

    Courageot, E; Huet, C; Clairand, I; Bottollier-Depois, J F; Gourmelon, P


    A severe irradiation accident involving a victim occurred in April 2009 in South America. The victim has found a (192)Ir source fallen from a gammagraphy device and has put it in the left pocket of his pants. Very quickly, an erythema and a blister appeared on the left leg of the victim involving hospitalisation. Following the request of the IAEA assistance, the Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory of IRSN was asked to perform a numerical dosimetric reconstruction. A personalised voxel phantom of the victim has been constructed thanks to the Simulation of External Source Accident with Medical images tool developed by the laboratory, and a calculation of the dose with the MCNPX computer code allowed to determine the boundary of the necrotic dose at 25 Gy. On the basis of these calculations, the physicians have performed exeresis of the necrotic region on the left leg on 4 May 2009. Associated with mesenchymal stem cell injection, the leg of the victim was healthy on December 2009.

  3. Cyberbullying: who are the victims? A comparison of victimization in internet chatrooms and victimization in school

    Katzer, C.; Fetchenhauer, D.; Belschak, F.


    Bullying is not a phenomenon exclusive to the school environment. Pupils also become victims of verbal aggression (teasing, threats, insults, or harassment) in the context of internet chatrooms. The present study addresses the following questions: (1) How often does bullying occur in internet chatro

  4. Is extracorporeal rewarming indicated in avalanche victims with unwitnessed hypothermic cardiorespiratory arrest?

    Mair, Peter; Brugger, Hermann; Mair, Birgit; Moroder, Luca; Ruttmann, Elfriede


    International guidelines recommend using extracorporeal rewarming in all hypothermic avalanche victims with prolonged cardiac arrest if they have patent airways and a plasma potassium level≤12 mmol/L. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcome data to determine if available experience with extracorporeal rewarming of avalanche victims supports this recommendation. At Innsbruck Medical University Hospital, 28 patients with hypothermic cardiac arrest following an avalanche accident were resuscitated using extracorporeal circulation. Of these patients, 25 were extricated from the snow masses with no vital signs and did not survive to hospital discharge. Three patients had witnessed cardiac arrest after extrication and a core temperature of 21.7°C, 22°C, and 24.0°C, two of whom survived long-term with full neurological recovery. A search of the literature revealed only one asystolic avalanche victim with unwitnessed hypothermic cardiac arrest (core temperature 19°C) surviving long-term. All other avalanche victims in the medical literature surviving prolonged hypothermic cardiac arrest suffered witnessed arrest after extrication with a core temperature below 24°C. Our results suggest that prognosis of hypothermic avalanche victims with unwitnessed asystolic cardiac arrest and a core temperature>24°C is extremely poor. Available outcome data do not support the use of extracorporeal rewarming in these patients.

  5. Fatal truck-bicycle accident involving dragging for 45 km.

    Klintschar, M; Darok, M; Roll, P


    Vehicle-bicycle accidents with subsequent dragging of the rider over long distances are extremely rare. The case reported here is that of a 16-year-old mentally retarded bike rider who was run over by a truck whose driver failed to notice the accident. The legs of the victim became trapped by the rear axle of the trailer and the body was dragged over 45 km before being discovered under the parked truck. The autopsy revealed that the boy had died from the initial impact and not from the dragging injuries which had caused extensive mutilation. The reports of the technical expert and the forensic pathologist led the prosecutor to drop the case against the truck driver for manslaughter.

  6. The Tokay-Mura accident; L'accident de Tokay-Mura

    Andurand, R


    On the 30. september 1999 occurred a criticality accident in the fuel fabrication plant of Tokai-Mura in Japan. 49 persons were irradiated but we present the case of the most seriously injured three workers. The radiation doses that would have been received by the three operators near the incriminated container have been evaluated to 17, 10 and 3 Grays. For the operators situated at five meters from the container and that has received three Grays, the first peak of criticality has been estimated at 2.10{sup 17} fissions. The number of fissions posterior to the first peak has been estimated between 4.10{sup 17} and 5.10{sup 18}. In the three cases, the dose received by the organism has been attributed for about 40% to the neutrons and 60% to gamma radiations. The first operator presented an initial intense phase of acute irradiation syndrome. He received a graft of hematopoietic cells given by a sister of him on the sixth day, he was still alive 29 days later during the visit of the Commission, but he was in a coma and died shortly afterwards. The second victim has been equally reached by an acute irradiation syndrome, accompanied by a severe myeloid depression. At the ninth day, he received a blood graft coming from umbilical cord. He recovered a part of his own marrow, platelets excepted. He suffers from intense pains. A survival chance exists. The third victim was in an adjoining room, at about five meters far from the accident. He has been reached, but in a lower extent, by the acute irradiation syndrome and a low myeloid depression, that has decreased after a growth factors treatment. The prognosis is optimist in his case. The fact that patients have survived for the first time such a long time has revealed a very particular pathology of neutrons-gamma mixed irradiation, with an appearance of new medical problems due to the multiple failure of organs. To notice, the week before the accident, stood at Paris the 6. International conference devoted to the control

  7. The Influence of Direct and Indirect Juvenile Victimization Experiences on Adult Victimization and Fear of Crime.

    Grubb, Jonathan A; Bouffard, Leana A


    Research has identified that juvenile victimization can play a detrimental role for individuals later in life. While this literature has focused on direct and indirect forms of victimization at different stages of life, the influence of juvenile victimization on fear of crime and violent victimization as an adult has been limited. To expand this body of literature, the present research examines the effects of direct (sexual victimization) and indirect (witnessing parental intimate partner violence) juvenile victimization on fear of crime as well as the prevalence of victimization as an adult. Using telephone survey data collected from randomly selected Texas adults, this study demonstrates that both juvenile sexual victimization and indirect victimization increase the likelihood of adult victimization, whereas juvenile sexual victimization increases the likelihood of adult sexual victimization. In contrast, fear of crime as an adult was not significantly influenced by either juvenile sexual victimization or indirect victimization. A discussion of how these findings relate to previous research, limitations, and implications are also provided.

  8. Pattern Recognition and Classification of Fatal Traffic Accidents in Israel A Neural Network Approach

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo


    on 1,793 fatal traffic accidents occurred during the period between 2003 and 2006 and applies Kohonen and feed-forward back-propagation neural networks with the objective of extracting from the data typical patterns and relevant factors. Kohonen neural networks reveal five compelling accident patterns....... Feed-forward back-propagation neural networks indicate that sociodemographic characteristics of drivers and victims, accident location, and period of the day are extremely relevant factors. Accident patterns suggest that countermeasures are necessary for identified problems concerning mainly vulnerable...... road users such as pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists and young drivers. A “safe-system” integrating a system approach for the design of countermeasures and a monitoring process of performance indicators might address the priorities highlighted by the neural networks....

  9. Examination of the rape victim.

    Wertheimer, A J


    Knowledge of the procedure of rape examination can benefit not only obstetrician-gynecologists but also family practitioners, emergency department physicians, and surgeons who may find themselves called upon to examine a victim of sexual assault. In this situation, the physician has a responsibility to the judicial system as well as to the patient. He or she must deliver the best medical and psychologic support possible and collect the appropriate evidence in such a fashion as to give the victim the greatest chance of success if she decides to prosecute. Alternatively, information may be obtained which may help release the accused from suspicion. Having gained an understanding of these steps, the physician can discharge his or her responsibility with confidence and precision.

  10. Imaging findings of avalanche victims

    Grosse, Alexandra B.; Grosse, Claudia A.; Anderson, Suzanne [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Diagnostic, Pediatric and Interventional Radiology, Berne (Switzerland); Steinbach, Lynne S. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Zimmermann, Heinz [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Trauma and Emergency Medicine, Berne (Switzerland)


    Skiing and hiking outside the boundaries remains an attractive wilderness activity despite the danger of avalanches. Avalanches occur on a relatively frequent basis and may be devastating. Musculoskeletal radiologists should be acquainted with these injuries. Fourteen avalanche victims (11 men and 3 women; age range 17-59 years, mean age 37.4 years) were air transported to a high-grade trauma centre over a period of 2 years. Radiographs, CT and MR images were prospectively evaluated by two observers in consensus. Musculoskeletal findings (61%) were more frequent than extraskeletal findings (39%). Fractures were most commonly seen (36.6%), involving the spine (14.6%) more frequently than the extremities (9.8%). Blunt abdominal and thoracic trauma were the most frequent extraskeletal findings. A wide spectrum of injuries can be found in avalanche victims, ranging from extremity fractures to massive polytrauma. Asphyxia remains the main cause of death along with hypoxic brain injury and hypothermia. (orig.)

  11. Tragedy in Savar: Management of Victims in Enam Medical College Hospital

    Mithun Alamgir


    Full Text Available Background: Rana Plaza collapse is the worst and deadliest man-made industrial disaster in the history of garment sector in the world. Around 1200 people died and thousands more were injured. Most of the victims of the disaster were treated in Enam Medical College Hospital (EMCH. We conducted this study to give an overview on the disaster victims and services provided by EMCH. Objective: The study was done to observe the length of time between accident and admission in EMCH, length of time between admission and discharge, to observe the numbers, types and sites of injuries to the victims, medical measures given to the victims and finally to observe the status of the victims at the time of discharge. Materials and Methods: This descriptive type of observational study was carried out among the victims of Rana Plaza tragedy during the period of May to October 2013. All admitted patients in EMCH were included in the study. Purposive nonprobability sampling technique was applied in this research work. Data were collected from the hospital record. After collection, data were manually compiled, edited and analyzed. Results: Among 621 victims treated in different wards, 276 (44.45% were admitted to the hospital on the day of accident. Among the admitted patients, 255 (41.06% stayed in the hospital for 1--3 days,133 (21.42% for 4--7 days and 88 (14.17% for more than 10 days. Fracture and dislocation were present in 32.70% patients, lacerated injury in 18.20%, abrasion in 15.78%, bruise in 13.53%, incised wound in 15.45% and punctured wound in 4.34% patients. Single injury was present in 56.68% and rest had multiple injuries. Lower limbs were the most (33.01% affected part of the body followed by head and neck (22.06%, upper limbs (18.52%, thorax (17.55% and abdomen (8.86%. Two hundred seventy two patients (43.80% were improved after treatment and 56 (9.02% were fully cured; 23.83% of the victims were referred to higher medical centers for special

  12. Review of global menace of road accidents with special reference to malaysia- a social perspective.

    Kareem, Abdul


    Road accident is 'a global tragedy' with ever-rising trend. The goal of this article includes review of the causes and nature of accidents, statistical data regarding road accidents and the economical impact. 1.17 million deaths occur each year worldwide due to road accidents 70 % of which occur in developing countries. 65% of deaths involve pedestrians, 35 % of which are children. Estimates suggest that 23-34 million people are injured worldwide every year in road crashes - a value almost twice that previously estimated. It is estimated that more than 200 U.S. citizens die each year due to road accidents abroad. Every year in Europe, more than 50,000 peoples are killed in road accidents, and more than 150,000 remain disabled. It is a sad fact that the total number of road accidents in Malaysia exceeded 223,000 in 1999. On the average, 16 persons died from these road accidents, every single day in 1999. Lack of attention, reckless driving, lack of proper protection, speeding, bad personal habits, social and behavioral misconduct and inconsiderate drivers of larger vehicles are some of the problems that cause accidents. In Malaysia, motorcycle fatal accidents (60%) warrant a high degree of concern. Young children and senior citizens are found to be in the vulnerable age group. In Malaysia, in 1999 alone, general insurers paid RM1.67 billion or an average of RM4.6 million a day on motor claims. It is now recognized that road traffic accidents represent a major public health problem, because of the high number of victims involved and because of the seriousness of the consequences for themselves and for their families.

  13. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Gittus, J.H.


    The paper concerns the Chernobyl reactor accident, with emphasis on the design of the RBMK reactor and nuclear safety. A description is given of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, including details of the RMBK reactor and safety systems. Comments on the design of the RBMK by UK experts prior to the accident are summarized, along with post-accident design changes to improve RBMK safety. Events of the Chernobyl accident are described, as well as design deficiencies highlighted by the accident. Differences between the USSR and UK approaches to nuclear safety are commented on. Finally source terms, release periods and environmental consequences are briefly discussed.


    Sanjeev Kumar


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expansion in network, motorization and urbanization in the country has been accompanied by a rise in road accidents leading to road traffic injuries (RTIs. Accident represents a major epidemic of non - communicable disease in present century. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs and its risk factors in Jhansi & around Jhansi city. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A hospital based cross sectional study was carried out in MLB Medical College and Hospital , Jhansi and the cases sustaining ro ad traffic injuries registering from 1 January 2013 to 31 July 2014 were taken irrespective of the place of accident. The data was entered in excel sheet and results were expressed as proportions and percentages. RESULTS: Among them maximum number of cases were in 21 - 30 years age group (30.53% followed by 31 - 40 years (21.66% and >60 years (4.65% shows the least no. of victims. In the study majority of cases were reported from Orchha Road (11.5%. In the study it was observed that majority of accidents oc cur in winter season (37.24% and in night time (34.47%.Among them 19.68% victims stated that defective road as the most common condition associated with RTA followed by poor lighting (18.54%. CONCLUSIONS: In this study majority of victims were younger, males, less educated and labourer by occupation. Among risk factors defective roads, poor lighting, excessive speed, overloading and alcohol consumption were found causing RTAs.

  15. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten


    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may...... be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... rate of accidents than Danish citizens. Age was a major risk factor for accidents causing permanent disability. Change of ship and the first period aboard a particular ship were identified as risk factors. Walking from one place to another aboard the ship caused serious accidents. The most serious...

  16. Utility of lung ultrasound in near-drowning victims.

    Laursen, Christian B; Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Madsen, Poul Henning


    Drowning and near-drowning are common causes of accidental death worldwide and respiratory complications such as non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, acute respiratory distress syndrome and pneumonia are often seen. In other settings lung ultrasound can accurately diagnose these conditions; hence lung ultrasound may have a potential role in the evaluation of drowning or near-drowning victims. In this case report the authors describe a 71-year-old man who was brought to hospital with acute respiratory failure after a near-drowning accident. Lung ultrasound showed multiple B-lines on the anterior and lateral surfaces of both lungs, consistent with pulmonary oedema. Focus assessed transthoracic echocardiography showed no pericardial effusion and a normal global left ventricular function. Based on these findings the patient was diagnosed as having non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. Subsequent chest x-ray showed bilateral infiltrates consistent with pulmonary oedema. The case report emphasises the clinical value of lung ultrasound in the evaluation of a near-drowning victim.

  17. Evaluation of the status of the pre-hospital trauma care in road traffic accidents in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu

    Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the status of the pre-hospital trauma care in a road traffic accidents in a rural area of Kancheepuram district. Methods: A cross-sectional study of two months duration (June and July 2014 was conducted in the tertiary care hospital of a medical college, and its affiliated urban/rural health centers. Universal sampling was used and all road accident victims were enrolled as study participants. The required information was obtained with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. Ethical clearance was obtained before the start of the study. SPSS version 18 was used for data entry and statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all the variables. Results: A total of 80 (77.7% study subjects were from the productive age group (15–45 years. Most of the accidents were reported at night time [43 (41.7%], on weekends [59 (56.5%], and involved two-wheelers [81 (78.6%]. In addition, 69 cases (67% of the victims were not aware of the existence of emergency ambulance services, while only 6 (5.8% of the victims were brought to the hospital in an emergency ambulance. Conclusions: The study findings clearly suggest that the quality of the pre-hospital trauma care for road traffic accident victims in a rural area of Kancheepuram district lacks on multiple dimensions and there is an immense need to improve and strengthen the range of services to save the lives of the victims.

  18. [Drowning accidents in childhood].

    Krandick, G; Mantel, K


    This is a report on five boys aged between 1 and 5 years who, after prolonged submersion in cold water, were treated at our department. On being taken out of the water, all the patients were clinically dead. After 1- to 3-hour successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, with a rectal temperature of about 27 degrees C, they were rewarmed at a rate of 1 degree/hour. Two patients died within a few hours after the accident. One patient survived with an apallic syndrome, 2 children survived with no sequelae. In the event of a water-related accident associated with hypothermia, we consider suitable resuscitation to have preference over rewarming measures. The most important treatment guidelines and prognostic factors are discussed.

  19. Dementia and Traffic Accidents

    Petersen, Jindong Ding; Siersma, Volkert; Nielsen, Connie Thurøe;


    BACKGROUND: As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic......-related accidents for people aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of dementia in Denmark. METHODS: We will conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study consisting of Danish people aged 65 or older living in Denmark as of January 1, 2008. The cohort is followed for 7 years (2008-2014). Individual's personal...... data are available in Danish registers and can be linked using a unique personal identification number. A person is identified with dementia if the person meets at least one of the following criteria: (1) a diagnosis of the disease in the Danish National Patient Register or in the Danish Psychiatric...

  20. Variables influencing victim selection in genocide.

    Komar, Debra A


    While victims of racially motivated violence may be identified through observation of morphological features, those targeted because of their ethnic, religious, or national identity are not easily recognized. This study examines how perpetrators of genocide recognize their victims. Court documents, including indictments, witness statements, and testimony from the International Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia (FY) detail the interactions between victim and assailant. A total of 6012 decedents were included in the study; only 20.8% had been positively identified. Variables influencing victim selection in Rwanda included location, segregation, incitement, and prior relationship, while significant factors in FY were segregation, location, age/gender, and social data. Additional contributing factors in both countries included self-identification, victim behavior, linguistic or clothing evidence, and morphological features. Understanding the system of recognition used by perpetrators aids investigators tasked with establishing victim identity in such prosecutions.

  1. Victim's Rights - Comparative Approach within EU Legislation

    Monica Pocora


    Full Text Available Usually is talking about offender rights and rarely about victim's rights. This study aims to analyse victim's rights especially in Romanian legislation from all points of view. Having involuntary fallen victim to crime, the person is often unaware of what information is available. It is therefore important that the onus is not put on the victim to request a certain piece of information. Victims of crimes need to have their important role in the criminal proceedings and he or she has to know about the extension of them rights. Not least, the study is focus on the right of the victim to receive information, not to be made responsible for the practicalities surrounding its delivery.

  2. Recognizing the trafficking in human beings victimization

    Simeunović-Patić Biljana


    Full Text Available In spite of relative prevalence of trafficking in human beings issues in the expert and general public discourse in recent years, recognition of victimization by various specialists that may come across with victims still is being estimated as unsatisfactory. Stereotypes about victims of trafficking in human beings are just one factor that imperils correct and prompt recognition of victims, i.e. victims' identification, as principal prerequisite of their protection and support. Today, there are various efforts to overcome that problem - primarily through the training of professionals and creating the identification guidelines, i.e. lists of indicators of trafficking in human beings victimization; however, these resolves only one part of the problem and reveal some new challenges at the same time.

  3. Victim support services in Serbia: Survey results

    Ćopić Sanja


    Full Text Available From September 1, 2006 to June 1, 2007, within the project "Development of victim support services in Serbia", Victimology Society of Serbia has conducted a survey on organizations in Serbia that are offering support to victims of crime. Aims of the survey were: to identify organizations that are supporting victims of crime either within state institutions and non-governmental organizations; to collect and analyze the data that might be useful for victims, and also to make directory of victim support services in Serbia. The sample encompassed 188 organizations from 55 towns in Serbia. The aim of this paper is point out, through the analysis of the data obtained through the survey, to which extent victims of crime in general, and of some forms of crime in particular can get support in Serbia, which organizations are offering support, what form of support and in which way. .

  4. RENEB accident simulation exercise

    Brzozowska, Beata; Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Baert, Annelot; Beaton-Green, Lindsay; Barrios, Leonardo; Barquinero, Joan Francesc; Bassinet, Celine; Beinke, Christina; Benedek, Anett; Beukes, Philip; Bortolin, Emanuela; Buraczewska, Iwona; Burbidge, Christopher; De Amicis, Andrea; De Angelis, Cinzia


    Purpose: The RENEB accident exercise was carried out in order to train the RENEB participants in coordinating and managing potentially large data sets that would be generated in case of a major radiological event. Materials and methods: Each participant was offered the possibility to activate the network by sending an alerting email about a simulated radiation emergency. The same participant had to collect, compile and report capacity, triage categorization and exposure scenario results ob...

  5. Supporting Young Crime Victims: Discursive Environments and Formula Narratives

    Lofstrand, Cecilia Hansen


    Within the crime victim movement and discourse on victimization, a novel victim category has been introduced: the young crime victim. This article analyses the professional discourse formed around the new notion, focusing on the needs of the young crime victim along with the practices, tools, and techniques used to deal with resistance at a…

  6. Victimization, polyvictimization , and health in Swedish adolescents

    Aho N


    Full Text Available Nikolas Aho, Marie Proczkowska Björklund, Carl Göran Svedin Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden Abstract: The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16–20 years, standard deviation =0.652, of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV] proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization. Keywords: victimization, childhood trauma, psychological symptoms, JVQ, TSCC

  7. Monte Carlo dose reconstruction in case of a radiological accident: application to the accident in Chile in December 2005; Reconstitution de dose par calcul Monte Carlo en cas d'accident radiologique: application a l'accident du Chili de decembre 2005

    Huet, C.; Clairand, I.; Trompier, F.; Bottollier-Depois, J.F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Dir. de la Radioprotection de l' Homme, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Bey, E. [Hopital d' Instruction des Armees Percy, 92 - Clamart (France)


    Following a radiological accident caused by a gamma-graphy source in Chile in December 2005 involving one victim, I.R.S.N. was contacted to perform the dosimetric reconstruction of the accident using numerical simulation. Tools developed in the laboratory, associating anthropomorphic mathematic or voxel phantoms with the Monte Carlo calculation code m.c.n.p.x., were used in order to determine the dose distribution on the left buttock and absorbed doses to critical organs. The dosimetric mapping show that the absorbed at the skin surface is very high (1900 Gy) but drops rapidly at deep. At a depth of 5 cm, it is 20 Gy. Calculations performed with a mathematical phantom indicate that average doses to the critical organs are relatively low. Moreover, possible bone marrow sites for puncture are identified. Based on the dosimetric mapping, an excision measuring 5 cm in depth by 10 cm in diameter was performed on the left buttock of the victim. (authors)

  8. Biological dosimetry for the victim accidentally exposed to 192Ir radiation source at "5.7" accident in Nanjing%南京“5.7”192Ir源放射事故患者的生物剂量估算

    戴宏; 刘玉龙; 王优优; 冯骏超; 赵骅; 刘青杰; 郭凯琳


    Objective To use three different methods in attempt to estimate the biological dose of the patient partially exposed to 192Ir source at " 5.7" accident in Nanjing,so as to provide dosimetric information for clinical remedy of exposed patients in the emergency of a nuclear accident.Methods Peripheral blood samples were collected on days 5 after exposure.The biological dose was estimated by the yields of dicentrics plus rings (" dic + r"),cytokinesis-block micronuclei (CBMN) assay and nucleoplasmic bridge plus FHC (NPB + FHC).The homogeneity of radiation exposure was examined by Poisson distribution of dicentrics.Results By using three different methods,the whole body equivalent dose was "dic + r" estimated to be 1.51 Gy (95% CI 1.40-1.61),1.47 Gy (95% CI 1.36-1.60) by CBMN and 1.30 Gy (95% CI 1.00-1.60) by NPB + FHC,respectively.A non-poisson distribution was also detected,suggesting partial body radiation exposure.Conclusions The estimated whole body equivalent dose ot a non-uniform radiation exposure was consistent with clinical diagnosis,suggesting that the yields of " dic + r",CBMN,as well as NPB + FHC,are efficient approaches to the estimation of biological doses.%目的 用3种方法估算南京“5.7”192Ir源放射事故患者的生物剂量,为核与辐射事故受照者的临床救治提供剂量资料.方法 受照后第5天采集患者外周血,分别进行外周血淋巴细胞染色体“双着丝粒+环”(“dic+r”)畸变分析、胞质分裂阻滞微核(CBMN)分析、核质桥(NPB+FHC)分析,并估算生物剂量.用双着丝粒畸变在细胞间的泊松分布情况检验照射的均匀性.结果 3种方法估算的该患者受到的一次全身等效剂量分别为“dic+r”畸变分析1.51 Gy (95% CI1.40~1.61),CBMN分析1.47 Gy(95% CI 1.36~1.60),NPB+ FHC分析1.30 Gy(95% CI1.00~1.60).泊松分布检验结果显示,该患者“dic+r”畸变偏离泊松分布,受到了不均匀照射.结论 外周血淋巴细胞染色体“dic

  9. Scientists help children victims of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Report on project phase 1 and annex to the report on phase 1: 1.4.1993 - 31.3.1996; Wissenschaftler helfen Tschernobyl-Kindern. Bericht der Phase I und Anhang zum Bericht der Phase I: 1.4.1993 - 31.3.1996

    Reiners, C. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie; Streffer, C. [Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Strahlenbiologie; Voigt, G.; Paretzke, H.G. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Heinemann, G. [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Pfob, H. [Badenwerk AG, Karlsruhe (Germany)


    The bilateral project of Belarus and Germany was commissioned on 1.04.1993 and is placed under the scientific guidance of the Gemeinschaftsausschuss Strahlenforschung. In the framework of the project part devoted to ``therapy and medical training``, covering the period from 1.04.1993 until 31.03.1996, all in all 99 children from Belarus suffering from advanced-stage tumors of the thyroid received a special radio-iodine therapy in Germany. In about 60% of the children complete removal of the tumor was achieved. Another task of the project was to train over the reporting period 41 doctors and physicists from Belarus in the fields of nuclear medical diagnostic evaluation and therapy of thyroid tumors. The project part ``biological dosimetry`` was to investigate the role of micronuclei in peripheral lymphocytes, and whether their presence in the lymphocytes permits to derive information on the radiation dose received even several years after the reactor accident. The scientists also exmained the role of the micronuclei in follow-up examinations of the radio-iodine therapy. Further studies used the relatively large number of tumors in the children, as compared to the literature available until the accident, to examine whether there are specific mutation patterns to be found in tumot suppressor genes (p-53) in thyroid tumors which might be used as indicators revealing radiation-induced onset of tumor growth. The project part ``retrospective dosimetry and risk analysis`` was in charge of detecting information answering the question of whether the release of I-131, suspected to be critical nuclide, really was the cause of enhanced incidence of thyroid tumors in the children. The project part ``coordination and examination center at Minsk`` was to establish and hold available the support required by the GAST project participants. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Am 01.04.1993 wurde ein bilateral weissrussisch-deutsches Projekt begonnen, das unter der wissenschaftlichen Begleitung des

  10. Moral Reasoning and Emotion Attributions of Adolescent Bullies, Victims, and Bully-Victims

    Perren, Sonja; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline; Malti, Tina; Hymel, Shelley


    This study investigated different facets of moral development in bullies, victims, and bully-victims among Swiss adolescents. Extending previous research, we focused on both bullying and victimization in relation to adolescents' morally disengaged and morally responsible reasoning as well as moral emotion attributions. A total of 516 adolescents…

  11. Peer Relations of Bullies, Bully-Victims, and Victims: The Two Social Worlds of Bullying in Second-Grade Classrooms

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Petrin, Robert A.; Robertson, Dylan L.; Fraser, Mark W.; Hall, Cristin M.; Day, Steven H.; Dadisman, Kimberly


    This study examined the social relations of bullies, victims, and bully-victims in second-grade classrooms. Bully-victims are identified as both bullies and victims. The sample consisted of 537 ethnically diverse second-grade students (247 boys, 290 girls) from 37 classrooms across 11 participating schools. Bullies, bully-victims, and victims…

  12. EMDR therapy for PTSD after motor vehicle accidents: meta-analytic evidence for specific treatment

    Maddalena eBoccia; Laura ePiccardi; Pierluigi eCordellieri; Cecilia eGuariglia; Anna Maria eGiannini


    Motor vehicle accident (MVA) victims may suffer both acute and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). With PTSD affecting social, interpersonal and occupational functioning, clinicians as well as the National Institute of Health are very interested in identifying the most effective psychological treatment to reduce PTSD. From research findings, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is considered as one of the effective treatment of PTSD. In this paper, we present the r...

  13. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    Takada, Jun


    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power.

  14. Análise espacial dos acidentes de trânsito com vítimas fatais: comparação entre o local de residência e de ocorrência do acidente no Rio de Janeiro Análisis espacial de los accidentes de tránsito con víctimas fatales: comparación entre el lugar de residencia y de ocurrencia del accidente en Río de Janeiro Spatial analysis of traffic accidents with fatal victims: comparing place of residence and place of occurrence in Rio de Janeiro

    Vanessa dos Reis de Souza


    in the City of Rio de Janeiro in 2003, based on three different types of addresses: the victims' residential addresses, address of accident, and that of death, by census track levels. The Kernel Estimation was utilized to estimate risk areas, in order to check for possible differences in the spatial patterns among different ways of classifying addresses. The results show that there are major differences in risk patterns according to address type. Especially, it shows that it is essential to know the place of the accident for clearly pointing out risk areas. This enables authorities to take informed actions in public policies aimed at reducing and preventing traffic accidents. Nonetheless, to enable such analyses in the future, administrative steps should be taken that will allow suitable information to be systematized and organized.

  15. Persecutors, Victims and Rescuers in Harlequin Romances.

    Hassencahl, Fran

    Based on a pattern of interaction, in which the interactants fulfill the roles of victim, persecutor, or rescuer, a study of ten Harlequin romantic novels was undertaken to determine what factors provided for the readers' identification with the Harlequin characters. It was found that Harlequin heroines manifested their status as victims by…

  16. Incest Victims: Inadequate Help by Professionals.

    Frenken, Jos; Van Stolk, Bram


    Interviews with 130 Dutch professionals helping incest victims and 50 adult women who were incest victims as children found that assistance was hampered by institutional distrust, inability of professionals to stop ongoing incest, frequent breaking off of contact by the young girls, professionals' shortcomings in knowledge and skills, and…

  17. [The victim within the framework of criminology].

    Pittaro, P


    The Author makes a 'tour d'horizon', albeit summarized, of the problems brought about by the victim "from crime" in the exclusive picture of criminology. After defining the dogmatic relations between criminology and victimology, stating that such a (new) discipline highlights the entirety of the criminal event centering upon the dyad criminal-victim, the latest classifications of the victim viewed individually and also in his manifold relationships with the acting subject, are reviewed, in the attempt of identifying, on the basis of the various situations of victimization as they occur, if not some causal laws proper, at least some constants and some emerging lines susceptible of an in-depth analysis. After hinting to the problems brought about by the victim in the supranational prospect, and by the crimes so-called without a victim, the importance of the victim from the criminalistics and criminal execution angle, is outlined, and the Author closes up, by way of conclusion, and at the operational level, broadly hinting to the most suitable methods for the prevention and repairing in regard of the victims of crime.

