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Sample records for accident proneness

  1. Accident proneness, does it exist? A review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Ellen; Pijl, Ysbrand J.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Neeleman, Jan; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    Accident related health problems have been suggested to cluster within persons. This phenomenon became known as accident proneness and has been a subject of many discussions. This study provides an overview of accident proneness. Therefore, 79 articles with empirical data on accident rates were

  2. Laterality, spatial abilities, and accident proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Susan D; Voyer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Although handedness as a measure of cerebral specialization has been linked to accident proneness, more direct measures of laterality are rarely considered. The present study aimed to fill that gap in the existing research. In addition, individual difference factors in accident proneness were further examined with the inclusion of mental rotation and navigation abilities measures. One hundred and forty participants were asked to complete the Mental Rotations Test, the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scale, the Greyscales task, the Fused Dichotic Word Test, the Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire, and a grip strength task before answering questions related to number of accidents in five areas. Results indicated that handedness scores, absolute visual laterality score, absolute response time on the auditory laterality index, and navigation ability were significant predictors of the total number of accidents. Results are discussed with respect to cerebral hemispheric specialization and risk-taking attitudes and behavior.

  3. Accident proneness, does it exist? A review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, Ellen; Pijl, Ysbrand J.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Neeleman, Jan; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Accident related health problems have been suggested to cluster within persons. This phenomenon became known as accident proneness and has been a subject of many discussions. This study provides an overview of accident proneness. Therefore, 79 articles with empirical data on accident rates were identified from databases Embase, Medline, and Psychinfo. First, definitions of accidents varied highly, but most studies focused on accidents resulting in injuries requiring medical attention. Second,...

  4. Musculoskeletal disorders, personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of Chinese coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingming; Wu, Feng; Wang, Jun; Sun, Linyan

    2017-01-01

    Human factors comprise one of the important reasons leading to the casualty accidents in coal mines. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of coal miners. There were 1500 Chinese coal miners surveyed in this study. Among these miners, 992 valid samples were obtained. The study surveyed the MSDs, personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of coal miners with MSDs Likert scale, Eysenck personality questionnaire, Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) scale, and accident proneness questionnaire, respectively. The highest MSDs level was found in the waist. The increasing working age of the miners was connected with increased MSDs and psychological distress. Significant differences in MSDs and psychological distress of miners from different types of work were observed. Coal miners with higher MSDs had higher accident proneness. Coal miners with higher neuroticism dimension of Eysenck personality and more serious psychological distress had higher accident proneness. Phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism dimension of psychological distress were the three most important indicators that had significant positive relationships with accident proneness. The MSDs, neuroticism dimension, and psychological distress of the coal mine workers are important to work safety and require serious attention. Some implications concerning coal mine safety management in China were provided.

  5. Jerky driving--An indicator of accident proneness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdadi, Omar; Várhelyi, András

    2011-07-01

    This study uses continuously logged driving data from 166 private cars to derive the level of jerks caused by the drivers during everyday driving. The number of critical jerks found in the data is analysed and compared with the self-reported accident involvement of the drivers. The results show that the expected number of accidents for a driver increases with the number of critical jerks caused by the driver. Jerk analyses make it possible to identify safety critical driving behaviour or "accident prone" drivers. They also facilitate the development of safety measures such as active safety systems or advanced driver assistance systems, ADAS, which could be adapted for specific groups of drivers or specific risky driving behaviour. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of the Life Change Unit model for the prevention of accident proneness among small to medium sized industries in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Youngsig; Hahm, Hyojoon; Yang, Sunghwan; Kim, Taegu

    2008-10-01

    Behavior models have provided an accident proneness concept based on life change unit (LCU) factors. This paper describes the development of a Korean Life Change Unit (KLCU) model for workers and managers in fatal accident areas, as well as an evaluation of its application. Results suggest that death of parents is the highest stress-giving factor for employees of small and medium sized industries a rational finding the viewpoint of Korean culture. The next stress-giving factors were shown to be the death of a spouse or loved ones, followed by the death of close family members, the death of close friends, changes of family members' health, unemployment, and jail terms. It turned out that these factors have a serious effect on industrial accidents and work-related diseases. The death of parents and close friends are ranked higher in the KLCU model than that of Western society. Crucial information for industrial accident prevention in real fields will be provided and the provided information will be useful for safety management programs related to accident prevention.

  7. Geometric and Road Environmental Effects against Total Number of Traffic Accidents in Kendari

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdin, M. Akbar; Welendo, La; Annisa, Nur

    2017-05-01

    From the large number of traffic accidents that occurred, the carrying of Kendari as the biggest contributor to accidents in the Southeast. The number of accidents in Kendari row since 2011 was recorded at 18 accidents due to the influence of geometric road, in 2012 registered at 13 accident and in 2013 amounted to 6 accidents, with accident data because of the influence Geometric recorded for 3 consecutive years the biggest contributor to accidents because of the influence of geometric is Abeli districts. This study aimed to determine the road which common point of accident-prone (Black spot) in Kecamatan Abeli as accident-prone areas in Kendari, analyze the influence of geometric and road environment against accidents on roads in Kecamatan Abeli, provide alternative treatment based on the causes of accidents on the location of the accident-prone points (blackspot) to reduce the rate of traffic accidents. From the results of a study of 6 curve the accident-prone locations, that the curve I, II, and VI is the “Black Spot” influenced by the amount and condition of traffic accidents, while at the curve II, a traffic accident that occurred also be caused by unsafe geometric where the type of geometric should be changed from Spiral-Spiral type to Spiral-Circle-Spiral type. This indicates geometric effect on the number of accidents.

  8. ASSESSING ACCIDENT HOTSPOTS BY USING VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnoosh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ever-increasing number of vehicles, transportation issues, especially transportation safety have gained great importance. One of the social problems in the world, and particularly in developing countries, which each year imposes great casualties, and economic, social and cultural costs on society, is traffic accidents. Traffic accidents cause waste of time and assets and loss of human resources in society, therefore studies and measures to reduce accidents and damage caused by them, particularly in recent decades, has become important. One of the suggested ways to deal with the problem of car accidents is the modeling of accident-prone points, as by identifying these points, factors affecting accidents can be identified, and elimination of these factors leads to a reduction in accidents. Numerous studies have been conducted in this respect, using official police data to identify these points and performing necessary analysis on them. Official data has gaps and shortcomings. Using Volunteered Geographic Information to determine accident-prone venues can be a suitable answer to the problems of using official data. The aim of this study is the use of volunteered geographic information in relation to the accidents and their causes. By taking into account factors affecting traffic accidents in the study area, and determining the importance of each factor, as well as the severity-of-accidents parameter, and using the Expert Choice software, a decision-making software based on the hierarchical analysis, high-risk venues are determined, and the accident-prone points of the study area are specified.

  9. Accidents of Electrical and Mechanical Works for Public Sector Projects in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Francis K W; Chan, Albert P C; Wong, Andy K D; Hon, Carol K H; Choi, Tracy N Y

    2018-03-10

    A study on electrical and mechanical (E&M) works-related accidents for public sector projects provided the opportunity to gain a better understanding of the causes of accidents by analyzing the circumstances of all E&M works accidents. The research aims to examine accidents of E&M works which happened in public sector projects. A total of 421 E&M works-related accidents in the "Public Works Programme Construction Site Safety and Environmental Statistics" (PCSES) system were extracted for analysis. Two-step cluster analysis was conducted to classify the E&M accidents into different groups. The results identified three E&M accidents groups: (1) electricians with over 15 years of experience were prone to 'fall of person from height'; (2) electricians with zero to five years of experience were prone to 'slip, trip or fall on same level'; (3) air-conditioning workers with zero to five years of experience were prone to multiple types of accidents. Practical measures were recommended for each specific cluster group to avoid recurrence of similar accidents. The accident analysis would be vital for industry practitioners to enhance the safety performance of public sector projects. This study contributes to filling the knowledge gap of how and why E&M accidents occur and promulgating preventive measures for E&M accidents which have been under researched.

  10. Accidents of Electrical and Mechanical Works for Public Sector Projects in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis K. W. Wong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on electrical and mechanical (E&M works-related accidents for public sector projects provided the opportunity to gain a better understanding of the causes of accidents by analyzing the circumstances of all E&M works accidents. The research aims to examine accidents of E&M works which happened in public sector projects. A total of 421 E&M works-related accidents in the “Public Works Programme Construction Site Safety and Environmental Statistics” (PCSES system were extracted for analysis. Two-step cluster analysis was conducted to classify the E&M accidents into different groups. The results identified three E&M accidents groups: (1 electricians with over 15 years of experience were prone to ‘fall of person from height’; (2 electricians with zero to five years of experience were prone to ‘slip, trip or fall on same level’; (3 air-conditioning workers with zero to five years of experience were prone to multiple types of accidents. Practical measures were recommended for each specific cluster group to avoid recurrence of similar accidents. The accident analysis would be vital for industry practitioners to enhance the safety performance of public sector projects. This study contributes to filling the knowledge gap of how and why E&M accidents occur and promulgating preventive measures for E&M accidents which have been under researched.

  11. Accidents of Electrical and Mechanical Works for Public Sector Projects in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Francis K. W.; Chan, Albert P. C.; Wong, Andy K. D.; Choi, Tracy N. Y.

    2018-01-01

    A study on electrical and mechanical (E&M) works-related accidents for public sector projects provided the opportunity to gain a better understanding of the causes of accidents by analyzing the circumstances of all E&M works accidents. The research aims to examine accidents of E&M works which happened in public sector projects. A total of 421 E&M works-related accidents in the “Public Works Programme Construction Site Safety and Environmental Statistics” (PCSES) system were extracted for analysis. Two-step cluster analysis was conducted to classify the E&M accidents into different groups. The results identified three E&M accidents groups: (1) electricians with over 15 years of experience were prone to ‘fall of person from height’; (2) electricians with zero to five years of experience were prone to ‘slip, trip or fall on same level’; (3) air-conditioning workers with zero to five years of experience were prone to multiple types of accidents. Practical measures were recommended for each specific cluster group to avoid recurrence of similar accidents. The accident analysis would be vital for industry practitioners to enhance the safety performance of public sector projects. This study contributes to filling the knowledge gap of how and why E&M accidents occur and promulgating preventive measures for E&M accidents which have been under researched. PMID:29534429

  12. A Study of The Relationship Between The Components of The Five-Factor Model of Personality and The Occurrence of Occupational Accidents in Industry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanollah Habibi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Accidents are among the most important problems of both the developed and the developing countries. Individual factors and personality traits are the primary causes of human errors and contribute to accidents. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between the components of the five-factor model of personality and the occurrence of occupational accidents in industrial workers. The independent T-test indicated that there is a meaningful relationship between the personality traits and accident proneness. In the two groups of industry workers injured in occupational accidents and industry workers without any occupational accidents, there is a significant relationship between personality traits, neuroticism (p=0.001, openness to experience (p=0.001, extraversion (p=0.024 and conscientiousness (p=0.021. Nonetheless, concerning the personality trait of agreeableness (p = 0.09, the group of workers with accidents did not differ significantly from the workers without any accidents. The results showed that there is a direct and significant relationship between accident proneness and the personality traits of neuroticism and openness to experience. Furthermore, there is a meaningful but inverse correlation between accident proneness and the personality traits of extraversion and conscientiousness, while there was no relationship between accident proneness and the personality trait of agreeableness.

  13. Isometric elbow extensors strength in supine- and prone-lying positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelzaher, Ibrahim E; Ababneh, Anas F; Alzyoud, Jehad M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare isometric strength of elbow extensors measured in supine- and prone-lying positions at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees. Twenty-two male subjects under single-blind procedures participated in the study. Each subject participated in both supine-lying and prone-lying measuring protocols. Calibrated cable tensiometer was used to measure isometric strength of the right elbow extensors and a biofeedback electromyography was used to assure no substitution movements from shoulder girdle muscles. The mean values of isometric strength of elbow extensors measured from supine-lying position at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees were 11.1  ±  4.2 kg and 13.1  ±  4.6 kg, while those measured from prone-lying position were 9.9  ±  3.6 kg and 12  ±  4.2 kg, respectively. There is statistical significant difference between the isometric strength of elbow extensors measured from supine-lying position at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees compared to that measured from prone-lying position (p  isometric strength of elbow extensors since supine-lying starting position is better than prone-lying starting position.

  14. Accidents in making fireworks. Tapaturmat polttopuun teossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solmio, H

    1991-01-01

    The accidents and the trends in the number of accidents and their causes were analyzed in a study conducted by the Forestry Department of the Work Efficiency Institute. The study was funded by the Finnish Agricultural Enterpreneurs' Pension Fund (MELA). The study material was selected from MELA's accident stage work and cause code. Altogether, the material comprised the following accidents that occurred while making and using firewood: 671 accidents in 1987 and 596 accidents in 1988. The amount of accidents caused by the working environment and hand tools was clearly higher in 1987 than in 1988. The number of accidents occurred while chopping wood was 20 % higher in 1987 than in 1988. April was the most accident-prone month both in 1987 and in 1988. Chopping of firewood was the most dangerous work stage in terms of the number of accidents. In 1988, the number of accidents in chopping firewood was 336, in sawing using circular saw 97 cases and other mechanized chopping led to 93 accidents. Heating with wood caused 33 accidents. In 1988 there were 10 (2 %) accidents involving loss of limbs and 9 of them occurred in the mechanized chopping of firewood. Nine accidents of these involved the loss of one or more fingers. Serious accidents, leading to inability to work for more than 3 months, were most frequent in chopping and in storing firewood.

  15. Prevalence of Occupational Accidents/Injuries among Health Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Health care workers (HCWs) are prone to occupational accidents and injuries such as needle pricks in the course of their day to day activities in the health care setting. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of needle sticks and other occupational exposures among HCWs in a Nigerian tertiary hospital.

  16. The Influence Of Personal & Psychological Factors On Prone-Ness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    efficacy and achievement striving behaviour on prone-ness of athletes in Ogun State to abuse drugs. Descriptive survey design was adopted. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 304 participants. The age range of participants ...

  17. A GIS Approach to Evaluate Infrastructure Variables Influencing the Occurrence of Traffic Accidents in Urban Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Selim Çepni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies worldwide have been developed that seek to explain the occurrence of traffic accidents from different perspectives. The analyses have addressed legal perspectives, technical attributes of vehicles and infrastructure as well as the psychological, behavioral and socio-economic components of the road system users. Recently, some analysis techniques based on the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS have been used, which allow the generation of spatial distribution maps, models and risk estimates from a spatial perspective. Sometimes analyses of traffic accidents are performed using quantitative statistical techniques, which place significant importance on the evolution of accidents. Studies such as those in references have shown that conventional statistical models are sometimes inadequate to model the frequency of traffic accidents, as they may provide erroneous inferences. GIS approach has been used to explore different spatial and temporal visualization technologies to reveal accident patterns and significant factors relating to vehicle crashes, or as a management system for accident analysis and the determination of hot spots. This paper examines the relationship between urban road accidents and variables related to road infrastructure, environment and traffic volumes. Some accident-prone sections in the city of Kocaeli are specifically identified by GIS tools. Urban road accidents in Kocaeli are a serious problem and it is believed that accidents can be related to infrastructure characteristics. The study aimed to establish the relationship between urban road accidents and the road infrastructure variables and revealed some possible accident prone locations for the period of 2013 and 2015 in Kocaeli city

  18. Fatal accidents among Danes with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Koch-Henriksen, Nils

    2006-01-01

    We compared the rate of fatal accidents among Danes with multiple sclerosis (MS) with that of the general population. The study was based on linkage of the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry to the Cause of Death Registry and covered all 10174 persons in whom MS was diagnosed during the period 19...... for deaths from burns (SMR = 8.90) and suffocation (SMR = 5.57). We conclude that persons with MS are more prone to fatal accidents than the general population. The excess risk is due not to traffic accidents but to burns and suffocation.......-1996. The end of follow-up was 1 January 1999. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for various types of fatal accidents. A total of 76 persons (48 men and 28 women) died from accidents, whereas the expected number of fatalities from such causes was 55.7 (31.4 men and 24.3 women). Thus, the risk...... for death from accidents among persons with MS was 37% higher than that of the general population (SMR = 1.37). We found no significant excess risk for fatal road accidents (SMR = 0.80). The risk for falls was elevated (SMR = 1.29) but not statistically significantly so. The risks were particularly high...

  19. [A project to reduce the incidence of facial pressure ulcers caused by prolonged surgery with prone positioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Yi; Lin, Pao-Chen; Weng, Chia-Hsing; Lin, Yi-Lin; Tsai, Wen-Lin

    2012-06-01

    We observed in our institute a 13.6% incidence of prolonged surgery (>4 hours) induced facial pressure ulcers that required prone positioning. Causes identified included: (1) customized silicon face pillows used were not suited for every patient; (2) our institute lacked a standard operating procedure for prone positioning; (3) our institute lacked a postoperative evaluation and audit procedure for facial pressure ulcers. We designed a strategy to reduce post-prolonged surgery facial pressure ulcer incidence requiring prone positioning by 50% (i.e., from 13.6% to 6.8%). We implemented the following: (1) Created a new water pillow to relieve facial pressure; (2) Implemented continuing education pressure ulcer prevention and evaluation; (3) Established protocols on standard care for prone-position patients and proper facial pressure ulcer identification; (4) Established a face pressure ulcers accident reporting mechanism; and (5) Established an audit mechanism facial pressure ulcer cases. After implementing the resolution measures, 116 patients underwent prolonged surgery in a prone position (mean operating time: 298 mins). None suffered from facial pressure ulcers. The measures effectively reduced the incidence of facial pressure ulcers from 13.6% to 0.0%. The project used a water pillow to relieve facial pressure and educated staff to recognize and evaluate pressure ulcers. These measures were demonstrated effective in reducing the incidence of facial pressure ulcers caused by prolonged prone positioning.

  20. ROAD ACCIDENT AND SAFETY STUDY IN SYLHET REGION OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. BANIK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Roads, highways and streets are fundamental infrastructure facilities to provide the transportation for passenger travel and goods movement from one place to another in Sylhet, north–eastern division of Bangladesh with rapid growth of road vehicle, being comparatively developed economic tourist prone area faces severe road traffic accident. Such severe road accidents cause harsh safety hazards on the roads of Sylhet area. This research work presents an overview of the road traffic accident and degraded road safety situation in Sylhet zone which in particular, discusses the key road accident problem characteristics identifying the hazardous roads and spots, most responsible vehicles and related components, conditions of drivers and pedestrians, most victims of accident, effects of accident on society, safety priorities and options available in Sylhet. In this regard, a comprehensive questionnaire survey was conducted on the concerned groups of transportation and detailed accident data was collected from a popular local newspaper. Analysis of the study reveals that Dhaka- Sylhet highway is the most hazardous in road basis and Sylhet Sador thana is the most vulnerable in thana basis in Sylhet region.

  1. Traffic dynamics around weaving section influenced by accident: Cellular automata approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lin-Peng; Li, Xin-Gang; Lam, William H. K.

    2015-07-01

    The weaving section, as a typical bottleneck, is one source of vehicle conflicts and an accident-prone area. Traffic accident will block lanes and the road capacity will be reduced. Several models have been established to study the dynamics around traffic bottlenecks. However, little attention has been paid to study the complex traffic dynamics influenced by the combined effects of bottleneck and accident. This paper presents a cellular automaton model to characterize accident-induced traffic behavior around the weaving section. Some effective control measures are proposed and verified for traffic management under accident condition. The total flux as a function of inflow rates, the phase diagrams, the spatial-temporal diagrams, and the density and velocity profiles are presented to analyze the impact of accident. It was shown that the proposed control measures for weaving traffic can improve the capacity of weaving section under both normal and accident conditions; the accidents occurring on median lane in the weaving section are more inclined to cause traffic jam and reduce road capacity; the capacity of weaving section will be greatly reduced when the accident happens downstream the weaving section.

  2. Design features of ACR in severe accident mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, H.; Krishnan, V.S.; Santamaura, P.; Lekakh, B.; Blahnik, C.

    2007-01-01

    New reactor designs require the evaluation of design alternatives to reduce the radiological risk by preventing severe accidents or by limiting releases from the plant in the event of such accidents. The Advanced CANDU Reactor TM (ACR TM ) design has provisions to prevent and mitigate severe accidents. This paper describes key ACR design features for severe accident mitigation. It provides a high-level overview of the findings to date. Several design provisions have not yet been finalized or decided, but the designers are keenly aware of the SAM concepts and their requirements. The active heat sinks for 'vessels' (i.e., the fuel channels, the calandria vessel, the calandria end-shields and the calandria vault) are all amply capable of dissipating the severe accident heat loads. These heat sinks are designed to be operable under severe accident environmental conditions; however, their operability is yet to be confirmed by assessments. The active heat sinks for the various process vessels are 'backed up' by passive heat sinks (i.e., steaming plus water make-up from the RWS). The supply side of passive heat sinks is simple, rugged, and not vulnerable to failures of plant systems. The importance of the steam relief side is recognized, and the adequate relief capacity will be provided. The passive heat sinks will give the SAM more than 1 day (likely several days) to diagnose the accident and to establish the ultimate heat sinks. The spray system for containment pressure suppression is designed for high reliability and has ample capacity to ensure low containment leakage without external intervention, after which time alternative supply to the sprays can be brought on line manually. The sprays are backed up by the LACs which are assessed for operability following a severe accident. The strong ACR containment will provide a long time of completely passive protection for any severe accident at decay power. Its characteristics are not prone to catastrophic failures. The

  3. Shame-proneness in attempted suicide patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiklander Maria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that shame may be an important feature in suicidal behaviors. The disposition to react with shame, “shame-proneness”, has previously not been investigated in groups of attempted suicide patients. We examined shame-proneness in two groups of attempted suicide patients, one group of non-suicidal patients and one group of healthy controls. We hypothesized that the attempted suicide patients would be more shame-prone than non-suicidal patients and healthy controls. Methods The Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA, which is the most used measure of shame-proneness, was completed by attempted suicide patients (n = 175: 105 women and 3 men with borderline personality disorder [BPD], 45 women and 22 men without BPD, non-suicidal psychiatric patients (n = 162, and healthy controls (n = 161. The participants were convenience samples, with patients from three clinical research projects and healthy controls from a fourth research project. The relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide was studied with group comparisons and multiple regressions. Men and women were analyzed separately. Results Women were generally more shame-prone than men of the same participant group. Female suicide attempters with BPD were significantly more shame-prone than both female suicide attempters without BPD and female non-suicidal patients and controls. Male suicide attempters without BPD were significantly less shame-prone than non-suicidal male patients. In multiple regressions, shame-proneness was predicted by level of depression and BPD (but not by attempted suicide in female patients, and level of depression and non-suicidality in male patients. Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis and related previous research, there was no general relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide. Shame-proneness was differentially related to attempted suicide in different groups of suicide attempters

  4. Identification and Prioritization of “Black Spots” without Using Accident Information

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    Mahmoudreza Keymanesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is attempted to identify and prioritize the accident prone points (black spots in “Iraanshahr-Sarbaaz-Chabahar” road located in Baluchistan, Iran, without no use of accident data but rather using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, which is the enhanced procedure of road safety audit technique. First, by surveying the whole route, all factors that could influence accidents in this road were specified; then the route was divided into eight sections; this division was performed based on the uniformity and homogeny of each section in terms of geometric design and regional conditions. In each section, potentially hazardous locations were identified and some questionnaires were prepared, which were filled by 5 road traffic experts familiar with the route; then the collected data were analyzed by Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP using Expert Choice Software and the black spots were identified and prioritized. Finally, these black spots were compared with the black spots that had been obtained by traffic police based on accident data.

  5. Serum Antibody Response to Five Streptococcus pneumoniae Proteins during Acute Otitis Media in Otitis Prone and Non-Otitis Prone Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ravinder; Casey, Janet R.; Pichichero, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) is one of the common bacteria responsible for episodic acute otitis media (AOM; non-otitis prone), recurrent AOM (otitis-prone) and AOM treatment failure (AOMTF) in children. Objective From a population of 268 children we sought to compare the serum IgG antibody titers to five different Spn proteins (PhtD, LytB, PcpA, PhtE and Ply) that are vaccine candidates in children with episodic AOM (n=34), who were otitis prone (n=35), and who had AOMTF (n=25) caused by Spn. Methods Antibody was quantitated by ELISA. Results At their acute AOM visit, anti-PhtD, -LytB, -PhtE and −Ply IgG antibody titers in otitis-prone children were significantly lower compared to non-otitis prone children (p otitis-prone, AOMTF and non-otitis prone children had no significant change in geometric mean IgG antibody titers against the five proteins (except for PhtE in children with AOMTF), but detailed analysis showed that about one-third of the children in each cohort had a 2-fold rise in antibody to the studied antigens. While non-otitis prone children had significant increases (p otitis-prone children either failed to show rises or the rises were significantly less than the non-otitis prone children. Conclusion Otitis-prone and AOMTF children mount less of an IgG serum antibody response than non-otitis prone children to Spn proteins following AOM and nasopharyngeal colonization. PMID:21487325

  6. Poster - 34: Clinical Implementation of Prone Breast Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Runqing; Fleming, Katrina; Kobeleva, Sofya; Osei, Ernest [Grand River Regional Cancer Centre (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: Prone breast treatment is used to reduce acute and late toxicities for large or pendulous breast patients. This study developed and implemented the clinical workflow of prone breast radiotherapy treatment. Methods: Varian kVue Access360™ Prone Breast Couchtop was used as prone breast board. The treatment planning (TP)is performed in Eclipse TP system. TP comparisons between supine deep inspiration breathing hold (DIBH) and prone breast; prone forward field-in-field (FinF) planning and inverse IMRT planning were performed and discussed. For the daily setup, breast coverage was assessed in the room using light field and MV imaging was used at day 1 and weekly. Results: The first ten patients are CT scanned and planned both supine and prone. The coverage was all excellent for supine DIBH plan and prone breast plan. The plan in the prone position demonstrated improvements in lung sparing comparing to the DIBH plan. Both forward FinF plan and inverse IMRT plan achieved acceptable coverage of the breast, and heart dose is comparable. Considering the daily setup variations and MLC leakage, forward FinF plan was recommended for routine clinical use. The procedure has been tested in phantom and patients were treated clinically. Conclusions: Prone breast irradiation has been advocated for women with large pendulous breasts in order to decrease acute and late toxicities. The workflow for prone breast radiation therapy has been developed and the technique is ready to treat patients.

  7. Postural hemodynamic changes after turning to prone position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Микола Віталійович Лизогуб

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background of study. Prone position is one of the most complex positions for anesthesiologist as it is accompanied by several physiological changes that can lead to specific complications. Hemodynamic changes are most controversial.Aim of study was to establish hemodynamic changes in non-anaesthetized patients in prone position depending on body mass index.Material and methods. We examined central hemodynamics in 40 patients the day before surgery using thoracic rheography in supine position, in prone position 5 min after turning and in prone position 20 min after turning. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to body mass index (18-25 and 26-35.Results. Patients with normal body weight did not have any hemodynamic changes after turning to prone position. Patients with increased body weight had higher cardiac index. After turning to prone position obese patients’ cardiac output and cardiac index reduced 22% comparing with supine position. After 20 min in prone position these hemodynamic parameters were found to be reduced to the same level.Conclusion. Significant hemodynamic changes after turning from supine to prone position were revealed only in patients with increased body mass index. In these patients cardiac index in prone position was reduced by 22% comparing to supine position

  8. Effect of reducing abdominal compression during prone CT colonography on ascending colonic rotation during supine-to-prone positional change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jong eon; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Hyun Jin; KIm, Ah Young; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of reduced abdominal compression in prone position on ascending colonic movement during supine-to-prone positional change during CT colonography (CTC). Eighteen consecutive patients who had undergone prone CTC scanning with cushion blocks placed under the chest and hip/thigh to reduce abdominal compression and had confirmed sessile polyps ≥ 6 mm in the well-distended, straight, mid-ascending colon, were included. Radial location along the ascending colonic luminal circumference (°) was measured for 24 polyps and 54 colonic teniae on supine and prone CTC images. The supine-to-prone change ranging between -180° and +180° (- and + for internal and external colonic rotations, respectively), was determined. In addition, possible causes of any ascending colonic rotations were explored. Abdominal compression during prone CTC scanning completely disappeared with the use of cushion blocks in 17 of 18 patients. However, some degrees of ascending colonic rotation were still observed, with the radial location changes of -22° to 61° (median, 13.9°) for the polyps and similar degrees for teniae. Fifty-four percent and 56% of polyps and teniae, respectively, showed changes > 10°. The radial location change of the polyps was significantly associated with the degree of anterior shift of the small bowel and mesentery (r = 0.722, p < 0.001) and the degree of posterior displacement of the ascending colon (r = 0.566, p = 0.004) during supine-to-prone positional change. Ascending colonic rotation upon supine-to-prone positional change during CTC, mostly in the form of external rotation, is not eliminated by removing abdominal compression in prone position

  9. Self-esteem and delusion proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warman, Debbie M; Lysaker, Paul H; Luedtke, Brandi; Martin, Joel M

    2010-06-01

    The present study was an examination of global self-esteem and various types of unusual beliefs in a nonclinical population. Individuals with no history of psychotic disorder (N = 121) completed a measure of delusion-proneness and also a measure of self-esteem. Results indicated high delusion prone individuals had lower self-esteem than low delusion prone individuals (p = 0.044). In addition, higher levels of paranoid ideation and suspiciousness were associated with lower self-esteem (p low self-esteem and higher levels of beliefs related to thought disturbances, catastrophic ideation/thought broadcasting, and ideation of reference/influence. The significance of these findings as they relate to theories of delusion formation is discussed.

  10. Shame-proneness and its correlates in couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Erzar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the relationships between three TOSCA-3 (Test of Self-Conscious Affect; Tangney, 1990 subscales (shame-proneness, guilt-proneness, and externalization, and the following variables: stress, anxiety, depression, fear of intimacy, and attachment style in a sample of 68 heterosexual couples in committed relationships. Within-subject and within-dyad correlations were computed. Results confirmed a low to moderate connection for depression, anxiety, fear of intimacy and secure attachment. Shame-proneness, externalization, and guilt-proneness were not correlated within couples. The findings also provided further evidence for a differential understanding for some of the variables in each gender.

  11. Neglected children, shame-proneness, and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, David S; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Neglected children may be at increased risk for depressive symptoms. This study examines shame-proneness as an outcome of child neglect and as a potential explanatory variable in the relation between neglect and depressive symptoms. Participants were 111 children (52 with a Child Protective Services [CPS] allegation of neglect) seen at age 7. Neglected children reported more shame-proneness and more depressive symptoms than comparison children. Guilt-proneness, in contrast, was unrelated to neglect and depressive symptoms, indicating specificity for shame-proneness. The potential role of shame as a process variable that can help explain how some neglected children exhibit depressive symptoms is discussed.

  12. Self-concept and delinquency proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, F R; Swain, M T

    1977-01-01

    Contrary to the theory of the homeostatic model of self-concept, i.e., the expectancy that engaging in anti-social or pro-social behavior results typically in shifts in the self-concept (Graf, 1968; Deitz, 1970 shifts did not occur. Subjects, 12- 14-year-old boys enrolled in junior high school, delinquent prone (DP) and non-delinquent prone bright (NDPB), reacted to manipulation by engaging in reparative behavior as indicated via an aggression module in a fashion generally expected but the expected shift from chronic self-images did not occur. Both DP and NDPB viewed themselves similarly on self concept. The authors postulated that if shifts would occur for the delinquent prone it would be after they left school with its accompanying identification with a sub-culture outside the school setting.

  13. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  14. [Reduction of pressure sores during prone positioning of ventilated intensive care patients by the prone-head support system: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebio, Michael; Katz-Papatheophilou, Elfriede; Heindl, Werner; Gelbmann, Herbert; Burghuber, Otto C

    2005-02-01

    Prone positioning in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome is a well-known method to improve oxygenation. The aim of our study was to evaluate a new device for prone positioning, the prone-head support system (PHS system), with regard to reduction of cutaneous pressure sores. In a pilot study we randomized 8 patients with ARDS in two groups: 180 degrees standard prone positioning (group without mask) and prone positioning with the PHS system (group with mask). The PHS system consists of a facemask support, which is connected to an adapted air suspension bed. The patients of both groups were intermittently proned for several days. We evaluated the pressure sores on head and neck before turning the patients prone for the first time and after each period of prone positioning. We documented the quantity, the size, the type and the localization of the pressure sores. There was no significant difference in the mean duration of prone positioning (27.1+/-14.7 hours in the group with mask versus 24.5+/-18.7 h in the group without mask). In the group with mask there were 1.5+/-0.8 new pressure sores by each proning, whereas in the group without mask there were 2.37+/-1.6 new pressure sores, which was lower, but not significantly. The overall area of pressure sores (798 mm2 versus 3184 mm2, p=0.004), the area of pressure sores per patient (199.5+/-104.7 mm2 versus 796+/-478 mm2, p=0.03) and the increase of the area of pressure sores per proning (79.8+/-52.0 mm2 versus 398.0+/-214.3 mm2, p=0.004) were significantly lower in the group with mask in comparison to the group without mask. The lips were the most effected localization in both groups. The pressure sores in the group with mask were less severe and showed a homogenous distribution in comparison to the group without mask. Blisters dominated in the group with mask in comparison to erosions, necrosis and ulcers in the group without mask. The PHS system with its face mask is able to reduce the extent and the

  15. Peripheral blood antigen presenting cell responses in otitis-prone and non-otitis-prone infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, Naveen; Nicolosi, Ted; Kaur, Ravinder; Pichichero, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Stringently defined otitis-prone (sOP) children represent a new classification of the otitis-prone condition. Previous studies showed dysfunction in Ab, B-cell memory and T-cell memory responses. We sought to determine whether there are defects in numbers, phenotype and/or function of professional APC in the peripheral blood of sOP infants. APC phenotypic counts, MHC II expression and intracellular cytokine levels were determined in response to TLR7/8 (R848) stimulation by flow cytometry. Innate immune mRNA expression was measured using RT-PCR and cytokines were measured using Luminex technology. Significant (P otitis-prone (NOP) age-matched infants. No significant differences in APC activation or function were observed. Expression of various TLRs, intracellular signaling molecules and downstream cytokines was also not found to be significantly different between sOP and NOP infants. Higher numbers of APCs in sOP infants suggest the possibility of a persistent mucosal inflammatory status. Transcriptional and cytokine profiles of PBMCs among sOP infants suggest their systemic innate responses are not different compared to NOP infants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Beyond prone position in percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosette, Jean J M C H; Tsakiris, Peter; Ferrandino, Michael N; Elsakka, Ahmed M; Rioja, Jorge; Preminger, Glenn M

    2008-12-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is traditionally performed with the patient in the prone position. To assess the efficacy and safety of the prone and supine positions, particularly in obese patients and in those with staghorn calculi. A Medline search was conducted for articles published during the last 10 yr related to PNL in the prone and supine positions. This search revealed 9 published studies for supine and 25 for prone PNL. None of the supine PNL studies reported visceral injuries, while transfusion rates were 0.0-9.4% and stone-free rates were 69.6-95.0%. One study of supine PNL evaluated a significant proportion of obese patients. Prone PNL studies in obese patients report transfusion rates of 3.2-8.8% and stone-free rates of 79.0-89.2%. In the only randomized study, excluding obese patients and staghorn calculi, operative time favors the supine position. A nonrandomized comparative study demonstrated similar complication rates with insignificant improvement in treatment success for supine PNL; however, when comparing series with similar proportions of staghorn calculi cases, there are slightly improved outcomes for prone PNL. Moreover, comparison of weighted means favors prone PNL. For obese patients and staghorn calculi, prone PNL appears to be associated with decreased operative times with similar bleeding rates and slightly better stone-free rates than supine PNL.

  17. Teaching of severe accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants of Tokyo Electric Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shinzo

    2011-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and accompanied tsunami brought about the severe accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. For 'No more Fukushima', twelve teaching of the accident was pointed out as follows: 1) natural disasters and external events shall be taken into consideration, 2) severe accident shall be included into safety regulation, 3) all possibility of hydrogen explosion shall be excluded, 4) diversity of safety important component and equipment shall be added with sufficient period of outage, 5) siting of multiple units at the same site shall be avoided at quake-prone country like Japan, 6) accident response environment for operators shall be improved, 7) accident convergence termination system shall be established so as to concentrate technical experience and knowledge, 8) off-site center shall be improved, 9) resident evacuation, consumption limit of food, radiation exposure and soil contamination limit shall be decided openly, 10) nuclear regulation and prevention of disaster shall be conducted by unitary organization to gain public trust, 11) fostering of safety culture among relevant enterprises shall be more encouraged and 12) nuclear industry shall develop reactor such as with no core meltdown or no evacuation and environmental contamination even if reactor core would be meltdown. (T. Tanaka)

  18. Suggestibility and signal detection performance in hallucination-prone students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alganami, Fatimah; Varese, Filippo; Wagstaff, Graham F; Bentall, Richard P

    2017-03-01

    Auditory hallucinations are associated with signal detection biases. We examine the extent to which suggestions influence performance on a signal detection task (SDT) in highly hallucination-prone and low hallucination-prone students. We also explore the relationship between trait suggestibility, dissociation and hallucination proneness. In two experiments, students completed on-line measures of hallucination proneness (the revised Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale; LSHS-R), trait suggestibility (Inventory of Suggestibility) and dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale-II). Students in the upper and lower tertiles of the LSHS-R performed an auditory SDT. Prior to the task, suggestions were made pertaining to the number of expected targets (Experiment 1, N = 60: high vs. low suggestions; Experiment 2, N = 62, no suggestion vs. high suggestion vs. no voice suggestion). Correlational and regression analyses indicated that trait suggestibility and dissociation predicted hallucination proneness. Highly hallucination-prone students showed a higher SDT bias in both studies. In Experiment 1, both bias scores were significantly affected by suggestions to the same degree. In Experiment 2, highly hallucination-prone students were more reactive to the high suggestion condition than the controls. Suggestions may affect source-monitoring judgments, and this effect may be greater in those who have a predisposition towards hallucinatory experiences.

  19. Comparative risk assessment of severe accidents in the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgherr, Peter; Hirschberg, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Comparative assessment of accident risks in the energy sector is a key aspect in a comprehensive evaluation of sustainability and energy security concerns. Safety performance of energy systems can have important implications on the environmental, economic and social dimensions of sustainability as well as availability, acceptability and accessibility aspects of energy security. Therefore, this study provides a broad comparison of energy technologies based on the objective expression of accident risks for complete energy chains. For fossil chains and hydropower the extensive historical experience available in PSI's Energy-related Severe Accident Database (ENSAD) is used, whereas for nuclear a simplified probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is applied, and evaluations of new renewables are based on a combination of available data, modeling, and expert judgment. Generally, OECD and EU 27 countries perform better than non-OECD. Fatality rates are lowest for Western hydropower and nuclear as well as for new renewables. In contrast, maximum consequences can be by far highest for nuclear and hydro, intermediate for fossil, and very small for new renewables, which are less prone to severe accidents. Centralized, low-carbon technology options could generally contribute to achieve large reductions in CO 2 -emissions; however, the principal challenge for both fossil with Carbon Capture and Storage and nuclear is public acceptance. Although, external costs of severe accidents are significantly smaller than those caused by air pollution, accidents can have disastrous and long-term impacts. Overall, no technology performs best or worst in all respects, thus tradeoffs and priorities are needed to balance the conflicting objectives such as energy security, sustainability and risk aversion to support rationale decision making. - Highlights: • Accident risks are compared across a broad range of energy technologies. • Analysis of historical experience was based on the

  20. Accurate and fast methods to estimate the population mutation rate from error prone sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto Michael M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The population mutation rate (θ remains one of the most fundamental parameters in genetics, ecology, and evolutionary biology. However, its accurate estimation can be seriously compromised when working with error prone data such as expressed sequence tags, low coverage draft sequences, and other such unfinished products. This study is premised on the simple idea that a random sequence error due to a chance accident during data collection or recording will be distributed within a population dataset as a singleton (i.e., as a polymorphic site where one sampled sequence exhibits a unique base relative to the common nucleotide of the others. Thus, one can avoid these random errors by ignoring the singletons within a dataset. Results This strategy is implemented under an infinite sites model that focuses on only the internal branches of the sample genealogy where a shared polymorphism can arise (i.e., a variable site where each alternative base is represented by at least two sequences. This approach is first used to derive independently the same new Watterson and Tajima estimators of θ, as recently reported by Achaz 1 for error prone sequences. It is then used to modify the recent, full, maximum-likelihood model of Knudsen and Miyamoto 2, which incorporates various factors for experimental error and design with those for coalescence and mutation. These new methods are all accurate and fast according to evolutionary simulations and analyses of a real complex population dataset for the California seahare. Conclusion In light of these results, we recommend the use of these three new methods for the determination of θ from error prone sequences. In particular, we advocate the new maximum likelihood model as a starting point for the further development of more complex coalescent/mutation models that also account for experimental error and design.

  1. Ethnic and gender differences in boredom proneness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, G.S.; Morales,

    1996-02-01

    Although boredom may exhibit many shared elements, culturally specific attitudes have also been found to exist. The present paper investigated boredom proneness among African-American college students. Data from 120 participants on the Boredom Proneness (BP) Scale was analyzed and compared to cross-cultural participants. African-American females scored significantly higher than African-American males. Scores were presented from two other studies to show a comparative look at boredom proneness in five other ethnic groups. African-American females are the only female ethnic group to score higher on the BP Scale than their male counterparts. Additionally, overall African-Americans, were found to have higher BP scores than their Western counterparts.

  2. Accident risk associated with smartphone addiction: A study on university students in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Min, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims The smartphone is one of the most popular devices, with the average smartphone usage at 162 min/day and the average length of phone usage at 15.79 hr/week. Although significant concerns have been made about the health effects of smartphone addiction, the relationship between smartphone addiction and accidents has rarely been studied. We examined the association between smartphone addiction and accidents among South Korean university students. Methods A total of 608 college students completed an online survey that included their experience of accidents (total number; traffic accidents; falls/slips; bumps/collisions; being trapped in the subway, impalement, cuts, and exit wounds; and burns or electric shocks), their use of smartphone, the type of smartphone content they most frequently used, and other variables of interests. Smartphone addiction was estimated using Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale, a standardized measure developed by the National Institution in Korea. Results Compared with normal users, participants who were addicted to smartphones were more likely to have experienced any accidents (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.26-2.86), falling from height/slipping (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.10-3.91), and bumps/collisions (OR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.16-2.87). The proportion of participants who used their smartphones mainly for entertainment was significantly high in both the accident (38.76%) and smartphone addiction (36.40%) groups. Discussion and conclusions We suggest that smartphone addiction was significantly associated with total accident, falling/slipping, and bumps/collisions. This finding highlighted the need for increased awareness of the risk of accidents with smartphone addiction.

  3. Prone position for the prevention of lung infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuret, P

    2002-04-01

    Pulmonary infection is frequent in brain injured patients. It has been identified as an independent predictor of unfavorable neurological outcome, calling for attempts of prevention. We recently evaluated intermittent prone positioning for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in comatose brain injured patients, in a randomized study. 25 patients were included in the prone position (PP) group: they were positioned on prone four hours once daily until they could get up to sit in an armchair; 26 patients were included in the supine position (SP) group. The main characteristics of the patients from the two groups were similar at randomization. The primary end-point was the incidence of lung worsening, defined by an increase in the Lung Injury Score by at least one point since the time of randomization. The incidence of lung worsening was lower in the PP group (12%) than in the SP group (50%) (p=0.003). The incidence of VAP was 38.4% in the SP group and 20% in the PP group (p=0.14). There was no serious complication attributable to prone positioning. In conclusion, the beneficial effect of prone positioning for prevention of lung infection in brain injured patients is not well established. However, in those patients, prone positioning is able to avoid the worsening of pulmonary function, especially in oxygenation.

  4. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  5. Risk-based Analysis of Construction Accidents in Iran During 2007-2011-Meta Analyze Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMIRI, Mehran; ARDESHIR, Abdollah; FAZEL ZARANDI, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of occupational accidents and frequency and severity of work related accidents in the construction industry among Iranian insured workers during the years 20072011. Methods The Iranian Social Security Organization (ISSO) accident database containing 21,864 cases between the years 2007-2011 was applied in this study. In the next step, Total Accident Rate (TRA), Total Severity Index (TSI), and Risk Factor (RF) were defined. The core of this work is devoted to analyzing the data from different perspectives such as age of workers, occupation and construction phase, day of the week, time of the day, seasonal analysis, regional considerations, type of accident, and body parts affected. Results Workers between 15-19 years old (TAR=13.4%) are almost six times more exposed to risk of accident than the average of all ages (TAR=2.51%). Laborers and structural workers (TAR=66.6%) and those working at heights (TAR=47.2%) experience more accidents than other groups of workers. Moreover, older workers over 65 years old (TSI=1.97%> average TSI=1.60%), work supervisors (TSI=12.20% >average TSI=9.09%), and night shift workers (TSI=1.89% >average TSI=1.47%) are more prone to severe accidents. Conclusion It is recommended that laborers, young workers, weekend and night shift workers be supervised more carefully in the workplace. Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) should be compulsory in working environments, and special attention should be undertaken to people working outdoors and at heights. It is also suggested that policymakers pay more attention to the improvement of safety conditions in deprived and cold western regions. PMID:26005662

  6. Risk-based Analysis of Construction Accidents in Iran During 2007-2011-Meta Analyze Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mehran; Ardeshir, Abdollah; Fazel Zarandi, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of occupational accidents and frequency and severity of work related accidents in the construction industry among Iranian insured workers during the years 20072011. The Iranian Social Security Organization (ISSO) accident database containing 21,864 cases between the years 2007-2011 was applied in this study. In the next step, Total Accident Rate (TRA), Total Severity Index (TSI), and Risk Factor (RF) were defined. The core of this work is devoted to analyzing the data from different perspectives such as age of workers, occupation and construction phase, day of the week, time of the day, seasonal analysis, regional considerations, type of accident, and body parts affected. Workers between 15-19 years old (TAR=13.4%) are almost six times more exposed to risk of accident than the average of all ages (TAR=2.51%). Laborers and structural workers (TAR=66.6%) and those working at heights (TAR=47.2%) experience more accidents than other groups of workers. Moreover, older workers over 65 years old (TSI=1.97%> average TSI=1.60%), work supervisors (TSI=12.20% >average TSI=9.09%), and night shift workers (TSI=1.89% >average TSI=1.47%) are more prone to severe accidents. It is recommended that laborers, young workers, weekend and night shift workers be supervised more carefully in the workplace. Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) should be compulsory in working environments, and special attention should be undertaken to people working outdoors and at heights. It is also suggested that policymakers pay more attention to the improvement of safety conditions in deprived and cold western regions.

  7. Vocational interests and career indecision among psychosis-prone college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreh, A M; Schullen, C

    1998-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between scores on scales that purport to measure psychosis-proneness and scores on vocational interests, identity, and differentiation scales in a sample of 233 college students who completed the Perceptual Aberration and Magical Ideation scales, the Strong Campbell Interest Inventory, and the Career Decision Scale. The present findings are consistent with prior work indicating a sex-related association of scores on measures of psychosis-proneness and vocational interests. A positive correlation between scores on vocational indecision and measures of psychosis-proneness was also found, suggesting that both men and women who score high on psychosis-proneness find it difficult to formulate long-term career goals. Finally, there was no significant correlation between scores on measures of psychosis-proneness and Holland's Vocational Differentiation Index. Present results are discussed in light of previously reported sex differences among psychosis-prone adults and diagnosed schizophrenics. The implications of the findings for vocational counselors are also addressed.

  8. Ketosis-Onset Diabetes and Ketosis-Prone Diabetes: Same or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Beiyan; Yu, Changhua; Li, Qiang; Li, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To compare clinical characteristics, immunological markers, and β-cell functions of 4 subgroups (“Aβ” classification system) of ketosis-onset diabetes and ketosis prone diabetes patients without known diabetes, presenting with ketosis or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and admitted to our department from March 2011 to December 2011 in China, with 50 healthy persons as control group. Results. β-cell functional reserve was preserved in 63.52% of patients. In almost each subgroup (except A−  β− subgroup of ketosis prone group), male patients were more than female ones. The age of the majority of patients in ketosis prone group was older than that of ketosis-onset group, except A−  β− subgroup of ketosis prone group. The durations from the patient first time ketosis or DKA onset to admitting to the hospital have significant difference, which were much longer for the ketosis prone group except the A+ β+ subgroup. BMI has no significant difference among subgroups. FPG of ketosis prone group was lower than that of A−  β+ subgroup and A+ β+ subgroup in ketosis-onset group. A−  β− subgroup and A+ β+ subgroup of ketosis prone group have lower HbA1c than ketosis-onset group. Conclusions. Ketosis-onset diabetes and ketosis prone diabetes do not absolutely have the same clinical characteristics. Each subgroup shows different specialty. PMID:23710177

  9. "Jumping to conclusions" in delusion-prone participants: an experimental economics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Leer, Leslie; McKay, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    That delusional and delusion-prone individuals "jump to conclusions" on probabilistic reasoning tasks is a key finding in cognitive neuropsychiatry. Here we focused on a less frequently investigated aspect of "jumping to conclusions" (JTC): certainty judgments. We incorporated rigorous procedures from experimental economics to eliminate potential confounds of miscomprehension and motivation and systematically investigated the effect of incentives on task performance. Low- and high-delusion-prone participants (n = 109) completed a series of computerised trials; on each trial, they were shown a black or a white fish, caught from one of the two lakes containing fish of both colours in complementary ratios. In the betting condition, participants were given £4 to distribute over the two lakes as they wished; in the control condition, participants simply provided an estimate of how probable each lake was. Deviations from Bayesian probabilities were investigated. Whereas high-delusion-prone participants in both the control and betting conditions underestimated the Bayesian probabilities (i.e. were conservative), low-delusion-prone participants in the control condition underestimated but those in the betting condition provided accurate estimates. In the control condition, there was a trend for high-delusion-prone participants to give higher estimates than low-delusion-prone participants, which is consistent with previous reports of "jumping to conclusions" in delusion-prone participants. However, our findings in the betting condition, where high-delusion-prone participants provided lower estimates than low-delusion-prone participants (who were accurate), are inconsistent with the jumping-to-conclusions effect in both a relative and an absolute sense. Our findings highlight the key role of task incentives and underscore the importance of comparing the responses of delusion-prone participants to an objective rational standard as well as to the responses of non-delusion-prone

  10. Estimating likelihood of future crashes for crash-prone drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Subasish Das; Xiaoduan Sun; Fan Wang; Charles Leboeuf

    2015-01-01

    At-fault crash-prone drivers are usually considered as the high risk group for possible future incidents or crashes. In Louisiana, 34% of crashes are repeatedly committed by the at-fault crash-prone drivers who represent only 5% of the total licensed drivers in the state. This research has conducted an exploratory data analysis based on the driver faultiness and proneness. The objective of this study is to develop a crash prediction model to estimate the likelihood of future crashes for the a...

  11. Reasons and remedies of inland passenger vessels accidents in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Cdr Kaosar; Islam, Muhammad Rabiul

    2017-12-01

    The waterways are very important means of communication in Bangladesh. Every year over 95 million passengers are carried through this route. But, this important mode of transport is ridden with tragic disasters every year, incurring a heavy toll of human lives. In last twenty years (1994 to 2014), around 5,500 people have died and 1,500 gone missing in 658 launch disasters. The inland routes of Barisal, Bhola, Chandpur and Patuakhali and their connected water ways to Dhaka and Chittagong are found to be more accident prone. Lack of Awareness, boundless operation of unfit vessels, overloading of passengers, recruitment of unskilled crews, poor capacity of relevant bodies and low standard maintenance of Inland Water Transport (IWT) channels, poor weather forecasting, profit centered attitude of vessel owners and corruption are initiating these deadly accidents. Despite of a number of initiatives by the government, concerned departments and foreign consultants, the safety aspect of the inland passenger vessels still remains in dark. Combined effort of Department of Shipping, BIWTA, and the attitude of vessels owners as well as passengers are very essential in this respect.

  12. Accident management for severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.; Pratt, W.T.; Lehner, J.; Leonard, M.; Disalvo, R.; Sheron, B.

    1988-01-01

    The management of severe accidents in light water reactors is receiving much attention in several countries. The reduction of risk by measures and/or actions that would affect the behavior of a severe accident is discussed. The research program that is being conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission focuses on both in-vessel accident management and containment and release accident management. The key issues and approaches taken in this program are summarized. 6 refs

  13. The role of a prone setup in breast radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Nelly; Jozsef, Gabor; Dewyngaert, Keith; Formenti, Silvia Chiara

    2011-01-01

    Most patients undergoing breast conservation therapy receive radiotherapy in the supine position. Historically, prone breast irradiation has been advocated for women with large pendulous breasts in order to decrease acute and late toxicities. With the advent of CT planning, the prone technique has become both feasible and reproducible. It was shown to be advantageous not only for women with larger breasts but in most patients since it consistently reduces, if not eliminates, the inclusion of heart and lung within the field. The prone setup has been accepted as the best localizing position for both MRI and stereotactic biopsy, but its adoption has been delayed in radiotherapy. New technological advances including image-modulated radiation therapy and image-guided radiation therapy have made possible the exploration of accelerated fractionation schemes with a concomitant boost to the tumor bed in the prone position, along with better imaging and verification of reproducibility of patient setup. This review describes some of the available techniques for prone breast radiotherapy and the available experience in their application. The NYU prone breast radiotherapy approach is discussed, including a summary of the results from several prospective trials.

  14. The role of a prone setup in breast radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly eHuppert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Most patients undergoing breast conservation therapy (BCT receive radiotherapy in the supine position. Historically, prone breast irradiation has been advocated for women with large pendulous breasts in order to decrease acute and late toxicities. With the advent of CT planning, the prone technique has become both feasible and reproducible. It was shown to be advantageous not only for women with larger breasts but in most patients since it consistently reduces, if not eliminates, the inclusion of heart and lung within the field. The prone setup has been accepted as the best localizing position for both MRI and stereotactic biopsy, but its adoption has been delayed in radiotherapy. New technological advances including image-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT and image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT have made possible the exploration of accelerated fractionation schemes with a concomitant boost to the tumor bed in the prone position, along with better imaging and verification of reproducibility of patient setup. This review describes some of the available techniques for prone breast radiotherapy and the available experience in their application. The NYU prone breast radiotherapy approach is discussed, including a summary of the results from several prospective trials.

  15. The Role of a Prone Setup in Breast Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppert, Nelly; Jozsef, Gabor; DeWyngaert, Keith; Formenti, Silvia Chiara, E-mail: silvia.formenti@nyumc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2011-10-11

    Most patients undergoing breast conservation therapy receive radiotherapy in the supine position. Historically, prone breast irradiation has been advocated for women with large pendulous breasts in order to decrease acute and late toxicities. With the advent of CT planning, the prone technique has become both feasible and reproducible. It was shown to be advantageous not only for women with larger breasts but in most patients since it consistently reduces, if not eliminates, the inclusion of heart and lung within the field. The prone setup has been accepted as the best localizing position for both MRI and stereotactic biopsy, but its adoption has been delayed in radiotherapy. New technological advances including image-modulated radiation therapy and image-guided radiation therapy have made possible the exploration of accelerated fractionation schemes with a concomitant boost to the tumor bed in the prone position, along with better imaging and verification of reproducibility of patient setup. This review describes some of the available techniques for prone breast radiotherapy and the available experience in their application. The NYU prone breast radiotherapy approach is discussed, including a summary of the results from several prospective trials.

  16. Three-dimensional conformal breast irradiation in the prone position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kurtman

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The prone position can be used for the planning of adjuvant radiotherapy after conservative breast surgery in order to deliver less irradiation to lung and cardiac tissue. In the present study, we compared the results of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy planning for five patients irradiated in the supine and prone position. Tumor stage was T1N0M0 in four patients and T1N1M0 in one. All patients had been previously submitted to conservative breast surgery. Breast size was large in three patients and moderate in the other two. Irradiation in the prone position was performed using an immobilization foam pad with a hole cut into it to accommodate the breast so that it would hang down away from the chest wall. Dose-volume histograms showed that mean irradiation doses reaching the ipsilateral lung were 8.3 ± 3.6 Gy with the patient in the supine position and 1.4 ± 1.0 Gy with the patient in the prone position (P = 0.043. The values for the contralateral lung were 1.3 ± 0.7 and 0.3 ± 0.1 Gy (P = 0.043 and the values for cardiac tissue were 4.6 ± 1.6 and 3.0 ± 1.7 Gy (P = 0.079, respectively. Thus, the dose-volume histograms demonstrated that lung tissue irradiation was significantly lower with the patient in the prone position than in the supine position. Large-breasted women appeared to benefit most from irradiation in the prone position. Prone position breast irradiation appears to be a simple and effective alternative to the conventional supine position for patients with large breasts, since they are subjected to lower pulmonary doses which may cause less pulmonary side effects in the future.