  18. Rates of thoracic trauma and mortality due to accidents in Brazil

    Cury Francisco


    Full Text Available Aim: To report on the causes of trauma, indexes of trauma, and mortality related to thoracic trauma in one region of Brazil. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed at the Regional Trauma Center in Sγo Josι do Rio Preto over a 1-year period, from 1 st July 2004 to 30 th June 2005. We included all patients attending the center′s emergency room with thoracic trauma and an anatomic injury scale (AIS ≥ 2. We collected data using a protocol completed on arrival in hospital utilizing the AIS. We studied the types of accidents as well as the mortality and the AIS scores. Prevalence rates were calculated and the paired t-test and logistic regression were employed for the statistical analysis. Results:There were a total of 373 casualties with AIS ≥ 2 and there were 45 (12% deaths. The causes of thoracic trauma among the 373 casualties were as follows: 91 (24.4% car crashes, 75 (20.1% falls, 46 (12.3% motorbike accidents, 40 (10.7% stabbings, 22 (5.9% accidents involving pedestrians, 21 (5.6% bicycle accidents, 17 (4.6% shootings, and 54 (14.5% other types of accident. The severity of the injuries was classified according to the AIS: 224 (60% were grade 2, 101 (27% were grade 3, 27 (7.2% were grade 4, 18 (4.9% were grade 5, and 3 were (0.8% grade 6. With respect to thoracic trauma, pedestrians involved in accidents and victims of shootings had mortality rates that were significantly higher than that of those involved in other types of accidents. Conclusion: Road accidents are the main cause of thoracic injury, with accidents involving pedestrians and shootings being associated with a greater death rate.

  19. Learning from incidents and accidents

    Drupsteen, L.; Kampen, J. van


    There are many different definitions for what constitutes an incident or an accident, however the focus is always on unintended and often unforeseen events that cause unintended consequences. This article is focused on the process of learning from incidents and accidents. The focus is on making sure

  20. [Practical management of CPB accident].

    Depoix, J-P; Fenet, L; Provenchere, S


    Accident of CPB is a reality. It is important to be prepared for discussion with the family, with the hospital administration, eventually with the justice. But we have also to support perfusionnist and anesthetic team in charge of the patient during accident.

  1. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    Frid, W.; Højerup, C.F.; Lindholm, I.


    Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies, the ...

  2. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio


    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents.

  3. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars


    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...... of accidents in normally Danish winter seasons are remarkable alike the amount of salt used in praxis in the winter 2011/2012. • 2.7 ton NaCl/km when using brine spread with nozzles • 5 ton NaCl/km when using pre wetted salt. • 5.7 ton NaCl/km when using kombi spreaders The explanation is that spreading...

  4. Absence from work due to occupational and non-occupational accidents

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Laursen, Bjarne


    Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate absence from work in Denmark due to occupational and non-occupational accidents. Background: Since the beginning of the last decade, political focus has been placed on the population’s working capacity and the scope of absence due to illness....... Absence from work is estimated at between 3% and 6% of working hours in the EU and costs are estimated at approximately 2.5% of GNP. Methods: Victims of accidents treated at two emergency departments were interviewed regarding absence for the injured, the family and others. All answers were linked...... to the hospital information on the injury, so that it was possible to examine the relation between absence and injury type, and cause of the accident. Results: In total, 1,479 injured persons were interviewed. 36% of these reported absence from work by themselves or others. In mean, an injury caused 3.21 days...

  5. Crime victims in the criminal justice system

    Ćopić Sanja M.


    Full Text Available Negative social reaction and inadequate reaction of the agencies of the formal control on the primary victimization is leading to the so called secondary victimization that can be a source of trauma and frustration as much as the primary victimization. Due to that, relation of the police and the judiciary towards the crime victims is of a great importance regarding victims’ willingness to report the victimization, their confidence in these agencies, and cooperation during clearing up the crime. In order to realize the victim’s position in the criminal justice system, this paper contains an overview of how the police, prosecutor’s office and courts are functioning. The paper is based on the interviews made with the representatives of these state agencies, as well as on the previous knowledge and realized surveys concerning this topic. The aim of the paper is to emphasize the position and the role of the victim support service in the system of the state intervention, based upon the obtained data, as well as to give some basic information on how victims could report the crime, what are their rights and duties, what can they expect from the competent agencies.

  6. Family dynamics and young children's sibling victimization.

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather; Shattuck, Anne M


    This research examines how family dynamics like interparental conflict, family violence, and quality of parenting are associated with young children's experiences of sibling victimization. We use nationally representative data from interviews with caregivers of 1,726 children aged 2 to 9 years of age. We hypothesized different family dynamics predictors for a composite of common types of sibling victimization (property, psychological, and mild physical aggression) in comparison to severe physical sibling victimization (victimization that includes physical aggression with a weapon and/or injury). Multinomial regression results showed that sibling victimization in general was associated with negative family dynamics but that children in the severe group had even less parental warmth, poor parental supervision, and greater exposure to interparental conflict and family violence than children in the common types victimization group. Different aspects of family dynamics contribute to sibling victimization, but possibly in different ways and with different consequences. The findings underscore the importance of a family systems theory approach to clinical and intervention work.

  7. Epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases in Greater Noida: Hospital Based Study

    Rupali Roy


    Full Text Available Introduction: Road accidents are associated with numerous problems each of which needs to be addressed separately [1]. Accidents, therefore, can be studied in terms of agent, host and environmental factors and epidemiologically classified into time, place and person distribution [2]. Objectives: 1.To assess the prevalence of RTAs coming to hospital and 2.To know the epidemiological factors related to RTAs and associated prevalence in hospital based study. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at SMSR, Gr Noida, in 2012. The study group consisted of all the RTA victims reporting to casualty in the last one year. The victims of the accidents were interviewed on a pretested semi structured performa. Results: In that one year period total number of reported accident cases was 144. The age groups of the study subjects were between 13-65 years. Out of total study subjects, only 16 were female. Again out of the total accident cases 45% were attended by police and of all injured, 45.8% were driver by occupation (7% without driving license. Among these drivers, 11% were not attentive during driving because of various reasons. Ambulance services had reached in 46.5% cases. Fracture was the most common type (60% of injury among all types of injuries. Among the applicable population only 33% wore helmet or seat belts. Conclusions: Only half of the total accident cases were attended by police and again only half of them received ambulance services. One third injuries were because of not wearing seat belt and helmets.

  8. The path of accident analysis: the traditional paradigm and extending the origins of the expansion of analysis

    Ildeberto Muniz de Almeida


    Full Text Available The traditional approach to accidents assumes that compliance with procedures and norms protects the system from accidents and that these events are caused by the faulty behavior of workers, which results partly from personality aspects. Identification of these behaviors can be based on comparing them with the standard "safe working practices", which safety experts are aware of ahead of time. In recent decades, new alternative views have expanded the perimeters of accident analyses and opened the way to questioning the assumption of the traditional approach to the concepts of the human being and work. These new approaches help to highlight the sterile results of traditional practices: blaming and punishing victims, recommending training, and proposing norms without changing the systems in which the accidents took place. The new approaches suggest that the traditional approach is totally worn out and emphasize the importance of operator contribution for system safety.

  9. Sexually assaulted victims are getting younger

    Scherer, Susanne; Hansen, Steen Holger; Lynnerup, Niels


    extracted and analysed focussing on age, relationship, lesions, violence, location and alcohol intoxication. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 184 girls and women over the age of 12 years were included in this retrospective study. RESULTS: The median age of the victims was 20 years (range 12-89 years). 75.......5% were under 30 years of age. 53% knew the perpetrator. More than one perpetrator was reported in 11%. 46% of the assaulted victims had a total number of 1-5 observed lesions and these were observed in all types of perpetrator relationship. Eight victims with more than 20 lesions were assaulted...

  10. The family of the trauma victim.

    Solursh, D S


    Emergency room and trauma unit work offers unique challenges to the nurse, both professionally and personally. One of these challenges is understanding and dealing with the behavior of victims' families. Some of the factors that impact on the behavior of families include (1) the sudden and unpredictable nature of trauma; (2) the nature of the relationship of the specific family member and the trauma victim; (3) the issues of responsibility, anger, and guilt; (4) religious beliefs; and (5) trauma sequelae. The development of organ and tissue donor programs and of psychotraumatology as ways to help ease the plight of trauma victims' families are also discussed.

  11. Mental health in violent crime victims: Does sexual orientation matter?

    Cramer, Robert J; McNiel, Dale E; Holley, Sarah R; Shumway, Martha; Boccellari, Alicia


    The present study investigates victim sexual orientation in a sample of 641 violent crime victims seeking emergency medical treatment at a public-sector hospital. Victim sexual orientation was examined as it: (a) varies by type of violent crime and demographic characteristics, (b) directly relates to psychological symptoms, and (c) moderates the relationship between victim and crime characteristics (i.e., victim gender, victim trauma history, and type of crime) and psychological symptoms (i.e., symptoms of acute stress, depression, panic, and general anxiety). Results showed that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) victims were more likely to be victims of sexual assault. Heterosexual victims were more likely to be victims of general assault and shootings. LGBT victims demonstrated significantly higher levels of acute stress and general anxiety. Moreover, victim sexual orientation moderated the association of type of crime with experience of panic symptoms. Also, victim sexual orientation moderated the relation of victim trauma history and general anxiety symptoms. Results are discussed in relation to victimization prevalence rates, sexual prejudice theory, and assessment and treatment of violent crime victims.

  12. Predictors and protective factors for adolescent Internet victimization

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Schütt, Nina; Larsen, Helmer Bøving


    To examine the rate of Internet victimization in a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 14-17 and to analyze predictors and protective factors for victimization.......To examine the rate of Internet victimization in a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 14-17 and to analyze predictors and protective factors for victimization....

  13. Cyber Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Sexual Minority College Students

    Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.


    This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…

  14. Women Pose Innocent Victims of Landmines in Postwar Iran

    AR Soroush


    Full Text Available "nBackground: Although in the last few years there has been an increasing attention to the problem of landmines, to date, the implications of women being victims of landmine has not been duly dealt with in the world including Iran, which is estimated to be the second most landmine infested country in the world. Still, provinces by the west border of Iran, 18 years after cessation of Iraq-Iran war suffer from the burden of vast areas, highly infested with landmines. This study aimed to provide a gender focused insight into landmine accidents in Iran."nMethods: In this retrospective study, women with documented deaths or injuries due to landmine and/or unexploded ordnances (UXO explosions as documented in their medical records between Jul 1988 (after ceasefire and Feb 2003 were studied in 5 western provinces of Iran. Data was analyzed by SPSS for Windows Version 11.P value under 0.05 was consid­ered statistically significant."nResults: During the 14-year study period, 252 women from 5 western provinces of Iran were reported to have injuries or death due to landmine and UXOs. All of the victims were civilians and the majority of them (47.6% had one or more amputations. Most of them were injured in the period between1994 and 1998. The majority of the patients were young."nConclusion: Women who should take care of themselves as well as their families are more prone to sufferings inflicted by landmines and UXO.


    Amit Kumar


    Full Text Available AIM This study carried out in Department of Orthopaedics, S.S. Medical College and Sanjay Gandhi Memorial Hospital, Rewa, MP to study the orthopaedic injury caused by road traffic accidents and factors responsible for these injuries. BACKGROUND Road traffic accidents are one of the major causes of death in developed as well as developing countries. India accounts for about 10% of road accident fatalities worldwide and more deaths are recorded due to traffic crashes than due to cardiovascular diseases or neoplasms. METHODS The present study was carried out on the patients injured due to road traffic injuries admitted in orthopaedic ward of Shyam Shah Medical College and associated Sanjay Gandhi Memorial Hospital, Rewa (MP, during the one-year period from 1st October 2014 to 30th September 2015. The collected data was classified and coded as per the guidelines laid down under the WHO/CDC Injury Surveillance System and ICECI. RESULTS This study showed that the majority of crash victims were males in the age group 20-44 years accounting for huge economic losses for their families and the country at large. Motorized two-wheeler accounted for 46.78% of the accidents. Out of total accident victims, 45% were drivers and riders; 49.47% of accidents occurred between 4 pm to 12 pm. Most drivers/riders mentioned had not taken safety measure (Helmet/seat belt during accident. Fractures (87.97% were the most common nature of injuries and lower limb was more commonly involved than the upper limb. CONCLUSION Road traffic accidents are preventable. Strict traffic laws and penalties have to be imposed to curb this ever growing menace.

  16. Factors contributing to driver’s condition after fatal and injury vehicle accidents in North Khorasan province- New Year 1391

    Javad Rezazadeh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aim: Injuries from traffic accidents are a major public health problem, and the third leading cause of mortality in people aged 1 to 40 years. Each year 31.8 persons per hundred thousands of Iranians are killed in car accidents. Neighboring of North Khorasan province with Razavi Khorasan, a province with a lot of pilgrims caused a large number of passengers travel via North Khorasan province. This study aimed to evaluate the road accidents and its related factors in the city of bojnurd in March 2012. Materials and Methods: this cross-sectional study was done from … to … 2012(the New Year vacation in Iran. All injured or victims from car accidents who referred to the emergency department of the Imam Ali Hospital formed the research community. Data was gathered by a questionnaire consisting vehicle specification, driver and injured characteristics. For victims and those were not able to answer, we used the family members or relatives for gathering the data. All data analysis was done in SPSS version 19.Results: during the study period, 148 injured people were admitted to the hospital. Drivers’ mean age were 33.9 with the SD of 11.9 years; among them 43.2% were used seat belt. One driver and three passengers were killed immediately, and two drivers and three passengers died in the first 24 hours of admission. Fastening seat belt by drivers reduce the hospitalization rate significantly (p-value<0.0001. 50.7% of the accidents were head-on collisions. Violation from the speed limit (41.3%, indiscretions (25.4% and drowsiness were the most common causes of accident respectively. Conclusion: training the drivers, obligation for using seat belt by driver and passengers, rest after long hours driving , and more control of traffic police especially in two way roads could reduce the car accident or in case of accident help to prevent severe damage and injury.

  17. La victime, acteur de la sécurité ? / The victim, a security actor ?

    Dieu François


    Full Text Available What is the position of the victim in security policy? Only recently has the victim been the object, in France and elsewhere, of considerable attention by the social system, which has taken into account the different aspects of victimization. However, the victim is only partially associated to actions led in this domain, either as a source of data on the state of delinquency through public meetings and victimization surveys, or as an auxiliary to prevention with measure of community and situational prevention.Quelle est la place de la victime dans les politiques de sécurité ? Ce n’est que très récemment que la victime a fait l’objet, en France comma ailleurs, d’une attention plus soutenue de la part du système social, avec le développement d’une meilleure prise en charge des différents aspects de la victimisation. Pour autant, la victime n’est associée que très partiellement aux actions conduites en ce domaine, soit comme source de données sur l’état de la délinquance au moyen de réunions publiques et d’enquête de victimation, soit comme auxiliaire de la prévention avec les dispositifs de prévention communautaire et situationnelle.

  18. Fear of property crime: examining the effects of victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk.

    Cook, Carrie L; Fox, Kathleen A


    Fear of crime research has primarily focused on fear of crime in general or on fear of specific types of violent crimes. This study builds from this line of research by focusing exclusively on the night fear of six types of property crimes, including fear of burglary while away from home, vehicle theft, bicycle theft, property theft, vandalism, and vehicle burglary. This study examines the effects of victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk on fear of property crime. Survey data from college students reveal that victimization and vicarious victimization were not significant predictors of fear of property crime, whereas perceived risk was a consistent and significant predictor of fear of all property crimes.

  19. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Gittus, J.H.; Bonell, P.G.; Hicks, D.


    The USSR power reactor programme is first described. The reasons for the accident at the Chernobyl-4 RBMK nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986, the sequence of events that took place, and the immediate and long-term consequences are considered. A description of the RBMK-type reactors is given and the design changes resulting from the experience of the accident are explained. The source terms describing the details of the radioactivity release associated with the accident and the environmental consequences are covered in the last two sections of the report. Throughout the text comments referring to the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate Safety assessment principles have been inserted. (U.K.).

  20. Drawings by Child Victims of Incest.

    Yates, Alayne; And Others


    Child victims of incest were judged to have more poorly developed impulse controls, a defensive structure which emphasizes repression, and were significantly more variable in the degree to which they expressed sexual features in the drawings. (Author/CL)

  1. Treatment of Child Victims of Incest.

    Boatman, Bonny; And Others


    Reviews three treatment methods (individual, group, and family therapy) used over a five-year period for child incest victims. Presents common themes, issues, and pitfalls that arose during therapy. Stresses potential benefits of psychotherapy to this population. (Author)

  2. Local governments' roles of the compensation for damage by the Tokai JCO criticality accident

    Tanabe, Tomoyuki [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan). Socio-Economic Research Center


    The Tokai JCO criticality accident on September 30, 1999 was the first case to which The Law on Compensation for Nuclear Damage was applied. Although the Law on Compensation for Nuclear Damage formulates the outline of the institutional framework for nuclear third party liability together with operator's insurance scheme, details of actual compensation procedure are not specified. By this reason, the compensation procedure in the Tokai accident had been executed without a concrete legal specification and a precedent. In spite of this situation, the compensation procedure with the accident led to an unexpectedly successful result. We observe the several reasons why the compensation procedure was implemented successfully despite the lack of concrete legal specification and a precedent. One of the reasons is that the local governments, Tokai Village and Ibaraki Prefecture, immediately took the leadership in implementing a temporary regime of compensation procedure without wasting time for waiting national government's directives. Upon practicing this compensation procedure, the local governments implemented the following steps. (1) Initial estimation of the amount and scope of damage. (2) Providing the criteria and heads of damage subject to compensation. (3) Unitary compensation procedure at the local levels. (4) Distribution of emergency payments for the victims. (5) Facilitating compensatory negotiation between the victims and JCO as arbitrator. However, some concerns are also pointed out about the fact that the local government directed the whole procedure without sufficient adjustment with the national government for compensation policy. Among all, in the compensation led by the local governments, it was difficult to guarantee fairness of compensation because victims who are influential on the local government such as industrial associations would have unfairly strong negotiation power in the compensatory negotiation, while the operator being

  3. Correlates of road traffic accident in cases attending IIR hospital Kanpur

    Shibajee Debbarma


    Full Text Available Introduction: Globally, road traffic accidents rank 8th among the leading causes of death. According to WHO data, deaths from road traffic injuries account for around 25% of all deaths from injury.Objective: To study the various correlates of road traffic accident in cases attending LLR Hospital, Kanpur.Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among road traffic accident cases attending Emergency Ward of Lala Lajpat Rai Hospital, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh during the period of March-September, 2015. Data was recorded in a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS software version 16.0.Results: Out of 609 RTA cases, maximum number (54.19% were in 20-40 years age group. Most of the RTA victims were males (69.95% and majority were literate (90.97%. Maximum number (28.74% of RTA took place between 4.00 p.m-8.00 p.m. Maximum number (36.95% of RTA victims were two-wheeler drivers, followed by two-wheeler riders (26.60%. 16.60% of drivers of motorized vehicles had no driving license. 85.48% of motorized vehicle users were not using any protective gear (helmet, seat belt etc. at the time of accident.Conclusion: Young adults in the economically most productive age group were the commonest victims of RTA. There is need of creating awareness regarding traffic rules among general public and strict enforcement of traffic rules by the concerned authorities.

  4. Bully Victims: Psychological and Somatic Aftermaths

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.


    Bullying is a well-known adversity among school-age children. According to data, approximately 10 percent of US children and adolescents are the victims of frequent bullying by peers. In the aftermath of being bullied, victims may develop a variety of psychological as well as somatic symptoms, some of which may persist into adulthood. Psychological symptoms may include social difficulties, internalizing symptoms, anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, and eating disorders (i.e., anorexia or ...

  5. The Mourning Ceremony for The Victims


    @@ At 14:28 on the afternoon of May 19, CCPIT held the Mourning Ceremony for the victims of the May-12 Wenchuan 8.0-magnitude earthquake. Over 300 people including all staff members of CCPIT offices and departments as well as CCPIT enterprises and institutions at-tended the ceremony and mourned for the victims for three min-utes, expressing their deeply-felt grief.

  6. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T


    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  7. The lived experience of victims of crime.

    McBrearty, Paula


    The focus of this research study was to ascertain the impact of crime on individuals, who presented with an injury to the emergency department. Given the high prevalence of crime in our society today, victims of crime are identified as a growing patient population seeking help in emergency departments. To maximise holistic care for these patients it is important that healthcare professionals gain insight into the experience of being a victim of crime. The study was qualitative in nature and used a phenomenological approach. In-depth, unstructured audio taped interviews were conducted to elicit the essence of the experience of being a victim of crime. The voices of the victims revealed four themes; "Fear, Shock and Disbelief", "Guilt/Self-blame", "Physical and Psychological Scars" and "Lifestyle Changes". The management of victims of crime in the emergency department appears to be concerned exclusively with physical injuries. Unseen is the potential psychological sequelae of the assault. Pivotal to these findings is the absence of psychological follow-up support for these victims of crime. This study affords healthcare professionals working in the emergency department, the opportunity to reflect upon current practice and highlight the value of their role in the provision of optimal care for this patient population.

  8. Factors which predict violence victimization in Nigeria

    Lincoln J Fry


    Full Text Available Background: Violence is a major public health issue, globally as well as in the African continent. This paper looks at Nigeria and begins the process of identifying the factors that predict interpersonal violence in that country. The purpose is to interpret the implications of the results presented here for violence prevention programmes in Nigeria. Materials and Methods : The study is based on the responses of 2324 Nigerians included in Round Four of the Afrobarometer surveys. The study concentrates on 579 respondents who reported either they or someone else in their family had been the victim of violence, defined as being physically attacked, in the past year. Results: A logistical regression analysis revealed five significant factors that predicted interpersonal violence: being the victim of a property crime, the fear of crime, the respondents faith, whethera police station was in the local area and poverty. The findings revealed that 43.7% of the sample had been victimised within the past year and 18.8% had been the victim of both violent and property crimes. One surprising findingwas the number of respondents who were re-victimised; 75% of violence victims also had been property crime victims. Conclusions: These findings suggest that target hardening should be the basis to plan, implement and evaluate violence prevention programmes in Nigeria. Prevention personnel and/or law enforcement need to respond to reported incidents of property and/or violence victimisation and attempt to prepare victims to protect both their premises and their persons in the future.

  9. Victims and contemporary tendencies in crime control

    Soković Snežana


    Full Text Available Victimological dimension of new criminality forms is a specific challenge for contemporary criminal law systems; new time brings new forms of criminality, new victims, but also new ways and opportunities for more efficient protection of victims. At the same time with review and improvement of existing standards of victims` protection, contemporary criminality control systems show strong tendency toward compromising the general position of the victim. Victim’s interests are being instrumentalized because of the justification of changes in criminality control in the direction of significant strengthening of criminal law repression. The crime which is emotionalized with the affective media presentation of the victim justifies stricter penal policy and provides the populist support for repressive criminality control strategies and criminal law expansionism. The aim of the paper is the analysis of the mechanisms of victim “use“ in contemporary criminality control and the examination of its consequences, with special review on domestic circumstances through analysis of the Code on special measures for prevention of crimes against sexual freedom towards juveniles (Marija`s Code.

  10. [The elderly as victims of violent crime].

    Ahlf, E H


    Up to now, victimology has only dealt with partial aspects of the situation of the elderly as victims of violent crime. Nevertheless, the Police Crime Statistics enable us to make the following three basic statements: In general, old people are less likely to become victims of violent crime (than young people). The acts of violence committed against the elderly are mainly ones in which there was a relationship between offender and victim before the offense. Elderly women are disproportionately more often victims of purse snatching. The increasing social isolation of old people constitutes not only a specific form of victimization, it probably also increases their susceptibility to become victims. The theory that old people have "a particularly pronounced fear of crime" cannot be generally proven. This question must be considered from differing points of view and depends largely on the individual vulnerability of the old people. In Germany, there has hardly been any empirical study of violence towards the elderly in institutions and in family households (so-called domestic violence). It is believed that more violence takes place in both than in generally assumed.

  11. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation.

    C Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F; Wilczak, Andrew


    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about "precocious exits" from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization ("street" violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation-differentiating between marriage and cohabitation-in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance.

  12. Traffic accident injuries in a referral Orthopedic Hospital in North West of Iran during summer 2009

    Amir Mohammad Navali


    Full Text Available Introduction: Road traffic injuries are a major public health problem, requiring huge efforts for effective and sustainable prevention. Because of the high occurrence of traffic accidents in Iran, basic data acquisition is highly needed to implement prevention plans. The present research is conducted as an epidemiological study of the traffic accident victims referred to a referral orthopedic center in North West of Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during a 3 months period from June to September 2009 in Tabriz, Iran. A total of 16681 patients were admitted to the emergency ward, and 3246 patients (19.5% were hospitalized during this period because of traffic related injuries. After randomization, 630 cases were selected to be enrolled in the study. The location of an accident, position of road users, type of crashed vehicle, cause of accident, type of injury, time interval from accident to hospitalization and treatment outcome were recorded. Statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS software. Results: The mean age of the patients was 31 years (range, 6 months to 98 years and 77.0% of patients (468 cases were men. A total of 193 (36.6% patients sustained traffic accident in open roads and 335 (63.4% in urban corridors. In 67 (12.9% of accidents, there was only a single occupant in the vehicle. The time interval between the accident and admission was 6.6 ± 3.2 hours. Of the 608 cases, 45.7% were drivers, 30.3% passengers, and 24.0% pedestrians. Most cases of the car accident happened in urban areas, and the male victims were largely in the driver group. The most frequent type of injury was knee, leg and head trauma. Conclusion: The large number of traffic-related injuries admitted to our emergency ward that comprise mostly young adults should be considered as an alarming signal to policy makers and health providers in our province. Strict control on drivers’ behavior should be taken into account if increasing human

  13. Incendiari e vittime / Arsonists and Victims / Incendiaires et victimes

    Roberta Bisi


    Full Text Available Human beings need fire !Contrary to other living beings, mankind could not live without fire so it is quite astonishing to observe that most of the fires which burn on the earth are caused by man.Many fires spread all over the North Mediterranean area, from Portugal to Turkey, during the summer 2007.Human beings and fire: associated to the sacrifice of Titan Prometheus which was meant to be a sort of pattern to be followed by men to honour the gods.Fire is alive like water and air but it is difficult to capture it with the eyes: we can look at it for a long time before we discover that it never looks like itself.Fire has brought about important changes to human life, giving it much more security and comfort.However, the destructive power of fire is a real threat which not only takes many victims and results in wounded, intoxicated and homeless people but its force also wipes out and destroys places recognized as the heritage of mankind.Les hommes ont besoin du feu! Contrairement à tous les autres êtres vivants, les hommes ne pourraient pas vivre comme ils le font sans le feu; d'autre part, le fait que la plupart des feux qui brûlent sur la planète sont causés par l’homme, représente un aspect inquiétant.Pendant l’été 2007, beaucoup d’incendies ont frappé toute la zone du Nord de la Méditerranée, du Portugal à la Turquie. Hommes et feu : un binôme lié à la création du sacrifice du Titan Prométhée et qui aurait ainsi établi le modèle suivi par les hommes afin d'honorer les dieux.Le feu est vivant, comme l’eau et l'air, mais il est insaisissable au regard, c’est à dire que nous pouvons passer beaucoup de temps à le regarder mais il ne sera jamais égal à lui même. L’usage du feu a rendu la vie de l’homme plus sûre et plus confortable et il a modifié, au cours du temps, la face de la terre.Toutefois, la force déstructrice du feu représente une menace réelle qui fait des victimes, des blessés, des intoxiqu

  14. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  15. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    Ayer, J E; Clark, A T; Loysen, P; Ballinger, M Y; Mishima, J; Owczarski, P C; Gregory, W S; Nichols, B D


    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH.

  16. Empowerment of personal injury victims through the internet: design of a randomized controlled trial

    Elbers Nieke A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that current claims settlement process can have a negative impact on psychological and physical recovery of personal injury (PI victims. One of the explanations for the negative impact on health is that the claims settlement process is a stressful experience and victims suffer from renewed victimization caused by the claims settlement process. PI victims can experience a lack of information, lack of involvement, lack of 'voice', and poor communication. We present the first study that aims to empower PI victims with respect to the negative impact of the claims settlement process by means of an internet intervention. Methods/design The study is a two armed, randomized controlled trial (RCT, in which 170 PI victims are randomized to either the intervention or control group. The intervention group will get access to a website providing 1 an information module, so participants learn what is happening and what to expect during the claims settlement process, and 2 an e-coach module, so participants learn to cope with problems they experience during the claims settlement process. The control group will get access to a website with hyperlinks to commonly available information only. Participants will be recruited via a PI claims settlement office. Participants are included if they have been involved in a traffic accident which happened less than two years ago, and are at least 18 years old. The main study parameter is the increase of empowerment within the intervention group compared to the control group. Empowerment will be measured by the mastery scale and a self-efficacy scale. The secondary outcomes are perceived justice, burden, well being, work ability, knowledge, amount of damages, and lawyer-client communication. Data are collected at baseline (T0 measurement before randomization, at three months, six months, and twelve months after baseline. Analyses will be conducted according to the intention

  17. [Initial medical management in radiological accidents and nuclear disaster].

    Tanigawa, Koichi


    Major radiological emergencies include criticality in nuclear power plants or terrorist attacks using dirty bombs or nuclear device detonation. Because irradiation itself does not cause any immediate death of the victims, and there is a minimum risk of secondary irradiation to medical personnel during decontamination procedures, lifesaving treatments should be prioritized. When a major radiological accident occurs, information is scarce and/or becomes intricate. We might face with significant difficulties in determining the exact culprits of the event, i.e., radiological or chemical or others. Therefore, it is strongly recommended for the national and local governments, related organizations and hospitals to develop comprehensive systems to cope with all hazards(chemical, biological, radiation, nuclear, and explosion) under the common incident command system.

  18. Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees

    Hakobyan, Aram P.

    In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order based on the expert judgments. The main objective of this PhD dissertation was to develop a software tool (ADAPT) for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. As implied by the name, in dynamic event trees the order and timing of events are determined by the progression of the accident. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. The function of a dynamic APET developed includes prediction of the conditions, timing, and location of containment failure or bypass leading to the release of radioactive material, and calculation of probabilities of those failures. Thus, scenarios that can potentially lead to early containment failure or bypass, such as through accident induced failure of steam generator tubes, are of particular interest. Also, the work is focused on treatment of uncertainties in severe accident phenomena such as creep rupture of major RCS components, hydrogen burn, containment failure, timing of power recovery, etc. Although the ADAPT methodology (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) could be applied to any severe accident analysis code, in this dissertation the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the MELCOR code [1]. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a

  19. Help-Seeking in a National Sample of Victimized Latino Women: The Influence of Victimization Types

    Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Schally, Jennifer L.


    The current study aimed to examine formal and informal help-seeking responses to interpersonal victimization among a national sample of Latino women. In addition, an examination of help-seeking by victimization type was undertaken. Data came from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas (SALAS) study that obtained help-seeking rates among a victimized…

  20. When a victim becomes violent perpetrator: Violent victimization in childhood, violent criminal behavior in adulthood

    Stevković Ljiljana


    Full Text Available Numerous international research has identified that direct or indirect exposure to violent victimization in a familial context during childhood is a risk factor for violent criminal behavior of victimized children in adulthood. Studies of violent victimization of children in Serbia are rare, and are mostly directed at determining the prevalence, the main characteristics of or the immediate physical, psychological and behavioral consequences of victimization. Empirical analysis of the criminological consequences of early violent victimization in adulthood are an exception in scientific studies in Serbia. The aim of the paper is to present the results of research into the influence of early violent victimization on violent crime of adult men and women. After the introduction a brief overview of the worldwide research confirming the correlation between the experience of violent victimization and subsequent violent behavior is given. The results of the research conducted by the author will then be discussed. The results illustrate the possibility of predicting violent criminal behavior in adulthood based on indicators of direct and indirect victimization in childhood. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179044: Razvoj metodologije evidentiranja kriminaliteta kao osnova kreiranja efikasnih mera za njegovo suzbijanje i prevenciju

  1. Accident Tolerant Fuel Analysis

    Curtis Smith; Heather Chichester; Jesse Johns; Melissa Teague; Michael Tonks; Robert Youngblood


    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional “accident-tolerant” (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  2. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Laboratory; Chichester, Heather [Idaho National Laboratory; Johns, Jesse [Texas A& M University; Teague, Melissa [Idaho National Laboratory; Tonks, Michael Idaho National Laboratory; Youngblood, Robert [Idaho National Laboratory


    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant

  3. Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Lymphocytes from Victims Exposed to Cobalt-60 Radiation

    Sai Jun Fan


    Full Text Available The present study investigates cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes, derived from three victims who were unfortunately exposed to cobalt-60 (60Co radiation (the 1999 accident occurred in a village in China’s Henan province. Case A of the three victims was exposed to a higher dose of 60Co radiation than Cases B and C. The chromosomal aberrations, cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN, the CBMN assay, and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, the comet assay examined in this study are biomarkers for cytogenetic abnormalities. After the lymphocytes collected from the victims were cultured, the frequencies of dicentric chromosomes and rings (dic + r and CBMN in the first mitotic division detected in the lymphocytes of Case A were found to be substantially higher than in Cases B and C. Similarly, the DNA-DSB level found in the peripheral blood collected from Case A was much higher than those of Cases B and C. These results suggest that an acutely enhanced induction of the 60Co-induced cytogenetic abnormality frequency in humans depends on the dose of 60Co radiation. This finding is supported by the data obtained using practical techniques to evaluate early lymphoid-tissue abnormalities induced after exposure to acute radiation.

  4. Accidents in nuclear facilities: classification, incidence and impact; Accidentes en instalaciones nucleares: clasificacion, incidencia e impacto

    Galicia A, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Paredes G, L. C., E-mail: [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    A general analysis of the 146 accidents reported officially in nuclear facilities from 1945 to 2012 is presented, among them some took place in: power or research nuclear reactors, critical and subcritical nuclear assemblies, handling of nuclear materials inside laboratories belonging to institutes or universities, in radiochemistry industrial plants and nuclear fuel factories. In form graph the incidence of these accidents is illustrated classified for; category, decades, geographical localization, country classification before the OECD, failure type, and the immediate or later victims. On the other hand, the main learned lessons of the nuclear accidents of Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima are stood out, among those that highlight; the human factors, the necessity of designs more innovative and major technology for the operation, control and surveillance of the nuclear facilities, to increase the criterions of nuclear, radiological and physics safety applied to these facilities, the necessity to carry out probabilistic analysis of safety more detailed for cases of not very probable accidents and their impact, to revalue the selection criterions of the sites for nuclear locations, the methodology of post-accident sites recovery and major instrumentation for parameters evaluation and the radiological monitoring among others. (Author)

  5. Chernobyl Accident Fatalities and Causes


    died shortly after hospital admission from symptorns of acute radiation sickness, CVA must have been the Kiev fatality on suffered a cerebrovascular ... cerebrovascular acci- unfavorable prognosis IState Committee dent victim with anl estimated close of 3 G\\. 19861. the four bone marrow transplant...ber 1987. Aledical Handling of Skin Lesions Folloti- ing High Level Accidental Irradiation, UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Institute Curie, Paris

  6. Psychosocial profile of bullies, victims, and bully-victims: A cross-sectional study

    Marie eLeiner


    Full Text Available While adverse conditions in a child’s life do not excuse inappropriate behavior, they may cause emotional and behavioral problems that require treatment as a preventive measure to reduce the likelihood of bullying. We aimed to identify differences in the psychosocial profiles of adolescents who classified themselves as bullies, victims, or bully-victims. We performed a cross-sectional study in which data were collected between January 2009 and January 2010 from seven university-based clinics in a large metropolitan area with a predominantly Mexican-American population. We collected data on physical aggression among adolescents who self-categorized into the following groups: uninvolved, bullies, victims, and bully-victims. We determined the psychosocial profiles of the adolescents based on responses to the Youth Self Report (YSR and parent’s responses to the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. A one-way analysis of variance and multivariate regression analyses were performed to compare the various components of the psychosocial profiles among the groups. Our analysis of the CBCL and the YSR assessments identified differences between the uninvolved group and one or more of the other groups. No significant differences were observed among the bully, victim, and bully-victim groups based on the CBCL. We did find significant differences among those groups based on the YSR, however. Our results suggest that emotional and behavioral problems exist among bullies, victims, and bully-victims. Therefore, treatment should not focus only on the victims of bullying; treatment is equally important for the other groups (bullies and bully-victims. Failure to adequately treat the underlying problems experienced by all three groups of individuals could allow the problems of bullying to continue.

  7. Developing support service for victims of hate crime

    Dunn Peter


    Full Text Available This article describes the nature and development of Victim Support’s services to victims of hate crime in England and Wales. It provides definitions of hate crime, information about its extent, and considers why services for victims of some forms of hate crime have developed faster than others. It concludes with a summary of points made during a discussion at the 2004 European Forum for Victim Services conference about whether or not services to victims of hate crime should be provided by mainstream victim services or specialist agencies.

  8. Body image among victims of sexual and physical abuse.

    Kremer, Inbar; Orbach, Israel; Rosenbloom, Tova


    This study tries to understand the differences in body experience between victims of sexual abuse and physical abuse. Ninety-eight women completed questionnaires that measured personal information, body-image aberration, body sensitivity and control, and body investment. Findings indicated that victims of sexual abuse demonstrate less body maintenance and protection in addition to greater injury to body sensitivity and control than victims of physical abuse. Moreover, comparing victims of sexual abuse to physical abuse, findings revealed that only victims of sexual abuse report body-image aberrations. Thus, sexual and physical abuse should be addressed discretely because each has differential effects on bodily attitudes of victims.




    Full Text Available India experienced very rapid population growth from 48 million to 1.2 billion in a span of decades. In India rapid urbanization, industrialization, population explosion and migration of people in past two decades r esults in enormous growth in the field of road transportation. This resulted in increasing amount of the road traffic leading to increased risk for occurrence of road traffic accidents. In India road traffic injuries will be third leading cause of death by 2020 with the increase in the use of two wheelers and congestion and environmental pollution this mortality rate will continue to rise. Considering the preciousness of human lives, this study has been undertaken to analyse the pattern of injuries in Road Traffic Accidents Involving Two Wheelers to create awareness among the law enforcing authorities, transport authorities and public regarding two wheeler fatalities. A sincere attempt has been made in this study to analyse the distribution of the pattern of injuries sustained by two wheeler travellers, so that appropriate interventional strategies can be evolved at various levels and by different agencies. 147 Two wheeler Accident victims were randomly selected from 1063 road traffic accident cases brought t o the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Madras Medical College Chennai - 3 for routine medico legal examination. Preliminary data were collected from the medico legal documents such as history of the case, Inquest form, First Information Report, Accident Regis ter, Death Report, Clinical data submitted by the investigating officer at the time of medico legal examination. During autopsy, on external exami nation, nature of injury, size, number were measured in all cases. Internal organ injuries were recorded. Caus e of death was arrived at based on the findings made out during autopsy. Totally 147 motorcyclist victims were included in this study in which demographic factors such as age, sex, time of accident, manner of collision

  10. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies.

    Sims, C S


    Twenty-two nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast-pulse Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a total of 62 different organizations a forum for discussion of criticality accident dosimetry, an opportunity to test their neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry systems under a variety of simulated criticality accident conditions, and the experience of comparing results with reference dose values as well as with the measured results obtained by others making measurements under identical conditions. Sixty-nine nuclear accidents (27 with unmoderated neutron energy spectra and 42 with eight different shielded spectra) have been simulated in the studies. Neutron doses were in the 0.2-8.5 Gy range and gamma doses in the 0.1-2.0 Gy range. A total of 2,289 dose measurements (1,311 neutron, 978 gamma) were made during the intercomparisons. The primary methods of neutron dosimetry were activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and blood sodium activation. The main methods of gamma dose measurement were thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiophotoluminescent glass, and film. About 68% of the neutron measurements met the accuracy guidelines (+/- 25%) and about 52% of the gamma measurements met the accuracy criterion (+/- 20%) for accident dosimetry.

  11. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    Rasmussen, B.; Groenberg, C.D.


    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs.

  12. Radioactive materials transport accident analysis

    McSweeney, T.I.; Maheras, S.J.; Ross, S.B. [Battelle Memorial Inst. (United States)


    Over the last 25 years, one of the major issues raised regarding radioactive material transportation has been the risk of severe accidents. While numerous studies have shown that traffic fatalities dominate the risk, modeling the risk of severe accidents has remained one of the most difficult analysis problems. This paper will show how models that were developed for nuclear spent fuel transport accident analysis can be adopted to obtain estimates of release fractions for other types of radioactive material such as vitrified highlevel radioactive waste. The paper will also show how some experimental results from fire experiments involving low level waste packaging can be used in modeling transport accident analysis with this waste form. The results of the analysis enable an analyst to clearly show the differences in the release fractions as a function of accident severity. The paper will also show that by placing the data in a database such as ACCESS trademark, it is possible to obtain risk measures for transporting the waste forms along proposed routes from the generator site to potential final disposal sites.

  13. Impact Assessment of the Causes and Prevention of Farm Accidents on Mechanized Farms of North Central Zone/States of Nigeria

    J. K. Yohanna.


    Full Text Available Accidents occurring on mechanized farms have been a thing of concern to farmers and researchers both within and outside Nigeria. An investigation into the causes and prevention of farm accidents on mechanized farm was carried out in Benue, Federal Capital Territory, Kwara, Nasarawa, Niger and Plateau states that constitute the north central zone/states of Nigeria. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire designed and distributed to all the states mentioned. The questionnaire addressed demographic variables and issues linked directly with the types, causes and prevention of farm accidents. A total of 2283 tractors were available in the mechanized farms surveyed, while a total of 1014 constituted other farm machinery/equipment. Results show that 81.7% of accidents victims are male. About 45.5% of the accident victims were aged between 40years and above. About 33.96% of the minor accidents resulted in slight damage to equipment and machinery. Similarly 43.4% of accidents resulted in substantial loss in time, while about 22.64% of accidents resulted in medical attention. There was no attempt made to quantify the monetary terms of the cost of each accidents, as there was dearth of information. The results obtained in this work are in agreement with the previous studies both outside and inside Nigeria. Also, from this survey work, there was a problem of good record keeping in most of the establishment surveyed. It is therefore, recommended among other things that adequate training and retraining of tractors/machinery operators should be carried out periodically, to intimate operators on recent use of farm equipment due to environmental and human factors

  14. The child accident repeater: a review.

    Jones, J G


    The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.

  15. Hindsight Bias in Cause Analysis of Accident

    Atsuo Murata; Yasunari Matsushita


    It is suggested that hindsight becomes an obstacle to the objective investigation of an accident, and that the proper countermeasures for the prevention of such an accident is impossible if we view the accident with hindsight. Therefore, it is important for organizational managers to prevent hindsight from occurring so that hindsight does not hinder objective and proper measures to be taken and this does not lead to a serious accident. In this study, a basic phenomenon potentially related to accidents, that is, hindsight was taken up, and an attempt was made to explore the phenomenon in order to get basically insights into the prevention of accidents caused by such a cognitive bias.

  16. Relation between childhood peer victimization and adult perfectionism: are victims of indirect aggression more perfectionistic?

    Miller, Jessie L; Vaillancourt, Tracy


    Using two independent samples and two different measures of perfectionism, this study investigated the hypothesized relation between retrospective accounts of perceived peer-inflicted emotional abuse during childhood and perfectionism in adulthood. Emotional victimization ('indirect' aggression) is characterized by behavior in which mental harm is inflicted on victims through exclusionary acts, gossiping, and rumor spreading. Study one: Self-reported questionnaires of indirect victimization [DIAS; Bjorkqvist, Lagerspetz, and Osterman, 1992] and perfectionism [multidimensional perfectionism scale; Hewitt and Flett, 1991] were administered to 162 (mean age=20.14 years) female undergraduate psychology students. Results support the predicted positive relationship between recalled indirect peer victimization and current socially prescribed/self-oriented perfectionism. Study two: self-reports of indirect peer victimization and perfectionism (eating disorder inventory-perfectionism) were collected from 196 (mean age=19.5 years) female undergraduate students. Again, recalled indirect peer victimization was a statistically significant predictor of current socially prescribed/self-oriented perfectionism whereas recalled direct (physical, verbal) peer victimization held no relation. Discussion addresses the implications of these results, which hold importance for both the bullying and perfectionism literatures.

  17. Support for victims of crime: Analysis of the VDS info and victim support service in 2010

    Ćopić Sanja


    Full Text Available VDS info and victim support service is a victim support service, which was established in 2003 within the Victimology Society of Serbia. The service provides emotional support, information and, if necessary, referral to other relevant services, as well as witness support. The target group of the service are direct and indirect victims of all forms of crime, of both sexes, regardless of any personal characteristics. In addition, support is provided to victims in court, as well as to women victims of violence who are in prison. In most cases victim support is provided by volunteers who are trained to work with victims of crime. This paper analyzes the work of the service in 2010. Special attention is paid to the problems of workplace violence and domestic violence, which are the most common reasons for contacting the service. The aim of the paper is to present the work of the service in the past year, as well as to highlight the trends observed in comparison to the previous period.

  18. Evaluation of the status of the pre-hospital trauma care in road trafifc accidents in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu

    Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava; Jegadeesh Ramasamy


    Objective:To evaluate the status of the pre-hospital trauma care in a road traffic accidents in a rural area of Kancheepuram district. Methods: A cross-sectional study of two months duration (June and July 2014) was conducted in the tertiary care hospital of a medical college, and its affiliated urban/rural health centers. Universal sampling was used and all road accident victims were enrolled as study participants. The required information was obtained with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. Ethical clearance was obtained before the start of the study.SPSS version 18 was used for data entry and statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all the variables. Results:A total of 80 (77.7%) study subjects were from the productive age group (15–45 years). Most of the accidents were reported at night time [43 (41.7%)], on weekends [59 (56.5%)], and involved two-wheelers [81 (78.6%)]. In addition, 69 cases (67%) of the victims were not aware of the existence of emergency ambulance services, while only 6 (5.8%) of the victims were brought to the hospital in an emergency ambulance. Conclusions: The study findings clearly suggest that the quality of the pre-hospital trauma care for road traffic accidentvictims in a rural area of Kancheepuram district lacks on multiple dimensions and there is an immense need to improve and strengthen the range of services to save the lives of the victims.

  19. Severe accident simulation at Olkiuoto

    Tirkkonen, H.; Saarenpaeae, T. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), Olkiluoto (Finland); Cliff Po, L.C. [Micro-Simulation Technology, Montville, NJ (United States)


    A personal computer-based simulator was developed for the Olkiluoto nuclear plant in Finland for training in severe accident management. The generic software PCTRAN was expanded to model the plant-specific features of the ABB Atom designed BWR including its containment over-pressure protection and filtered vent systems. Scenarios including core heat-up, hydrogen generation, core melt and vessel penetration were developed in this work. Radiation leakage paths and dose rate distribution are presented graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an 486 DX2-66, PCTRAN-TVO achieves a speed about 15 times faster than real-time. A convenient and user-friendly graphic interface allows full interactive control. In this paper a review of the component models and verification runs are presented.

  20. Fukushima accident study using MELCOR

    Randall O Gauntt


    The accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station stunned the world as the sequences played out over severals days and videos of hydrogen explosions were televised as they took place.The accidents all resulted in severe damage to the reactor cores and releases of radioactivity to the environment despite heroic measures had taken by the operating personnel.The following paper provides some background into the development of these accidents and their root causes,chief among them,the prolonged station blackout conditions that isolated the reactors from their ultimate heat sink — the ocean.The interpretations given in this paper are summarized from a recently completed report funded by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE).

  1. Road characteristics and bicycle accidents.

    Nyberg, P; Björnstig, U; Bygren, L O


    In Umeå, Sweden, defects in the physical road surface contributed to nearly half of the single bicycle accidents. The total social cost of these injuries to people amount to at least SEK 20 million (SEK 60,000 or about USD 8,500 per accident), which corresponds to the estimated loss of "eight life equivalents a year". Improved winter maintenance seems to have the greatest injury prevention potential and would probably reduce the number of injuries considerably, whereas improved road quality and modification of kerbs would reduce the most severe injuries. A local traffic safety program should try to prevent road accidents instead of handling the consequences of them. In accordance with Parliament decisions on traffic we would like to see increased investment in measures favoring bicycle traffic, where cycling is seen as a solution, not as a problem.

  2. Bathtub immersion accidents involving children.

    Pearn, J; Nixon, J


    A review of 19 consecutive serious bathtub immersion accidents (11 survivals, 8 fatalities) is presented. In all instances, consciousness was lost in the water. Unlike other childhood accidents which usually show a male predominance, the sexes are equally affected. The modal age is 11 months. Six separate causes of bath drownings and near-drownings have been identified, and in 14 of the 19 accidents, two or more causes were operating concurrently. Median estimated immersion time for survivals was four minutes, and five minutes for fatalities. The median depth of water was eight inches. An 'at risk' profile for home bathtub drownings is presented; this includes the youngest or second youngest child of a large family, a family of grade 4 to 7 sociooccupational status (congalton) and a family in which routine is temporarily broken.

  3. Internal Accident Report on EDH

    SC Department


    The A2 Safety Code requires that, the Internal Accident Report form must be filled in by the person concerned or any witness to ensure that all the relevant services are informed. Please note that an electronic version of this form has been elaborated in collaboration with SC-IE, HR-OPS-OP and IT-AIS. Whenever possible, the electronic form shall be used. The relative icon is available on the EDH Desktop, Other tasks page, under the Safety heading, or directly here: If you have any questions, please contact the SC Secretariat, tel. 75097 Please notice that the Internal Accident Report is an integral part of the Safety Code A2 and does not replace the HS50.

  4. The effects of exposure of {sup 60}Co on the oxidant/antioxidant status among radiation victims

    Demir, Mustafa E-mail:; Konukoglu, Dildar; Kabasakal, Levent; Yelke, Hakan Kadir; Ergen, Kadir; Ahmed, Sabbir


    This retrospective study has been performed with radiation victims who were accidentally exposed to a {sup 60}Co source and its release into the environment. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of elevated radiation exposures on plasma level, on erythrocyte thio barbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) level and on erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) levels. Patients were treated in different hospitals with different symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, along with severe anemia in some patients. Blood samples were collected 3-5 days following the radiation accident. Increases in plasma (6.25{+-}0.90 nmol ml{sup -1}) and erythrocyte TBARS levels (330.5{+-}30.5 {mu}mol gHb{sup -1}) were found in comparison to a healthy group (3.72{+-}0.68 nmol ml{sup -1} and 150.7{+-}20.5 {mu}mol gHb{sup -1}, respectively) at a significant level (p<0.001). Erythrocyte GSH levels (5.2{+-}0.30 {mu}mol gHb{sup -1}) were found to be decreased among the victims (healthy group: 10.2{+-}0.7 {mu}mol gHb{sup -1}) at the same significance level (p<0.001). These observations confirm a significant change induced by radiation in the oxidant/antioxidant status among the victims. It is suggested here that antioxidant supplementation therapy might be effective in preventing the harmful effects of {sup 60}Co radiation among radiation victims.

  5. 78 FR 24319 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2013


    ... fellow citizens and the basic values that unite us. Let us renew that common cause this week, and let us... victims' rights and services, and by volunteering to serve victims in their time of need. ] IN...

  6. Identifying victims of violence using register-based data

    Kruse, Marie; Sørensen, Jan; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik


    . We found significant differences between victims and non-victims according to socio-economic status, education, marital status, and ethnic origin, and also between victims by source of identification. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a study population consisting of individual victims of violence......AIMS: The aim of this study was twofold. Firstly we identified victims of violence in national registers and discussed strengths and weaknesses of this approach. Secondly we assessed the magnitude of violence and the characteristics of the victims using register-based data. METHODS: We used three...... nationwide registers to identify victims of violence: The National Patient Register, the Victim Statistics, and the Causes of Death Register. We merged these data and assessed the degree of overlap between data sources. We identified a reference population by selecting all individuals in Denmark over 15...

  7. Relationship between Perceptions of Coutrol and Victimization of Chinese Adolescents

    Zhu Bi; Lei Li


    This study explores perceptions of control in victims of school bullying.bysurveying 108 adolescents with questionnaires.The result shows that there are significant gender differences in external control in general,intemal control of sociahty,and victimization of physical bullying.Physical victimization decreases as subjects grow older,but unknown control increases.Social victimization is positively correlated with all factors of external control.Verbal victimization is positively correlated with factors of external control of sociality,general and average;and negatively correlated with factors of internal control of sociality and physicality.Victimization of property bullying iS positirely correlated with average external control.External control is a predictor of victimization of social.verbal,and property bullying;internal control of body is that of verbal victimization.

  8. Bullying and victimization in elementary schools : A comparison of bullies, victims, bully/victims, and uninvolved preadolescents

    Veenstra, René; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Winter, Andrea F. de; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan


    Research on bullying and victimization largely rests on univariate analyses and on reports from a single informant. Researchers may thus know too little about the simultaneous effects of various independent and dependent variables, and their research may be biased by shared method variance. The data

  9. How to reduce the number of accidents


    Among the safety objectives that the Director-General has established for CERN in 2012 is a reduction in the number of workplace accidents.   The best way to prevent workplace accidents is to learn from experience. This is why any accident, fire, instance of pollution, or even a near-miss, should be reported using the EDH form that can be found here. All accident reports are followed up. The departments investigate all accidents that result in sick leave, as well as all the more common categories of accidents at CERN, essentially falls (slipping, falling on stairs, etc.), regardless of whether or not they lead to sick leave. By studying the accident causes that come to light in this way, it is possible to take preventive action to avoid such accidents in the future. If you have any questions, the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at HSE Unit

  10. From Victim to Taking Control: Support Group for Bullied Schoolchildren

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Aabø, Liv Sandnes; Saeteren, Berit


    School bullying is a serious problem affecting the victims in their daily lives at school. The aim of this study was to investigate whether support groups were able to help the victims of bullying to overcome their victim status and to explore what it means to be a member of a support group. An exploratory qualitative design, with individual and…

  11. A Longitudinal Examination of Fear Reactions in Victims of Rape.

    Calhoun, Karen S.; And Others


    Investigated fear reactions in rape victims for one year following their assaults. Following the assault, victims were significantly more fearful than nonvictim controls. Although their overall fearfulness declined somewhat and stabilized by two months postassault, victims remained significantly more fearful than nonvictim controls at 12 months…

  12. 76 FR 19909 - International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program


    ... of Justice Programs 28 CFR Part 94 RIN 1121-AA78 International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement... Victims of Crime (OVC) is promulgating this interim-final rule for its International Terrorism Victim... as an incident of international terrorism. DATES: Effective date: This interim-final rule...

  13. Psychological Adjustment in Bullies and Victims of School Violence

    Estevez, Estefania; Murgui, Sergio; Musitu, Gonzalo


    The present study examined psychosocial adjustment in the following four groups of students: victims, bullies, bully/victims and a control group of adolescents not involved in bullying or victimization problems. Psychosocial adjustment was measured considering as indicators: level of self-esteem, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress,…

  14. Students' Perceptions of Their Own Victimization: A Youth Voice Perspective

    Corby, Emma-Kate; Campbell, Marilyn; Spears, Barbara; Slee, Phillip; Butler, Des; Kift, Sally


    This article investigates the perceptions of 156 students who were victims of both traditional and cyberbullying (117 female, 45 male), ages 10 to 17 years, as to which form of bullying was more hurtful. Overall, students perceived traditional victimization to be more hurtful than cyber victimization. Reasons identified in the data to explain the…

  15. 28 CFR 0.91 - Office for Victims of Crime.


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office for Victims of Crime. 0.91 Section...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.91 Office for Victims of Crime. The Office for Victims of Crime is headed by a Director appointed by the Assistant Attorney General, Office of...

  16. Sexual Abuse Victimization and Psychological Distress among Adolescent Offenders.

    Phan, Debra L.; Kingree, J. B.


    This study focused on sexual abuse victimization and psychological distress among 272 adolescent offenders. Female respondents reported more sexual abuse victimization and psychological distress than did their male counterparts. Furthermore, church attendance moderated the association between sexual abuse victimization and psychological distress…

  17. Análise da implantação da rede de atenção às vítimas de acidentes e violências segundo diretrizes da Política Nacional de Redução da Morbimortalidade sobre Violência e Saúde Analysis of the implantation of the healthcare network for victims of accidents and violence following the guidelines of the National Policy for the Reduction of Morbidity and Mortality from Violence and Accidents

    Maria Cecília de Souza Minayo


    Full Text Available Neste artigo, problematizamos os resultados de uma pesquisa denominada "Análise Diagnóstica da Política Nacional de Saúde para Redução de Acidentes e Violências (PNRMVA", apresentando considerações para debate. A partir de uma investigação quantitativa e qualitativa da implantação dessa política em cinco capitais brasileiras (Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Manaus, Curitiba e Brasília e seu entorno, e com a participação de instituições acadêmicas dessas localidades, fizemos um diagnóstico situacional e ouvimos, no mesmo contexto, gestores e profissionais de saúde. O artigo traz informações avaliativas sobre o quadro de morbimortalidade por violências e acidentes; a adequação dos serviços nos níveis pré-hospitalar móvel e fixo, hospitalar, de reabilitação e de promoção ao perfil epidemiológico descrito; a formação específica dos profissionais para lidar com esses agravos à saúde; a vigilância e o monitoramento dos eventos violentos e dos acidentes e, por fim, o apoio a estudos e pesquisas sobre a temática. Por se tratar de uma proposta de debate, o artigo conclui apresentando questões sobre os avanços na implantação, sobre as fragilidades do sistema e sobre as possibilidades de desenvolvimento eficaz das diretrizes da PNRMVA.In this article we problematize the results of an investigation entitled "Diagnostic Analysis of the National Policy for Reduction of Morbidity and Mortality from Accidents and Violence (PNRMVA" and present some thoughts for discussion. Based on a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the implantation of this policy in five Brazilian state capitals - Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Manaus, Curitiba and Brasília and vicinities - along with the participation of local academic institutions we performed a diagnosis of the situation. The article presents evaluative information regarding: the profile of morbidity and mortality from accidents and violence; the adequacy of mobile and fixed pre

  18. Victim derogation and victim enhancement as alternate routes to system justification.

    Kay, Aaron C; Jost, John T; Young, Sean


    Abstract-Numerous studies have documented the potential for victim-blaming attributions to justify the status quo. Recent work suggests that complementary, victim-enhancing stereotypes may also increase support for existing social arrangements. We seek to reconcile these seemingly contradictory findings by proposing that victim derogation and victim enhancement are alternate routes to system justification, with the preferred route depending on the perception of a causal link between trait and outcome. Derogating "losers" (and lionizing "winners") on traits (e.g., intelligence) that are causally related to outcomes (e.g., wealth vs. poverty) serves to increase system justification, as does compensating "losers" (and downgrading "winners") on traits (e.g., physical attractiveness) that are causally unrelated to those outcomes. We provide converging evidence using system-threat and stereotype-activation paradigms.

  19. Trismus: An unusual presentation following road accident

    Thakur Jagdeep


    Full Text Available Trismus due to trauma usually follows road accidents leading to massive faciomaxillary injury. In the literature there is no report of a foreign body causing trismus following a road accident, this rare case is an exception. We present a case of isolated presentation of trismus following a road accident. This case report stresses on the thorough evaluation of patients presenting with trismus following a road accident.

  20. 78 FR 52877 - VOCA Victim Assistance Program


    ... partner violence, sexual assault, child abuse) at consistent levels. Any potential reallocations would be... effectively. As a technical and structural matter, the existing Victim Assistance Program Guidelines are not...'' that clarifies that the term includes intimate partner violence and dating violence. Spousal abuse...

  1. Psychological characteristics of victims of trafficking

    Larin A.N.


    Full Text Available The article describes the main causes of falling into slavery, forms of slave labour, as well as moral-psychological properties and characteristics of potential victims of trafficking. Noted risk factors leading to victimization of the person and increase the possibility of becoming an object for criminal groups specializing in this kind of crime. The number of victims of international trafficking ranges from 600 to 800 thousand people a year, and when you consider human trafficking within the individual countries, the total number of victims ranges from 2 to 4 million people. 80% of trafficked people are women and children, of which 70% are sold to other countries for sexual exploitation. According to the International organization for migration (International Organization of Migration annually only in the European markets of prostitution sold is not less than 500 thousand women. Among the personal factors that affect the increase in the number of such crimes, it is necessary to indicate family trouble, which manifests itself, primarily, to neglect, loss of relationships with family and parents, or in the absence of moral and material support from existing family and friends.

  2. Evaluation of the adolescent rape victim.

    Bechtel, K; Podrazik, M


    Adolescents are frequently victims of sexual assault, often by a previously known assailant. This article discusses the initial management of adolescents who have been sexually assaulted, including obtaining the history and performing a careful physical examination, forensic evidence collection, and medical and psychologic therapy.

  3. Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes and Bullying Victimization

    Peguero, Anthony A.; Williams, Lisa M.