  17. Estimating likelihood of future crashes for crash-prone drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subasish Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available At-fault crash-prone drivers are usually considered as the high risk group for possible future incidents or crashes. In Louisiana, 34% of crashes are repeatedly committed by the at-fault crash-prone drivers who represent only 5% of the total licensed drivers in the state. This research has conducted an exploratory data analysis based on the driver faultiness and proneness. The objective of this study is to develop a crash prediction model to estimate the likelihood of future crashes for the at-fault drivers. The logistic regression method is used by employing eight years' traffic crash data (2004–2011 in Louisiana. Crash predictors such as the driver's crash involvement, crash and road characteristics, human factors, collision type, and environmental factors are considered in the model. The at-fault and not-at-fault status of the crashes are used as the response variable. The developed model has identified a few important variables, and is used to correctly classify at-fault crashes up to 62.40% with a specificity of 77.25%. This model can identify as many as 62.40% of the crash incidence of at-fault drivers in the upcoming year. Traffic agencies can use the model for monitoring the performance of an at-fault crash-prone drivers and making roadway improvements meant to reduce crash proneness. From the findings, it is recommended that crash-prone drivers should be targeted for special safety programs regularly through education and regulations.

  18. Evidence-based nursing interventions and guidelines for prone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the prone positioning of a critically ill patient poses a challenge to nursing interventions, it remains the responsibility of nurses to develop a way to provide the same basic and intensive care to those patients lying prone as to those lying supine. The purpose of this study was firstly to conduct a systematic review of ...

  19. Land cover fire proneness in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Gonzalez Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This study aims to identify and characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of the types of vegetation that are most affected by forest fires in Europe. The characterization of the fuels is an important issue of the fire regime in each specific ecosystem while, on the other hand, fire is an important disturbance for global vegetation dynamics.Area of study: Southern European countries: Portugal, Spain, France, Italy and Greece.Material and Methods: Corine Land Cover maps for 2000 and 2006 (CLC2000, CLC2006 and burned area (BA perimeters, from 2000 to 2013 in Europe are combined to access the spatial and temporal evolution of the types of vegetation that are most affected by wild fires using descriptive statistics and Geographical Information System (GIS techniques.Main results: The spatial and temporal distribution of BA perimeters, vegetation and burnt vegetation by wild fires was performed and different statistics were obtained for Mediterranean and entire Europe, confirming the usefulness of the proposed land cover system. A fire proneness index is proposed to assess the fire selectivity of land cover classes. The index allowed to quantify and to compare the propensity of vegetation classes and countries to fire.Research highlights: The usefulness and efficiency of the land cover classification scheme and fire proneness index. The differences between northern Europe and southern Europe and among the Mediterranean region in what concerns to vegetation cover, fire incidence, area burnt in land cover classes and fire proneness between classes for the different countries.Keywords: Fire proneness; Mixed forests; Land cover/land use; Fire regime; Europe; GIS; Corine land cover. 

  20. Beyond Prone Position in Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: A Comprehensive Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; Tsakiris, Peter; Ferrandino, Michael N.; Elsakka, Ahmed M.; Rioja, Jorge; Preminger, Glenn M.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is traditionally performed with the patient in the prone position. Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of the prone and supine positions, particularly in obese patients and in those with staghorn calculi. Evidence acquisition: A Medline search was

  1. The retrorenal colon in the supine and prone patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, K.D.; Sherman, J.L.; Luethke, J.M.; Ghaed, N.

    1986-01-01

    Ninety patients underwent CT in both supine and prone positions so that the orientation of the retroperitoneal colon about the kidneys could be determined. Particular attention was given to bowel found posterior to the kidneys, the so-called retrorenal colon. The frequency of retrorenal colon increased from 1.9% on supine studies to 10.7% on prone studies. Since most invasive renal procedures performed with the patient prone would miss retrorenal colon located behind the lateral one third of the kidney, the data were reevaluated, excluding these patients. The resulting frequency of significant retrorenal colon found on prone studies was 4.7%. Significant retrorenal colon was found exclusively at the level of the lower renal poles, and the involved colon in these patients was extensively distended with gas. Particular attention should be given, under fluoroscopic guidance, to detecting this unusual posteriorly positioned, air-filled colon before one undertakes any invasive renal procedure

  2. Comparison of supine, upright, and prone positions for liver scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harolds, J.A.; Brill, A.B.; Patton, J.A.; Touya, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    We compared liver scan interpretations based on anterior images obtained in the upright, prone, and supine positions. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves were generated for three well trained observers. Results showed that reading the three different views together was more accurate than the reading of any individual image. Furthermore, interpretations based on either the prone or upright view were superior to those using the supine view alone. The prone and upright views should be used more often in liver scanning

  3. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is associated with nostalgia proneness: The role of neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu L L; Welker, Keith M; Way, Baldwin; DeWall, Nathan; Bushman, Brad J; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine

    2017-12-12

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing for the past, is a self-relevant and social emotion. Nostalgia proneness is associated with alleviation of distress or instability (e.g., neuroticism). Although nostalgia proneness is heritable, the specific molecular contributors to this heritability are unknown. We focused on a polymorphism in the promoter of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) as a possible biological basis of nostalgia proneness, because the serotonin system has been associated with sensitivity to negative experience. Participants (N = 397 adults) who had reported levels of nostalgia proneness were genotyped. A subsample also completed a measure of neuroticism. Participants with the 5-HTTLPR short allele were higher on nostalgia proneness than those without this allele. Neuroticism mediated the relation between 5-HTTLPR and nostalgia proneness. These findings enrich our understanding of the genetic and personality underpinnings of nostalgia.

  4. Ergonomic study of biorhythm effect on the 62 occurrence of human errors and accidents in automobile manufacturing industry

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim: According to the biorhythm theory when the phase shift from positive to negative and vice versa people experience a critical an unstable day that prone them to error and accident. The purpose of this study is to determine this relationship in one of the automobile manufacturing industry. . Materials and Methods: At first 1280 person incident entered the study was reviewed and then the critical days of each biological cycle was determined using the software Easy Biorh...

  5. Postulated accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, W.

    1980-01-01

    This lecture on 'Postulated Accidents' is the first of a series of lectures on the dynamic and transient behaviour of nuclear power plants, especially pressurized water reactors. The main points covered will be: Reactivity Accidents, Transients (Intact Loop) and Loss of Cooland Accidents (LOCA) including small leak. This lecture will discuss the accident analysis in general, the definition of the various operational phases, the accident classification, and, as an example, an accident sequence analysis on the basis of 'Postulated Accidents'. (orig./RW)

  6. Accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, R.J.; Monty, B.S.; Liparulo, N.J.; Desaedeleer, G.

    1989-01-01

    The foundation of the framework for a Severe Accident Management Program is the contained in the Probabilistic Safety Study (PSS) or the Individual Plant Evaluations (IPE) for a specific plant. The development of a Severe Accident Management Program at a plant is based on the use of the information, in conjunction with other applicable information. A Severe Accident Management Program must address both accident prevention and accident mitigation. The overall Severe Accident Management framework must address these two facets, as a living program in terms of gathering the evaluating information, the readiness to respond to an event. Significant international experience in the development of severe accident management programs exist which should provide some direction for the development of Severe Accident Management in the U.S. This paper reports that the two most important elements of a Severe Accident Management Program are the Emergency Consultation process and the standards for measuring the effectiveness of individual Severe Accident Management Programs at utilities

  7. Shame and Guilt-Proneness in Adolescents: Gene-Environment Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentágotai-Tătar, Aurora; Chiș, Adina; Vulturar, Romana; Dobrean, Anca; Cândea, Diana Mirela; Miu, Andrei C

    2015-01-01

    Rooted in people's preoccupation with how they are perceived and evaluated, shame and guilt are self-conscious emotions that play adaptive roles in social behavior, but can also contribute to psychopathology when dysregulated. Shame and guilt-proneness develop during childhood and adolescence, and are influenced by genetic and environmental factors that are little known to date. This study investigated the effects of early traumatic events and functional polymorphisms in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene and the serotonin transporter gene promoter (5-HTTLPR) on shame and guilt in adolescents. A sample of N = 271 healthy adolescents between 14 and 17 years of age filled in measures of early traumatic events and proneness to shame and guilt, and were genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms. Results of moderator analyses indicated that trauma intensity was positively associated with guilt-proneness only in carriers of the low-expressing Met allele of BDNF Val66Met. This is the first study that identifies a gene-environment interaction that significantly contributes to guilt proneness in adolescents, with potential implications for developmental psychopathology.

  8. Proneness to Self-Conscious Emotions in Adults With and Without Autism Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Denise; Vanegas, Sandra B; Hilvert, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    Self-conscious emotions, such as shame, guilt and pride, facilitate our social interactions by motivating us to adhere to social norms and external standards. In this study, we examined proneness to shame, guilt, hubristic pride and authentic pride in adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder traits (ASD-T) and in neurotypical (NT) adults. Relations between proneness to self-conscious emotions and theory of mind (ToM), fear of negative evaluation, and social functioning were also assessed. Adults with ASD-T showed greater proneness to shame, and less proneness to guilt and pride than NT adults. Both ToM and fear of negative evaluation predicted proneness to self-conscious emotions in ASD-T. These findings are discussed in terms of understanding complex emotion processing in adults with ASD-T.

  9. Comparison of supine and prone craniospinal irradiation in children with medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Jonathan; Mazloom, Ali; Teh, Bin S; South, Michael; Butler, E Brian; Paulino, Arnold C

    2015-01-01

    To compare port film rejection and treatment outcome according to craniospinal irradiation (CSI) position for medulloblastoma. We retrospectively searched for patients ≤19 years treated with CSI for medulloblastoma at 1 department. We collected the following data: age; sex; risk group; need for general anesthesia; radiation therapy (RT) dose and fractionation; and the acceptance or rejection of weekly port films during treatment. We also collected data on outcomes, including neuraxis recurrence and possible complications such as myelitis. Of 46 children identified, 23 were treated prone (median age, 8.1 years) and 23 supine (median age, 7.2 years). High-risk disease was seen in 26% of prone and 35% of supine patients (P = .25). There was no difference in use of general anesthesia between those treated prone versus supine (57% vs 61%). The rejection rate of cranial port films in the prone position was 35%, which was significantly higher than the rate of 8% in patients treated supine (P < .0001). The 5-year progression-free (P = .37) and overall survival (P = .18) rates were 62% and 67% for prone and 76% and 84% for supine patients. There were no isolated junctional failures or radiation myelitis in either CSI position. The supine position for CSI was found to have similar survival outcomes compared with the prone position. A higher proportion of rejected cranial port films was seen in children treated in the prone position. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Managing flood prone ecosystem for rice production in Bihar plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Singh, S.S.

    2002-06-01

    A large area of the eastern region especially Bihar (0.5 million hectare) faces flood submergence and/or drought every year which creates an unfavorable environment for crop production. In this ecosystem only flood prone rice is grown whose cultivation is entirely different than normal rice crop. Managing the flood prone ecosystem for rice production needs to evaluate the reasons and a comprehensive appropriate technology through research efforts for better rice production under such harsh ecology. An attempt was made to develop a suitable agronomic package for rice cultivation during and after flooding in flood prone plains of Bihar. (author)

  11. Parent Proneness to Shame and the Use of Psychological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Freeman, Wendy S.; Clara, Ian P.; Elgar, Frank J.; Walling, Bobbi R.; Mak, Leanne

    2007-01-01

    We examined the link between parent proneness to shame and two forms of psychological control, overprotection and critical/rejecting behavior, in parents of preschoolers. Because shame is self-condemning, proneness to shame affects intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning. We hypothesized that parents' emotion-regulatory responses to shame…

  12. Empathy, Guilt Proneness, and Gender: Relative Contributions to Prosocial Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Torstveit

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Guilt is a moral emotion that is often looked upon as a negative trait. However, studies show that some individuals are more predisposed to think, feel and act in a more ethical manner because of a lower threshold to experience guilt. Some theories of helping behaviour emphasize the evolutionary mechanisms, while other theories stress the importance of social variables. This study investigated whether guilt proneness as a dispositional trait can be associated with prosocial behaviour. Five hundred sixty-nine participants reported in an online survey their own levels of guilt proneness, frequency of prosocial behaviour, and related cognitions such as empathy. This study is among the first to demonstrate how guilt proneness combined with empathy can explain additional variance in prosocial behaviour. The findings also indicate gender differences in the precursors of prosocial behaviour, suggesting women are more influenced by the effects of guilt proneness on prosocial behaviour than men.

  13. Empathy, Guilt Proneness, and Gender: Relative Contributions to Prosocial Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torstveit, Linda; Sütterlin, Stefan; Lugo, Ricardo Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    Guilt is a moral emotion that is often looked upon as a negative trait. However, studies show that some individuals are more predisposed to think, feel and act in a more ethical manner because of a lower threshold to experience guilt. Some theories of helping behaviour emphasize the evolutionary mechanisms, while other theories stress the importance of social variables. This study investigated whether guilt proneness as a dispositional trait can be associated with prosocial behaviour. Five hundred sixty-nine participants reported in an online survey their own levels of guilt proneness, frequency of prosocial behaviour, and related cognitions such as empathy. This study is among the first to demonstrate how guilt proneness combined with empathy can explain additional variance in prosocial behaviour. The findings also indicate gender differences in the precursors of prosocial behaviour, suggesting women are more influenced by the effects of guilt proneness on prosocial behaviour than men. PMID:27298635

  14. Accident management insights after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degueldre, Didier; Viktorov, Alexandre; Tuomainen, Minna; Ducamp, Francois; Chevalier, Sophie; Guigueno, Yves; Tasset, Daniel; Heinrich, Marcus; Schneider, Matthias; Funahashi, Toshihiro; Hotta, Akitoshi; Kajimoto, Mitsuhiro; Chung, Dae-Wook; Kuriene, Laima; Kozlova, Nadezhda; Zivko, Tomi; Aleza, Santiago; Jones, John; McHale, Jack; Nieh, Ho; Pascal, Ghislain; ); Nakoski, John; Neretin, Victor; Nezuka, Takayoshi; )

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, that took place on 11 March 2011, initiated a significant number of activities at the national and international levels to reassess the safety of existing NPPs, evaluate the sufficiency of technical means and administrative measures available for emergency response, and develop recommendations for increasing the robustness of NPPs to withstand extreme external events and beyond design basis accidents. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is working closely with its member and partner countries to examine the causes of the accident and to identify lessons learnt with a view to the appropriate follow-up actions to be taken by the nuclear safety community. Accident management is a priority area of work for the NEA to address lessons being learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP following the recommendations of Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), and Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH). Considering the importance of these issues, the CNRA authorised the formation of a task group on accident management (TGAM) in June 2012 to review the regulatory framework for accident management following the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The task group was requested to assess the NEA member countries needs and challenges in light of the accident from a regulatory point of view. The general objectives of the TGAM review were to consider: - enhancements of on-site accident management procedures and guidelines based on lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident; - decision-making and guiding principles in emergency situations; - guidance for instrumentation, equipment and supplies for addressing long-term aspects of accident management; - guidance and implementation when taking extreme measures for accident management. The report is built on the existing bases for capabilities to respond to design basis

  15. SU-F-T-536: Contra-Lateral Breast Study for Prone Versus Supine Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero, M; Joseph, K; Klein, E [Northwell Health, Lake Success, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: There are several advantages to utilizing the prone technique for intact breast cancer patients. However, as the topography changes, accompanied by the influence of a supporting breast board and patient treatment couch, the question that arises is to whether there is a concern for contralateral breast dose for intact breast cancer patients being treated with this technique. Methods: An anthropomorphic phantom with breast mounds to duplicate intact breast cancer treatment was planned in prone and supine position. Two tangential beams were executed in the similar manner for as the radiotherapy planning system. For the prone setup, a breast dense foam board was used to support the phantom. A grid of 24 OSL nanodots was placed at 6cm, 4cm, and 2cm apart from the medial border for both prone and supine setups. The phantom was set up using megavoltage imaging and treated as per plan. Additional, a similar study was performed on a patient treated in prone position. Results: Overall, the contralateral breast dose was generally higher for prone setups at all locations especially when close to the medial border. The average mean dose was found to be 1.8%, 2.5% of the prescribed dose for supine respectively prone position. The average of the standard deviation is 1.04%, 1.38% for supine respectively prone position. As for patient treated in prone position average mean dose was found to be 1.165% of the prescribed dose and average of the standard deviation is 9.456%. Conclusion: There is minimal influence of scatter from the breast board. It appears that the volatility of the setup could lead to higher doses than expected from the planning system to the contralateral breast when the patient is in the prone position.

  16. Cross-cultural differences and similarities in proneness to shame: an adaptationist and ecological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznycer, Daniel; Takemura, Kosuke; Delton, Andrew W; Sato, Kosuke; Robertson, Theresa; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2012-06-29

    People vary in how easily they feel ashamed, that is, in their shame proneness. According to the information threat theory of shame, variation in shame proneness should, in part, be regulated by features of a person's social ecology. On this view, shame is an emotion program that evolved to mitigate the likelihood or costs of reputation-damaging information spreading to others. In social environments where there are fewer possibilities to form new relationships (i.e., low relational mobility), there are higher costs to damaging or losing existing ones. Therefore, shame proneness toward current relationship partners should increase as perceived relational mobility decreases. In contrast, individuals with whom one has little or no relationship history are easy to replace, and so shame-proneness towards them should not be modulated by relational mobility. We tested these predictions cross-culturally by measuring relational mobility and shame proneness towards friends and strangers in Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Japanese subjects were more shame-prone than their British and American counterparts. Critically, lower relational mobility was associated with greater shame proneness towards friends (but not strangers), and this relationship partially mediated the cultural differences in shame proneness. Shame proneness appears tailored to respond to relevant features of one's social ecology.

  17. Cross-Cultural Differences and Similarities in Proneness to Shame: An Adaptationist and Ecological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sznycer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available People vary in how easily they feel ashamed, that is, in their shame proneness. According to the information threat theory of shame, variation in shame proneness should, in part, be regulated by features of a person's social ecology. On this view, shame is an emotion program that evolved to mitigate the likelihood or costs of reputation-damaging information spreading to others. In social environments where there are fewer possibilities to form new relationships (i.e., low relational mobility, there are higher costs to damaging or losing existing ones. Therefore, shame proneness toward current relationship partners should increase as perceived relational mobility decreases. In contrast, individuals with whom one has little or no relationship history are easy to replace, and so shame-proneness towards them should not be modulated by relational mobility. We tested these predictions cross-culturally by measuring relational mobility and shame proneness towards friends and strangers in Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Japanese subjects were more shame-prone than their British and American counterparts. Critically, lower relational mobility was associated with greater shame proneness towards friends (but not strangers, and this relationship partially mediated the cultural differences in shame proneness. Shame proneness appears tailored to respond to relevant features of one's social ecology.

  18. Right-frontal cortical asymmetry predicts increased proneness to nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullett, Alexa M; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Inzlicht, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Nostalgia is often triggered by feelings-such as sadness, loneliness, or meaninglessness-that are typically associated with withdrawal motivation. Here, we examined whether a trait tendency to experience withdrawal motivation is associated with nostalgia proneness. Past work indicates that baseline right-frontal cortical asymmetry is a neural correlate of withdrawal-related motivation. We therefore hypothesized that higher baseline levels of right-frontal asymmetry would predict increased proneness to nostalgia. We assessed participants' baseline levels of frontal cortical activity using EEG. Results supported the hypothesis and demonstrated that the association between relative right-frontal asymmetry and increased nostalgia remained significant when controlling for the Big Five personality traits. Overall, these findings indicate that individuals with a stronger dispositional tendency to experience withdrawal-related motivation are more prone to nostalgia. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  19. Guilt and Proneness to Shame: Unethical Behaviour in Vulnerable and Grandiose Narcissism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poless, Pauline Georgees; Torstveit, Linda; Lugo, Ricardo Gregorio; Andreassen, Marita; Sütterlin, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Narcissists are described as individuals with dysfunctional personality traits such as lack of psychological awareness and empathy. Theories of ethical behaviour assume that unethical actions trigger moral emotions of guilt and shame. Currently, there is a lack of knowledge on moral emotions as dispositional traits and their potential influences on behaviour in individuals with narcissistic traits. The present study examined vulnerable and grandiose narcissism’s differences in the propensity to experience guilt and shame as a proneness, across a range of personal transgressions. Guilt proneness was measured by negative evaluation of unethical behaviour, and whether this evaluation could influence reparation of tendencies of unethical action in vulnerable and grandiose narcissism. Shame proneness was investigated by negative evaluation of the self, and then whether the previous tendency could affect unethical decision making and behaviour (e.g., hiding), in vulnerable and grandiose narcissism. Two hundred and sixteen participants responded to the Guilt and Shame Proneness Scale, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory Scale and the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale in an online questionnaire. Findings indicate that grandiose narcissism was negatively associated with guilt proneness, and the relation between the vulnerable narcissism and guilt proneness was negative. Additionally, the results confirm a negative association between grandiose narcissism and shame proneness, especially related to the subscale ‘shame negative self-evaluation’. Furthermore, guilt and shame proneness explained 20% of the variance in vulnerable narcissism and 11% in grandiose narcissism. This research indicates that both vulnerable and grandiose narcissism have the tendency to make unethical decisions, and they are more likely to enact in unethical behaviour. These findings are relevant for the detection of narcissistic individual’s propensity to act unethically in social context.

  20. Guilt and Proneness to Shame: Unethical Behaviour in Vulnerable and Grandiose Narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poless, Pauline Georgees; Torstveit, Linda; Lugo, Ricardo Gregorio; Andreassen, Marita; Sütterlin, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    Narcissists are described as individuals with dysfunctional personality traits such as lack of psychological awareness and empathy. Theories of ethical behaviour assume that unethical actions trigger moral emotions of guilt and shame. Currently, there is a lack of knowledge on moral emotions as dispositional traits and their potential influences on behaviour in individuals with narcissistic traits. The present study examined vulnerable and grandiose narcissism's differences in the propensity to experience guilt and shame as a proneness, across a range of personal transgressions. Guilt proneness was measured by negative evaluation of unethical behaviour, and whether this evaluation could influence reparation of tendencies of unethical action in vulnerable and grandiose narcissism. Shame proneness was investigated by negative evaluation of the self, and then whether the previous tendency could affect unethical decision making and behaviour (e.g., hiding), in vulnerable and grandiose narcissism. Two hundred and sixteen participants responded to the Guilt and Shame Proneness Scale, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory Scale and the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale in an online questionnaire. Findings indicate that grandiose narcissism was negatively associated with guilt proneness, and the relation between the vulnerable narcissism and guilt proneness was negative. Additionally, the results confirm a negative association between grandiose narcissism and shame proneness, especially related to the subscale 'shame negative self-evaluation'. Furthermore, guilt and shame proneness explained 20% of the variance in vulnerable narcissism and 11% in grandiose narcissism. This research indicates that both vulnerable and grandiose narcissism have the tendency to make unethical decisions, and they are more likely to enact in unethical behaviour. These findings are relevant for the detection of narcissistic individual's propensity to act unethically in social context.

  1. Guilt and Proneness to Shame: Unethical Behaviour in Vulnerable and Grandiose Narcissism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Georgees Poless

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Narcissists are described as individuals with dysfunctional personality traits such as lack of psychological awareness and empathy. Theories of ethical behaviour assume that unethical actions trigger moral emotions of guilt and shame. Currently, there is a lack of knowledge on moral emotions as dispositional traits and their potential influences on behaviour in individuals with narcissistic traits. The present study examined vulnerable and grandiose narcissism’s differences in the propensity to experience guilt and shame as a proneness, across a range of personal transgressions. Guilt proneness was measured by negative evaluation of unethical behaviour, and whether this evaluation could influence reparation of tendencies of unethical action in vulnerable and grandiose narcissism. Shame proneness was investigated by negative evaluation of the self, and then whether the previous tendency could affect unethical decision making and behaviour (e.g., hiding, in vulnerable and grandiose narcissism. Two hundred and sixteen participants responded to the Guilt and Shame Proneness Scale, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory Scale and the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale in an online questionnaire. Findings indicate that grandiose narcissism was negatively associated with guilt proneness, and the relation between the vulnerable narcissism and guilt proneness was negative. Additionally, the results confirm a negative association between grandiose narcissism and shame proneness, especially related to the subscale ‘shame negative self-evaluation’. Furthermore, guilt and shame proneness explained 20% of the variance in vulnerable narcissism and 11% in grandiose narcissism. This research indicates that both vulnerable and grandiose narcissism have the tendency to make unethical decisions, and they are more likely to enact in unethical behaviour. These findings are relevant for the detection of narcissistic individual’s propensity to act unethically in

  2. Exploring the relationships between drivers' familiarity and two-lane rural road accidents. A multi-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intini, Paolo; Berloco, Nicola; Colonna, Pasquale; Ranieri, Vittorio; Ryeng, Eirin

    2018-02-01

    Previous research has suggested that drivers' route familiarity/unfamiliarity (using different definitions of familiarity), and the interactions between familiar and unfamiliar drivers, may affect both the driving performances and the likelihood of road crashes. The purpose of this study is to provide a contribution in the search for relationships between familiarity and crashes by: 1) introducing a measure of familiarity based on the distance from residence; 2) analyzing a traffic and accident dataset referred to rural two-lane sections of the Norwegian highways E6 and E39; 3) using a multi-level approach, based on different perspectives, from a macro analysis to more detailed levels. In the macro analyses, the accident rates computed for different seasons and for different summer traffic variation rates (used as indicators of the share of familiar drivers in the flow) were performed. At the second level, a logistic regression model was used to explain the familiarity/unfamiliarity of drivers (based on their distance from residence), through variables retrieved from the database. In the last step, an in-depth analysis considering also accident types and dynamics was conducted. In the macro analysis, no differences were found between accident rates in the different conditions. Whereas, as emerged from the detailed analyses, the factors: high traffic volume, low summer traffic variation, autumn/winter, minor intersections/driveways, speed limits accident risk, possibly due to distraction and dangerous behaviors, while the influence of being unfamiliar on the accident proneness has some unclarified aspects. However, crashes to unfamiliar drivers may cluster at sites showing high summer traffic variation and in summer months. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Unavoidable Accident

    OpenAIRE

    Grady, Mark F.

    2009-01-01

    In negligence law, "unavoidable accident" is the risk that remains when an actor has used due care. The counterpart of unavoidable accident is "negligent harm." Negligence law makes parties immune for unavoidable accident even when they have used less than due care. Courts have developed a number of methods by which they "sort" accidents to unavoidable accident or to negligent harm, holding parties liable only for the latter. These sorting techniques are interesting in their own right and als...

  4. Preliminary Results on Setup Precision of Prone-Lateral Patient Positioning for Whole Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldeman, Liv; Speleers, Bruno; Bakker, Marlies; Jacobs, Filip; Coghe, Marc; De Gersem, Werner; Impens, Aline; Nechelput, Sarah; De Wagter, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a rapid and reproducible technique for prone positioning and to compare dose-volume indices in prone and supine positions. Methods and Materials: Eighteen patients underwent computed tomography imaging for radiotherapy planning in prone and supine position. Experience was gained in the first eight patients, which lead to modifications of the Horizon prone breast board (Civco Medical Solutions, Orange City, Iowa, USA) and the patient setup technique. A unilateral breast holder (U-BH) was developed (Van de Velde, Schellebelle, Belgium) to retract the contralateral breast away from the treated breast. The technique was then applied to an additional 10 patients. The setup precision was evaluated using daily cone-beam CT. Results: Modifications to the breast board were made to secure a prone-lateral rather then a pure prone position. We evolved from a classical setup using laser marks on the patients' body to a direct breast setup using marks on the breast only. The setup precision of the direct positioning procedure with the modified breast board and the U-BH is comparable to supine setup data in the literature. Dose-volume indices for heart and lung show significantly better results for prone than for supine position, and dose homogeneity within the treated breast did not differ according to the treatment position. Conclusions: The setup precision of our prone-lateral positioning technique is comparable to supine data in literature. Our data show the advantage of prone radiotherapy to spare the lung and heart. Further research is necessary to reduce the duration of prone setup.

  5. Domino effect in chemical accidents: main features and accident sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Casal Fàbrega, Joaquim; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria

    2010-01-01

    The main features of domino accidents in process/storage plants and in the transportation of hazardous materials were studied through an analysis of 225 accidents involving this effect. Data on these accidents, which occurred after 1961, were taken from several sources. Aspects analyzed included the accident scenario, the type of accident, the materials involved, the causes and consequences and the most common accident sequences. The analysis showed that the most frequent causes a...

  6. Complications associated with prone positioning in elective spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasse, J Mason; Palumbo, Mark A; Haque, Maahir; Eberson, Craig P; Daniels, Alan H

    2015-04-18

    Complications associated with prone surgical positioning during elective spine surgery have the potential to cause serious patient morbidity. Although many of these complications remain uncommon, the range of possible morbidities is wide and includes multiple organ systems. Perioperative visual loss (POVL) is a well described, but uncommon complication that may occur due to ischemia to the optic nerve, retina, or cerebral cortex. Closed-angle glaucoma and amaurosis have been reported as additional etiologies for vision loss following spinal surgery. Peripheral nerve injuries, such as those caused by prolonged traction to the brachial plexus, are more commonly encountered postoperative events. Myocutaneous complications including pressure ulcers and compartment syndrome may also occur after prone positioning, albeit rarely. Other uncommon positioning complications such as tongue swelling resulting in airway compromise, femoral artery ischemia, and avascular necrosis of the femoral head have also been reported. Many of these are well-understood and largely avoidable through thoughtful attention to detail. Other complications, such as POVL, remain incompletely understood and thus more difficult to predict or prevent. Here, the current literature on the complications of prone positioning for spine surgery is reviewed to increase awareness of the spectrum of potential complications and to inform spine surgeons of strategies to minimize the risk of prone patient morbidity.

  7. Stress in accident and post-accident management at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, P.; Dubreuil, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the psychology of the affected population have been much discussed. The psychological dimension has been advanced as a factor explaining the emergence, from 1990 onwards, of a post-accident crisis in the main CIS countries affected. This article presents the conclusions of a series of European studies, which focused on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. These studies show that the psychological and social effects associated with the post-accident situation arise from the interdependency of a number of complex factors exerting a deleterious effect on the population. We shall first attempt to characterise the stress phenomena observed among the population affected by the accident. Secondly, we will be presenting an anlysis of the various factors that have contributed to the emerging psychological and social features of population reaction to the accident and in post-accident phases, while not neglecting the effects of the pre-accident situation on the target population. Thirdly, we shall devote some initial consideration to the conditions that might be conducive to better management of post-accident stress. In conclusion, we shall emphasise the need to restore confidence among the population generally. (Author)

  8. Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Depression-Proneness: Closing the Gender Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaulay, Marci; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examines gender differences in body image and its relationship to depression-proneness and self-esteem. Findings indicate a preoccupation with body weight and appearance for both men and women, and a relationship between body satisfaction and depression-proneness. (FMW)

  9. SU-E-T-307: Dosimetric Comparison of Prone Versus Supine Positioning for Adjuvant Breast Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, C; O’Connor, B; Hayes, L; Rella, J; Ruiz, B; Yang, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The prone treatment position has been used to reduce ipsilateral lung and heart dose in left breast radiation. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the difference in the dosimetry between prone and supine treatment positions. Methods: Eight left breast cancer patients were simulated in both the supine and prone positions as a pretreatment evaluation for the optimal treatment position. Treatment plans were created for all patients in both the supine and prone positions using a field in field three dimensional planning technique. Prescribed dose was 45 Gy delivered by two tangential photon fields. Irradiated volume (IV) was evaluated by V50, V100, and dose to lung and heart by V5, V10, V20, and the mean dose were evaluated. Results: All dosimetry metrics for both the supine and prone plans met our internal normal structure guidelines which are based on Quantec data. The average IVs (50% and 100%) were 2223cc and 1361cc prone, 2315cc and 1315cc supine. The average ipsilateral lung Mean dose (0.83Gy prone vs 5.8Gy supine), V5 (1.6% prone vs 20.9% supine), V10 (0.78% prone vs 15% supine) and V20 (0.36% prone vs 11% supine) were significantly lower in prone position. Heart Mean dose (1.4Gy prone vs 2.9Gy supine), V10 (1.4% prone vs 5.0% supine) and V20 (0.4% prone vs 3.5% supine) were found improved for all patients except one where the mean dose was the same and all other values were improved. Conclusion: The prone position offer preferable dosimetry for all patients planned in our study. These patients were chosen based on the physician’s belief that they would benefit from prone treatment either because they had large pendulous breasts or due to the amount of heart seen in the field on CT simulation

  10. Otitis-Prone Children Produce Functional Antibodies to Pneumolysin and Pneumococcal Polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Lea-Ann S; Wiertsema, Selma P; Corscadden, Karli J; Mateus, Tulia; Mullaney, Gemma L; Zhang, Guicheng; Richmond, Peter C; Thornton, Ruth B

    2017-03-01

    The pneumococcus is a major otitis media (OM) pathogen, but data are conflicting regarding whether otitis-prone children have impaired humoral immunity to pneumococcal antigens. We and others have shown that otitis-prone and healthy children have similar antibody titers to pneumococcal proteins and polysaccharides (vaccine and nonvaccine types); however, the quality of antibodies from otitis-prone children has not been investigated. Antibody function, rather than titer, is considered to be a better correlate of protection from pneumococcal disease. Therefore, we compared the capacities of antibodies from otitis-prone (cases) and healthy (controls) children to neutralize pneumolysin, the pneumococcal toxin currently in development as a vaccine antigen, and to opsonize pneumococcal vaccine and nonvaccine serotypes. A pneumolysin neutralization assay was conducted on cholesterol-depleted complement-inactivated sera from 165 cases and 61 controls. A multiplex opsonophagocytosis assay (MOPA) was conducted on sera from 20 cases and 20 controls. Neutralizing and opsonizing titers were calculated with antigen-specific IgG titers to determine antibody potency for pneumolysin, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) polysaccharides, and non-PCV polysaccharides. There was no significant difference in antibody potencies between cases and controls for the antigens tested. Antipneumolysin neutralizing titers increased with the number of episodes of acute OM, but antibody potency did not. Pneumolysin antibody potency was lower in children colonized with pneumococci than in noncarriers, and this was significant for the otitis-prone group ( P otitis-prone children demonstrates that they respond to the current PCV and are likely to respond to pneumolysin-based vaccines as effectively as healthy children. Copyright © 2017 Kirkham et al.

  11. Self-reported accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2016-01-01

    The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....

  12. Procrastination and suicide proneness: A moderated-mediation model for cognitive schemas and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klibert, Jeffrey; LeLeux-LaBarge, Kayla; Tarantino, Nicholas; Yancey, Thresa; Lamis, Dorian A

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the direct and indirect paths between procrastination and suicide proneness while considering gender differences. Participants included 547 undergraduates from a southeastern university. Procrastination was positively related to suicide proneness for both genders, although this relation was stronger for women. Moderated-mediation analyses with bootstrapping highlighted insufficient self-control schemas as a mediator in the relation between procrastination and suicide proneness. However, indirect pathways did not vary by gender. Results represent an extension of the Procrastination-Health Model by highlighting the contribution of cognitive factors in explaining the relation between procrastination and suicide proneness.

  13. Driving in Parkinson's disease: mobility, accidents, and sudden onset of sleep at the wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindorfner, Charlotte; Körner, Yvonne; Möller, Jens Carsten; Stiasny-Kolster, Karin; Oertel, Wolfgang Hermann; Krüger, Hans-Peter

    2005-07-01

    Only few studies have addressed driving ability in Parkinson's disease (PD) to date. However, studies investigating accident proneness of PD patients are urgently needed in the light of motor disability in PD and--particularly--the report of "sleep attacks" at the wheel. We sent a questionnaire about sudden onset of sleep (SOS) and driving behavior to 12,000 PD patients. Subsequently, of 6,620 complete data sets, 361 patients were interviewed by phone. A total of 82% of those 6,620 patients held a driving license, and 60% of them still participated in traffic. Of the patients holding a driving license, 15% had been involved in and 11% had caused at least one accident during the past 5 years. The risk of causing accidents was significantly increased for patients who felt moderately impaired by PD, had an increased Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score, and had experienced SOS while driving. Sleep attacks at the wheel usually occurred in easy driving situations and resulted in typical fatigue-related accidents. Those having retired from driving had a more advanced (subjective) disease severity, higher age, more frequently female gender, an increased ESS score, and a longer disease duration. The study revealed SOS and daytime sleepiness as critical factors for traffic safety in addition to motor disabilities of PD patients. The results suggest that real sleep attacks without any prior sleepiness are rare. However, our data underline the importance of mobility for patients and the need for further studies addressing the ability to drive in PD. Copyright 2005 Movement Disorder Society.

  14. Evidence that UV-inducible error-prone repair is absent in Haemophilus influenzae Rd, with a discussion of the relation to error-prone repair of alkylating-agent damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimball, R.F.; Boling, M.E.; Perdue, S.W.

    1977-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae Rd and its derivatives are mutated either not at all or to only a very small extent by ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, methyl methanesulfonate, and nitrogen mustard, though they are readily mutated by such agents as N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, ethyl methanesulfonate, and nitrosocarbaryl (NC). In these respects H. influenzae Rd resembles the lexA mutants of Escherichia coli that lack the SOS or reclex UV-inducible error-prone repair system. This similarity is further brought out by the observation that chloramphenicol has little or no effect on post-replication repair after UV irradiation. In E. coli, chloramphenicol has been reported to considerably inhibit post-replication repair in the wild type but not in the lexA mutant. Earlier work has suggested that most or all the mutations induced in H. influenzae by NC result from error-prone repair. Combined treatment with NC and either X-rays or UV shows that the NC error-prone repair system does not produce mutations from the lesions induced by these radiations even while it is producing them from its own lesions. It is concluded that the NC error-prone repair system or systems and the reclex error-prone system are different

  15. Prone positioning in hypoxemic respiratory failure: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopterides, Petros; Siempos, Ilias I; Armaganidis, Apostolos

    2009-03-01

    Prone positioning is used to improve oxygenation in patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF). However, its role in clinical practice is not yet clearly defined. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the effect of prone positioning on relevant clinical outcomes, such as intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital mortality, days of mechanical ventilation, length of stay, incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and pneumothorax, and associated complications. We used literature search of MEDLINE, Current Contents, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We focused only on randomized controlled trials reporting clinical outcomes in adult patients with HRF. Four trials met our inclusion criteria, including 662 patients randomized to prone ventilation and 609 patients to supine ventilation. The pooled odds ratio (OR) for the ICU mortality in the intention-to-treat analysis was 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-1.22), for the comparison between prone and supine ventilated patients. Interestingly, the pooled OR for the ICU mortality in the selected group of the more severely ill patients favored prone positioning (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.18-0.66). The duration of mechanical ventilation and the incidence of pneumothorax were not different between the 2 groups. The incidence of VAP was lower but not statistically significant in patients treated with prone positioning (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.61-1.10). However, prone positioning was associated with a higher risk of pressure sores (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.17-1.89) and a trend for more complications related to the endotracheal tube (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.94-1.80). Despite the inherent limitations of the meta-analytic approach, it seems that prone positioning has no discernible effect on mortality in patients with HRF. It may decrease the incidence of VAP at the expense of more pressure sores and complications related to the endotracheal tube. However, a subgroup of the most severely ill patients may

  16. Major Accidents (Gray Swans) Likelihood Modeling Using Accident Precursors and Approximate Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakzad, Nima; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul

    2015-07-01

    Compared to the remarkable progress in risk analysis of normal accidents, the risk analysis of major accidents has not been so well-established, partly due to the complexity of such accidents and partly due to low probabilities involved. The issue of low probabilities normally arises from the scarcity of major accidents' relevant data since such accidents are few and far between. In this work, knowing that major accidents are frequently preceded by accident precursors, a novel precursor-based methodology has been developed for likelihood modeling of major accidents in critical infrastructures based on a unique combination of accident precursor data, information theory, and approximate reasoning. For this purpose, we have introduced an innovative application of information analysis to identify the most informative near accident of a major accident. The observed data of the near accident were then used to establish predictive scenarios to foresee the occurrence of the major accident. We verified the methodology using offshore blowouts in the Gulf of Mexico, and then demonstrated its application to dam breaches in the United Sates. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Domino effect in chemical accidents: main features and accident sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbra, R M; Palacios, Adriana; Casal, Joaquim

    2010-11-15

    The main features of domino accidents in process/storage plants and in the transportation of hazardous materials were studied through an analysis of 225 accidents involving this effect. Data on these accidents, which occurred after 1961, were taken from several sources. Aspects analyzed included the accident scenario, the type of accident, the materials involved, the causes and consequences and the most common accident sequences. The analysis showed that the most frequent causes are external events (31%) and mechanical failure (29%). Storage areas (35%) and process plants (28%) are by far the most common settings for domino accidents. Eighty-nine per cent of the accidents involved flammable materials, the most frequent of which was LPG. The domino effect sequences were analyzed using relative probability event trees. The most frequent sequences were explosion→fire (27.6%), fire→explosion (27.5%) and fire→fire (17.8%). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Children's proneness to shame and guilt predict risky and illegal behaviors in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuewig, Jeffrey; Tangney, June P; Kendall, Stephanie; Folk, Johanna B; Meyer, Candace Reinsmith; Dearing, Ronda L

    2015-04-01

    Do shame and guilt help people avoid doing wrong? Although some research suggests that guilt-proneness is a protective factor while shame-proneness puts individuals at risk, most research is either cross-sectional or short-term. In this longitudinal study, 380 5th graders (ages 10-12) completed measures of proneness to shame and guilt. We re-interviewed 68 % of participants after they turned 18 years old (range 18-21). Guilt-proneness assessed in childhood predicted fewer sexual partners, less use of illegal drugs and alcohol, and less involvement with the criminal justice system. Shame-proneness, in contrast, was a risk factor for later deviant behavior. Shame-prone children were more likely to have unprotected sex and use illegal drugs in young adulthood. These results held when controlling for childhood SES and teachers' ratings of aggression. Children's moral emotional styles appear to be well established by at least middle childhood, with distinct downstream implications for risky behavior in early adulthood.

  19. Accident information needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

    1992-01-01

    A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information

  20. Accident information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

    1992-12-31

    A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information.

  1. Accident information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

    1992-01-01

    A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information.

  2. Evidence of functional cell-mediated immune responses to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in otitis-prone children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppanen, Elke; Tan, Dino; Corscadden, Karli J.; Currie, Andrew J.; Richmond, Peter C.; Thornton, Ruth B.

    2018-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) remains a common paediatric disease, despite advances in vaccinology. Susceptibility to recurrent acute OM (rAOM) has been postulated to involve defective cell-mediated immune responses to common otopathogenic bacteria. We compared the composition of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 20 children with a history of rAOM (otitis-prone) and 20 healthy non-otitis-prone controls, and assessed innate and cell-mediated immune responses to the major otopathogen nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). NTHi was a potent stimulator of inflammatory cytokine secretion from PBMC within 4 hours, with no difference in cytokine levels produced between PBMC from cases or controls. In the absence of antigen stimulation, otitis-prone children had more circulating Natural Killer (NK) cells (potitis-prone and non-otitis-prone children (potitis-prone children are functional and respond to NTHi. CD8+ T cells and NK cells from both cases and controls produced IFNγ in response to polyclonal stimulus (Staphylococcal enterotoxin B; SEB), with more IFNγ+ CD8+ T cells present in cases than controls (pOtitis-prone children had more circulating IFNγ-producing NK cells (potitis-prone children mounted innate and T cell-mediated responses to NTHi challenge that were comparable to healthy children. These data provide evidence that otitis-prone children do not have impaired functional cell mediated immunity. PMID:29621281

  3. Learning lessons from Natech accidents - the eNATECH accident database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausmann, Elisabeth; Girgin, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    When natural hazards impact industrial facilities that house or process hazardous materials, fires, explosions and toxic releases can occur. This type of accident is commonly referred to as Natech accident. In order to prevent the recurrence of accidents or to better mitigate their consequences, lessons-learned type studies using available accident data are usually carried out. Through post-accident analysis, conclusions can be drawn on the most common damage and failure modes and hazmat release paths, particularly vulnerable storage and process equipment, and the hazardous materials most commonly involved in these types of accidents. These analyses also lend themselves to identifying technical and organisational risk-reduction measures that require improvement or are missing. Industrial accident databases are commonly used for retrieving sets of Natech accident case histories for further analysis. These databases contain accident data from the open literature, government authorities or in-company sources. The quality of reported information is not uniform and exhibits different levels of detail and accuracy. This is due to the difficulty of finding qualified information sources, especially in situations where accident reporting by the industry or by authorities is not compulsory, e.g. when spill quantities are below the reporting threshold. Data collection has then to rely on voluntary record keeping often by non-experts. The level of detail is particularly non-uniform for Natech accident data depending on whether the consequences of the Natech event were major or minor, and whether comprehensive information was available for reporting. In addition to the reporting bias towards high-consequence events, industrial accident databases frequently lack information on the severity of the triggering natural hazard, as well as on failure modes that led to the hazmat release. This makes it difficult to reconstruct the dynamics of the accident and renders the development of

  4. Ketosis-prone atypical diabetes in Cameroonian people with hyperglycaemic crisis: frequency, clinical and metabolic phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lontchi-Yimagou, E; Nguewa, J L; Assah, F; Noubiap, J J; Boudou, P; Djahmeni, E; Balti, E V; Atogho-Tiedeu, B; Gautier, J F; Mbanya, J C; Sobngwi, E

    2017-03-01

    It is unclear whether ketosis-prone diabetes is a specific type or a subtype of Type 2 diabetes. We aimed to describe the clinical and metabolic features of ketosis-prone diabetes in a sub-Saharan population. We consecutively enrolled and characterized 173 people with non-autoimmune diabetes admitted for hyperglycaemic crisis at the Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon. Blood samples were collected for fasting glucose, HbA 1c , lipid profile and C-peptide assays with insulin resistance and secretion estimation by homeostasis model assessment. People were classified as having Type 2 diabetes (n = 124) or ketosis-prone diabetes (n = 49). Ketosis-prone diabetes was sub-classified as new-onset ketotic phase (n = 34) or non-ketotic phase (n = 15). Ketosis-prone diabetes was found in 28.3% of the hyperglycaemic crises. Age at diabetes diagnosis was comparable in Type 2 and ketosis-prone diabetes [48 ± 14 vs 47 ± 11 years; P = 0.13] with a similar sex distribution. Overall BMI was 27.7 ± 13.4 kg/m 2 and was ≥ 25 kg/m 2 in 55.8% of those taking part, however, 73.5% of those with ketosis-prone diabetes reported weight loss of > 5% at diagnosis. Blood pressure and lipid profile were comparable in both types. Ketosis-prone diabetes in the ketotic phase was characterized by lower insulin secretion and higher serum triglycerides compared with non-ketotic ketosis prone and Type 2 diabetes. Type 2 and ketosis prone diabetes in the non-ketotic phase were comparable in terms of lipid profile, blood pressure, waist-to-hip ratio, BMI and fat mass, insulin secretion and insulin resistance indices. Ketosis-prone diabetes is likely to be a subtype of Type 2 diabetes with the potential to develop acute insulinopenic episodes. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  5. Disaster Evacuation from Japan's 2011 Tsunami Disaster and the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    The triple disaster that hit the Tohoku region of Japan on 11 March 2011 triggered a massive human displacement: more than 400,000 people evacuated their homes as a gigantic tsunami induced by a magnitude 9.0 earthquake engulfed the coastal areas, and the following nuclear accident in Fukushima released a large amount of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. This study analyses the disaster response, with a particular focus on evacuation of the population, and social consequences of this complex crisis, based on intensive fieldwork carried out one year after the catastrophe. It reveals that the responses of the Japanese authorities and population were significantly different between a natural disaster and an industrial (man-made) accident. Being prone to both earthquakes and tsunamis, Japan had been preparing itself against such risks for many years. A tsunami alert was immediately issued and the population knew how and where to evacuate. In contrast, the evacuation from the nuclear accident was organised in total chaos, as a severe accident or large-scale evacuation had never been envisaged -let alone exercised- before the disaster. The population was thus forced to flee with no information as to the gravity of the accident or radiation risk. In both cases, the risk perception prior to the catastrophe played a key role in determining the vulnerability of the population at the time of the crisis. While tsunami evacuees are struggling with a slow reconstruction process due to financial difficulties, nuclear evacuees are suffering from uncertainty as to their prospect of return. One year after the accident, the Japanese authorities began to encourage nuclear evacuees to return to the areas contaminated by radiation according to a newly established safety standard. This triggered a vivid controversy within the affected communities, creating a rift between those who trust the government's notion of safety and those who do not. The nuclear disaster has thus

  6. Comparison of supine and prone positions for percutaneous nephrolithotomy in treatment of staghorn stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökce, Mehmet İlker; Ibiş, Arif; Sancı, Adem; Akıncı, Aykut; Bağcı, Uygar; Ağaoğlu, Eylül Asya; Süer, Evren; Gülpınar, Ömer

    2017-12-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is the primary treatment modality for management of staghorn stones. PNL in supine position has important advantages over prone positon. However, studies comparing prone and supine positions for PNL in staghorn stone patients have conflicting results, and the aim of the current study was to compare prone and supine positions for PNL in staghorn stone cases. Data of patients underwent PNL for staghorn stones in supine or prone position by a single urologist were collected prospectively. The supine and prone position groups were compared for stone free rate (SFR) and complication rates. All patients were evaluated with NCCT for evaluation of SFR. Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables and Student t test was applied for continuous variables of the treatment groups. The groups were similar for demographic and stone-related characteristics. Multi-caliceal and intercostal access was more common in prone position. Operation duration was significantly shorter and hemoglobin drop was significantly less in supine group. SFR was 64.1 and 60.4% in the supine and prone groups, respectively (p = 0.72). Complication rates were similar in the two groups but Clavien III complications were observed in two patients in the prone group. PNL in supine position is an effective treatment for management of staghorn stones. The need for multi-caliceal and intercostal puncture is less when combined with retrograde intrarenal surgery. PNL in supine position should be considered as primary treatment option in staghorn stone cases.

  7. Effects of systematic prone positioning in hypoxemic acute respiratory failure: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Claude; Gaillard, Sandrine; Lemasson, Stephane; Ayzac, Louis; Girard, Raphaele; Beuret, Pascal; Palmier, Bruno; Le, Quoc Viet; Sirodot, Michel; Rosselli, Sylvaine; Cadiergue, Vincent; Sainty, Jean-Marie; Barbe, Philippe; Combourieu, Emmanuel; Debatty, Daniel; Rouffineau, Jean; Ezingeard, Eric; Millet, Olivier; Guelon, Dominique; Rodriguez, Luc; Martin, Olivier; Renault, Anne; Sibille, Jean-Paul; Kaidomar, Michel

    2004-11-17

    A recent trial showed that placing patients with acute lung injury in the prone position did not increase survival; however, whether those results hold true for patients with hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (ARF) is unclear. To determine whether prone positioning improves mortality in ARF patients. Prospective, unblinded, multicenter controlled trial of 791 ARF patients in 21 general intensive care units in France using concealed randomization conducted from December 14, 1998, through December 31, 2002. To be included, patients had to be at least 18 years, hemodynamically stable, receiving mechanical ventilation, and intubated and had to have a partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) to fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) ratio of 300 or less and no contraindications to lying prone. Patients were randomly assigned to prone position placement (n = 413), applied as early as possible for at least 8 hours per day on standard beds, or to supine position placement (n = 378). The primary end point was 28-day mortality; secondary end points were 90-day mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and oxygenation. The 2 groups were comparable at randomization. The 28-day mortality rate was 32.4% for the prone group and 31.5% for the supine group (relative risk [RR], 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-1.19; P = .77). Ninety-day mortality for the prone group was 43.3% vs 42.2% for the supine group (RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.84-1.13; P = .74). The mean (SD) duration of mechanical ventilation was 13.7 (7.8) days for the prone group vs 14.1 (8.6) days for the supine group (P = .93) and the VAP incidence was 1.66 vs 2.14 episodes per 100-patients days of intubation, respectively (P = .045). The PaO2/FIO2 ratio was significantly higher in the prone group during the 28-day follow-up. However, pressure sores, selective intubation, and endotracheal tube obstruction incidences were higher in the prone group. This trial

  8. Lumbar Lordosis of Spinal Stenosis Patients during Intraoperative Prone Positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Su-Keon; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Song, Kyung-Sub; Park, Byung-Moon; Lim, Sang-Youn; Jang, Geun; Lee, Beom-Seok; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Lee, Hwan-Mo

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effect of spondylolisthesis on lumbar lordosis on the OSI (Jackson; Orthopaedic Systems Inc.) frame. Restoration of lumbar lordosis is important for maintaining sagittal balance. Physiologic lumbar lordosis has to be gained by intraoperative prone positioning with a hip extension and posterior instrumentation technique. There are some debates about changing lumbar lordosis on the OSI frame after an intraoperative prone position. We evaluated the effect of spondyloli...

  9. Prone position for acute respiratory failure in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Roxanna; Noble, David W; Sudlow, Alexis

    2015-11-13

    Acute hypoxaemia de novo or on a background of chronic hypoxaemia is a common reason for admission to intensive care and for provision of mechanical ventilation. Various refinements of mechanical ventilation or adjuncts are employed to improve patient outcomes. Mortality from acute respiratory distress syndrome, one of the main contributors to the need for mechanical ventilation for hypoxaemia, remains approximately 40%. Ventilation in the prone position may improve lung mechanics and gas exchange and could improve outcomes. The objectives of this review are (1) to ascertain whether prone ventilation offers a mortality advantage when compared with traditional supine or semi recumbent ventilation in patients with severe acute respiratory failure requiring conventional invasive artificial ventilation, and (2) to supplement previous systematic reviews on prone ventilation for hypoxaemic respiratory failure in an adult population. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 1), Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to 31 January 2014), EMBASE (1980 to 31 January 2014), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to 31 January 2014) and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (1992 to 31 January 2014) in Ovid MEDLINE for eligible randomized controlled trials. We also searched for studies by handsearching reference lists of relevant articles, by contacting colleagues and by handsearching published proceedings of relevant journals. We applied no language constraints, and we reran the searches in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and LILACS in June 2015. We added five new studies of potential interest to the list of "Studies awaiting classification" and will incorporate them into formal review findings during the review update. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the effects of prone position versus supine/semi recumbent position during conventional mechanical ventilation in

  10. [Care plan for patients in prone decubitus. An experience from practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva Torras, E; Subirana Casacuberta, M; Sebastià, M P; Jover Sancho, C; Solà Solé, N

    1995-01-01

    Offering a specific integral attention to patients with SDRA in prone decubitus positions makes us establish a performance plan with the aim to know the problems derived from the change in position, the time staying in prone decubitus and to standardize a care plan. We review the clinic records of the patients admitted in our unit from March '93 to March '95 who were positioned in prone decubitus. Taking as a base the nursing care model of V. Henderson and the taxonomy of NANDA, we analyse the needs which have been altered, and determine the nursing diagnosis, complications and most frequent interdependent problems establishing the aim to accomplish, planning the performance and rationalization. Five patients were positioned in prone decubitus before planning the performance and four more afterwards. All the patients tolerated SNG diet keeping a correct bowel transit. One patient showed an ulcera at frontal level. There were neither comeal ulceras nor alterations in the oral mucossa. The vascular accesses remained permeable. DP caused facial and periorbital edema in all the patients. We did not observe any increase in the amount of bronchial secretions. The eight patients who tolerated the change in position stayed in prone decubitus for an average of 77 hours, with a range of 10 to 216 hours. Four patients were discharged from the hospital, two of whom showed movility alterations, independently of the time staying in prone decubitus. We state explicitly the nursing care, determine five nursing diagnosis, one problem and seven interdependent complications. Establishing the nursing care from the experience and review of the records has allowed us to be more specific and objective. Standardizing the specific care plans makes the nursing care easier when dealing with real problems as well as with the care of complications derived from this situation.