    Bullying is a serious problem within the U.S. school system. Prior research suggests that victimization is stratified by race and ethnicity. However, few studies consider factors that may moderate this relationship. This article extends research on this topic by considering whether stereotypes moderate bullying among racial and ethnic youth. Youth…

  4. The Perception of Cyberbullying in Adolescent Victims

    Sevcikova, Anna; Smahel, David; Otavova, Mlada


    The goal of this study was to explore how victims of cyberbullying perceive online aggressive attacks and when they see them as harmful. Interviews were carried out with 16 cybervictimised participants aged 15-17 years. The findings showed differences in the perception of online victimisation when perpetrated by an anonymous Internet user versus…

  5. Violence Exposure and Victimization among Rural Adolescents

    Mykota, David B.; Laye, Adele


    Violence exposure is a serious public health concern for adolescents in schools today. Violence exposure can be quite severe and frequent with multiple acts of indirect and direct victimization having lasting effects on the physical, emotional, and intellectual well-being of adolescents. The purpose of the present study is to examine the rates of…

  6. Internet piracy and consequences for victims

    Savić Miljan


    Full Text Available After the evolution of technology made it possible to perform actions via the Internet that constitute copyright violations, the analysis of the effects of internet piracy on social welfare became the subject of academic polemics. The main and the biggest victims of Internet piracy are the holders of copyright and related rights, however, the damage that piracy causes them comes from multiple sources, is difficult to quantify and is only a part of the total social cost of piracy. However, there are other categories of victims, such as those whose honor was besmirched as a result of piracy, and who suffer the consequences in the form of negative emotional reactions, loss of job as well as those who subsequently commit suicide. The object of this paper is to describe the effects of internet piracy on the victims of this phenomenon, and the goal is the analysis of the various direct and indirect effects of piracy on victims and their motivation for future creation, as well as analysis of prevention measures, with special emphasis on the Republic of Serbia.

  7. Simulating Peer Support for Victims of Cyberbullying

    Van der Zwaan, J.M.; Dignum, M.V.; Jonker, C.M.


    This paper proposes a design for an Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) that empowers victims of cyberbullying by simulating peer support. The anti-cyberbullying buddy helps a child to cope with negative emotions due to a cyberbullying incident and it shows the child how to deal with future incident

  8. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    Oppe, S.


    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures

  9. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.


    The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...

  10. New technology for accident prevention

    Byne, P. [Shiftwork Solutions, Vancouver, BC (Canada)


    This power point presentation examined the effects of fatigue in the workplace and presented 3 technologies designed to prevent or monitor fatigue. The relationship between mental fatigue, circadian rhythms and cognitive performance was explored. Details of vigilance related degradations in the workplace were presented, as well as data on fatigue-related accidents and a time-line of meter-reading errors. It was noted that the direct cause of the Exxon Valdez disaster was sleep deprivation. Fatigue related accidents during the Gulf War were reviewed. The effects of fatigue on workplace performance include impaired logical reasoning and decision-making; impaired vigilance and attention; slowed mental operations; loss of situational awareness; slowed reaction time; and short cuts and lapses in optional or self-paced behaviours. New technologies to prevent fatigue-related accidents include (1) the driver fatigue monitor, an infra-red camera and computer that tracks a driver's slow eye-lid closures to prevent fatigue related accidents; (2) a fatigue avoidance scheduling tool (FAST) which collects actigraphs of sleep activity; and (3) SAFTE, a sleep, activity, fatigue and effectiveness model. refs., tabs., figs.

  11. Work Accidents and Professional Diseases

    Doru Hauptmann


    Full Text Available The major accident is defined as “any event occurred, like an emission of dangerous materials or agents, which emerges from uncontrolled evolutions along the exploitation of any objective that leads to the immediate or delayed occurrence of serious dangers with impact over human health or over the environment, inside or outside the objective in which are involved one or more than one dangerous materials”.The dangerous phenomenon is a potential source of harms. In the ambit of industrial risks of accidental origins, this expression more frequently refers to physical phenomena like conflagrations, explosions, toxic gases dispersion, etc.Any accident scenario relates itself to the potential effects at the level of environmental “targets”. In the case of major accidents, we can distinguish the following categories of “targets”: human (employees of the objective, working or resident people in the nearby of the emplacement; the installation or equipments that may stay at the origin of the accidents (dangerous equipments; certain all-important equipments to ensure the safety level of the installation (critical security equipments: control rooms, civil fire brigade headquarters, etc; goods and structures situated in the installation’ environment (ground water, rivers, soil, flora, fauna.




    Full Text Available Road traffic accident is the leading cause of serious injuries with associated head trauma especially in youth and middle age persons. Head injury is the most common cause of mortality and major health problem all over the world The Incidence of RTAs was higher in males and in 3rd to 4th decade of life owing to increase risk exposure to males due to more outdoor activities. Incidence of deaths due to RTAs was maximum (45.67% in two wheeler riders followed by pedestrians in 33.33% cases. The present study was conducted on dead bodies, died of accidents involving two wheeler, four wheeler and bicycle. The rate of incidence is higher in India because of bad traffic patterns and possibly the lack of awareness about traffic rules and also lack of good hospital services to our victims of RTAs

  13. Consequences to health of the Chernobyl accident; Helbredsmaessige konsekvenser af reaktorulykken i Tjernobyl

    Sewerin, I. [Royal Dental College, Dept. of Radiology, Copenhagen (Denmark)


    The Chernobyl accident in 1986 has been and still is the subject of great interest. Journalistic reports often contain exaggerations and undocumented statements and much uncertainty about the true consequences of the accident prevails in the population. This article reviews the current literature with the focus on reports from official commissions and documentation in the form of controlled studies. The fatal deterministic consequences comprise about 30 victims. The most important outcome is a marked increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents in the most heavily contaminated area. Furthermore, pronounced psychosocial problems are dominant in the population of the contaminated area. Other significant and documented health consequences are not seen. (au)

  14. Professionals' conduct as a condition for minimizing secondary victimization of the victims of spouse abuse

    Ignjatović Tanja


    Full Text Available Through analysis of the 'administrative' aspects of experts' documentation kept by three services in one local community - the police station, the center for social welfare and the primary health care center, the possibility of reducing victimization of victims of partnership violence within the family is the subject of consideration. The results of the analysis point to the necessity of rationalization and standardization of recording and procedures by the professionals.

  15. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the clause at FAR 52.236-13, Accident Prevention....

  16. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I....

  17. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause...

  18. Barriers to learning from incidents and accidents

    Dechy, N.; Dien, Y.; Drupsteen, L.; Felicio, A.; Cunha, C.; Roed-Larsen, S.; Marsden, E.; Tulonen, T.; Stoop, J.; Strucic, M.; Vetere Arellano, A.L.; Vorm, J.K.J. van der; Benner, L.


    This document provides an overview of knowledge concerning barriers to learning from incidents and accidents. It focuses on learning from accident investigations, public inquiries and operational experience feedback, in industrial sectors that are exposed to major accident hazards. The document disc

  19. Analysing truck position data to study roundabout accident risk

    Kamla, Jwan Jameel Shekh Mohammed


    In order to reduce accident risk, highway authorities prioritise maintenance budgets partly based upon previous accident history. However, as accident rates have continued to fall in most contexts, this approach has become problematic as accident ‘black spots’ have been treated and the number of accidents at any individual site has fallen. Another way of identifying sites of higher accident risk might be to identify near-miss accidents (where an accident nearly happened, but was avoided), whi...

  20. Mechanical chest compressions in an avalanche victim with cardiac arrest: an option for extreme mountain rescue operations.

    Pietsch, Urs; Lischke, Volker; Pietsch, Christine; Kopp, Karl-Heinz


    Mountain rescue operations often present helicopter emergency medical service crews with unique challenges. One of the most challenging problems is the prehospital care of cardiac arrest patients during evacuation and transport. In this paper we outline a case in which we successfully performed a cardiopulmonary resuscitation of an avalanche victim. A mechanical chest-compression device proved to be a good way of minimizing hands-off time and providing high-quality chest compressions while the patient was evacuated from the site of the accident.

  1. Administrative instruction D.H.O.S./H.F.D./D.G.S.N.R. N 277 of the 2. may 2002 relative to the organisation of medical treatments in case of nuclear or radiological accident; Circulaire DHOS/HFD/DGSNR N. 277 du 2 mai 2002 relative a l'organisation des soins medicaux en cas d'accident nucleaire ou radiologique



    This official note deals with the organization of medical care the first day in case of nuclear or radiological accident. It defines the modalities of pre hospital reception (out of the exclusion area) and hospital reception. This note leans on a national guide relative to the medical intervention in case of nuclear or radiological accident. This organization is made at the department level in reference to the note relative to the inflow of victims in health centers. It will be a base for the nuclear annexes to the white plans of health establishments. This note completes the dispositions defined by the public authorities intervention in case of radiation accident. (N.C.)

  2. Criminality and Victimization in Oromia, Ethiopia

    Nega Jibat


    Full Text Available This study analyzed crime statistics of 2011/2012 with objectives to compare the characteristics of criminals based on correlates of crime such as age, gender, types of occupation, level of education, and marital status and to examine features of victimization by age and sex. The study was conducted in Oromia National Regional State. Police crime data of 2011/2012 were used. Furthermore, key informant interview was used. Descriptive statistics such as percentages, frequencies, and ratios were primarily used to analyze the aggregate police data. It is found that sociocultural and structural factors affect criminality and victimization patterns. The total number of criminals reported to and recorded by the police was 96,300, which constitute 85,100 male and 11,200 female offenders. About 37% of these criminals committed violent crime. The ratio of male to female offenders was 7.6:1. The dominance of male over female both in criminality and victimization is the extension of their social position in social structure and result of gender role socialization. Age group 19 to 30 was found to be the most criminal population with the criminal rate of 828 per 100,000 people. Unfortunately, the relationship between educational status, types of occupation/employment, and marital status on one hand and criminality on the other were less than conclusive mainly because of lack of adequate information on such variables for individual criminals and victims or the fact that the police data were only aggregate ones. Victimization rate was higher for males and 31 to 50 age category.

  3. Associations between Peer Victimization, Fear of Future Victimization and Disrupted Concentration on Class Work among Junior School Pupils

    Boulton, Michael J.; Trueman, Mark; Murray, Lindsay


    Background: Studies have shown that peer victimization is associated with psychological maladjustment, and have implicated such maladjustment in disrupted ability to concentrate. Aims: To investigate the levels of, and associations between, physical, verbal, and social exclusion victimization, fear of future victimization, and disrupted classroom…

  4. Gendered violence and restorative justice: the views of victim advocates.

    Curtis-Fawley, Sarah; Daly, Kathleen


    The use of restorative justice for gendered violence has been debated in the feminist literature for some time. Critics warn that it is inappropriate because the process and outcomes are not sufficiently formal or stringent, and victims may be revictimized. Proponents assert that a restorative justice process may be better for victims than court because it holds offenders accountable and gives victims greater voice. This article presents what victim advocates in two Australian states think about using restorative justice for gendered violence. We find that although victim advocates have concerns and reservations about restorative justice, most saw positive elements.

  5. Transport accidents among children and adolescents at the emergency service of a teaching hospital in the southern zone of the city of São Paulo☆☆☆

    Gorios, Carlos; de Souza, Renata Maia; Gerolla, Viviane; Maso, Bruno; Rodrigues, Cintia Leci; Armond, Jane de Eston


    Objective to describe the victim profile and circumstances of transport accidents involving children and adolescents who were attended at a teaching hospital in the southern zone of the city of São Paulo. Methods this was an individual observational case series study among patients up to the age of 19 years who were attended at a hospital in the southern zone of the city of São Paulo, state of São Paulo, Brazil, due to traffic accidents. The files notifying suspected or confirmed cases of violence and accidents (SIVVA files) covering January to December 2012 were analyzed. Results among the 149 cases notified, 64.4% related to males and 35.6% to females. The transport accidents were predominantly among males, irrespective of age. The main injury diagnoses were superficial head trauma (24.8%) followed by multiple non-specified trauma (36.4%), in both sexes. Conclusion transport accidents among children and adolescents occurred more often among males. The main transport accidents among the children and adolescents attended as emergency cases were caused by motor vehicles and motorcycles. Among the accident victims, the largest proportion was attended because of being run over. PMID:26229833

  6. Medical and psychological aspects of crisis management during a nuclear accident

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M.


    Crisis handling in most kinds of disasters is affected by e.g. the information situation, prior experience and preparedness, availability of resources, efficiency of leadership and coordination, and type of disaster. A nuclear accident creates a situation which differs from many `normal` disasters and natural catastrophes, for example with respects to the invisible nature of radiation and radioactive contamination and thus the dependence on access to specific technical equipment and expertise, and to information about the radiation situation. The scope of the accident, and the existing levels of radiation, define subsequent actions; information policies and existing channels of communication lay the foundation for public reactions. The present paper explores some examples of public reactions, and crisis handling of some previous radiation accidents on the basis of two dimensions, i.e. degree of information availability and degree of impact or `environmental damage`. The examples include the radiation accidents in the Chelyabinsk region in the southern Urals, at Three Mile Island, USA, at Chernobyl in the Ukraine, and in Goiania, Brazil. It is concluded that public reactions differ as a function of existing expectations, and the crisis handling is more affected by the existing organizational and social structures than by needs and reactions of potential victims. Another conclusion is that pre-disaster preparedness regarding public information, and organization of countermeasures, are crucial to the outcome of a successful crisis handling and for enhancing public trust in crisis management. 39 refs, 2 figs.

  7. Epidemiological Characteristics of Fatal Traumatic Accidents in Babol, Iran: A Hospital-Based Survey

    Seyed Reza Modarres


    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the epidemiological characteristics of fatal traumatic accidents in patients referred to a hospital in Babol, Northern Iran. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study being performed during a 1-year period including all the dead trauma patients referred to Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Babol. We included all those patients who were transferred to our center to trauma and injuries and passed away during the hospital stay. Those who died due to electrical shock, drowning and suffocation caused by hanging sand poisoning were excluded from the study. Demographic information such as age, sex, marital status, education, employment, the type, location, and time of injury, injured parts of body and treatment methods, the cause, location and time of death were recorded. Results: From the 92 dead patients, 76 were men (82.6% and 16 were women (17.4%. The cause of death in 53 cases (57.6% was head injury. Regarding the location,30patients (32.6% died at the scene of the accident, 62(67.4% died in the hospital. The maximum rate of trauma occurred in the afternoon shift between the hours of 13:30 to 19:30.The head and face were the most damaged organs. Road traffic accidents were the most common cause of injury related mortality recorded in 81 patients (88.0%. Most of the accidents occurred in intercity roads in 27 people (33.3% and the others in rural-urban roads. Pedestrians were the most common victims of road traffic accidents mortality being reported in 29 people (35.8%. Conclusion: Road traffic accidents are among the most common cause of injury related mortality in our region. Increasing the public knowledge and improve the traffic law enforcement measures should be considered for decreasing the morbidity and mortality.

  8. Child victims and poly-victims in China: are they more at-risk of family violence?

    Chan, Ko Ling


    Multiple forms of violence may co-occur on a child. These may include various forms of child victimization and different types of family violence. However, evidence that child victims are more likely to witness other types of family violence has been lacking in China. Using data of a large and diverse sample of children recruited from 6 regions in China during 2009 and 2010 (N=18,341; 47% girls; mean age=15.9 years), the associations between child victimization and family violence witnessed were examined. Descriptive statistics and the associations between child victimization, demographic characteristics, and family violence witnessed were analyzed. Lifetime and preceding-year rates were 71.7% and 60.0% for any form of child victimization and 14.0% and 9.2% for poly-victimization (having four or more types of victimization), respectively. Family disadvantages (i.e., lower socio-economic status, single parents, and having more than one child in the family) were associated with child victimization and poly-victimization. Witnessing of parental intimate partner violence, elder abuse, and in-law conflict also increased the likelihood of child victimization and poly-victimization, even after the adjustment of demographic factors. Possible mechanisms for the links between family violence and child victimization are discussed. The current findings indicated the need for focusing on the whole family rather than the victim only. For example, screening for different types of family violence when child victims are identified may help early detection of other victims within the family.

  9. Victims of crime, with special emphasis on victims of work abuse and domestic violence: Analysis of the service VDS info and victim support for 2009

    Radaković Danica


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the work of the VDS info and victim support service for the period January 1st 2009 - December 31st 2009. It contains the data about victims, type and quality of assistance and support provided by the Service, and also about institutions and organizations the victims contacted before or after contacting the Service and their satisfaction with the help they received.

  10. [Hanggliding accidents. Distribution of injuries and accident analysis].

    Ballmer, F T; Jakob, R P


    Paragliding--a relatively new sport to Switzerland--brought 23 patients with 48 injuries (38% lower limb and 29% spinal) within a period of 8 months to the Inselspital University hospital in Berne. The aim of the study in characterizing these injuries is to formulate some guidelines towards prevention. With over 90% of accidents occurring at either take off or landing, emphasis on better training for the beginner is proposed with strict guidelines for the more experienced pilot flying in unfavourable conditions.

  11. The concentration of criminal victimization and patterns of routine activities.

    Kuo, Shih-Ya; Cuvelier, Steven J; Sheu, Chuen-Jim; Zhao, Jihong Solomon


    Although many repeat victimization studies have focused on describing the prevalence of the phenomenon, this study attempted to explain variations in the concentration of victimization by applying routine activities as a theoretical model. A multivariate analysis of repeat victimization based on the 2005 Taiwan criminal victimization data supported the general applicability of the routine activity model developed in Western culture for predicting repeat victimization. Findings that diverged from Western patterns included family income to assault, gender to robbery, and marital status, family income, and major activity to larceny incidents. These disparities illustrated the importance of considering the broader sociocultural context in the association between risk predictors and the concentration of criminal victimization. The contradictory results and nonsignificant variance also reflected untapped information on respondents' biological features and psychological tendencies. Future victimization research would do well to integrate measurements that are sensitive to salient sociocultural elements of the society being studied and individuals' biological and psychological traits.

  12. Workplace mobbing: How the victim's coping behavior influences bystander responses.

    Mulder, Roelie; Bos, Arjan E R; Pouwelse, Mieneke; van Dam, Karen


    Victims of workplace mobbing show diverse coping behavior. We investigated the impact of this behavior on bystander cognitions, emotions, and helping toward the victim, integrating coping literature with attribution theory. Adult part-time university students (N = 161) working at various organizations participated in a study with a 3(Coping: approach/avoidance/neutral) × 2(Gender Victim: male/female) × 2(Gender Bystander: male/female) design. Victims showing approach (vs. avoidance) coping were considered to be more self-reliant and less responsible for the continuation of the mobbing, and they elicited less anger. Continuation responsibility and self-reliance mediated the relationship between the victim's coping behavior and bystanders' helping intentions. Female (vs. male) participants reported more sympathy for the victim and greater willingness to help, and female (vs. male) victims elicited less anger. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  13. Exploratory analysis of Spanish energetic mining accidents.

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Freijo, Modesto; Rossell, Josep M


    Using data on work accidents and annual mining statistics, the paper studies work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining sector in 1999-2008. The following 3 parameters are considered: age, experience and size of the mine (in number of workers) where the accident took place. The main objective of this paper is to show the relationship between different accident indicators: risk index (as an expression of the incidence), average duration index for the age and size of the mine variables (as a measure of the seriousness of an accident), and the gravity index for the various sizes of mines (which measures the seriousness of an accident, too). The conclusions of this study could be useful to develop suitable prevention policies that would contribute towards a decrease in work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining industry.

  14. Victimization and Violent Offending: An Assessment of the Victim-Offender Overlap Among Native American Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Reingle, Jennifer M; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M


    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the victim-offender overlap among a nationally representative sample of Native American adolescents and young adults. Data for this study were obtained from 338 Native American youth who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Waves I-IV. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to estimate trajectories of violence and victimization separately. Bivariate tests were used to assess the overlap between victimization and violent trajectory groups. Multinomial regression procedures were used to assess the predictors of victimization, offending, and the overlap category of both victimization and offending. Three trajectory groups were found for violence (nonviolent, escalators, and desistors) and victimization (nonvictim, decreasing victimization, and increasing victimization). We found substantial evidence of an overlap between victimization and offending among Native Americans, as 27.5% of the sample reported both victimization and offending. Those in the overlap group had greater number of risk factors present at baseline. These results suggest that the victim-offender overlap is present in Native American adolescents. Explanations and implications are discussed.

  15. Fatal motorcycle accidents and alcohol

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M


    A series of fatal motorcycle accidents from a 7-year period (1977-1983) has been analyzed. Of the fatalities 30 were operators of the motorcycle, 11 pillion passengers and 8 counterparts. Of 41 operators 37% were sober at the time of accident, 66% had measurable blood alcohol concentration (BAC......); 59% above 0.08%. In all cases where a pillion passenger was killed, the operator of the motorcycle had a BAC greater than 0.08%. Of the killed counterparts 2 were non-intoxicated, 2 had a BAC greater than 0.08%, and 4 were not tested. The results advocate that the law should restrict alcohol...... consumption by pillion passengers as well as by the motorcycle operator. Suggestions made to extend the data base needed for developing appropriate alcohol countermeasures by collecting sociodemographic data on drivers killed or seriously injured should be supported....

  16. Practical approaches in accident analysis

    Stock, M.

    An accident analysis technique based on successive application of structural response, explosion dynamics, gas cloud formation, and plant operation failure mode models is proposed. The method takes into account the nonideal explosion characteristic of a deflagration in the unconfined cloud. The resulting pressure wave differs significantly from a shock wave and the response of structures like lamp posts and walls can differ correspondingly. This gives a more realistic insight into explosion courses than a simple TNT-equivalent approach.

  17. Perception of secondary victimization in gender violence

    María Aranda López


    Full Text Available Gender violence is a complex phenomenon that does not end with the removal of the abuser, as the abused person can experience secondary victimization. This study examined this process in a sample of 38 battered women. A multicausal approach was used to assess satisfaction with health system, the police, and the judiciary. The study also assessed the role of two variables that have remained unaddressed: family support and perceived danger. The results indicate that dissatisfaction with judicial treatment and legal action plays a key role in the perception of secondary victimization. It was also found that women who perceive less risk value the judicial system more because they do not need the system to take protective measures or other measures for them. Moreover, women who receive family support are more satisfied with the police system.

  18. Forensic odontology involvement in disaster victim identification.

    Berketa, John William; James, Helen; Lake, Anthony W


    Forensic odontology is one of three primary identifiers designated by Interpol to identify victims of mass casualty events. Forensic odontology is involved in all five phases-Scene, Postmortem, Antemortem, Reconciliation and Debrief. Forward planning, adequate funding, international cooperation and standardization are essential to guarantee an effective response. A Standard Operation Procedure should be utilized to maximize quality, facilitate occupation and health issues, maintain security and form a structure to the relief program. Issues that must be considered in the management of the forensic odontology component of disaster victim identification are given in "Appendix 1". Each stage of the disaster, from initial notification to debrief, is analyzed and a comprehensive checklist of actions suggested.

  19. [Multicenter paragliding accident study 1990].

    Lautenschlager, S; Karli, U; Matter, P


    During the period from 1.1.90 until 31.12.90, 86 injuries associated with paragliding were analyzed in a prospective study in 12 different Swiss hospitals with reference to causes, patterns, and frequencies. The injuries showed a mean score of over 2 and were classified as severe. Most frequent spine injuries (36%) and lesions of the lower extremity (35%) with a high risk of the ankles were diagnosed. One accident was fatal. 60% of the accidents happened during landing, 26% during launching and 14% during flight. Half of the pilots were affected during their primary training course. Most accidents were caused by inflight error of judgement--especially incorrect estimation of wind conditions--and further the choice of unfavourable landing sites. In contrast to previous injury-reports, only one equipment failure could be noted, but often the equipment was not corresponding with the experience and the weight of the pilot. To reduce the frequency of paragliding-injuries an accurate choice of equipment and an increased attention to environmental factors is mandatory. Furthermore an education-program regarding the attitude and intelligence of the pilot should be included in training courses.

  20. Internet piracy and consequences for victims

    Savić Miljan; Petrović Nikola M.


    After the evolution of technology made it possible to perform actions via the Internet that constitute copyright violations, the analysis of the effects of internet piracy on social welfare became the subject of academic polemics. The main and the biggest victims of Internet piracy are the holders of copyright and related rights, however, the damage that piracy causes them comes from multiple sources, is difficult to quantify and is only a part of the total...

  1. Suicide or accident? A psychological autopsy study of suicide in youths under the age of 16 compared to deaths labeled as accidents

    Freuchen Anne


    Full Text Available Abstract Objective In the present paper, we describe suicide in youths under 16 years of age and compare their risk factors for suicide to those of older adolescents as described in the literature. Furthermore, we evaluate the possible mislabeling of suicides as accidents, and vice versa. Method We used the data from a nationwide psychological autopsy of youths 15 years and younger who had committed suicide or died in accidents in Norway from 1993 to 2004 (n = 84. We additionally constructed a suicide index to distinguish between the two causes of death. Results The young suicide victims presented, with little gender difference, fewer obvious risk factors and less suicide intent than commonly described for older adolescents. The suicide index distinguished quite well between suicides and accidents, with few cases indicating a possible mislabeling, although some suicide cases could have been labeled as uncertain. Conclusion In line with previous research, suicides in 11-15-year-olds have many similarities to suicides in older adolescents in terms of external circumstances, but they present less apparent warning signs. In our total sample of 84 deaths, there were few indications of incorrect labeling.


    Hăisan, Anca; Dumea, Mihaela; Ursaru, Manuela; Bulat, C; Cimpoeşu, Diana Carmen


    Emergency medicine as a medical specialty has to deal with all kind of emergency situations, from medical to post traumatic acute eyents and from new born to the elderly persons, but also with particular situations like explosions. In Romania nowadays these are accidental explosions and rare like frequency, but may be dramatic due to numbers of victims and multisystem injury that may occur. We present a case of a single victim of accidental detonated bomb, a projectile from the Second World War, which unfortunately still may be found in some areas. The management of the case from first call to 112 until the victim is discharge-involves high professional team work. We use these opportunity to make a brief review of the mechanism through the lesions may appear and also to renew the fact that the most impressive lesion may not be the most severe, and we have to examine carefully in order to find the real life threatening injury of the patient.

  3. Identifying murder victims with endodontic radiographs

    Silva, Rhonan Ferreira; Franco, Ademir; Mendes, Solon Diego Santos Carvalho; Picoli, Fernando Fortes; Nunes, Fernando Gomes; Estrela, Carlos


    Endodontics is a special branch of dentistry constantly guided by imaging examinations. From a forensic scope, endodontics plays a valuable role providing solid antemortem (AM) radiographic evidence for comparison with postmortem findings in human identifications. This study illustrates the interface between endodontics and forensic odontology describing three cases of human identification based on radiographic endodontic records. From 2009 to 2012, three unknown male victims of murder were examined in a local Brazilian medico-legal institute to retrieve identity and potential cause of death. Specifically, when asked for AM data, a relative of the three victims provided periapical radiographs of endodontic treatments. Based on that, forensic dentists reproduced the same imaging acquisition techniques obtaining similar periapical radiographs, enabling a comparative dental identification. All the victims were positively identified based on patterns of dental morphology and treatment intervention. This study draws the attention of general and forensic dentists highlight the importance of properly recording dental treatments and searching for evidence in AM endodontic data, respectively. PMID:28123272

  4. Victim support services in England, Wales and Northern Ireland

    Ćopić Sanja M.


    Full Text Available In the paper, authors tried to present activities of one of the oldest European Victim Support Services - Victim Support for England, Wales and Northern Ireland. During 1970s, through practice and research projects, the need for recognizing the physical and psychological status of victims after the crime was committed, as well as the need of providing them with the (informal assistance and support were noticed. That has resulted in establishing numerous of local victim support services (schemes, which united in the National Association of the Victim Support Services in 1979. Significant support was given to the Service in 1980s through the recommendations of the Council of Europe on the assistance for victims of crime and prevention of victimization through direct support given to the victim immediately after the incident, including protection and safety, medical, mental, social and financial support, as well as providing the victim with information on his/her rights, support during the criminal proceeding, assistance in getting compensation etc. Organization and structure of the service, referral system, code of practice and two main programs: Victim Service and Witness Service are reviewed in the paper.

  5. Violências e acidentes entre adultos mais velhos em comparação aos mais jovens: evidências do Sistema de Vigilância de Violências e Acidentes (VIVA, Brasil Violence and accidents among older and younger adults: evidence from the Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA, Brazil

    Tatiana Chama Borges Luz


    Full Text Available Dados do Sistema de Vigilância de Violências e Acidentes (VIVA de 2009 foram utilizados para examinar características sociodemográficas, desfechos e tipos de acidentes e violências que levaram a atendimento em 74 serviços sentinela situados em 23 capitais brasileiras e no Distrito Federal. A análise incluiu 25.201 indivíduos com idade > 20 anos (10,1% com > 60 anos, dos quais 89,3% foram vítimas de acidentes e 11,9% de violências. A hospitalização foi o desfecho de 11,1% dos casos. Em comparação à população geral, observou-se ainda um excesso de homens e da cor da pele não branca entre vítimas de acidentes e, sobretudo, de violência. O perfil desses eventos entre os mais velhos diferiu dos mais jovens (20-59 anos, com destaque para a menor contribuição do álcool, o predomínio de ocorrências no domicílio, a maior importância relativa das quedas e a maior vulnerabilidade a atropelamentos e a agressões por familiares. Políticas para a prevenção de acidentes e violências devem levar em conta as especificidades desses eventos na população mais velha.Data from the Brazilian Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA in 2009 were used to examine socio-demographic characteristics, outcomes, and types of accidents and violence treated at 74 sentinel emergency services in 23 Brazilian State capitals and the Federal District. The analysis included 25,201 individuals aged > 20 years (10.1% > 60 years; 89.3% were victims of accidents and 11.9% victims of violence. Hospitalization was the outcome in 11.1% of cases. Compared to the general population, there were more men and non-white individuals among victims of accidents, and especially among victims of violence. As compared to younger adults (20-59 years, accidents and violence against elderly victims showed less association with alcohol, a higher proportion of domestic incidents, more falls and pedestrian accidents, and aggression by family members. Policies for

  6. [Accidents in travellers - the hidden epidemic].

    Walz, Alexander; Hatz, Christoph


    The risk of malaria and other communicable diseases is well addressed in pre-travel advice. Accidents are usually less discussed. Thus, we aimed at assessing accident figures for the Swiss population, based on data of the register from 2004 to 2008 of the largest Swiss accident insurance organization (SUVA). More than 139'000 accidents over 5 years showed that 65 % of the accidents overseas are injuries, and 24 % are caused by poisoning or harm by cold, heat or air pressure. Most accidents happened during leisure activities or sports. More than one third of the non-lethal and more than 50 % of the fatal accidents happened in Asia. More than three-quarters of non-lethal accidents take place in people between 25 and 54 years. One out of 74 insured persons has an accident abroad per year. Despite of many analysis short-comings of the data set with regard to overseas travel, the figures document the underestimated burden of disease caused by accidents abroad and should affect the given pre-health advice.