  11. Key Characteristics of Combined Accident including TLOFW accident for PSA Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-05-15

    The conventional PSA techniques cannot adequately evaluate all events. The conventional PSA models usually focus on single internal events such as DBAs, the external hazards such as fire, seismic. However, the Fukushima accident of Japan in 2011 reveals that very rare event is necessary to be considered in the PSA model to prevent the radioactive release to environment caused by poor treatment based on lack of the information, and to improve the emergency operation procedure. Especially, the results from PSA can be used to decision making for regulators. Moreover, designers can consider the weakness of plant safety based on the quantified results and understand accident sequence based on human actions and system availability. This study is for PSA modeling of combined accidents including total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident. The TLOFW accident is a representative accident involving the failure of cooling through secondary side. If the amount of heat transfer is not enough due to the failure of secondary side, the heat will be accumulated to the primary side by continuous core decay heat. Transients with loss of feedwater include total loss of feedwater accident, loss of condenser vacuum accident, and closure of all MSIVs. When residual heat removal by the secondary side is terminated, the safety injection into the RCS with direct primary depressurization would provide alternative heat removal. This operation is called feed and bleed (F and B) operation. Combined accidents including TLOFW accident are very rare event and partially considered in conventional PSA model. Since the necessity of F and B operation is related to plant conditions, the PSA modeling for combined accidents including TLOFW accident is necessary to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities.The PSA is significant to assess the risk of NPPs, and to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities. Even though the combined accident is very rare event, the consequence of combined

  12. Evaluating fatigue in lupus-prone mice: preliminary assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Allison; Larson, Susan J

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue is a debilitating condition suffered by many as the result of chronic disease, yet relatively little is known about its biological basis or how to effectively manage its effects. This study sought to evaluate chronic fatigue by using lupus-prone mice and testing them at three different time periods. Lupus-prone mice were chosen because fatigue affects over half of patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Eleven MLR⁺/(+) (genetic controls) and twelve MLR/MpJ-Fas/J (MRL/lpr; lupus-prone) mice were tested three times: once at 12, 16 and 20 weeks of age. All mice were subjected to a variety of behavioral tests including: forced swim, post-swim grooming, running wheel, and sucrose consumption; five of the MLR⁺/(+) and five of the MLR/lpr mice were also tested on a fixed ratio-25 operant conditioning task. MRL/lpr mice showed more peripheral symptoms of lupus than controls, particularly lymphadenopathy and proteinuria. Lupus mice spent more time floating during the forced swim test and traveled less distance in the running wheel at each testing period. There were no differences between groups in post-swim grooming or in number of reinforcers earned in the operant conditioning task indicating the behavioral changes were not likely due simply to muscle weakness or motivation. Correlations between performance in the running wheel, forced swim test and sucrose consumption were conducted and distance traveled in the running wheel was consistently negatively correlated with time spent floating. Based on these data, we conclude that the lupus-prone mice were experiencing chronic fatigue and that running wheel activity and floating during a forced swim test can be used to evaluate fatigue, although these data cannot rule out the possibility that both fatigue and a depressive-like state were mediating these effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Breakdown-prone volume in terahertz wave beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nusinovich, G. S.; Qiao, F.; Kashyn, D. G.; Pu, R. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-3511 (United States); Dolin, L. S. [Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod 603600 (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-21

    This study was motivated by the recently proposed concept of remote detection of concealed radioactive materials by a focused terahertz (THz) radiation [V. L. Granatstein and G. S. Nusinovich, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063304 (2010)]. According to this concept, a high-power THz radiation should be focused in a small spot where the field intensity exceeds the breakdown threshold. In the presence of free electrons in such a breakdown-prone volume, a THz discharge will occur there. However, this volume should be so small that in the absence of ionizing sources in its vicinity the probability to have there any free electrons is low. Then, the increased breakdown rate in a series of THz pulses would indicate the presence of hidden radioactive materials in the vicinity of the focused spot. For this concept, it is important to accurately determine the breakdown-prone volume created by a focused THz radiation. This problem is analyzed in this paper, first, for the case of a single wave beam and, then, for the case of crossing wave beams of different polarizations. The problem is studied first ignoring the diffraction spread of wave beams in the vicinity of the focal plane and, then, with the account for the diffraction spreading. Then, relations between the THz wave power, the range of such a system and the breakdown-prone volume are analyzed. Finally, the effect of the atmospheric turbulence on propagation and focusing of THz wave beams in air is considered.

  14. Breakdown-prone volume in terahertz wave beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusinovich, G. S.; Qiao, F.; Kashyn, D. G.; Pu, R.; Dolin, L. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study was motivated by the recently proposed concept of remote detection of concealed radioactive materials by a focused terahertz (THz) radiation [V. L. Granatstein and G. S. Nusinovich, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063304 (2010)]. According to this concept, a high-power THz radiation should be focused in a small spot where the field intensity exceeds the breakdown threshold. In the presence of free electrons in such a breakdown-prone volume, a THz discharge will occur there. However, this volume should be so small that in the absence of ionizing sources in its vicinity the probability to have there any free electrons is low. Then, the increased breakdown rate in a series of THz pulses would indicate the presence of hidden radioactive materials in the vicinity of the focused spot. For this concept, it is important to accurately determine the breakdown-prone volume created by a focused THz radiation. This problem is analyzed in this paper, first, for the case of a single wave beam and, then, for the case of crossing wave beams of different polarizations. The problem is studied first ignoring the diffraction spread of wave beams in the vicinity of the focal plane and, then, with the account for the diffraction spreading. Then, relations between the THz wave power, the range of such a system and the breakdown-prone volume are analyzed. Finally, the effect of the atmospheric turbulence on propagation and focusing of THz wave beams in air is considered.

  15. Pathogenesis of A-beta+ ketosis-prone diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A-beta+ ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) is an emerging syndrome of obesity, unprovoked ketoacidosis, reversible beta-cell dysfunction, and near-normoglycemic remission. We combined metabolomics with targeted kinetic measurements to investigate its pathophysiology. Fasting plasma fatty acids, acylcarnit...

  16. Severe accidents at nuclear power plants. Their risk assessment and accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Kiyoharu.

    1995-05-01

    This document is to explain the severe accident issues. Severe Accidents are defined as accidents which are far beyond the design basis and result in severe damage of the core. Accidents at Three Mild Island in USA and at Chernobyl in former Soviet Union are examples of severe accidents. The causes and progressions of the accidents as well as the actions taken are described. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is a method to estimate the risk of severe accidents at nuclear reactors. The methodology for PSA is briefly described and current status on its application to safety related issues is introduced. The acceptability of the risks which inherently accompany every technology is then discussed. Finally, provision of accident management in Japan is introduced, including the description of accident management measures proposed for BWRs and PWRs. (author)

  17. "I'd only let you down": Guilt proneness and the avoidance of harmful interdependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Scott S; Cohen, Taya R

    2014-11-01

    Five studies demonstrated that highly guilt-prone people may avoid forming interdependent partnerships with others whom they perceive to be more competent than themselves, as benefitting a partner less than the partner benefits one's self could trigger feelings of guilt. Highly guilt-prone people who lacked expertise in a domain were less willing than were those low in guilt proneness who lacked expertise in that domain to create outcome-interdependent relationships with people who possessed domain-specific expertise. These highly guilt-prone people were more likely than others both to opt to be paid on their performance alone (Studies 1, 3, 4, and 5) and to opt to be paid on the basis of the average of their performance and that of others whose competence was more similar to their own (Studies 2 and 5). Guilt proneness did not predict people's willingness to form outcome-interdependent relationships with potential partners who lacked domain-specific expertise (Studies 4 and 5). It also did not predict people's willingness to form relationships when poor individual performance would not negatively affect partner outcomes (Study 4). Guilt proneness therefore predicts whether, and with whom, people develop interdependent relationships. The findings also demonstrate that highly guilt-prone people sacrifice financial gain out of concern about how their actions would influence others' welfare. As such, the findings demonstrate a novel way in which guilt proneness limits free-riding and therefore reduces the incidence of potentially unethical behavior. Lastly, the findings demonstrate that people who lack competence may not always seek out competence in others when choosing partners.

  18. Severe accident phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokiniemi, J.; Kilpi, K.; Lindholm, I.; Maekynen, J.; Pekkarinen, E.; Sairanen, R.; Silde, A.

    1995-02-01

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  19. When feeling bad leads to feeling good: guilt-proneness and affective organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Francis J; Schaumberg, Rebecca L

    2012-01-01

    The authors posit that higher levels of guilt-proneness are associated with higher levels of affective organizational commitment. To explain this counterintuitive link, the authors suggest that a dispositional tendency to feel guilt motivates individuals to exert greater effort on their work-related tasks that, in turn, strengthens their affinity for the organization. The authors tested this idea using a laboratory study and field data from 2 samples of working adults. Individuals who are more guilt-prone reported higher levels of organizational attachment compared with less guilt-prone individuals. Furthermore, mediation analyses indicate that the link between guilt-proneness and affective commitment is driven by greater task effort. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the affective drivers of commitment in organizations.

  20. Criticality accident of nuclear fuel facility. Think back on JCO criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Keiji

    2003-09-01

    This book is written in order to understand the fundamental knowledge of criticality safety or criticality accident of nuclear fuel facility by the citizens. It consists of four chapters such as critical conditions and criticality accident of nuclear facility, risk of criticality accident, prevention of criticality accident and a measure at an occurrence of criticality accident. A definition of criticality, control of critical conditions, an aspect of accident, a rate of incident, damage, three sufferers, safety control method of criticality, engineering and administrative control, safety design of criticality, investigation of failure of safety control of JCO criticality accident, safety culture are explained. JCO criticality accident was caused with intention of disregarding regulation. It is important that we recognize the correct risk of criticality accident of nuclear fuel facility and prevent disasters. On the basis of them, we should establish safety culture. (S.Y.)

  1. Professional experience and traffic accidents/near-miss accidents among truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Edmarlon; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; González, Alberto Durán; Mesas, Arthur Eumann

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between the time working as a truck driver and the report of involvement in traffic accidents or near-miss accidents. A cross-sectional study was performed with truck drivers transporting products from the Brazilian grain harvest to the Port of Paranaguá, Paraná, Brazil. The drivers were interviewed regarding sociodemographic characteristics, working conditions, behavior in traffic and involvement in accidents or near-miss accidents in the previous 12 months. Subsequently, the participants answered a self-applied questionnaire on substance use. The time of professional experience as drivers was categorized in tertiles. Statistical analyses were performed through the construction of models adjusted by multinomial regression to assess the relationship between the length of experience as a truck driver and the involvement in accidents or near-miss accidents. This study included 665 male drivers with an average age of 42.2 (±11.1) years. Among them, 7.2% and 41.7% of the drivers reported involvement in accidents and near-miss accidents, respectively. In fully adjusted analysis, the 3rd tertile of professional experience (>22years) was shown to be inversely associated with involvement in accidents (odds ratio [OR] 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.52) and near-miss accidents (OR 0.17; 95% CI 0.05-0.53). The 2nd tertile of professional experience (11-22 years) was inversely associated with involvement in accidents (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.40-0.98). An evident relationship was observed between longer professional experience and a reduction in reporting involvement in accidents and near-miss accidents, regardless of age, substance use, working conditions and behavior in traffic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mapping radon-prone areas using γ-radiation dose rate and geological information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Talavera, M; Rey, C; Ramos, L; García-Pérez, A

    2013-01-01

    Identifying radon-prone areas is key to policies on the control of this environmental carcinogen. In the current paper, we present the methodology followed to delineate radon-prone areas in Spain. It combines information from indoor radon measurements with γ-radiation and geological maps. The advantage of the proposed approach is that it lessens the requirement for a high density of measurements by making use of commonly available information. It can be applied for an initial definition of radon-prone areas in countries committed to introducing a national radon policy or to improving existing radon maps in low population regions. (paper)

  3. Years of life lost because of premature death due to intentional and unintentional accidents in Ghazvin province from 2004 till 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Jafari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accidents are the second cause of death in Iran and one of the significant challenges in public health. They can affect people in all ages. In this study, we try to calculate years of life lost due to intentional and unintentional injuries, which is considered as one of the main indicators for prioritizing public health problems.  Methods: This study is a practical cross sectional survey research HSR (health system research that uses secondary analysis on the death data of Ghazvin province. The calculations also take into account the WHO standards in age group, sex and years of life lost (YLL due to death.  Results: This study showed that the unintentional accidents were the leading cause of death based on YLL from 2004 until 2008 in Ghazvin province. The number of deaths due to intentional and unintentional accidents was 3796 deaths as of which 2954 (77.8% was male and 842 (22.2% female. In general three quarter of the YLL due to early death relates to accidents for males and less than a quarter relates to accidents for females. Between 2004 until 2008, the maximum number of years of life lost (YLL in both sexes is for the age group of 15 to 49.  Conclusion: Considering the high level of years of life lost (YLL due to accident in this province, especially in men, more appropriate interventions for the more risk prone age groups and male in general need to be taken into account.

  4. Neurodevelopmental correlates of proneness to guilt and shame in adolescence and early adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Whittle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigating how brain development during adolescence and early adulthood underlies guilt- and shame-proneness may be important for understanding risk processes for mental disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the neurodevelopmental correlates of interpersonal guilt- and shame-proneness in healthy adolescents and young adults using structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI. Sixty participants (age range: 15–25 completed sMRI and self-report measures of interpersonal guilt- and shame-proneness. Independent of interpersonal guilt, higher levels of shame-proneness were associated with thinner posterior cingulate cortex (PCC thickness and smaller amygdala volume. Higher levels of shame-proneness were also associated with attenuated age-related reductions in thickness of lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC. Our findings highlight the complexities in understanding brain–behavior relationships during the adolescent/young adult period. Results were consistent with growing evidence that accelerated cortical thinning during adolescence may be associated with superior socioemotional functioning. Further research is required to understand the implications of these findings for mental disorders characterized by higher levels of guilt and shame.

  5. Clarifying the link between job satisfaction and absenteeism: The role of guilt proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumberg, Rebecca L; Flynn, Francis J

    2017-06-01

    We propose that the relationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism depends partly on guilt proneness. Drawing on withdrawal and process models of absenteeism, we argue that job satisfaction predicts absences for employees who are low (but not high) in guilt proneness because low guilt-prone people's behaviors are governed more by fulfilling their own egoistic desires than by fulfilling others' normative expectations. We find support for this prediction in a sample of customer service agents working for a major telecommunications company and a sample of working adults employed in a range of industries. In each study, we use measures of employees' guilt proneness and job satisfaction to predict their subsequent workplace absences. In Study 2, we extend our hypothesis tests to 2 traits that are conceptually comparable to guilt proneness (i.e., moral identity and agreeableness), showing that these traits similarly moderate the relationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism. We discuss the implications of these findings for extant models of absenteeism and research on moral affectivity in the workplace. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Ventilatory sensitivity to mild asphyxia: prone versus supine sleep position

    OpenAIRE

    Galland, B; Bolton, D; Taylor, B; Sayers, R; Williams, S

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To compare the effects of prone and supine sleep position on the main physiological responses to mild asphyxia: increase in ventilation and arousal.
METHODS—Ventilatory and arousal responses to mild asphyxia (hypercapnia/hypoxia) were measured in 53 healthy infants at newborn and 3 months of age, during quiet sleep (QS) and active sleep (AS), and in supine and prone sleep positions. The asphyxial test mimicked face down rebreathing by slowly altering the inspired air: C...

  7. Contextual memory, psychosis-proneness, and the experience of intrusive imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Daniel A; Mason, Oliver; King, John A; Brewin, Chris R

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the presence and characteristics of naturally occurring involuntary imagery would be related to poorer context-dependent spatial memory and higher levels of proneness to psychotic experiences. Poorer contextual memory was also predicted to be associated with a greater sense of "nowness". Participants completed a virtual environment task that assessed contextual memory through responses that required allocentric and egocentric processing of virtual stimuli. Two questionnaires assessing predisposition to psychotic experiences were employed. Finally, participants completed an interview that required details of recent, naturally occurring involuntary images. Reports of involuntary imagery were associated with greater proneness to psychotic experiences but not with memory. In those participants who reported imagery, however, poorer memory performance was associated with more vivid and detailed intrusive imagery. Poorer contextual memory was specifically associated with a greater sense of "nowness". Possible links between contextual memory and proneness to psychosis are discussed.

  8. Differential Effectiveness of Paradoxical Interventions for More Versus Less Stress-Prone Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham-Salomon, Varda; Jancourt, Annick

    1985-01-01

    Forty-three undergraduates underwent stress induction and were then assigned to a paradoxical, stress management, or self-help treatment. In the stress management and self-help groups, better performance was exhibited by less stress-prone subjects. Initial stress proneness, continued stress, and resistance facilitated performance in the…

  9. Prevention of pedestrian accidents.

    OpenAIRE

    Kendrick, D

    1993-01-01

    Child pedestrian accidents are the most common road traffic accident resulting in injury. Much of the existing work on road traffic accidents is based on analysing clusters of accidents despite evidence that child pedestrian accidents tend to be more dispersed than this. This paper analyses pedestrian accidents in 573 children aged 0-11 years by a locally derived deprivation score for the years 1988-90. The analysis shows a significantly higher accident rate in deprived areas and a dose respo...

  10. Children’s Proneness to Shame and Guilt Predict Risky and Illegal Behaviors in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuewig, Jeffrey; Tangney, June P.; Kendall, Stephanie; Folk, Johanna B.; Meyer, Candace Reinsmith; Dearing, Ronda L.

    2014-01-01

    Do shame and guilt help people avoid doing wrong? Although some research suggests that guilt-proneness is a protective factor while shame-proneness puts individuals at risk, most research is either cross-sectional or short-term. In this longitudinal study, 380 5th graders (ages 10–12) completed measures of proneness to shame and guilt. We re-interviewed 68% of participants after they turned 18 years old (range 18–21). Guilt-proneness assessed in childhood predicted fewer sexual partners, less use of illegal drugs and alcohol, and less involvement with the criminal justice system. Shame-proneness, in contrast, was a risk factor for later deviant behavior. Shame-prone children were more likely to have unprotected sex and use illegal drugs in young adulthood. These results held when controlling for childhood SES and teachers’ ratings of aggression. Children’s moral emotional styles appear to be well established by at least middle childhood, with distinct downstream implications for risky behavior in early adulthood. PMID:24842762

  11. Accident Locations, MDTA Accidents, Accidents on MDTA locations, Accidents on I 95, US 50, I 695, Accident on John F Kennedy Highway, Nice Bridge, Bay Bridge locations, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Maryland Transportation Authority.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Accident Locations dataset current as of 2011. MDTA Accidents, Accidents on MDTA locations, Accidents on I 95, US 50, I 695, Accident on John F Kennedy Highway, Nice...

  12. Vegetation fire proneness in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mário; Aranha, José; Amraoui, Malik

    2015-04-01

    Fire selectivity has been studied for vegetation classes in terms of fire frequency and fire size in a few European regions. This analysis is often performed along with other landscape variables such as topography, distance to roads and towns. These studies aims to assess the landscape sensitivity to forest fires in peri-urban areas and land cover changes, to define landscape management guidelines and policies based on the relationships between landscape and fires in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the objectives of this study includes the: (i) analysis of the spatial and temporal variability statistics within Europe; and, (ii) the identification and characterization of the vegetated land cover classes affected by fires; and, (iii) to propose a fire proneness index. The datasets used in the present study comprises: Corine Land Cover (CLC) maps for 2000 and 2006 (CLC2000, CLC2006) and burned area (BA) perimeters, from 2000 to 2013 in Europe, provided by the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS). The CLC is a part of the European Commission programme to COoRdinate INformation on the Environment (Corine) and it provides consistent, reliable and comparable information on land cover across Europe. Both the CLC and EFFIS datasets were combined using geostatistics and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques to access the spatial and temporal evolution of the types of shrubs and forest affected by fires. Obtained results confirms the usefulness and efficiency of the land cover classification scheme and fire proneness index which allows to quantify and to compare the propensity of vegetation classes and countries to fire. As expected, differences between northern and southern Europe are notorious in what concern to land cover distribution, fire incidence and fire proneness of vegetation cover classes. This work was supported by national funds by FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, under the project PEst-OE/AGR/UI4033/2014 and by

  13. Association of cytokine gene polymorphisms and risk factors with otitis media proneness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljanović, Olivera; Cikota-Aleksić, Bojana; Likić, Dragan; Vojvodić, Danilo; Jovićević, Ognjen; Magić, Zvonko

    2016-06-01

    In order to assess the association between gene polymorphisms and otitis media (OM) proneness, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA) -308, interleukin (IL) 10-1082 and -3575, IL6 -597, IL2 -330, and CD14 -159 genotyping was performed in 58 OM-prone children and 85 controls who were exposed to similar number and frequency of environmental and host risk factors. The frequencies of genotypes (wild type vs. genotypes containing at least one polymorphic allele) were not significantly different between groups, except for IL10 -1082. Polymorphic genotypes IL10 -1082 GA and GG were more frequent in OM-prone children than in control group (RR 1.145, 95 % CI 1.011-1.298; p = 0.047). However, logistic regression did not confirm IL10 -1082 polymorphic genotypes as an independent risk factor for OM proneness. The present study indicates that high-producing IL10 -1082 GA/GG genotypes may increase the risk for OM proneness in its carriers when exposed to other environmental/host risk factors (day care attendance, passive smoking, male sex, respiratory infections, and atopic manifestations). This study revealed no significant independent genetic association, but the lack of breastfeeding in infancy was found to be the only independent risk factor for development of OM-prone phenotype, implying that breastfeeding had a protective role in development of susceptibility to OM. • The pathogenesis of OM is of multifactorial nature, dependent on infection, environmental factors, and immune response of the child. • Cytokines and CD14 play an important role in the presentation and clinical course of otitis media, but a clear link with otitis media proneness was not established. What is new: • This is the first clinical and genetic study on Montenegrin children with the otitis media-prone phenotype. • The study revealed that high-producing IL10 -1082 genotypes may influence otitis media proneness in children exposed to other environmental/host risk factors.

  14. Is decreased diameter of renal pelvis in prone position an indicator of successful pyeloplasty?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Gyanendra; Sharma, Anshu; Leung, Vivian Yee-Fong; Chu, Winnie Chiu-Wing

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate patients who had undergone pyeloplasty for pelviureteric junction obstruction, by measuring the anteroposterior diameter (APD) of the renal pelvis in supine and prone positions, and determine whether a decrease in APD in prone position can exclude obstruction in dilated renal system. From January 2012 to December 2013, patients who had undergone pyeloplasty were evaluated by ultrasound in two centers. The difference of APD of the renal pelvis in supine and prone positions was obtained. Correlation was made with the pre- and post-pyeloplasty renal function by radionuclide renogram. There were 42 patients (31 males, 11 females; age range 5 months to 18 years). Residual hydronephrosis was detected in 41 patients of whom 35 patients (85%) showed decrease in APD by >10% in prone position. These patients and the one without hydronephrosis showed either no deterioration or improvement in renal function. Six patients (15%) showed either no change or increase in APD in prone position. Three patients (7.5%) were confirmed to have decrease in renal function indicating obstruction. Three patients (7.5%) showed no deterioration of renal function, but sluggish drainage on radionuclide renogram. Demonstration of decreased APD of renal pelvis in prone position by ultrasound is useful to differentiate obstructed from non-obstructed dilated renal system, and it correctly identified 85% candidates with successful pyeloplasty. In patients with no decrease or increase in APD at prone position, further follow-up is recommended to rule out obstruction

  15. [Accidents in equestrian sports : Analysis of injury mechanisms and patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, C; Schulte-Sutum, A; Zeckey, C; Winkelmann, M; Krettek, C; Mommsen, P

    2017-02-01

    Equestrian sports are one of the most popular forms of sport in Germany, while also being one of the most accident-prone sports. Furthermore, riding accidents are frequently associated with a high degree of severity of injuries and mortality. Nevertheless, there are insufficient data regarding incidences, demographics, mechanisms of accidents, injury severity and patterns and outcome of injured persons in amateur equestrian sports. Accordingly, it was the aim of the present study to retrospectively analyze these aspects. A total of 503 patients were treated in the emergency room of the Hannover Medical School because of an accident during recreational horse riding between 2006 and 2011. The female gender was predominantly affected with 89.5 %. The mean age of the patients was 26.2 ± 14.9 years and women (24.5 ± 12.5 years) were on average younger than men (40.2 ± 23.9 years). A special risk group was girls and young women aged between 10 and 39 years. The overall injury severity was measured using the injury severity score (ISS). Based on the total population, head injuries were the most common location of injuries with 17.3 % followed by injuries to the upper extremities with 15.2 % and the thoracic and lumbar spine with 10.9 %. The three most common injury locations after falling from a horse were the head (17.5 %), the upper extremities (17.4 %), the thoracic and lumbar spine (12.9 %). The most frequent injuries while handling horses were foot injuries (17.2 %), followed by head (16.6 %) and mid-facial injuries (15.0 %). With respect to the mechanism of injury accidents while riding were predominant (74 %), while accidents when handling horses accounted for only 26 %. The median ISS was 9.8 points. The proportion of multiple trauma patients (ISS > 16) was 18.1 %. Based on the total sample, the average in-hospital patient stay was 5.3 ± 5.4 days with a significantly higher proportion of hospitalized patients in the

  16. Cyclone hazard proneness of districts of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tems of the earth atmosphere coupled system and are extreme weather ... intense low pressure systems (India Meteorological. Department (IMD) .... which is responsible for the structural damage due to TC. ..... It fails to distinguish the more prone districts .... References. BMTPC 2006 Vulnerability Atlas of India: Earthquake,.

  17. Effect of chlorella and its fractions on blood pressure, cerebral stroke lesions, and life-span in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansawa, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Tsuchikura, Satoru; Endo, Hiroshi

    2006-12-01

    Effects of Chlorella regularis (dried cell powder)--cultured axenically under heterotrophic conditions, and provided as a dietary supplement--and its fractions on the blood pressure, cerebral stroke lesions, and life-span of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP/Izm) were investigated. When SHRSP were fed on diets with supplemented Chlorella to a commercial diet (Funabashi SP), elevation of blood pressure was significantly lower in the Chlorella groups than in the control group. At 21 wk of feeding, serum total cholesterol was significantly lower in the Chlorella groups than in the control group. Histopathological examination revealed cerebral vascular accidents in the brains of the control group, but those of Chlorella groups showed apparently low incidence compared to the control group. The average life-span of the Chlorella groups were significantly longer than that of the control group (p vascular function of rats.

  18. Suicide Proneness in College Students: Relationships with Gender, Procrastination, and Achievement Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klibert, Jeffrey; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Luna, Amy; Robichaux, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between 2 academic dispositions (i.e., procrastination and achievement motivation) and 2 indices of suicidal proneness in college women and men. The degree these 2 academic dispositions could predict unique variance in suicide proneness scores, above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem was…

  19. Proneness to guilt, shame, and pride in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and neurotypical children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Denise; Hilvert, Elizabeth; Misiunaite, Ieva; Giordano, Michael

    2018-02-13

    Self-conscious emotions (e.g., guilt, shame, and pride) are complex emotions that require self-reflection and self-evaluation, and are thought to facilitate the maintenance of societal norms and personal standards. Despite the importance of self-conscious emotions, most research has focused on basic emotion processing in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Therefore, in the present study, we used the Test of Self-Conscious Affect for Children (TOSCA-C) to assess proneness to, or propensity to experience, the self-conscious emotions guilt, shame, and pride in children with ASD and neurotypical children. The TOSCA-C is designed to capture a child's natural tendency to experience a given emotion across a range of everyday situations [Tangney, Stuewig, & Mashek, 2007]. We also assessed how individual characteristics contribute to the development of proneness to self-conscious emotions, including theory of mind (ToM) and ASD symptomatology. In comparison to neurotypical children, children with ASD showed less proneness to guilt, although all children showed relatively high levels of proneness to guilt. Greater ToM ability was related to more proneness to guilt and authentic pride in children with ASD. Additionally, we found that children with ASD with more severe symptomatology were more prone to hubristic pride. Our results provide evidence of differences in proneness to self-conscious emotions in children with ASD, as well as highlight important mechanisms contributing to how children with ASD may experience self-conscious emotions. Autism Res 2017,4. ©2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This research examined proneness to guilt, shame, and pride in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and neurotypical children. We found that children with ASD showed less proneness to guilt than neurotypical children. Better understanding of theory of mind was related to greater proneness to guilt and pride, but only for

  20. The prone bridge test: Performance, validity, and reliability among older and younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Richard W; Steffl, Michal; Glenney, Susan S; Green, Michelle; Cashwell, Leah; Prajerova, Kveta; Bunn, Jennifer

    2018-04-01

    The prone bridge maneuver, or plank, has been viewed as a potential alternative to curl-ups for assessing trunk muscle performance. The purpose of this study was to assess prone bridge test performance, validity, and reliability among younger and older adults. Sixty younger (20-35 years old) and 60 older (60-79 years old) participants completed this study. Groups were evenly divided by sex. Participants completed surveys regarding physical activity and abdominal exercise participation. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference were measured. On two occasions, 5-9 days apart, participants held a prone bridge until volitional exhaustion or until repeated technique failure. Validity was examined using data from the first session: convergent validity by calculating correlations between survey responses, anthropometrics, and prone bridge time, known groups validity by using an ANOVA comparing bridge times of younger and older adults and of men and women. Test-retest reliability was examined by using a paired t-test to compare prone bridge times for Session1 and Session 2. Furthermore, an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to characterize relative reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC 95% ) was used to describe absolute reliability. The mean prone bridge time was 145.3 ± 71.5 s, and was positively correlated with physical activity participation (p ≤ 0.001) and negatively correlated with BMI and waist circumference (p ≤ 0.003). Younger participants had significantly longer plank times than older participants (p = 0.003). The ICC between testing sessions was 0.915. The prone bridge test is a valid and reliable measure for evaluating abdominal performance in both younger and older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Protective effect of prone posture against hypergravity-induced arterial hypoxaemia in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohdin, M; Petersson, J; Mure, M; Glenny, R W; Lindahl, S G E; Linnarsson, D

    2003-01-01

    Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome have increased lung tissue weight and therefore an increased hydrostatic pressure gradient down the lung. Also, they have a better arterial oxygenation in prone (face down) than in supine (face up) posture. We hypothesized that this effect of the direction of gravity also existed in healthy humans, when increased hydrostatic gradients were induced by hypergravity. Ten healthy subjects were studied in a human centrifuge while exposed to 1 or 5 G in anterio-posterior (supine) or posterio-anterior (prone) direction. We measured blood gases using remote-controlled sampling and gas exchange by mass spectrometry. Hypergravity led to marked impairments of arterial oxygenation in both postures and more so in supine posture. At 5 G, the arterial oxygen saturation was 84.6 ± 1.2 % (mean ±s.e.m.) in supine and 89.7 ± 1.4 % in prone posture (P postures. The alveolar-to-arterial PO2 difference increased at 5 G to 8.0 ± 0.2 kPa and 6.6 ± 0.3 kPa in supine and prone postures (P = 0.003). Arterial oxygenation was less impaired in prone during hypergravity due to a better-preserved alveolo-arterial oxygen transport. We speculate that mammals have developed a cardiopulmonary structure that favours function with the gravitational vector in the posterio-anterior direction. PMID:12598589

  2. Modified supine versus prone percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Surgical outcomes from a tertiary teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Nina Jones

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The traditional prone positioning of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL is associated with various anesthetic and logistic difficulties. We aimed to compare the surgical outcomes of PCNLs performed using our modified supine position with those performed in the standard prone position. Materials and Methods: A prospective group of 236 renal units (224 patients undergoing PCNL were included in this 2 site study: 160 were performed in the modified supine position were compared with 76 undergoing PCNL in the prone position. The outcomes of radiation dose, radiation time, stone free rate, body mass index (BMI, stone size, operative time, length of stay (LOS, in hospital and complications were compared. Chi-square and t-tests were used. Results: There were no significant differences in mean radiation time, radiation dose or stone size between the modified supine and prone groups. The supine group had a higher mean BMI (31 kg/m2 vs. 28 kg/m2 , p=0.03, shorter mean surgical time (93 minutes vs. 123 minutes, p<0.001, shorter mean LOS (2 days vs. 3 days, p=0.005 and higher stone free rate (70% vs. 50%, p=0.005. There were no differences in septic or bleeding complications but the prone group had a higher rate of overall complications. Conclusions: Modified supine PCNL has significantly lower operative time, shorter LOS and higher stone-free rate compared with prone in our series, while remaining a safe procedure.

  3. Environmental Health Risk Assesement in Flood-prone Area in Tamangapa Sub-District Makassar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, Ibrahim Abdul; Basir, Basir

    2018-05-01

    Environmental health in Indonesia is still caution to concern, poor sanitation in Indonesia is characterized by the high incidence of infectious diseases in society. The society in flood-prone area has a high-risk exposure on the disease based on the environment because they live in disaster-prone area. This research aimed to describe the condition of sanitary facilities and risky behavior on public health in flood-prone areas in Manggala district particularly in Tamangapa sub-district of Makassar. This reserach uses an observation method with a descriptive approach. The data is processed by using SPSS and Arc View GIS applications. Environmental risk category is determined by the approach of Environmental Health Risk Assessment (EHRA). The results showed that the flood-prone area in RT 04 RW 06 was included in very high-risk category at 229 with an index value of environmental health risks 212-229. Meanwhile, RT 04 RW 05 was in the category of low risk in the amount of 155 with an index of 155-173. Environmental health hazards identified in Tamangapa flood-prone areas sub-district includes domestic sources of clean water, domestic wastewater, and household garbage.

  4. Neurodevelopmental correlates of proneness to guilt and shame in adolescence and early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Sarah; Liu, Kirra; Bastin, Coralie; Harrison, Ben J; Davey, Christopher G

    2016-06-01

    Investigating how brain development during adolescence and early adulthood underlies guilt- and shame-proneness may be important for understanding risk processes for mental disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the neurodevelopmental correlates of interpersonal guilt- and shame-proneness in healthy adolescents and young adults using structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI). Sixty participants (age range: 15-25) completed sMRI and self-report measures of interpersonal guilt- and shame-proneness. Independent of interpersonal guilt, higher levels of shame-proneness were associated with thinner posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) thickness and smaller amygdala volume. Higher levels of shame-proneness were also associated with attenuated age-related reductions in thickness of lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC). Our findings highlight the complexities in understanding brain-behavior relationships during the adolescent/young adult period. Results were consistent with growing evidence that accelerated cortical thinning during adolescence may be associated with superior socioemotional functioning. Further research is required to understand the implications of these findings for mental disorders characterized by higher levels of guilt and shame. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of PSA and severe accident assessment results for the accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, S. H.; Kim, H. G.; Jang, H. S.; Moon, S. K.; Park, J. U.

    1993-12-01

    The objectives for this study are to investigate the basic principle or methodology which is applicable to accident management, by using the results of PSA and severe accident research, and also facilitate the preparation of accidents management program in the future. This study was performed as follows: derivation of measures for core damage prevention, derivation of measures for accident mitigation, application of computerized tool to assess severe accident management

  6. Use of PSA and severe accident assessment results for the accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, S H; Kim, H G; Jang, H S; Moon, S K; Park, J U [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    The objectives for this study are to investigate the basic principle or methodology which is applicable to accident management, by using the results of PSA and severe accident research, and also facilitate the preparation of accidents management program in the future. This study was performed as follows: derivation of measures for core damage prevention, derivation of measures for accident mitigation, application of computerized tool to assess severe accident management.

  7. Individual Differences in Emotion Regulation, Childhood Trauma and Proneness to Shame and Guilt in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentágotai-Tătar, Aurora; Miu, Andrei C

    2016-01-01

    Dispositional shame and guilt have been associated with psychopathology and an increasing number of studies have traced this relation back to adolescence. This developmental period is thought to be characterized by maturational changes in emotion regulation, which also play an important role in vulnerability to psychopathology, but little is known about the links between emotion regulation and dispositional shame and guilt. The current study investigated the relations between individual differences in the habitual use of a wide range of emotion regulation strategies and proneness to shame and guilt in a large sample of adolescents (N = 706), aged 13 to 17 years. History of childhood trauma was also assessed. Our results showed that emotion regulation independently explained about 20% of the variance of shame-proneness and guilt-proneness. Higher use of maladaptive (e.g., Self-Blaming, Catastrophizing) and lower use of adaptive (e.g., Refocus on Planning, Positive Reappraisal) emotion regulation strategies were positively associated with shame-proneness. In contrast, lower use of maladaptive (e.g., Catastrophizing, Blaming Others) and higher use of adaptive (e.g., Refocus on Planning, Positive Reappraisal) emotion regulation strategies were associated with guilt-proneness, independent of the influence of childhood trauma, which also explained a relatively minor portion of guilt-proneness. Although there were age differences (i.e., rumination was used more by older adolescents) and sex differences (i.e., girls reported higher use of Putting into Perspective and lower use of Other Blaming compared to boys) in emotion regulation, age and sex were not significantly associated with proneness to shame and guilt. The positive relations with maladaptive emotion regulation underscore the dysfunctional nature of shame-proneness. Future studies could use longitudinal measures to establish that emotion regulation drives dispositional shame and guilt, and also investigate

  8. Historical change in the link between adolescent deviance proneness and marijuana use, 1979-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Michelle; Weaver, Scott R; King, Kevin M; Liu, Freda; Chassin, Laurie

    2008-03-01

    We examined historical change in the association between adolescent deviance proneness and marijuana use using 26 years (from 1979 through 2004) of national 12th grade data from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study. "Deviance proneness" was measured using a latent factor model of behavioral and personality characteristics that underlie both substance use and antisocial disorders. Marijuana use was measured both in terms of annual frequency of use and degree of involvement with marijuana. Separate within-gender structural equation models were used to determine whether links between deviance proneness and marijuana use were consistently significant and invariant in magnitude across 13 two-year historical cohorts. Overall results affirmed the established association between adolescent deviance proneness and both the frequency of marijuana use as well as regular use. Among male youth, the size of the association between deviance proneness and marijuana use was significantly smaller at the cohort of lowest population prevalence (1991/92) compared to cohorts marking peaks in marijuana use prevalence, thus suggesting a "softening" historical trend. By contrast, the prediction of female marijuana use from deviance proneness was not consistently related to historical shifts in population prevalence of marijuana use. Study findings point to the utility of risk-focused prevention programming that targets early precursors of both antisocial and substance use disorders.

  9. Hypnotic responsiveness: expectancy, attitudes, fantasy proneness, absorption, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joseph P; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effect of providing information linking participants' attitudes toward hypnosis with later hypnotic performance. Using total scale scores from McConkey's Opinions About Hypnosis scale, as well as subscale scores, the authors found a weak association between attitudes and performance among 460 student participants; however, the correlation was unaffected by prehypnotic information specifically connecting attitudes and performance. A brief, 3-item measure of hypnotic expectancies generated the strongest correlation with hypnotic responsiveness. The authors also found that the association between fantasy proneness and hypnotizability was unaffected by the order of scale administration. Finally, the study highlighted gender differences across measures of fantasy proneness, absorption, expectancy, and hypnotizability.

  10. [Accidents and injuries at work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standke, W

    2014-06-01

    In the case of an accident at work, the person concerned is insured by law according to the guidelines of the Sozialgesetzbuch VII as far as the injuries have been caused by this accident. The most important source of information on the incident in question is the accident report that has to be sent to the responsible institution for statutory accident insurance and prevention by the employer, if the accident of the injured person is fatal or leads to an incapacity to work for more than 3 days (= reportable accident). Data concerning accidents like these are sent to the Deutsche Gesetzliche Unfallversicherung (DGUV) as part of a random sample survey by the institutions for statutory accident insurance and prevention and are analyzed statistically. Thus the key issues of accidents can be established and used for effective prevention. Although the success of effective accident prevention is undisputed, there were still 919,025 occupational accidents in 2011, with clear gender-related differences. Most occupational accidents involve the upper and lower extremities. Accidents are analyzed comprehensively and the results are published and made available to all interested parties in an effort to improve public awareness of possible accidents. Apart from reportable accidents, data on the new occupational accident pensions are also gathered and analyzed statistically. Thus, additional information is gained on accidents with extremely serious consequences and partly permanent injuries for the accident victims.

  11. Severe accident analysis methodology in support of accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesmans, B.; Auglaire, M.; Snoeck, J.

    1997-01-01

    The author addresses the implementation at BELGATOM of a generic severe accident analysis methodology, which is intended to support strategic decisions and to provide quantitative information in support of severe accident management. The analysis methodology is based on a combination of severe accident code calculations, generic phenomenological information (experimental evidence from various test facilities regarding issues beyond present code capabilities) and detailed plant-specific technical information

  12. Changes in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness after spinal surgery in the prone position: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran Gencer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Changes in ocular perfusion play an important role in the pathogenesis of ischemic optic neuropathy. Ocular perfusion pressure is equal to mean arterial pressure minus intraocular pressure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the intraocular pressure and the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in patients undergoing spinal surgery in the prone position. METHODS: This prospective study included 30 patients undergoing spinal surgery. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness were measured one day before and after the surgery by using optical coherence tomography. Intraocular pressure was measured by tonopen six times at different position and time-duration: supine position (baseline; 10 min after intubation (Supine 1; 10 (Prone 1, 60 (Prone 2, 120 (Prone 3 min after prone position; and just after postoperative supine position (Supine 2. RESULTS: Our study involved 10 male and 20 female patients with the median age of 57 years. When postoperative retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements were compared with preoperative values, a statistically significant thinning was observed in inferior and nasal quadrants (p = 0.009 and p = 0.003, respectively. We observed a statistically significant intraocular pressure decrease in Supine 1 and an increase in both Prone 2 and Prone 3 when compared to the baseline. Mean arterial pressure and ocular perfusion pressure were found to be significantly lower in Prone 1, Prone 2 and Prone 3, when compared with the baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has shown increase in intraocular pressure during spinal surgery in prone position. A statistically significant retinal nerve fiber layer thickness thinning was seen in inferior and nasal quadrants one day after the spinal surgery.

  13. Biomass accident investigations – missed opportunities for learning and accident prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2017-01-01

    The past decade has seen a major increase in the production of energy from biomass. The growth has been mirrored in an increase of serious biomass related accidents involving fires, gas explosions, combustible dust explosions and the release of toxic gasses. There are indications that the number...... of bioenergy related accidents is growing faster than the energy production. This paper argues that biomass accidents, if properly investigated and lessons shared widely, provide ample opportunities for improving general hazard awareness and safety performance of the biomass industry. The paper examines...... selected serious accidents involving biogas and wood pellets in Denmark and argues that such opportunities for learning were missed because accident investigations were superficial, follow-up incomplete and information sharing absent. In one particularly distressing case, a facility saw a repeat accident...

  14. Comparison of the kidney dose between supine and prone position for pelvic and periaortic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mison, Chun; Haejin, Kang; Juree, Kim; Heesuk, Ryu; Hyunsoo, Shin

    1996-01-01

    We compared the doses received by the kidney in supine and prone positions for pelvic and periaortic irradiation. Kidney locations were verified by CT images taken with patients in the same position as during the treatment. Due to the shift of the kidney anteriorly during prone position, treatment in supine position delivered a much lower dose to most of the kidney than treatment in the prone position. Therefore, for periaortic irradiation treatment, the supine position should be considered to minimize the dose to the kidneys, even though the prone position with a belly board can reduce the dose to the small bowel

  15. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures

  16. Regulation Plans on Severe Accidents developed by KINS Severe Accident Regulation Preparation TFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyun Tae; Chung, Ku Young; Na, Han Bee

    2016-01-01

    Some nuclear power plants in Fukushima Daiichi site had lost their emergency reactor cooling function for long-time so the fuels inside the reactors were molten, and the integrity of containment was damaged. Therefore, large amount of radioactive material was released to environment. Because the social and economic effects of severe accidents are enormous, Korean Government already issued 'Severe Accident Policy' in 2001 which requires nuclear power plant operators to set up 'Quantitative Safety Goal', to do 'Probabilistic Safety Analysis', to install 'Severe Accident Countermeasures' and to make 'Severe Accident Management Plan'. After the Fukushima disaster, a Special Safety Inspection was performed for all operating nuclear power plants of Korea. The inspection team from industry, academia, and research institutes assessed Korean NPPs capabilities to cope with or respond to severe accidents and emergency situation caused by natural disasters such as a large earthquake or tsunami. As a result of the special inspection, about 50 action items were identified to increase the capability to cope with natural disaster and severe accidents. Nuclear Safety Act has been amended to require NPP operators to submit Accident Management Plant as part of operating license application. The KINS Severe Accident Regulation Preparation TFT had first investigated oversea severe accident regulation trend before and after the Fukushima accident. Then, the TFT has developed regulation draft for severe accidents such as Severe accident Management Plans, the required design features for new NPPs to prevent severe accident against multiple failures and beyond-design external events, countermeasures to mitigate severe accident and to keep the integrity of containment, and assessment methodology on safety assessment plan and probabilistic safety assessment

  17. Underreporting of maritime accidents to vessel accident databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Martin; Asbjørnslett, Bjørn Egil; Hole, Lars Petter

    2011-11-01

    Underreporting of maritime accidents is a problem not only for authorities trying to improve maritime safety through legislation, but also to risk management companies and other entities using maritime casualty statistics in risk and accident analysis. This study collected and compared casualty data from 01.01.2005 to 31.12.2009, from IHS Fairplay and the maritime authorities from a set of nations. The data was compared to find common records, and estimation of the true number of occurred accidents was performed using conditional probability given positive dependency between data sources, several variations of the capture-recapture method, calculation of best case scenario assuming perfect reporting, and scaling up a subset of casualty information from a marine insurance statistics database. The estimated upper limit reporting performance for the selected flag states ranged from 14% to 74%, while the corresponding estimated coverage of IHS Fairplay ranges from 4% to 62%. On average the study results document that the number of unreported accidents makes up roughly 50% of all occurred accidents. Even in a best case scenario, only a few flag states come close to perfect reporting (94%). The considerable scope of underreporting uncovered in the study, indicates that users of statistical vessel accident data should assume a certain degree of underreporting, and adjust their analyses accordingly. Whether to use correction factors, a safety margin, or rely on expert judgment, should be decided on a case by case basis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Action simulation in hallucination-prone adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik eDahoun

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and empirical accounts suggest that impairments in self-other discrimination processes are likely to promote the expression of hallucinations. However, our understanding of such processes during adolescence is still at an early stage. The present study thus aims 1 to delineate the neural correlates sustaining mental simulation of actions involving self-performed actions (first-person perspective; 1PP and other-performed actions (third-person perspective; 3PP during adolescence 2 to identify atypical activation patterns during 1PP/3PP mental simulation of actions in hallucination-prone adolescents 3 to examine whether differential risk for schizophrenia (clinical vs genetic is also associated with differential impairments in the 1PP/3PP mental simulation of actions during adolescence. Twenty-two typically developing controls (Control group; 6 females, twelve hallucination-prone adolescents (AH group; 7 females and thirteen adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS group; 4 females were included in the study. During the fMRI task, subjects were presented with a cue (self-other priming cues indicating to perform the task using either a first person perspective (you-1PP or a third person perspective (friend-3PP and then they were asked to mentally simulate actions based on the type of cue. Our results indicated that atypical patterns of cerebral activation, particularly in the key areas of self-other distinction, were found in both groups at risk for auditory hallucinations (AH and 22q11.2DS. More precisely, adolescents in the AH and 22q11.2DS groups presented decreased activations in the parieto-occipital region BA19 during 3PP. This study characterizes the neural correlates of mental imagery for actions during adolescence, and suggests that a differential risk for hallucination-proneness (clinical vs. genetic is associated to similar patterns of atypical activations in key areas sustaining self-other discrimination

  19. Carbohydrate intake improves cognitive performance of stress-prone individuals under controllable laboratory stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markus, C.R.; Panhuysen, G.; Jonkman, L.M.; Bachman, M.

    1999-01-01

    Cognitive performance has been found to decline after exposure to stress, particularly in stress-prone subjects. The present study investigated whether a carbohydrate-rich, protein-poor (CR/PP) diet, which may enhance cerebral serotonin function in stress-prone subjects due to increases in the

  20. A prospective international observational prevalence study on prone positioning of ARDS patients: the APRONET (ARDS Prone Position Network) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guérin, C.; Beuret, P.; Constantin, J. M.; Bellani, G.; Garcia-Olivares, P.; Roca, O.; Meertens, J. H.; Maia, P. Azevedo; Becher, T.; Peterson, J.; Larsson, A.; Gurjar, M.; Hajjej, Z.; Kovari, F.; Assiri, A. H.; Mainas, E.; Hasan, M. S.; Morocho-Tutillo, D. R.; Baboi, L.; Chrétien, J. M.; François, G.; Ayzac, L.; Chen, L.; Brochard, L.; Mercat, A.; Hajjej, Zied; Sellami, Walid; Ferjani, M.; Gurjar, Mohan; Assiri, Amer; Al Bshabshe, Ali; Almekhlafi, Ghaleb; Mandourah, Yasser; Hasan, Mohd Shahnaz; Rai, Vineya; Marzida, M.; Corcoles Gonzalez, Virgilio; Sanchez Iniesta, Rafael; Garcia, Pablo; Garcia-Montesinos de La Peña, Manuel; Garcia Herrera, Adriana; Roca, Oriol; Garcia-de-Acilu, Marina; Masclans Enviz, Joan Ramon; Mancebo, Jordi; Heili, Sarah; Artigas Raventos, Antonio; Blanch Torra, Lluís; Roche-Campo, Ferran; Schultz, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    While prone positioning (PP) has been shown to improve patient survival in moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients, the rate of application of PP in clinical practice still appears low. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of use of PP in ARDS patients (primary

  1. Comparison of standard, prone and cine MRI in the evaluation of tethered cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sukhjinder; Kline-Fath, Beth; Racadio, Judy M.; Bierbrauer, Karin; Salisbury, Shelia; Macaluso, Maurizio; Jackson, Elizabeth C.; Egelhoff, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Tethered cord syndrome (TCS) is defined by abnormal traction on the spinal cord that confines its movement. Surgical cord release usually stops neurological deterioration; therefore, early and accurate neuroradiological diagnosis is important. Supine MRI is the imaging modality of choice, but prone MRI and cine MRI can demonstrate cord movement. We compared the diagnostic accuracies of standard MRI, prone MRI and cine MRI in patients with clinical suspicion of TCS and evaluated inter-reader reliability for MR imaging. Children who underwent MRI for suspicion of TCS were retrospectively identified. Supine, prone and cine MRI studies were re-read by two pediatric neuroradiologists. Conus level, filum appearance and cord movement were documented. Thirteen of 49 children had tethered cord documented at surgery. Conus level had the highest diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 69-77%, specificity 94%, positive predictive value 82-83%, negative predictive value 89-92%, correct diagnosis 88-90%) and highest between-reader concordance (98%). Prone and cine MRI did not add to the accuracy of the supine imaging. Conus level provides the highest diagnostic accuracy and inter-reader reliability in TCS. Until a larger series is evaluated, it remains questionable whether prone or cine MRI provides enough additional diagnostic information to warrant routine use. (orig.)

  2. Comparison of standard, prone and cine MRI in the evaluation of tethered cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sukhjinder [Cohen Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Kline-Fath, Beth; Racadio, Judy M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Bierbrauer, Karin [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Salisbury, Shelia; Macaluso, Maurizio [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Jackson, Elizabeth C. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Nephrology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Egelhoff, John C. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Phoenix Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Tethered cord syndrome (TCS) is defined by abnormal traction on the spinal cord that confines its movement. Surgical cord release usually stops neurological deterioration; therefore, early and accurate neuroradiological diagnosis is important. Supine MRI is the imaging modality of choice, but prone MRI and cine MRI can demonstrate cord movement. We compared the diagnostic accuracies of standard MRI, prone MRI and cine MRI in patients with clinical suspicion of TCS and evaluated inter-reader reliability for MR imaging. Children who underwent MRI for suspicion of TCS were retrospectively identified. Supine, prone and cine MRI studies were re-read by two pediatric neuroradiologists. Conus level, filum appearance and cord movement were documented. Thirteen of 49 children had tethered cord documented at surgery. Conus level had the highest diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 69-77%, specificity 94%, positive predictive value 82-83%, negative predictive value 89-92%, correct diagnosis 88-90%) and highest between-reader concordance (98%). Prone and cine MRI did not add to the accuracy of the supine imaging. Conus level provides the highest diagnostic accuracy and inter-reader reliability in TCS. Until a larger series is evaluated, it remains questionable whether prone or cine MRI provides enough additional diagnostic information to warrant routine use. (orig.)

  3. Regulation Plans on Severe Accidents developed by KINS Severe Accident Regulation Preparation TFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyun Tae; Chung, Ku Young; Na, Han Bee [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Some nuclear power plants in Fukushima Daiichi site had lost their emergency reactor cooling function for long-time so the fuels inside the reactors were molten, and the integrity of containment was damaged. Therefore, large amount of radioactive material was released to environment. Because the social and economic effects of severe accidents are enormous, Korean Government already issued 'Severe Accident Policy' in 2001 which requires nuclear power plant operators to set up 'Quantitative Safety Goal', to do 'Probabilistic Safety Analysis', to install 'Severe Accident Countermeasures' and to make 'Severe Accident Management Plan'. After the Fukushima disaster, a Special Safety Inspection was performed for all operating nuclear power plants of Korea. The inspection team from industry, academia, and research institutes assessed Korean NPPs capabilities to cope with or respond to severe accidents and emergency situation caused by natural disasters such as a large earthquake or tsunami. As a result of the special inspection, about 50 action items were identified to increase the capability to cope with natural disaster and severe accidents. Nuclear Safety Act has been amended to require NPP operators to submit Accident Management Plant as part of operating license application. The KINS Severe Accident Regulation Preparation TFT had first investigated oversea severe accident regulation trend before and after the Fukushima accident. Then, the TFT has developed regulation draft for severe accidents such as Severe accident Management Plans, the required design features for new NPPs to prevent severe accident against multiple failures and beyond-design external events, countermeasures to mitigate severe accident and to keep the integrity of containment, and assessment methodology on safety assessment plan and probabilistic safety assessment.

  4. Specific features of RBMK severe accidents progression and approach to the accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilevskij, V.P.; Nikitin, Yu.M.; Petrov, A.A.; Potapov, A.A.; Cherkashov, Yu.M.

    2001-01-01

    Fundamental construction features of the LWGR facilities (absence of common external containment shell, disintegrated circulation circuit and multichannel reactor core, positive vapor reactivity coefficient, high mass of thermally capacious graphite moderator) predetermining development of assumed heavy non-projected accidents and handling them are treated. Rating the categories of the reactor core damages for non-projected accidents and accident types producing specific grope of damages is given. Passing standard non-projected accidents, possible methods of attack accident consequences, as well as methods of calculated analysis of non-projected accidents are demonstrated [ru

  5. Assessment of trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure in murine strains genetically-prone and non-prone to develop autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Deborah E; Peden-Adams, Margie M; Wallace, Stacy; Ruiz, Phillip; Gilkeson, Gary S

    2009-04-01

    There is increasing laboratory and epidemiologic evidence relating exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) with autoimmune disease including scleroderma and lupus. New Zealand Black/New Zealand White (NZBWF1) and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to TCE (0, 1, 400 or 14,000 ppb) via drinking water for 27 or 30 weeks, respectively. NZBWF1 mice spontaneously develop autoimmune disease while B6C3F1 mice, a standard strain used in immunotoxicology testing, are not genetically prone to develop autoimmune disease. During the TCE exposure period, serum levels of total IgG, and autoantibodies (anti-ssDNA, -dsDNA, and -glomerular antigen [GA]) were monitored. At the termination of the study, renal pathology, natural killer (NK) cell activity, total IgG levels, autoantibody production, T-cell activation, and lymphocytic proliferative responses were evaluated. TCE did not alter NK cell activity, or T- and B-cell proliferation in either strain. Numbers of activated T-cells (CD4+/CD44+) were increased in the B6C3F1 mice but not in the NZBWF1 mice. Renal pathology, as indicated by renal score, was significantly increased in the B6C3F1, but not in the NZBWF1 mice. Serum levels of autoantibodies to dsDNA and ssDNA were increased at more time points in B6C3F1, as compared to the NZBWF1 mice. Anti-GA autoantibodies were increased by TCE treatment in early stages of the study in NZBWF1 mice, but by 23 weeks of age, control levels were comparable to those of TCE-exposed animals. Serum levels anti-GA autoantibodies in B6C3F1 were not affected by TCE exposure. Overall, these data suggest that TCE did not contribute to the progression of autoimmune disease in autoimmune-prone mice during the period of 11-36 weeks of age, but rather lead to increased expression of markers associated with autoimmune disease in a non-genetically prone mouse strain.

  6. Large Break LOCA Accident Management Strategies for Accidents With Large Containment Leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sdouz, Gert

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this work is the investigation of the influence of different accident management strategies on the thermal-hydraulics in the containment during a Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident with a large containment leak from the beginning of the accident. The increasing relevance of terrorism suggests a closer look at this kind of severe accidents. Normally the course of severe accidents and their associated phenomena are investigated with the assumption of an intact containment from the beginning of the accident. This intact containment has the ability to retain a large part of the radioactive inventory. In these cases there is only a release via a very small leakage due to the un-tightness of the containment up to cavity bottom melt through. This paper represents the last part of a comprehensive study on the influence of accident management strategies on the source term of VVER-1000 reactors. Basically two different accident sequences were investigated: the 'Station Blackout'- sequence and the 'Large Break LOCA'. In a first step the source term calculations were performed assuming an intact containment from the beginning of the accident and no accident management action. In a further step the influence of different accident management strategies was studied. The last part of the project was a repetition of the calculations with the assumption of a damaged containment from the beginning of the accident. This paper concentrates on the last step in the case of a Large Break LOCA. To be able to compare the results with calculations performed years ago the calculations were performed using the Source Term Code Package (STCP), hydrogen explosions are not considered. In this study four different scenarios have been investigated. The main parameter was the switch on time of the spray systems. One of the results is the influence of different accident management strategies on the source term. In the comparison with the sequence with intact containment it was

  7. The Livelihood Analysis in Merapi Prone Area After 2010 Eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susy Nofrita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As stated in Regent Regulation No. 20 Year 2011 about Merapi Volcano Disaster-Prone Area, Merapi eruption in 2010 affected larger area than before included Kalitengah Lor, Kalitengah Kidul and Srunen hamlet which was now categorized as prone area zone III or the most dangerous area related to Merapi volcano hazard and was forbidden to live at. But its local people agreed to oppose the regulation and this area had been 100% reoccupied. This research examined about the existing livelihood condition in Kalitengah Lor, Kalitengah Kidul and Srunen that had been changed and degraded after 2010 great eruption. The grounded based information found that 80% of households sample were at the middle level of welfare status, meanwhile the high and low were at 13% and 7% respectively. Each status represented different livelihood strategy in facing the life in prone area with no one considered the Merapi hazard, but more economic motivation and assets preservation. The diversity in strategy was found in diversification of livelihood resources which were dominated by sand mining, farming and dairy farming.

  8. SEVERE ACCIDENT ISSUES RAISED BY THE FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT AND IMPROVEMENTS SUGGESTED

    OpenAIRE

    SONG, JIN HO; KIM, TAE WOON

    2014-01-01

    This paper revisits the Fukushima accident to draw lessons in the aspect of nuclear safety considering the fact that the Fukushima accident resulted in core damage for three nuclear power plants simultaneously and that there is a high possibility of a failure of the integrity of reactor vessel and primary containment vessel. A brief review on the accident progression at Fukushima nuclear power plants is discussed to highlight the nature and characteristic of the event. As the severe accide...

  9. Nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

  10. Prone positioning reduces severe pushing behavior: three case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Yuji; Amimoto, Kazu; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Fukata, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Masahide; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Makita, Shigeru

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] Pushing behavior is classically described as a disorder of body orientation in the coronal plane. Most interventions for pushing behavior have focused on correcting the deviation in vertical perception. However, pushing behavior seems to involve erroneous movements associated with excessive motor output by the non-paretic limbs and trunk. The present study aimed to inhibit muscular hyper-activity by placing the non-paretic limbs and trunk in the prone position. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of the present study were 3 acute stroke patients with severe pushing behavior. The study consisted of the following 3 phases: baseline, intervention, and follow-up. In addition to conventional therapy, patients received relaxation therapy in the prone position for 10 minutes a day over 2 days. The severity of pushing behavior was assessed using the scale for contraversive pushing, and truncal balance was evaluated using the trunk control test. These assessments were performed before and after the baseline phase, and after the intervention and follow-up phases. [Results] At the baseline phase, both scores were poor. Both scores improved after the intervention and follow-up phases, and all the patients could sit independently. [Conclusion] Relaxation therapy in the prone position might ameliorate pushing behavior and impaired truncal balance.

  11. Nuclear accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The film presents statistical data on criticality accidents. It outlines past IAEA activities on criticality accident dosimetry and the technical documents that resulted from this work. The film furthermore illustrates an international comparison study on nuclear accident dosimetry conducted at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, United Kingdom

  12. Nuclear accident dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-12-31

    The film presents statistical data on criticality accidents. It outlines past IAEA activities on criticality accident dosimetry and the technical documents that resulted from this work. The film furthermore illustrates an international comparison study on nuclear accident dosimetry conducted at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, United Kingdom

  13. Planning for large-scale accidents: learning from the Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Decision-making issues raised at the Three Mile Island nuclear accident in Pennsylvania are explored. The organizations involved, their interconnections, and decisions are described. The underlying issues bearing on allocation of effort to pre-accident planning and actual accident responses are also noted. Finally, a framework from this effort is used for guiding the planning of operations for future accidents. (author)

  14. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of radiation accidents over a 50 year period shows that simple cases, where the initiating events were immediately recognised, the source identified and under control, the medical input confined to current handling, were exceptional. In many cases, the accidents were only diagnosed when some injuries presented by the victims suggested the radiological nature of the cause. After large-scale accidents, the situation becomes more complicated, either because of management or medical problems, or both. The review of selected accidents which resulted in severe consequences shows that most of them could have been avoided; lack of regulations, contempt for rules, human failure and insufficient training have been identified as frequent initiating parameters. In addition, the situation was worsened because of unpreparedness, insufficient planning, unadapted resources, and underestimation of psychosociological aspects. (author)

  15. Supine or prone position for mini-PNL procedure: does it matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokatlı, Zafer; Gokce, Mehmet Ilker; Süer, Evren; Sağlam, Remzi

    2015-06-01

    In this study it is aimed to compare the success and complication rates of mini-PNL procedure in supine and prone positions. In this retrospective study data of 180 patients treated with MPNL either in supine (n = 54) or prone (n = 126) positions between May 2009 and August 2014 was investigated. Success was defined as no visible stones >2 mm. Perioperative complications were classified using the modified Clavien system. Groups were compared with Chi square test or Student t test and for statistical significance p value of 0.05 was accepted. Mean age of the population was 42.5 ± 8.2 years and mean stone size was 23.9 ± 4.1 mm. The two groups were similar with regard to demographic characteristics and stone related characteristics except the ASA status. Success rates of the supine and prone groups were 85.1 and 87.3%, respectively (p = 0.701). No statistically significant differences in terms of complications were observed. Mean operative time was the only parameter different between the two groups (55 vs 82 min, p = 0.001). Supine position for PNL seems to be promising and the complication and success rates are shown to be similar to the prone position with MPNL technique. The only significant benefit of this technique is shorter operative time.

  16. Managing severe reactor accidents. A review and evaluation of our knowledge on reactor accidents and accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, Veine

    2002-11-01

    The report gives a review of the results from the last years research on severe reactor accidents, and an opinion on the possibilities to refine the present strategies for accident management in Swedish and Finnish BWRs. The following aspect of reactor accidents are the major themes of the study: 1. Early pressure relief from hydrogen production; 2. Recriticality in re-flooded, degraded core; 3. Melt-through; 4. Steam explosion after melt-through; 5. Coolability of the melt after after melt-through; 6. Hydrogen fire in the reactor containment; 7. Leaking containment; 8. Hydrogen fire in the reactor building; 9. Long-time developments after a severe accident; 10. Accidents during shutdown for overhaul; 11. Information need for remedial actions. Possibilities for improving the strategies in each of these areas are discussed. The review shows that our knowledge is sufficient in the areas 1, 2, 4, 6, 8. For the other areas, more research is needed

  17. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Masahide; Koriyama, Tamio

    2012-09-01

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating

  18. Suicide proneness in college students: relationships with gender, procrastination, and achievement motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klibert, Jeffrey; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Luna, Amy; Robichaux, Michelle

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the relationships between 2 academic dispositions (i.e., procrastination and achievement motivation) and 2 indices of suicidal proneness in college women and men. The degree these 2 academic dispositions could predict unique variance in suicide proneness scores, above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem was also examined for each gender. Participants included 475 (336 women, 139 men) undergraduates from a southeastern university. For both genders, procrastination and achievement motivation were significantly correlated at the univarate level with the suicide proneness indices. However, for college women, but not men, procrastination significantly accounted for unique amounts of variance in both suicide indices above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem. Implications for suicide intervention efforts directed toward college women and men are offered.

  19. Preventing accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    As the most effective strategy for improving safety is to prevent accidents from occurring at all, the Volpe Center applies a broad range of research techniques and capabilities to determine causes and consequences of accidents and to identify, asses...

  20. Antecedents of Truck Drivers’ Job Satisfaction and Retention Proneness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prockl, Günter; Teller, Christoph; Kotzab, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    is statistically significant. Financial and nonfinancial job properties affect satisfaction with one's employer whereas the former shows a lower impact compared to the latter. Satisfaction with the job and one's employer impacts retention proneness. The contribution of this study was to (1) add...... to the understanding of the factors that predict retention of truck drivers in relationship to job satisfaction and (2) highlight the different roles of financial and nonfinancial job properties in this specific work context.......The aim of this study was to (1) explore the antecedents of truck drivers’ job satisfaction, (2) identify the impact of financial and nonfinancial job properties on satisfaction with the job and with one's employer, and (3) the drivers’ proneness to retaining their jobs. Based on the extant...

  1. Alcohol use, depressive symptoms, and impulsivity as risk factors for suicide proneness among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Robert D; Lamis, Dorian A; Malone, Patrick S

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol use, depression, and suicide are significant public health problems, particularly among college students. Impulsivity is associated with all of these factors. Additionally, impulsivity increases the effects of negative mood and alcohol use on maladaptive behavior. The current cross-sectional study examined the association between the four-factor model of impulsivity (urgency, (lack of) perseverance, (lack of) premeditation, and sensation seeking), depressive symptoms, and alcohol use as predictors of suicide proneness among college students. Participants (n=1100) completed online assessments of demographics, impulsivity, depressive symptoms, and suicide proneness. All predictors were positively related to suicide proneness. The relation between depressive symptoms and suicide proneness was moderated by (lack of) perseverance, alcohol use, and joint interactions of urgency×alcohol use and sensation seeking×alcohol use. Despite some paradoxical findings regarding the depressive symptoms-suicide proneness relation when only one risk factor was elevated, the average level of suicide proneness increased as risk factors increased. This cross-sectional self-report data comes from a non-clinical sample of college students from a homogeneous background, limiting generalizability and causal predictions. Overall, these findings indicate that the association between depressive symptoms and suicide proneness varies considerably by different facets of impulsivity and alcohol use. The results suggest that clinical risk-assessments should weigh two forms of impulsivity (urgency and sensation seeking) as particularly vital in the presence of heavy alcohol use. These findings highlight the importance of considering and exploring moderators of the mood-suicide relationship. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. MELCOR assessment of sequential severe accident mitigation actions under SGTR accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Wonjun; Jeon, Joongoo; Kim, Nam Kyung; Kim, Sung Joong

    2017-01-01

    The representative example of the severe accident studies using the severe accident code is investigation of effectiveness of developed severe accident management (SAM) strategy considering the positive and adverse effects. In Korea, some numerical studies were performed to investigate the SAM strategy using various severe accident codes. Seo et.al performed validation of RCS depressurization strategy and investigated the effect of severe accident management guidance (SAMG) entry condition under small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) without safety injection (SI), station blackout (SBO), and total loss of feed water (TLOFW) scenarios. The SGTR accident with the sequential mitigation actions according to the flow chart of SAMG was simulated by the MELCOR 1.8.6 code. Three scenariospreventing the RPV failure were investigated in terms of fission product release, hydrogen risk, and the containment pressure. Major conclusions can be summarized as follows: (1) According to the flow chart of SAMG, RPV failure can be prevented depending on the method of RCS depressurization. (2) To reduce the release of fission product during the injecting into SGs, a temporary opening of SDS before the injecting into SGs was suggested. These modified sequences of mitigation actions can reduce the release of fission product and the adverse effect of SDS.

  3. Dosimetric effects of the prone and supine positions on image guided localized prostate cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bei; Lerma, Fritz A.; Patel, Shilpen; Amin, Pradip; Feng Yuanming; Yi, B.-Y.; Yu, Cedric

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To compare target coverage and doses to rectum and bladder in IMRT of localized prostate cancer in the supine versus prone position, with the inclusion of image guidance. Materials and methods: Twenty patients with early stage localized prostate carcinoma who received external beam radiotherapy in the supine and prone positions underwent approximately 10 serial CT examinations in their respective treatment position in non-consecutive days, except for one patient who was treated prone but serially imaged supine. The prostate, bladder and rectum were contoured on all CT scans. A PTV was generated on the first scan of each patient's CT series by expanding the prostate with a 5 mm margin and an IMRT plan was created. The resultant IMRT plan was then applied to that patient's remaining serial CT scans by aligning the initial CT image set with the subsequent serial CT image sets using (1) skin marks, (2) bony anatomy and (3) center of mass of the prostate. The dosimetric results from these three alignments were compared between the supine and prone groups. To account for the uncertainties associated with prostate delineation and intra-fractional geometric changes, a fictional 'daily PTV' was generated by expanding the prostate with a 3 mm margin on each serial CT scan. Thus, a more realistic target coverage index, V95, was quantified as the fraction of the daily PTV receiving at least 95% of the prescription dose. Dose-volume measures of the organs at risk were also compared. The fraction of the daily PTV contained by the initial PTV after each alignment method was quantified on each patient's serial CT scan, and is defined as PTV overlap index. Results: As expected, alignment based on skin marks yielded unacceptable dose coverage for both groups of patients. Under bony alignment, the target coverage index, V95, was 97.3% and 93.6% for prone and supine patients (p < 0.0001), respectively. The mean PTV overlap indices were 90.7% and 84.7% for prone and supine

  4. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Alternated Prone and Supine Whole-Breast Irradiation Using IMRT: Setup Precision, Respiratory Movement and Treatment Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldeman, Liv; De Gersem, Werner; Speleers, Bruno; Truyens, Bart; Van Greveling, Annick; Van den Broecke, Rudy; De Neve, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare setup precision, respiration-related breast movement and treatment time between prone and supine positions for whole-breast irradiation. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with early-stage breast carcinoma after breast-conserving surgery were treated with prone and supine whole breast-irradiation in a daily alternating schedule. Setup precision was monitored using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. Respiration-related breast movement in the vertical direction was assessed by magnetic sensors. The time needed for patient setup and for the CBCT procedure, the beam time, and the length of the whole treatment slot were also recorded. Results: Random and systematic errors were not significantly different between positions in individual patients for each of the three axes (left-right, longitudinal, and vertical). Respiration-related movement was smaller in prone position, but about 80% of observations showed amplitudes <1 mm in both positions. Treatment slots were longer in prone position (21.2 ± 2.5 min) than in supine position (19.4 ± 0.8 min; p = 0.044). Conclusion: Comparison of setup precision between prone and supine position in the same patient showed no significant differences in random and systematic errors. Respiratory movement was smaller in prone position. The longer treatment slots in prone position can probably be attributed to the higher repositioning need.

  6. Supervisor's accident investigation handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    This pamphlet was prepared by the Environmental Health and Safety Department (EH and S) of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to provide LBL supervisors with a handy reference to LBL's accident investigation program. The publication supplements the Accident and Emergencies section of LBL's Regulations and Procedures Manual, Pub. 201. The present guide discusses only accidents that are to be investigated by the supervisor. These accidents are classified as Type C by the Department of Energy (DOE) and include most occupational injuries and illnesses, government motor-vehicle accidents, and property damages of less than $50,000

  7. Cost per severe accident as an index for severe accident consequence assessment and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Kampanart; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Takahara, Shogo

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima Accident emphasizes the need to integrate the assessments of health effects, economic impacts, social impacts and environmental impacts, in order to perform a comprehensive consequence assessment of severe accidents in nuclear power plants. “Cost per severe accident” is introduced as an index for that purpose. The calculation methodology, including the consequence analysis using level 3 probabilistic risk assessment code OSCAAR and the calculation method of the cost per severe accident, is proposed. This methodology was applied to a virtual 1,100 MWe boiling water reactor. The breakdown of the cost per severe accident was provided. The radiation effect cost, the relocation cost and the decontamination cost were the three largest components. Sensitivity analyses were carried out, and parameters sensitive to cost per severe accident were specified. The cost per severe accident was compared with the amount of source terms, to demonstrate the performance of the cost per severe accident as an index to evaluate severe accident consequences. The ways to use the cost per severe accident for optimization of radiation protection countermeasures and for estimation of the effects of accident management strategies are discussed as its applications. - Highlights: • Cost per severe accident is used for severe accident consequence assessment. • Assessments of health, economic, social and environmental impacts are included. • Radiation effect, relocation and decontamination costs are important cost components. • Cost per severe accident can be used to optimize radiation protection measures. • Effects of accident management can be estimated using the cost per severe accident

  8. Lumbar Lordosis of Spinal Stenosis Patients during Intraoperative Prone Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Keon; Song, Kyung-Sub; Park, Byung-Moon; Lim, Sang-Youn; Jang, Geun; Lee, Beom-Seok; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Lee, Hwan-Mo

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effect of spondylolisthesis on lumbar lordosis on the OSI (Jackson; Orthopaedic Systems Inc.) frame. Restoration of lumbar lordosis is important for maintaining sagittal balance. Physiologic lumbar lordosis has to be gained by intraoperative prone positioning with a hip extension and posterior instrumentation technique. There are some debates about changing lumbar lordosis on the OSI frame after an intraoperative prone position. We evaluated the effect of spondylolisthesis on lumbar lordosis after an intraoperative prone position. Methods Sixty-seven patients, who underwent spinal fusion at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery of Gwangmyeong Sungae Hospital between May 2007 and February 2012, were included in this study. The study compared lumbar lordosis on preoperative upright, intraoperative prone and postoperative upright lateral X-rays between the simple stenosis (SS) group and spondylolisthesis group. The average age of patients was 67.86 years old. The average preoperative lordosis was 43.5° (± 14.9°), average intraoperative lordosis was 48.8° (± 13.2°), average postoperative lordosis was 46.5° (± 16.1°) and the average change on the frame was 5.3° (± 10.6°). Results Among all patients, 24 patients were diagnosed with simple spinal stenosis, 43 patients with spondylolisthesis (29 degenerative spondylolisthesis and 14 isthmic spondylolisthesis). Between the SS group and spondylolisthesis group, preoperative lordosis, intraoperative lordosis and postoperative lordosis were significantly larger in the spondylolisthesis group. The ratio of patients with increased lordosis on the OSI frame compared to preoperative lordosis was significantly higher in the spondylolisthesis group. The risk of increased lordosis on frame was significantly higher in the spondylolisthesis group (odds ratio, 3.325; 95% confidence interval, 1.101 to 10.039; p = 0.033). Conclusions Intraoperative lumbar lordosis on the OSI frame with a prone

  9. Application of the accident management information needs methodology to a severe accident sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, L.W.; Hanson, D.J.; Nelson, W.R.; Solberg, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is conducting an accident management research program that emphasizes the use of severe accident research to enhance the ability of plant operating personnel to effectively manage severe accidents. Hence, it is necessary to ensure that the plant instrumentation and information systems adequately provide this information to the operating staff during accident conditions. A methodology to identify and assess the information needs of the operating staff of a nuclear power plant during a severe accident has been developed. The methodology identifies (a) the information needs of the plant personnel during a wide range of accident conditions, (b) the existing plant measurements capable of supplying these information needs and minor additions to instrument and display systems that would enhance management capabilities, (c) measurement capabilities and limitations during severe accident conditions, and (d) areas in which the information systems could mislead plant personnel

  10. Application of the accident management information needs methodology to a severe accident sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, L.W.; Hanson, D.J.; Nelson, W.R. (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls (USA)); Solberg, D.E. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (USA))

    1989-11-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is conducting an accident management research program that emphasizes the use of severe accident research to enhance the ability of plant operating personnel to effectively manage severe accidents. Hence, it is necessary to ensure that the plant instrumentation and information systems adequately provide this information to the operating staff during accident conditions. A methodology to identify and assess the information needs of the operating staff of a nuclear power plant during a severe accident has been developed. The methodology identifies (a) the information needs of the plant personnel during a wide range of accident conditions, (b) the existing plant measurements capable of supplying these information needs and minor additions to instrument and display systems that would enhance management capabilities, (c) measurement capabilities and limitations during severe accident conditions, and (d) areas in which the information systems could mislead plant personnel.

  11. Motion in the unstable thoracolumbar spine when spine boarding a prone patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Bryan P.; Marchese, Diana L.; Rechtine, Glenn R.; Horodyski, MaryBeth

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Previous research has found that the log roll (LR) technique produces significant motion in the spinal column while transferring a supine patient onto a spine board. The purpose of this project was to determine whether log rolling a patient with an unstable spine from prone to supine with a pulling motion provides better thoracolumbar immobilization compared to log rolling with a push technique. Methods A global instability was surgically created at the L1 level in five cadavers. Two spine-boarding protocols were tested (LR Push and LR Pull). Both techniques entailed performing a 180° LR rotation of the prone patient from the ground to the supine position on the spine board. An electromagnetic tracking device registered motion between the T12 and L2 vertebral segments. Six motion parameters were tracked. Repeated-measures statistical analysis was performed to evaluate angular and translational motion. Results Less motion was produced during the LR Push compared to the LR Pull for all six motion parameters. The difference was statistically significant for three of the six parameters (flexion–extension, axial translation, and anterior–posterior (A–P) translation). Conclusions Both the LR Push and LR Pull generated significant motion in the thoracolumbar spine during the prone to supine LR. The LR Push technique produced statistically less motion than the LR Pull, and should be considered when a prone patient with a suspected thoracolumbar injury needs to be transferred to a long spine board. More research is needed to identify techniques to further reduce the motion in the unstable spine during prone to supine LR. PMID:22330191

  12. Effects of steal-prone anatomy on intraoperative myocardial ischemia. The SPI Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, J M; Hollenberg, M; O'Kelly, B F; Kao, A; Mangano, D T

    1992-11-01

    Our study objective was to determine whether the presence of steal-prone anatomy conferred an increased risk in the development of intraoperative myocardial ischemia. Coronary artery steal of collateral blood flow has been demonstrated for many vasodilators, including isoflurane, the most commonly used inhalational anesthetic agent in the United States. It has been postulated that patients with steal-prone anatomy (total occlusion of one coronary artery that is supplied distally by collateral flow from another coronary artery with a > or = 50% stenosis) may be particularly at risk for the development of intraoperative myocardial ischemia when an anesthetic with a vasodilator property is being administered. We evaluated the risk of myocardial ischemia under isoflurane anesthesia (vs. a high dose narcotic technique using sufentanil) using continuous intraoperative electrocardiography and transesophageal echocardiography in patients with and without steal-prone anatomy undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Sixty-two (33%) of the 186 patients had steal-prone anatomy: in 5 (8%) the collateral-supplying vessel was > or = 50% to 69% stenosed, in 24 (39%) it was > or = 70% to 89% stenosed and in 33 (53%) it was > or = 90% stenosed. The incidence of ischemia (transesophageal echocardiography or intraoperative electrocardiography, or both) was similar in patients with and without steal-prone coronary anatomy (18 [29%] of 62 patients vs. 39 [31%] of 124 patients, p = 0.87, 95% confidence interval = -0.13 to 0.17). The incidence of intraoperative ischemia was similar in patients who received isoflurane or sufentanil anesthesia (20 [32%] of 62 patients vs. 37 [30%] of 124 patients, p = 0.87). The incidence of tachycardia and hypotension was low (increases in heart rate = 9.8%, and decreases in systolic blood pressure = 10.8% of total monitoring time during the prebypass period compared with preoperative baseline values). The incidence of adverse cardiac outcome was

  13. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  14. DEM-based Approaches for the Identification of Flood Prone Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samela, Caterina; Manfreda, Salvatore; Nardi, Fernando; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Roth, Giorgio; Sole, Aurelia

    2013-04-01

    The remarkable number of inundations that caused, in the last decades, thousands of deaths and huge economic losses, testifies the extreme vulnerability of many Countries to the flood hazard. As a matter of fact, human activities are often developed in the floodplains, creating conditions of extremely high risk. Terrain morphology plays an important role in understanding, modelling and analyzing the hydraulic behaviour of flood waves. Research during the last 10 years has shown that the delineation of flood prone areas can be carried out using fast methods that relay on basin geomorphologic features. In fact, the availability of new technologies to measure surface elevation (e.g., GPS, SAR, SAR interferometry, RADAR and LASER altimetry) has given a strong impulse to the development of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) based approaches. The identification of the dominant topographic controls on the flood inundation process is a critical research question that we try to tackle with a comparative analysis of several techniques. We reviewed four different approaches for the morphological characterization of a river basin with the aim to provide a description of their performances and to identify their range of applicability. In particular, we explored the potential of the following tools. 1) The hydrogeomorphic method proposed by Nardi et al. (2006) which defines the flood prone areas according to the water level in the river network through the hydrogeomorphic theory. 2) The linear binary classifier proposed by Degiorgis et al. (2012) which allows distinguishing flood-prone areas using two features related to the location of the site under exam with respect to the nearest hazard source. The two features, proposed in the study, are the length of the path that hydrologically connects the location under exam to the nearest element of the drainage network and the difference in elevation between the cell under exam and the final point of the same path. 3) The method by

  15. Individual differences in posterior cortical volume correlate with proneness to pride and gratitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Roland; Garrido, Griselda; Moll, Jorge; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-11-01

    Proneness to specific moral sentiments (e.g. pride, gratitude, guilt, indignation) has been linked with individual variations in functional MRI (fMRI) response within anterior brain regions whose lesion leads to inappropriate behaviour. However, the role of structural anatomical differences in rendering individuals prone to particular moral sentiments relative to others is unknown. Here, we investigated grey matter volumes (VBM8) and proneness to specific moral sentiments on a well-controlled experimental task in healthy individuals. Individuals with smaller cuneus, and precuneus volumes were more pride-prone, whereas those with larger right inferior temporal volumes experienced gratitude more readily. Although the primary analysis detected no associations with guilt- or indignation-proneness, subgenual cingulate fMRI responses to guilt were negatively correlated with grey matter volumes in the left superior temporal sulcus and anterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (right >left). This shows that individual variations in functional activations within critical areas for moral sentiments were not due to grey matter volume differences in the same areas. Grey matter volume differences between healthy individuals may nevertheless play an important role by affecting posterior cortical brain systems that are non-critical but supportive for the experience of specific moral sentiments. This may be of particular relevance when their experience depends on visuo-spatial elaboration. Published by Oxford University Press 2013. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Accident analysis. A review of the various accidents classifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Martin, L.; Figueras, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the accident analysis, in relation with the safety evaluation, environmental impact and emergency planning, should be to identify the total risk to the population and workers from potential accidents in the facility, analizing it over full spectrum of severity. (auth.)

  17. Effect of head rotation on cerebral blood velocity in the prone position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Jakob; Sandmand, Marie; Sonne, Morten

    2012-01-01

    for cerebral blood flow. We tested in healthy subjects the hypothesis that rotating the head in the prone position reduces cerebral blood flow. Methods. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), stroke volume (SV), and CO were determined, together with the middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA V...... V(mean) ~10% in spite of an elevated MAP. Prone positioning with rotated head affects both CBF and cerebrovenous drainage indicating that optimal brain perfusion requires head centering....

  18. French policy for managing the post-accident phase of a nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallay, F; Godet, J L; Niel, J C

    2015-06-01

    In 2005, at the request of the French Government, the Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) established a Steering Committee for the Management of the Post-Accident Phase of a Nuclear Accident or a Radiological Emergency, with the objective of establishing a policy framework. Under the supervision of ASN, this Committee, involving several tens of experts from different backgrounds (e.g. relevant ministerial offices, expert agencies, local information commissions around nuclear installations, non-governmental organisations, elected officials, licensees, and international experts), developed a number of recommendations over a 7-year period. First published in November 2012, these recommendations cover the immediate post-emergency situation, and the transition and longer-term periods of the post-accident phase in the case of medium-scale nuclear accidents causing short-term radioactive release (less than 24 h) that might occur at French nuclear facilities. They also apply to actions to be undertaken in the event of accidents during the transportation of radioactive materials. These recommendations are an important first step in preparation for the management of a post-accident situation in France in the case of a nuclear accident. © The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers 2014.

  19. Accident progression event tree analysis for postulated severe accidents at N Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyss, G.D.; Camp, A.L.; Miller, L.A.; Dingman, S.E.; Kunsman, D.M.; Medford, G.T.

    1990-06-01

    A Level II/III probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been performed for N Reactor, a Department of Energy (DOE) production reactor located on the Hanford reservation in Washington. The accident progression analysis documented in this report determines how core damage accidents identified in the Level I PRA progress from fuel damage to confinement response and potential releases the environment. The objectives of the study are to generate accident progression data for the Level II/III PRA source term model and to identify changes that could improve plant response under accident conditions. The scope of the analysis is comprehensive, excluding only sabotage and operator errors of commission. State-of-the-art methodology is employed based largely on the methods developed by Sandia for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in support of the NUREG-1150 study. The accident progression model allows complex interactions and dependencies between systems to be explicitly considered. Latin Hypecube sampling was used to assess the phenomenological and systemic uncertainties associated with the primary and confinement system responses to the core damage accident. The results of the analysis show that the N Reactor confinement concept provides significant radiological protection for most of the accident progression pathways studied

  20. Probability of spent fuel transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.

    1981-07-01

    The transported volume of spent fuel, incident/accident experience and accident environment probabilities were reviewed in order to provide an estimate of spent fuel accident probabilities. In particular, the accident review assessed the accident experience for large casks of the type that could transport spent (irradiated) nuclear fuel. This review determined that since 1971, the beginning of official US Department of Transportation record keeping for accidents/incidents, there has been one spent fuel transportation accident. This information, coupled with estimated annual shipping volumes for spent fuel, indicated an estimated annual probability of a spent fuel transport accident of 5 x 10 -7 spent fuel accidents per mile. This is consistent with ordinary truck accident rates. A comparison of accident environments and regulatory test environments suggests that the probability of truck accidents exceeding regulatory test for impact is approximately 10 -9 /mile

  1. Application of the accident management information needs methodology to a severe accident sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, L.W.; Hanson, D.J.; Nelson, W.R.; Solberg, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is conducting an Accident Management Research Program that emphasizes the application of severe accident research results to enhance the capability of plant operating personnel to effectively manage severe accidents. A methodology to identify and assess the information needs of the operating staff of a nuclear power plant during a severe accident has been developed as part of the research program designed to resolve this issue. The methodology identifies the information needs of the plant personnel during a wide range of accident conditions, the existing plant measurements capable of supplying these information needs and what, if any minor additions to instrument and display systems would enhance the capability to manage accidents, known limitations on the capability of these measurements to function properly under the conditions that will be present during a wide range of severe accidents, and areas in which the information systems could mislead plant personnel. This paper presents an application of this methodology to a severe accident sequence to demonstrate its use in identifying the information which is available for management of the event. The methodology has been applied to a severe accident sequence in a Pressurized Water Reactor with a large dry containment. An examination of the capability of the existing measurements was then performed to determine whether the information needs can be supplied

  2. SU-E-J-227: Breathing Pattern Consistency and Reproducibility: Comparative Analysis for Supine and Prone Body Positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laugeman, E; Weiss, E; Chen, S; Hugo, G; Rosu, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluate and compare the cycle-to-cycle consistency of breathing patterns and their reproducibility over the course of treatment, for supine and prone positioning. Methods: Respiratory traces from 25 patients were recorded for sequential supine/prone 4DCT scans acquired prior to treatment, and during the course of the treatment (weekly or bi-weekly). For each breathing cycle, the average(AVE), end-of-exhale(EoE) and end-of-inhale( EoI) locations were identified using in-house developed software. In addition, the mean values and variations for the above quantities were computed for each breathing trace. F-tests were used to compare the cycle-to-cycle consistency of all pairs of sequential supine and prone scans. Analysis of variances was also performed using population means for AVE, EoE and EoI to quantify differences between the reproducibility of prone and supine respiration traces over the treatment course. Results: Consistency: Cycle-to-cycle variations are less in prone than supine in the pre-treatment and during-treatment scans for AVE, EoE and EoI points, for the majority of patients (differences significant at p<0.05). The few cases where the respiratory pattern had more variability in prone appeared to be random events. Reproducibility: The reproducibility of breathing patterns (supine and prone) improved as treatment progressed, perhaps due to patients becoming more comfortable with the procedure. However, variability in supine position continued to remain significantly larger than in prone (p<0.05), as indicated by the variance analysis of population means for the pretreatment and subsequent during-treatment scans. Conclusions: Prone positioning stabilizes breathing patterns in most subjects investigated in this study. Importantly, a parallel analysis of the same group of patients revealed a tendency towards increasing motion amplitude of tumor targets in prone position regardless of their size or location; thus, the choice for body positioning

  3. Assessing Jail Inmates’ Proneness to Shame and Guilt: Feeling Bad About the Behavior or the Self?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangney, June P.; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Mashek, Debra; Hastings, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This study of 550 jail inmates (379 male and 171 female) held on felony charges examines the reliability and validity of the Test of Self Conscious Affect –Socially Deviant Version (TOSCA-SD; Hanson & Tangney, 1996) as a measure of offenders’ proneness to shame and proneness to guilt. Discriminant validity (e.g., vis-à-vis self-esteem, negative affect, social desirability/impression management) and convergent validity (e.g., vis-à-vis correlations with empathy, externalization of blame, anger, psychological symptoms, and substance use problems) was supported, paralleling results from community samples. Further, proneness to shame and guilt were differentially related to widely used risk measures from the field of criminal justice (e.g., criminal history, psychopathy, violence risk, antisocial personality). Guilt-proneness appears to be a protective factor, whereas there was no evidence that shame-proneness serves an inhibitory function. Subsequent analyses indicate these findings generalize quite well across gender and race. Implications for intervention and sentencing practices are discussed. PMID:21743757

  4. Reactor Safety Gap Evaluation of Accident Tolerant Components and Severe Accident Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, Mitchell T.; Bunt, R.; Corradini, M.; Ellison, Paul B.; Francis, M.; Gabor, John D.; Gauntt, R.; Henry, C.; Linthicum, R.; Luangdilok, W.; Lutz, R.; Paik, C.; Plys, M.; Rabiti, Cristian; Rempe, J.; Robb, K.; Wachowiak, R.

    2015-01-01

    The overall objective of this study was to conduct a technology gap evaluation on accident tolerant components and severe accident analysis methodologies with the goal of identifying any data and/or knowledge gaps that may exist, given the current state of light water reactor (LWR) severe accident research, and additionally augmented by insights obtained from the Fukushima accident. The ultimate benefit of this activity is that the results can be used to refine the Department of Energy's (DOE) Reactor Safety Technology (RST) research and development (R&D) program plan to address key knowledge gaps in severe accident phenomena and analyses that affect reactor safety and that are not currently being addressed by the industry or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  5. Reactor Safety Gap Evaluation of Accident Tolerant Components and Severe Accident Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Mitchell T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bunt, R. [Southern Nuclear, Atlanta, GA (United States); Corradini, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ellison, Paul B. [GE Power and Water, Duluth, GA (United States); Francis, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gabor, John D. [Erin Engineering, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Gauntt, R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Henry, C. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Linthicum, R. [Exelon Corp., Chicago, IL (United States); Luangdilok, W. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Lutz, R. [PWR Owners Group (PWROG); Paik, C. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Plys, M. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rempe, J. [Rempe and Associates LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Robb, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wachowiak, R. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States)

    2015-01-31

    The overall objective of this study was to conduct a technology gap evaluation on accident tolerant components and severe accident analysis methodologies with the goal of identifying any data and/or knowledge gaps that may exist, given the current state of light water reactor (LWR) severe accident research, and additionally augmented by insights obtained from the Fukushima accident. The ultimate benefit of this activity is that the results can be used to refine the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Reactor Safety Technology (RST) research and development (R&D) program plan to address key knowledge gaps in severe accident phenomena and analyses that affect reactor safety and that are not currently being addressed by the industry or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  6. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  7. Evaluation of severe accident environmental conditions taking accident management strategy into account for equipment survivability assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Chul; Jeong, Ji Hwan; Na, Man Gyun; Kim, Soong Pyung

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology utilizing accident management strategy in order to determine accident environmental conditions in equipment survivability assessments. In case that there is well-established accident management strategy for specific nuclear power plant, an application of this tool can provide a technical rationale on equipment survivability assessment so that plant-specific and time-dependent accident environmental conditions could be practically and realistically defined in accordance with the equipment and instrumentation required for accident management strategy or action appropriately taken. For this work, three different tools are introduced; Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) outcomes, major accident management strategy actions, and Accident Environmental Stages (AESs). In order to quantitatively investigate an applicability of accident management strategy to equipment survivability, the accident simulation for a most likely scenario in Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants (KSNPs) is performed with MAAP4 code. The Accident Management Guidance (AMG) actions such as the Reactor Control System (RCS) depressurization, water injection into the RCS, the containment pressure and temperature control, and hydrogen concentration control in containment are applied. The effects of these AMG actions on the accident environmental conditions are investigated by comparing with those from previous normal accident simulation, especially focused on equipment survivability assessment. As a result, the AMG-involved case shows the higher accident consequences along the accident environmental stages

  8. Review of nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connelly, J.W.; Storr, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    Two types of severe reactor accidents - loss of coolant or coolant flow and transient overpower (TOP) accidents - are described and compared. Accidents in research reactors are discussed. The 1961 SL1 accident in the US is used as an illustration as it incorporates the three features usually combined in a severe accident - a design flaw or flaws in the system, a circumvention of safety circuits or procedures, and gross operator error. The SL1 reactor, the reactivity accident and the following fuel-coolant interaction and steam explosion are reviewed. 3 figs

  9. Historical aspects of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Ricks, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation accidents are extremely rare events; however, the last two years have witnessed the largest radiation accidents in both the eastern and western hemispheres. It is the purpose of this chapter to review how radiation accidents are categorized, examine the temporal changes in frequency and severity, give illustrative examples of several types of radiation accidents, and finally, to describe the various registries for radiation accidents

  10. Attitudes Toward Divorce, Commitment, and Divorce Proneness in First Marriages and Remarriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Sarah W.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.; Johnson, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    A random multistate sample of married individuals (N = 1,931) was used to explore whether more positive attitudes toward divorce and weaker commitment to marriage may contribute to the greater instability of remarriages than first marriages. Remarried adults, whether or not they brought children from a previous union into the remarriage, reported marital quality (happiness and conflict) equal to those in first marriages. They also reported more positive attitudes toward divorce, which were associated with higher divorce proneness (i.e., thinking about and taking actions toward divorce). Marriage type interacted with marital quality to predict divorce proneness, such that the association between low marital quality and divorce proneness was stronger for remarried individuals than for those in first marriages. This suggests that remarried adults may be more likely than adults in first marriages to take steps toward divorce when experiencing marital distress, possibly reflecting a weaker commitment to marriage. PMID:23630405

  11. Attitudes Toward Divorce, Commitment, and Divorce Proneness in First Marriages and Remarriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Sarah W; Stanley, Scott M; Markman, Howard J; Johnson, Christine A

    2013-04-01

    A random multistate sample of married individuals ( N = 1,931) was used to explore whether more positive attitudes toward divorce and weaker commitment to marriage may contribute to the greater instability of remarriages than first marriages. Remarried adults, whether or not they brought children from a previous union into the remarriage, reported marital quality (happiness and conflict) equal to those in first marriages. They also reported more positive attitudes toward divorce, which were associated with higher divorce proneness (i.e., thinking about and taking actions toward divorce). Marriage type interacted with marital quality to predict divorce proneness, such that the association between low marital quality and divorce proneness was stronger for remarried individuals than for those in first marriages. This suggests that remarried adults may be more likely than adults in first marriages to take steps toward divorce when experiencing marital distress, possibly reflecting a weaker commitment to marriage.

  12. Using the prone position for ventilated patients with respiratory failure: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Angie D; Flynn, Maria

    2011-01-01

    this review explored the evidence relating to prone positioning in ventilated patients diagnosed with respiratory failure, including acute lung injury (ALI) or adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). mortality rates for ventilated patients with ALI or ARDS are high, and there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that the position these patients are nursed in may influence clinical outcomes. However, there are no guidelines to inform nursing practice in positioning these patients. Medline, Scopus, Cinahl and the Cochrane Library databases were searched for original research reports or systematic reviews of evidence between 2000 and 2009. Reference lists of retrieved papers were hand searched and included studies were analysed using the Critical Appraisal and Skills Programme framework. A narrative data synthesis considered the strengths and limitations of studies, and findings were collated and interpreted. Application of the search strategy identified a systematic review, currently underway, which has not yet reported and 14 relevant studies eligible for inclusion in this review. Analysis showed considerable variation in study design, but suggests that PaO(2) /FiO(2) ratio, incidence of VAP and mortality may be positively affected by prone positioning. evidence of the clinical benefits associated with prone positioning is inconclusive and provides little guidance for nursing practice. There is a need for further research into the clinical outcomes of prone positioning, and greater understanding of the practicalities of prone positioning critically ill patients is required. nurses have a central role to play in the continual assessment and management of this patient group, including the position they are nursed in, not only to ensure the best clinical outcomes but also to provide care and comfort to the patient and their family. It is therefore important that their nursing practice and interventions are informed by the best available evidence.

  13. Applicability of simplified methods to evaluate consequences of criticality accident using past accident data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Ken

    2003-01-01

    Applicability of four simplified methods to evaluate the consequences of criticality accident was investigated. Fissions in the initial burst and total fissions were evaluated using the simplified methods and those results were compared with the past accident data. The simplified methods give the number of fissions in the initial burst as a function of solution volume; however the accident data did not show such tendency. This would be caused by the lack of accident data for the initial burst with high accuracy. For total fissions, simplified almost reproduced the upper envelope of the accidents. However several accidents, which were beyond the applicable conditions, resulted in the larger total fissions than the evaluations. In particular, the Tokai-mura accident in 1999 gave in the largest total specific fissions, because the activation of cooling system brought the relatively high power for a long time. (author)

  14. Does prone repositioning before posterior fixation produce greater lordosis in lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yson, Sharon C; Sembrano, Jonathan N; Santos, Edward R G; Luna, Jeffrey T P; Polly, David W

    2014-10-01

    Retrospective comparative radiographic review. To determine if lateral to prone repositioning before posterior fixation confers additional operative level lordosis in lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) procedures. In a review of 56 consecutive patients who underwent LLIF, there was no statistically significant change in segmental lordosis from lateral to prone once a cage is in place. The greatest lordosis increase was observed after cage insertion. We reviewed 56 consecutive patients who underwent LLIF in the lateral position followed by posterior fixation in the prone position. Eighty-eight levels were fused. Disk space angle was measured on intraoperative C-arm images, and change in operative level segmental lordosis brought about by each of the following was determined: (1) cage insertion, (2) prone repositioning, and (3) posterior instrumentation. Paired t test was used to determine significance (α=0.05). Mean lordosis improvement brought about by cage insertion was 2.6 degrees (P=0.00005). There was a 0.1 degree mean lordosis change brought about by lateral to prone positioning (P=0.47). Mean lordosis improvement brought about by posterior fixation, including rod compression, was 1.0 degree (P=0.03). In LLIF procedures, the largest increase in operative level segmental lordosis is brought about by cage insertion. Further lordosis may be gained by placing posterior fixation, including compressive maneuvers. Prone repositioning after cage placement does not produce any incremental lordosis change. Therefore, posterior fixation may be performed in the lateral position without compromising operative level sagittal alignment.

  15. Enhancing AP1000 reactor accident management capabilities for long term accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Pingting; Liu Mengying; Duan Chengjie; Liao Yehong

    2015-01-01

    Passive safety actions are considered as main measures under severe accident in AP1000 power plant. However, risk is still existed. According to PSA, several probable scenarios for AP1000 nuclear power plant are analyzed in this paper with MAAP the severe accident analysis code. According to the analysis results, several deficiencies of AP1000 severe accident management are found. The long term cooling and containment depressurization capability for AP1000 power plant appear to be most important factors under such accidents. Then, several temporary strategies for AP1000 power plant are suggested, including PCCWST temporary water supply strategy after 72h, temporary injection strategy for IRWST, hydrogen relief action in fuel building, which would improve the safety of AP1000 power plant. At last, assessments of effectiveness for these strategies are performed, and the results are compared with analysis without these strategies. The comparisons showed that correct actions of these strategies would effectively prevent the accident process of AP1000 power plant. (author)

  16. The Chernobyl accident consequences; Consequences de l'accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  17. NIF: Impacts of chemical accidents and comparison of chemical/radiological accident approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Policastro, A.J.; Rhodes, M.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and operate the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The goals of the NIF are to (1) achieve fusion ignition in the laboratory for the first time by using inertial confinement fusion (ICF) technology based on an advanced-design neodymium glass solid-state laser, and (2) conduct high-energy-density experiments in support of national security and civilian applications. The primary focus of this paper is worker-public health and safety issues associated with postulated chemical accidents during the operation of NIF. The key findings from the accident analysis will be presented. Although NIF chemical accidents will be emphasized, the important differences between chemical and radiological accident analysis approaches and the metrics for reporting results will be highlighted. These differences are common EIS facility and transportation accident assessments

  18. DISC1 conditioned GWAS for psychosis proneness in a large Finnish birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Tomppo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic evidence implicates the DISC1 gene in the etiology of a number of mental illnesses. Previously, we have reported association between DISC1 and measures of psychosis proneness, the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale (RSAS and Revised Physical Anhedonia Scale (RPAS, in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC66. As part of the studies of this Finnish birth cohort genome-wide association analysis has recently been performed. METHODOLOGY: In the present study, we re-analyzed the genome-wide association data with regard to these two measures of psychosis proneness, conditioning on our previous DISC1 observation. From the original NFBC66 sample (N = 12 058, 4 561 individuals provided phenotype and genotype data. No markers were significant at the genome-wide level. However, several genes with biological relevance to mental illnesses were highlighted through loci displaying suggestive evidence for association (≥3 SNP with P<10E-4. These included the protein coding genes, CXCL3, KIAA1128, LCT, MED13L, TMCO7, TTN, and the micro RNA MIR620. CONCLUSIONS: By conditioning a previous genome-wide association study on DISC1, we have been able to identify eight genes as associating to psychosis proneness. Further, these molecules predominantly link to the DISC1 pathway, strengthening the evidence for the role of this gene network in the etiology of mental illness. The use of quantitative measures of psychosis proneness in a large population cohort will make these findings, once verified; more generalized to a broad selection of disorders related to psychoses and psychosis proneness.

  19. A Prospective Study of Intrafraction Prostate Motion in the Prone vs. Supine Position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, Richard B.; Chittenden, Lucy; Mesa, Albert V.; Bunyapanasarn, Jane; Agustin, Jeff; Lizarde, Jessica; Ravera, John; Tokita, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively analyze prostate intrafraction motion in the prone vs. supine position and to assess patient satisfaction with these two positions. Methods and Materials: Fifteen prostate cancer patients underwent implantation of five fiducial gold seeds in their prostate for localization. Patients were treated with high-dose-rate brachytherapy to 2,200 cGy followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to 5,040 cGy. Patients underwent computed tomography simulation and IMRT in the prone position. For the first five IMRT treatments, an electronic portal imaging system was used to acquire anteroposterior (AP) and lateral images pretreatment and posttreatment. We then repositioned each patient supine and repeated the process, resulting in 600 images. Results: Mean ± standard deviation intrafraction prostate motion was 2.1 ± 1.2 mm and 1.7 ± 1.4 mm (AP, p = 0.47), 2.2 ± 2.0 mm and 1.6 ± 1.8 mm (superoinferior, p = 0.16), and 1.0 ± 1.2 mm and 0.6 ± 0.9 mm (left-right, p = 0.03) in the prone and supine positions, respectively. Eighty percent of patients stated that they were more comfortable in the supine position (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Prone and supine positions resulted in a similar magnitude of AP and superoinferior intrafraction prostate motion (2 mm). Because there was no significant difference in the magnitude of AP and superoinferior prostate motion prone vs. supine and patients were more comfortable in the supine position, patients now undergo IMRT to the prostate and seminal vesicles at our center in the supine position.

  20. Management of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The definition and the multidimensionality aspects of accident management have been reviewed. The suggested elements in the development of a programme for severe accident management have been identified and discussed. The strategies concentrate on the two tiered approaches. Operative management utilizes the plant's equipment and operators capabilities. The recovery managment concevtrates on preserving the containment, or delaying its failure, inhibiting the release, and on strategies once there has been a release. The inspiration for this paper was an excellent overview report on perspectives on managing severe accidents in commercial nuclear power plants and extending plant operating procedures into the severe accident regime; and by the most recent publication of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) considering the question of risk reduction and source term reduction through accident prevention, management and mitigation. The latter document concludes that 'active development of accident management measures by plant personnel can lead to very large reductions in source terms and risk', and goes further in considering and formulating the key issue: 'The most fruitful path to follow in reducing risk even further is through the planning of accident management.' (author)

  1. Management of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    The definition and the multidimensionality aspects of accident management have been reviewed. The suggested elements in the development of a programme for severe accident management have been identified and discussed. The strategies concentrate on the two tiered approaches. Operative management utilizes the plant's equipment and operators capabilities. The recovery management concentrates on preserving the containment, or delaying its failure, inhibiting the release, and on strategies once there has been a release. The inspiration for this paper was an excellent overview report on perspectives on managing severe accidents in commercial nuclear power plants and extending plant operating procedures into the severe accident regime; and by the most recent publication of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) considering the question of risk reduction and source term reduction through accident prevention, management and mitigation. The latter document concludes that active development of accident management measures by plant personnel can lead to very large reductions in source terms and risk, and goes further in considering and formulating the key issue: The most fruitful path to follow in reducing risk even further is through the planning of accident management

  2. Accidents in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear industry perspective and the public perspective on big nuclear accidents and leukaemia near nuclear sites are discussed. The industry perspective is that big accidents are so unlikely as to be virtually impossible and that leukaemia is not specifically associated with nuclear installations. Clusters of cancer with statistical significance occur in major cities. The public perspective is coloured by a prejudice and myth: the fear of radiation. The big nuclear accident is seen therefore as much more unacceptable than any other big accident. Risks associated with Sizewell-B nuclear station and the liquid gas depot at Canvey Island are discussed. The facts and figures are presented as tables and graphs. Given conflicting interpretations of the leukaemia problem the public inclines towards the more pessimistic view. (author)

  3. Assessment of accident energetics in LMFBR core-disruptive accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauske, H.K.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of accident energetics in LMFBR core-disruptive accidents is given with emphasis on the generic issues of energetic recriticality and energetic fuel-coolant interaction events. Application of a few general behavior principles to the oxide-fueled system suggests that such events are highly unlikely following a postulated core meltdown event

  4. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Masahide; Koriyama, Tamio

    2013-11-01

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to this issue, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for the latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. In this report the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2011 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2012 database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2012 revised database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 shows the followings. The trend of the 2012 database changes little as compared to the last year's report. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The number of commercial aircraft accidents is 4 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 58 for small fixed-wing aircraft, 5 for large bladed aircraft and 99 for small bladed aircraft. The relevant accidents

  5. Effect of scanning in the supine and prone positions on dilation of air-charged colon in CTVC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Jing; Chen Junkun; Zhang Zongjun; Wang Junpeng; Gao Dazhi

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of scanning in the supine and prone positions on dilation of air-charged colon in CT virtual colonoscopy (CTVC). Methods: Thirty cases underwent CTVC scanning in both the supine and prone positions immediately before colonoscopy, and the dilation of each intestine was graded. The differences of colon dilation in different positions were compared. Results: In supine and prone position, there were 26 (17.3%) and 22 (14.7%) insufficient dilating colon segments, respectively, and only 5 (3.3%) insufficient dilating colon segments in double positions. 15(50.0%) and 13(43.3%) colons dilated insufficiently in supine and prone position, respectively, and decreased to 5 (16.7%) in double positions. The dilation of rectum, sigmoid colon, and transverse colon had significant difference in different positions. Conclusion: When performing CTVC, it is highly necessary to scan in both the supine and prone positions in order to ensure the sufficient dilation of colon. In supine position, the dilation of transverse colon is better, while the dilation of rectum and sigmoid colon in prone position is superior to that in supine position

  6. Alternated prone and supine whole-breast irradiation using IMRT: setup precision, respiratory movement and treatment time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldeman, Liv; De Gersem, Werner; Speleers, Bruno; Truyens, Bart; Van Greveling, Annick; Van den Broecke, Rudy; De Neve, Wilfried

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare setup precision, respiration-related breast movement and treatment time between prone and supine positions for whole-breast irradiation. Ten patients with early-stage breast carcinoma after breast-conserving surgery were treated with prone and supine whole breast-irradiation in a daily alternating schedule. Setup precision was monitored using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. Respiration-related breast movement in the vertical direction was assessed by magnetic sensors. The time needed for patient setup and for the CBCT procedure, the beam time, and the length of the whole treatment slot were also recorded. Random and systematic errors were not significantly different between positions in individual patients for each of the three axes (left-right, longitudinal, and vertical). Respiration-related movement was smaller in prone position, but about 80% of observations showed amplitudes movement was smaller in prone position. The longer treatment slots in prone position can probably be attributed to the higher repositioning need. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiation, accidents, society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This book is meant to be used as a reference book for information officers at the event of a nuclear accident. The main part is edited in alphabetical order to facilitate use under stress. The book gives a short review of the health risks of radiation, and descriptions of accidents that have occured. The index words that have been chosen for the main part of the book have been selected due to experiences in connection with incidents and accidents. (L.E.)

  8. Occupational Accidents And Preventive Measures

    CERN Document Server

    Fassnacht, V

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the 2005 statistics concerning occupational accidents involving members of the CERN personnel and contractors' personnel. It sets out the accident frequency and severity rates and provides a breakdown of accidents by cause and injury. It also contains a summary analysis of the most serious accidents and the associated recommendations.

  9. Safety regulations regarding to accident monitoring and accident sampling at Russian NPPs with VVER type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharafutdinov, Rachet; Lankin, Michail; Kharitonova, Nataliya

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a tendency by development of regulatory document requirements related to accident monitoring and accident sampling at Russia's NPPs. Lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident pointed at the importance and necessary to carry out an additional safety check at Russia's nuclear power plants in the preparedness for management of severe accidents at NPPs. Planned measures for improvement of severe accidents management include development and implementation of the accident instrumentation systems, providing, monitoring, management and storage of information in a severe accident conditions. The draft of Safety Guidelines <accident monitoring system of nuclear power plants with VVER reactors' prepared by Scientific and Engineering Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Safety (SEC NRS) established the main criteria for accident monitoring instrumentation that can monitor relevant plant parameters in the reactor and inside containment during and after a severe accident in nuclear power plants. Development of these safety guidelines is in line with the recommendations of IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety in response to the Fukushima Daiichi event and recommendations of the IAEA Nuclear Energy series Report <<Accident Monitoring Systems for Nuclear Power Plants' (Draft V 2.7). The paper presents the principles, which are used as the basis for selection of plant parameters for accident monitoring and for establishing of accident monitoring instrumentation. The recommendations to the accident sampling system capable to obtain the representative reactor coolant and containment air and fluid samples that support accurate analytical results for the parameters of interest are considered. The radiological and chemistry parameters to be monitored for primary coolant and sump and for containment air are specified. (author)

  10. Contact high: Mania proneness and positive perception of emotional touches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piff, Paul K; Purcell, Amanda; Gruber, June; Hertenstein, Matthew J; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-01-01

    How do extreme degrees of positive emotion-such as those characteristic of mania-influence emotion perception? The present study investigated how mania proneness, assessed using the Hypomanic Personality Scale, influences the perception of emotion via touch. Using a validated dyadic interaction paradigm for communicating emotion through touch (Hertenstein, Keltner, App, Bulleit, & Jaskolka, 2006), participants (N=53) received eight different touches to their forearm from a stranger and then identified the emotion via forced-choice methodology. Mania proneness predicted increased overall accuracy in touch perception, particularly for positive emotion touches, as well as the over-attribution of positive and under-attribution of negative emotions across all touches. These findings highlight the effects of positive emotion extremes on the perception of emotion in social interactions.