  7. Developing a precise questionnaire to elucidate risk factors and injury pattern in RTA victims

    RK Singh


    Full Text Available Introduction: Road traffic injuries are a growing public health issue. Despite good numbers of traffic legislations/ law/bye-laws/ regulations/ policies at the national/ state level and various safety measures to prevent road accidents/ mishaps, awareness remains comparatively low in India. Till date no questionnaire has been suitably developed, standardized and positivised for determining association of causality with injury pattern and severity score. Objective: To design and develop a précised survey questionnaire determining association of causality with injury pattern along with severity score in RTA victims.  Methodology: Till date no such study has been ventured which has observed the inter relationship of these factors resulting in a specific injury. Designed questionnaire was based on literature review, and updated several times to ensure the precision and agreement with the help of institutional trauma expert team. As a pilot study, 30 RTA victims admitted in trauma centre of KG Medical University were enrolled and designed questionnaire was tested for easiness and doubts. The results were thoroughly analyzed for item difficulty, precision and internal consistency. Results: A significant agreement of question pertaining to speed (k=0.99, CI=0.95, visibility (k=0.87, alcohol (k=0.65 in the questionnaire. Questions related to environment, driver, vehicle and road factors show a significant consistency (p>0.05 as cause of accidents. Test of agreements done by Kappa showed in variables having value more than 0.60 except few variables. Discussion: The designed questionnaire is precise, reasonably reliable in perfect agreement. This questionnaire should emerge a useful tool in determining the association of risk factors with injury pattern and severity. 

  8. Severe Accident Recriticality Analyses (SARA)

    Frid, W. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Hoejerup, F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Puska, E.K. [VTT Energy, Helsinki (Finland); Nilsson, Lars [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Sjoevall, H. [Teoliisuuden Voima Oy (Finland)


    Recriticality in a BWR has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In a BWR, the B{sub 4}C control rods would melt and relocate from the core before the fuel during core uncovery and heat-up. If electric power returns during this time-window unborated water from ECCS systems will start to reflood the partly control rod free core. Recriticality might take place for which the only mitigating mechanisms are the Doppler effect and void formation. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management measures, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: 1. the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst, 2. the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst and 3. containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core state initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality - both superprompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation - for the studied range of parameters, i. e. with core uncovery and heat-up to maximum core temperatures around 1800 K and water flow rates of 45 kg/s to 2000 kg/s injected into the downcomer. Since the recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core the power densities are high which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal/g, was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding

  9. Retrospective analysis of snake victims in Northern India admitted in a tertiary level institute

    Syed Moied Ahmed


    Full Text Available Context: Snake bites are the common cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical countries. Aims: To analyze the outcome of snake bite victims Settings and Design: Retrospective analysis of data from Intensive care unit, Department of Anesthesiology. Materials and Methods: All the patients admitted in the intensive care unit for snake bite management during the year May 2004 - April 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. The data included age, sex, month and time of incident, site of bite, dose of anti--snake venom, time of anti--snake venom, administration, duration of mechanical ventilation, complications and death of a victim. Statistical analysis used: Pearson′s correlation test, paired samples t-test. Results and Conclusions: 113 patients reported to the Accident and Emergency with history of snake bite. 26 patients were referred to other hospital, 17 patients were brought dead, and 70 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. In 59 snake-bite victims, maximum data could be recovered. Krait was the most common type of snake bite reported. There was a male preponderance (69.4% with age ranging between 20 and 40 years (52.5%. The mean lag time (time elapsed between bite and first dose of anti--snake venom was 5.3 ± 1.4 h and the mean anti-snake venom dose was 12.3 ± 2.4 vials. There was a positive and significant correlation between lag time and total dose of anti--snake venom (correlation coefficient =0.956, P<0.0001. Overall 72.9% patients required mechanical ventilation with a mean duration of 56.2 ± 16.1 h. 10.2% patients sustained cardiac arrest, 8.7% patients developed ventilator associated pneumonia, 6.7% suffered mild anti-snake venom reaction, 6.7% had hypotension and 5.1% patients developed renal failure. The overall mortality was 5.1%.

  10. Quantifying the risk of extreme aviation accidents

    Das, Kumer Pial; Dey, Asim Kumer


    Air travel is considered a safe means of transportation. But when aviation accidents do occur they often result in fatalities. Fortunately, the most extreme accidents occur rarely. However, 2014 was the deadliest year in the past decade causing 111 plane crashes, and among them worst four crashes cause 298, 239, 162 and 116 deaths. In this study, we want to assess the risk of the catastrophic aviation accidents by studying historical aviation accidents. Applying a generalized Pareto model we predict the maximum fatalities from an aviation accident in future. The fitted model is compared with some of its competitive models. The uncertainty in the inferences are quantified using simulated aviation accident series, generated by bootstrap resampling and Monte Carlo simulations.

  11. Nuclear tests: the late indemnification of victims; Essais nucleaire: l'indemnisation tardive des victimes

    Charbonneau, S. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 (France)


    The author briefly recalls the historical context of the creation of the CEA and outlines the silence and denial about the radioactive contamination of military personnel during the nuclear tests performed in the Algerian Sahara and in Polynesia. He also outlines the continuous action of the association of veterans and victims of these nuclear tests which gathered proofs of health consequences. He comments the content and scope of application of laws which have been lately adopted (in 2010) to acknowledge these facts and indemnify the victims

  12. When are victims unlikely to cooperate with the police?

    Felson, Richard B; Lantz, Brendan


    Data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) are used to examine the tendency for victims of physical assault, sexual assault, and robbery to refuse to cooperate with the police (N= 3,856,171). Analyses of physical assaults involving homosexual and heterosexual couples did not support the hypothesis that women attacked by their male partners are less likely to cooperate than victims of other assaults. Analyses of violent offenses more generally showed that victims of violence were more likely to refuse to cooperate if they knew the offender in any way than if the offender was a stranger. In the case of physical and sexual assault, these effects were mainly observed for minor incidents. Finally, victims of sexual assault were more likely to cooperate with the police than victims of physical assault. The findings suggest the importance of comparing the victim's reactions to intimate partner violence and sexual assault to their reactions to other offenses.

  13. Investigation of a fatal airplane crash: autopsy, computed tomography, and injury pattern analysis used to determine who was steering the plane at time of accident. A case report

    Høyer, Christian Bjerre; Nielsen, Trine Skov; Nagel, Lise Loft


    A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior to the au......A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior...... to the autopsy. The autopsies showed massive destruction to the bodies of the two victims but did not identify any signs of acute or chronic medical conditions that could explain loss of control of the airplane. PMCT, histological examination, and forensic chemical analysis also failed to identify an explanation...... for the crash. A detailed review of an airplane identical to the crashed airplane was performed in collaboration with the Danish Accident Investigation Board and the Danish National Police, National Centre of Forensic Services. The injuries were described using the abbreviated injury scale, the injury severity...

  14. Epidemiology of road traffic accident deaths in children in Chandigarh zone of North West India

    Dalbir Singh


    Full Text Available The fatalities from Road Traffic Accidents (RTA constitute a major cause of unnatural deaths among children in Chandigarh zone of North West India. The epidemiology of RTA related deaths in this age group is lacking in our country. This retrospective study (1974–2013 included children (⩽18 years who became victims of RTA and subsequently died during the course of treatment. The postmortem and hospital records of the victims were used to collect the epidemiological data regarding age, sex, area of residence, etc. These deaths constituted 9.4% of total road accident deaths reported at this hospital. Out of a total of 709 RTA deaths in children, about 16% were reported in the block year of 1974–78 and this proportion decreased to 9.4% during the block year of 1984–88 and has remained almost constant since then. The maximum number of victims belonged to the states of Haryana (36% and Punjab (34%. A higher number of deaths were observed in rural population (60%. Most of the fatalities occurred between 12–4 pm (29.9% and pedestrians (47.8% were found to be the most commonly affected. The most common affected was the 16–18 year age group (35.3%. Injury to head and neck region (81.4% was responsible for a majority of deaths. The study concluded that the RTA remains an important cause of unnatural deaths in children. The static proportion of these deaths over the past three decades signifies that the road safety policies have been ineffective in preventing causalities and need further improvements.

  15. Injuries to pedestrians in road traffic accidents.

    Atkins, R. M.; Turner, W H; Duthie, R. B.; Wilde, B. R.


    Although there have been many reports on injuries to occupants of cars in road traffic accidents, there have been few prospective studies of injuries to pedestrians in such accidents. For this reason a two year prospective study of pedestrians in road traffic accidents in the Oxford region was carried out. The incidence of death in pedestrians was significantly higher than in car occupants or motorcyclists. The principal determinant of death was the weight of the vehicle concerned. The most c...

  16. A Latent Class Analysis of Victimization among Middle and High School Students in California

    Berkowitz, Ruth; De Pedro, Kris Tunac; Gilreath, Tamika D.


    School victimization is associated with negative social-emotional outcomes and risky behaviors. Most studies have provided definitions and measures of victimization, depicting a limited characterization of victimization in schools. More nuanced analyses of school victimization are needed to assess the heterogeneous pattern of victimization in…

  17. Psychological processes in young bullies versus bully-victims.

    van Dijk, Anouk; Poorthuis, Astrid M G; Malti, Tina


    Some children who bully others are also victimized themselves ("bully-victims") whereas others are not victimized themselves ("bullies"). These subgroups have been shown to differ in their social functioning as early as in kindergarten. What is less clear are the motives that underlie the bullying behavior of young bullies and bully-victims. The present study examined whether bullies have proactive motives for aggression and anticipate to feel happy after victimizing others, whereas bully-victims have reactive motives for aggression, poor theory of mind skills, and attribute hostile intent to others. This "distinct processes hypothesis" was contrasted with the "shared processes hypothesis," predicting that bullies and bully-victims do not differ on these psychological processes. Children (n = 283, age 4-9) were classified as bully, bully-victim, or noninvolved using peer-nominations. Theory of mind, hostile intent attributions, and happy victimizer emotions were assessed using standard vignettes and false-belief tasks; reactive and proactive motives were assessed using teacher-reports. We tested our hypotheses using Bayesian model selection, enabling us to directly compare the distinct processes model (predicting that bullies and bully-victims deviate from noninvolved children on different psychological processes) against the shared processes model (predicting that bullies and bully-victims deviate from noninvolved children on all psychological processes alike). Overall, the shared processes model received more support than the distinct processes model. These results suggest that in early childhood, bullies and bully-victims have shared, rather than distinct psychological processes underlying their bullying behavior.

  18. Victim countries of transnational terrorism: an empirical characteristics analysis.

    Elbakidze, Levan; Jin, Yanhong


    This study empirically investigates the association between country-level socioeconomic characteristics and risk of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. We find that a country's annual financial contribution to the U.N. general operating budget has a positive association with the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. In addition, per capita GDP, political freedom, and openness to trade are nonlinearly related to the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events.

  19. [The victim as object of the medico-legal intervention].

    Magalhães, Teresa


    We present a reflection about the victim as the object of the medico-legal intervention, that opens perspectives not only to the evidence research (as a techno-scientific contribute to support Justice in what concerns bio-psycho-social questions), but also to the support of victims which, in a last analysis, is no more than another aspect of this the social contribution of this science to ensure the best interest of the victim. This reflection aims to contribute to a better knowledge of the victim in his/her various perspectives. Accordingly, during the exposition, we refer some contributes of Victimology towards the understanding of the victims' behaviour's. Afterwards, we focus on the problems related to the aetiologies (with a particular reference to trauma), levels and consequences (physical, psychological and socio-economical) of victimization, as well as the methodologies of victims approach, medico-legal evaluation and reparation. Considering victims as being not only those who suffer directly the consequences of the victimizing phenomena, but also those that suffer from it indirectly and even secondarily, we shall approach the topic regarding both perspectives. We highlight the importance of understanding the victim as a person, not just understanding him/her confined to the organic aspect (as it used to be until recently in certain fields of medico-legal intervention, and as it still happens due to some legal obligations, for instance in the Labour Law), but considering the person in a global way (body, capacities, life situations and subjectivity). In conclusion, we highlight the importance of this topic to the medico-legal mission, while taking part in various multidisciplinary interventions and being involved in strategies and measures which purpose is to prevent violence, promote safety, avoid secondary victimization and revictimization as well as guarantee the victims' protection and reintegration, in a work attitude that should happen, even more and

  20. Effect of childhood victimization on occupational prestige and income trajectories.

    Cristina A Fernandez

    Full Text Available Violence toward children (childhood victimization is a major public health problem, with long-term consequences on economic well-being. The purpose of this study was to determine whether childhood victimization affects occupational prestige and income in young adulthood. We hypothesized that young adults who experienced more childhood victimizations would have less prestigious jobs and lower incomes relative to those with no victimization history. We also explored the pathways in which childhood victimization mediates the relationships between background variables, such as parent's educational impact on the socioeconomic transition into adulthood.A nationally representative sample of 8,901 young adults aged 18-28 surveyed between 1999-2009 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY were analyzed. Covariate-adjusted multivariate linear regression and path models were used to estimate the effects of victimization and covariates on income and prestige levels and on income and prestige trajectories. After each participant turned 18, their annual 2002 Census job code was assigned a yearly prestige score based on the 1989 General Social Survey, and their annual income was calculated via self-reports. Occupational prestige and annual income are time-varying variables measured from 1999-2009. Victimization effects were tested for moderation by sex, race, and ethnicity in the multivariate models.Approximately half of our sample reported at least one instance of childhood victimization before the age of 18. Major findings include 1 childhood victimization resulted in slower income and prestige growth over time, and 2 mediation analyses suggested that this slower prestige and earnings arose because victims did not get the same amount of education as non-victims.Results indicated that the consequences of victimization negatively affected economic success throughout young adulthood, primarily by slowing the growth in prosperity due to lower


    S.O. Bader


    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  2. Methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions

    Elvik, Rune


    This paper proposes methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions. An accident modification function is a mathematical function describing systematic variation in the effects of road safety measures. The paper describes ten guidelines. An example is given of how to use...... limitations in developing accident modification functions are the small number of good evaluation studies and the often huge variation in estimates of effect. It is therefore still not possible to develop accident modification functions for very many road safety measures. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...

  3. Systematics of Reconstructed Process Facility Criticality Accidents

    Pruvost, N.L.; McLaughlin, T.P.; Monahan, S.P.


    The systematics of the characteristics of twenty-one criticality accidents occurring in nuclear processing facilities of the Russian Federation, the United States, and the United Kingdom are examined. By systematics the authors mean the degree of consistency or agreement between the factual parameters reported for the accidents and the experimentally known conditions for criticality. The twenty-one reported process criticality accidents are not sufficiently well described to justify attempting detailed neutronic modeling. However, results of classic hand calculations confirm the credibility of the reported accident conditions.

  4. Aerospace Accident - Injury Autopsy Data System -

    Department of Transportation — The Aerospace Accident Injury Autopsy Database System will provide the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) Aerospace Medical Research Team (AMRT) the ability to...

  5. HTGR severe accident sequence analysis

    Harrington, R.M.; Ball, S.J.; Kornegay, F.C.


    Thermal-hydraulic, fission product transport, and atmospheric dispersion calculations are presented for hypothetical severe accident release paths at the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). Off-site radiation exposures are calculated for assumed release of 100% of the 24 hour post-shutdown core xenon and krypton inventory and 5.5% of the iodine inventory. The results show conditions under which dose avoidance measures would be desirable and demonstrate the importance of specific release characteristics such as effective release height. 7 tables.

  6. Accident Management in VVER-1000

    F. D'Auria


    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the investigation study on accident management in VVER-1000 reactor type conducted in the framework of a European Commission funded project. The mentioned study involved both experimental and computational fields. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the main findings from the execution of a wide-range analysis focused on AM in VVER-1000 with main regard to the qualification of computational tools and the proposal for an optimal AM strategy for this kind of NPP.

  7. Road Traffic Accidents - The Number One Killer in Libya

    Abdulmajid Ahmed Ali


    is well documented that Advanced Trauma and Life Support (ATLS and Advanced Life Support (ALS courses improve survival [5].Unfortunately in Libya they are not compulsory for nurses or doctors. Some doctors and nurses working in the Emergency department are even unaware that these courses exist. Therefore, it is no surprise that the majority of car accident causalities dies or sustain permanent disabilities despite reaching the hospital in redeemable condition.WHAT CAN WE DO TO HELP?A. Ministry of Health:1. We must put pressure on the ministry of health and offer our services in running ATLS, ALS and Trauma courses to all medical personnel and paramedics. These courses should become a prerequisite for qualifying to work in the Medical field especially for those who directly deal with trauma patients.2. All hospitals dealing with trauma must have well trained and well equipped trauma and cardiac arrest teams whose ATLS/ ALS knowledge is revalidated periodically.3. Emphasise the importance of introducing the Bleep/Page System.4. Train paramedics and improve the Emergency Service [5,6].5. Emergency phone numbers should exist and should be made free of charge to dial.B. Ministry of Education:1. Educate children at an early age about behaviour in the street and dangers on the road.2. The schools should share the responsibilities with the traffic police in ensuring the safety of pupils.3. Supply posters and educate the public.4. The United Nations invited member states and the international community to recognize the third Sunday in November of every year as the World Day of Remembrance for Road Traffic Victims as the appropriate acknowledgement for victims of road traffic crashes and their families.I think a union should be formed in Libya, of people who have lost relatives to car accidents to campaign and educate drivers as per recommendation of the UN [7].C. Ministry of Transport:1. Re-validate the traffic police on their behaviour and knowledge of the law.2. Revise and

  8. Commentary (Victim Participation in the International Criminal Court)

    Marchuk, Iryna


    Victim participation is one of the most innovative aspects introduced in the legal framework of the International Criminal Court (hereinafter – ICC), which has not featured in the practices of other international criminal courts and tribunals. The approach of the ad hoc tribunals to victims...... was very ‘consumer like’ because victims were solely used as witnesses to testify about the crimes attributed to the accused, but they were not granted broad participatory rights in the proceedings. The drafters of the Rome Statute acknowledged wide-ranging interests of victims who, apart from seeking...

  9. The Polish Genetic Database of Victims of Totalitarianisms.

    Ossowski, A; Kuś, M; Kupiec, T; Bykowska, M; Zielińska, G; Jasiński, M E; March, A L


    This paper describes the creation of the Polish Genetic Database of Victims of Totalitarianism and the first research conducted under this project. On September 28th 2012, the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin and the Institute of National Remembrance-Commission for Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation agreed to support the creation of the Polish Genetic Database of Victims of Totalitarianism (PBGOT, The purpose was to employ state-of-the-art methods of forensic genetics to identify the remains of unidentified victims of Communist and Nazi totalitarian regimes. The database was designed to serve as a central repository of genetic information of the victim's DNA and that of the victim's nearest living relatives, with the goal of making a positive identification of the victim. Along the way, PGBOT encountered several challenges. First, extracting useable DNA samples from the remains of individuals who had been buried for over half a century required forensic geneticists to create special procedures and protocols. Second, obtaining genetic reference material and historical information from the victim's closest relatives was both problematic and urgent. The victim's nearest living relatives were part of a dying generation, and the opportunity to obtain the best genetic and historical information about the victims would soon die with them. For this undertaking, PGBOT assembled a team of historians, archaeologists, forensic anthropologists, and forensic geneticists from several European research institutions. The field work was divided into five broad categories: (1) exhumation of victim remains and storing their biological material for later genetic testing; (2) researching archives and historical data for a more complete profile of those killed or missing and the families that lost them; (3) locating the victim's nearest relatives to obtain genetic reference samples (swabs), (4) entering the genetic data from both victims and family


    S. A. Azemsha


    Full Text Available Measures undertaken for improvement of road traffic safety presuppose clampdown on violation of road traffic regulations but no attention is paid to the fact that there is no possibility to ensure road traffic safety due to inconformity of roads to the modern safety requirements. Therefore reduction in accident rate is connected with some changes in approaches to designing, construction and maintenance of roads. Nowadays when the number of automobiles is extremely large and their number is increasing with every passing year driver’s professionalism becomes the most significant factor. In these circumstances the professionalism is demonstrated not so much while driving in bad road conditions as it was previously but the professionalism is more revealed in the case when it is necessary to drive in conditions of large workloads and high manoeuvring rate when a special important role is given to the capability to forecast a situation, in other words the capability to read the road. Moral climate on the road is no less important as well and it practically fully depends on a driver.The paper contains an analysis of the Gomel traffic police data on quantitative distribution of road traffic accidents and their victims according to the time of day and month, lighting conditions, weather conditions, age and sex factors, types of violations. Situations of traffic behavior, motivations of drivers and road users, drivers training have been shown in terms of impact on the road traffic accident risk. The paper considers a human factor which rather often causes an accident. An evaluation has been given to such factor as road speed of transport facilities which exerts a significant influence on an accident risk and its severity.

  11. The radioinduced membranes injuries as biological dose indicators: mechanisms of studies and practical applications; Les dommages membranaires radio-induits comme bio-indicateurs de dose: etudes des mecanismes et applications pratiques

    Vincent-Genod, Lucie


    After an accidental overexposure, the assessment of the received dose in biological dosimetry is performed by a method based on the effects of irradiation on the DNA molecule. But this technique shows some limitations; therefore we tried to find new bio-sensors of radiation exposure. We have pointed out that membrane is a critical target of ionising radiation after an in vitro and in vivo overexposure. In vitro, these modifications were involved in the radio-induced apoptotic pathway. The measure of membrane fluidity allowed us to obtain an overall view of cellular membrane. Moreover, in vivo, by changing the lipid nutritional status of animals, our results displayed the important role played by membrane lipid composition in radio-induced membrane alterations. Besides, membrane effects were adjusted by the extracellular physiological control, and in particular by the damages on membrane fatty acid pattern. Finally, we have tested the use of membrane fluidity index as a bio-sensor of radiation exposure on in vivo models and blood samples from medical total body irradiated patients. The results achieved on animal models suggested that the membrane fluidity index was a bio-sensor of radiation exposure. Nevertheless, the observations realised on patients highlight that the effect of the first dose fraction of the radiotherapy treatment had some difficulties to be noticed. Indeed, the combined treatment: chemotherapy and radiotherapy disturbed the membrane fluidity index measures. To conclude, whereas this parameter was not a bio-sensor of irradiation exposure usable in biological dosimetry, it may allow us to assess the radio-induced damages and their cellular but also tissue impacts. (author)

  12. Complémentarité d'échantillonneurs passifs et de bio-indicateurs pour évaluer la contamination en pesticides des eaux de surface de bassins versants agricoles

    Le Dreau, M.; Chaumot, A.; Foulquier, A.; François, A; Geffard, O.; Margoum, C.; Pesce, S.; Martin, C; Mazzella, N.; Gouy, V.


    45e congrès du Groupe Français des Pesticides, Versailles, FRA, 27-/05/2015 - 29/05/2015; National audience; Pour effectuer un diagnostic de la contamination en produits phytosanitaires présents dans les milieux aquatiques continentaux, les gestionnaires des eaux s'appuient essentiellement sur une stratégie d'analyse chimique via une stratégie d'échantillonnage ponctuel. Mais cette méthodologie souffre d'un manque de représentativité temporelle et ne rend pas compte des effets biologiques ind...

  13. The "Arnold Schwarzenegger Effect": is strength of the "victim" related to misinterpretations of harm intrusions?

    Berman, Noah C; Wheaton, Michael G; Abramowitz, Jonathan S


    The present study used an in vivo paradigm to examine whether the victim's vulnerability in a harm-related intrusion affects beliefs about the importance of thoughts (i.e., Thought Action Fusion; TAF). Sixty-six undergraduate students at a large university were randomly assigned to imagine either a vulnerable (e.g., elderly man) or able-bodied individual (e.g., strong youthful male) they know getting into a car accident and provided in vivo ratings of anxiety, guilt, likelihood, moral wrongness, and urges to neutralize. Results indicated that thinking of car accident involving a vulnerable, compared to an able-bodied person, provoked more distress (anxiety and guilt), stronger feelings of moral wrongness, greater urges to cancel the effects of thinking such thoughts, and higher estimates of the likelihood that the collision would occur. The findings of our study broadly support Rachman's (1998) assertion that more significance and importance is attached to negative thoughts about vulnerable or helpless people. Current findings are discussed in terms of the cognitive-behavioral model of obsessions and clinical implications are addressed.

  14. Child Sexual Abuse and Psychological Impairment in Victims: Results of an Online Study Initiated by Victims

    Schaefer, Gerard A.; Mundt, Ingrid A.; Ahlers, Christoph J.; Bahls, Christian


    Sexual abuse of children has been a topic of scientific investigation for the past few decades. Research in this area, however, is rarely initiated, conceptualized, and conducted by victims themselves. Apart from possibly having painted a one-sided picture of sexual abuse, this presumed dominance of nonvictims might also have marginalized victims…

  15. Defending victimized peers : Opposing the bully, supporting the victim, or both?

    Reijntjes, Albert; Vermande, Marjolijn; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits A; Aleva, Liesbeth; van der Meulen, Matty


    To reduce bullying, more knowledge on children defending their victimized peers is critical. In previous work, predominantly cross-sectional in nature, defending has typically been operationalized as one single, broad construct. However, there are good reasons to assume that attacking the bully (bul

  16. The Joint Development of Traditional Bullying and Victimization with Cyber Bullying and Victimization in Adolescence

    Jose, Paul E.; Kljakovic, Moja; Scheib, Emma; Notter, Olivia


    The present study investigated the stabilities of and interrelationships among traditional (i.e., face-to-face) bullying, traditional victimhood, cyber bullying, and cyber victimhood among adolescents over time. About 1,700 adolescents aged 11-16 years at Time 1 self-reported levels of both bullying and victimization in four contexts (in school,…

  17. Derecho victimal y victimodogmática

    Rodríguez Manzanera, Luis


    Este artículo fue preparado para el Encuentro Internacional en homenaje al Prof. Dr. Antonio Beristain Ipiña, celebrado en el Instituto Vasco de Criminología, en Donostia-San Sebastián, a princi- pios de noviembre de 2011. El tema general del encuentro fue “Hacia una Justicia Victimal” y, en una de sus partes se analizó el concepto de justicia victimal en el Derecho Penal. [ES] En la última década del siglo XX, proliferan en todo el mundo las disposiciones leg...

  18. [Multiple injuries in mass accidents].

    Wondrák, E


    The treatment starts with reanimation, managing the shock, followed by life-saving surgery on the central nervous system, chest, abdomen, large blood vessels and the uropoietic system. From the very beginning the therapy should be conducted on an intradisciplinary basis, first with the anaesthesiologist, later with other specialists as required. Once the patient's life has been saved, treatment of eyes, hands and systematic attention to extremities should follow. Shock has to be managed within 24 hours. Luxations of large joints should be reposed on the date of injury, open fractures closed, all fractures immobilized in favourable position. No extension should be applied in patients suffering from brain injuries; fractures of the femur should be fixed surgically by a second team in the course of the neurosurgical operation. A stomatologist's assistance makes general anaesthesia possible even with fractures of the jaw. In mass accidents the therapeutic plan for the polytraumatized should be fixed on the following day. A mass accident involving 35 injured treated within two and a half hours demonstrates this procedure in 7 polytraumatized persons.

  19. Correspondence model of occupational accidents

    Juan C. Conte


    Full Text Available We present a new generalized model for the diagnosis and prediction of accidents among the Spanish workforce. Based on observational data of the accident rate in all Spanish companies over eleven years (7,519,732 accidents, we classified them in a new risk-injury contingency table (19×19. Through correspondence analysis, we obtained a structure composed of three axes whose combination identifies three separate risk and injury groups, which we used as a general Spanish pattern. The most likely or frequent relationships between the risk and injuries identified in the pattern facilitated the decision-making process in companies at an early stage of risk assessment. Each risk-injury group has its own characteristics, which are understandable within the phenomenological framework of the accident. The main advantages of this model are its potential application to any other country and the feasibility of contrasting different country results. One limiting factor, however, is the need to set a common classification framework for risks and injuries to enhance comparison, a framework that does not exist today. The model aims to manage work-related accidents automatically at any level.Apresentamos aqui um modelo generalizado para o diagnóstico e predição de acidentes na classe de trabalhadores da Espanha. Baseados em dados sobre a frequência de acidentes em todas as companhias da Espanha em 11 anos (7.519.732 acidentes, nós os classificamos em uma nova tabela de contingência risco-injúria (19×19. Através de uma análise por correspondência obtivemos uma estrutura composta por 3 eixos cuja combinação identifica 3 grupos separados de risco e injúria, que nós usamos como um perfil geral na Espanha. As mais prováveis ou frequentes relações entre risco e injúrias identificadas nesse perfil facilitaram o processo de decisão nas companhias em um estágio inicial de apreciação do risco. Cada grupo de risco-injúria tem suas próprias caracter

  20. 78 FR 64245 - AG Survey of Transitional Housing Assistance for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence...


    ... Survey of Transitional Housing Assistance for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Stalking, or... Transitional Housing Assistance Program Grant for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Stalking, or... 300 Transitional Housing Assistance Program Grant for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating...

  1. Key Characteristics of Combined Accident including TLOFW accident for PSA Modeling

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)


    The conventional PSA techniques cannot adequately evaluate all events. The conventional PSA models usually focus on single internal events such as DBAs, the external hazards such as fire, seismic. However, the Fukushima accident of Japan in 2011 reveals that very rare event is necessary to be considered in the PSA model to prevent the radioactive release to environment caused by poor treatment based on lack of the information, and to improve the emergency operation procedure. Especially, the results from PSA can be used to decision making for regulators. Moreover, designers can consider the weakness of plant safety based on the quantified results and understand accident sequence based on human actions and system availability. This study is for PSA modeling of combined accidents including total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident. The TLOFW accident is a representative accident involving the failure of cooling through secondary side. If the amount of heat transfer is not enough due to the failure of secondary side, the heat will be accumulated to the primary side by continuous core decay heat. Transients with loss of feedwater include total loss of feedwater accident, loss of condenser vacuum accident, and closure of all MSIVs. When residual heat removal by the secondary side is terminated, the safety injection into the RCS with direct primary depressurization would provide alternative heat removal. This operation is called feed and bleed (F and B) operation. Combined accidents including TLOFW accident are very rare event and partially considered in conventional PSA model. Since the necessity of F and B operation is related to plant conditions, the PSA modeling for combined accidents including TLOFW accident is necessary to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities.The PSA is significant to assess the risk of NPPs, and to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities. Even though the combined accident is very rare event, the consequence of combined

  2. Radiological accidents balance in medicine; Bilan des accidents radiologiques en medecine

    Nenot, J.C.