  11. Prone Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: 5-Year Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osa, Etin-Osa O.; DeWyngaert, Keith; Roses, Daniel; Speyer, James; Guth, Amber; Axelrod, Deborah; Fenton Kerimian, Maria; Goldberg, Judith D.; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a technique of prone breast radiation therapy delivered by a regimen of accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concurrent boost to the tumor bed. Methods and Materials: Between 2003 and 2006, 404 patients with stage I-II breast cancer were prospectively enrolled into 2 consecutive protocols, institutional trials 03-30 and 05-181, that used the same regimen of 40.5 Gy/15 fractions delivered to the index breast over 3 weeks, with a concomitant daily boost to the tumor bed of 0.5 Gy (total dose 48 Gy). All patients were treated after segmental mastectomy and had negative margins and nodal assessment. Patients were set up prone: only if lung or heart volumes were in the field was a supine setup attempted and chosen if found to better spare these organs. Results: Ninety-two percent of patients were treated prone, 8% supine. Seventy-two percent had stage I, 28% stage II invasive breast cancer. In-field lung volume ranged from 0 to 228.27 cm 3 , mean 19.65 cm 3 . In-field heart volume for left breast cancer patients ranged from 0 to 21.24 cm 3 , mean 1.59 cm 3 . There was no heart in the field for right breast cancer patients. At a median follow-up of 5 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence of isolated ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence was 0.82% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65%-1.04%). The 5-year cumulative incidence of regional recurrence was 0.53% (95% CI 0.41%-0.69%), and the 5-year overall cumulative death rate was 1.28% (95% CI 0.48%-3.38%). Eighty-two percent (95% CI 77%-85%) of patients judged their final cosmetic result as excellent/good. Conclusions: Prone accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concomitant boost results in excellent local control and optimal sparing of heart and lung, with good cosmesis. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 1005, a phase 3, multi-institutional, randomized trial is ongoing and is evaluating the equivalence of a similar dose and fractionation

  12. Prone Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: 5-Year Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osa, Etin-Osa O.; DeWyngaert, Keith [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Roses, Daniel [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Speyer, James [Department of Medical Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Guth, Amber; Axelrod, Deborah [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Fenton Kerimian, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Goldberg, Judith D. [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Formenti, Silvia C., E-mail: Silvia.formenti@nyumc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a technique of prone breast radiation therapy delivered by a regimen of accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concurrent boost to the tumor bed. Methods and Materials: Between 2003 and 2006, 404 patients with stage I-II breast cancer were prospectively enrolled into 2 consecutive protocols, institutional trials 03-30 and 05-181, that used the same regimen of 40.5 Gy/15 fractions delivered to the index breast over 3 weeks, with a concomitant daily boost to the tumor bed of 0.5 Gy (total dose 48 Gy). All patients were treated after segmental mastectomy and had negative margins and nodal assessment. Patients were set up prone: only if lung or heart volumes were in the field was a supine setup attempted and chosen if found to better spare these organs. Results: Ninety-two percent of patients were treated prone, 8% supine. Seventy-two percent had stage I, 28% stage II invasive breast cancer. In-field lung volume ranged from 0 to 228.27 cm{sup 3}, mean 19.65 cm{sup 3}. In-field heart volume for left breast cancer patients ranged from 0 to 21.24 cm{sup 3}, mean 1.59 cm{sup 3}. There was no heart in the field for right breast cancer patients. At a median follow-up of 5 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence of isolated ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence was 0.82% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65%-1.04%). The 5-year cumulative incidence of regional recurrence was 0.53% (95% CI 0.41%-0.69%), and the 5-year overall cumulative death rate was 1.28% (95% CI 0.48%-3.38%). Eighty-two percent (95% CI 77%-85%) of patients judged their final cosmetic result as excellent/good. Conclusions: Prone accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concomitant boost results in excellent local control and optimal sparing of heart and lung, with good cosmesis. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 1005, a phase 3, multi-institutional, randomized trial is ongoing and is evaluating the equivalence of a similar dose and

  13. Nuclear accidents and epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A consultation on epidemiology related to the Chernobyl accident was held in Copenhagen in May 1987 as a basis for concerted action. This was followed by a joint IAEA/WHO workshop in Vienna, which reviewed appropriate methodologies for possible long-term effects of radiation following nuclear accidents. The reports of these two meetings are included in this volume, and cover the subjects: 1) Epidemiology related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident. 2) Appropriate methodologies for studying possible long-term effects of radiation on individuals exposed in a nuclear accident. Figs and tabs

  14. Reactivity insertion accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.M.L.; Nakata, H.; Yorihaz, H.

    1990-04-01

    The correct prediction of postulated accidents is the fundamental requirement for the reactor licensing procedures. Accident sequences and severity of their consequences depend upon the analysis which rely on analytical tools which must be validated against known experimental results. Present work presents a systematic approach to analyse and estimate the reactivity insertion accident sequences. The methodology is based on the CINETHICA code which solves the point-kinetics/thermohydraulic coupled equations with weighted temperature feedback. Comparison against SPERT experimental results shows good agreement for the step insertion accidents. (author) [pt

  15. REAC/TS radiation accident registry. Update of accidents in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricks, R.C.; Berger, M.E.; Holloway, E.C.; Goans, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Serious injury due to ionizing radiation is a rare occurrence. From 1944 to the present, 243 US accidents meeting dose criteria for classification as serious are documented in the REAC/TS Registry. Thirty individuals have lost their lives in radiation accidents in the United States. The Registry is part of the overall REAC/TS program providing 24-hour direct or consultative assistance regarding medical and heath physics problems associated with radiation accidents in local, national, and international incidents. The REAC/TS Registry serves as a repository of medically important information documenting the consequences of these accidents. Registry data are gathered from various sources. These include reports from the World Heath Organization (WHO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC), state radiological health departments, medical/health physics literature, personal communication, the Internet, and most frequently, from calls for medical assistance to REAC/TS, as part of our 24-hour medical assistance program. The REAC/TS Registry for documentation of radiation accidents serves several useful purposes: 1) weaknesses in design, safety practices, training or control can be identified, and trends noted; 2) information regarding the medical consequences of injuries and the efficacy of treatment protocols is available to the treating physician; and 3) Registry case studies serve as valuable teaching tools. This presentation will review and summarize data on the US radiation accidents including their classification by device, accident circumstances, and frequency by respective states. Data regarding accidents with fatal outcomes will be reviewed. The inclusion of Registry data in the IAEA's International Reporting System of Radiation Events (RADEV) will also be discussed. (author)

  16. [Reactance proneness, collectivism, uniqueness, and resistance to persuasion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imajo, Shuzo

    2002-10-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of Japanese psychological reactance scales. A total of 167 undergraduates completed a questionnaire of Therapeutic Reactance Scale (TRS), the Hong Reactance Scale (HRS), the Uniqueness Scale, and the Collectivism Scale. They also received messages involving three persuasion situations that were either high or low in terms of threat, and were asked to describe their reactions to them. The author categorized the reactions into three: acceptance, indirect resistance, and direct resistance. Reliabilities of the reactance scales were satisfactory. Their scores positively correlated with uniqueness scores, and negatively with collectivism scores. Those high on reactance proneness were less persuaded in two of the three situations. But in the third, an HRS by threat interaction was observed, indicating that only those who were high on reactance proneness under the high-threat condition showed resistance to persuasion. These results suggest that the Japanese versions of reactance scale were reliable and valid. However, the assertiveness aspect of TRS may not be appropriate for the definition of reactance. The influence of culture on psychological reactance was also discussed.

  17. A self-regulatory approach to understanding boredom proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, A A; Scholer, A A; Danckert, J

    2015-07-29

    We investigated the relationship between self-regulation and two types of boredom proneness (perceived lack of internal stimulation, perceived lack of external stimulation) using a variety of measures of self-regulation. These included a general measure of self-control, measures of both regulatory focus (i.e., promotion or a sensitivity to gains/non-gains vs. prevention or a sensitivity to losses/non-losses) and regulatory mode (i.e., assessment or the tendency to compare means and goals vs. locomotion or the tendency to initiate and maintain commitment to action), and measures of cognitive flexibility (i.e., a perceived sense of control and the tendency to seek alternative solutions). Results identified a unique set of factors related to each boredom proneness component. Trait self-control and prevention focus were associated with lower boredom propensity due to a lack of external stimulation. Locomotion and the tendency to seek alternatives were associated with lower boredom propensity due to a lack of internal stimulation. These findings suggest that effective goal pursuit is associated with reduced likelihood of experiencing boredom.

  18. Anthropometric Renal Anatomic Alterations Between Supine and Prone Positions in Percutaneous Renal Ablation for Renal Cortical Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusch, Achim; Fujimoto, Scott; Findeiss, Laura K; Okhunov, Zhamshid; McDougall, Elspeth M; Landman, Jaime

    2016-02-01

    To establish patterns of anatomic changes relevant to the kidney and colon during positional change between the supine and prone positions as noted on CT scans performed during percutaneous cryoablation for renal cortical neoplasms (RCN). Nineteen patients undergoing percutaneous cryoablation for RCN with abdominal CT scan in both the supine and prone positions were included in the study. We documented the anterior/posterior, medial/lateral, and cranial/caudal anatomic changes of the kidney, kidney rotation, and the proportion of the kidney whose access was limited by the liver, spleen, and lung. We also calculated the length of the percutaneous access tract and the distance between the colon and kidney in hilar position as well as the anterior/posterior location of the colon relative to the kidney. In the prone position, the kidney lies significantly more anteriorly on both sides: 4.7 cm vs 4.3 cm (L) and 4.4 cm vs 4.1 cm (R) (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03, respectively). On prone CT images, both kidneys are more cranial when compared with the supine position: 80.4 mm vs 60.8 mm (L) and 87.2 mm vs 57.4 mm (R) (p = 0.002 and p anatomic alterations between supine and prone CT imaging. The changes associated with the prone position modify percutaneous access, particularly for right upper pole tumors. Prone imaging before surgery may be helpful in selected cases.

  19. Investigation of Qom Rural Area Water Network Accident in 2010 and Minimization Approaches of Accident Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study : Accidents in water networks can lead to increase the uncounted water, costs of repair, maintenance, restoration and enter water contaminants to water network. The aim of this study is to survey the accidents of Qom rural water network and choose the right approaches to reduce the number of accidents. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, four sector of Qom province (Markazi, Dastjerd, Kahak and Qahan, were assessed over a period of 8 months (July – January 2010. This study was conducted through questionnaire of Ministry of Energy. Results: The total number of accidents was 763. The highest number of accidents in the four sectors was related to Markazi sector with 228 accidents. According to the time of the accident, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to September (19.7% and November (6.8%, respectively. According to the location of the accident on network, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to distribution network (64% and connections (17.5% and transmission pipe (18.34%, respectively. According to the type of the accident, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to breaking (47.8% and gasket failure (1.2%, respectively. Considering with the pipes’ material, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to polyethylene pipes (93% and steel and cast iron pipes (0.5%, 0.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Due to the high break rate of Polyethylene pipes, it is recommended to be placed in priority of leak detection and rehabilitation.   .

  20. Prone breast radiotherapy in early-stage breast cancer: a preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grann, Alison; McCormick, Beryl; Chabner, Elizabeth S.; Gollamudi, Smitha V.; Schupak, Karen D.; Mychalczak, Borys R.; Heerdt, Alexandra S.; Merchant, Thomas E.; Hunt, Margie A.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Women with large breasts have marked dose inhomogeneity and often an inferior cosmetic outcome when treated with breast conservation compared to smaller-sized patients. We designed a prone breast board, which both minimizes breast separation and irradiated lung or heart volume. We report feasibility, cosmesis, and preliminary local control and survival for selected women with Stage 0-II breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six patients with clinical Stage 0-II breast cancer were treated with lumpectomy and breast irradiation utilizing a prototype prone breast board. A total of 59 breasts were treated. Indications for treatment in the prone position were large or pendulous breast size (n = 57), or a history of cardiopulmonary disease (n = 2). The median bra size was 41D (range, 34D-44EE). Cosmesis was evaluated on a 1-10 (worst-to-best) scale. Results: Acute toxicity included skin erythema (80% of patients experienced Grade I or Grade II erythema), breast edema (72% of patients experienced mild edema), pruritus (20% of patients), and fatigue (20% of patients reported mild fatigue). One patient required a treatment break. The only late toxicity was related to long-term cosmesis. The mean overall cosmesis score for 53 patients was 9.37 (range, 8-10). Actuarial 3- and 5-year local control rates are 98%. Actuarial overall survival at 3 and 5 years are 98% and 94%. Conclusion: Our data indicate that treating selected women with prone breast radiotherapy is feasible and tolerated. The approach results in excellent cosmesis, and short-term outcome is comparable to traditional treatment techniques. This technique offers an innovative alternative to women who might not otherwise be considered candidates for breast conservation

  1. [Diving accidents. Emergency treatment of serious diving accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, S; Lier, H; Wiese, S

    2004-11-01

    Decompression injuries are potentially life-threatening incidents mainly due to a rapid decline in ambient pressure. Decompression illness (DCI) results from the presence of gas bubbles in the blood and tissue. DCI may be classified as decompression sickness (DCS) generated from the liberation of gas bubbles following an oversaturation of tissues with inert gas and arterial gas embolism (AGE) mainly due to pulmonary barotrauma. People working under hyperbaric pressure, e.g. in a caisson for general construction under water, and scuba divers are exposed to certain risks. Diving accidents can be fatal and are often characterized by organ dysfunction, especially neurological deficits. They have become comparatively rare among professional divers and workers. However, since recreational scuba diving is gaining more and more popularity there is an increasing likelihood of severe diving accidents. Thus, emergency staff working close to areas with a high scuba diving activity, e.g. lakes or rivers, may be called more frequently to a scuba diving accident. The correct and professional emergency treatment on site, especially the immediate and continuous administration of normobaric oxygen, is decisive for the outcome of the accident victim. The definitive treatment includes rapid recompression with hyperbaric oxygen. The value of adjunctive medication, however, remains controversial.

  2. Criticality accident:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavese, Susana I.

    2000-01-01

    A criticality accident occurred at 10:35 on September 30, 1999. It occurred in a precipitation tank in a Conversion Test Building at the JCO Tokai Works site in Tokaimura (Tokai Village) in the Ibaraki Prefecture of Japan. STA provisionally rated this accident a 4 on the seven-level, logarithmic International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). The September 30, 1999 criticality accident at the JCO Tokai Works Site in Tokaimura, Japan in described in preliminary, technical detail. Information is based on preliminary presentations to technical groups by Japanese scientists and spokespersons, translations by technical and non-technical persons of technical web postings by various nuclear authorities, and English-language non-technical reports from various news media and nuclear-interest groups. (author)

  3. A randomised trial of Supine versus Prone breast radiotherapy (SuPr study): Comparing set-up errors and respiratory motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Anna M.; Evans, Philip M.; Helyer, Sarah J.; Donovan, Ellen M.; Convery, Helen M.; Yarnold, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To test a prone position against the international-standard supine position in women undergoing whole-breast-radiotherapy (WBRT) after wide-local-excision (WLE) of early breast cancer (BC) in terms of feasibility, set-up errors, and respiratory motion. Methods: Following WLE of BC with insertion of tumour-bed clips, patients underwent 4D-CT for WBRT-planning in supine and prone positions (the latter using an in-house-designed platform). Patients were randomised to undergo WBRT fractions 1-7 in one position, switching to the alternate position for fractions 8-15 (40 Gy/15-fractions total). Cone-beam CT-images (CBCT) were acquired prior to fractions 1, 4, 7, 8, 11 and 14. CBCT data were matched to planning-CT data using (i) chest-wall and (ii) clips. Systematic and random errors were calculated. Maximal displacement of chest-wall and clips with respiration was measured on 4D-CT. Clinical- to planning-target-volume (CTV-PTV) margins were calculated. Patient-comfort-scores and treatment-times were evaluated. Results: Twenty-five patients were randomized. 192/192 (100%) planned supine fractions and 173/192 (90%) prone fractions were completed. 3D population systematic errors were 1.3-1.9 mm (supine) and 3.1-4.3 mm (prone) (p = 0.02) and random errors 2.6-3.2 mm (supine) and 3.8-5.4 mm (prone) (p = 0.02). Prone positioning reduced chest-wall and clip motion (0.5 ± 0.2 mm (prone) versus 2.7 ± 0.5 mm (supine) (p < 0.001)) with respiration. Calculated CTV-PTV margins were greater for prone (12-16 mm) than for supine treatment (10 mm). Patient-comfort-scores and treatment times were comparable (p = 0.06). Conclusions: Set-up errors were greater using our prone technique than for our standard supine technique, resulting in the need for larger CTV-PTV margins in the prone position. Further work is required to optimize the prone treatment-platform and technique before it can become a standard treatment option at our institution.

  4. An evaluation of intrafraction motion of the prostate in the prone and supine positions using electromagnetic tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Amish P.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Langen, Katja M.; Meeks, Sanford L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate differences in target motion during prostate irradiation in the prone versus supine position using electromagnetic tracking to measure prostate mobility. Materials/methods: Twenty patients received prostate radiotherapy in the supine position utilizing the Calypso Localization System (registered) for prostate positioning and monitoring. For each patient, 10 treatment fractions were followed by a session in which the patient was repositioned prone, and prostate mobility was tracked. The fraction of time that the prostate was displaced by >3, 5, 7, and 10 mm was calculated for each patient, for both positions (400 tracking sessions). Results: Clear patterns of respiratory motion were seen in the prone tracks due to the influence of increased abdominal motion. Averaged over all patients, the prostate was displaced >3 and 5 mm for 37.8% and 10.1% of the total tracking time in the prone position, respectively. In the supine position, the prostate was displaced >3 and 5 mm for 12.6% and 2.9%, respectively. With both patient setups, inferior and posterior drifts of the prostate position were observed. Averaged over all prone tracking sessions, the prostate was displaced >3 mm in the posterior and inferior directions for 11.7% and 9.5% of the total time, respectively. Conclusions: With real-time tracking of the prostate, it is possible to study the effects of different setup positions on the prostate mobility. The percentage of time the prostate moved >3 and 5 mm was increased by a factor of three in the prone versus supine position. For larger displacements (>7 mm) no difference in prostate mobility was observed between prone and supine positions. To reduce rectal toxicity, radiotherapy in the prone position may be a suitable alternative provided respiratory motion is accounted for during treatment. Acute and late toxicity results remain to be evaluated for both patient positions.

  5. Accident management information needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R.

    1990-04-01

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs

  6. Accident management information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-04-01

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Estimating the Influence of Accident Related Factors on Motorcycle Fatal Accidents using Logistic Regression (Case Study: Denpasar-Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedagama D.M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Denpasar the capital of Bali Province, motorcycle accident contributes to about 80% of total road accidents. Out of those motorcycle accidents, 32% are fatal accidents. This study investigates the influence of accident related factors on motorcycle fatal accidents in the city of Denpasar during period 2006-2008 using a logistic regression model. The study found that the fatality of collision with pedestrians and right angle accidents were respectively about 0.44 and 0.40 times lower than collision with other vehicles and accidents due to other factors. In contrast, the odds that a motorcycle accident will be fatal due to collision with heavy and light vehicles were 1.67 times more likely than with other motorcycles. Collision with pedestrians, right angle accidents, and heavy and light vehicles were respectively accounted for 31%, 29%, and 63% of motorcycle fatal accidents.

  8. Hepatitis C virus infection among transmission-prone medical personnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaaijer, H. L.; Appelman, P.; Frijstein, G.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected physicians have been reported to infect some of their patients during exposure-prone procedures (EPPs). There is no European consensus on the policy for the prevention of this transmission. To help define an appropriate preventive policy, we determined the prevalence

  9. Big nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.; Billingon, D.E.; Cameron, R.F.; Curl, S.J.

    1983-09-01

    Much of the debate on the safety of nuclear power focuses on the large number of fatalities that could, in theory, be caused by extremely unlikely but just imaginable reactor accidents. This, along with the nuclear industry's inappropriate use of vocabulary during public debate, has given the general public a distorted impression of the risks of nuclear power. The paper reviews the way in which the probability and consequences of big nuclear accidents have been presented in the past and makes recommendations for the future, including the presentation of the long-term consequences of such accidents in terms of 'loss of life expectancy', 'increased chance of fatal cancer' and 'equivalent pattern of compulsory cigarette smoking'. The paper presents mathematical arguments, which show the derivation and validity of the proposed methods of presenting the consequences of imaginable big nuclear accidents. (author)

  10. Simple shielding reduces dose to the contralateral breast during prone breast cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Uma, E-mail: uma.goyal@gmail.com; Locke, Angela; Smith-Raymond, Lexie; Georgiev, Georgi N.

    2016-07-01

    Our goal was to design a prone breast shield for the contralateral breast and study its efficacy in decreasing scatter radiation to the contralateral breast in a prone breast phantom setup receiving radiation therapy designed for breast cancer. We constructed a prone breast phantom setup consisting of (1) A thermoplastic mask with a left-sided depression created by a water balloon for a breast shape; (2) 2 plastic bags to hold water in the thermoplastic mask depression; (3) 2000 mL of water to fill the thermoplastic mask depression to create a water-based false breast; (4) 1-cm thick bolus placed in the contralateral breast holder; (5) 2 lead (Pb) sheets, each 0.1-cm thick for blocking scatter radiation in the contralateral bolus-based false breast; (6) a prone breast board to hold the thermoplastic mask, water, bolus, and lead; (7) 9 cm solid water on top of the breast board to simulate body; (8) a diode was used to verify dose for each treatment field of the treated water-based breast; (9) metal–oxide–semiconductor-field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters to measure dose to the contralateral bolus-based breast. The phantom prone breast setup was CT simulated and treatment was designed with 95% isodose line covering the treated breast. The maximum dose was 107.1%. Megavoltage (MV) port images ensured accurate setup. Measurements were done using diodes on the treated water-based breast and MOSFET dosimeters at the medial and lateral sides of the contralateral bolus-based breast without and with the Pb shield. Five treatments were done for each of the 3 data sets and recorded individually for statistical purposes. All treatments were completed with 6 MV photons at 200 cGy per treatment. The dose contributions from each of the 3 data sets including 15 treatments total without and with the prone lead shield to the medial and lateral portions of contralateral bolus-based breast were averaged individually. Unshielded dose means were 37.11 and 2.94 cGy, and

  11. Radiological accidents in medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Different radiological accidents that may occur in medical practice are shown. The following topics are focused: accident statistics for medical exposure, accidental medical exposures, radiotherapy accidents and potential accidental scenarios [es

  12. Sports Accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    Kiebel

    1972-01-01

    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  13. [Accidents in travellers - the hidden epidemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Alexander; Hatz, Christoph

    2013-06-01

    The risk of malaria and other communicable diseases is well addressed in pre-travel advice. Accidents are usually less discussed. Thus, we aimed at assessing accident figures for the Swiss population, based on data of the register from 2004 to 2008 of the largest Swiss accident insurance organization (SUVA). More than 139'000 accidents over 5 years showed that 65 % of the accidents overseas are injuries, and 24 % are caused by poisoning or harm by cold, heat or air pressure. Most accidents happened during leisure activities or sports. More than one third of the non-lethal and more than 50 % of the fatal accidents happened in Asia. More than three-quarters of non-lethal accidents take place in people between 25 and 54 years. One out of 74 insured persons has an accident abroad per year. Despite of many analysis short-comings of the data set with regard to overseas travel, the figures document the underestimated burden of disease caused by accidents abroad and should affect the given pre-health advice.

  14. Differences in abdominal organ movement between supine and prone positions measured using four-dimensional computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Seok; Park, Sung Ho; Ahn, Seung Do; Lee, Jeong Eun; Choi, Eun Kyung; Lee, Sang-wook; Shin, Seong Soo; Yoon, Sang Min; Kim, Jong Hoon

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: To analyze the differences in intrafractional organ movement throughout the breathing cycles between the supine and prone positions using four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT). Materials and methods: We performed 4D CT on nine volunteers in the supine and prone positions, with each examinee asked to breathe normally during scanning. The movement of abdominal organs in the cranio-caudal (CC), anterior-posterior (AP) and right-left (RL) directions was quantified by contouring on each phase between inspiration and expiration. Results: The mean intrafractional motions of the hepatic dome, lower tip, pancreatic head and tail, both kidneys, spleen, and celiac axis in the supine/prone position were 17.3/13.0, 14.4/11.0, 12.8/8.9, 13.0/10.0, 14.3/12.1, 12.3/12.6, 11.7/12.6 and 2.2/1.8 mm, respectively. Intrafractional movements of the liver dome and pancreatic head were reduced significantly in the prone position. The CC directional excursions were major determinants of the 3D displacements of the abdominal organs. Alteration from the supine to the prone position did not change the amount of intrafractional movements of kidneys, spleen, and celiac axis. Conclusion: There was a significant reduction in the movements of the liver and pancreas during the prone position, especially in the CC direction, suggesting possible advantage of radiotherapy to these organs in this position

  15. Occupational accidents among mototaxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Camila Rego; de Araújo, Edna Maria; de Araújo, Tânia Maria; de Oliveira, Nelson Fernandes

    2012-03-01

    The use of motorcycles as a means of work has contributed to the increase in traffic accidents, in particular, mototaxi accidents. The aim of this study was to estimate and characterize the incidence of occupational accidents among the mototaxis registered in Feira de Santana, BA. This is a cross-sectional study with descriptive and census data. Of the 300 professionals registered at the Municipal Transportation Service, 267 professionals were interviewed through a structured questionnaire. Then, a descriptive analysis was conducted and the incidence of accidents was estimated based on the variables studied. Relative risks were calculated and statistical significance was determined using the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test, considering p accidents were observed in 10.5% of mototaxis. There were mainly minor injuries (48.7%), 27% of them requiring leaves of absence from work. There was an association between the days of work per week, fatigue in lower limbs and musculoskeletal complaints, and accidents. Knowledge of the working conditions and accidents involved in this activity can be of great importance for the adoption of traffic education policies, and to help prevent accidents by improving the working conditions and lives of these professionals.

  16. The application of the assessment of nuclear accident status in emergency decision-making during nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ling

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear accident assessment is one of the bases for emergency decision-making in the situation of nuclear accident in NPP. Usually, the assessment includes accident status and consequence assessment. It is accident status assessment, and its application in emergency decision-making is introduced here. (author)

  17. Severe accident management. Prevention and Mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Effective planning for the management of severe accidents at nuclear power plants can produce both a reduction in the frequency of such accidents as well as the ability to mitigate their consequences if and when they should occur. This report provides an overview of accident management activities in OECD countries. It also presents the conclusions of a group of international experts regarding the development of accident management methods, the integration of accident management planning into reactor operations, and the benefits of accident management

  18. Operationalizing Proneness to Externalizing Psychopathology as a Multivariate Psychophysiological Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lindsay D.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Bernat, Edward M.

    2010-01-01

    The externalizing dimension is viewed as a broad dispositional factor underlying risk for numerous disinhibitory disorders. Prior work has documented deficits in event-related brain potential (ERP) responses in individuals prone to externalizing problems. Here, we constructed a direct physiological index of externalizing vulnerability from three ERP indicators and evaluated its validity in relation to criterion measures in two distinct domains: psychometric and physiological. The index was derived from three ERP measures that covaried in their relations with externalizing proneness the error-related negativity and two variants of the P3. Scores on this ERP composite predicted psychometric criterion variables and accounted for externalizing-related variance in P3 response from a separate task. These findings illustrate how a diagnostic construct can be operationalized as a composite (multivariate) psychophysiological variable (phenotype). PMID:20573054

  19. The handling of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The symposium was attended by 204 participants from 39 countries and 5 international organizations. Forty-two papers were presented in 8 sessions. The purpose of the meeting was to foster an exchange of experiences gained in establishing and exercising plans for mitigating the effects of radiation accidents and in the handling of actual accident situations. Only a small number of accidents were reported at the symposium, and this reflects the very high standards of safety that has been achieved by the nuclear industry. No accidents of radiological significance were reported to have occurred at commercial nuclear power plants. Of the accidents reported, industrial radiography continues to be the area in which most of the radiation accidents occur. The experience gained in the reported accident situations served to confirm the crucial importance of the prompt availability of medical and radiological services, particularly in the case of uptake of radioactive material, and emphasized the importance of detailed investigation into the causes of the accident in order to improve preventative measures. One of the principal themes of the symposium involved emergency procedures related to nuclear power plant accidents, and several papers defining the scope, progression and consequences of design base accidents for both thermal and fast reactor systems were presented. These were complemented by papers defining the resultant protection requirements that should be satisfied in the establishment of plans designed to mitigate the effects of the postulated accident situations. Several papers were presented describing existing emergency organizational arrangements relating both to specific nuclear power plants and to comprehensive national schemes, and a particularly informative session was devoted to the topic of training of personnel in the practical conduct of emergency arrangements. The general feeling of the participants was one of studied confidence in the competence and

  20. Prone positioning ventilation for treatment of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Mei-juan; He, Xiao-di

    2009-08-01

    Patients who are diagnosed with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) usually have ventilation-perfusion mismatch, severe decrease in lung capacity, and gas exchange abnormalities. Health care workers have implemented various strategies in an attempt to compensate for these pathological alterations. By rotating patients with ALI/ARDS between the supine and prone position, it is possible to achieve a significant improvement in PaO2/FiO2, decrease shunting and therefore improve oxygenation without use of expensive, invasive and experimental procedures. Prone positioning is a safe and effective way to improve ventilation when conventional strategies fail to initiate a patient response. Because a specific cure for ARDS is not available, the goal is to support the patients with therapies that cause the least amount of injury while the lungs have an opportunity to heal. Based on current data, a trial of prone positioning ventilation should be offered to the patients who have ALI/ARDS in the early course of the disease. Published studies exhibit substantial heterogeneity in clinical results, suggesting that an adequately sized study optimizing the duration of proning ventilation strategy is warranted to enable definitive conclusions to be drawn.

  1. Casebook on electric safety accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This book gives concentration on electric safety accidents in domestic and abroad, which introduces general electrical safety with property of electricity, safe equipment and maintenance and protection of electric shock. It lists the cases of accident caused of electricity in domestic like accident in power substation, utilization equipment, load system and another accident by electricity like death in electric shock another by electricity like death in electric shock in new building construction, the cases caused of electricity in abroad like damage in electric shock by high voltage electric transformer, electric shock in summer and earth fault accident by fault cooling tower.

  2. Radiological accidents balance in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    This work deals with the radiological accidents in medicine. In medicine, the radiation accidents on medical personnel and patients can be the result of over dosage and bad focusing of radiotherapy sealed sources. Sometimes, the accidents, if they are unknown during a time enough for the source to be spread and to expose a lot of persons (in the case of source dismantling for instance) can take considerable dimensions. Others accidents can come from bad handling of linear accelerators and from radionuclide kinetics in some therapies. Some examples of accidents are given. (O.L.). 11 refs

  3. A study on industrial accident rate forecasting and program development of estimated zero accident time in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-gu; Kang, Young-sig; Lee, Hyung-won

    2011-01-01

    To begin a zero accident campaign for industry, the first thing is to estimate the industrial accident rate and the zero accident time systematically. This paper considers the social and technical change of the business environment after beginning the zero accident campaign through quantitative time series analysis methods. These methods include sum of squared errors (SSE), regression analysis method (RAM), exponential smoothing method (ESM), double exponential smoothing method (DESM), auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, and the proposed analytic function method (AFM). The program is developed to estimate the accident rate, zero accident time and achievement probability of an efficient industrial environment. In this paper, MFC (Microsoft Foundation Class) software of Visual Studio 2008 was used to develop a zero accident program. The results of this paper will provide major information for industrial accident prevention and be an important part of stimulating the zero accident campaign within all industrial environments.

  4. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may...... be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... aboard. Relative risks for notified accidents and accidents causing permanent disability of 5% or more were calculated in a multivariate analysis including ship type, occupation, age, time on board, change of ship since last employment period, and nationality. Foreigners had a considerably lower recorded...

  5. Cernavoda CANDU severe accident evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negut, G.; Marin, A.

    1997-01-01

    The papers present the activities dedicated to Romania Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant first CANDU Unit severe accident evaluation. This activity is part of more general PSA assessment activities. CANDU specific safety features are calandria moderator and calandria vault water capabilities to remove the residual heat in the case of severe accidents, when the conventional heat sinks are no more available. Severe accidents evaluation, that is a deterministic thermal hydraulic analysis, assesses the accidents progression and gives the milestones when important events take place. This kind of assessment is important to evaluate to recovery time for the reactor operators that can lead to the accident mitigation. The Cernavoda CANDU unit is modeled for the of all heat sinks accident and results compared with the AECL CANDU 600 assessment. (orig.)

  6. Preliminary safety analysis of the PWR with accident-tolerant fuels during severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Li, Wei; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Yapei; Tian, Wenxi; Su, Guanghui; Qiu, Suizheng; Liu, Tong; Deng, Yongjun; Huang, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of severe accident scenarios for a PWR fueled with ATF system is performed. • A large-break LOCA without ECCS is analyzed for the PWR fueled with ATF system. • Extended SBO cases are discussed for the PWR fueled with ATF system. • The accident-tolerance of ATF system for application in PWR is illustrated. - Abstract: Experience gained in decades of nuclear safety research and previous nuclear accidents direct to the investigation of passive safety system design and accident-tolerant fuel (ATF) system which is now becoming a hot research point in the nuclear energy field. The ATF system is aimed at upgrading safety characteristics of the nuclear fuel and cladding in a reactor core where active cooling has been lost, and is preferable or comparable to the current UO 2 –Zr system when the reactor is in normal operation. By virtue of advanced materials with improved properties, the ATF system will obviously slow down the progression of accidents, allowing wider margin of time for the mitigation measures to work. Specifically, the simulation and analysis of a large break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA) without ECCS and extended station blackout (SBO) severe accident are performed for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) loaded with ATF candidates, to reflect the accident-tolerance of ATF

  7. Historical Change in the Link between Adolescent Deviance Proneness and Marijuana Use, 1979–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Michelle; Weaver, Scott R.; King, Kevin M.; Liu, Freda; Chassin, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    We examined historical change in the association between adolescent deviance proneness and marijuana use using 26 years (from 1979 through 2004) of national 12th grade data from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study. “Deviance proneness” was measured using a latent factor model of behavioral and personality characteristics that underlie both substance use and antisocial disorders. Marijuana use outcomes were measured in terms of youths’ annual frequency of use, and youths’ degree of involvement with marijuana. Separate within-gender structural equation models were used to determine whether links between deviance proneness and marijuana use were consistently significant and invariant in magnitude across 13 2-year historical cohorts. Overall results affirmed the established association between adolescent deviance proneness and both the frequency of marijuana use as well as regular use. Among male youth, the size of the association between deviance proneness and marijuana use was significantly smaller at the cohort of lowest population prevalence (1991/92) compared to cohorts marking peaks in marijuana use prevalence, thus suggesting a “softening” historical trend. By contrast, the prediction of female marijuana use from deviance proneness was not consistently related to historical shifts in population prevalence of marijuana use. Study findings point to the utility of risk-focused prevention programming that targets early precursors of both antisocial and substance use disorders. PMID:18317927

  8. A Study on the Operation Strategy for Combined Accident including TLOFW accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Gook Young; Yoon, Ho Joon

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult for operators to recognize the necessity of a feed-and-bleed (F-B) operation when the loss of coolant accident and failure of secondary side occur. An F-B operation directly cools down the reactor coolant system (RCS) using the primary cooling system when residual heat removal by the secondary cooling system is not available. The plant is not always necessary the F-B operation when the secondary side is failed. It is not necessary to initiate an F-B operation in the case of a medium or large break because these cases correspond to low RCS pressure sequences when the secondary side is failed. If the break size is too small to sufficiently decrease the RCS pressure, the F-B operation is necessary. Therefore, in the case of a combined accident including a secondary cooling system failure, the provision of clear information will play a critical role in the operators' decision to initiate an F-B operation. This study focuses on the how we establish the operation strategy for combined accident including the failure of secondary side in consideration of plant and operating conditions. Previous studies have usually focused on accidents involving a TLOFW accident. The plant conditions to make the operators confused seriously are usually the combined accident because the ORP only focuses on a single accident and FRP is less familiar with operators. The relationship between CET and PCT under various plant conditions is important to decide the limitation of initiating the F-B operation to prevent core damage

  9. Prone versus supine thallium myocardial SPECT: A method to decrease artifactual inferior wall defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segall, G.M.; Davis, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Artifactual inferior wall defects as a result of diaphragmatic attenuation of activity are a frequent source of error in thallium myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies. Thirty-four patients and 11 clinically normal volunteers were studied prospectively to see if specificity of inferior wall defects for right coronary artery disease could be improved by scanning patients prone versus supine. All individuals were scanned both prone and supine, in random order, following symptom limited treadmill exercise. Images were acquired at 3 degrees steps, 25 sec per frame, in a 180 degrees elliptical orbit always beginning in the 45 degrees right anterior oblique position relative to the patient. Polar maps generated from the short axis slices were used to calculate the average regional activity. The prone studies showed consistently higher inferior wall activity compared to the supine studies on both the exercise (182 +/- 22 vs. 160 +/- 23, p less than or equal to 0.001) and 4-hr delay studies (183 +/- 20 vs. 175 +/- 21, p less than or equal to 0.001). Prone imaging resulted in a significantly higher specificity for RCA disease compared to supine imaging (90% vs. 66%, p less than 0.05) with an improvement in accuracy from 71% to 82%. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for left anterior descending and left circumflex artery disease were not significantly affected by patient position during imaging. All patients having SPECT thallium myocardial perfusion studies should be imaged prone to minimize artifactual inferior wall defects and improve accuracy

  10. Estimation of cost per severe accident for improvement of accident protection and consequence mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Kampanart; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Takahara, Shogo

    2013-01-01

    To assess the complex situations regarding the severe accidents such as what observed in Fukushima Accident, not only radiation protection aspects but also relevant aspects: health, environmental, economic and societal aspects; must be all included into the consequence assessment. In this study, the authors introduce the “cost per severe accident” as an index to analyze the consequences of severe accidents comprehensively. The cost per severe accident consists of various costs and consequences converted into monetary values. For the purpose of improvement of the accident protection and consequence mitigation strategies, the costs needed to introduce the protective actions, and health and psychological consequences are included in the present study. The evaluations of these costs and consequences were made based on the systematic consequence analysis using level 2 and 3 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) codes. The accident sequences used in this analysis were taken from the results of level 2 seismic PSA of a virtual 1,100 MWe BWR-5. The doses to the public and the number of people affected were calculated using the level 3 PSA code OSCAAR of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The calculations have been made for 248 meteorological sequences, and the outputs are given as expectation values for various meteorological conditions. Using these outputs, the cost per severe accident is calculated based on the open documents on the Fukushima Accident regarding the cost of protective actions and compensations for psychological harms. Finally, optimized accident protection and consequence mitigation strategies are recommended taking into account the various aspects comprehensively using the cost per severe accident. The authors must emphasize that the aim is not to estimate the accident cost itself but to extend the scope of “risk-informed decision making” for continuous safety improvements of nuclear energy. (author)

  11. A comparison of the hazard perception ability of accident-involved and accident-free motorcycle riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Andy S K; Ng, Terry C K; Lee, Hoe C

    2011-07-01

    Hazard perception is the ability to read the road and is closely related to involvement in traffic accidents. It consists of both cognitive and behavioral components. Within the cognitive component, visual attention is an important function of driving whereas driving behavior, which represents the behavioral component, can affect the hazard perception of the driver. Motorcycle riders are the most vulnerable types of road user. The primary purpose of this study was to deepen our understanding of the correlation of different subtypes of visual attention and driving violation behaviors and their effect on hazard perception between accident-free and accident-involved motorcycle riders. Sixty-three accident-free and 46 accident-involved motorcycle riders undertook four neuropsychological tests of attention (Digit Vigilance Test, Color Trails Test-1, Color Trails Test-2, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test), filled out the Chinese Motorcycle Rider Driving Violation (CMRDV) Questionnaire, and viewed a road-user-based hazard situation with an eye-tracking system to record the response latencies to potentially dangerous traffic situations. The results showed that both the divided and selective attention of accident-involved motorcycle riders were significantly inferior to those of accident-free motorcycle riders, and that accident-involved riders exhibited significantly higher driving violation behaviors and took longer to identify hazardous situations compared to their accident-free counterparts. However, the results of the regression analysis showed that aggressive driving violation CMRDV score significantly predicted hazard perception and accident involvement of motorcycle riders. Given that all participants were mature and experienced motorcycle riders, the most plausible explanation for the differences between them is their driving style (influenced by an undesirable driving attitude), rather than skill deficits per se. The present study points to the importance of

  12. Tension Pneumothorax During Surgery for Thoracic Spine Stabilization in Prone Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demicha Rankin MD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The intraoperative progression of a simple or occult pneumothorax into a tension pneumothorax can be a devastating clinical scenario. Routine use of prophylactic thoracostomy prior to anesthesia and initiation of controlled ventilation in patients with simple or occult pneumothorax remains controversial. We report the case of a 75-year-old trauma patient with an insignificant pneumothorax on the right who developed an intraoperative tension pneumothorax on the left side while undergoing thoracic spine stabilization surgery in the prone position. Management of an intraoperative tension pneumothorax requires prompt recognition and treatment; however, the prone position presents an additional challenge of readily accessing the standard anatomic sites for pleural puncture and air drainage.

  13. Severe accident behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denning, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of severe accident behavior. The term source term is defined and a brief history of the regulatory use of source term is presented. The processes in severe accidents in light water reactors are described with particular emphasis on the relationships between accident thermal-hydraulics and chemistry. Those factors which have the greatest impact on predicted source terms are identified. Design differences between plants that affect source term estimation are also described. The principal unresolved issues are identified that are the focus of ongoing research and debate in the technical community

  14. Construction industry accidents in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino López, Miguel A; Ritzel, Dale O; Fontaneda, Ignacio; González Alcantara, Oscar J

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzed industrial accidents that take place on construction sites and their severity. Eighteen variables were studied. We analyzed the influence of each of these with respect to the severity and fatality of the accident. This descriptive analysis was grounded in 1,630,452 accidents, representing the total number of accidents suffered by workers in the construction sector in Spain over the period 1990-2000. It was shown that age, type of contract, time of accident, length of service in the company, company size, day of the week, and the remainder of the variables under analysis influenced the seriousness of the accident. IMPACT ON INJURY PREVENTION: The results obtained show that different training was needed, depending on the severity of accidents, for different age, length of service in the company, organization of work, and time when workers work. The research provides an insight to the likely causes of construction injuries in Spain. As a result of the analysis, industries and governmental agencies in Spain can start to provide appropriate strategies and training to the construction workers.

  15. Pilot program: NRC severe reactor accident incident response training manual: Severe reactor accident overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, T.J.; Martin, J.A.; Miller, C.W.; Hively, L.M.; Sharpe, R.W.; Giitter, J.G.; Watkins, R.M.

    1987-02-01

    This pilot training manual has been written to fill the need for a general text on NRC response to reactor accidents. The manual is intended to be the foundation for a course for all NRC response personnel. Severe Reactor Accident Overview is the second in a series of volumes that collectively summarize the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) emergency response during severe power reactor accidents and provide necessary background information. This volume describes elementary perspectives on severe accidents and accident assesment. Each volume serves, respectively, as the text for a course of instruction in a series of courses. Each volume is accompanied by an appendix of slides that can be used to present this material. The slides are called out in the text

  16. Lessons learned from accidents investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga-Bello, P. [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT), Mexico City (Mexico); Croft, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Glenn, J

    1997-12-31

    Accidents from three main practices: medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the described accidents are approached by subjects covering: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  17. Lessons learned from accident investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuniga-Bello, P.; Croft, J.R.; Glenn, J.

    1998-01-01

    Accidents in three main practices - medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators - are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned from them. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the accidents described are approached bearing in mind: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  18. Socioeconomic consequences of nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawil, J.J.; Callaway, J.W.; Coles, B.L.; Cronin, F.J.; Currie, J.W.; Imhoff, K.L.; Lewis, P.M.; Nesse, R.J.; Strenge, D.L.

    1984-06-01

    This report identifies and characterizes the off-site socioeconomic consequences that would likely result from a severe radiological accident at a nuclear power plant. The types of impacts that are addressed include economic impacts, health impacts, social/psychological impacts and institutional impacts. These impacts are identified for each of several phases of a reactor accident - from the warning phase through the post-resettlement phase. The relative importance of the impact during each accident phase and the degree to which the impact can be predicted are indicated. The report also examines the methods that are currently used for assessing nuclear reactor accidents, including development of accident scenarios and the estimating of socioeconomic accident consequences with various models. Finally, a critical evaluation is made regarding the use of impact analyses in estimating the contribution of socioeconomic consequences to nuclear accident reactor accident risk. 116 references, 7 figures, 15 tables

  19. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplavskij, K.K.; Smorodintseva, G.I.

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of a critical analysis of the available data on causes and consequences of radiation accidents (RA), a classification of RA by severity (five groups of accidents) according to biomedical consequences and categories of exposed personnel is proposed. A RA is defined and its main characteristics are described. Methods of RA prevention are proposed, as is a plan of specific measures to deal with RA in accordance with the proposed classification

  20. Prone versus supine positioning for whole and partial-breast radiotherapy: A comparison of non-target tissue dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Anna M.; Evans, Philip M.; Donovan, Ellen M.; Convery, Helen M.; Haviland, Joanna S.; Yarnold, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare non-target tissue (including left-anterior-descending coronary-artery (LAD)) dosimetry of prone versus supine whole (WBI) and partial-breast irradiation (PBI). Methods and materials: Sixty-five post-lumpectomy breast cancer patients underwent CT-imaging supine and prone. On each dataset, the whole-breast clinical-target-volume (WB-CTV), partial-breast CTV (tumour-bed + 15 mm), ipsilateral-lung and chest-wall were outlined. Heart and LAD were outlined in left-sided cases (n = 30). Tangential-field WBI and PBI plans were generated for each position. Mean LAD, heart, and ipsilateral-lung doses (x mean ), maximum LAD (LAD max ) doses, and the volume of chest-wall receiving 50 Gy (V 50Gy ) were compared. Results: Two-hundred and sixty plans were generated. Prone positioning reduced heart and LAD doses in 19/30 WBI cases (median reduction in LAD mean = 6.2 Gy) and 7/30 PBI cases (median reduction in LAD max = 29.3 Gy) (no difference in 4/30 cases). However, prone positioning increased cardiac doses in 8/30 WBI (median increase in LAD mean = 9.5 Gy) and 19/30 PBI cases (median increase in LAD max = 22.9 Gy) (no difference in 3/30 cases). WB-CTV > 1000cm 3 was associated with improved cardiac dosimetry in the prone position for WBI (p = 0.04) and PBI (p = 0.04). Prone positioning reduced ipsilateral-lung mean in 65/65 WBI and 61/65 PBI cases, and chest-wall V 50Gy in all WBI cases. PBI reduced normal-tissue doses compared to WBI in all cases, regardless of the treatment position. Conclusions: In the context of tangential-field WBI and PBI, prone positioning is likely to benefit left-breast-affected women of larger breast volume, but to be detrimental in left-breast-affected women of smaller breast volume. Right-breast-affected women are likely to benefit from prone positioning regardless of breast volume.

  1. The Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  2. Comparison of prone versus supine 18F-FDG-PET of locally advanced breast cancer: Phantom and preliminary clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Jason M.; Rani, Sudheer D.; Li, Xia; Whisenant, Jennifer G.; Abramson, Richard G.; Arlinghaus, Lori R.; Lee, Tzu-Cheng; MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Partridge, Savannah C.; Kang, Hakmook; Linden, Hannah M.; Kinahan, Paul E.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have demonstrated how imaging of the breast with patients lying prone using a supportive positioning device markedly facilitates longitudinal and/or multimodal image registration. In this contribution, the authors’ primary objective was to determine if there are differences in the standardized uptake value (SUV) derived from [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in breast tumors imaged in the standard supine position and in the prone position using a specialized positioning device. Methods: A custom positioning device was constructed to allow for breast scanning in the prone position. Rigid and nonrigid phantom studies evaluated differences in prone and supine PET. Clinical studies comprised 18F-FDG-PET of 34 patients with locally advanced breast cancer imaged in the prone position (with the custom support) followed by imaging in the supine position (without the support). Mean and maximum values (SUV peak and SUV max , respectively) were obtained from tumor regions-of-interest for both positions. Prone and supine SUV were linearly corrected to account for the differences in 18F-FDG uptake time. Correlation, Bland–Altman, and nonparametric analyses were performed on uptake time-corrected and uncorrected data. Results: SUV from the rigid PET breast phantom imaged in the prone position with the support device was 1.9% lower than without the support device. In the nonrigid PET breast phantom, prone SUV with the support device was 5.0% lower than supine SUV without the support device. In patients, the median (range) difference in uptake time between prone and supine scans was 16.4 min (13.4–30.9 min), which was significantly—but not completely—reduced by the linear correction method. SUV peak and SUV max from prone versus supine scans were highly correlated, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.91 and 0.90, respectively. Prone SUV peak and SUV max were significantly lower than supine in both

  3. Setup accuracy for prone and supine whole breast irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulliez, Thomas; Vercauteren, Tom; Greveling, Annick van; Speleers, Bruno; Neve, Wilfried de; Veldeman, Liv [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent (Belgium); Gulyban, Akos [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent (Belgium); University Hospital Liege, Department of Radiotherapy, Liege (Belgium)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) based setup accuracy and margins for prone and supine whole breast irradiation (WBI). Setup accuracy was evaluated on 3559 CBCT scans of 242 patients treated with WBI and uncertainty margins were calculated using the van Herk formula. Uni- and multivariate analysis on individual margins was performed for age, body mass index (BMI) and cup size. The population-based margin in vertical (VE), lateral (LA) and longitudinal (LO) directions was 10.4/9.4/9.4 mm for the 103 supine and 10.5/22.4/13.7 mm for the 139 prone treated patients, being significantly (p < 0.01) different for the LA and LO directions. Multivariate analysis identified a significant (p < 0.05) correlation between BMI and the LO margin in supine position and the VE/LA margin in prone position. In this series, setup accuracy is significantly worse in prone compared to supine position for the LA and LO directions. However, without proper image-guidance, uncertainty margins of about 1 cm are also necessary for supine WBI. For patients with a higher BMI, larger margins are required. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Arbeit war es, die interfraktionelle Repositionierungsgenauigkeit in Bauchlage (BL) versus Rueckenlage (RL) bei Ganzbrustbestrahlung (GBB) mittels Cone-Beam-CT (CBCT) zu bestimmen, um die notwendigen PTV-Sicherheitsabstaende zu definieren. Die Repositionierungsgenauigkeit wurde basierend an 3559 CBCT-Scans von 242 mit GBB behandelten Patienten ausgewertet. Die PTV-Sicherheitsabstaende wurden unter Verwendung der ''van-Herk''-Formel berechnet. Uni- und multivariable Analysen wurden fuer Sicherheitsabstaende in jede Richtung auf Basis von Alter, Body-Mass-Index (BMI) und Koerbchengroesse durchgefuehrt. Die basierend auf den taeglichen CBCT-Verschiebungen berechneten PTV-Sicherheitsabstaende betrugen in anteroposteriorer (AP), lateraler (LT oder links-rechts) und kraniokaudaler (CC) Richtung 10,4/9,4/9,4 mm fuer die RL (103 Patienten) und

  4. 49 CFR 195.50 - Reporting accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting accidents. 195.50 Section 195.50 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.50 Reporting accidents. An accident...

  5. 28 CFR 301.106 - Repetitious accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Repetitious accidents. 301.106 Section 301.106 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ACCIDENT COMPENSATION General § 301.106 Repetitious accidents. If an inmate worker is involved in successive accidents...

  6. Use of the prone position in radiation treatment for women with early stage breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algan, Oezer; Fowble, Barbara; McNeeley, Shawn; Fein, Douglas

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The prone position has been advocated for women with large pendulous breasts undergoing breast-conserving treatment with radiation therapy. However, there is no information in the literature regarding the coverage of the target volume with this technique. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the prone treatment position in including at least the biopsy cavity with a 2-cm margin. Methods and Materials: Eleven consecutive patients who underwent CT simulation in the prone position were included in this study. Patients underwent CT simulation in the prone position using a flat platform containing an aperture for the breast to hang through in a dependent fashion. CT slices were 5-mm thick taken at 3-mm intervals. The biopsy cavity was localized and outlined on sequential CT images using the surgical clips (when present) as well as the residual seroma. A 2-cm margin was included around the biopsy cavity to define the minimal target volume (mTV). Lateral fields were used for treatment planning. The beam arrangements were considered adequate if the mTV was totally included in the lateral fields. Results: Median age of the patient population was 55 years. Bra sizes ranged from 36A-44DD. The majority of patients had mammographically detected T1 lesions. Median volume of the biopsy cavity was 48 cm 3 . Five of 11 (45%) patients underwent reexcision of the biopsy cavity, and 6 of 11 (55%) had surgical clips placed in the biopsy cavity. Overall, 8 of 11 (73%) patients did not have the entire mTV included in the lateral opposed tangential fields in the prone position. This was especially true in patients whose biopsy cavity extended down to the chest wall. There were no other clinical factors that could predict for the adequacy of coverage in the prone position. Conclusion: Special attention must be paid to the location of the surgical clips to determine the proximity of the biopsy cavity to the chest wall, or CT simulation should be performed

  7. Accident management on french PWRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, D.

    1990-06-01

    After a brief recall of French safety rationale, the reactor operation and severe accident management is given. The research and development aimed at developing accident management procedures and emergency organization in France for the case of a NPP accident are also given

  8. Overview of core disruptive accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchaterre, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the analysis of core-disruptive accidents is given. These analyses are for the purpose of understanding and predicting fast reactor behavior in severe low probability accident conditions, to establish the consequences of such conditions and to provide a basis for evaluating consequence limiting design features. The methods are used to analyze core-disruptive accidents from initiating event to complete core disruption, the effects of the accident on reactor structures and the resulting radiological consequences are described

  9. Inducibility of error-prone DNA repair in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siede, W.; Eckardt, F.

    1984-01-01

    Whereas some experimental evidence suggests that mutagenesis in yeast after treatment with DNA-damaging agents involves inducible functions, a general-acting error-prone repair activity analogous to the SOS system of Escherichia coli has not yet been demonstrated. The current literature on the problem of inducibility of mutagenic repair in yeast is reviewed with emphasis on the differences in the experimental procedures applied. (orig.)

  10. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...... of accidents in normally Danish winter seasons are remarkable alike the amount of salt used in praxis in the winter 2011/2012. • 2.7 ton NaCl/km when using brine spread with nozzles • 5 ton NaCl/km when using pre wetted salt. • 5.7 ton NaCl/km when using kombi spreaders The explanation is that spreading...

  11. Profound Obstructive Hypotension From Prone Positioning Documented by Transesophageal Echocardiography in a Patient With Scoliosis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abcejo, Arnoley S; Diaz Soto, Juan; Castoro, Courtney; Armour, Sarah; Long, Timothy R

    2017-08-01

    In a healthy 12-year-old female with scoliosis, prone positioning resulted in pressor-refractory cardiovascular collapse. Resumption of supine position immediately improved hemodynamics. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) revealed a collapsed left atrium and biventricular failure. Repeat prone positioning resulted in a recurrence of hypotension. However, hemodynamic stabilization was restored and maintained by repositioning chest pads caudally. The patient successfully underwent a 6-hour scoliosis repair without perioperative morbidity. With this case, we aim to: (1) reintroduce awareness of this mechanical obstructive cause of reversible hypotension; (2) highlight the use of intraoperative TEE during prone hemodynamic collapse; and (3) suggest an alternative prone positioning technique if chest compression results in hemodynamic instability.

  12. 32 CFR 644.532 - Reporting accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reporting accidents. 644.532 Section 644.532... and Improvements § 644.532 Reporting accidents. Immediately upon receipt of information of an accident... that an accident has occurred, the former using command should be requested to send qualified explosive...

  13. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  14. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P L [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  15. Accidents in nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10 -3 per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  16. Contributing factors in construction accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, R A; Hide, S A; Gibb, A G F; Gyi, D E; Pavitt, T; Atkinson, S; Duff, A R

    2005-07-01

    This overview paper draws together findings from previous focus group research and studies of 100 individual construction accidents. Pursuing issues raised by the focus groups, the accident studies collected qualitative information on the circumstances of each incident and the causal influences involved. Site based data collection entailed interviews with accident-involved personnel and their supervisor or manager, inspection of the accident location, and review of appropriate documentation. Relevant issues from the site investigations were then followed up with off-site stakeholders, including designers, manufacturers and suppliers. Levels of involvement of key factors in the accidents were: problems arising from workers or the work team (70% of accidents), workplace issues (49%), shortcomings with equipment (including PPE) (56%), problems with suitability and condition of materials (27%), and deficiencies with risk management (84%). Employing an ergonomics systems approach, a model is proposed, indicating the manner in which originating managerial, design and cultural factors shape the circumstances found in the work place, giving rise to the acts and conditions which, in turn, lead to accidents. It is argued that attention to the originating influences will be necessary for sustained improvement in construction safety to be achieved.

  17. Can perspective-taking reduce crime? Examining a pathway through empathic-concern and guilt-proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Andres G; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Tangney, June P

    2014-12-01

    We describe and appraise a theoretical model in which individual differences in perspective-taking eventuate in crime reduction. Specifically, it is hypothesized that perspective-taking propensities influence the tendency to feel empathic-concern, thereby heightening proneness for guilt, which ultimately inhibits criminal behavior (perspective-taking → empathic-concern → guilt-proneness → crime desistance). Data from two sources were analyzed: (a) a cross-sectional college sample and (b) a longitudinal sample of jail inmates. Overall, results lend credence to this theoretical model: Perspective-taking propensities ultimately "put the brakes" on criminal behavior-via an emotional pathway of empathic-concern and then guilt-proneness. Discussion focuses on the nature of perspective-taking, its generative role for moral emotion and behavior, as well as potential applications for crime reduction. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  18. Radiological accidents: education for prevention and confrontation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, Juan; Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to train and inform on radiological accidents as a preventive measure to improve the people life quality. Radiological accidents are part of the events of technological origin which are composed of nuclear and radiological accidents. As a notable figure is determined that there have been 423 radiological accidents from 1944 to 2005 and among the causes prevail industrial accidents, by irradiations, medical accidents and of laboratories, among others. Latin American countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Peru are some where most accidents have occurred by radioactivity. The radiological accidents can have sociological, environmental, economic, social and political consequences. In addition, there are scenarios of potential nuclear accidents and in them the potential human consequences. Also, the importance of the organization and planning in a nuclear emergency is highlighted. Finally, the experience that Cuba has lived on the subject of radiological accidents is described [es

  19. 22 CFR 102.8 - Reporting accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting accidents. 102.8 Section 102.8... Accidents Abroad § 102.8 Reporting accidents. (a) To airline and Civil Aeronautics Administration... probably be the first to be informed of the accident, in which event he will be expected to report the...