    This work deals with the radiological accidents in medicine. In medicine, the radiation accidents on medical personnel and patients can be the result of over dosage and bad focusing of radiotherapy sealed sources. Sometimes, the accidents, if they are unknown during a time enough for the source to be spread and to expose a lot of persons (in the case of source dismantling for instance) can take considerable dimensions. Others accidents can come from bad handling of linear accelerators and from radionuclide kinetics in some therapies. Some examples of accidents are given. (O.L.). 11 refs.

  3. Squeal Those Tires! Automobile-Accident Reconstruction.

    Caples, Linda Griffin


    Methods use to reconstruct traffic accidents provide settings for real life applications for students in precalculus, mathematical analysis, or trigonometry. Described is the investigation of an accident in conjunction with the local Highway Patrol Academy integrating physics, vector, and trigonometry. Class findings were compared with those of…

  4. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36.513 Section 36.513 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention,...

  5. Global estimates of fatal occupational accidents.

    Takala, J


    Data on occupational accidents are not available from all countries in the world. Furthermore, underreporting, limited coverage by reporting and compensation schemes, and non-harmonized accident recording and notification systems undermine efforts to obtain worldwide information on occupational accidents. This paper presents a method and new estimated global figures of fatal accidents at work by region. The fatal occupational accident rates reported to the International Labour Office are extended to the total employed workforce in countries and regions. For areas not covered by the reported information, rates from other countries that have similar or comparable conditions are applied. In 1994, an average estimated fatal occupational accident rate in the whole world was 14.0 per 100,000 workers, and the total estimated number of fatal occupational accidents was 335,000. The rates are different for individual countries and regions and for separate branches of economic activity. In conclusion, fatal occupational accident figures are higher than previously estimated. The new estimates can be gradually improved by obtaining and adding data from countries where information is not yet available. Sectoral estimates for at least key economic branches in individual countries would further increase the accuracy.

  6. Occupational blood exposure accidents in the Netherlands.

    Wijk, P.T.L. van; Schneeberger, P.M.; Heimeriks, K.; Boland, G.J.; Karagiannis, I.; Geraedts, J.; Ruijs, W.L.M.


    BACKGROUND: To make proper evaluation of prevention policies possible, data on the incidence and associated medical costs of occupational blood exposure accidents in the Netherlands are needed. METHODS: Descriptive analysis of blood exposure accidents and risk estimates for occupational groups. Cost

  7. Accidents of bus drivers : an epidemiological approach

    M.L.I. Pokorny (Mirko); D.H.J. Blom (Dick)


    textabstractIn the history of accident research much emphasis has been laid on general statistics, different types of case studies concentrating on various personal factor-s, circumstantial influences etc. Often, in certain waves, the unequal initial liability theory (the accident proneness concept;

  8. An introduction to serious nuclear accident chemistry

    Mark Russell St. John Foreman


    A review of the chemistry occurring inside a nuclear power plant during a serious reactor accident is presented. This includes some aspects of the behavior of nuclear fuel, its cladding, cesium and iodine. This review concentrates on the chemistry of an accident in a water-cooled reactor loaded with uranium dioxide or mixed metal oxide fuel.

  9. Fatal traffic accidents and forensic medicine

    Kazuhiko Kibayashi


    Full Text Available In the event of a traffic accident fatality, the death is reported as an “unusual death,” an inquest is conducted, and, if necessary, a forensic autopsy is performed to prove any causal relationship between the accident and the death, identify the vehicle at fault, and determine the cause of the accident. A forensic autopsy of a traffic accident fatality needs to both determine the cause of death and identify the mechanism of injury, an analytical task that requires observation of three major traffic accident factors: the body, the vehicles involved, and the scene of the accident. Also crucial to determining the cause of death is the process of looking into whether the people involved in the accident had any diseases that might affect their driving performance or were under the influence of alcohol or drugs. In order to reduce the number of people killed in traffic accidents, it will be important to promote joint research uniting forensic medicine, clinical medicine, automotive engineering, and road engineering, take measures to limit the impact of inebriated pedestrians and pedestrians suffering from dementia, and ensure proper screening of alcohol and illegal drug consumption in drivers.

  10. Epidemiologic features of lethal head injury caused by highway traffic accidents


    Objective:To study the epidemiologic features of highway traffic accidents by analyzing the clinical data of the patients died of head injury.Methods:The reatures of the cases' age,occupation,status of head injury and complications.and the rescue procedures were retrospectively analyzed based on the data of 214 patients died of head injury.Results:The main victime were adults(78%)and peasants(52.8%).And the ost common head injuries were severe cerebral contusion with intracranial hematomas(73.4%).The mean arrival time from the accident spots to hospitals was(2.2±1.9)h.And the mean interval time between the arrival and operation was(1.9±0.9)h.Primary and secondary brainstem damage were the main causes of early death.Yet pulmonary infection and multiple organs failure were the common reasons for late death.Conclusions:Enhancing the propaganda for traffic regulations,establishing perfect pre-hospital and in-hospital EMS(emergency medical service)system,catching the opportunity of operation,and preventing complications are essential to reduce the mortality of traffic accidents induced head trauma.

  11. Fire fatality study: demographics of fire victims.

    Barillo, D J; Goode, R


    Injury or death caused by fire is frequent and largely preventable. This study was undertaken to define the populations, locations, times and behaviours associated with fatal fires. Seven hundred and twenty-seven fatalities occurring within the State of New Jersey, between the years 1985 and 1991, were examined retrospectively. Most deaths were attributed to a combination of smoke inhalation and burn injury. Five hundred and seventy-four fatalities occurred in residential fires. Smoking materials were the most common source of ignition for residential fires. More than half of the fatal residential fires started between the hours of 11 p.m. and 7 a.m. Children and the elderly represented a disproportionate percentage of fire victims. Victims under the age of 11 years or over the age of 70 years constituted 22.1 per cent of the state population but 39.5 per cent of all fire fatalities. Fire-prevention efforts should target home fire safety, and should concentrate on children and the elderly. The development of fire-safe smoking materials should be encouraged.

  12. Trajectories of Intimate Partner Violence Victimization

    Kevin M. Swartout


    Full Text Available Introduction: The purposes of this study were to assess the extent to which latent trajectories of female intimate partner violence (IPV victimization exist; and, if so, use negative childhood experiences to predict trajectory membership.Methods: We collected data from 1,575 women at 5 time-points regarding experiences during adolescence and their 4 years of college. We used latent class growth analysis to fit a series of personcentered, longitudinal models ranging from 1 to 5 trajectories. Once the best-fitting model was selected, we used negative childhood experience variables—sexual abuse, physical abuse, and witnessing domestic violence—to predict most-likely trajectory membership via multinomial logistic regression.Results: A 5-trajectory model best fit the data both statistically and in terms of interpretability. The trajectories across time were interpreted as low or no IPV, low to moderate IPV, moderate to low IPV, high to moderate IPV, and high and increasing IPV, respectively. Negative childhood experiences differentiated trajectory membership, somewhat, with childhood sexual abuse as a consistent predictor of membership in elevated IPV trajectories.Conclusion: Our analyses show how IPV risk changes over time and in different ways. These differential patterns of IPV suggest the need for prevention strategies tailored for women that consider victimization experiences in childhood and early adulthood. [West J Emerg Med. 2012;13(3:272–277.

  13. An epidemiological study on pattern of thoraco-abdominal injuries sustained in fatal road traffic accidents of Bangalore: Autopsy-based study

    N Bayapa Reddy


    Full Text Available Background: The statistical profile reflects a global estimate of 5.1 million deaths in 2000, which was due to injuries that accounted for 10% of deaths due to all causes. Out of this, a quarter of injury-related deaths occurred in the South-East Asian region. Road Traffic Accident (RTA is one among the top 5 causes of morbidity and mortality in South-East Asian countries. Most common cause of blunt abdominal trauma in India is road traffic accident followed by pedestrian accidents, abdominal blows, and fall from heights. Aims: To analyze the epidemiology and pattern of fatal thoraco-abdominal injuries in road traffic accidents. Materials and Methods: An autopsy-based cross-sectional study conducted. A purposive sampling technique was applied to select the study sample of 100 post-mortems of road traffic accident between November 2008 and May 2010 subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the department of Forensic Medicine, KIMS Hospital Bangalore. Results: The majority of the victims were aged 21 to 40 years, 50 (50.0%, most of the victims were male 92 (92.0%; and male/female ratio was 11.5:1. Commonest offending agents in heavy motor vehicles were 54 (54.0%. Bony cage sustained injuries were observed in 71; out of this, fractures of ribs were observed in 45 (63.3% victims, clavicle in 14 (19.7%, sternum was 6 (8.4%, and vertebrae 6 (8.4% of fatal road traffic accidents. Internal thoracic injuries were observed in 26 cases. Among internal thoracic injuries, lungs were the most commonly involved organ 24 (92.3% followed by the heart 2 (7.6%. Lung sustained more lacerations 19 (79.1% than contusions 5 (20.8%. Internal abdominal injuries were observed in 49 cases. In road traffic accidents, the most commonly injured abdominal organs were solid organs such as liver 16 (32.6% followed by spleen 9 (18.3%. Conclusions: Majority of the times in road traffic accidents, young and productive males were injured or lost their life. This study may help the

  14. Review of Severe Accident Phenomena in LWR and Related Severe Accident Analysis Codes

    Muhammad Hashim


    Full Text Available Firstly, importance of severe accident provision is highlighted in view of Fukushima Daiichi accident. Then, extensive review of the past researches on severe accident phenomena in LWR is presented within this study. Various complexes, physicochemical and radiological phenomena take place during various stages of the severe accidents of Light Water Reactor (LWR plants. The review deals with progression of the severe accidents phenomena by dividing into core degradation phenomena in reactor vessel and post core melt phenomena in the containment. The development of various computer codes to analyze these severe accidents phenomena is also summarized in the review. Lastly, the need of international activity is stressed to assemble various severe accidents related knowledge systematically from research organs and compile them on the open knowledge base via the internet to be available worldwide.

  15. [Clinical examinations for the traffic accident patients].

    Hitosugi, Masahito


    Traffic accident is a leading cause of unintentional death and about six-thousands annually died in Japan. As about one-million of persons suffer from traffic injuries, most of them seek medical attention. Therefore, medical staffs have to find the injuries accurately and treat immediately. Furthermore, the cause of accident should also be considered; why the accident was occurred, human error of the driver? To solve these problems, clinical examinations were needed. Medical staffs have to understand the characteristics of the traffic injuries: severe and multiple blunt injuries, popular injuries can be estimated with considering the pattern of the accident. Because some of the accidents are occurred when the driver is under the influence of alcohol and other drugs, screening of these subjects should be performed. Because the public is largely unaware of the preventable nature of traffic injuries, in addition to diagnose and treat accurately, we medical staffs have to attend on the primary prevention of the traffic injuries.

  16. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    J. Schulz


    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  17. Grooming the Victim: An Analysis of a Perpetrator's Seduction Letter.

    Singer, Mark I.; And Others


    This paper reviews the literature on the sexual victimization of adolescent males, with emphasis on victim selection factors and strategies. A letter written by a middle-aged man to entice a teenage boy into sexual activity is then presented and analyzed. (DB)

  18. Tracking Offenders: The Child Victim. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.

    Manson, Donald A.; Sedgwick, Jeffrey L., Ed.

    This research focused on the criminal justice system's handling of offenders against children, comparing it with the processing of offenders against all victims. Data were obtained from California, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Utah, and Virginia for offenses against children and against all victims in the areas of kidnapping, sexual assault,…

  19. The interrelation between victimization and bullying inside young offender institutions.

    Häufle, Jenny; Wolter, Daniel


    Bullying and victimization are serious problems within prisons. Young Offender Institutions (YOIs), in particular, suffer from high rates of inmate-on-inmate violence. More recent theories about the development of bullying in closed custody institutions imply a relationship between the experience of victimization and the usage of bullying. In our study, we test this linkage using longitudinal survey data taken at two time-points from 473 inmates (aged 15-24) inside three YOIs in Germany. We first analyze the extent of bullying and victimization, and then used a longitudinal structural equation model to predict inmate bullying behavior at time 2 based on victimization that occurred at time 1. Age is used as a predictor variable to account for differences in the amount of victimization and bullying. Results suggest that bullying and victimization are high in the YOIs, which were subject to research. Most inmates reported being a bully and a victim at the same time. Younger inmates use more direct physical bullying but not psychological bullying. An increase in psychological bullying over time can significantly be explained by victimization at an earlier measurement time point. Our study therefore supports recent theoretical assumptions about the development of bullying behavior. Possible implications for prevention and intervention are discussed.

  20. 77 FR 25345 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2012


    ... rape that will shed new light on how often this crime occurs, and we continue to combat sexual violence... April 27, 2012 Part V The President Proclamation 8804--National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2012 #0; #0... Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation...

  1. 76 FR 20827 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2011


    ... preventing crime and enforcing the rights of its survivors. We have shined a light on hidden crimes like... April 13, 2011 Part II The President Proclamation 8650--National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2011... ] Proclamation 8650 of April 8, 2011 National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2011 By the President of the...

  2. The Legal Duty to Incorporate Mistakes of the Victim

    L.T. Visscher (Louis)


    textabstractAbstract: In many jurisdictions, potential injurers are under a legal duty to incorporate possible mistakes of the potential victim. I distinguish three types of mistakes. First, victims might make mistakes because it is too costly to avoid them (e.g. little children in traffic). Second,

  3. What Actually Makes Bullying Stop? Reports from Former Victims

    Frisen, Ann; Hasselblad, Tove; Holmqvist, Kristina


    School bullying is a serious, worldwide problem which is not easily counteracted. The present study focuses on the perspective of former victims, asking them what it was that made the bullying stop in their case. Participants were 273 18-year-old former victims in Sweden, a country in which schools are doing extensive work against bullying and the…

  4. 75 FR 20889 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2010


    .... Though crime rates have declined in recent years, crime and its devastating effects still require our... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8499 of April 16, 2010 National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2010 By the.... This week, we renew our commitment to supporting crime victims and preventing crimes that threaten...

  5. Age Diversity Among Victims of Hebephilic Sexual Offenders.

    Stephens, Skye; Seto, Michael C; Goodwill, Alasdair M; Cantor, James M


    Hebephilia refers to sexual interest in pubescent children who are beginning to show early signs of sexual development but are sexually immature. The present study examined the relationship between hebephilia and victim age choice in a sample of 2,238 adult male sexual offenders. On average, offenders were 39 years old at the time of their assessments, and approximately half (48%) were referred by probation or parole offices. Assessment data included self-report, sexual arousal measured by volumetric phallometry, and victims' ages. Results suggested that, similar to pedophilia, hebephilia had a medium sized association with a greater number of victims under age 11 and a small sized association with a greater number of victims ages 11 to 14. Unlike pedophilia, a small positive association was consistently found between hebephilia and a greater number of victims ages 15 or 16. Furthermore, a small positive association was observed between victim age polymorphism and hebephilia and pedophilia. The present results suggested that hebephilia was associated with a greater number of victims age 14 or younger and had similar victim age correlates to pedophiles.

  6. Siblings of Oedipus: Brothers and Sisters of Incest Victims.

    de Young, Mary


    Investigates the roles and problems of siblings of incest victims, describes the dynamics of the incestuous family, and identifies some behavior problems of children whose siblings were incest victims. Data from two siblings' lives are presented to illustrate points. (Author/DB)

  7. Violent online games exposure and cyberbullying/victimization among adolescents.

    Lam, Lawrence T; Cheng, Zaohuo; Liu, Xinmin


    This population-based cross-sectional survey examined the association between exposure to violent online games and cyberbullying and victimization in adolescents recruited from two large cities utilizing a stratified two-stage random cluster sampling technique. Cyberbullying and victimization were assessed by the E-victimization and E-bullying scales validated in a previous study. Exposure to violent online games was measured by self-nomination of the degree of violent content in the games played. Results indicated that the majority (74.3 percent) of respondents did not experience any cyberbullying or victimization in the last 7 days before the survey, 14.4 percent reported to be victimized via cyberspace, 2.9 percent admitted that they had bullied others, and 8.4 percent reported to be both perpetrators- and- victims. One hundred and eighty seven (15.3 percent) considered games they were playing were of moderate to severe violence. Students who had been involved in cyberbullying as well as being victimized were two times as likely to have been exposed to violent online games, and nearly four times as likely for those involved in bullying others. Exposure to violent online games was associated with being a perpetrator as well as a perpetrator-and-victim of cyberbullying. Parents and clinicians need to be aware of the potential harm of these exposures. The policy implications of results were also discussed.

  8. Close Relationships and Attributions for Peer Victimization among Late Adolescents

    Chen, Xiaochen; Graham, Sandra


    This study examined the effect of close relationships (best friendship and romantic relationship) on late adolescents' casual attributions for peer victimization. A total of 1106 twelfth grade students completed self-report measures of perceived peer victimization, self-blame attribution, psychological maladjustment (loneliness and social…

  9. Characteristics of Child Sexual Abuse Victims According to Perpetrator Gender.

    Rudin, Margaret M.; And Others


    Comparison of 87 child abuse victims of lone female perpetrators with 93 victims of lone male perpetrators found that female perpetrators abused children 3.3 years younger than male perpetrators. Both female and male perpetrators abused more girls than boys and did not differ in severity of abuse. (Author/DB)

  10. Who Bullies Whom? Social Status Asymmetries by Victim Gender

    Rodkin, Philip C.; Berger, Christian


    This study asks whether bullies have higher social status than their victims. Social status was measured by social preference, popularity, and physical competence as perceived by children and teachers. A survey instrument was introduced to enable identification of specific victims associated with specific bullies. The sample was 508 fourth and…

  11. Legal aid for victims in criminal proceedings in Portugal

    Costa Ramos, Vânia


    The following article gives an overview of legal aid for victims in criminal cases in Portugal. It addresses the issues of a victim’s access to a lawyer, when and how the right is granted (right to legal assistance), and under what circumstances the victim has a right to financial legal aid (right to financial legal aid).

  12. The criminal victimization of children and women in international perspective

    van Dijk, Jan; Kury, Helmut; Redo, Slawomir; Shea, Evelyn


    Abstract In this article we will present an overview of the results of the national and international crime victims surveys regarding the distribution of victimization according to age and gender with a focus on violent crime. The results show a consistent inversed relationship between age and crimi

  13. Acculturation and Dating Violence Victimization among Filipino and Samoan Youths

    Chung-Do, Jane J.; Goebert, Deborah A.


    Dating violence victimization is an important public health issue. Recent studies on minority youths have found higher risks of dating violence victimization compared to White youths. This study examined the influence of acculturation components on youths' experiences of dating violence by utilizing data from a survey of 193 Samoan and Filipino…

  14. Attachment Styles among Bullies, Victims and Uninvolved Adolescents

    Koiv, Kristi


    Attachment theory provides a frame for understanding the role of attachment styles in the development of bullying behaviour in adolescence. The present study examined attachment styles (secure, avoidant and anxious/ambivalent) that differentiated bullies, victims, bully/victims and uninvolved adolescents. A total of 1,921 students (1,006 girls and…

  15. Analysis of Fukushima Daiichi Accident Using HFACS

    Mohamed, Saeed Almheiri [Korea Advanced Institue of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The shadow of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident is still too big and will last long. On the other hand, it could still teach us lots of lessons to better design and operate nuclear power plants. In this paper, we will be focusing on the Fukushima Daiichi accident, especially on human organizational factors. We will analyze the accident using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in order to better understand the organizational climate of TEPCO{sup 1} and NISA{sup 2} that led to Fukushima Daiichi Accident. HFACS was developed for the U. S. aviation industry and has been used at many industries like the rail and mining industries. We found that the HFACS to be greatly beneficial in investigating the latent and organizational causes for the accident. The application results show that the causes of Fukushima Daiichi accident were spread out from sharp end (i.e. Unsafe Act) to blunt end (i. e. Organizational Influences). This means that the corresponding countermeasures should cover from front line staff to management. Thus, we managed to develop a better understanding on how to prevent similar errors or violations. The incident and near-miss have a lot of helpful information because it may show the actual and latent deficiencies of complex systems. We applied the HFACS into Fukushima Daiichi accident to better locate the causes related to both sharp and blunt ends of operation of NPP. In order to derive useful lessons from the accident analysis, the analyst should try to find the similarities not differences from the incident. It is imperative that whatever accident/incident analysis systems we use, we should fully utilize the disastrous Fukushima accident.

  16. Child human trafficking victims: challenges for the child welfare system.

    Fong, Rowena; Berger Cardoso, Jodi


    Since the passing of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act in 2000 and its reauthorization by President George Bush in 2008, federal, state and community efforts in identifying and providing services for victims of human trafficking have significantly improved. However, most of the research and resources for trafficking victims have been directed towards adults rather than children. Researchers agree that there is a growing number of sexually exploited and trafficked children in the United States yet few programs emphasize the unique experiences and special needs of this population. This article examines commercial sexual exploitation of children; differentiates the needs and problems between child prostitution and victims of human trafficking; reviews and critiques current treatment practices; and summarizes challenges and successes in working with child victims of human trafficking, offering practice and policy recommendations.

  17. Police officers' collaboration with rape victim advocates: barriers and facilitators.

    Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick


    Secondary victimization may occur when rape victims make police reports. This can compromise the quality of official statements and jeopardize criminal cases. Rape reporters receive better treatment by police officers when advocates are involved and best practice police work includes such collaboration. Studies of advocates have described tension, role confusion, and poor communication with police officers. Many variables, including rape myth acceptance (RMA) and training on sexual assault dynamics, may affect officers' collaboration with advocates. There were 429 police officers who responded to a survey measuring their victim interviewing skill, formal training about rape, years on the job, number of victims known personally, number of recent rape cases, RMA, and collaboration with advocates. Results suggest that officers' interviewing skill, years on the job, and specific training are related to collaboration with victim advocates on rape cases. Professional, rather than personal, variables were most predictive of collaboration. Implications for officer selection and training are explored.

  18. The new sexual assault law: the victim's experience in court.

    Sahjpaul, S; Renner, K E


    The questions asked of victims of sexual and physical assault by the prosecutor and defense were recorded and coded by courtroom observers. The defense in comparison to the prosecution treated both types of victims in a negative way. Sexual assault victims were subjected to more negative questions and required to give a more personal form of testimony than physical assault victims due to the strategies used by both the prosecution and the defense. Sexual assault cases were convicted less often than physical assault cases. It was concluded that the new law in Canada which replaced the offense of rape with one of "sexual assault" has not had its intended effect of reducing the burden on a victim when she testifies in court.

  19. Developing the Cyber Victimization Experiences and Cyberbullying Behaviors Scales.

    Betts, Lucy R; Spenser, Karin A


    The reported prevalence rates of cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors vary. Part of this variation is likely due to the diverse definitions and operationalizations of the constructs adopted in previous research and the lack of psychometrically robust measures. Through 2 studies, the authors developed (Study 1) and evaluated (Study 2) the cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors scales. Participants in Study 1 were 393 (122 boys, 171 girls) and in Study 2 were 345 (153 boys, 192 girls) 11-15-year-olds who completed measures of cyber victimization experiences, cyberbullying behaviors, face-to-face victimization experiences, face-to-face bullying behaviors, and social desirability. The 3-factor cyber victimization experiences scale comprised threat, shared images, and personal attack. The 3-factor cyberbullying behaviors scale comprised sharing images, gossip, and personal attack. Both scales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and convergent validity.

  20. The Cycle of Abuse: When Victims Become Offenders.

    Plummer, Malory; Cossins, Annie


    Various psychological theories exist in the literature to explain the behavior of men who commit child sex offences, including the belief that child sexual abuse (CSA) is a predisposing factor for the transition from victim to offender. These theories are, however, unable to explain the fact that while most victims of CSA are female, most perpetrators of CSA are male. The sex specificity of CSA in terms of victims and offenders suggests that the experience of CSA and its psychosocial effects may be different for boys, compared to girls. We hypothesize that CSA experiences may involve risk factors that affect the development of sexually abusive behavior for boys, rather than girls. Our aim was to determine whether the literature provides evidence of a cycle of abuse from victim to offender, and, if so, to document its characteristics. We undertook a comprehensive literature review of studies on both victims and offenders, including studies which revealed the following: age of onset of CSA, duration of abuse, gender of the abuser, the relationship between victim and abuser, grooming behaviors, the types and severity of abuse, and disclosure of abuse. While we found no evidence for the existence of a cycle of abuse for female CSA victims, we discovered evidence to support the existence of a cycle of abuse for male CSA victims who had experienced particular abuse characteristics. As an original contribution to the literature, we identified four factors that may be associated with a boy's transition from victim to offender as well as the methodological issues to be addressed in future research. Based on criminological theories, we argue that these four factors share a common theme, that is, that they represent experiences of power (for the abuser) and powerlessness (for the victim).

  1. The Bidirectional Relationships Between Online Victimization and Psychosocial Problems in Adolescents : A Comparison with Real-Life Victimization

    van den Eijnden, Regina; Vermulst, Ad; van Rooij, Antonius J.; Scholte, Ron; van de Mheen, Dike


    Although peer victimization is of major concern and adolescents spend increasing amounts of time on the Internet, relatively little is known about the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online victimization. The main aim of this study was to compare the psychosocial antecedents and consequ

  2. Does disaster affect immigrant victims more than non-immigrant victims in Dutch general practice: a matched cohort study.

    Soeteman, R.J.H.; Yzermans, C.J.; Spreeuwenberg, P.M.M.; Dorn, T.; Kerssens, J.J.; Bosch, W.J.H.M. van den; Zee, J. van der


    Background: In the literature, immigrant victims appear to be more vulnerable to health effects of a disaster than indigenous victims. Most of these studies were performed without pre-disaster measurement and without using a control group. Aim: The objective of the study is to monitor differences be

  3. Dosimetry of an accident in mixed field (neutrons, photons) using the spectrometry by electronic paramagnetic resonance(EPR); Dosimetrie d'accident en champ mixte (neutrons, photons) utilisant la spectrometrie par resonance paramagnetique electronique (RPE)

    Herve, M.L


    In a radiological accident, the assessment of the dose received by the victim is relevant information for the therapeutic strategy. Two complementary dosimetric techniques based on physical means are used in routine practice in the laboratory: EPR spectroscopy performed on materials removed from the victim or gathered from the vicinity of the victim and Monte Carlo calculations. EPR dosimetry, has been used successfully several times in cases of photon or electron overexposures. Accidental exposure may also occur with a neutron component. The aim of this work is to investigate the potentiality of EPR dosimetry for mixed photon and neutron field exposure with different organic materials (ascorbic acid, sorbitol, glucose, galactose, fructose, mannose, lactose and sucrose). The influence of irradiation parameters (dose, dose rate, photon energy) and of environmental parameters (temperature of heating, light exposure) on the EPR signal amplitude was studied. To assess the neutron sensitivity, the materials were exposed to a mixed radiation field of experimental reactors with different neutron to photon ratios. The relative neutron sensitivity was found to range from 10% to 43% according to the materials. Prior knowledge of the ratio between the dose in samples measured by EPR spectrometry and organ or whole body dose obtained by calculations previously performed for these different configurations, makes it possible to give a first estimation of the dose received by the victim in a short delay. The second aim of this work is to provide data relevant for a quick assessment of the dose distribution in case of accidental overexposure based on EPR measurements performed on one or several points of the body. The study consists in determining by calculation the relation between the dose to the organs and whole body and the dose to specific points of the body, like teeth, bones or samples located in the pockets of victim clothes, for different external exposures corresponding

  4. Accidents in Canada: mortality and hospitalization.

    Riley, R; Paddon, P


    For Canadians under 45, accidents are the leading cause of both death and hospitalization. For the Canadian population as a whole, accidents rank fourth as a cause of death, after cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and respiratory disease. This article analyzes accident mortality and hospitalization in Canada using age-specific rates, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), and potential years of life lost (PYLL). The six major causes of accidental death for men are motor vehicle traffic accidents (MVTA), falls, drowning, fires, suffocation and poisoning. For women, the order is slightly different: MVTA, falls, fires, suffocation, poisoning and drowning. From 1971 to 1986, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for accidents decreased by 44% for men and 39% for women. The largest decrease occurred in the under 15 age group. Accidents accounted for 11.5% of total hospital days in 1985, and 8% of hospital discharges. Because young people have the highest rates of accidental death, potential years of life lost (PYLL) are almost as high for accidents as for cardiovascular disease, although CVD deaths outnumbered accidental deaths by almost five to one in 1985.

  5. An analysis of aircraft accidents involving fires

    Lucha, G. V.; Robertson, M. A.; Schooley, F. A.


    All U. S. Air Carrier accidents between 1963 and 1974 were studied to assess the extent of total personnel and aircraft damage which occurred in accidents and in accidents involving fire. Published accident reports and NTSB investigators' factual backup files were the primary sources of data. Although it was frequently not possible to assess the relative extent of fire-caused damage versus impact damage using the available data, the study established upper and lower bounds for deaths and damage due specifically to fire. In 12 years there were 122 accidents which involved airframe fires. Eighty-seven percent of the fires occurred after impact, and fuel leakage from ruptured tanks or severed lines was the most frequently cited cause. A cost analysis was performed for 300 serious accidents, including 92 serious accidents which involved fire. Personal injury costs were outside the scope of the cost analysis, but data on personnel injury judgements as well as settlements received from the CAB are included for reference.

  6. Road accidents and business cycles in Spain.

    Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa


    This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties.

  7. The odontology victim identification skill assessment system.

    Zohn, Harry K; Dashkow, Sheila; Aschheim, Kenneth W; Dobrin, Lawrence A; Glazer, Howard S; Kirschbaum, Mitchell; Levitt, Daniel; Feldman, Cecile A


    Mass fatality identification efforts involving forensic odontology can involve hundreds of dental volunteers. A literature review was conducted and forensic odontologists and dental educators consulted to identify lessons learned from past mass fatality identification efforts. As a result, the authors propose a skill assessment system, the Odontology Victim Identification Skill Assessment System (OVID-SAS), which details qualifications required to participate on the Antemortem, Postmortem, Ante/Postmortem Comparison, Field, and Shift Leader/Initial Response Teams. For each qualification, specific skills have been identified along with suggested educational pedagogy and skill assessment methods. Courses and assessments can be developed by dental schools, professional associations, or forensic organizations to teach and test for the skills required for dental volunteers to participate on each team. By implementing a system, such as OVID-SAS, forensic odontologists responsible for organizing and managing a forensic odontology mass fatality identification effort will be able to optimally utilize individuals presenting with proven skills.