  20. Comparison of prone versus supine 18F-FDG-PET of locally advanced breast cancer: Phantom and preliminary clinical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Jason M.; Rani, Sudheer D.; Li, Xia; Whisenant, Jennifer G.; Abramson, Richard G. [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 and Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Arlinghaus, Lori R. [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Lee, Tzu-Cheng [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Partridge, Savannah C. [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Kang, Hakmook [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 and Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Linden, Hannah M. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Kinahan, Paul E. [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Yankeelov, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.yankeelov@vanderbilt.edu [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Previous studies have demonstrated how imaging of the breast with patients lying prone using a supportive positioning device markedly facilitates longitudinal and/or multimodal image registration. In this contribution, the authors’ primary objective was to determine if there are differences in the standardized uptake value (SUV) derived from [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in breast tumors imaged in the standard supine position and in the prone position using a specialized positioning device. Methods: A custom positioning device was constructed to allow for breast scanning in the prone position. Rigid and nonrigid phantom studies evaluated differences in prone and supine PET. Clinical studies comprised 18F-FDG-PET of 34 patients with locally advanced breast cancer imaged in the prone position (with the custom support) followed by imaging in the supine position (without the support). Mean and maximum values (SUV{sub peak} and SUV{sub max}, respectively) were obtained from tumor regions-of-interest for both positions. Prone and supine SUV were linearly corrected to account for the differences in 18F-FDG uptake time. Correlation, Bland–Altman, and nonparametric analyses were performed on uptake time-corrected and uncorrected data. Results: SUV from the rigid PET breast phantom imaged in the prone position with the support device was 1.9% lower than without the support device. In the nonrigid PET breast phantom, prone SUV with the support device was 5.0% lower than supine SUV without the support device. In patients, the median (range) difference in uptake time between prone and supine scans was 16.4 min (13.4–30.9 min), which was significantly—but not completely—reduced by the linear correction method. SUV{sub peak} and SUV{sub max} from prone versus supine scans were highly correlated, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.91 and 0.90, respectively. Prone SUV{sub peak} and SUV{sub max} were

  1. First international workshop on severe accidents and their consequences. [Chernobyl Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    An international workshop on past severe nuclear accidents and their consequences was held in Dagomys region of Sochi, USSR on October 30--November 3, 1989. The plan of this meeting was approved by the USSR Academy of Sciences and by the USSR State Committee of the Utilization of Atomic Energy. The meeting was held under the umbrella of the ANS-SNS agreement of cooperation. Topics covered include analysis of the Chernobyl accident, safety measures for RBMK type reactors and consequences of the Chernobyl accident including analysis of the ecological, genetic and psycho-social factors. Separate reports are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  2. Guidance on accidents involving radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This annex contains advice to Health Authorities on their response to accidents involving radioactivity. The guidance is in six parts:-(1) planning the response required to nuclear accidents overseas, (2) planning the response required to UK nuclear accidents a) emergency plans for nuclear installations b) nuclear powered satellites, (3) the handling of casualties contaminated with radioactive substances, (4) background information for dealing with queries from the public in the event of an accident, (5) the national arrangements for incident involving radioactivity (NAIR), (6) administrative arrangements. (author)

  3. Review of severe accidents and the results of accident consequence assessment in different energy systems (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuki, Yoshio; Muramatsu, Ken

    2008-05-01

    The cases of severe accidents and the consequence assessments in different energy systems, Coal, Oil, Gas, Hydro and Nuclear, were collected, and then they were further analyzed. In this report, the information on the accidents in various energy systems were collected from the sources of the Paul Scherrer Institute (hereinafter, 'PSI') and the International Atomic Energy Agency (hereinafter, 'IAEA'). The information on the severe accidents of nuclear power plants were collected from the report of the US Presidential Commission on Catastrophic Nuclear Accidents and several relevant reports issued in the countries of the European Union, together with the reports of the PSI and the IAEA. To analyze the collected information, several parameters, which are numbers of fatalities, injuries, evacuees and the costs of the damages, were chosen to characterize those accidents in different energy systems. And then, upon the comparison of these characteristics of different accidents, the impacts of the accidents in nuclear and other energy systems were compared. Upon the results of the analysis, it is pointed out that the cost caused by the Chernobyl Accident, the severe accident in nuclear energy, tends to be higher than in the other energy systems. On the other hand, from the aspects of fatalities and injuries, it is not confirmed that the damages of the Chernobyl Accident are larger than in the other energy systems. However, it is also recognized, as the specific characteristics of the severe nuclear accident, that the impacts of the accident spread in a wider area, and stay for a longer period, in comparison with the ones in the other energy systems. (author)

  4. The epidemiology of bicyclist's collision accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L. B.

    1994-01-01

    of bicyclists and risk situations. The findings should make a basis for preventive programmes in order to decrease the number and severity of bicyclists collision accidents. Data from the emergency room in a 2 year period was combined with data from questionnaires. The study group consisted of 1021 bicyclists......The number of bicyclists injured in the road traffic in collision accidents and treated at the emergency room at Odense University Hospital has increased 66% from 1980 to 1989. The aim of this study was to examine the epidemiology of bicyclist's collision accidents and identify risk groups...... injured in collision accidents, and 1502 bicyclists injured in single accidents was used as a reference group. The young bicyclists 10-19 years of age had the highest incidence of injuries caused by collision accidents. The collision accidents had different characteristics according to counterpart. One...

  5. International aspects of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, K.

    1989-09-01

    The accident at Chernobyl revealed that there were shortcomings and gaps in the existing international mechanisms and brought home to governments the need for stronger measures to provide better protection against the risks of severe accidents. The main thrust of international co-operation with regard to nuclear safety issues is aimed at achieving a uniformly high level of safety in nuclear power plants through continuous exchanges of research findings and feedback from reactor operating experience. The second type of problem posed in the event of an accident resulting in radioactive contamination of several countries relates to the obligation to notify details of the circumstances and nature of the accident speedily so that the countries affected can take appropriate protective measures and, if necessary, organize mutual assistance. Giving the public accurate information is also an important aspect of managing an emergency situation arising from a severe accident. Finally, the confusion resulting from the unwarranted variety of protective measures implemented after the Chernobyl accident has highlighted the need for international harmonization of the principles and scientific criteria applicable to the protection of the public in the event of an accident and for a more consistent approach to emergency plans. The international conventions on third party liability in the nuclear energy sector (Paris/Brussels Conventions and the Vienna Convention) provide for compensation for damage caused by nuclear accidents in accordance with the rules and jurisdiction that they lay down. These provisions impose obligations on the operator responsible for an accident, and the State where the nuclear facility is located, towards the victims of damage caused in another country

  6. Computerized accident management support system: development for severe accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, V.; Saiz, J.; Gomez, C.

    1998-01-01

    The activities involved in the international Halden Reactor Project (HRP), sponsored by the OECD, include the development of a Computerized Accident Management Support System (CAMS). The system was initially designed for its operation under normal conditions, operational transients and non severe accidents. Its purpose is to detect the plant status, analyzing the future evolution of the sequence (initially using the APROS simulation code) and the possible recovery and mitigation actions in case of an accident occurs. In order to widen the scope of CAMS to severe accident management issues, the integration of the MAAP code in the system has been proposed, as the contribution of the Spanish Electrical Sector to the project (with the coordination of DTN). To include this new capacity in CAMS is necessary to modify the system structure, including two new modules (Diagnosis and Adjustment). These modules are being developed currently for Pressurized Water Reactors and Boiling Water REactors, by the engineering of UNION FENOSA and IBERDROLA companies (respectively). This motion presents the characteristics of the new structure of the CAMS, as well as the general characteristics of the modules, developed by these companies in the framework of the Halden Reactor Project. (Author)

  7. Jumping to conclusions style along the continuum of delusions: delusion-prone individuals are not hastier in decision making than healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Ho-wai So

    Full Text Available Literature comparing 'jumping to conclusions' (JTC between patients and healthy controls has demonstrated the importance of the reasoning bias in the development of delusions. When groups that vary along the entire delusional continuum are included, the relationship between JTC and delusionality is less clear. This study compared JTC and delusional dimensions between 28 patients with delusions, 35 delusion-prone individuals and 32 non-delusion-prone individuals. Delusion proneness was defined by an established threshold based on the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory. Two versions of the beads task (85:15 and 60:40 were used to measure JTC. As hypothesized, patients manifested hastier data gathering than the two non-clinical groups on both beads tasks. However, delusion-prone individuals did not manifest a hastier decision making style than non-delusion prone individuals. Instead, non-delusion-prone participants showed more JTC bias than delusion-prone individuals on the easier beads task. There was no evidence for a dose-response relationship between JTC and delusional dimensions, with correlations between JTC and PDI scores found in the non-delusion-prone group only. The present finding confirms the link between an extreme JTC bias and the presence of clinical delusions, and argues against a linear relationship between JTC and delusionality along the symptomatic continuum.

  8. Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)

  9. Expert software for accident identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobnikar, M.; Nemec, T.; Muehleisen, A.

    2003-01-01

    Each type of an accident in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) causes immediately after the start of the accident variations of physical parameters that are typical for that type of the accident thus enabling its identification. Examples of these parameter are: decrease of reactor coolant system pressure, increase of radiation level in the containment, increase of pressure in the containment. An expert software enabling a fast preliminary identification of the type of the accident in Krsko NPP has been developed. As input data selected typical parameters from Emergency Response Data System (ERDS) of the Krsko NPP are used. Based on these parameters the expert software identifies the type of the accident and also provides the user with appropriate references (past analyses and other documentation of such an accident). The expert software is to be used as a support tool by an expert team that forms in case of an emergency at Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) with the task to determine the cause of the accident, its most probable scenario and the source term. The expert software should provide initial identification of the event, while the final one is still to be made after appropriate assessment of the event by the expert group considering possibility of non-typical events, multiple causes, initial conditions, influences of operators' actions etc. The expert software can be also used as an educational/training tool and even as a simple database of available accident analyses. (author)

  10. Big nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.

    1983-01-01

    Much of the debate on the safety of nuclear power focuses on the large number of fatalities that could, in theory, be caused by extremely unlikely but imaginable reactor accidents. This, along with the nuclear industry's inappropriate use of vocabulary during public debate, has given the general public a distorted impression of the safety of nuclear power. The way in which the probability and consequences of big nuclear accidents have been presented in the past is reviewed and recommendations for the future are made including the presentation of the long-term consequences of such accidents in terms of 'reduction in life expectancy', 'increased chance of fatal cancer' and the equivalent pattern of compulsory cigarette smoking. (author)

  11. Process criticality accident likelihoods, magnitudes and emergency planning. A focus on solution accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, Thomas P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents analyses and applications of data from reactor and critical experiment research on the dynamics of nuclear excursions in solution media. Available criticality accident information is also discussed and shown to provide strong evidence of the overwhelming likelihood of accidents in liquid media over other forms and to support the measured data. These analyses are shown to provide valuable insights into key parameters important to understanding solution excursion dynamics in general and in evaluating practical upper bounds on criticality accident magnitudes. This understanding and these upper bounds are directly applicable to the evaluation of the consequences of postulated criticality accidents. These bounds are also essential in order to comply with national and international consensus standards and regulatory requirements for emergency planning. (author)

  12. Accidents in family forestry's firewood production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroos, Ola; Aspman, Emma Wilhelmson; Lidestav, Gun; Neely, Gregory

    2008-05-01

    Firewood is commonly used around the world, but little is known about the work involved in its production and associated accidents. The objectives were to identify relationships between accidents and time exposure, workers' age and sex, equipment used and work activities in family forestry's firewood production. Data from a postal survey in Northern Sweden were compared to a database of injuries in the same region. Most accidents occurred to 50-69 year old men, who also worked most hours. No significant differences in sex and age were found between expected and recorded accident frequencies when calculated from total work hours; however, when calculated using numbers of active persons significant differences were found for both age and sex. Frequency of accidents per unit worked time was higher for machine involving activities than for other activities. Accidents that occurred when using wedge splitter machines were responsible for most of this overrepresentation. Fingers were the most commonly injured body parts. Mean accident rate for the equipment used was 87 accidents per million work hours, and the rate was highest for wedge splitters (122 accidents per million work hours). Exposure to elevated risks due to violation of safety procedures is discussed, as well as possible preventative measures.

  13. [Accidents on Iceland's most dangerous roads].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, Thóroddur; Arnarsson, Sveinn

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this paper was to identify the most dangerous segments of the Icelandic road system in terms of the number of accidents pr km and the rate of accidents pr million km travelled. First to identify the segments where the number of accidents is highest and where the risk of the individual traveller is the greatest. Second to evaluate if the association between the number and the rate of accidents is positive or negative. Third to identify the road segments that are the most dangerous in the sense of many accidents and great risk to individual travellers. Main roads outside urban centers were divided into 45 segments that were on average 78 km in length. Infrequently travelled roads and roads within urban centers were omitted. Information on the length of roads, traffic density and number of accidents was used to calculate the number of accidents per km and the rate of accidents per million km travelled. The correlation between the number and rate of accidents was calculated and the most dangerous road segments were identified by the average rank order on both dimensions. Most accidents pr km occurred on the main roads to and from the capital region, but also east towards Hvolsvöllur, north towards Akureyri and in the Mideast region of the country. The rate of accidents pr million km travelled was highest in the northeast region, in northern Snæfellsnes and in the Westfjords. The most dangerous roads on both dimensions were in Mideast, northern Westfjords, in the north between Blönduós and Akureyri and in northern Snæfellsnes. Most accidents pr km occurred on roads with a low accident rate pr million km travelled. It is therefore possible to reduce accidents the most by increasing road safety where it is already the greatest but that would however increase inequalities in road safety. Policy development in transportation is therefore in part a question of priorities in healthcare. Individual equality in safety and health are not always fully

  14. Spinal Stiffness in Prone and Upright Postures During 0-1.8 g Induced by Parabolic Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanenburg, Jaap; Meier, Michael L; Langenfeld, Anke; Schweinhardt, Petra; Humphreys, B Kim

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze posterior-to-anterior spinal stiffness in Earth, hyper-, and microgravity conditions during both prone and upright postures. During parabolic flight, the spinal stiffness of the L3 vertebra of a healthy 37-yr-old man was measured in normal Earth gravity (1.0 g), hypergravity (1.8 g), and microgravity (0.0 g) conditions induced in the prone and upright positions. Differences in spinal stiffness were significant across all three gravity conditions in the prone and upright positions. Most effect sizes were large; however, in the upright posture, the effect size between Earth gravity and microgravity was medium. Significant differences in spinal stiffness between the prone and upright positions were found during Earth gravity and hypergravity conditions. No difference was found between the two postures during microgravity conditions. Based on repeated measurements of a single individual, our results showed detectable changes in posterior-to-anterior spinal stiffness. Spinal stiffness increased during microgravity and decreased during hypergravity conditions. In microgravity conditions, posture did not impact spinal stiffness. More data on spinal stiffness in variable gravitational conditions is needed to confirm these results.Swanenburg J, Meier ML, Langenfeld A, Schweinhardt P, Humphreys BK. Spinal stiffness in prone and upright postures during 0-1.8 g induced by parabolic flight. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(6):563-567.

  15. Evaluating abdominal core muscle fatigue: Assessment of the validity and reliability of the prone bridging test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blaiser, C; De Ridder, R; Willems, T; Danneels, L; Vanden Bossche, L; Palmans, T; Roosen, P

    2018-02-01

    The aims of this study were to research the amplitude and median frequency characteristics of selected abdominal, back, and hip muscles of healthy subjects during a prone bridging endurance test, based on surface electromyography (sEMG), (a) to determine if the prone bridging test is a valid field test to measure abdominal muscle fatigue, and (b) to evaluate if the current method of administrating the prone bridging test is reliable. Thirty healthy subjects participated in this experiment. The sEMG activity of seven abdominal, back, and hip muscles was bilaterally measured. Normalized median frequencies were computed from the EMG power spectra. The prone bridging tests were repeated on separate days to evaluate inter and intratester reliability. Significant differences in normalized median frequency slope (NMF slope ) values between several abdominal, back, and hip muscles could be demonstrated. Moderate-to-high correlation coefficients were shown between NMF slope values and endurance time. Multiple backward linear regression revealed that the test endurance time could only be significantly predicted by the NMF slope of the rectus abdominis. Statistical analysis showed excellent reliability (ICC=0.87-0.89). The findings of this study support the validity and reliability of the prone bridging test for evaluating abdominal muscle fatigue. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Report on a radiotherapy underdose accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christodoulides, G; Christofides, S [Medical Physics Department, Nicosia General Hospital, 1450 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    1999-12-31

    Reporting information on accidents and incidents involving radiation sources provides a body of knowledge which can help to prevent accidents of a similar nature. Accident information has to be made available to users, manufacturers and regulators; An international effort to pool and analyse incident and accident information will provide more complete and reliable indicators of root causes and trends and recommendations for future accident avoidance. An accident due to human error involving a superficial x-ray therapy machine and patients treated for postoperative breast cancer is reported here. 43 women receiving radiotherapy treatment have received significantly less radiation dose than the prescribed dose. The worst dose percentage within the radiation field was 20% of the prescribed dose. The worst dose percentage on the operation scar of the breast was 52% of the prescribed radiation dose. The response to accidents/incidents in radiotherapy is discussed. (authors) 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tabs.

  17. Strategy generation in accident management support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirola, M.

    1995-01-01

    An increased interest for research in the field of Accident Management can be noted. Several international programmes have been started in order to be able to understand the basic physical and chemical phenomena in accident conditions. A feasibility study has shown that it would be possible to design and develop a computerized support system for plant staff in accident situations. To achieve this goal the Halden Project has initiated a research programme on Computerized Accident Management Support (CAMS project). The aim is to utilize the capabilities of computerized tools to support the plant staff during the various accident stages. The system will include identification of the accident state, assessment of the future development of the accident and planning of accident mitigation strategies. A prototype is developed to support operators and the Technical Support Centre in decision making during serious accident in nuclear power plants. A rule based system has been built to take care of the strategy generation. This system assists plant personnel in planning control proposals and mitigation strategies from normal operation to severe accident conditions. The ideal of a safety objective tree and knowledge from the emergency procedures have been used. Future prediction requires good state identification of the plant status and some knowledge about the history of some critical variables. The information needs to be validated as well. Accurate calculations in simulators and a large database including all important information form the plant will help the strategy planning. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs

  18. Psychological and social impacts of post-accident situations: lessons from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the main features, from the psychological and social points of view, of the post-accident situation in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl. This is based on a series of surveys performed in the concerned territories of the CIS republics. The high level of stress affecting a large segment of the population is related to the perception of the situation by those living in a durably contaminated environment but also to the side-effects of some of the countermeasures adopted to mitigate the radiological consequences or to compensate the affected population. The distinction between the accident and the post-accident phase is enlarged to take into account the various phases characterizing the dynamics of the social response. Although the size of the catastrophe as well as the economic and political conditions that were prevailing at the time and after the accident have resulted in a maximal intensity of the reactions of the population, many lessons can be drawn for the management of potential post-accident situations. (author)

  19. Prone position as prevention of lung injury in comatose patients: a prospective, randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuret, Pascal; Carton, Marie-Jose; Nourdine, Karim; Kaaki, Mahmoud; Tramoni, Gerard; Ducreux, Jean-Claude

    2002-05-01

    Comatose patients frequently exhibit pulmonary function worsening, especially in cases of pulmonary infection. It appears to have a deleterious effect on neurologic outcome. We therefore conducted a randomized trial to determine whether daily prone positioning would prevent lung worsening in these patients. Prospective, randomized, controlled study. Sixteen-bed intensive care unit. Fifty-one patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation because of coma with Glascow coma scores of 9 or less. In the prone position (PP) group: prone positioning for 4 h once daily until the patients could get up to sit in an armchair; in the supine position (SP) group: supine positioning. The primary end point was the incidence of lung worsening defined by an increase in the Lung Injury Score of at least 1 point since the time of randomization. The secondary end point was the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). A total of 25 patients were randomly assigned to the PP group and 26 patients to the SP group. The characteristics of the patients from the two groups were similar at randomization. The incidence of lung worsening was lower in the PP group (12%) than in the SP group (50%) ( p=0.003). The incidence of VAP was 20% in the PP group and 38.4% in the SP group ( p=0.14). There was no serious complication attributable to prone positioning, however, there was a significant increase of intracranial pressure in the PP. In a selected population of comatose ventilated patients, daily prone positioning reduced the incidence of lung worsening.

  20. Severe Accident Research Program plan update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    In August 1989, the staff published NUREG-1365, ''Revised Severe Accident Research Program Plan.'' Since 1989, significant progress has been made in severe accident research to warrant an update to NUREG-1365. The staff has prepared this SARP Plan Update to: (1) Identify those issues that have been closed or are near completion, (2) Describe the progress in our understanding of important severe accident phenomena, (3) Define the long-term research that is directed at improving our understanding of severe accident phenomena and developing improved methods for assessing core melt progression, direct containment heating, and fuel-coolant interactions, and (4) Reflect the growing emphasis in two additional areas--advanced light water reactors, and support for the assessment of criteria for containment performance during severe accidents. The report describes recent major accomplishments in understanding the underlying phenomena that can occur during a severe accident. These include Mark I liner failure, severe accident scaling methodology, source term issues, core-concrete interactions, hydrogen transport and combustion, TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project, and direct containment heating. The report also describes the major planned activities under the SARP over the next several years. These activities will focus on two phenomenological issues (core melt progression, and fuel-coolant interactions and debris coolability) that have significant uncertainties that impact our understanding and ability to predict severe accident phenomena and their effect on containment performance SARP will also focus on severe accident code development, assessment and validation. As the staff completes the research on severe accident issues that relate to current generation reactors, continued research will focus on efforts to independently evaluate the capability of new advanced light water reactor designs to withstand severe accidents

  1. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, Masashi

    2001-12-01

    On September 30 at around 10:35 AM, criticality accident occurred at the JCO's conversion building in Tokai-mura. Since criticality accident had not been anticipated, neither devices for termination of criticality accident nor neutron detectors were available. Immediately after the information of the accident, our emergency staff (Japan Nuclear Cycle development institute staff) went to JCO site, to measure the intensity of neutrons and gammas. There were four main tasks, first one was to measure the radiation intensity, second one was to terminate the criticality accident, third one is to alert the residents surrounding the JCO site, fourth one is to evacuate the employees in the site. These tasks were successfully performed until October 1. This paper describes about how these operations were performed by the relevant staffs. (author)

  2. The incidence of vasculitis is increased in female stroke-prone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vascular changes in hypertension share common characteristics with inflammatory wall injury. Since it is known that chronic inflammatory diseases are frequently more prevalent in females, this study tested the hypothesis that vasculitis would be more evident in female stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive ...

  3. Comparison of CT myelography performed in the prone and supine positions in the detection of cervical spinal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blease Graham, Cole III; Wippold, Franz J. II; Bae, Kyongtae T.; Pilgram, Thomas K.; Shaibani, Ali; Kido, Daniel K.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To quantify the change in the cross-sectional area of the cervical spinal cord and subarachnoid space (SAS) in the supine neutral vs prone extension positions in patients with myelopathy undergoing cervical CT myelography. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Axial CT myelgrams of 21 myelopathic patients were performed in both the supine neutral and prone extension positions. The SAS and cord cross-sectional areas were then measured at the disk spaces and mid-pedicle levels from C2 to T1 in both the supine and prone positions using a public domain NIH Image program, version 156b18. Mean area measurements in both positions were then compared for each level examined. RESULTS: Mean SAS cross-sectional area in the prone position was notably reduced compared with the supine position at C4-C5 [128.8 mm 2 vs 168.1 mm 2 (P 2 vs 143.2 mm 2 (P< .05)] disk levels. The mean cord cross-sectional area failed to change signficantly with positioning. CONCLUSIONS: Prone myelography may demonstrate a greater degree of cervical spine stenosis compared with CT myelography performed in the supine position in myelopathic patients. Imaging with the patient prone with neck extended in both myelography and CTM may improve precision in the results of measurements of the stenotic spinal canal when comparing these two methods. Blease Graham III, C. (2001)

  4. Approach to accident management in RBMK-1500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliatka, A.; Urbonavicius, E.; Uspuras, E.

    2008-01-01

    In order to ensure the safe operation of the nuclear power plants accident management programs are being developed around the world. These accident management programs cover the whole spectrum of accidents, including severe accidents. A lot of work is done to investigate the severe accident phenomena and implement severe accident management in NPPs with vessel-type reactors, while less attention is paid to channel-type reactors CANDU and RBMK. Ignalina NPP with RBMK-1500 reactor has implemented symptom based emergency operation procedures, which cover management of accidents until the core damage and do not extend to core damage region. In order to ensure coverage of the whole spectrum of accidents and meet the requirements of IAEA the severe accident management guidelines have to be developed. This paper presents the basic principles and approach to management of beyond design basis accidents at Ignalina NPP. In general, this approach could be applied to NPPs with RBMK-1000 reactors that are available in Russia, but the design differences should be taken into account

  5. Use of bayesian operations for diagnosing accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K.M.; Jae, M.; Suh, K.Y.

    2005-01-01

    In complex systems, it is necessary to model a logical representation of the overall system interaction with respect to the individual subsystems. Operators are allowed to follow EOPs (Emergency Operating Procedures) when reactor tripped because of accidents. But, it's very difficult to diagnose accidents and find out appropriate procedures to mitigate current accidents in a given short time. Even if they diagnose accidents, it also has possibility to misdiagnose. TMI accident is a good example of operators' errors. Methodology using Influence Diagrams has been developed and applied for representing the dependency behaviors and uncertain behaviors of complex systems. An example to diagnose the accidents such as SLOCA and SGTR with similar symptoms has been introduced. From the constructed model, operators could diagnose accidents at any states of accidents. This model can offer the information about accidents with given symptoms. This model might help operators to diagnose correctly and rapidly. It might be very useful to support operators to reduce human error. Also, from this study, it is applicable to diagnose other accidents with similar symptoms and to analyze causes of reactor trip. (authors)

  6. CARNSORE: Hypothetical reactor accident study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walmod-Larsen, O.; Jensen, N.O.; Kristensen, L.; Meide, A.; Nedergaard, K.L.; Nielsen, F.; Lundtang Petersen, E.; Petersen, T.; Thykier-Nielsen, S.

    1984-06-01

    Two types of design-basis accident and a series of hypothetical core-melt accidents to a 600 MWe reactor are described and their consequences assessed. The PLUCON 2 model was used to calculate the consequences which are presented in terms of individual and collective doses, as well as early and late health consequences. The site proposed for the nucelar power station is Carnsore Point, County Wexford, south-east Ireland. The release fractions for the accidents described are those given in WASH-1400. The analyses are based on the resident population as given in the 1979 census and on 20 years of data from the meteorological stations at Rosslare Harbour, 8.5 km north of the site. The consequences of one of the hypothetical core-melt accidents are described in detail in a meteorological parametric study. Likewise the consequences of the worst conceivable combination of situations are described. Finally, the release fraction in one accident is varied and the consequences of a proposed, more probable ''Class 9 accident'' are presented. (author)

  7. Learning from nuclear accident experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaurio, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    Statistical procedures are developed to estimate accident occurrence rates from historical event records, to predict future rates and trends, and to estimate the accuracy of the rate estimates and predictions. Maximum likelihood estimation is applied to several learning models, and results are compared to earlier graphical and analytical estimates. The models are based on (1) the cumulative number of operating years, (2) the cumulative number of plants built, and (3) accidents (explicitly), with the accident rate distinctly different before and after an accident. The statistical accuracies of the parameters estimated are obtained in analytical form using the Fisher information matrix. Using data on core damage accidents in electricity producing plants, it is estimated that the probability for a plant to have a serious flaw has decreased from 0.1 to 0.01 during the developmental phase of the nuclear industry. At the same time the equivalent frequency of accidents has decreased from 0.04 per reactor year to 0.0004 per reactor year, partly due to the increasing population of plants. 10 references, 7 figures, 2 tables

  8. [Occupational noise exposure and work accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Adriano; Cordeiro, Ricardo; Gonçalves, Cláudia Giglio de Oliveira

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify whether occupational noise exposure is a significant risk factor for work accidents in the city of Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. This hospital-based case-control study included 600 workers aged 15-60 who suffered typical occupational accidents between May and October 2004 and were seen at the Piracicaba Orthopedics and Trauma Center. The control group comprised 822 workers, aged 15-60, who were also seen at the Center, and either had a non-occupational accident or were accompanying someone who had suffered an accident. A multiple logistic regression model was adjusted with work accident as an independent variable, controlled by covariables of interest such as noise exposure. The risk of having a work accident was about twice as high among workers exposed to noise, after controlling for several covariables. Occupational noise exposure not only affected auditory health status but was also a risk factor for work accidents.

  9. Management of accident risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compes, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    The example of the Chernobyl accident and the statistics of the occurrence of accidents make clear the threat to humanity, if one cannot guarantee successful accident prevention in the use and distribution of the projects aimed at. The science of safety, as it is known in the Wuppertal model, makes its contribution to this vital task for the human community. It makes it necessary to create the essential dates and concepts, the methods, principles and techniques based on them and the associated instrumentation. (DG) [de

  10. EPRI research on accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlberg, R.N.; Chao, J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper discusses Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) efforts regarding severe reactor accident management and the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMAEX), activities. (EPRI) Electric Power Research Institute accident management program consists of the two products just mentioned plus one related to severe accident plant status information and the MAAP 4.0 computer code. These are briefly discussed

  11. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayer, J.E.; Clark, A.T.; Loysen, P.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Mishima, J.; Owczarski, P.C.; Gregory, W.S.; Nichols, B.D.

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH

  12. Accident selection methodology for TA-55 FSAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letellier, B.C.; Pan, P.Y.; Sasser, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    In the past, the selection of representative accidents for refined analysis from the numerous scenarios identified in hazards analyses (HAs) has involved significant judgment and has been difficult to defend. As part of upgrading the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the TA-55 plutonium facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, an accident selection process was developed that is mostly mechanical and reproducible in nature and fulfills the requirements of the Department of Energy (DOE) Standard 3009 and DOE Order 5480.23. Among the objectives specified by this guidance are the requirements that accident screening (1) consider accidents during normal and abnormal operating conditions, (2) consider both design basis and beyond design basis accidents, (3) characterize accidents by category (operational, natural phenomena, etc.) and by type (spill, explosion, fire, etc.), and (4) identify accidents that bound all foreseeable accident types. The accident selection process described here in the context of the TA-55 FSAR is applicable to all types of DOE facilities

  13. PSYCHOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF PRONENESS TO CONFLICT BEHAVIOR IN THE PERIOD OF STUDENTSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Bunjak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The University student is claimed to be one of the most important ?gure today whо deter mines the future of the society and its progressive development and democratic transformations. In the dif?cult conditions of life, characterizing the situation in the country nowadays contemporary students are often uncertain about their future and in connection with this, experience negative emotional states which might cause intrapersonal con?icts. The contemporary youth is characterized nowadays by numerous con?icts in which the development of the age speci?c achievements  takes  place,  namely:  self-actualization,  self-expression,  competition,  defending one’s own values, attitudes and passions. The paper presents the results of an anonymous survey in testing of Ternopil National university students aimed at de?ning the relationships between the frequency of the intrapersonal con?icts experienced by the young people and psychological factors causing them. The proneness to the con?ict behavior of the personality has been shown to be caused by such psychological characteristics of the individual as the level of self-esteem, the level of aggression, anxiety, frustration, rigidity and locus of control. It is postulated in the paper that high proneness of the personality to the con?ict behavior can be adequately described with reference to a set of personality properties which jointly de?ne and enhance the levels of con?ict. This set of characteristics act as psychological determinants of con?icts. The analysis of the survey designed to de?ne the sources of the students’ proneness to the con?ict behavior shows that the problem requires further theoretical research and empirical studies to obtain a more comprehensive picture of the possible causes of proneness to this type of behavior.

  14. Monitoring severe accidents using AI techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, Young Gyu; Ahn, Kwang Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ju Hyun; Na, Man Gyun [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Dong Hyuk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011, there has been increasing concern regarding severe accidents in nuclear facilities. Severe accident scenarios are difficult for operators to monitor and identify. Therefore, accurate prediction of a severe accident is important in order to manage it appropriately in the unfavorable conditions. In this study, artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, such as support vector classification (SVC), probabilistic neural network (PNN), group method of data handling (GMDH), and fuzzy neural network (FNN), were used to monitor the major transient scenarios of a severe accident caused by three different initiating events, the hot-leg loss of coolant accident (LOCA), the cold-leg LOCA, and the steam generator tube rupture in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The SVC and PNN models were used for the event classification. The GMDH and FNN models were employed to accurately predict the important timing representing severe accident scenarios. In addition, in order to verify the proposed algorithm, data from a number of numerical simulations were required in order to train the AI techniques due to the shortage of real LOCA data. The data was acquired by performing simulations using the MAAP4 code. The prediction accuracy of the three types of initiating events was sufficiently high to predict severe accident scenarios. Therefore, the AI techniques can be applied successfully in the identification and monitoring of severe accident scenarios in real PWRs.

  15. Medical experience: Chernobyl and other accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Densow, D.; Kindler, H.; Fliedner, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    A radiation accident can be defined as an involuntary relevant exposure of man to ionising radiation or radioactive material. Provided one of the ensuing criteria is met with at least one person involved in an excursion of ionising radiation and or radioactive material, the respective incident can be considered a radiation accident in accordance with ICRP, NCRP (US), and WHO: ≥0.25 Sv total body irradiation with lesions of the rapidly dividing tissues; ≥6 Sv cutaneous and local irradiation; ≥0.4 Sv local irradiation of other organ systems through external sources; incorporation equal to or in excess of more than half of the maximum permissible organ burden; and medical accidents meeting one of the above criteria. Several actions have been taken to categorise radiation accidents in order to learn from previous accidents in terms of both managerial and medical experience. For this presentation three approaches will be discussed concerning their relevance to the individual treatment and risk management. This will be obtained by applying three classification schemes to all known radiation accidents: 1. classification with respect to the accident mechanism, 2. classification concerning the radiation injury, and 3. classification concerning the extent of the accident. In a fourth chapter the efficacy of bone marrow transplantation will briefly be commented on based on the accumulated experience of about 400 radiation accidents world-wide. (author)

  16. Monitoring severe accidents using AI techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No, Young Gyu; Ahn, Kwang Il; Kim, Ju Hyun; Na, Man Gyun; Lim, Dong Hyuk

    2012-01-01

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011, there has been increasing concern regarding severe accidents in nuclear facilities. Severe accident scenarios are difficult for operators to monitor and identify. Therefore, accurate prediction of a severe accident is important in order to manage it appropriately in the unfavorable conditions. In this study, artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, such as support vector classification (SVC), probabilistic neural network (PNN), group method of data handling (GMDH), and fuzzy neural network (FNN), were used to monitor the major transient scenarios of a severe accident caused by three different initiating events, the hot-leg loss of coolant accident (LOCA), the cold-leg LOCA, and the steam generator tube rupture in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The SVC and PNN models were used for the event classification. The GMDH and FNN models were employed to accurately predict the important timing representing severe accident scenarios. In addition, in order to verify the proposed algorithm, data from a number of numerical simulations were required in order to train the AI techniques due to the shortage of real LOCA data. The data was acquired by performing simulations using the MAAP4 code. The prediction accuracy of the three types of initiating events was sufficiently high to predict severe accident scenarios. Therefore, the AI techniques can be applied successfully in the identification and monitoring of severe accident scenarios in real PWRs.

  17. Severe accident training simulator APROS SA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raiko, Eerikki; Salminen, Kai; Lundstroem, Petra; Harti, Mika; Routamo, Tomi

    2003-01-01

    APROS SA is a severe accident training simulator based on the APROS simulation environment. APROS SA has been developed in Fortum Nuclear Services Ltd to serve as a training tool for the personnel of the Loviisa NPP. Training with APROS SA gives the personnel a deeper understanding of the severe accident phenomena and thus it is an important part of the implementation of the severe accident management strategy. APROS SA consists of two parts, a comprehensive Loviisa plant model and an external severe accident model. The external model is an extension to the Loviisa plant model, which allows the simulation to proceed into the severe accident phase. The severe accident model has three submodels: the core melting and relocation model, corium pool model and fission product model. In addition to these, a new thermal-hydraulic solver is introduced to the core region of the Loviisa plant model to replace the more limited APROS thermal-hydraulic solver. The full APROS SA training simulator has a graphical user interface with visualizations of both severe accident management panels at the operator room and the important physical phenomena during the accident. This paper describes the background of the APROS SA training simulator, the severe accident submodels and the graphical user interface. A short description how APROS SA will be used as a training tool at the Loviisa NPP is also given

  18. Efficacy of Prone Lumbar Traction on Chronic Discogenic Low Back Pain and Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Beyki

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the outcomes of prone and supine lumbar traction in patients with chronic discogenic low back pain. Methods: The test was prospective and randomized control trial. The structure of trial was Urban Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation clinic. Participants was included of A total of 124 subjects with chronic low back pain (LBP and evidence of a degenerative and/or herniated inter-vertebral disk at 1 or more levels of the lumbar spine, who have not our exclusion criteria. There was A 4-week course of lumbar traction, prone or supine in case and control groups consecutively, consisting of six 30-minute sessions every other days, followed by four 30-minute sessions every 3 days. The numeric Visual pain rating scale and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI were completed at pre-intervention and discharge (within 2 weeks of the last visit. Results: A total of 124 subjects completed the treatment protocol. We noted significant improvements for all post-intervention outcome scores when compared with pre-intervention scores (P<0.01. Also found significant difference between 2 groups in favor of prone traction (P<0.01 Discussion: Traction applied in the prone position for 4 weeks was associated with improvements in pain intensity and ODI scores at discharge, in a sample of patients with activity limiting LBP. However, because we lacked a reasonable long time follow-up, we cannot imply a long lasting relationship between the traction and outcome, and a long time follow-up is suggested.

  19. Chapter 6: Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    Th chapter 6 presents the accidents of: 1) Stimos (Italy - May, 1975); 2) San Salvador (El Salvador - February 5, 1989); 3) Soreq (Israel - June 21, 1990); 4) Nesvizh (Belarus - October 26, 1991); 5) Illinois (USA - February, 1965); 6)Maryland (EUA - December 11, 1991); 7)Hanoi (Vietnam -November 17, 1992); 8)Fleurus (Belgium - March 11, 2006) and final remarks on accidents.

  20. The nuclear accidents: Causes and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochd, M.

    1988-01-01

    The author discussed and compared the real causes of T.M.I. and Chernobyl accidents and cited their consequences. To better understand how these accidents occurred, a brief description of PWR type (reactor type of T.M.I.) and of RBMK type (reactor type of Chernobyl) has been presented. The author has also set out briefly the safety analysis objectives and the three barriers established to protect the public against the radiological consequences. To distinguish failures that cause severe accidents and to analyze them in details, it is necessary to classify the accidents. There are many ways to do it according to their initiator event, or to their frequency, or to their degree of gravity. The safety criteria adopted by nuclear industry have been explained. These criteria specify the limits of certain physical parameters that should not be exceeded in case of incidents or accidents. To compare the real causes of T.M.I. and Chernobyl accidents, the events that led to both have been presented. As observed the main common contributing factors in both cases are that the operators did not pay attention to warnings and signals that were available to them and that they were not trained to handle these accident sequences. The essential conclusions derived from these severe accidents are: -The improvement of operators competence contribute to reduce the accident risks; -The rapid and correct diagnosis of real conditions at each point of the accidents permits an appropriate behavior that would bring the plant to a stable state; -Competent technical teams have to intervene and to assist the operators in case of emergency; -Emergency plans and an international collaboration are necessary to limit the accident risks. 11 figs. (author)

  1. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.

    2004-01-01

    method could be used in all of the companies without revisions. The evaluation of accident cost showed that 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in the Danish corporate accounting systems reviewed while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents......The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...... occupational costs of companies for use by occupational health and safety professionals. The method was tested in nine Danish companies within three different industry sectors and the costs of 27 selected occupational accidents in these companies were calculated. One of the main conclusions is that the SACA...

  2. Severe accidents in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohai, Dumitru; Dumitrescu, Iulia; Tunaru, Mariana

    2004-01-01

    The likelihood of accidents leading to core meltdown in nuclear reactors is low. The consequences of such an event are but so severe that developing and implementing of adequate measures for preventing or diminishing the consequences of such events are of paramount importance. The analysis of major accidents requires sophisticated computation codes but necessary are also relevant experiments for checking the accuracy of the predictions and capability of these codes. In this paper an overview of the severe accidents worldwide with definitions, computation codes and relating experiments is presented. The experimental research activity of severe accidents was conducted in INR Pitesti since 2003, when the Institute jointed the SARNET Excellence Network. The INR activity within SARNET consists in studying scenarios of severe accidents by means of ASTEC and RELAP/SCDAP codes and conducting bench-scale experiments

  3. Dose assessment in radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donkor, S.

    2013-04-01

    The applications of ionizing radiation bring many benefits to humankind, ranging from power generation to uses in medicine, industry and agriculture. Facilities that use radiation source require special care in the design and operation of equipment to prevent radiation injury to workers or to the public. Despite considerable development of radiation safety, radiation accidents do happen. The purpose of this study is therefore to discuss how to assess doses to people who will be exposed to a range of internal and external radiation sources in the event of radiological accidents. This will go a long way to complement their medical assessment thereby helping to plan their treatment. Three radiological accidents were reviewed to learn about the causes of those accidents and the recommendations that were put in place to prevent recurrence of such accidents. Various types of dose assessment methods were discussed.(au)

  4. 29 CFR 1960.29 - Accident investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reflective of the seriousness of the accident. (b) In any case, each accident which results in a fatality or... evidence uncovered during accident investigations which would be of benefit in developing a new OSHA...

  5. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. The event at the accident site, the release and dispersal of radioactive substances into the atmosphere and over Europe, is described. A discussion of the Danish organisation for nuclear emergencies, how it was activated and adapted to the actual situation, is given. A comprehensive description of the radiological contamination in Denmark following the accident and the estimated health effects, is presented. The situation in other European countries is mentioned. (author)

  6. Dysmorphic concern is related to delusional proneness and negative affect in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Charlotte; Thomas, Neil; Stephens, Jessie; Castle, David J; Rossell, Susan L

    2016-06-30

    Body image concerns are common in the general population and in some mental illnesses reach pathological levels. We investigated whether dysmorphic concern with appearance (a preoccupation with minor or imagined defects in appearance) is explained by psychotic processes in a community sample. In a cross-sectional design, two hundred and twenty six participants completed an online survey battery including: The Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire; the Peters Delusional inventory; the Aberrant Salience Inventory; and the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale. Participants were native English speakers residing in Australia. Dysmorphic concern was positively correlated with delusional proneness, aberrant salience and negative emotion. Regression established that negative emotion and delusional proneness predicted dysmorphic concern, whereas, aberrant salience did not. Although delusional proneness was related to body dysmorphia, there was no evidence that it was related to aberrant salience. Understanding the contribution of other psychosis processes, and other health related variables to the severity of dysmorphic concern will be a focus of future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [An analysis of industrial accidents in the working field with a particular emphasis on repeated accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakisaka, I; Yanagihashi, T; Tomari, T; Sato, M

    1990-03-01

    The present study is based on an analysis of routinely submitted reports of occupational accidents experienced by the workers of industrial enterprises under the jurisdiction of Kagoshima Labor Standard Office during a 5-year period 1983 to 1987. Officially notified injuries serious enough to keep employees away from their job for work at least 4 days were utilized in this study. Data was classified so as to give an observed frequency distribution for workers having any specified number of accidents. Also, the accident rate which is an indicator of the risk of accident was compared among different occupations, between age groups and between the sexes. Results obtained are as follows; 1) For the combined total of 6,324 accident cases for 8 types of occupation (Construction, Transportation, Mining & Quarrying, Forestry, Food manufacture, Lumber & Woodcraft, Manufacturing industry and Other business), the number of those who had at least one accident was 6,098, of which 5,837 were injured only once, 208 twice, 21 three times and 2 four times. When occupation type was fixed, however, the number of workers having one, two, three and four times of accidents were 5,895, 182, 19 and 2, respectively. This suggests that some workers are likely to have experienced repeated accidents in more than one type of occupation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. ACCIDENT PHENOMENA OF RISK IMPORTANCE PROJECT - Continued RESEARCH CONCERNING SEVERE ACCIDENT PHENOMENA AND MANAGEMENT IN Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolandson, S.; Mueller, F.; Loevenhielm, G.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1988 all reactors in Sweden have mitigating measures, such as filtered vents, implemented. In parallel with the work of implementing these measures, a cooperation effort (RAMA projects) between the Swedish utilities and the Nuclear Power Inspectorate was performed to acquire sufficient knowledge about severe accident research work. The on-going project has the name Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance 3. In this paper, we will give background information about severe accident management in Sweden. In the Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance 3 project we will focus on the work concerning coolability of melted core in lower plenum which is the main focus of the In-vessel Coolability Task Group within the Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance 3 project. The Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance 3 project has joined on international consortium and the in-vessel cooling experiments are performed by Fauske and Associates, Inc. in Burr Ridge, Illinois, United States America, Sweden also intends to do one separate experiment with one instrument penetration we have in Swedish/Finnish BWR's. Other parts of the Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance 3 project, such as support to level 2 studies, the research at Royal Institute of Technology and participation in international programs, such as Cooperative Severe Accident Research Program, Advanced Containment Experiments and PHEBUS will be briefly described in the paper

  9. The association of family functioning and psychosis proneness in five countries that differ in cultural values and family structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüsten, Caroline; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-07-01

    For decades, researchers have attributed the better prognosis of psychosis in developing countries to a host of socio-cultural factors, including family functioning. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether family functioning and its association with symptoms differ across countries. This study assessed family functioning (support, satisfaction with family relations, and criticism) and psychosis proneness in community samples from Chile (n =399), Colombia (n=486), Indonesia (n=115), Germany (n=174) and the USA (n=143). Family functioning was compared between prototypical developing countries (Chile, Columbia, Indonesia) and highly industrialized countries (Germany, USA). Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test for the moderating effect of country on the associations between family functioning and psychosis proneness. Participants from developing countries perceived more support and felt more satisfied. However, they also perceived more criticism than participants from highly industrialized countries. Criticism and family satisfaction were significantly associated with psychosis proneness. Moreover, the relationship between criticism and psychosis proneness was significantly stronger in developing countries compared to highly industrialized countries. Generally, family satisfaction and criticism appear to be more relevant to psychosis proneness than the quantity of family support. Moreover, criticism seems to be more closely related to psychosis proneness in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuraminidase activity mediates IL-6 production by activated lupus-prone mesangial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaj, Kamala; Rodgers, Jessalyn I; Marimuthu, Subathra; Siskind, Leah J; Bruner, Evelyn; Nowling, Tamara K

    2018-04-01

    The development of nephritis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in lupus patients. Although the general pathophysiological progression of lupus nephritis is known, the molecular mediators and mechanisms are incompletely understood. Previously, we demonstrated that the glycosphingolipid (GSL) catabolic pathway is elevated in the kidneys of MRL/lpr lupus mice and human lupus patients with nephritis. Specifically, the activity of neuraminidase (NEU) and expression of Neu1, an enzyme in the GSL catabolic pathway is significantly increased. To better understand the role and mechanisms by which this pathway contributes to the progression of LN, we analyzed the expression and effects of NEU activity on the function of MRL/lpr lupus-prone mesangial cells (MCs). We demonstrate that NEU1 and NEU3 promote IL-6 production in MES13 MCs. Neu1 expression, NEU activity, and IL-6 production are significantly increased in stimulated primary MRL/lpr lupus-prone MCs, and blocking NEU activity inhibits IL-6 production. NEU1 and NEU3 expression overlaps IgG deposits in MCs in vitro and in renal sections from nephritic MRL/lpr mice. Together, our results suggest that NEU activity mediates IL-6 production in lupus-prone MCs possibly through an IgG-receptor complex signaling pathway.

  11. Accident history, risk perception and traffic safe behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngueutsa, Robert; Kouabenan, Dongo Rémi

    2017-09-01

    This study clarifies the associations between accident history, perception of the riskiness of road travel and traffic safety behaviours by taking into account the number and severity of accidents experienced. A sample of 525 road users in Cameroon answered a questionnaire comprising items on perception of risk, safe behaviour and personal accident history. Participants who reported involvement in more than three accidents or involvement in a severe accident perceived road travel as less risky and also reported behaving less safely compared with those involved in fewer, or less severe accidents. The results have practical implications for the prevention of traffic accidents. Practitioner Summary: The associations between accident history, perceived risk of road travel and safe behaviour were investigated using self-report questionnaire data. Participants involved in more than three accidents, or in severe accidents, perceived road travel as less risky and also reported more unsafe behaviour compared with those involved in fewer, or less severe accidents. Campaigns targeting people with a less serious, less extensive accident history should aim to increase awareness of hazards and the potential severity of their consequences, as well as emphasising how easy it is to take the recommended preventive actions. Campaigns targeting those involved in more frequent accidents, and survivors of serious accidents, should address feelings of invulnerability and helplessness.

  12. Reduced Serum IgG Responses to Pneumococcal Antigens in Otitis-Prone Children May Be Due to Poor Memory B-Cell Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sharad K.; Casey, Janet R.

    2012-01-01

    A low level of serum antibody to antigens expressed by Streptococcus pneumoniae has been proposed to explain the susceptibility of children to recurrent episodes of acute otitis media (hereafter, “otitis-prone children”). By use of enzyme-linked immunospot assays, the percentages of memory B cells to pneumococcal protein antigens PhtD, LytB, PcpA, PhtE, and Ply were compared between otitis-prone and non–otitis-prone children at the time of acute otitis media or nasopharyngeal colonization with S. pneumoniae. We found significantly lower percentages of memory B cells to 3 pneumococcal protein antigens (PhtD, PhtE, and Ply) and reduced antigen-specific immunoglobulin G concentrations in otitis-prone children, compared with non–otitis-prone children. PMID:22383675

  13. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Prone Position: A Simplified Method for Outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng Wei

    2006-05-01

    Conclusion: Our study revealed that prone CPR provides good respiratory and circulatory support at the same time. It is easy to perform and it may be a good alternative way for bystanders to perform CPR in public surroundings. We recommend that more investigators do further studies on this topic.

  14. Reactor accidents and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beattie, J.R.; Griffiths, R.F.; Kaiser, G.D.; Kinchin, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    This is a condensed version of a paper, entitled 'The Environmental Impact of Radioactive Releases from Accidents in Nuclear Power Reactors', by the authors, presented to the Nuclear Energy Panel of the International Atomic Energy Agency/United Nations Environmental Programme. Headings include - Effects of ionising radiation on man; number of deaths expected from leukaemia and other cancers; risk estimates for incidence of benign nodules and thyroid cancer; maximum permissible levels and emergency levels of radiation and radioactivity; ICRP recommended dose limits for members of the general public; atmospheric dispersion and modelling; ICRP emergency reference levels for 1 131 , Cs 137 , Ru 106 and Sr 90 ; environmental consequences of accidental releases from nuclear power reactors; environmental impact of accidents to Magnox gas-cooled reactors; environmental impact of accidents to advanced gas-cooled reactors; environmental impact of accidents to fast reactors; and nature of risks. consequences are examined in terms of early and late biological effects on man, and contamination of land areas. Serious accidents are of low probability of occurrence, and the risk of accidents to nuclear power reactors is estimated to be very small. 43 references. (U.K.)

  15. JAERI's activities in JCO accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-09-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was actively involved in a variety of technical supports and cooperative activities, such as advice on terminating the criticality condition, contamination checks of the residents and consultation services for the residents, as emergency response actions to the criticality accident at the uranium processing facility operated by the JCO Co. Ltd., which occurred on September 30, 1999. These activities were carried out in collaborative ways by the JAERI staff from the Tokai Research Establishment, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Oarai Research Establishment, and Headquarter Office in Tokyo. As well, the JAERI was engaged in the post-accident activities such as identification of accident causes, analyses of the criticality accident, and dose assessment of exposed residents, to support the Headquarter for Accident Countermeasures of the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Accident Investigation Committee and the Health Control Committee of the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (NSC). This report compiles the activities, that the JAERI has conducted to date, including the discussions on measures for terminating the criticality condition, evaluation of the fission number, radiation monitoring in the environment, dose assessment, analyses of criticality dynamics. (author)

  16. [Occupational accidents in an oil refinery in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Carlos Augusto Vaz de; Freitas, Carlos Machado de

    2002-10-01

    Work in oil refineries involves the risk of minor to major accidents. National data show the impact of accidents on this industry. A study was carried out to describe accident profile and evaluate the adequacy of accident reporting system. Data on all accidents reported in an oil refinery in the state of Rio de Janeiro for the year 1997 were organized and analyzed. The study population consisted of 153 injury cases, 83 hired and 69 contracted workers. The variables were: type of accident, operation mode and position of the worker injured. Among hired workers, minor accidents predominated (54.2%) and they occurred during regular operation activities (62.9%). Among contracted workers, there also predominated minor accidents (75.5%) in a higher percentage, but they occurred mainly during maintenance activities (96.8%). The study results showed that there is a predominance of accidents in lower hierarchy workers, and these accidents occur mainly during maintenance activities. There is a need to improve the company's accident reporting system and accident investigation procedures.

  17. Radiological accident 'The Citadel' medical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, Juan; Fernandez, Isis M.; Lopez, Gladys; Garcia, Omar; Lamadrid, Ana I.; Ramos, Enma O.; Villa, Rosario; Giron, Carmen M.; Escobar, Myrian; Zerpa, Miguel; Romero, Argenis H.; Medina, Julio; Laurenti, Zenia; Oliva, Maria T.; Sierra, Nitza; Lorenzo, Alexis

    2008-01-01

    The work exposes the medical actions carried out in the mitigation of the consequences of the accident and its main results. In a facility of storage of radioactive waste in Caracas, Venezuela, it was happened a radiological accident. This event caused radioactive contamination of the environment, as well as the irradiation and radioactive contamination of at least 10 people involved in the fact, in its majority children. Cuban institutions participated in response to the accident. Among the decisions adopted by the team of combined work Cuban-Venezuelan, we find the one of transferring affected people to Cuba, for their dosimetric and medical evaluation. Being designed a work strategy to develop the investigations to people affected by the radiological accident, in correspondence with the circumstances, magnitude and consequences of the accident. The obtained main results are: 100% presented affectations in its health, not associate directly to the accident, although the accident influenced in its psychological state. In 3 of studied people they were detected radioactive contamination with Cesium -137 with dose among 2.01 X 10-4 Sv up to 2.78 X 10-4 Sv. This accident demonstrated the necessity to have technical capacities to face these events and the importance of the international solidarity. (author)

  18. Positioning of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: combining prone and upright makes sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Jean-Christophe M; Lefebvre, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    Positional strategies have been proposed for mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Despite different physiological mechanisms involved, oxygenation improvement has been demonstrated with both prone and upright positions. In the previous issue of Critical Care, Robak and colleagues reported the first study evaluating the short-term effects of combining prone and upright positioning. The combined positioning enhanced the response rate in terms of oxygenation. Other benefits, such as a reduction in ventilator-associated pneumonia and better enteral feeding tolerance, can potentially be expected.

  19. Assessing individual differences in proneness to shame and guilt: development of the Self-Conscious Affect and Attribution Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangney, J P

    1990-07-01

    Individual differences in proneness to shame and proneness to guilt are thought to play an important role in the development of both adaptive and maladaptive interpersonal and intrapersonal processes. But little empirical research has addressed these issues, largely because no reliable, valid measure has been available to researchers interested in differentiating proneness to shame from proneness to guilt. The Self-Conscious Affect and Attribution Inventory (SCAAI) was developed to assess characteristic affective, cognitive, and behavioral responses associated with shame and guilt among a young adult population. The SCAAI also includes indices of externalization of cause or blame, detachment/unconcern, pride in self, and pride in behavior. Data from 3 independent studies of college students and 1 study of noncollege adults provide support for the reliability of the main SCAAI subscales. Moreover, the pattern of relations among the SCAAI subscales and the relation of SCAAI subscales to 2 extant measures of shame and guilt support the validity of this new measure. The SCAAI appears to provide related but functionally distinct indices of proneness to shame and guilt in a way that these previous measures have not.

  20. Credible investigation of air accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, K.

    2004-01-01

    Within the United Kingdom the Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB) has been used as a model for the other transport modes accident investigation bodies. Government Ministers considered that the AAIB's approach had established the trust of the public and the aviation industry in its ability to conduct independent and objective investigations. The paper will examine the factors that are involved in establishing this trust. They include: the investigation framework; the actual and perceived independence of the accident investigating body; the aviation industry's safety culture; the qualities of the investigators and the quality of their liaison with bereaved families those directly affected by the accidents they investigate

  1. Fantasy Proneness Correlates With the Intensity of Near-Death Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Martial

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the personality characteristics of those who have experienced a “Near-Death Experience” (NDE. One interesting candidate is fantasy proneness. We studied this trait in individuals who developed NDEs in the presence (i.e., classical NDEs or absence (i.e., NDEs-like of a life-threatening situation. We surveyed a total of 228 individuals. From those, 108 qualified as NDE experiencers (i.e., Greyson NDE scale total score ≥7: 51 had their NDEs in the context of a life-threatening situation; 57 had their NDEs not related to a life-threatening situation. From those who did not meet the criteria to be considered “experiencers,” 20 had their NDE in the absence of a life-threatening situation; 50 had faced death but did not recall a NDE and finally, 50 were healthy people without a history of life threat and/or NDE. All participants completed a measure of NDE intensity (the Greyson NDE scale and a measure of fantasy proneness (the Creative Experiences Questionnaire. People reporting NDEs-like scored higher on fantasy proneness than those reporting classical NDEs, individuals whose experiences did not meet the NDE criteria and matched controls. By contrast, individuals reporting classical NDEs did not show different engagement in fantasy as matched controls. The reported intensity of the experiences was positively correlated with engagement in fantasy. Our findings support the view that strong engagement in fantasy by individuals recalling NDEs-like might make these persons more likely to report such subjective experiences when exposed to suitable physiological and/or psychological conditions (e.g., meditation, syncope.

  2. Severe accidents: in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    A ''severe'' nuclear accident refers to a reactor accident that could exceed reactor design specifications to such a degree as to prevent cooling of the reactor's core by normal means. This report summarizes the work of a NEA Senior Group of Experts who have studied the potential response of existing light-water reactors to severe accidents and have found that current designs of reactors are far more capable of coping with severe accidents than design specifications would suggest. The report emphasises the specific knowledge and means that can be used for diagnosing a severe accident and for managing its progression in order to prevent or mitigate its consequences

  3. Communication and industrial accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the

  4. Occurrence and countermeasures of urban power grid accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wang; Tao, Zhang

    2018-03-01

    With the advance of technology, the development of network communication and the extensive use of power grids, people can get to know power grid accidents around the world through the network timely. Power grid accidents occur frequently. Large-scale power system blackout and casualty accidents caused by electric shock are also fairly commonplace. All of those accidents have seriously endangered the property and personal safety of the country and people, and the development of society and economy is severely affected by power grid accidents. Through the researches on several typical cases of power grid accidents at home and abroad in recent years and taking these accident cases as the research object, this paper will analyze the three major factors that cause power grid accidents at present. At the same time, combining with various factors and impacts caused by power grid accidents, the paper will put forward corresponding solutions and suggestions to prevent the occurrence of the accident and lower the impact of the accident.

  5. Modeling secondary accidents identified by traffic shock waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junhua, Wang; Boya, Liu; Lanfang, Zhang; Ragland, David R

    2016-02-01

    The high potential for occurrence and the negative consequences of secondary accidents make them an issue of great concern affecting freeway safety. Using accident records from a three-year period together with California interstate freeway loop data, a dynamic method for more accurate classification based on the traffic shock wave detecting method was used to identify secondary accidents. Spatio-temporal gaps between the primary and secondary accident were proven be fit via a mixture of Weibull and normal distribution. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate major factors contributing to secondary accident occurrence. Traffic shock wave speed and volume at the occurrence of a primary accident were explicitly considered in the model, as a secondary accident is defined as an accident that occurs within the spatio-temporal impact scope of the primary accident. Results show that the shock waves originating in the wake of a primary accident have a more significant impact on the likelihood of a secondary accident occurrence than the effects of traffic volume. Primary accidents with long durations can significantly increase the possibility of secondary accidents. Unsafe speed and weather are other factors contributing to secondary crash occurrence. It is strongly suggested that when police or rescue personnel arrive at the scene of an accident, they should not suddenly block, decrease, or unblock the traffic flow, but instead endeavor to control traffic in a smooth and controlled manner. Also it is important to reduce accident processing time to reduce the risk of secondary accident. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Random mutagenesis by error-prone pol plasmid replication in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David L; Lilly, Joshua; Hernandez, Jaime; Romsdahl, Jillian; Troll, Christopher J; Camps, Manel

    2014-01-01

    Directed evolution is an approach that mimics natural evolution in the laboratory with the goal of modifying existing enzymatic activities or of generating new ones. The identification of mutants with desired properties involves the generation of genetic diversity coupled with a functional selection or screen. Genetic diversity can be generated using PCR or using in vivo methods such as chemical mutagenesis or error-prone replication of the desired sequence in a mutator strain. In vivo mutagenesis methods facilitate iterative selection because they do not require cloning, but generally produce a low mutation density with mutations not restricted to specific genes or areas within a gene. For this reason, this approach is typically used to generate new biochemical properties when large numbers of mutants can be screened or selected. Here we describe protocols for an advanced in vivo mutagenesis method that is based on error-prone replication of a ColE1 plasmid bearing the gene of interest. Compared to other in vivo mutagenesis methods, this plasmid-targeted approach allows increased mutation loads and facilitates iterative selection approaches. We also describe the mutation spectrum for this mutagenesis methodology in detail, and, using cycle 3 GFP as a target for mutagenesis, we illustrate the phenotypic diversity that can be generated using our method. In sum, error-prone Pol I replication is a mutagenesis method that is ideally suited for the evolution of new biochemical activities when a functional selection is available.

  7. Recovery of arrested replication forks by homologous recombination is error-prone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Iraqui

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination is a universal mechanism that allows repair of DNA and provides support for DNA replication. Homologous recombination is therefore a major pathway that suppresses non-homology-mediated genome instability. Here, we report that recovery of impeded replication forks by homologous recombination is error-prone. Using a fork-arrest-based assay in fission yeast, we demonstrate that a single collapsed fork can cause mutations and large-scale genomic changes, including deletions and translocations. Fork-arrest-induced gross chromosomal rearrangements are mediated by inappropriate ectopic recombination events at the site of collapsed forks. Inverted repeats near the site of fork collapse stimulate large-scale genomic changes up to 1,500 times over spontaneous events. We also show that the high accuracy of DNA replication during S-phase is impaired by impediments to fork progression, since fork-arrest-induced mutation is due to erroneous DNA synthesis during recovery of replication forks. The mutations caused are small insertions/duplications between short tandem repeats (micro-homology indicative of replication slippage. Our data establish that collapsed forks, but not stalled forks, recovered by homologous recombination are prone to replication slippage. The inaccuracy of DNA synthesis does not rely on PCNA ubiquitination or trans-lesion-synthesis DNA polymerases, and it is not counteracted by mismatch repair. We propose that deletions/insertions, mediated by micro-homology, leading to copy number variations during replication stress may arise by progression of error-prone replication forks restarted by homologous recombination.

  8. Radiation accidents and defence of population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memmedov, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Development of nuclear physics, the fundamental and the applied researches in the field of radioactive insured wide possibility for application of radionuclides and ionizing radiation source in the different fields of national economy. Application of radionuclides in chemical, metallurgical, food industry, in agriculture and etc. Fields provide a large economic profit. It's hard to apprise significance of ionizing radiation source using in medicine for diagnostics and treatment of different disease. Nuclear power engineering and nuclear industry are developing intensively. At same time nuclear power, ionizing radiation sources incur potential treat for surroundings and health of population. As even that stage of protective measure development: there is no possibility of that happening of radiation accidents. A radiation accident qualifies as loss of ionizing radiation sources direction, which provoked by disrepair equipment, natural calamity or other causes which could bring to unplanned irradiation of population or radioactive pollution of surroundings. At present some following typical cases connected with radiation accident have been chosen: Contentious using or keeping of ionizing radiation source with breach of established requires; Loss, theft of ionizing radiation sources or radiation plants, instruments; Leaving the sources of ionizing radiation in the holes; Refusal radiation technic exploited in industry, medicine, SRI and etc; Disrepair in nuclear transport means of conveyance; Crashes and accidents at NPP and at other enterprises of nuclear industry. The radiation accidents according to character, degree and scales have been divided into two groups: Radiation accidents not connected with NPP; Accidents in the nuclear engineering and industry; The radiation accidents not connected with NPP according their consequence divide into 5 groups; accidents which do not come to irradiation of personal, persons from population (more PN-permissible norm

  9. Medical aspects of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerschmidt, O.

    1990-01-01

    Reactor accidents and nuclear bomb explosions are compared including the release of radioactivity in an accident, results of risk studies, emergency measures of nuclear power plants, and evacuation of the population. The medical aspects refer to the prophylaxies of the thyroid gland, contamination and decontamination of body surfaces, recommendations of the ICRP, radiation injury after total body exposure and medical problems after a reactor accident. (DG)

  10. Accident management approach in Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazaryan, K.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture the accident management approach in Armenian NPP (ANPP) Unit 2 is described. List of BDBAs had been developed by OKB Gydropress in 1994. 13 accident sequences were included in this list. The relevant analyses had been performed in VNIIAES and the 'Guidelines on operator actions for beyond design basis accident (BDBA) management at ANPP Unit 2' had been prepared. These instructions are discussed

  11. Injury protection and accident causation parameters for vulnerable road users based on German In-Depth Accident Study GIDAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Dietmar; Jänsch, Michael; Haasper, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Within a study of accident data from GIDAS (German In-Depth Accident Study), vulnerable road users are investigated regarding injury risk in traffic accidents. GIDAS is the largest in-depth accident study in Germany. Due to a well-defined sampling plan, representativeness with respect to the federal statistics is also guaranteed. A hierarchical system ACASS (Accident Causation Analysis with Seven Steps) was developed in GIDAS, describing the human causation factors in a chronological sequence. The accordingly classified causation factors - derived from the systematic of the analysis of human accident causes ("7 steps") - can be used to describe the influence of accident causes on the injury outcome. The bases of the study are accident documentations over ten years from 1999 to 2008 with 8204 vulnerable road users (VRU), of which 3 different groups were selected as pedestrians n=2041, motorcyclists n=2199 and bicyclists n=3964, and analyzed on collisions with cars and trucks as well as vulnerable road users alone. The paper will give a description of the injury pattern and injury mechanisms of accidents. The injury frequencies and severities are pointed out considering different types of VRU and protective measures of helmet and clothes of the human body. The impact points are demonstrated on the car, following to conclusion of protective measures on the vehicle. Existing standards of protection devices as well as interdisciplinary research, including accident and injury statistics, are described. With this paper, a summarization of the existing possibilities on protective measures for pedestrians, bicyclists and motorcyclists is given and discussed by comparison of all three groups of vulnerable road users. Also the relevance of special impact situations and accident causes mainly responsible for severe injuries are pointed out, given the new orientation of research for the avoidance and reduction of accident patterns. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Severe accident tests and development of domestic severe accident system codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    According to lessons learned from Fukushima-Daiichi NPS accidents, the safety evaluation will be started based on the NRA's New Safety Standards. In parallel with this movement, reinforcement of Severe Accident (SA) Measures and Accident Managements (AMs) has been undertaken and establishments of relevant regulations and standards are recognized as urgent subjects. Strengthening responses against nuclear plant hazards, as well as realistic protection measures and their standardization is also recognized as urgent subjects. Furthermore, decommissioning of Fukushima-Daiichi Unit1 through Unit4 is promoted diligently. Taking into account JNES's mission with regard to these SA Measures, AMs and decommissioning, movement of improving SA evaluation methodologies inside and outside Japan, and prioritization of subjects based on analyses of sequences of Fukushima-Daiichi NPS accidents, three viewpoints was extracted. These viewpoints were substantiated as the following three groups of R and D subjects: (1) Obtaining near term experimental subjects: Containment venting, Seawater injection, Iodine behaviors. (2) Obtaining mid and long experimental subjects: Fuel damage behavior at early phase of core degradation, Core melting and debris formation. (3) Development of a macroscopic level SA code for plant system behaviors and a mechanistic level code for core melting and debris formation. (author)

  13. Severe accident tests and development of domestic severe accident system codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    According to lessons learned from Fukushima-Daiichi NPS accidents, the safety evaluation will be started based on the NRA's New Safety Standards. In parallel with this movement, reinforcement of Severe Accident (SA) Measures and Accident Managements (AMs) has been undertaken and establishments of relevant regulations and standards are recognized as urgent subjects. Strengthening responses against nuclear plant hazards, as well as realistic protection measures and their standardization is also recognized as urgent subjects. Furthermore, decommissioning of Fukushima-Daiichi Unit1 through Unit4 is promoted diligently. Taking into account JNES's mission with regard to these SA Measures, AMs and decommissioning, movement of improving SA evaluation methodologies inside and outside Japan, and prioritization of subjects based on analyses of sequences of Fukushima-Daiichi NPS accidents, three viewpoints was extracted. These viewpoints were substantiated as the following three groups of R and D subjects: (1) Obtaining near term experimental subjects: Containment venting, Seawater injection, Iodine behaviors. (2) Obtaining mid and long experimental subjects: Fuel damage behavior at early phase of core degradation, Core melting and debris formation. (3) Development of a macroscopic level SA code for plant system behaviors and a mechanistic level code for core melting and debris formation. (author)

  14. Self-esteem in delinquent-prone adolescents in Gauteng

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    D.Ed. Delinquent-prone behaviour amongst the adolescent school population has become a serious problem in South Africa. From the reports in the media, it would seem that many adolescents cannot conform to the demands of society and, consequently, become involved in acts, which may be punishable by law. These acts include illegal substance abuse, stealing, fighting, aggravated assault and bullying of both educators and learners. In this respect, it must be noted that, although society at la...

  15. Psychical and social effects related to post-accident situations: some training of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochand, J.

    1995-01-01

    Some preliminary considerations on the psychic and societal dimensions related to post-accident situations connected to large scale and heavy land contamination are presented. This is done with the objective of exploring the role that these dimensions could play in the elaboration of new radiological protection principles and concepts in order to restore confidence among affected populations after a nuclear accident. It is important to facilitate the return to normal or, at least, acceptable living conditions, as soon as reasonably achievable, and to prevent the possible emergence of a post-accident crisis. A scheme is proposed for understanding the dynamics of the various phases after an accident, taking into account the collective response to the consequences as well as, the response to the countermeasures. (Author)

  16. Accident analysis for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Deterministic safety analysis (frequently referred to as accident analysis) is an important tool for confirming the adequacy and efficiency of provisions within the defence in depth concept for the safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs). Owing to the close interrelation between accident analysis and safety, an analysis that lacks consistency, is incomplete or is of poor quality is considered a safety issue for a given NPP. Developing IAEA guidance documents for accident analysis is thus an important step towards resolving this issue. Requirements and guidelines pertaining to the scope and content of accident analysis have, in the past, been partially described in various IAEA documents. Several guidelines relevant to WWER and RBMK type reactors have been developed within the IAEA Extrabudgetary Programme on the Safety of WWER and RBMK NPPs. To a certain extent, accident analysis is also covered in several documents of the revised NUSS series, for example, in the Safety Requirements on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design (NS-R-1) and in the Safety Guide on Safety Assessment and Verification for Nuclear Power Plants (NS-G-1.2). Consistent with these documents, the IAEA has developed the present Safety Report on Accident Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants. Many experts have contributed to the development of this Safety Report. Besides several consultants meetings, comments were collected from more than fifty selected organizations. The report was also reviewed at the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Accident Analysis held in Vienna from 30 August to 3 September 1999. The present IAEA Safety Report is aimed at providing practical guidance for performing accident analyses. The guidance is based on present good practice worldwide. The report covers all the steps required to perform accident analyses, i.e. selection of initiating events and acceptance criteria, selection of computer codes and modelling assumptions, preparation of input data and presentation of the

  17. Criticality accident alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The American National Standard ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986, Criticality Accident Alarm System provides guidance for the establishment and maintenance of an alarm system to initiate personnel evacuation in the event of inadvertent criticality. In addition to identifying the physical features of the components of the system, the characteristics of accidents of concern are carefully delineated. Unfortunately, this ANSI Standard has led to considerable confusion in interpretation, and there is evidence that the ''minimum accident of concern'' may not be appropriate. Furthermore, although intended as a guide, the provisions of the standard are being rigorously applied, sometimes with interpretations that are not consistent. Although the standard is clear in the use of absorbed dose in free air of 20 rad, at least one installation has interpreted the requirement to apply to dose in soft tissue. The standard is also clear in specifying the response to both neutrons and gamma rays. An assembly of uranyl fluoride enriched to 5% 235 U was operated to simulate a potential accident. The dose, delivered in a free run excursion 2 m from the surface of the vessel, was greater than 500 rad, without ever exceeding a rate of 20 rad/min, which is the set point for activating an alarm that meets the standard. The presence of an alarm system would not have prevented any of the five major accidents in chemical operations nor is it absolutely certain that the alarms were solely responsible for reducing personnel exposures following the accident. Nevertheless, criticality alarm systems are now the subject of great effort and expense. 13 refs

  18. Accident and emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, V.; Moellenbach, K.; Heinonen, R.; Jakobsson, S.; Kukko, T.; Berg, Oe.; Larsen, J.S.; Westgaard, T.; Magnusson, B.; Andersson, H.; Holmstroem, C.; Brehmer, B.; Allard, R.

    1988-06-01

    There is an increasing potential for severe accidents as the industrial development tends towards large, centralised production units. In several industries this has led to the formation of large organisations which are prepared for accidents fighting and for emergency management. The functioning of these organisations critically depends upon efficient decision making and exchange of information. This project is aimed at securing and possibly improving the functionality and efficiency of the accident and emergency management by verifying, demonstrating, and validating the possible use of advanced information technology in the organisations mentioned above. With the nuclear industry in focus the project consists of five main activities: 1) The study and detailed analysis of accident and emergency scenarios based on records from incidents and rills in nuclear installations. 2) Development of a conceptual understanding of accident and emergency management with emphasis on distributed decision making, information flow, and control structure sthat are involved. 3) Development of a general experimental methodology for evaluating the effects of different kinds of decision aids and forms of organisation for emergency management systems with distributed decision making. 4) Development and test of a prototype system for a limited part of an accident and emergency organisation to demonstrate the potential use of computer and communication systems, data-base and knowledge base technology, and applications of expert systems and methods used in artificial intelligence. 5) Production of guidelines for the introduction of advanced information technology in the organisations based on evaluation and validation of the prototype system. (author)

  19. NPP Krsko Severe Accident Management Guidelines Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic, I.; Krajnc, B.; Bilic-Zabric, T.; Spiler, J.

    2002-01-01

    Severe Accident Management is a framework to identify and implement the Emergency Response Capabilities that can be used to prevent or mitigate severe accidents and their consequences. The USA NRC has indicated that the development of a licensee plant specific accident management program will be required in order to close out the severe accident regulatory issue (Ref. SECY-88-147). Generic Letter 88-20 ties the Accident management Program to IPE for each plant. The SECY-89-012 defines those actions taken during the course of an accident by the plant operating and technical staff to: 1) prevent core damage, 2) terminate the progress of core damage if it begins and retain the core within the reactor vessel, 3) maintain containment integrity as long as possible, and 4) minimize offsite releases. The subject of this paper is to document the severe accident management activities, which resulted in a plant specific Severe Accident Management Guidelines implementation. They have been developed based on the Krsko IPE (Individual Plant Examination) insights, Generic WOG SAMGs (Westinghouse Owners Group Severe Accident Management Guidances) and plant specific documents developed within this effort. Among the required plant specific actions the following are the most important ones: Identification and documentation of those Krsko plant specific severe accident management features (which also resulted from the IPE investigations). The development of the Krsko plant specific background documents (Severe Accident Plant Specific Strategies and SAMG Setpoint Calculation). Also, paper discusses effort done in the areas of NPP Krsko SAMG review (internal and external ), validation on Krsko Full Scope Simulator (Severe Accident sequences are simulated by MAAP4 in real time) and world 1st IAEA Review of Accident Management Programmes (RAMP). (author)

  20. Secondary school accident reporting in one education authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, W R; Latif, A H A; Sibert, J

    2002-01-01

    Secondary schools appear to have very different accident rates when they are compared on the basis of accident report returns. The variation may be as a result of real differences in accident rates or different reporting procedures. This study investigates accident reporting from secondary schools and, in particular, the role of the school nurse. Accident form returns covering a 2-year period were collected for statistical analysis from 13 comprehensive schools in one local education authority in Wales. School sites were visited in the following school year to obtain information about accident records held on site and accident reporting procedures. The main factors determining the number of school accident reports submitted to the education authority relate to differences in recording and reporting procedures, such as the employment of a nurse and the policy of the head teacher/safety officer on submitting accident returns. Accident and emergency department referrals from similar schools may show significant differences in specific injuries and their causes. The level of school accident activity cannot be gauged from reports submitted to the education authority. Lack of incentives for collecting good accident data, in conjunction with the degree of complacency in the current system, suggest that future accident rates and reporting activity are unlikely to change.

  1. Criticality accident in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.R. de.

    1984-01-01

    A recent criticality type accident, ocurred in Argetina, is commented. Considerations about the nature of the facility where this accident took place, its genesis, type of operation carried out on the day of the event, and the medical aspects involved are done. (Author) [pt

  2. Utilization of accident databases and fuzzy sets to estimate frequency of HazMat transport accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Yuanhua; Keren, Nir; Mannan, M. Sam

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment and management of transportation of hazardous materials (HazMat) require the estimation of accident frequency. This paper presents a methodology to estimate hazardous materials transportation accident frequency by utilizing publicly available databases and expert knowledge. The estimation process addresses route-dependent and route-independent variables. Negative binomial regression is applied to an analysis of the Department of Public Safety (DPS) accident database to derive basic accident frequency as a function of route-dependent variables, while the effects of route-independent variables are modeled by fuzzy logic. The integrated methodology provides the basis for an overall transportation risk analysis, which can be used later to develop a decision support system.

  3. How to reduce the number of accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Among the safety objectives that the Director-General has established for CERN in 2012 is a reduction in the number of workplace accidents.   The best way to prevent workplace accidents is to learn from experience. This is why any accident, fire, instance of pollution, or even a near-miss, should be reported using the EDH form that can be found here. All accident reports are followed up. The departments investigate all accidents that result in sick leave, as well as all the more common categories of accidents at CERN, essentially falls (slipping, falling on stairs, etc.), regardless of whether or not they lead to sick leave. By studying the accident causes that come to light in this way, it is possible to take preventive action to avoid such accidents in the future. If you have any questions, the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. HSE Unit

  4. SAMEX: A severe accident management support expert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo-Yong; Ahn, Kwang-Il

    2010-01-01

    A decision support system for use in a severe accident management following an incident at a nuclear power plant is being developed which is aided by a severe accident risk database module and a severe accident management simulation module. The severe accident management support expert (SAMEX) system can provide the various types of diagnostic and predictive assistance based on the real-time plant specific safety parameters. It consists of four major modules as sub-systems: (a) severe accident risk data base module (SARDB), (b) risk-informed severe accident risk data base management module (RI-SARD), (c) severe accident management simulation module (SAMS), and (d) on-line severe accident management guidance module (on-line SAMG). The modules are integrated into a code package that executes within a WINDOWS XP operating environment, using extensive user friendly graphics control. In Korea, the integrated approach of the decision support system is being carried out under the nuclear R and D program planned by the Korean Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST). An objective of the project is to develop the support system which can show a theoretical possibility. If the system is feasible, the project team will recommend the radiation protection technical support center of a national regulatory body to implement a plant specific system, which is applicable to a real accident, for the purpose of immediate and various diagnosis based on the given plant status information and of prediction of an expected accident progression under a severe accident situation.

  5. Assessment of Mobile Accident Response Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    This report presents the results of a DOE-sponsored assessment of nuclear accident response resources. It identifies the mobile resources that could be required to respond to different types of nuclear accidents including major ones like TMI-2, identifies the resources currently available and makes recommendations for the design and construction of additional mobile accident response resources to supplement those already in existence. This project is referred to as the Mobile Accident Response Capability (MARC) program

  6. Accident sequence quantification with KIRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Un; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kil You; Yang, Jun Eon; Jeong, Won Dae; Chang, Seung Cheol; Sung, Tae Yong; Kang, Dae Il; Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Hwang, Mi Jeong

    1997-01-01

    The tasks of probabilistic safety assessment(PSA) consists of the identification of initiating events, the construction of event tree for each initiating event, construction of fault trees for event tree logics, the analysis of reliability data and finally the accident sequence quantification. In the PSA, the accident sequence quantification is to calculate the core damage frequency, importance analysis and uncertainty analysis. Accident sequence quantification requires to understand the whole model of the PSA because it has to combine all event tree and fault tree models, and requires the excellent computer code because it takes long computation time. Advanced Research Group of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) has developed PSA workstation KIRAP(Korea Integrated Reliability Analysis Code Package) for the PSA work. This report describes the procedures to perform accident sequence quantification, the method to use KIRAP`s cut set generator, and method to perform the accident sequence quantification with KIRAP. (author). 6 refs.

  7. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Accident sequence quantification with KIRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Un; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kil You; Yang, Jun Eon; Jeong, Won Dae; Chang, Seung Cheol; Sung, Tae Yong; Kang, Dae Il; Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Hwang, Mi Jeong.

    1997-01-01

    The tasks of probabilistic safety assessment(PSA) consists of the identification of initiating events, the construction of event tree for each initiating event, construction of fault trees for event tree logics, the analysis of reliability data and finally the accident sequence quantification. In the PSA, the accident sequence quantification is to calculate the core damage frequency, importance analysis and uncertainty analysis. Accident sequence quantification requires to understand the whole model of the PSA because it has to combine all event tree and fault tree models, and requires the excellent computer code because it takes long computation time. Advanced Research Group of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) has developed PSA workstation KIRAP(Korea Integrated Reliability Analysis Code Package) for the PSA work. This report describes the procedures to perform accident sequence quantification, the method to use KIRAP's cut set generator, and method to perform the accident sequence quantification with KIRAP. (author). 6 refs

  9. Return on experience on nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand

    2015-09-01

    After a presentation of the International Nuclear and radiological Events Scale (INES scale), of its levels and criteria, this article proposes brief recalls of some nuclear accidents which occurred in nuclear reactors: Chalk River in Canada (1952), Windscale in England (1957), the universal Canadian reactor (NRU in 1958), the SL1 reactor of the Idaho National Laboratory in the USA (1961), the Swiss Lucens reactor (1969), Saint-Laurent des Eaux in France (1969 and 1980). More detailed descriptions are then given for the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, the Chernobyl accident in 1986, and the Fukushima accident in 2011. The main causes of these accidents are identified: loss of control of chain reaction, cooling defect on a stopped reactor, cooling defect on an operated reactor. Some lessons are drawn from these facts, and some characteristics of the EPR are outlined with respect with problems encountered in these accidents

  10. Accident scenario diagnostics with neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are very complex systems. The diagnoses of transients or accident conditions is very difficult because a large amount of information, which is often noisy, or intermittent, or even incomplete, need to be processed in real time. To demonstrate their potential application to nuclear power plants, neural networks axe used to monitor the accident scenarios simulated by the training simulator of TVA's Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant. A self-organization network is used to compress original data to reduce the total number of training patterns. Different accident scenarios are closely related to different key parameters which distinguish one accident scenario from another. Therefore, the accident scenarios can be monitored by a set of small size neural networks, called modular networks, each one of which monitors only one assigned accident scenario, to obtain fast training and recall. Sensitivity analysis is applied to select proper input variables for modular networks

  11. Computer Based Road Accident Reconstruction Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Batista

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Since road accident analyses and reconstructions are increasinglybased on specific computer software for simulationof vehicle d1iving dynamics and collision dynamics, and forsimulation of a set of trial runs from which the model that bestdescribes a real event can be selected, the paper presents anoverview of some computer software and methods available toaccident reconstruction experts. Besides being time-saving,when properly used such computer software can provide moreauthentic and more trustworthy accident reconstruction, thereforepractical experiences while using computer software toolsfor road accident reconstruction obtained in the TransportSafety Laboratory at the Faculty for Maritime Studies andTransport of the University of Ljubljana are presented and discussed.This paper addresses also software technology for extractingmaximum information from the accident photo-documentationto support accident reconstruction based on the simulationsoftware, as well as the field work of reconstruction expertsor police on the road accident scene defined by this technology.

  12. Factors in Early Adolescence Associated With a Mole-Prone Phenotype in Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haoming; Marchetti, Michael A; Dusza, Stephen W; Chung, Esther; Fonseca, Maira; Scope, Alon; Geller, Alan C; Bishop, Marilyn; Marghoob, Ashfaq A; Halpern, Allan C

    2017-10-01

    Nevi are important phenotypic risk factors for melanoma in adults. Few studies have examined the constitutional and behavioral factors associated with a mole-prone phenotype in adolescents. To identify host, behavioral, and dermoscopic factors in early adolescence (age, 14 years) that are associated with a mole-prone phenotype in late adolescence (age, 17 years). A prospective observational cohort study from the Study of Nevi in Children was conducted from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2014, with a 2- to 3-year follow-up. A total of 569 students from the school system in Framingham, Massachusetts, were enrolled in the 8th or 9th grade (baseline; mean [SD] age, 14.4 [0.7] years). The overall retention rate was 73.3%, and 417 students were reassessed in the 11th grade. Mole-prone phenotype in the 11th grade, defined as total nevus count of the back and 1 randomly selected leg in the top decile of the cohort or having any nevi greater than 5 mm in diameter. Of the 417 students assessed at follow-up in the 11th grade (166 females and 251 males; mean [SD] age, 17.0 [0.4] years), 111 participants (26.6%) demonstrated a mole-prone phenotype: 69 students (62.2%) with 1 nevus greater than 5 mm in diameter, 23 students (20.7%) with total nevus count in the top decile, and 19 students (17.1%) with both characteristics. On multivariate analysis, baseline total nevus count (adjusted odds ratio, 9.08; 95% CI, 4.0-23.7; P adolescents for higher-intensity counseling about sun protection and skin self-examination.

  13. Traffic accidents: an econometric investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Tito Moreira; Adolfo Sachsida; Loureiro Paulo

    2004-01-01

    Based on a sample of drivers in Brasilia's streets, this article investigates whether distraction explains traffic accidents. A probit model is estimated to determine the predictive power of several variables on traffic accidents. The main conclusion drawn from this study is that the proxies used to measure distraction, such as the use of cell phones and cigarette smoking in a moving vehicle, are significant factors in determining traffic accidents.

  14. 10 CFR 76.85 - Assessment of accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment of accidents. 76.85 Section 76.85 Energy... Assessment of accidents. The Corporation shall perform an analysis of potential accidents and consequences to... postulated accidents which include internal and external events and natural phenomena in order to ensure...

  15. Zonation of Landslide-Prone Using Microseismic Method and Slope Analysis in Margoyoso, Magelang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditya, Muchamad Reza; Fauqi Romadlon, Arriqo’; Agra Medika, Reymon; Alfontius, Yosua; Delva Jannet, Zukhruf; Hartantyo, Eddy

    2018-04-01

    Margoyoso Village, Salaman Sub-district, Magelang Regency, Central Java is one of the villages that were included in landslide prone areas. The steep slopes and land use in this village were quite apprehensive. There were fractures with 5 cm in width and a length of 50 m. Moreover, these fractures appeared in the home residents. Although the local government has established a disaster response organization, this village is still not getting adequate information about the landslide prone areas. Based on the description before, we conducted research with geophysical methods and geotechnical analysis to minimize the danger of landslides. The geophysical method used in this research was microseismic method and geotechnical analysis. The microseismic measurement and slope stability analysis at Margoyoso village was a step in analysing the landslide-prone zone boundary. The results of this research indicated that landslide potential areas had a low peak ground acceleration values with a range from 36 gal to 46 gal. Measurement of slope stability indicated that a slope angle values between 55°-78° are a potential landslide slope because the soil in this village has very loose properties so it is very easy to move.

  16. Feature article. Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekarinai, Masashi; Ake, Yutaka; Narabayashi, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    This special feature article consisted of five reports and the minutes of emergency discussion meeting on Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident. Effects of the accident on future electricity supply of electric utilities and also on business development of nuclear industries were discussed. Activities of senior network team of atomic energy society of Japan (AESJ) to conduct severe accident analysis and early restoration from the accident were introduced. Circulating injection reactor cooling system and zeolite decontamination system of accumulated contaminated water was proposed. Effects of the accident on overseas reaction on nuclear development were also reported as well as personal experience of the professor in the US west coast on communications. (T. Tanaka)

  17. Unearthing belowground bud banks in fire-prone ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausas, Juli G; Lamont, Byron B; Paula, Susana; Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz; Fidelis, Alessandra

    2018-03-01

    Despite long-time awareness of the importance of the location of buds in plant biology, research on belowground bud banks has been scant. Terms such as lignotuber, xylopodium and sobole, all referring to belowground bud-bearing structures, are used inconsistently in the literature. Because soil efficiently insulates meristems from the heat of fire, concealing buds below ground provides fitness benefits in fire-prone ecosystems. Thus, in these ecosystems, there is a remarkable diversity of bud-bearing structures. There are at least six locations where belowground buds are stored: roots, root crown, rhizomes, woody burls, fleshy swellings and belowground caudexes. These support many morphologically distinct organs. Given their history and function, these organs may be divided into three groups: those that originated in the early history of plants and that currently are widespread (bud-bearing roots and root crowns); those that also originated early and have spread mainly among ferns and monocots (nonwoody rhizomes and a wide range of fleshy underground swellings); and those that originated later in history and are strictly tied to fire-prone ecosystems (woody rhizomes, lignotubers and xylopodia). Recognizing the diversity of belowground bud banks is the starting point for understanding the many evolutionary pathways available for responding to severe recurrent disturbances. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.513 Accident... solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the clause at FAR 52.236-13, Accident Prevention. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836...

  19. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.513 Accident prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, in... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36...

  20. Pattern of accident distribution in the telecommunications industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, P R; Sheppard, N J

    1980-05-01

    Examination of the accident records from the telecommunication industry covering some 100 000 engineers over a 12-month period showed that 25% of accidents resulting in more than three days' sick leave gave rise to back injuries. Handling accidents and falls accounted for 65% of three-day-plus accidents; handling accidents alone gave rise to 65% of back injuries. The absolute numbers of accidents have been compared with the total population of engineers to estimate the effects of age or occupation on levels of hazard; certain occupations constituting 33% of the engineers' population suffered 70% of all three-day-plus accidents. Accidents occurred most frequently in the group aged from 31 to 48 years. Other significant factors affecting the occurrence of accidents were time of year and duty experience of the workers.

  1. The IAEA Accident Management Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabanov, L.; Jankowski, M.; Mauersberger, H. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria))

    1993-02-01

    Accident prevention and mitigation programmes and the Emergency Response System (ERS) are important elements of the Agency's activities in the area of nuclear power plant (NPP) safety. Safety Codes and Guides on siting, design, quality assurance and the operation of NPPs have been produced and are used by NPP operating organizations. Nuclear safety evaluation services are provided by the IAEA. The Emergency Response System and the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) have been developed. The framework for the development of an accident management programme has been set up. The main goal is to develop an Accident Management Manual to provide a systematic, structured approach to the development and implementation of an accident management programme at NPPs. An outline of the Manual has been distributed and the first draft is available. The component parts are: Co-ordinated research programmes (CRPs) on severe accident management and containment behaviour; the use of vulnerability analysis; mitigation of the effects of hydrogen, and generic symptom oriented emergency operating procedures. The IAEA provides guidance by the dissemination of information on methods for accident management; collates information on approaches in this field in different organizations and countries; and arranges exchange of experience and the promulgation of knowledge through the training of NPP managers and senior technical staff. (orig.).

  2. The IAEA Accident Management Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabanov, L.; Jankowski, M.; Mauersberger, H.

    1993-01-01

    Accident prevention and mitigation programmes and the Emergency Response System (ERS) are important elements of the Agency's activities in the area of nuclear power plant (NPP) safety. Safety Codes and Guides on siting, design, quality assurance and the operation of NPPs have been produced and are used by NPP operating organizations. Nuclear safety evaluation services are provided by the IAEA. The Emergency Response System and the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) have been developed. The framework for the development of an accident management programme has been set up. The main goal is to develop an Accident Management Manual to provide a systematic, structured approach to the development and implementation of an accident management programme at NPPs. An outline of the Manual has been distributed and the first draft is available. The component parts are: Co-ordinated research programmes (CRPs) on severe accident management and containment behaviour; the use of vulnerability analysis; mitigation of the effects of hydrogen, and generic symptom oriented emergency operating procedures. The IAEA provides guidance by the dissemination of information on methods for accident management; collates information on approaches in this field in different organizations and countries; and arranges exchange of experience and the promulgation of knowledge through the training of NPP managers and senior technical staff. (orig.)

  3. Uncertainties and severe-accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Severe-accident management can be defined as the use of existing and or alternative resources, systems, and actions to prevent or mitigate a core-melt accident. Together with risk management (e.g., changes in plant operation and/or addition of equipment) and emergency planning (off-site actions), accident management provides an extension of the defense-indepth safety philosophy for severe accidents. A significant number of probabilistic safety assessments have been completed, which yield the principal plant vulnerabilities, and can be categorized as (a) dominant sequences with respect to core-melt frequency, (b) dominant sequences with respect to various risk measures, (c) dominant threats that challenge safety functions, and (d) dominant threats with respect to failure of safety systems. Severe-accident management strategies can be generically classified as (a) use of alternative resources, (b) use of alternative equipment, and (c) use of alternative actions. For each sequence/threat and each combination of strategy, there may be several options available to the operator. Each strategy/option involves phenomenological and operational considerations regarding uncertainty. These include (a) uncertainty in key phenomena, (b) uncertainty in operator behavior, (c) uncertainty in system availability and behavior, and (d) uncertainty in information availability (i.e., instrumentation). This paper focuses on phenomenological uncertainties associated with severe-accident management strategies

  4. Comparison between conventional protective mechanical ventilation and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation associated with the prone position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioretto, José Roberto; Klefens, Susiane Oliveira; Pires, Rafaelle Fernandes; Kurokawa, Cilmery Suemi; Carpi, Mario Ferreira; Bonatto, Rossano César; Moraes, Marcos Aurélio; Ronchi, Carlos Fernando

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effects of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and conventional protective mechanical ventilation associated with the prone position on oxygenation, histology and pulmonary oxidative damage in an experimental model of acute lung injury. Forty-five rabbits with tracheostomy and vascular access were underwent mechanical ventilation. Acute lung injury was induced by tracheal infusion of warm saline. Three experimental groups were formed: healthy animals + conventional protective mechanical ventilation, supine position (Control Group; n = 15); animals with acute lung injury + conventional protective mechanical ventilation, prone position (CMVG; n = 15); and animals with acute lung injury + high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, prone position (HFOG; n = 15). Ten minutes after the beginning of the specific ventilation of each group, arterial gasometry was collected, with this timepoint being called time zero, after which the animal was placed in prone position and remained in this position for 4 hours. Oxidative stress was evaluated by the total antioxidant performance assay. Pulmonary tissue injury was determined by histopathological score. The level of significance was 5%. Both groups with acute lung injury showed worsening of oxygenation after induction of injury compared with the Control Group. After 4 hours, there was a significant improvement in oxygenation in the HFOG group compared with CMVG. Analysis of total antioxidant performance in plasma showed greater protection in HFOG. HFOG had a lower histopathological lesion score in lung tissue than CMVG. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation, associated with prone position, improves oxygenation and attenuates oxidative damage and histopathological lung injury compared with conventional protective mechanical ventilation.

  5. Response to the Chernobyl accident in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The worst nuclear accident in history happened at No.4 unit of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station in USSR. Since the Chernobyl accident, a number of measures have been introduced in many countries, including the reconsideration of programs for construction and operation of nuclear power plants. In Japan, the press and television first reported the accident on April 29. The next day, all the relevant governmental agencies began to collect and analyze information in order to prepare possible countermeasures. The Nuclear Safety Commission issued a statement covering three points: 1) the radioactive substances released by the accident will have virtually no influence on the health of people in Japan, 2) a Special Committee on the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station Accident will be established, and 3) the Soviet government must provide all detailed information about the accident as soon as it is available. On April 30, the Committee on Radioactivity decided to increase radioactivity observations by the Science and Technology Agency, the Defence Agency, and the Meteorological Agency. On the same day, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry set up a survey committee for the Chernobyl accident with the responsibility of collecting and analyzing information about the accident. A review is also made in this article as to how the Japanese media reported the accident and how people reacted on reading the newspapers and watching TV on the accident. (Nogami, K.)

  6. Determinants of Household Food Security in Drought Prone Areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper documents the determinants of household-level food security based on the data collected in 2003 from 954 randomly-selected households in major drought-prone areas of Ethiopia; namely from the West and East Haraghe zones of Oromiya and South Gonder zone of Amhara. The food security is assessed using ...

  7. Outline of Fukushima nuclear accident and future action. Lessons learned from accident and countermeasure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Toshihiko

    2012-01-01

    Fukushima nuclear accident was caused by loss of all AC power sources (SBO) and loss of ultimate heat sink (LUHS) at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) hit by the Great East Japan Earthquake. This article reviewed outline of Fukushima nuclear accident progression when on year had passed since and referred to lessons learned from accident and countermeasure plan to prevent severe accident in SBO and LUHS events by earthquake and tsunami as future action. This countermeasure would be taken to (1) prevent serious flooding in case a tsunami overwhelms the breakwater, with improving water tightness of rooms for emergency diesel generator, batteries and power centers, (2) enhance emergency power supply and cooling function with mobile electricity generator, high pressure fire pump car and alternate water supply source, (3) mitigate environmental effects caused by core damage with installing containment filtered venting, and (4) enforce emergency preparedness in case of severe accident. Definite countermeasure plan for Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPPs was enumerated. (T. Tanaka)

  8. President's Commission and the normal accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter incorporates the major points of an analysis of the accident at Three Mile Island that I prepared in September 1979. In contrast to the findings of the President's Commission (1979), I did not view the accident as the result of operator error, an inept utility, or a negligent Nuclear Regulatory Commission but as a consequence of the complexity and interdependence that characterize the system itself. I argued that the accident was inevitable-that is, that it could not have been prevented, foreseen, or quickly terminated, because it was incomprehensible. It resembled other accidents in nuclear plants and in other high risk, complex and highly interdependent operator-machine systems; none of the accidents were caused by management or operator ineptness or by poor government regulation, though these characteristics existed and should have been expected. I maintained that the accident was normal, because in complex systems there are bound to be multiple faults that cannot be avoided by planning and that operators cannot immediately comprehend

  9. On high-temperature reactor accident topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassbender, J.; Kroeger, W.; Wolters, J.

    1981-01-01

    American and German risk studies for an HTGR and independent investigations of hypothetical accident sequences led to a fundamental understanding of the topology of HTGR accident sequences. The dominating importance of core heat-up accidents was confirmed and the initiating events were identified. Complications of core heat-up accidents by air or water ingress are of minor importance for the risk, whereas the long-term development of accidents during days and weeks plays an important role for the environmental impact. The risk caused by an HTGR at a German site cannot yet be determined exactly, because no modern German HTGR design has passed a licensing procedure. Cautious estimates show that risk will appear to be substantially smaller than the LWR risk. The main reasons are the considerably reduced release of fission procucts and the slow development of core heat-up accidents leaving much time for measures which reduce the risk. (orig.) [de

  10. Safety climate and accidents at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Jeppe; Dastjerdi, Efat Lali; Dyreborg, Johnny

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Occupational safety climate is utilized as a way to measure the risk of accidents and injuries at work. This study investigates which factors are associated with safety climate and accidents at work. Methods: In the 2012 round of the Danish Work Environment and Health Study, 15,144 workers...... from the general working population of Denmark replied to questions about safety climate and accidents at work. Mutually adjusted logistic regression analyses determined the association between variables. Results: Within the last year, 5.7% had experienced an accident resulting in sickness absence....... The number of safety climate problems was progressively associated with the odds ratio (OR) for accidents. For one safety climate problem the OR for accidents was 2.01 (95% CI 1.67–2.42), for four or more safety climate problems the OR was 4.57 (95% CI 3.64–5.74). Young workers (18–24 years) had higher odds...

  11. Radiological accidents, scenarios, planning and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis Delgado, Alexander.

    2008-01-01

    Radiological accidents, scenarios and the importance of a good planning to prevent and control these types of accidents are presented. The radiation can be only one of the risks in an accident, most of dominant radiological risks are not radiological (fire, toxic gases, etc.). The common causes of radiological accidents, potential risks such as external irradiation, internal contamination and the environment pollution are highlighted. In addition, why accidents happen and how they evolve is explained. It describes some incidents with the radiation occurred in Costa Rica from 1993 to 2007. The coordination of emergency management in Costa Rica in relation to a radiological accident, and some mechanisms of action that have practiced in other places are focuses. Among the final considerations are the need to finalize the national plan for radiological emergencies as a tool of empowerment for the teams of emergency care and the availability of information. Likewise the processes of communication, coordination and cooperation to avoid chaos, confusion and crisis are also highlighted [es

  12. Accidents Preventive Practice for High-Rise Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Kai Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand of high-rise projects continues to grow due to the reducing of usable land area in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The rapidly development of high-rise projects has leaded to the rise of fatalities and accidents. An accident that happened in a construction site can cause serious physical injury. The accidents such as people falling from height and struck by falling object were the most frequent accidents happened in Malaysian construction industry. The continuous growth of high-rise buildings indicates that there is a need of an effective safety and health management. Hence, this research aims to identify the causes of accidents and the ways to prevent accidents that occur at high-rise building construction site. Qualitative method was employed in this research. Interview surveying with safety officers who are involved in highrise building project in Kuala Lumpur were conducted in this research. Accidents were caused by man-made factors, environment factors or machinery factors. The accidents prevention methods were provide sufficient Personal Protective Equipment (PPE, have a good housekeeping, execute safety inspection, provide safety training and execute accidents investigation. In the meanwhile, interviewees have suggested the new prevention methods that were develop a proper site layout planning and de-merit and merit system among sub-contractors, suppliers and even employees regarding safety at workplace matters. This research helps in explaining the causes of accidents and identifying area where prevention action should be implemented, so that workers and top management will increase awareness in preventing site accidents.

  13. Pre-existing differences in motivation for food and sensitivity to cocaine-induced locomotion in obesity-prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollbrecht, Peter J; Nobile, Cameron W; Chadderdon, Aaron M; Jutkiewicz, Emily M; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is a significant problem in the United States, with roughly one third of adults having a body mass index (BMI) over thirty. Recent evidence from human studies suggests that pre-existing differences in the function of mesolimbic circuits that mediate motivational processes may promote obesity and hamper weight loss. However, few preclinical studies have examined pre-existing neurobehavioral differences related to the function of mesolimbic systems in models of individual susceptibility to obesity. Here, we used selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats to examine 1) the effect of a novel "junk-food" diet on the development of obesity and metabolic dysfunction, 2) over-consumption of "junk-food" in a free access procedure, 3) motivation for food using instrumental procedures, and 4) cocaine-induced locomotor activity as an index of general mesolimbic function. As expected, eating a sugary, fatty, "junk-food" diet exacerbated weight gain and increased fasted insulin levels only in obesity-prone rats. In addition, obesity-prone rats continued to over-consume junk-food during discrete access testing, even when this same food was freely available in the home cage. Furthermore, when asked to press a lever to obtain food in an instrumental task, rates of responding were enhanced in obesity-prone versus obesity-resistant rats. Finally, obesity-prone rats showed a stronger locomotor response to 15 mg/kg cocaine compared to obesity-resistant rats prior to any diet manipulation. This enhanced sensitivity to this dose of cocaine is indicative of basal differences in the function of mesolimbic circuits in obesity-prone rats. We speculate that pre-existing differences in motivational systems may contribute to over-consumption and enhanced motivation in susceptible individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pre-existing differences in motivation for food and sensitivity to cocaine-induced locomotion in obesity-prone rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollbrecht, Peter J.; Nobile, Cameron W.; Chadderdon, Aaron M.; Jutkiewicz, Emily M.; Ferrario, Carrie R.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a significant problem in the United States, with roughly one third of adults having a body mass index (BMI) over thirty. Recent evidence from human studies suggests that pre-existing differences in the function of mesolimbic circuits that mediate motivational processes may promote obesity and hamper weight loss. However, few preclinical studies have examined pre-existing neurobehavioral differences related to the function of mesolimbic systems in models of individual susceptibility to obesity. Here, we used selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats to examine 1) the effect of a novel “junk-food” diet on the development of obesity and metabolic dysfunction, 2) over-consumption of “junk-food” in a free access procedure, 3) motivation for food using instrumental procedures, and 4) cocaine-induced locomotor activity as an index of general mesolimbic function. As expected, eating a sugary, fatty, “junk-food” diet exacerbated weight gain and increased fasted insulin levels only in obesity-prone rats. In addition, obesity-prone rats continued to over-consume junk-food during discrete access testing, even when this same food was freely available in the home cage. Furthermore, when asked to press a lever to obtain food in an instrumental task, rates of responding were enhanced in obesity-prone versus obesity-resistant rats. Finally, obesity-prone rats showed a stronger locomotor response to 15 mg/kg cocaine compared to obesity-resistant rats prior to any diet manipulation. This enhanced sensitivity to this dose of cocaine is indicative of basal differences in the function of mesolimbic circuits in obesity-prone rats. We speculate that pre-existing differences in motivational systems may contribute to over-consumption and enhanced motivation in susceptible individuals. PMID:26423787

  15. A few seconds to have an accident, a long time to recover: consequences for road accident victims from the ESPARR cohort 2 years after the accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, Charlène; Charnay, Pierrette; Tardy, Hélène; Chossegros, Laetitia; Carnis, Laurent; Hours, Martine

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the consequences of a road accident in adults, taking account of the type of road user, and to determine predictive factors for consequences at 2 years. Prospective follow-up study. The cohort was composed of 1168 victims of road traffic accidents, aged ≥16 years. Two years after the accident, 912 victims completed a self-administered questionnaire. Weighted logistic regression models were implemented to compare casualties still reporting impact related to the accident versus those reporting no residual impact. Five outcomes were analysed: unrecovered health status, impact on occupation or studies, on familial or affective life, on leisure or sport activities and but also the financial difficulties related to the accident. 46.1% of respondents were motorised four-wheel users, 29.6% motorised two-wheel (including quad) users, 13.3% pedestrians (including inline skate and push scooter users) and 11.1% cyclists. 53.3% reported unrecovered health status, 32.0% persisting impact on occupation or studies, 25.2% on familial or affective life, 46.9% on leisure or sport activities and 20.2% still had accident-related financial difficulties. Type of user, adjusted on age and gender, was linked to unrecovered health status and to impact on leisure or sport activities. When global severity (as measured by NISS) was integrated in the previous model, type of user was also associated with impact on occupation or studies. Type of user was further associated with impact on occupation or studies and on leisure or sport activities when global severity and the sociodemographic data obtained at inclusion were taken into account. It was not, however, related to any of the outcomes studied here, when the models focused on the injured body region. Finally, type of road user did not seem, on the various predictive models, to be related to financial difficulties due to the accident or to impact on familial or affective life. Overall, victims

  16. 50 CFR 25.72 - Reporting of accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of accidents. 25.72 Section 25... Reporting of accidents. Accidents involving damage to property, injury to the public or injury to wildlife..., but in no event later than 24 hours after the accident, by the persons involved, to the refuge manager...

  17. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on public perceptions of nuclear plant accident risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, M.K.; Perry, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Assessments of public perceptions of the characteristics of a nuclear power plant accident and affective responses to its likelihood were conducted 5 months before and 1 month after the Chernobyl accident. Analyses of data from 69 residents of southwestern Washington showed significant test-retest correlations for only 10 of 18 variables--accident likelihood, three measures of impact characteristics, three measures of affective reactions, and hazard knowledge by governmental sources. Of these variables, only two had significant changes in mean ratings; frequency of thought and frequency of discussion about a nearby nuclear power plant both increased. While there were significant changes only for two personal consequences (expectations of cancer and genetic effects), both of these decreased. The results of this study indicate that more attention should be given to assessing the stability of risk perceptions over time. Moreover, the data demonstrate that experience with a major accident can actually decrease rather than increase perceptions of threat

  18. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13...

  19. [Implementation of safety devices: biological accident prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán Gómez, M Teresa; Sol Vidiella, Josep; Castellà Castellà, Manel; Castells Bo, Carolina; Losada Pla, Nuria; Espuny, Javier Lluís

    2010-04-01

    Accidental exposures to blood and biological material were the most frequent and potentially serious accidents in healthcare workers, reported in the Prevention of Occupational Risks Unit within 2002. Evaluate the biological percutaneous accidents decrease after a progressive introduction of safety devices. Biological accidents produced between 2.002 and 2.006 were analyzed and reported by the injured healthcare workers to the Level 2b Hospital Prevention of Occupational Risk Unit with 238 beds and 750 employees. The key of the study was the safety devices (peripheral i.v. catheter, needleless i.v. access device and capillary blood collection lancet). Within 2002, 54 percutaneous biological accidents were registered and 19 in 2006, that represents a 64.8% decreased. There has been no safety devices accident reported involving these material. Accidents registered during the implantation period occurred because safety devices were not used at that time. Safety devices have proven to be effective in reducing needle stick percutaneous accidents, so that they are a good choice in the primary prevention of biological accidents contact.

  20. The Chernobyl accidents: Causes and Consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chihab-Eddine, A.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this communication is to discuss the causes and the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. To facilitate the understanding of the events that led to the accident, the author gave a simplified introduction to the important physics that goes on in a nuclear reactor and he presented a brief description and features of chernobyl reactor. The accident scenario and consequences have been presented. The common contribution factors that led to both Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been pointed out.(author)

  1. Social impact of accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Isao

    1997-01-01

    There is the quite big difference between technological risk and social risk feeling. Various biases of social and sensational factors on accidents must be considered to recognize this difference. 'How safe is safe enough' is the perpetual thema concerning with not only technology but also sociology. The safety goal in aircraft design and how making effort to improve the present safety status in civil jet aircrafts is discussed as an example of social risk allowance. INSAG under IAEA started to discuss the safety culture after Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident on 1986. Safety culture and risk communication are the most important procedures to relieve the social impact for accidents. (author)

  2. Pre-existing differences and diet-induced alterations in striatal dopamine systems of obesity-prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollbrecht, Peter J; Mabrouk, Omar S; Nelson, Andrew D; Kennedy, Robert T; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2016-03-01

    Interactions between pre-existing differences in mesolimbic function and neuroadaptations induced by consumption of fatty, sugary foods are thought to contribute to human obesity. This study examined basal and cocaine-induced changes in striatal neurotransmitter levels without diet manipulation and D2 /D3 dopamine receptor-mediated transmission prior to and after consumption of "junk-foods" in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats. Microdialysis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to determine basal and cocaine-induced changes in neurotransmitter levels in real time with cocaine-induced locomotor activity. Sensitivity to the D2 /D3 dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole was examined before and after restricted junk-food exposure. Selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats were used. Cocaine-induced locomotion was greater in obesity-prone rats versus obesity-resistant rats prior to diet manipulation. Basal and cocaine-induced increases in dopamine and serotonin levels did not differ. Obesity-prone rats were more sensitive to the D2 receptor-mediated effects of quinpirole, and junk-food produced modest alterations in quinpirole sensitivity in obesity-resistant rats. These data show that mesolimbic systems differ prior to diet manipulation in susceptible versus resistant rats, and that consumption of fatty, sugary foods produce different neuroadaptations in these populations. These differences may contribute to enhanced food craving and an inability to limit food intake in susceptible individuals. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  3. When Passive Feels Active--Delusion-Proneness Alters Self-Recognition in the Moving Rubber Hand Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzolo, Anaïs; Kalckert, Andreas; Petrovic, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    Psychotic patients have problems with bodily self-recognition such as the experience of self-produced actions (sense of agency) and the perception of the body as their own (sense of ownership). While it has been shown that such impairments in psychotic patients can be explained by hypersalient processing of external sensory input it has also been suggested that they lack normal efference copy in voluntary action. However, it is not known how problems with motor predictions like efference copy contribute to impaired sense of agency and ownership in psychosis or psychosis-related states. We used a rubber hand illusion based on finger movements and measured sense of agency and ownership to compute a bodily self-recognition score in delusion-proneness (indexed by Peters' Delusion Inventory - PDI). A group of healthy subjects (n=71) experienced active movements (involving motor predictions) or passive movements (lacking motor predictions). We observed a highly significant correlation between delusion-proneness and self-recognition in the passive conditions, while no such effect was observed in the active conditions. This was seen for both ownership and agency scores. The result suggests that delusion-proneness is associated with hypersalient external input in passive conditions, resulting in an abnormal experience of the illusion. We hypothesize that this effect is not present in the active condition because deficient motor predictions counteract hypersalience in psychosis proneness.