  8. Nightmares of a hospitalized rape victim.

    Lansky, M R


    The author presents case material, including nightmares, of a recently raped female psychiatric inpatient. The material shows dream dynamics that include latent content, dreamwork, secondary revision, and unconscious wishes that attempted to deal with this woman's sense of fragility, guilt, and especially shame. The author suggests that such dreams deal not simply with the trauma of forced sexual contact, but also with the coexisting fear and humiliation related to the risk of being murdered; with preexisting trauma that amplifies the shame and guilt; and with the anticipation of retraumatization during heightened posttraumatic vulnerability. Although conclusions from a single case cannot be generalized to all rape victims, a close examination of the clinical data suggests that treatment needs go far beyond consideration of the traumatic event in isolation.

  9. Corruption: Engineers are Victims, Perpetrators or Both?

    Pecujlija, M; Cosic, I; Nesic-Grubic, L; Drobnjak, S


    This study was conducted in Serbian companies on licensed engineers and in its first part included a total of 336 licensed engineers who voluntarily completed the questionnaires about their ethical orientation and attitudes toward corruption and in the second part 214 engineers who participated in the first survey, who voluntarily evaluated their company's business operations characteristics. This study has clearly shown that there is a direct significant influence of the engineer's ethical orientations and attitudes toward corruption on their evaluation of the characteristics of their respective companies regarding business operations. This research also clearly shows that only engineers with a strong deontological orientation, low ethical subjectivity, and strong readiness to fight corruption, low corruption acceptance and high awareness of corruption can successfully fight corruption, improve the business operations of their companies and make beneficial changes to society. Otherwise, they should be considered as corruption perpetrators, not just as its victims.

  10. From victim to heroine: children's stories revisited.

    Turkel, Ann Ruth


    The need to escape reality and the taste for adventure with the unknown fills a universal need for both adults and children. Fairy tales have a powerful grip on the imagination because they are homespun versions of myths and have passionate intensity without epic grandeur. The happy ending of fairy tales reflects gender stereotyping because the heroine usually does very little except sit, wish, and wait for marriage. She has no control over her destiny and no active involvement in selecting or planning her future. These heroines are really passive victims. Sexism was once rampant in children's books. The Oz books, with their independent, courageous, and active heroine were way ahead of their time. The advent of women's liberation has led to a reappraisal of the female in folk literature. Anthropologists have now discovered stories of admirable women who were strong characters in their own epic dramas.

  11. Analyzing the role of climatic factors on road accidents (Case study: Ardabil-Parsabad road in Ardabil Province, Iran

    Sadegheh Alizadeh


    Full Text Available Road accidents and their fatalities are among the currentchallenges human society facing, which in turn resulting in huge social and economiccosts on the countries. Thedeveloping countries are the biggest victims of the road accidents such that inthese countries, road accidents are considered asthe major cause of death. Unfortunately, Iran is amongthe countries in which the rate of road accidents is high. Among thedriving factors that affect road safety and transport isclimate. Ardabil-Parsabad road in Ardabil province is one of the roads manyaccidents have been occurred during years, and thistrend began when the number of cars increased resulted in huge road deaths in1990s. In this study, data has been used from four meteorological stations inArdabil, Samian, Meshkin-Shahr and Parsabad, over a period of5years(2008-2002.For this purpose, several climatic elements werecollected including the average daily temperature, average of minimum temperatures,average of maximum temperatures, the number of snowy days, the number of frostdays, starting glacial period, duration of the snowfall, duration of theglacial period, total average humidity and moderate precipitation, average of sunnyhours, average number of foggy days, the average number of windy days. This analysis is provided using Excel software inthe Arc GIS environment of continuous levels of these parameters in the region.

  12. Cases of fatal accidents and violence among children, adolescents and young people: perception of the family and associated factors

    Christine Baccarat de Godoy Martins


    Full Text Available Hundreds of children and young people die from fatal accidents or violence every year and others suffer the consequences of non-lethal lesions. Knowing the associated factors is essential for moving forward in the control of these events. The study analysed the families’ perception and factors associated with deaths due to external causes of children, adolescents and young people. Cross-sectional study from deaths from accidents and violence in the age group of 0 to 24 years in the city ofCuiabá-State of Mato Grosso, followed by a domestic survey with the families. The families could not tell whether the accident/violence was a foreseeable event and do not believe that habits/lifestyle have favoured the occurrence. Intentional deaths showed a greater association with factors: maternity/paternity in adolescence, role overload of the mother, consumption of alcohol/drugs, family conflicts and prior deaths from external cause. Feelings of appreciation (study, housing, work, and whether the victim’s pregnancy has been desired were positive in a higher proportion among cases at which the victims died in an accident. The families had easy access to health care services; however, it was difficult to access the network of social and religious support. Associated factors differ according to the intentionality of the event.

  13. Patterns of Road Traffic Accidents in North West of Iran during 2013 New Year Holidays: Complications and Casualties

    Samad Shams Vahdati


    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the patterns,complications and casualties of road traffic accidents in North West of Iran during 2013 New Year holidays. Methods: One hundred and eighty one patients with trauma-related vehicle crashes were investigated in a cross sectional-descriptive study. We only included those road traffic accidents which were recorded during the 2013 Iranian New Year holidays. Severity of injury based on Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score, patient transmission type, damaged organ and the final diagnosis was determined. The mortality rate as well as complications were also recorded and reported. The pattern was analyzed and presented using descriptive statistics. Results: Overall we included 181 patients who were victims of road traffic accidents during the study period. Most cases of multiple traumas were from two car accident (49.2%. Of 181 cases, 71 (39.2%, 66 (36.5%, 16 (8.8% and 11 (6.1% subjects had limb, head and neck, abdominal, and spinal cord injuries respectively, while 16 cases (8.8% did not have any organ damage. In final diagnosis, a limb fracture was noticed in 32 cases (17.7% and skull fractures in 5 subjects (2.8% as the first and second causes. Conclusion: As head and neck were the most damaged organs after the limbs in patients with multiple traumas, it seems that there is a necessity for these patients in transmission and examination of head traumas. So there is a need for a proper referral system.

  14. The role and importance of victim surveys in criminal research

    Serdar Kenan Gül


    Full Text Available Due to increasing crime rates, insufficient policies and the limitations of the official statistics, victim surveys are being used as an alternative crime measurement technique. These types of surveys are inspired most of the criminological theories and regarded as a data source especially in shaping the crime policies of the Anglo-Saxon countries. Even though they have developed over time, victim surveys have limitations which create an obstacle in measuring crime. However, these surveys could be used as a useful data source in analyzing victims, their needs and behaviors. The recent victim surveys, which were conducted in Turkey, revealed significant findings. In the future, it is inevitable to use victim surveys as a management instrument in the field of security policies in Turkey. This study first examines the birth and development of the victim surveys, then it discusses the theoretical and methodological problems and the victim surveys conducted in Turkey. In conclusion section, this article provides recommendations related to the topic.

  15. Time analysis of fatal traffic accidents in Fars Province of Iran

    Seyed Taghi Heydari; Amin Hoseinzadeh; Yaser Sarikhani; Arya Hedjazi; Mohammad Zarenezhad; Ghasem Moafian; Mohammad Reza Aghabeigi


    Objective:To analyze the time factor in road traffic accidents (RTAs) in Fars Province of Iran.Methods:This study was conducted in Fars Province,Iran from November 22,2009 to November 21,2011.Victims'information consisted of age,sex,death toll involving drivers or passengers of cars,motorcycles and pedestrians,and site of injury etc.Accidents were analyzed in relation to hour of the day,season of the year,lighting condition including sunrise,sunset,daytime and nighttime.Results:Atotal of 3 642 deaths (78.3% were males,and the ratio of males to females was about 3.6:1) were studied regarding their autopsy records.There was a steady increase in fatal accidents occurring at midnight to 15:59.The risk of being involved in a fatal traffic accident was higher for those injured between 4:00 to 7:59 than at other times (OR=2.13,95% CI 1.85-2.44).The greatest number of fatal RTAs took place in summer.Mortalities due to RTA during spring and summer were more pronounced at 20:00 to 23:59and midnight to 3:59,whereas mortalities in fall and winter were more pronounced from 12:00 to 15:59.Conclusion:The high mortality rate ofRTAis a major public health problem in Fars Province.Our results indicate that the time is an important factor which contributes to road traffic deaths.

  16. Accident patterns and prevention measures for fatal occupational falls in the construction industry.

    Chi, Chia-Fen; Chang, Tin-Chang; Ting, Hsin-I


    Contributing factors to 621 occupational fatal falls have been identified with respect to the victim's individual factors, the fall site, company size, and cause of fall. Individual factors included age, gender, experience, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Accident scenarios were derived from accident reports. Significant linkages were found between causes for the falls and accident events. Falls from scaffold staging were associated with a lack of complying scaffolds and bodily action. Falls through existing floor openings were associated with unguarded openings, inappropriate protections, or the removal of protections. Falls from building girders or other structural steel were associated with bodily actions and improper use of PPE. Falls from roof edges were associated with bodily actions and being pulled down by a hoist, object or tool. Falls through roof surfaces were associated with lack of complying scaffolds. Falls from ladders were associated with overexertion and unusual control and the use of unsafe ladders and tools. Falls down stairs or steps were associated with unguarded openings. Falls while jumping to a lower floor and falls through existing roof openings were associated with poor work practices. Primary and secondary prevention measures can be used to prevent falls or to mitigate the consequences of falls and are suggested for each type of accident. Primary prevention measures would include fixed barriers, such as handrails, guardrails, surface opening protections (hole coverings), crawling boards/planks, and strong roofing materials. Secondary protection measures would include travel restraint systems (safety belt), fall arrest systems (safety harness), and fall containment systems (safety nets).

  17. The Chernobyl accident consequences; Consequences de l'accident de Tchernobyl



    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  18. Emergency department management of the sexual assault victim.

    Kobernick, M E; Seifert, S; Sanders, A B


    The optimal management of the sexual assault victim involves a multidisciplinary effort on the part of all legal, police, medical, and support personnel who interface in the emergency department. History, general physical examination, and pelvic examination are performed methodically, keeping in mind that the primary goal is to tend to the patient's medical needs. The gathering of evidence proceeds simultaneously with the physical examination. Evidence to be obtained and techniques are reviewed. Treatment entails attention to physical injuries, potential venereal disease and pregnancy, and psychiatric intervention. Management of the male rape victim or child victim of sexual abuse requires special attention to the peculiarities of those problems.

  19. Aid for the victims of the forest fires in Greece


    To support the victims of the fires which devastated the Peloponnese at the end of August, the Permanent Mission of Greece in Geneva has informed us that the Greek government has opened an account into which donations may be paid. The funds collected will be used to assist the many victims of these fires. Bank of Greece Account name: Logariasmos Arogis Pyropathon (Hellenic Republic) (account reserved for aid for the victims of the forest fires) SWIFT : BNGRGRAA IBAN : GR 98 0100 0230 0000 0234 1103 053

  20. Older people in Canada: their victimization and fear of crime.

    Hayman, Stephanie


    Older people are more affected by fear of crime and the possibility of victimization, despite their being at lower risk of harm, than any other population group in Canada. Crime, victimization, and fear are not experienced uniformly among older Canadian citizens and residents, partly because older people do not form a homogeneous group. Being part of an ethnic, religious, or sexual minority, or being mentally frail, can have an impact on an individual's perceptions and experience of risk. This analysis explores older people's victimization and fear of crime, while it highlights the lack of consistency in the available data.

  1. Relationship between income and repeat criminal victimization in Brazil

    Marcelo Justus


    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effect of income on repeat criminal victimization in Brazil using data from the 2009 National Household Sample Survey and its special supplement on victimization and access to justice. Two count-data models were estimated for four types of crime: theft, robbery, attempted theft/robbery, and physical assault. A positive nonlinear effect of income on repeat victimization for the three types of property crimes and a negative nonlinear effect of income on physical assault were observed.

  2. 48 CFR 852.236-87 - Accident prevention.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 852... Accident prevention. As prescribed in 836.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (SEP 1993....236-13, Accident Prevention. However, only the Contracting Officer may issue an order to stop all...

  3. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.


    ... States vessel wherever such casualty or accident occurs; or (3) With respect to a foreign tank vessel... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  4. 46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section 196.30-5... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  5. 46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section 97.30-5 Shipping... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  6. 46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.


    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section 78.33-5 Shipping... Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use of the...

  7. Ruthenium release from fuel in accident conditions

    Brillant, G.; Marchetto, C.; Plumecocq, W. [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, DPAM, SEMIC, LETR and LIMSI, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)


    During a hypothetical nuclear power plant accident, fission products may be released from the fuel matrix and then reach the containment building and the environment. Ruthenium is a very hazardous fission product that can be highly and rapidly released in some accident scenarios. The impact of the atmosphere redox properties, temperature, and fuel burn-up on the ruthenium release is discussed. In order to improve the evaluation of the radiological impact by accident codes, a model of the ruthenium release from fuel is proposed using thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. In addition, a model of fuel oxidation under air is described. Finally, these models have been integrated in the ASTEC accident code and validation calculations have been performed on several experimental tests. (orig.)

  8. MELCOR analysis of the TMI-2 accident

    Boucheron, E.A.


    This paper describes the analysis of the Three Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) standard problem that was performed with MELCOR. The MELCOR computer code is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of analyzing severe accident in nuclear power plants. The primary role of MELCOR is to provide realistic predictions of severe accident phenomena and the radiological source team. The analysis of the TMI-2 standard problem allowed for comparison of the model predictions in MELCOR to plant data and to the results of more mechanistic analyses. This exercise was, therefore valuable for verifying and assessing the models in the code. The major trends in the TMI-2 accident are reasonably well predicted with MELCOR, even with its simplified modeling. Comparison of the calculated and measured results is presented and, based on this comparison, conclusions can be drawn concerning the applicability of MELCOR to severe accident analysis. 5 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. [Severe parachuting accident. Analysis of 122 cases].

    Krauss, U; Mischkowsky, T


    Based on a population of 122 severely injured patients the causes of paragliding accidents and the patterns of injury are analyzed. A questionnaire is used to establish a sport-specific profile for the paragliding pilot. The lower limbs (55.7%) and the lower parts of the spine (45.9%) are the most frequently injured parts of the body. There is a high risk of multiple injuries after a single accident because of the tremendous axial power. The standard of equipment is good in over 90% of the cases. Insufficient training and failure to take account of geographical and meteorological conditions are the main determinants of accidents sustained by paragliders, most of whom are young. Nevertheless, 80% of our patients want to continue paragliding. Finally some advice is given on how to prevent paragliding accidents and injuries.

  10. The Chornobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment

    Vargo, G.J. [ed.; Poyarkov, V.; Bar`yakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.; Kholosha, V.; Shestopalov, V.


    The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chornobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chornobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chornobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

  11. Safety analysis of surface haulage accidents

    Randolph, R.F.; Boldt, C.M.K.


    Research on improving haulage truck safety, started by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, is being continued by its successors. This paper reports the orientation of the renewed research efforts, beginning with an update on accident data analysis, the role of multiple causes in these accidents, and the search for practical methods for addressing the most important causes. Fatal haulage accidents most often involve loss of control or collisions caused by a variety of factors. Lost-time injuries most often involve sprains or strains to the back or multiple body areas, which can often be attributed to rough roads and the shocks of loading and unloading. Research to reduce these accidents includes improved warning systems, shock isolation for drivers, encouraging seatbelt usage, and general improvements to system and task design.

  12. Review of methodology for accident consequence assessment

    Strenge, D.L.; Soldat, J.K.; Watson, E.C.


    This report reviews current methodologies for reactor accident consequence analysis and describes areas where modifications are warranted. Methodologies reviewed are: (1) Models in Regulatory Guides 1.109, 1.111 and 1.113 used for evaluation of compliance with 10 CFR 50 Appendix I; (2) Models in Regulatory Guides used for evaluation of consequences from accidents of Classes 3-8; (3) Models for evaluation of Class 9 accidents presented in the Reactor Safety Study; and (4) Models in the Liquid Pathway Generic Study. The review is designed to aid in the ultimate goal of selection of a comprehensive set of models to extend the Class 9 methodology of the Reactor Safety Study to the analysis of Classes 3-8 accidents.

  13. The epidemiology of bicyclist's collision accidents

    Larsen, L. B.


    of bicyclists and risk situations. The findings should make a basis for preventive programmes in order to decrease the number and severity of bicyclists collision accidents. Data from the emergency room in a 2 year period was combined with data from questionnaires. The study group consisted of 1021 bicyclists...... group of accidents were the collisions with the 'soft' road users (bicyclists, mopeds, and pedestrians) and another group were the collisions with the 'hard' road users (motor vehicles, motorcycles). Preventive measures have to be directed at both these groups of accidents. To decrease the number...... of collision accidents with motor vehicles it is necessary to separate the bicyclists from the 'hard road traffic' especially at crossings. Preventive measures must also be directed at the bicyclists. Information must be given to warn the bicyclists against the risks, not only for collisions with motor...

  14. Negative Responses to Disclosure of Sexual Victimization and Victims' Symptoms of PTSD and Depression: The Protective Role of Ethnic Identity.

    Nikulina, Valentina; Bautista, Adrian; Brown, Elissa J


    College-aged women experience high rates of sexual victimization. Their postassault symptoms are associated with the types of responses they receive from the people to whom they disclose these experiences. Negative responses are pervasive and associated with poorer outcomes. The current study examined whether a strong sense of ethnic identity and comfort with the mainstream culture moderate the association between negative responses to the first disclosure of sexual victimization and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. A diverse sample (10% Black/African American, 51% White, 39% Other, and 66% Hispanic) of undergraduate women was recruited from two urban, Eastern United States universities for this online study. Participants reported histories of sexual victimization, demographics, responses to sexual assault disclosure (i.e., victim blame, treating the victim differently, taking control, distraction, and egocentric reactions), symptoms of PTSD and depression, and their ethnic identity and mainstream cultural comfort. Thirty-seven percent (n = 221) endorsed an experience of sexual victimization, and 165 disclosed it to someone. Hierarchical ordinary least squares regressions revealed that a stronger sense of ethnic identity was associated with fewer symptoms of PTSD for those women who experienced higher levels of control, distraction, and egocentric responses from the first disclosure recipient. A strong sense of affiliation with the mainstream culture did not protect survivors who reported receiving negative responses to disclosure against symptoms of PTSD or depression. Ethnic affiliation may protect women against PTSD when they receive high levels of negative messages about sexual victimization experiences.

  15. Severe accident testing of electrical penetration assemblies

    Clauss, D.B. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))


    This report describes the results of tests conducted on three different designs of full-size electrical penetration assemblies (EPAs) that are used in the containment buildings of nuclear power plants. The objective of the tests was to evaluate the behavior of the EPAs under simulated severe accident conditions using steam at elevated temperature and pressure. Leakage, temperature, and cable insulation resistance were monitored throughout the tests. Nuclear-qualified EPAs were produced from D. G. O'Brien, Westinghouse, and Conax. Severe-accident-sequence analysis was used to generate the severe accident conditions (SAC) for a large dry pressurized-water reactor (PWR), a boiling-water reactor (BWR) Mark I drywell, and a BWR Mark III wetwell. Based on a survey conducted by Sandia, each EPA was matched with the severe accident conditions for a specific reactor type. This included the type of containment that a particular EPA design was used in most frequently. Thus, the D. G. O'Brien EPA was chosen for the PWR SAC test, the Westinghouse was chosen for the Mark III test, and the Conax was chosen for the Mark I test. The EPAs were radiation and thermal aged to simulate the effects of a 40-year service life and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) before the SAC tests were conducted. The design, test preparations, conduct of the severe accident test, experimental results, posttest observations, and conclusions about the integrity and electrical performance of each EPA tested in this program are described in this report. In general, the leak integrity of the EPAs tested in this program was not compromised by severe accident loads. However, there was significant degradation in the insulation resistance of the cables, which could affect the electrical performance of equipment and devices inside containment at some point during the progression of a severe accident. 10 refs., 165 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. Personality characteristics of the child accident repeater

    Manheimer, Dean I.; Mellinger, Glen D


    From 8874 boys and girls aged 4 to 18 in Berkeley-Oakland, California, 684 were selected to represent high-, intermediateor low-accident-liability children, based on records of medically attended injuries. Using data from intensive interviews with mothers supplemented with school records, we found a statistically significant relation between accident liability and indexes of extraversion, daring, roughhousing, and other traits tending to expose children to hazards. Similar relations held for ...

  17. APRI-6. Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance

    Garis, Ninos; Ljung, J (eds.) (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)); Agrenius, Lennart (ed.) (Agrenius Ingenjoersbyraa AB, Stockholm (Sweden))


    Since the early 1980s, nuclear power utilities in Sweden and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) collaborate on the research in severe reactor accidents. In the beginning focus was mostly on strengthening protection against environmental impacts after a severe reactor accident, for example by develop systems for the filtered relief of the reactor containment. Since the early 90s, this focus has shifted to the phenomenological issues of risk-dominant significance. During the years 2006-2008, the partnership continued in the research project APRI-6. The aim was to show whether the solutions adopted in the Swedish strategy for incident management provides adequate protection for the environment. This is done by studying important phenomena in the core melt estimating the amount of radioactivity that can be released to the atmosphere in a severe accident. To achieve these objectives the research has included monitoring of international research on severe accidents and evaluation of results and continued support for research of severe accidents at the Royal Inst. of Technology (KTH) and Chalmers University. The follow-up of international research has promoted the exchange of knowledge and experience and has given access to a wealth of information on various phenomena relevant to events in severe accidents. The continued support to KTH has provided increased knowledge about the possibility of cooling the molten core in the reactor tank and the processes associated with coolability in the confinement and about steam explosions. Support for Chalmers has increased knowledge of the accident chemistry, mainly the behavior of iodine and ruthenium in the containment after an accident.

  18. Victimizing Behaviour among Juvenile and Young Offenders: How Different Are Perpetrators?

    Palmer, Emma J.; Farmer, Sam


    Examines the victimizing behaviors of incarcerated juvenile and young offenders. It was found that 50.9% of all respondents reported victimizing others, with verbal assaults and threats being the most common form of such behaviors. Furthermore, staff-identified "victimizers" were significantly more likely to report victimizing behavior…

  19. Effects of Victim Gaze Behavior and Prior Relationship on Rape Culpability Attributions.

    Willis, Cynthia E.; Wrightsman, Lawrence S.


    Rape victims' gaze behavior when identifying a defendant and the prior relationship between victim and defendant were examined for effects on rape culpability attributions. In comparison with victims who used gaze maintenance or natural gaze behavior, rape victims' gaze avoidance was perceived as indicative of less truthfulness rather than…

  20. Development and validation of the multidimensional offline and online peer victimization scale

    Sumter, S.R.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Baumgartner, S.E.; Peter, J.; van der Hof, S.


    Peer victimization can seriously impair one’s well-being. As youth spend more time on the Internet, a new form of peer victimization has emerged, namely, online peer victimization. To fully comprehend peer victimization among today’s youth, there is a need for a psychometrically sound measure that c

  1. Victimisation and Suicide Ideation in the TRAILS Study: Specific Vulnerabilities of Victims

    Herba, Catherine M.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Stijnen, Theo; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.


    Background: Scientific studies have provided some support for a link between being a victim of bullying and suicide ideation. We examine whether (1) parental psychopathology and (2) feelings of rejection (at home and at school) exacerbate vulnerability to suicide ideation in victims of bullying (pure victims and bully-victims). Method: Data were…

  2. Men victim of sexual assault of concern into the first Emergency Medical Unit for Victims of Assaults in France.

    Hiquet, J; Gromb-Monnoyeur, S


    Although it accounts for only a small part of activity in the field of victimology, the provision of support for male victims of sexual assault is regularly discussed in the literature. Authors, English-speaking for the most part, all agree that this phenomenon has been largely underestimated, owing to the stigmatization victims suffer after the facts have been disclosed. The same authors agree that this type of assault is far from being inconsequential, from both a physical and a psychological perspective. The following retrospective and descriptive study, conducted at the Bordeaux CHU (Bordeaux University Hospital), aims to draw a comparison between the distinctive characteristics of male sexual assault victims treated at the CAUVA (Centre d'Accueil en Urgence des Victimes d'Agression - Emergency Medical Unit for Victims of Assaults) on the one hand, and, on the other hand, those identified in the existing scientific literature. The victims are predominantly young men, unconnected with their attackers, and more often than not the attacks take place on the public highway. Forensic treatment is provided within the seven days following the assault, which raises the question of the assessment of infection risks, including HIV transmission. Most of the time, the victims will not undergo a full psychological appraisal, though authors are unanimous that such assaults do indeed have heavy repercussions. Improving our services for such victims will require suitable training for staff, covering initial reception, general assessment and the drafting of the forensic medical report, as well as encouragement to lodge a complaint. This process should give priority to multidisciplinary centers, especially dedicated to shelter-providing, information, counseling and victim support. This will also entail information and awareness campaigns for the general population, and the homosexual community in particular. Finally, we should not be afraid to envisage an investigation into this

  3. Severe accident risks from external events

    Randall O Gauntt


    This paper reviews the early development of design requirements for seismic events in USA early developing nuclear electric generating fleet.Notable safety studies,including WASH-1400,Sandia Siting Study and the NUREG-1150 probabilistic risk study,are briefly reviewed in terms of their relevance to extreme accidents arising from seismic and other severe accident initiators.Specific characteristic about the nature of severe accidents in nuclear power plant (NPP) are reviewed along with present day state-of-art analysis methodologies (methods for estimation of leakages and consequences of releases (MELCOR) and MELCOR accident consequence code system (MACCS)) that are used to evaluate severe accidents and to optimize mitigative and protective actions against such accidents.It is the aim of this paper to make nuclear operating nations aware of the risks that accompany a much needed energy resource and to identify some of the tools,techniques and landmark safety studies that serve to make the technology safer and to maintain vigilance and adequate safety culture for the responsible management of this valuable but unforgiving technology.


    O. Gamankova


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the peculiarities of financial provision of public and private accident insurance. Analyzes the methodology of forming insurance premium rates in private accident insurance. The study examines the practice of reforming the financial security of the state social insurance against accidents. The results show need to implement scientifically proven approach to determining premium rates in the state social insurance based on mathematical statistics and actuarial calculations to ensure that such conditions on the one hand, can insure the risk, and the other - to provide the insurer the ability to perform insurance obligations' commitments. One of the promising areas of improvement Accident Insurance determines to define increasing the role of the private sector to create and attraction of investments, financing, reduce costs, and provision of insurance services on insurance against accidents at a qualitatively higher level. The results show the need to consider the usefulness of a mixed provision of services to accident insurance under state or non-state system, and the viability and effectiveness of the combination of these systems.

  5. The crisis of investigative Journalism in Spain. The journalism practice in the Spanair accident

    José Vicente García-Santamaría, Ph.D.


    Full Text Available The crash of the McDonnell Douglas plane operated by the Spanish airline Spanair, on 20 August 2008 at Barajas Airport, and the journalistic treatment it received undoubtedly represent a unique opportunity to address the current state of journalism in Spain. In particular, this article studies the use of information sources in a crisis situation, which requires a major effort to find the maximum number of primary and specialised sources to provide, in a short period of time, the audience with the key facts to understand the event. This accident also represents an excellent opportunity to study some practices within investigative journalism and the different factors that condition the media agenda. Finally, as in any other air tragedy, where millionaire compensations can be paid to the victims, it is important to examine the application of a series of ethical frameworks, which have been captured in deontological codes designed to assure fair journalistic practices.

  6. Understanding risk-taking behavior in bullies, victims, and bully-victims using cognitive- and emotion-focused approaches.

    Kean Poon


    Full Text Available Bullying and risky behavior are two common problems among adolescents and can strongly affect a youth’s overall functioning when both coexist. Some studies suggest that bullying in adolescence may promote risky behavior as a coping strategy to deal with victimization related stress. Other studies consider bullying as an outcome of high-risk behavior. Despite the association between the two is well-established, no study has examined the risk-taking patterns among bullying groups (i.e., bully, victim, and bully-victim. This study attempted to elucidate the potential relationships between bullying and risk-taking by addressing the two models: a cognitive-focused model and a emotion-focused model of risk taking, and to clarify how adolescents’ characteristics in risk taking associate with bullying outcomes. Method: 136 Chinese adolescents (Mean Age =14.5, M= 65, F =71 were recruited and grouped according to bullying identity: Bully (n =27, Victim (n =20, Bully-victim (n =37 and Control (n =52. Cognitive Appraisal of Risky Events (CARE questionnaire was used to measure participants’ expectancies about the risks, benefits and involvement associated with risky activities. Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT was administered to capture the emotion-laden process in risk taking. Results: Cognitively, Bully was associated with an overestimation of risk while Victim was associated with an underestimation of risk and overrated benefit. Bully-victim exhibited a unique pattern with an overestimation of benefit and risk. All study groups projected higher involvement in risky behavior. Behaviorally, both Bully and Bully-victim were associated with high risk modulation whereas Victim was associated with impulsive decision-making. Interestingly, compared with bully, bully-victim had significantly higher bullying scores, suggesting a wider range and more frequent bullying activities. In conclusion, Bully maybe a group of adolescents that is vigilant in situational


    Ilmira Abduragimovna ABDULAEVA


    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of studying the per-sonality of the victim from criminal attacks become par-ticularly relevant. This resulted in the formation of a branch of knowledge, as victimology. The problem of victimization research is to find out the causes, condi-tions that some persons are victims of crime where other danger is over. Through the formation and realization of ideas, understandable as the quintessential expression of the most important meanings and values, goals and objectives of its existence, promoting optimal adaptation to the socio-historical and cultural conditions, carried out the genesis of self-consciousness and the formation of ideology.

  8. PTSD in post-road traffic accident patients requiring hospitalization in Indian subcontinent: A review on magnitude of the problem and management guidelines.

    Undavalli, Chaitanya; Das, Piyush; Dutt, Taru; Bhoi, Sanjeev; Kashyap, Rahul


    Traumatic events after a road traffic accident (RTA) can be physical and/or psychological. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the major psychological conditions which affect accident victims. Psychological issues may not be addressed in the emergency department(ED) immediately. There have been reports about a mismatch between the timely referrals from ED to occupational or primary care services for these issues. If left untreated, there may be adverse effects on quality of life (QOL) and work productivity. Hospital expenses, loss of income, and loss of work could create a never ending cycle for financial difficulties and burden in trauma victims. The aim of our review is to address the magnitude of PTSD in post-RTA hospitalized patients in Indian subcontinent population. We also attempted to emphasis on few management guidelines. A comprehensive search was conducted on major databases with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) term 'PTSD or post-traumatic stress' and Emergency department and vehicle or road or highway or automobile or car or truck or trauma and India. Out of 120 studies, a total of six studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Our interpretation of the problem is that; hospital expenditure due to trauma, time away from work during hospitalization, and reduction in work performance, are three major hits that can lead RTA victims to financial crisis. Proposed management guidelines are; establish a coordinated triage, implementing a screening tool in the ED, and provide psychological counseling.

  9. PTSD in post-road traffic accident patients requiring hospitalization in Indian subcontinent: A review on magnitude of the problem and management guidelines

    Chaitanya Undavalli


    Full Text Available Traumatic events after a road traffic accident (RTA can be physical and/or psychological. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is one of the major psychological conditions which affect accident victims. Psychological issues may not be addressed in the emergency department(ED immediately. There have been reports about a mismatch between the timely referrals from ED to occupational or primary care services for these issues. If left untreated, there may be adverse effects on quality of life (QOL and work productivity. Hospital expenses, loss of income, and loss of work could create a never ending cycle for financial difficulties and burden in trauma victims. The aim of our review is to address the magnitude of PTSD in post-RTA hospitalized patients in Indian subcontinent population. We also attempted to emphasis on few management guidelines. A comprehensive search was conducted on major databases with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH term ′PTSD or post-traumatic stress′ and Emergency department and vehicle or road or highway or automobile or car or truck or trauma and India. Out of 120 studies, a total of six studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Our interpretation of the problem is that; hospital expenditure due to trauma, time away from work during hospitalization, and reduction in work performance, are three major hits that can lead RTA victims to financial crisis. Proposed management guidelines are; establish a coordinated triage, implementing a screening tool in the ED, and provide psychological counseling.

  10. Recognizing victims of human trafficking in the pediatric emergency department.

    Becker, Heather J; Bechtel, Kirsten


    Human trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery that is rapidly expanding in the United States and throughout the world. It is a crime under both the United States and international law. The child and adult victims of human trafficking are denied their basic human rights and subjected to unspeakable physical and emotional harm. Traffickers exert complete control over their victims and are proficient at hiding their condition from authorities. Healthcare practitioners may be the only professionals who come into contact with victims if they present for medical care. This article will describe human trafficking and its potential victims, as well as guide medical management and access to services that will ensure their safety and restore their freedom.

  11. Shaping the Victim: Borders, security, and human trafficking in Albania

    James Campbell


    Full Text Available Borders are productive sites where knowledge is gathered and migrant populations are formed. The knowledge gathered from victims of trafficking reinforces a victim narrative that represents a perceived threat to society by highlighting violence, criminality, coercion, and naivety. Using Albania as a case in point, the article looks at trafficked people and the narratives of victimhood that surround them. In the case of trafficked people, the border projected out towards other states produces a discursively defined victim of trafficking. When projected back within the national territory, the border essentially produces a criminalised sex worker. To argue this point, the article discusses the role victims of trafficking play in the EU and looks at how international norms espoused by the OSCE and IOM have prepped the Albanian border for EU ascension and created the means for governable populations within Albania.

  12. Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims ... in the recent Advances in molecular biology and genetics," says team member Stephen Sherry, Ph.D., of ...

  13. Personality characteristics of victims of illegal attacks on the Internet

    Safuanov F.S.


    Full Text Available The article examines the personality characteristics of victims of illegal attacks on the Internet. We used methods as follow: 16 factors Cattell personality questionnaire, subjective control level, life-style index, Buss-Perry questionnaire, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, a COPE inventory. 78 internet users were divided into two groups of 38 persons: the main group included people falling victim to illegal attacks on the Internet, the control group participants were not attacked on the internet. We identified specific aggregated symptoms of individual psychological characteristics of internet attack victims and show that victims of "non-forced" and "forced" offenses have different levels of situational and personal anxiety, aggression and locus of control.

  14. How older persons explain why they became victims of abuse

    Mysyuk, Yuliya; Westendorp, Rudi Gerardus Johannes; Lindenberg, Jolanda


    independently, in residential care facilities and nursing homes. SUBJECTS: six males and 11 females aged 63-90 years. RESULTS: the main causes of abuse identified by older victims themselves were mutual dependency between victim and perpetrator, power and control imbalances, loneliness and a marginalised social...... with the perpetrator. Coping strategies mentioned by victims were seeking informal or professional help and using self-help strategies. CONCLUSION: older victims perceive abuse differently depending on the expected acceptability of the type(s) of abuse experienced and the anticipated stigma associated...... with the perpetrator involved. The effects and chosen coping strategies are influenced by these considerations and therewith also influence their help-seeking behaviour. Healthcare professionals are encouraged to use these findings in practice to prevent, detect and intervene in elder abuse....

  15. Family, Teachers, and Peers: Keys for Supporting Victims of Bullying

    María Jesús Cava


    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to analyse the differences in psychological adjustment in victims of bullying as a function of the quality of their relationships with parents, teachers, and peers. More specifically, it was compared four psychological adjustment indicators (self-esteem, depressive mood, loneliness, and stress perception in victims with good or bad communication with his/her mother, good or bad communication with his/her father, high or low perception of teacher´s help, and high or low identification with their peer group. The initial sample was composed of 1795 adolescents aged from 11 to 18 years old (M = 14.2, SD = 1.68. Results indicated better psychological adjustment in victims with better relationships with their parents, teachers, and peers than in victims with worse quality relationships. These results are discussed, and their implications in the development of intervention programmes on school violence are pointed out.

  16. Cyberbully and Victim Experiences of Pre-service Teachers

    Nilgün Tosun


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of different types of cyber bullying, the ways in which cyber bullying occurred, whether the identity of cyber bullies were known, and reaction to being cyber bullied among pre-service teachers. Relationships between gender and likelihood of being a cyber bully/victim were also investigated. Using a questionnaire based on the Cyber Bully and Victim Scale developed by [1], males were found to engage in cyber bullying more than females. Cyber bullying mainly occurred through e-mail, text messages, and phone calls. Although most cyber bullying victims talked with others about their experience, most cyber bullies did not talk about their harmful behavior to others. Victims often did not know the cyber bully and ignored the cyber bullying when it occurred.

  17. Family victim advocates: the importance of critical job duties

    Teresa H. Young

    Full Text Available Child advocacy centers across the United States intervened in more than 250,000 child abuse cases in 2011(National Children's Alliance, 2012. Understanding the work of family victim advocates is imperative to helping children and families in child abuse cases. In this exploratory study, we surveyed advocates and program directors from child advocacy centers (CACs across the United States to compare their perceptions of the critical job duties of family victim advocates. Data analysis revealed that CAC directors rated the importance of these duties significantly higher than family victim advocates. Results suggest the need for additional training to ensure that family victim advocates understand the importance of critical job duties to meet the needs of children and families in child abuse cases.

  18. Physical examination of sexual assault victims in Belgrade area

    Alempijević Đorđe


    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual crimes represent various forms of contact of perpetrator’s genitals, lips, tongue, and fingers with genitals, lips and/or anus of the victim, in order to achieve sexual satisfaction, without victim’s consent. Objective: The aim of this work was to analyze the type of medical institution in which victims of sexual assaults are being examined in Belgrade area, to assess the quality of these examinations and medical records, as well as to control whether standardized protocols are followed. Method: Data were obtained through analysis of 113 cases of sexual assaults prosecuted in the District Court of Belgrade. Results: All victims were females with mean age of 24.1 years. The majority of victims (85% were examined in one medical institution, most often in the Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Clinical Center of Serbia, and only by one medical doctor (81.4%. Gynecologists were most frequently included in examination, while specialists of forensic medicine were engaged in only 9 cases (7.9%. In 84% of victims, the examination was performed during the first three days after the assault, and in 52% of cases on the first day. Standard techniques of clinical and gynecological examinations were applied only, without following any protocols, so the reports were made exclusively on individual basis. In no case an informed consent by victim was obtained before examination. Anamnestic data were collected in only 15.9% of cases, and they were generally incomplete. Conclusion: The results of investigation show that the quality of examination of sexual assault victims in Belgrade area is not adequate. Therefore, such negative practice should be changed in future through introduction of standardized protocols for examination of victims, as well as development of clinical forensic medicine.

  19. Substance abuse counselors' experiences with victims of incest.

    Glover-Graf, N M; Janikowski, T P


    Counselors delivering substance abuse treatment from within 39 treatment facilities throughout the United States were surveyed using the Substance Abuse Counselor Survey on Clients with Incest Histories (SACSCIH). The sample of 114 participants reported upon experiences and perceptions related to their incest-related training, identification of incest victims, prevalence of incest victims on their caseloads, and referral and treatment practices. Additionally, group comparisons provided information on differences based upon participants' gender, educational degree, recovery status, and experience with incest counseling.

  20. Task Force Report on Care for Victims of Sexual Assault


    is defined, as any sort of sexual activity in which one person is involved against his or her will, with or without physical force. Of the almost 3...deployed environment, is not currently a consideration in force planning. For example, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners (SANE) exist in the active and...risks and actively engage in preventive measures xii DoD Care for Victims of Sexual Assault Task Force Report all responders treat victims with

  1. Bullying victimization among college students: Negative consequences for alcohol use

    Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Richman, Judith A.; Wolff, Jennifer M.; Burke, Larisa A.


    This study reports on the prevalence of bullying victimization at school and work among college freshmen, and the relationships between victimization and changes in alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. Web survey data at two points in time from a sample of 2118 freshmen from eight colleges and universities in the Midwestern United States indicated that 43% of students experienced bullying at school, and 33% of students experienced bullying at work. Bullying, particularly at school, consi...

  2. Cyberbully and Victim Experiences of Pre-service Teachers

    Nilgün Tosun


    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of different types of cyber bullying, the ways in which cyber bullying occurred, whether the identity of cyber bullies were known, and reaction to being cyber bullied among pre-service teachers. Relationships between gender and likelihood of being a cyber bully/victim were also investigated. Using a questionnaire based on the Cyber Bully and Victim Scale developed by [1], males were found to engage in cyber bullying more than females. Cybe...

  3. Interparental Conflict, Parenting Behavior, and Children's Friendship Quality as Correlates of Peer Aggression and Peer Victimization Among Aggressor/Victim Subgroups in South Korea.

    Shin, Jung-Hee; Hong, Jun Sung; Yoon, Jina; Espelage, Dorothy L


    The focus of this study was to examine whether interparental conflict, maternal parenting behaviors, and children's friendship quality varied as a function of peer aggression/victim subgroups among a sample of 227 elementary school children and their mothers in South Korea. Both self-report and peer-report data indicated that the majority of the students were uninvolved in peer aggression situations, and the number of participants in the subgroups (aggressors, victims, and aggressor-victims) varied depending on the source of report. According to the self-report data, victims and aggressor-victims reported a higher level of maternal rejection than uninvolved youth. Aggressors, victims, and aggressor-victims reported higher maternal neglect than uninvolved youth. The highest level of interparental conflict was reported by victims, followed by aggressors. Interestingly, no significant differences were found in positive functioning of friendship quality among the subgroups, although results indicated a significant difference among groups in negative friendship quality.

  4. The development of simple survival prediction models for blunt trauma victims treated at Asian emergency centers

    Kimura Akio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background For real-time assessment of the probability of survival (Ps of blunt trauma victims at emergency centers, this study aimed to establish regression models for estimating Ps using simplified coefficients. Methods The data of 10,210 blunt trauma patients not missing both the binary outcome data about survival and the data necessary for Ps calculation by The Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS method were extracted from the Japan Trauma Data Bank (2004-2007 and analyzed. Half (5,113 of the data was allocated to a derivation data set, with the other half (5,097 allocated to a validation data set. The data of 6,407 blunt trauma victims from the trauma registry of Khon Kaen Regional Hospital in Thailand were analyzed for validation. The logistic regression models included age, the Injury Severity Score (ISS, the Glasgow Coma Scale score (GCS, systolic blood pressure (SBP, respiratory rate (RR, and their coded values (cAGE, 0-1; cISS, 0-4; cSBP, 0-4; cGCS, 0-4; cRR, 0-4 as predictor variables. The coefficients were simplified by rounding off after the decimal point or choosing 0.5 if the coefficients varied across 0.5. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROCC was calculated for each model to measure discriminant ability. Results A group of formulas (log (Ps/1-Ps = logit (Ps = -9 + cISS - cAGE + cSBP + cGCS + cRR/2, where -9 becomes -7 if the predictor variable of cRR or cISS is missing was developed. Using these formulas, the AUROCCs were between 0.950 and 0.964. When these models were applied to the Khon Kean data, their AUROCCs were greater than 0.91. Conclusion: These equations allow physicians to perform real-time assessments of survival by easy mental calculations at Asian emergency centers, which are overcrowded with blunt injury victims of traffic accidents.

  5. Substance abuse in victims of fire.

    Barillo, D J; Goode, R


    Ethanol or drug use may increase the risk of fire-related injury or death. This study was performed to quantify the role of substance abuse in fatal fires occurring in New Jersey over a 7-year period. Records of all the fatalities of fire reported to the State Medical Examiners Office between 1985 and 1991 were retrospectively examined. Blood assay results for ethanol were positive in 215 of the 727 (29.5%) fatalities of fire tested. For this group, the mean blood-ethanol level was 193.9 mg/dl. Blood or urine assay results for substances of abuse were positive in 78 of the 534 (14.6%) fatalities tested. The most commonly detected illicit substances were cocaine, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and cannabinoids. The test results were positive for both ethanol and drug use in 36 victims. Forty percent of all the fatalities of fire were aged younger than 11 or older than 70. In contradistinction, 75% of drug-positive fatalities of fire and 58% of ethanol-positive fatalities of fire were between the ages of 21 and 50, suggesting that inebriation may impair the ability to escape from fire. Substance abusers in middle life are a previously unrecognized group at higher risk of injury or death in a fire.

  6. The happy victimizer phenomenon: Not found here

    Jevtić Ana


    Full Text Available Children’s attribution of emotions to a moral transgressor is an important research topic in the psychology of moral and emotional development. This is especially because of the so-called Happy Victimizer Phenomenon (HVP where younger children attribute positive emotions to a moral transgressor described in a story. In the two studies that we have conducted (children aged 5, 7 and 9, 20 of each age; 10 of each age in the second study we have tested the possible influence of the fear of sanctions and the type of transgression (stealing and inflicting body injuries on the attribution of emotions. Children were presented with stories that described transgressions and they were asked to answer how the transgressor felt. The fear of sanctions did not make a significant difference in attribution but the type of transgression did - more negative emotions were attributed for inflicting body injuries than for stealing. Positive emotions were explained with situational-instrumental explanations in 84% of cases while negative emotions were explained with moral explanations in 63,5%. Girls attributed more positive emotions (61% than boys (39%. However, our main finding was that, for the aforementioned age groups, we did not find the HVP effect although it has regularly been registered in foreign studies. This finding denies the generalizability of the phenomenon and points to the significance of disciplining styles and, even more so, culture for children’s attribution of emotions to moral transgressors.

  7. Chest injury in victims of Bam earthquake

    Seyed Mohammad Ghodsi; Moosa Zargar; Ali Khaji; Mojgan Karbakhsh


    Objective: To analyze the data of trauma patients with thoracic injury in the earthquake of Bam admitted to hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Science (TUMS)for better understanding the type and consequence of thoracic injuries in a major earthquake.Methods: After Bam earthquake registering 6.5 on the Richter scale, 526 trauma patients were admitted to hospitals of TUMS. Among them, 53 patients sustained thoracic injury.Results: This group was composed of 21 females (39.6%) and 32 males (60.4%). Fifteen patients (28.3%) had isolated chest injuries. Rib fracture (36.4%) was the most common injury in our patients and haemo/pneumothorax (25.5%) followed. Superficial injury was the most common accompanying injury. Multipletrauma patients with chest injury had higher injury severity score (ISS) versus patients with isolated chest injury (P =0.003).Conclusions: Chest wall injuries and haemo/pneumothorax comprise a considerable number of injuries in survival victims of earthquakes. Consequently, the majority of these patients can be treated with observation or tube thoracostomy. We should train and equip the health workers and members of rescue teams to treat and manage these patients in the field.

  8. Integrating forensic anthropology into Disaster Victim Identification.

    Mundorff, Amy Z


    This paper will provide mass fatality emergency planners, police, medical examiners, coroners and other Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) personnel ways to integrate forensic anthropologists into DVI operations and demonstrate how anthropological contributions have improved DVI projects. In mass disaster situations, anthropologists have traditionally been limited to developing biological profiles from skeletal remains. Over the past decade, however, anthropologists' involvement in DVI has extended well beyond this traditional role as they have taken on increasingly diverse tasks and responsibilities. Anthropological involvement in DVI operations is often dictated by an incident's specific characteristics, particularly events involving extensive fragmentation, commingling, or other forms of compromised remains. This paper will provide examples from recent DVI incidents to illustrate the operational utility of anthropologists in the DVI context. The points where it is most beneficial to integrate anthropologists into the DVI process include: (1) during recovery at the disaster scene; (2) at the triage station as remains are brought into the mortuary; and (3) in conducting the reconciliation process. Particular attention will be paid to quality control and quality assurance measures anthropologists have developed and implemented for DVI projects. Overall, this paper will explain how anthropological expertise can be used to increase accuracy in DVI while reducing the project's cost and duration.

  9. Molecular autopsy in victims of inherited arrhythmias.

    Semsarian, Christopher; Ingles, Jodie


    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a rare but devastating complication of a number of underlying cardiovascular diseases. While coronary artery disease and acute myocardial infarction are the most common causes of SCD in older populations, inherited cardiac disorders comprise a substantial proportion of SCD cases aged less than 40 years. Inherited cardiac disorders include primary inherited arrhythmogenic disorders such as familial long QT syndrome (LQTS), Brugada syndrome (BrS), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), and inherited cardiomyopathies, most commonly hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). In up to 40% of young SCD victims (defined as 1-40 years old, excluding sudden unexplained death in infancy from 0 to 1 years, referred to as SIDS), no cause of death is identified at postmortem [so-called "autopsy negative" or "sudden arrhythmic death syndrome" (SADS)]. Management of families following a SCD includes the identification of the cause of death, based either on premorbid clinical details or the pathological findings at the postmortem. When no cause of death is identified, genetic testing of DNA extracted from postmortem tissue (the molecular autopsy) may identify a cause of death in up to 30% of SADS cases. Targeted clinical testing in a specialized multidisciplinary clinic in surviving family members combined with the results from genetic testing, provide the optimal setting for the identification of relatives who may be at risk of having the same inherited heart disease and are therefore also predisposed to an increased risk of SCD.

  10. Trauma score and evaluation in 341 cases of thoracic injuries due to traffic accidents

    石应康; 杨建; 等


    Objective:To evaluate the prognosis value of a severity characteristics of trauma(ASCOT)for thoracic patents injured from traffic accidents.Methods:Three hundred and forty-one traffic thoracic victime out of 6009 cases from west China Trauma Database were assessed with RTS.AIS-ISS and ASCOT,and the prognostic survival and deaths were compared with the actual outcome.Results:It showed that the ASCOT was satisfactory in the prognosis to survival patients,but not sensitive to the deaths,e.g.,there was a high incidence of mistaking deaths as survivals.The causes of such aberration ight be:1) systemic errors of using foreigh standard of trauma score to evaluate Chinese traffic victims;2) deficiencies of trauma score system;and 3) technical errors of ones who perform trauma score assessment.Conclusions:It is necessary to establish Chinese database of trauma material and,hereby,to enact trauma score standard or rectification coefficient of weight congruouns China.

  11. Exploring Environmental Effects of Accidents During Marine Transport of Dangerous Goods by Use of Accident Descriptions

    Rømer, Hans Gottberg; Haastrup, P.; Petersen, H J Styhr


    On the basis of 1776 descriptions of water transport accidents involving dangerous goods, environmental problems in connection with releases of this kind are described and discussed. It was found that most detailed descriptions of environmental consequences concerned oil accidents, although most...


    V. G. Bebeshko


    Full Text Available From the position of a 25-years’ experience to overcome the health effects of Chernobyl the dynamics of the radiation environment, the first summarizing at the international level (1988, the results of completed research and practical monitoring are analyzed. Cohort of acute radiation syndrome (ARS survivors under medical observation at the S.I. "Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine" is the largest. Within the 25 years the functional state of the major organs and body systems, and metabolic homeostasis for this category of persons were studied, a comprehensive assessment of their health, mental and physical performance were given, and risk factors and peculiarities of stochastic and non-stochastic pathology courses were identified, as well as a system of rehabilitation patients after ARS was developed. ARS survivors are suffering from chronic diseases of internal organs and systems (from 5-7 to 10-12 diagnoses at the same time. A correlation between acute radiation effects and specific HLA phenotypes were revealed. The dynamics of the immune system recovery after irradiation was studied. The role and prognostic value of telomere length and programmed cell death of lymphocytes in the formation of the cellular effects of ionizing radiation were determined for the first time. Differences between spontaneous and radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemias were found. Dose-dependent neuropsychiatric, neurophysiological, neuropsychological and neuroimaging deviations were identified after irradiation at doses above 0.3 Sv. It was shown that the lymphocytes of Chernobyl clean-up workers with doses 350 – 690 mGy can induce "the bystander effect" in the non-irradiated cells even after 19 years after exposure. The rates of cancer incidence and mortality of victims, the lessons and key problems to be solved in the third decade after the Chernobyl accident are considered.

  13. Predicting multiple victim versus single victim sexual abuse: an examination of distal factors and proximal factors associated with the first abuse incident

    McKillop, N.; Smallbone, S.; WORTLEY, R.


    Official and confidential self-report data on 83 convicted adult male sexual abusers were analysed to examine whether sexual offending progression can be better predicted from distal antecedents, or from proximal antecedents and outcomes associated with the first sexual abuse incident. Fifty-six offenders who sexually abused more than one victim (multiple victim offenders; MVOs) were compared to 27 offenders who sexually abused a single victim only (single victim offenders; SVOs). MVOs were y...

  14. Parenting behavior and the risk of becoming a victim and a bully/victim : a meta-analysis study

    Lereya, Suzet; Samara, Muthanna; Wolke, Dieter


    Objective:\\ud Being bullied has adverse effects on children's health. Children's family experiences and parenting behavior before entering school help shape their capacity to adapt and cope at school and have an impact on children's peer relationship, hence it is important to identify how parenting styles and parent–child relationship are related to victimization in order to develop intervention programs to prevent or mitigate victimization in childhood and adolescence.\\ud Methods:\\ud We cond...

  15. Reactor Safety Gap Evaluation of Accident Tolerant Components and Severe Accident Analysis

    Farmer, Mitchell T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bunt, R. [Southern Nuclear, Atlanta, GA (United States); Corradini, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ellison, Paul B. [GE Power and Water, Duluth, GA (United States); Francis, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gabor, John D. [Erin Engineering, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Gauntt, R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Henry, C. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Linthicum, R. [Exelon Corp., Chicago, IL (United States); Luangdilok, W. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Lutz, R. [PWR Owners Group (PWROG); Paik, C. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Plys, M. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rempe, J. [Rempe and Associates LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Robb, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wachowiak, R. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States)


    The overall objective of this study was to conduct a technology gap evaluation on accident tolerant components and severe accident analysis methodologies with the goal of identifying any data and/or knowledge gaps that may exist, given the current state of light water reactor (LWR) severe accident research, and additionally augmented by insights obtained from the Fukushima accident. The ultimate benefit of this activity is that the results can be used to refine the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Reactor Safety Technology (RST) research and development (R&D) program plan to address key knowledge gaps in severe accident phenomena and analyses that affect reactor safety and that are not currently being addressed by the industry or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  16. Frequency of victimization experiences and well-being among online, offline and combined victims on social online network sites of German children and adolescents

    Michael eGlüer


    Full Text Available Victimization is associated with negative developmental outcomes in childhood and adolescence. However, previous studies have provided mixed results regarding the association between offline and online victimization and indicators of social, psychological, and somatic well-being. In this study, we investigated 1,906 German children and adolescents (grades 5 to 10, mean age = 13.9; SD = 2.1 with and without offline or online victimization experiences who participated in a social online network (SNS. Online questionnaires were used to assess previous victimization (offline, online, combined, and without, somatic and psychological symptoms, self-esteem, and social self-concept (social competence, resistance to peer influence, esteem by others. In total, 1,362 (71.4% children and adolescents reported being a member of at least one social online network, and 377 students (28.8% reported previous victimization. Most children and adolescents had offline victimization experiences (17.5%, whereas 2.7% reported online victimization, and 8.6% reported combined experiences. Girls reported more online and combined victimization, and boys reported more offline victimization. The type of victimization (offline, online, combined was associated with increased reports of psychological and somatic symptoms, lower self-esteem and esteem by others, and lower resistance to peer influences. The effects were comparable for the groups with offline and online victimization. They were, however, increased in the combined group in comparison to victims with offline experiences alone.

  17. Effect evaluation of a road safety education program based on victim testimonials in high schools in Belgium.

    Cuenen, Ariane; Brijs, Kris; Brijs, Tom; Van Vlierden, Karin; Daniels, Stijn; Wets, Geert


    For several decades policy makers worldwide have experimented with testimonials as a strategy to promote road safety supportive views in a wide variety of target populations such as recidivists and students. In its basic format, a (relative of) a victim or an offender brings a personal testimonial of what it is to experience a traffic accident. The underlying idea is that such a testimonial will emotionally affect participants, thereby stimulating them to cognitively reflect upon their own behavior and responsibility as a road user. Unfortunately, empirical literature on the effectiveness of this strategy is rather scarce and inconsistent. This study investigated the effect of a large-scale program with victim testimonials for high schools in Belgium on five socio-cognitive and behavioral variables drawn from the Theory of Planned Behavior (i.e., attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, behavioral intention and behavior). Moreover, this study investigated program effects on participants' cognitive and emotional estate and whether this influences the program's impact on socio-cognitive and behavioral variables. Our test sample included 1362 students, who were assigned to a baseline - follow-up group and a post-test - follow-up group. We questioned both groups, a first time (just before or after session attendance) on paper, and a second time (two months after session attendance) online. Results indicate the program had, both immediate and two months after attendance, small to medium positive effects on most socio-cognitive and behavioral variables. However, effects depended on participants' demographic profile, their baseline values on the socio-cognitive and behavioral variables, and the degree to which they were cognitively/emotionally affected by the program. We discuss the practical implications of these findings and formulate recommendations for the development of future interventions based on victim testimonials.

  18. Iodine behaviour in severe accidents

    Dutton, L.M.C.; Grindon, E.; Handy, B.J.; Sutherland, L. [NNC Ltd., Knutsford (United Kingdom); Bruns, W.G.; Sims, H.E. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Dickinson, S. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Hueber, C.; Jacquemain, D. [IPSN/CEA, Cadarache, Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France)


    A description is given of analyses which identify which aspects of the modelling and data are most important in evaluating the release of radioactive iodine to the environment following a potential severe accident at a PWR and which identify the major uncertainties which affect that release. Three iodine codes are used namely INSPECT, IODE and IMPAIR, and their predictions are compared with those of the PSA code MAAP. INSPECT is a mechanistic code which models iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, spray water and sump water, and the partitioning of volatile species between the aqueous phases and containment gas space. Organic iodine is not modelled. IODE and IMPAIR are semi-empirical codes which do not model iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, but model organic iodine. The fault sequences addressed are based on analyses for the Sizewell `B` design. Two types of sequence have been analysed.: (a) those in which a major release of fission products from the primary circuit to the containment occur, e.g. a large LOCAS, (b) those where the release by-passes the containment, e.g. a leak into the auxiliary building. In the analysis of the LOCA sequences where the pH of the sump is controlled to be a value of 8 or greater, all three codes predict that the oxidation of iodine to produce gas phase species does not make a significant contribution to the source term due to leakage from the reactor building and that the latter is dominated by iodide in the aerosol. In the case where the pH of the sump is not controlled, it is found that the proportion of gas phase iodine increases significantly, although the cumulative leakage predicted by all three codes is not significantly different from that predicted by MAAP. The radiolytic production of nitric acid could be a major factor in determining the pH, and if the pH were reduced, the codes predict an increase in gas phase iodine species leaked from the containment. (author) 4 figs., 7 tabs., 13 refs.

  19. Emergency/disaster medical support in the restoration project for the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    Morimura, Naoto; Asari, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Asanuma, Kazunari; Tase, Choichiro; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Aruga, Tohru


    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F) suffered a series of radiation accidents after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. In a situation where halting or delaying restoration work was thought to translate directly into a very serious risk for the entire country, it was of the utmost importance to strengthen the emergency and disaster medical system in addition to radiation emergency medical care for staff at the frontlines working in an environment that posed a risk of radiation exposure and a large-scale secondary disaster. The Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) launched the 'Emergency Task Force on the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident' and sent physicians to the local response headquarters. Thirty-four physicians were dispatched as disaster medical advisors, response guidelines in the event of multitudinous injury victims were created and revised and, along with execution of drills, coordination and advice was given on transport of patients. Forty-nine physicians acted as directing physicians, taking on the tasks of triage, initial treatment and decontamination. A total of 261 patients were attended to by the dispatched physicians. None of the eight patients with external contamination developed acute radiation syndrome. In an environment where the collaboration between organisations in the framework of a vertically bound government and multiple agencies and institutions was certainly not seamless, the participation of the JAAM as the medical academic organisation in the local system presented the opportunity to laterally integrate the physicians affiliated with the respective organisations from the perspective of specialisation.

  20. Lead Toxicity Risks in Gunshot Victims.

    Gabriel Costa Serrão de Araújo

    Full Text Available Gunshot wounds require surgeons to decide whether to remove or leave bullet fragments in the body. Surgeons also decide how to follow up with patients who have lead fragments retained in their body. Current literature recommends to remove only intra-articular fragments without the need for a follow-up for patients with the metal retained. Therefore, this study investigates chronic lead toxicity for gunshot wounds.The study was performed in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil, between 2013 and 2015. It was a case-control study that included 45 victims of gunshot lesions with metallic fragments retained for more than 6 months. The 45 controls were matched for gender, age, and race. We compared the lead blood levels and frequency of symptoms.The control group had average blood lead levels of 2.17 μg/dL (95% Confidence Interval [CI]; 1.71-2.63 and median 2.1 μg/dL. The case group had average values of 9.01 μg/dL (CI; 6.07-11.96 and median values of 6.5 μg/dL with p-values < = 0.001. The case group reported the following more frequently: irritancy, bad mood, headache, memory losses, daylight drowsiness, myalgia, weakness, abdominal pain, joint pain, trembling, tingling limbs. There was statistical significance for the differences of symptoms frequencies and for odds ratio between groups.Although the mean lead levels found were lower than the current laboratory references, low levels have been associated with both rising morbidity and mortality. The WHO stated: "There is no known level of lead exposure that is considered safe". In conclusion, this work showed that bullets retained in the body are not innocuous. There are impacts in the blood lead levels and symptoms related to it, even with few fragments, extra-articular located or existing with low blood lead levels.