  4. Application of the severe accident code ATHLET-CD. Modelling and evaluation of accident management measures (Project WASA-BOSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, Polina; Jobst, Matthias; Kliem, Soeren; Kozmenkov, Yaroslav; Schaefer, Frank [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Reactor Safety

    2016-07-01

    The improvement of the safety of nuclear power plants is a continuously on-going process. The analysis of transients and accidents is an important research topic, which significantly contributes to safety enhancements of existing power plants. In case of an accident with multiple failures of safety systems core uncovery and heat-up can occur. In order to prevent the accident to turn into a severe one or to mitigate the consequences of severe accidents, different accident management measures can be applied. Numerical analyses are used to investigate the accident progression and the complex physical phenomena during the core degradation phase, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of possible countermeasures in the preventive and mitigative domain [1, 2]. The presented analyses have been performed with the computer code ATHLET-CD developed by GRS [3, 4].

  5. A critical assessment of energy accident studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felder, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    A comparison of two studies conducted ten years apart on energy accidents provides important insights into methodological issues and policy implications. Recommendations for further improvements in energy accident studies are developed including accounting for differences between average and incremental accident damages, testing for appropriate levels of aggregation of accidents, making references and databases publicly available, more precisely defining and reporting different types of economic damages, accounting for involuntary and voluntary risks, reporting normalized damages, raising broader public policy and planning implications and updating existing accident databases.

  6. A critical assessment of energy accident studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, Frank A. [Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 33 Livingston Avenue, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    A comparison of two studies conducted ten years apart on energy accidents provides important insights into methodological issues and policy implications. Recommendations for further improvements in energy accident studies are developed including accounting for differences between average and incremental accident damages, testing for appropriate levels of aggregation of accidents, making references and databases publicly available, more precisely defining and reporting different types of economic damages, accounting for involuntary and voluntary risks, reporting normalized damages, raising broader public policy and planning implications and updating existing accident databases. (author)

  7. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction.

  8. National practices in relation to severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soda, Kunihisa

    1989-01-01

    After the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, many studies have been carried out on severe accidents by various organizations including IAEA and OECD/CSNI. In the present article, measures taken in different countries against severe accidents are outlined based on the results of these studies. In Sweden, policies for the management of a severe accident and reduction in the release of radioactive materials were established based on reports issued by the Atomic Energy Committee, which was set up after the Three Mile Island accident. The current policies require that filter vents be provided where necessary. France, following Sweden, adopted the use of filter vents. Operation procedures to be followed in the event of a severe accident have been established in the nation. The measures against severe accidents adopted in West Germany mainly focus on the weakening of the effects of accidents, and are not covered by the design standards. The use of filter vents are also required in Finland and Switzerland. In the U.S., a program for individual plant examination will be implemented over the three-year period beginning in 1989. Studies on measures against severe accidents seem to be performed also in the Soviet Union. (N.K.)

  9. Trend of elevator-related accidents in tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaji, Ali; Ghodsi, Syyed Mohammad

    2014-06-01

    Elevator-related accidents are uncommon, but can cause significant injury. However, little data exist on these types of accidents. To compile and analyze accident data involving elevators in an effort to eliminate or at least significantly reduce such accidents. In this retrospective study we investigated 1,819 cases of elevator-related accidents during a four-year period (1999-2003) in Tehran. The data were obtained from the Tehran Safety Services & Fire Fighting Organization (TSFO) that is officially and solely responsible to conduct rescue missions of civilians in Tehran. The number of elevator accidents has increased steadily during the four year study period. During these four years there was a positive upward trend for serious injuries and mortality resulting from elevator accidents. Technical problems were the main cause with 74.5%, followed by power loss and overcapacity riding with 11.5% and 7.9% respectively. Sixty-three individuals sustained serious injury and 15 people died as a result of elevator accidents. The number of accidents was significantly higher in summer (x2=18.32, P=0.032) and a considerable proportion of incidences (54%, 947 cases out of 1819) occurred between 5 and 12 pm. Establishment of an organization to inspect the settings, maintenance, and repair of elevators is necessary.

  10. Intersection layout, traffic volumes and accidents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the accident research carried out as a part of a large project started in 1983. For this accident research an inventory was made of a large number of intersections.Recorded were layout features, accident data and estimates of traffic volumes. Attention will be given to the

  11. Negative social comparisons and psychosis proneness in a healthy adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotier, F A; Toulopoulou, T

    2017-10-01

    There is growing evidence of an association between negative social comparisons (NSC) and both psychosis, and psychosis proneness. The majority of the work thus far, however, has focused largely on one type of NSC, namely, social rank. Whilst social rank is clearly an important factor, an individual's perception of belonging is likely also of importance; particularly, when considering individuals from collectivistic cultures such as China, where greater emphasis is placed on fitting into the group. There is also limited research investigating what factors may contribute towards the relationship between NSC and psychosis proneness, and to what extent this relationship may be due to common familial factors. To address these issues, we examined whether (1) Social rank and perceived belonging predict negative, positive and depressive psychotic experiences in a Chinese, adolescent, twin and sibling population, (2) coping styles moderate the impact of these relationships and (3), there is a familial association between NSC and psychosis proneness. Both social rank and perceived belonging were found to predict the negative and depressive dimensions of psychosis. These relationships were moderated by problem-focused coping styles. Interestingly, the association between perception of belonging, and negative psychotic experiences was familial-and stronger in Monozygotic twins-indicating perhaps shared aetiology due to common genes. Our findings highlight NSC as potential vulnerability markers for negative and depressive psychotic experiences, and suggest potentially different aetiological pathways amongst different NSC and different psychotic experiences. On a clinical level, our findings emphasize the need to consider coping styles when treating at-risk individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Accelerated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy to Breast in Prone Position: Dosimetric Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wyngaert, J. Keith; Jozsef, Gabor; Mitchell, James; Rosenstein, Barry; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To report the physics and dosimetry results of a trial of accelerated intensity-modulated radiotherapy to the whole breast with a concomitant boost to the tumor bed in patients treated in the prone position. Methods and Materials: Patients underwent computed tomography planning and treatment in the prone position on a dedicated treatment platform. The platform has an open aperture on the side to allow for the index breast to fall away from the chest wall. Noncontrast computed tomography images were acquired at 2.5- or 3.75-mm-thick intervals, from the level of the mandible to below the diaphragm. A dose of 40.5 Gy was delivered to the entire breast at 2.7-Gy fractions in 15 fractions. An additional dose of 0.5 Gy was delivered as a concomitant boost to the lumpectomy site, with a 1-cm margin, using inverse planning, for a total dose of 48 Gy in 15 fractions. No more than 10% of the heart and lung volume was allowed to receive >18 and >20 Gy, respectively. Results: Between September 2003 and August 2005, 91 patients were enrolled in the study. The median volume of heart that received ≥18 Gy was 0.5%, with a maximal value of 4.7%. The median volume of ipsilateral lung that received ≥20 Gy was 0.8%, with a maximum of 7.2%. Conclusion: This technique for whole breast radiotherapy is feasible and enables an accelerated regimen in the prone position while sparing the lung and heart

  13. Clinical Characteristics of Exacerbation-Prone Adult Asthmatics Identified by Cluster Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Ae; Shin, Seung Woo; Park, Jong Sook; Uh, Soo Taek; Chang, Hun Soo; Bae, Da Jeong; Cho, You Sook; Park, Hae Sim; Yoon, Ho Joo; Choi, Byoung Whui; Kim, Yong Hoon; Park, Choon Sik

    2017-11-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by various types of airway inflammation and obstruction. Therefore, it is classified into several subphenotypes, such as early-onset atopic, obese non-eosinophilic, benign, and eosinophilic asthma, using cluster analysis. A number of asthmatics frequently experience exacerbation over a long-term follow-up period, but the exacerbation-prone subphenotype has rarely been evaluated by cluster analysis. This prompted us to identify clusters reflecting asthma exacerbation. A uniform cluster analysis method was applied to 259 adult asthmatics who were regularly followed-up for over 1 year using 12 variables, selected on the basis of their contribution to asthma phenotypes. After clustering, clinical profiles and exacerbation rates during follow-up were compared among the clusters. Four subphenotypes were identified: cluster 1 was comprised of patients with early-onset atopic asthma with preserved lung function, cluster 2 late-onset non-atopic asthma with impaired lung function, cluster 3 early-onset atopic asthma with severely impaired lung function, and cluster 4 late-onset non-atopic asthma with well-preserved lung function. The patients in clusters 2 and 3 were identified as exacerbation-prone asthmatics, showing a higher risk of asthma exacerbation. Two different phenotypes of exacerbation-prone asthma were identified among Korean asthmatics using cluster analysis; both were characterized by impaired lung function, but the age at asthma onset and atopic status were different between the two. Copyright © 2017 The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology · The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease

  14. Characteristics of worker accidents on NYSDOT construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Satish; Zech, Wesley C

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at providing cost-effective safety measures to protect construction workers in highway work zones, based on real data. Two types of accidents that occur in work zones were: (a) construction work area accidents, and (b) traffic accidents involving construction worker(s). A detailed analysis of work zone accidents involving 36 fatalities and 3,055 severe injuries to construction workers on New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) construction projects from 1990 to 2001 established that five accident types: (a) Struck/Pinned by Large Equipment, (b) Trip or Fall (elevated), (c) Contact w/Electrical or Gas Utility, (d) Struck-by Moving/Falling Load, and (e) Crane/Lift Device Failure accounted for nearly 96% of the fatal accidents, nearly 63% of the hospital-level injury accidents, and nearly 91% of the total costs. These construction work area accidents had a total cost of $133.8 million. Traffic accidents that involve contractors' employees were also examined. Statistical analyses of the traffic accidents established that five traffic accident types: (a) Work Space Intrusion, (b) Worker Struck-by Vehicle Inside Work Space, (c) Flagger Struck-by Vehicle, (d) Worker Struck-by Vehicle Entering/Exiting Work Space, and (e) Construction Equipment Struck-by Vehicle Inside Work Space accounted for nearly 86% of the fatal, nearly 70% of the hospital-level injury and minor injury traffic accidents, and $45.4 million (79.4%) of the total traffic accident costs. The results of this paper provide real statistics on construction worker related accidents reported on construction work zones. Potential preventions based on real statistics have also been suggested. The ranking of accident types, both within the work area as well as in traffic, will guide the heavy highway contractor and owner agencies in identifying the most cost effective safety preventions.

  15. Accident prevention in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyrer, H.

    Large thermal power plants are insured to a great extent at the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institute of Instrument and Electric Engineering. Approximately 4800 employees are registered. The accident frequency according to an evaluation over 12 months lies around 79.8 per year and 1000 employees in fossil-fired power plants, around 34.1 per year and 1000 employees in nuclear power plants, as in nuclear power plants coal handling and ash removal are excluded. Injuries due to radiation were not registered. The crucial points of accidents are mechanical injuries received on solid, sharp-edged and pointed objects (fossil-fired power plants 28.6%, nuclear power plants 41.5%), stumbling, twisting or slipping (fossil-fired power plants 21.8%, nuclear power plants 19.5%) and injuries due to moving machine parts (only nuclear power plants 12.2%). However, accidents due to burns or scalds obtain with 4.2% and less a lower portion than expected. The accident statistics can explain this fact in a way that the typical power plant accident does not exist. (orig./GL) [de

  16. The radiological accident in Cochabamba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    In April 2002 an accident involving an industrial radiography source containing 192 Ir occurred in Cochabamba, Bolivia, some 400 km from the capital, La Paz. A faulty radiography source container had been sent back to the headquarters of the company concerned in La Paz together with other equipment as cargo on a passenger bus. This gave rise to a potential for serious exposure for the bus passengers as well as for the company employees who were using and transporting the source. The Government of Bolivia requested the assistance of the IAEA under the terms of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. The IAEA in response assembled and sent to Bolivia a team composed of senior radiation safety experts and radiation pathology experts from Brazil, the United Kingdom and the IAEA to investigate the accident. The IAEA is grateful to the Government of Bolivia for the opportunity to report on this accident in order to disseminate the valuable lessons learned and help prevent similar accidents in the future

  17. Progress in methodology for probabilistic assessment of accidents: timing of accident sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanore, J.M.; Villeroux, C.; Bouscatie, F.; Maigret, N.

    1981-09-01

    There is an important problem for probabilistic studies of accident sequences using the current event tree techniques. Indeed this method does not take into account the dependence in time of the real accident scenarios, involving the random behaviour of the systems (lack or delay in intervention, partial failures, repair, operator actions ...) and the correlated evolution of the physical parameters. A powerful method to perform the probabilistic treatment of these complex sequences (dynamic evolution of systems and associated physics) is Monte-Carlo simulation, very rare events being treated with the help of suitable weighting and biasing techniques. As a practical example the accident sequences related to the loss of the residual heat removal system in a fast breeder reactor has been treated with that method

  18. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  19. Chernobyl accident and Danmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  20. Three-dimensional intrafractional movement of prostate measured during real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy in supine and prone treatment positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Kei; Shirato, Hiroki; Seppenwoolde, Yvette; Onimaru, Rikiya; Oda, Makoto; Fujita, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Shinichi; Shinohara, Nobuo; Harabayashi, Toru; Miyasaka, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify three-dimensional (3D) movement of the prostate gland with the patient in the supine and prone positions and to analyze the movement frequency for each treatment position. Methods and Materials: The real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy (RTRT) system was developed to identify the 3D position of a 2-mm gold marker implanted in the prostate 30 times/s using two sets of fluoroscopic images. The linear accelerator was triggered to irradiate the tumor only when the gold marker was located within the region of the planned coordinates relative to the isocenter. Ten patients with prostate cancer treated with RTRT were the subjects of this study. The coordinates of the gold marker were recorded every 0.033 s during RTRT in the supine treatment position for 2 min. The patient was then moved to the prone position, and the marker was tracked for 2 min to acquire data regarding movement in this position. Measurements were taken 5 times for each patient (once a week); a total of 50 sets for the 10 patients was analyzed. The raw data from the RTRT system were filtered to reduce system noise, and the amplitude of movement was then calculated. The discrete Fourier transform of the unfiltered data was performed for the frequency analysis of prostate movement. Results: No apparent difference in movement was found among individuals. The amplitude of 3D movement was 0.1-2.7 mm in the supine and 0.4-24 mm in the prone positions. The amplitude in the supine position was statistically smaller in all directions than that in the prone position (p < 0.0001). The amplitude in the craniocaudal and AP directions was larger than in the left-right direction in the prone position (p < 0.0001). No characteristic movement frequency was detected in the supine position. The respiratory frequency was detected for all patients regarding movement in the craniocaudal and AP directions in the prone position. The results of the frequency analysis suggest that prostate movement is

  1. Comparison of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography for Breast Target Volume Delineation in Prone and Supine Positions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogson, Elise M. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong (Australia); Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool (Australia); Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool (Australia); Delaney, Geoff P. [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool (Australia); Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool (Australia); South Western Sydney Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia); School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Ahern, Verity [Crown Princess Mary Cancer Care Centre, Westmead Hospital, Westmead (Australia); Boxer, Miriam M. [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool (Australia); South Western Sydney Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia); Chan, Christine [Department of Radiology, Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool (Australia); David, Steven [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Dimigen, Marion [Department of Radiology, Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool (Australia); Harvey, Jennifer A. [School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Herston (Australia); Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba (Australia); Koh, Eng-Siew [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool (Australia); Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool (Australia); South Western Sydney Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia); Lim, Karen [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool (Australia); South Western Sydney Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia); Papadatos, George [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool (Australia); and others

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: To determine whether T2-weighted MRI improves seroma cavity (SC) and whole breast (WB) interobserver conformity for radiation therapy purposes, compared with the gold standard of CT, both in the prone and supine positions. Methods and Materials: Eleven observers (2 radiologists and 9 radiation oncologists) delineated SC and WB clinical target volumes (CTVs) on T2-weighted MRI and CT supine and prone scans (4 scans per patient) for 33 patient datasets. Individual observer's volumes were compared using the Dice similarity coefficient, volume overlap index, center of mass shift, and Hausdorff distances. An average cavity visualization score was also determined. Results: Imaging modality did not affect interobserver variation for WB CTVs. Prone WB CTVs were larger in volume and more conformal than supine CTVs (on both MRI and CT). Seroma cavity volumes were larger on CT than on MRI. Seroma cavity volumes proved to be comparable in interobserver conformity in both modalities (volume overlap index of 0.57 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.54-0.60) for CT supine and 0.52 (95% CI 0.48-0.56) for MRI supine, 0.56 (95% CI 0.53-0.59) for CT prone and 0.55 (95% CI 0.51-0.59) for MRI prone); however, after registering modalities together the intermodality variation (Dice similarity coefficient of 0.41 (95% CI 0.36-0.46) for supine and 0.38 (0.34-0.42) for prone) was larger than the interobserver variability for SC, despite the location typically remaining constant. Conclusions: Magnetic resonance imaging interobserver variation was comparable to CT for the WB CTV and SC delineation, in both prone and supine positions. Although the cavity visualization score and interobserver concordance was not significantly higher for MRI than for CT, the SCs were smaller on MRI, potentially owing to clearer SC definition, especially on T2-weighted MR images.

  2. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.O.; Christensen, G.; Lingjaerde, R.; Smidt Olsen, H.; Wethe, P.I.

    1986-10-01

    In connection with the Chernobyl accident the report gives a description of the technical features of importance to the accident, the course of events, and the estimated health hazards in the local environment. Dissimilarities in western and Sovjet reactor safety philosophy are dealt with, as well as conceivable concequences in relation to technology and research in western nuclear power programmes. Results of activity level measurements of air and foodstuff, made in Norway by Institute for Energy Technology, are given

  3. Target volume shape variation during irradiation of rectal cancer patients in supine position: Comparison with prone position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijkamp, Jasper; Jong, Rianne de; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Vliet, Corine van; Marijnen, Corrie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the inter-fraction shape variation of the mesorectum for rectal cancer patients treated with 5 x 5 Gy in supine position and compare it to variation in prone position. Methods and materials: For 28 patients a planning CT (pCT) and five daily cone-beam-CT (CBCT) scans were acquired in supine position. The mesorectal part of the CTV (MesoRect) was delineated on all scans. The shape variation was quantified by the distance between the pCT- and the CBCT delineations and stored in surface maps after online setup correction. Data were analyzed for male and female patients separately and compared to prone data. Results: A large range of systematic, 1-8 mm (1SD), and random, 1-5 mm, shape variation was found, comparable to prone patients. Random-shape variation was comparable for male and female patients, while systematic variation was 3 mm larger for female patients. Conclusions: Shape variation of the MesoRect is substantial, heterogeneous and different between male and female patients. Differences between supine and prone orientation, however, are small. Clinical margins should be differentiated in position along the cranio-caudal axis, in anterior-posterior direction and for gender. Margins should also be increased, even when online setup correction is used. Due to the small margin differences between prone and supine treatments, the setup choice should be determined on dose to the organs at risk.

  4. Long-term Clinical Outcomes of Whole-Breast Irradiation Delivered in the Prone Position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegman, Lauren D.; Beal, Katherine P.; Hunt, Margie A.; Fornier, Monica N.; McCormick, Beryl

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the effectiveness and toxicity of post-lumpectomy whole-breast radiation therapy delivered with prone positioning. Methods and Materials: Between September 1992 and August 2004, 245 women with 248 early-stage invasive or in situ breast cancers were treated using a prone breast board. Photon fields treated the whole breast to 46 to 50.4 Gy with standard fractionation. The target volume was clinically palpable breast tissue; no attempt was made to irradiate chest wall lymphatics. Tumor bed boosts were delivered in 85% of cases. Adjuvant chemotherapy and hormonal therapy were administered to 42% and 62% of patients, respectively. Results: After a median follow-up of 4.9 years, the 5 year actuarial true local and elsewhere ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence rates were 4.8% and 1.3%, respectively. The 5-year actuarial rates of regional nodal recurrence and distant metastases were 1.6% and 7.4%. Actuarial disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates at 5 years were 89.4%, 97.3%, and 93%, respectively. Treatment breaks were required by 2.4% of patients. Grade 3 acute dermatitis and edema were each limited to 2% of patients. Only 4.9% of patients complained of acute chest wall discomfort. Chronic Grade 2 to 3 skin and subcutaneous tissue toxicities were reported in 4.4% and 13.7% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: Prone position breast radiation results in similar long-term disease control with a favorable toxicity profile compared with standard supine tangents. The anatomic advantages of prone positioning may contribute to improving the therapeutic ratio of post-lumpectomy radiation by improving dose homogeneity and minimizing incidental cardiac and lung dose

  5. [Fatal occupational accidents in Lombardy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianosi, G

    1995-01-01

    All fatal occupational accidents compensated in Lombardy from 1984 to 1989 were analyzed (1259 cases): significant differences between geographical distribution of fatal occupational accidents and workers were observed. Males accounted for about 95% of fatalities; an excess of cases was shown in both young and elderly workers. Death was the consequence of injuries involving most frequently the head, thorax and spinal cord. An excess of fatalities was observed in agriculture and, at a lower level, in manufacturing industries; small enterprises were involved in approximately 25% of fatalities occurring in the manufacturing industries and services. Employers were the victims of fatal accidents in 50% of cases in agriculture and in 70% of cases in craft industries. Construction, agriculture and transport accounted for about 50% of all fatalities. About 50% of fatal occupational accidents were related to vehicle use: the victim was the driver in the majority of cases, sometimes the victim was run over by a vehicle or fell from a vehicle. The results agree with some previous observations (e.g.: sex and age distribution; construction, agriculture and transport as working activities at high accident risk); but some original observations have emerged, in particular about the frequency of employers as victims and the role of vehicles in the genesis of fatal occupational accidents. If further studies confirm these latter observations, important developments could follow in preventive action design and implementation.

  6. How Informative are the Vertical Buoyancy and the Prone Gliding Tests to Assess Young Swimmers’ Hydrostatic and Hydrodynamic Profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Tiago M.; Costa, Mário J.; Morais, Jorge E; Moreira, Marc; Silva, António J.; Marinho, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a path-flow analysis model to highlight the relationships between buoyancy and prone gliding tests and some selected anthropometrical and biomechanical variables. Thirty-eight young male swimmers (12.97 ± 1.05 years old) with several competitive levels were evaluated. It were assessed the body mass, height, fat mass, body surface area, vertical buoyancy, prone gliding after wall push-off, stroke length, stroke frequency and velocity after a maximal 25 [m] swim. The confirmatory model included the body mass, height, fat mass, prone gliding test, stroke length, stroke frequency and velocity. All theoretical paths were verified except for the vertical buoyancy test that did not present any relationship with anthropometrical and biomechanical variables nor with the prone gliding test. The good-of-fit from the confirmatory path-flow model, assessed with the standardized root mean square residuals (SRMR), is considered as being close to the cut-off value, but even so not suitable of the theory (SRMR = 0.11). As a conclusion, vertical buoyancy and prone gliding tests are not the best techniques to assess the swimmer’s hydrostatic and hydrodynamic profile, respectively. PMID:23486528

  7. Prevention of radiation accidents and their consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khiski, J.

    1976-01-01

    Clearing out reasons for nuclear accidents enables to take effective measures to minimize them. The number of accidents in 1957 - 1974 is given. The frequency of accidents at various working places, while operating with various radioisotopes is presented. The analysis of accidents and the confirmation of these estimates can lead to the generalization of data and to the formulation of preventive measures [ru

  8. Assessment of uncertainties in severe accident management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Apostolakis, G.; Catton, I.; Dhir, V.K.; Okrent, D.

    1990-01-01

    Recent progress on the development of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) as a tool for qualifying nuclear reactor safety and on research devoted to severe accident phenomena has made severe accident management an achievable goal. Severe accident management strategies may involve operational changes, modification and/or addition of hardware, and institutional changes. In order to achieve the goal of managing severe accidents, a method for assessment of strategies must be developed which integrates PRA methodology and our current knowledge concerning severe accident phenomena, including uncertainty. The research project presented in this paper is aimed at delineating uncertainties in severe accident progression and their impact on severe accident management strategies

  9. Accidents in the construction industry in the Netherlands: An analysis of accident reports using Storybuilder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ale, B.J.M.; Bellamy, L.J.; Baksteen, H.; Damen, M.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Hale, A.R.; Mud, M.; Oh, J.; Papazoglou, I.A.; Whiston, J.Y.

    2008-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment of the Netherlands, a research project is being undertaken to construct a causal model for occupational risk. This model should provide quantitative insight into the causes and consequences of occupational accidents. One of the components of the model is a tool to systematically classify and analyse reports of past accidents. This tool 'Storybuilder' was described in earlier papers. In this paper, Storybuilder is used to analyse the causes of accidents reported in the database of the Dutch Labour Inspectorate involving people working in the construction industry. Conclusions are drawn on measures to reduce the accident probability. Some of these conclusions are contrary to common beliefs in the industry

  10. Severe accidents in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle Cepero, R.; Castillo Alvarez, J.; Ramon Fuente, J.

    1996-01-01

    For the assessment of the safety of nuclear power plants it is of great importance the analyses of severe accidents since they allow to estimate the possible failure models of the containment, and also permit knowing the magnitude and composition of the radioactive material that would be released to the environment in case of an accident upon population and the environment. This paper presents in general terms the basic principles for conducting the analysis of severe accidents, the fundamental sources in the generation of radionuclides and aerosols, the transportation and deposition processes, and also makes reference to de main codes used in the modulation of severe accidents. The final part of the paper contents information on how severe accidents are dialed with the regulatory point view in different countries

  11. 44 CFR 60.23 - Planning considerations for mudslide (i.e., mudflow)-prone areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... standards for schools, hospitals, nursing homes, orphanages, correctional and other residential institutions...)-prone areas; (j) Deterring the nonessential installation of public utilities and public facilities in...

  12. Primary school accident reporting in one education authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, A H A; Williams, W R; Sibert, J

    2002-02-01

    Studies have shown a correlation between increased accident rates and levels of deprivation in the community. School accident reporting is one area where an association might be expected. To investigate differences in primary school accident rates in deprived and more affluent wards, in an area managed by one education authority. Statistical analysis of accident form returns for 100 primary schools in one education authority in Wales over a two year period, in conjunction with visits to over one third of school sites. Accident report rates from schools in deprived wards were three times higher than those from schools in more affluent wards. School visits showed that this discrepancy was attributable primarily to differences in reporting procedures. One third of schools did not report accidents and approximately half did not keep records of minor accidents. The association between school accident report rates and deprivation in the community is complex. School accident data from local education authorities may be unreliable for most purposes of collection.

  13. Public opinion on atomic energy after JCO accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Koichi; Miyamoto, Sosuke; Ishikawa, Masayori; Shimomura, Hideo; Hori, Hiromoto; Suzuki, Yasuko; Kamise, Yumiko

    2004-04-01

    JCO accident happened on September 30, 1999. This book deals with the public opinion of atomic energy after JCO accident in Japan and comparison with that of USA and France. The analysis of public opinion structure is also shown. The important chapter is the eighth chapter a n opinion survey after the accident , of which sampling areas consisted of three areas such as JCO accident area, the nuclear power plants and the general cities. The analytical results of data showed that the public opinion in Tokai-mura and Naka-machi, the JCO accident area, indicated moderate opinions. It is the interesting results were obtained that the moderate tendency of opinion was in order JCO accident area, the nuclear power plants and the general cities. People's attitude toward nuclear energy related to their social values. Abstract of JCO accident, JCO structure, the effects of accident on the environment and news stories about the accident are reported. (S.Y.)

  14. The cost of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Proposed by a technical section of the SFEN, and based on a meeting with representatives of different organisations (OECD-NEA, IRSN, EDF, and European Nuclear Energy Forum), this publication addresses the economic consequences of a severe accident (level 6 or 7) within an electricity producing nuclear power plant. Such an assessment essentially relies on three pillars: release of radio-elements outside the reactor, the scenario of induced consequences, and the method of economic quantification. After a recall and a comment of safety arrangements, and of the generally admitted probability of such an accident, this document notices that several actors are concerned by nuclear energy and are trying to assess accident costs. The issue of how to assess a cost (or costs) of a nuclear accident is discussed: there are in fact several types of costs and consequences. Thus, some costs can be rather precisely quantified when some others can be difficult to assess or with uncertainty. The relevance of some cost categories appears to be a matter of discussion and one must not forget that consequences can occur on a long term. The need for methodological advances is outlined and three categories of technical objectives are identified for the assessment (efficiency of safety measures to be put forward to mitigate the risk via a better accident management, compensation of victims and nuclear civil responsibility, and comparison of electricity production sectors and assessment of externalisation to guide public choices). It is outlined that the impact of accidents depend on several factors, that the most efficient mean to limit consequences of accidents is of course to limit radioactive emissions

  15. Effects of supine, prone, and lateral positions on cardiovascular and renal variables in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pump, Bettina; Talleruphuus, Ulrik; Christensen, Niels Juel

    2002-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that changing the direction of the transverse gravitational stress in horizontal humans modulates cardiovascular and renal variables. On different study days, 14 healthy males were placed for 6 h in either the horizontal supine or prone position following 3 h of being...... supine. Eight of the subjects were in addition investigated in the horizontal left lateral position. Compared with supine, the prone position slightly increased free water clearance (349 +/- 38 vs. 447 +/- 39 ml/6 h, P = 0.05) and urine output (1,387 +/- 55 vs. 1,533 +/- 52 ml/6 h, P = 0...

  16. Psychological aspects of accident prevention in mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukestikova, M

    1981-04-01

    This paper duscusses ways of preventing work accidents and increasing work safety in underground black coal mines. Specific conditions of underground operations in coal mines are stressed. Elements of work accident prevention are analyzed: reducing hazards by introducing safer technology, automation and mechanization of operations associated with hazards, introducing special measures within the framework of safety engineering. Dependence of accident rate on such factors as personnel training, age, motivation, qualifications, and labor discipline is discussed. Investigations indicate that miner motivation plays a significant role in accident prevention. A high degree of labor motivation successfully reduces accident rate and a low degree of motivation increases accident rate. Role of labor collective in labor motivation as well as a correct system of wage incentives are evaluated. Methods of personnel training aimed at reducing accident rate are described. Role of a technique by which a group of miners attempts to find a solution to a work safety problem by amassing all ideas spontaneously contributed by participants is stressed.

  17. The Radiological Accident in Lia, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-12-15

    The use of radioactive material offers a wide range of benefits to medicine, research and industry throughout the world. Precautions are necessary, however, to limit the exposure of people to the radiation emitted. Where the amount of radioactive material is substantial, as in the case of radiotherapy or industrial radiography sources, great care is required to prevent accidents which could have severe consequences. Nevertheless, in spite of the precautions taken, serious accidents involving radiation sources continue to occur, albeit infrequently. The IAEA conducts follow-up reviews of such serious accidents to provide an account of their circumstances and consequences, from which organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection, safety of sources and emergency preparedness and response may learn. A serious radiological accident occurred in Georgia on 2 December 2001, when three inhabitants of the village of Lia found two metal objects in the forest while collecting firewood. These objects were {sup 90}Sr sources with an activity of 1295 TBq. The three inhabitants used the objects as heaters when spending the night in the forest. The major cause of the accident was the improper and unauthorized abandonment of radiation sources in Georgia and the absence of clear labels or radiation signs on the sources warning of the potential radiation hazard. Under the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), the Georgian authorities requested assistance from the IAEA to advise on the dose assessment, source recovery and medical management of those involved in the accident. This publication describes the circumstances and events surrounding the accident, its management and the medical treatment of the people exposed. It also describes the dose reconstruction calculations and biodosimetry assessments conducted. A number of uncertainties remain relating to some details of the accident. However

  18. Dutch National Plan combat nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This document presents the Dutch National Plan combat nuclear accidents (NPK). Ch. 2 discusses some important starting points which are determining for the framework and the performance of the NPK, in particular the accident typology which underlies the plan. Also the new accident-classification system for the Dutch nuclear power plants, the standardization for the measures to be taken and the staging around nuclear power plants are pursued. In ch. 3 the legal framework of the combat nuclear accidents is described. In particular the Nuclear-power law, the Accident law and the Municipality law are pursued. Also the role of province and municipality are described. Ch. 4 deals with the role of the owner/licensee of the object where the accident occurs, in the combat of accident. In ch. 5 the structure of the nuclear-accident combat at national level is outlined, subdivided in alarm phase, combat phase and the winding-up phase. In ch.'s 6-12 these phases are elaborated more in detail. In ch.'s 10-13 the measures to be taken in nuclear accidents, are described. These measures are distinguished with regard to: protection of the population and medical aspects, water economy, drinking-water supply, agriculture and food supply. Ch. 14 describes the responsibility of the burgomaster. Ch.'s 15 and 16 present an overview of the personnel, material, procedural and juridical modifications and supplements of existing structures which are necessary with regard to the new and modified parts of the structure. Ch. 17 indicates how by means of the appropriate education and exercise it can be achieved that all personnel, services and institutes concerned possess the knowledge and experience necessary for the activities from the NKP to be executed as has been described. Ch. 18 contains a survey of activities to be performed and a proposal how these can be realized. (H.W.). figs.; tabs

  19. The Radiological Accident in Lia, Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The use of radioactive material offers a wide range of benefits to medicine, research and industry throughout the world. Precautions are necessary, however, to limit the exposure of people to the radiation emitted. Where the amount of radioactive material is substantial, as in the case of radiotherapy or industrial radiography sources, great care is required to prevent accidents which could have severe consequences. Nevertheless, in spite of the precautions taken, serious accidents involving radiation sources continue to occur, albeit infrequently. The IAEA conducts follow-up reviews of such serious accidents to provide an account of their circumstances and consequences, from which organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection, safety of sources and emergency preparedness and response may learn. A serious radiological accident occurred in Georgia on 2 December 2001, when three inhabitants of the village of Lia found two metal objects in the forest while collecting firewood. These objects were 90 Sr sources with an activity of 1295 TBq. The three inhabitants used the objects as heaters when spending the night in the forest. The major cause of the accident was the improper and unauthorized abandonment of radiation sources in Georgia and the absence of clear labels or radiation signs on the sources warning of the potential radiation hazard. Under the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), the Georgian authorities requested assistance from the IAEA to advise on the dose assessment, source recovery and medical management of those involved in the accident. This publication describes the circumstances and events surrounding the accident, its management and the medical treatment of the people exposed. It also describes the dose reconstruction calculations and biodosimetry assessments conducted. A number of uncertainties remain relating to some details of the accident. However, sufficient

  20. Comparison of angiography, prone renography, and exercise renography for treatment planning in hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clorius, J.H.; Strauss, L.G.; Allenberg, J.; Hupp, T.; Schmidlin, P.; Irngartinger, G.

    1987-01-01

    Fifteen hypertensives with unilateral vascular stenosis had selective renal angiograms, prone-position gamma camera hippurate renograms, and upright exercise renograms. The exercise renograms were used to identify renal vasomotor dysfunction. Each procedure was assessed for its value to predict cure of hypertension. Therapy included one nephrectomy, and angioplasty, and 13 surgical revascularizations. Neither the extent of vascular lumen reduction as assessed with angiography nor the unilateral function impairment documented with a prone-position renogram contained useful prognostic data. Exercise renography correctly predicted the posttherapy blood pressure status in 14 of 15 hypertensives. Exercise renography can identify a newly recognized function response of the vasculature of the kidney, a pathologic response that shows promise in the investigation of hypertension

  1. Trend of Elevator-Related Accidents in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khaji

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:   Elevator-related accidents are uncommon, but can cause significant injury. However, little data exist on these types of accidents. To compile and analyze accident data involving elevators in an effort to eliminate or at least significantly reduce such accidents. Methods: In this retrospective study we investigated 1,819 cases of elevator-related accidents during a four-year period (1999-2003 in Tehran. The data were obtained from the Tehran Safety Services & Fire Fighting Organization (TSFO that is officially and solely responsible to conduct rescue missions of civilians in Tehran. Results: The number of elevator accidents has increased steadily during the four year study period. During these four years here was a positive upward trend for serious injuries and mortality resulting from elevator accidents. Technical problems were the main cause with 74.5%, followed by power loss and overcapacity riding with 11.5% and 7.9%respectively. Sixty-three individuals sustained serious injury and 15 people died as a result of elevator accidents. The number of accidents was significantly higher in summer (x2=18.32, P=0.032 and a considerable proportion of incidences (54%, 947 cases out of 1819 occurred between 5 and 12 pm. Conclusions: Establishment of an organization to inspect the settings, maintenance, and repair of elevators is necessary

  2. HANARO thermal hydraulic accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chul; Kim, Heon Il; Lee, Bo Yook; Lee, Sang Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    For the safety assessment of HANARO, accident analyses for the anticipated operational transients, accident scenarios and limiting accident scenarios were conducted. To do this, the commercial nuclear reactor system code. RELAP5/MOD2 was modified to RELAP5/KMRR; the thermal hydraulic correlations and the heat exchanger model was changed to incorporate HANARO characteristics. This report summarizes the RELAP/KMRR calculation results and the subchannel analyses results based on the RELAP/KMRR results. During the calculation, major concern was placed on the integrity of the fuel. For all the scenarios, the important accident analysis parameters, i.e., fuel centerline temperatures and the minimum critical heat flux ratio(MCHFR), satisfied safe design limits. It was verified, therefore, that the HANARO was safely designed. 21 tabs., 89 figs., 39 refs. (Author) .new.

  3. A study on the application of prone compression study for obese patients in upper gastrointestinal series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Soon Yong; Jung, Hong Ryang

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the application of prone compression study using compression paddle for obese patients in upper gastrointestinal series. Prone compression study using compression paddle was performed in fifty patients, who were not examined completely erect compression study for obesity. The radiographs of stomach were classified into the lower, middle, and high body, and then we gave five points included 'very poor', 'poor', 'suspicious', 'good', and 'complete' according to level of detection for area gastric and mucosal fold. Statistic analysis was performed using T-test and ANOVA, and confidence rate was fixed in 95%(P 0.05). As these results, the prone compression study in upper gastrointestinal series seem to be an useful study for obese patients, because it decreases pain and the feeling of uneasiness, and improve compression efficiency remarkably

  4. Preliminary evaluation of the Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System for accident site salvage operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trujillo, J.M.; Morse, W.D.; Jones, D.P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates operational experiences with the Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) during simulated accident site salvage operations which might involve nuclear weapons. The ARMMS is based upon a teleoperated mobility platform with two Schilling Titan 7F Manipulators

  5. Fukushima-Daiichi after the severe accident (estimation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otcenasek, Petr

    2011-01-01

    All facts about the Fukushima-Daiichi NPP and about the accident known at the time of publication are summarized and expected remedial actions and consequences of the accidents are deduced. The paper is structured as follows: (1) Accident initiation is known; (2) Logically inferred results; (3) Framework identification; (4) Survey; and (5) Economic and strategic impacts of the accident. Worldwide solidarity is mentioned in conclusion. (P.A.)

  6. School Bus Accidents and Driver Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Judith

    The study examines the rates and types of school bus accidents according to the age of the school bus driver. Accident rates in North Carolina for the school year 1971-72 were analyzed using three sources of data: accident reports, driver and mileage data, and questionnaires administered to a sample of school bus drivers. Data were obtained on…

  7. Epidemiology o.f· Traffic Accidents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accidents. An analysis of some 2 100 fatal traffic accidents gave the following results: males-79%; females-21%; a ratio of 4: 1. The high proportion of males to females killed in traffic accidents may be due to the fact that (a) more males commute daily in private and commercial vehicles;. (b) more females commute daily in ...

  8. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters: MAACS [MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System] input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprung, J.L.; Jow, H-N; Rollstin, J.A.; Helton, J.C.

    1990-12-01

    Estimation of offsite accident consequences is the customary final step in a probabilistic assessment of the risks of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Recently, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission reassessed the risks of severe accidents at five US power reactors (NUREG-1150). Offsite accident consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms were estimated using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). Before these calculations were performed, most MACCS input parameters were reviewed, and for each parameter reviewed, a best-estimate value was recommended. This report presents the results of these reviews. Specifically, recommended values and the basis for their selection are presented for MACCS atmospheric and biospheric transport, emergency response, food pathway, and economic input parameters. Dose conversion factors and health effect parameters are not reviewed in this report. 134 refs., 15 figs., 110 tabs

  9. Regulatory approach to accident management in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegberg, L.

    1989-01-01

    The Swedish accident management program includes the following components: definition of overall safety and radiation protection objectives for the program; definition of appropriate accident management strategies to reach these objectives, based on plant-specific severe accident analysis; development and installation of appropriate accident management systems and associated management procedure; definition of roles and resposibilities for plant staff involved in accident management and implementation of appropriate training programs. The discussion of these components tries to highlight the basic technical concepts and approaches and the underlying safety philosophy rather than going into design details. 5 figs., 7 refs

  10. [Violence and accidents among older and younger adults: evidence from the Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA), Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Sá, Naíza Nayla Bandeira de; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2011-11-01

    Data from the Brazilian Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA) in 2009 were used to examine socio-demographic characteristics, outcomes, and types of accidents and violence treated at 74 sentinel emergency services in 23 Brazilian State capitals and the Federal District. The analysis included 25,201 individuals aged > 20 years (10.1% > 60 years); 89.3% were victims of accidents and 11.9% victims of violence. Hospitalization was the outcome in 11.1% of cases. Compared to the general population, there were more men and non-white individuals among victims of accidents, and especially among victims of violence. As compared to younger adults (20-59 years), accidents and violence against elderly victims showed less association with alcohol, a higher proportion of domestic incidents, more falls and pedestrian accidents, and aggression by family members. Policies for the prevention of accidents and violence should consider the characteristics of these events in the older population.

  11. ADAM: An Accident Diagnostic,Analysis and Management System - Applications to Severe Accident Simulation and Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavisca, M.J.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Esmaili, H.; Schulz, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Accident Diagnostic, Analysis and Management (ADAM) computer code has been developed as a tool for on-line applications to accident diagnostics, simulation, management and training. ADAM's severe accident simulation capabilities incorporate a balance of mechanistic, phenomenologically based models with simple parametric approaches for elements including (but not limited to) thermal hydraulics; heat transfer; fuel heatup, meltdown, and relocation; fission product release and transport; combustible gas generation and combustion; and core-concrete interaction. The overall model is defined by a relatively coarse spatial nodalization of the reactor coolant and containment systems and is advanced explicitly in time. The result is to enable much faster than real time (i.e., 100 to 1000 times faster than real time on a personal computer) applications to on-line investigations and/or accident management training. Other features of the simulation module include provision for activation of water injection, including the Engineered Safety Features, as well as other mechanisms for the assessment of accident management and recovery strategies and the evaluation of PSA success criteria. The accident diagnostics module of ADAM uses on-line access to selected plant parameters (as measured by plant sensors) to compute the thermodynamic state of the plant, and to predict various margins to safety (e.g., times to pressure vessel saturation and steam generator dryout). Rule-based logic is employed to classify the measured data as belonging to one of a number of likely scenarios based on symptoms, and a number of 'alarms' are generated to signal the state of the reactor and containment. This paper will address the features and limitations of ADAM with particular focus on accident simulation and management. (authors)

  12. Process criticality accident likelihoods, consequences and emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, T.P.

    1992-01-01

    Evaluation of criticality accident risks in the processing of significant quantities of fissile materials is both complex and subjective, largely due to the lack of accident statistics. Thus, complying with national and international standards and regulations which require an evaluation of the net benefit of a criticality accident alarm system, is also subjective. A review of guidance found in the literature on potential accident magnitudes is presented for different material forms and arrangements. Reasoned arguments are also presented concerning accident prevention and accident likelihoods for these material forms and arrangements. (Author)

  13. Thoraco-laparoscopic esophagectomy: thoracic stage in prone position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bernardo Cola

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the National Cancer Institute Abdominopelvic Division (INCA / MS/HC I initial experience with thoraco-laparoscopic esophagectomy with thoracic stage in prone position. Methods: we studied 19 consecutive thoraco-laparoscopic esophagectomies from may 2012 to august 2014, including ten patients with squamous cells carcinoma (five of the middle third and five of the lower third and nine cases of gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (six Siewert I and three Siewert II. All procedures were initiated by the prone thoracic stage. Results: There were minimal blood loss, optimal mediastinal visualization, oncological radicality and no conversions. Surgical morbidity was 42 %, most being minor complications (58% Clavien I or II, with few related to the technique. The most common complication was cervical anastomotic leak (37%, with a low anastomotic stricture rate (two stenosis: 10.53%. We had one (5.3% surgical related death, due to a gastric tube`s mediastinal leak, treated by open reoperation and neck diversion. The median Intensive Care Unit stay and hospital stay were two and 12 days, respectively. The mean thoracoscopic stage duration was 77 min. Thirteen patients received neoadjuvant treatment (five squamous cells carcinoma and eight gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas. The average lymph node sample had 16.4 lymph nodes per patient and 22.67 when separately analyzing patients without neoadjuvant treatment. Conclusion: the thoraco-laparoscopic approach was a safe technique in the surgical treatment of esophageal cancer, with a good lymph node sampling.

  14. Development of instrumentation systems for severe accidents. 4. New accident tolerant in-containment pressure transducer for containment pressure monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oba, Masato; Teruya, Kuniyuki; Yoshitsugu, Makoto; Ikeuchi, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The accident at Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (TF-1 accident) caused severe situations and resulted in a difficulty in measuring important parameters for monitoring plant conditions. Therefore, we have studied the TF-1 accident to select the important parameters that should be monitored at the severe accident and are developing the Severe Accident Instrumentations and Monitoring Systems that could measure the parameters in severe accident conditions. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, LTD (MHI) developed a new accident tolerant containment pressure monitoring system and demonstrated that the monitoring system could endure extremely harsh environmental conditions that envelop severe accident environmental conditions inside a containment such as maximum operating temperature of up to 300degC and total integrated dose (TID) of 1 MGy gamma. The new containment pressure monitoring system comprises of a strain gage type pressure transducer and a mineral insulated (MI) cable with ceramic connectors, which are located in the containment, and a strain measuring amplifier located outside the containment. Less thermal and radiation degradation is achieved because of minimizing use of organic materials for in-containment equipment such as the transducer and connectors. Several tests were performed to demonstrate the performance and capability of the in-containment equipment under severe accident environmental conditions and the major steps in this testing were run in the following test sequences: (1) the baseline functional tests (e.g., repeatability, non-linearity, hysteresis, and so on) under normal conditions, (2) accident radiation testing, (3) seismic testing, and (4) steam/temperature test exposed to simulated severe accident environmental conditions. The test results demonstrate that the new pressure transducer can endure the simulated severe accident conditions. (author)

  15. Review of specific radiological accident considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, J.

    1984-01-01

    Specific points of guidance provided in the forthcoming document A Guide to Radiological Accident Considerations for Siting and Design of Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities are discussed. Of these, the following are considered of particular interest to analysts of hypothetical accidents: onsite dose limits; population dose, public health effects, and environmental contamination as accident consequences which should be addressed; risk analysis; natural phenomena as accident initiators; recommended dose models; multiple organ equivalent dose; and recommended methods and parameters for source terms and release amount calculations. Comments are being invited on this document, which is undergoing rewrite after the first stage of peer review

  16. Progress summary of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iddekinge, F.W. van

    1986-01-01

    Based on two IAEA documents (the report of the USSR State Committee on the Utilization of Atomic Energy named 'The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its consequences' prepared for the IAEA Experts Meeting held in Vienna on 25-29 August, 1986 and the INSAG (International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group) summary report on the Post-accident review meeting on the Chernobyl accident, drawn up in Vienna from August 30 until September 5, 1986, this publication tries to present a logic relation between the special features of the RMBK-1000 LWGR, the cause of the accident, and the technical countermeasures. (Auth.)

  17. Development of Krsko Severe Accident Management Database (SAMD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic, I.; Kocnar, R.

    1996-01-01

    Severe Accident Management is a framework to identify and implement the Emergency Response Capabilities that can be used to prevent or mitigate severe accidents and their consequences. Krsko Severe Accident Management Database documents the severe accident management activities which are developed in the NPP Krsko, based on the Krsko IPE (Individual Plant Examination) insights and Generic WOG SAMGs (Westinghouse Owners Group Severe Accident Management Guidance). (author)

  18. Medical care of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Isamu

    1986-02-01

    This monograph, divided into six chapters, focuses on basic knowledge and medical strategies for radiation accidents. Chapters I to V deal with practice in emergency care for radiation exposure, covering 1) medical strategies for radiation accidents, 2) personnel dosimetry and monitoring, 3) nuclear facilities and their surrounding areas with the potential for creating radiation accidents, and emergency medical care for exposed persons, 4) emergency care procedures for radiation exposure and radioactive contamination, and 5) radiation hazards and their treatment. The last chapter provides some references. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Accident Analysis and Highway Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Noorliyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, Federal Route FT050 (Jalan Batu Pahat-Kluang has undergone many changes, including the improvement of geometric features (i.e., construction of median, dedicated U-turns and additional lanes and upgrading the quality of the road surface. Unfortunately, even with these enhancements, accidents continue to occur along this route. This study covered both accident analysis and blackspot study. Accident point weightage was used to identify blackspot locations. The results reveal hazardous road locations and blackspot ranking along the route.

  20. Chemical phenomena under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    A severe nuclear reactor accident is expected to involve a vast number of chemical processes. The chemical processes of major safety significance begin with the production of hydrogen during steam oxidation of fuel cladding. Physico-chemical changes in the fuel and the vaporization of radionuclides during reactor accidents have captured much of the attention of the safety community in recent years. Protracted chemical interactions of core debris with structural concrete mark the conclusion of dynamic events in a severe accident. An overview of the current understanding of chemical processes in severe reactor accident is provided in this paper. It is shown that most of this understanding has come from application of findings from other fields though a few areas have in the past been subject to in-depth study of a fundamental nature. Challenges in the study of severe accident chemistry are delineated

  1. Reduction of cerebral injury in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats by amlodipine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blezer, E.L.A.; Nicolaij, K.; Goldschmeding, R.C.; Koomans, H.A.; Joles, Jaap

    2002-01-01

    Dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel antagonists, initiated together with high salt intake, prevent the development of hypertension and subsequent cerebral damage in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). We hypothesized that the dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel antagonist amlodipine

  2. School accidents in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalamon, Johannes; Eberl, Robert; Ainoedhofer, Herwig; Singer, Georg; Spitzer, Peter; Mayr, Johannes; Schober, Peter H; Hoellwarth, Michael E

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain information about the mechanisms and types of injuries in school in Austria. Children between 0 and 18 years of age presenting with injuries at the trauma outpatient in the Department of Pediatric Surgery in Graz and six participating hospitals in Austria were evaluated over a 2-year prospective survey. A total of 28,983 pediatric trauma cases were registered. Personal data, site of the accident, circumstances and mechanisms of accident and the related diagnosis were evaluated. At the Department of Pediatric Surgery in Graz 21,582 questionnaires were completed, out of which 2,148 children had school accidents (10%). The remaining 7,401 questionnaires from peripheral hospitals included 890 school accidents (12%). The male/female ratio was 3:2. In general, sport injuries were a predominant cause of severe trauma (42% severe injuries), compared with other activities in and outside of the school building (26% severe injuries). Injuries during ball-sports contributed to 44% of severe injuries. The upper extremity was most frequently injured (34%), followed by lower extremity (32%), head and neck area (26%) and injuries to thorax and abdomen (8%). Half of all school related injuries occur in children between 10 and 13 years of age. There are typical gender related mechanisms of accident: Boys get frequently injured during soccer, violence, and collisions in and outside of the school building and during craft work. Girls have the highest risk of injuries at ball sports other than soccer.

  3. Research investigation report on Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-03-01

    This report was issued in February 2012 by Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation's Independent Investigation Commission on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, which consisted of six members from the private sector in independent positions and with no direct interest in the business of promoting nuclear power. Commission aimed to determine the truth behind the accident by clarifying the various problems and reveal systematic problems behind these issues so as to create a new starting point by identifying clear lessons learned. Report composed of four chapters; (1) progression of Fukushima accident and resulting damage (accident management after Fukushima accident, and effects and countermeasure of radioactive materials discharged into the environment), (2) response against Fukushima accident (emergency response of cabinet office against nuclear disaster, risk communication and on-site response against nuclear disaster), (3) analysis of historical and structural factors (technical philosophy of nuclear safety, problems of nuclear safety regulation of Fukushima accident, safety regulatory governance and social background of 'Safety Myth'), (4) Global Context (implication in nuclear security, Japan in nuclear safety regime, U.S.-Japan relations for response against Fukushima accident, lessons learned from Fukushima accident - aiming at creation of resilience). Report could identify causes of Fukushima accident and factors related to resulting damages, show the realities behind failure to prevent the spread of damage, and analyze the overall structural and historical background behind the accidents. (T. Tanaka)

  4. The 2-Year Cosmetic Outcome of a Randomized Trial Comparing Prone and Supine Whole-Breast Irradiation in Large-Breasted Women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldeman, Liv, E-mail: liv.veldeman@uzgent.be [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Ghent, Ghent (Belgium); Department of Radiotherapy and Experimental Cancer Research, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Schiettecatte, Kimberly; De Sutter, Charlotte; Monten, Christel; Greveling, Annick van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Ghent, Ghent (Belgium); Berkovic, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Ghent, Ghent (Belgium); Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège, Liège (Belgium); Mulliez, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Ghent, Ghent (Belgium); De Neve, Wilfried [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Ghent, Ghent (Belgium); Department of Radiotherapy and Experimental Cancer Research, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: To report the 2-year cosmetic outcome of a randomized trial comparing prone and supine whole-breast irradiation in large-breasted patients. Methods and Materials: One hundred patients with a (European) cup size ≥C were included. Before and 2 years after radiation therapy, clinical endpoints were scored and digital photographs were taken with the arms alongside the body and with the arms elevated 180°. Three observers rated the photographs using the 4-point Harvard cosmesis scale. Cosmesis was also evaluated with the commercially available Breast Cancer Conservation Treatment.cosmetic results (BCCT.core) software. Results: Two-year follow-up data and photographs were available for 94 patients (47 supine treated and 47 prone treated). Patient and treatment characteristics were not significantly different between the 2 cohorts. A worsening of color change occurred more frequently in the supine than in the prone cohort (19/46 vs 10/46 patients, respectively, P=.04). Five patients in the prone group (11%) and 12 patients in the supine group (26%) presented with a worse scoring of edema at 2-year follow-up (P=.06). For retraction and fibrosis, no significant differences were found between the 2 cohorts, although scores were generally worse in the supine cohort. The cosmetic scoring by 3 observers did not reveal differences between the prone and supine groups. On the photographs with the hands up, 7 patients in the supine group versus none in the prone group had a worsening of cosmesis of 2 categories using the (BCCT.org) software (P=.02). Conclusion: With a limited follow-up of 2 years, better cosmetic outcome was observed in prone-treated than in supine-treated patients.

  5. Monitoring Severe Accidents Using AI Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No, Young Gyu; Kim, Ju Hyun; Na, Man Gyun; Ahn, Kwang Il

    2011-01-01

    It is very difficult for nuclear power plant operators to monitor and identify the major severe accident scenarios following an initiating event by staring at temporal trends of important parameters. The objective of this study is to develop and verify the monitoring for severe accidents using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques such as support vector classification (SVC), probabilistic neural network (PNN), group method of data handling (GMDH) and fuzzy neural network (FNN). The SVC and PNN are used for event classification among the severe accidents. Also, GMDH and FNN are used to monitor for severe accidents. The inputs to AI techniques are initial time-integrated values obtained by integrating measurement signals during a short time interval after reactor scram. In this study, 3 types of initiating events such as the hot-leg LOCA, the cold-leg LOCA and SGTR are considered and it is verified how well the proposed scenario identification algorithm using the GMDH and FNN models identifies the timings when the reactor core will be uncovered, when CET will exceed 1200 .deg. F and when the reactor vessel will fail. In cases that an initiating event develops into a severe accident, the proposed algorithm showed accurate classification of initiating events. Also, it well predicted timings for important occurrences during severe accident progression scenarios, which is very helpful for operators to perform severe accident management

  6. Purification and crystallization of the catalytic PRONE domain of RopGEF8 and its complex with Rop4 from Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Christoph; Weyand, Michael; Wittinghofer, Alfred; Berken, Antje

    2006-01-01

    Crystals of the catalytic PRONE domain of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor RopGEF8 and its complex with the Rho-family protein Rop4 from A. thaliana were obtained that diffract to 2.2 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively. The PRONE domain of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor RopGEF8 (PRONE8) was purified and crystallized free and in complex with the Rho-family protein Rop4 using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. PRONE8 crystals were obtained using NaCl as precipitating agent and belong to the hexagonal space group P6 5 22. Native and anomalous data sets were collected using synchrotron radiation at 100 K to 2.2 and 2.8 Å resolution, respectively. Crystals of the Rop4–PRONE8 complex belonging to space group P6 3 were obtained using Tacsimate and PEG 3350 as precipitating agents and diffracted to 3.1 Å resolution

  7. Purification and crystallization of the catalytic PRONE domain of RopGEF8 and its complex with Rop4 from Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Christoph; Weyand, Michael; Wittinghofer, Alfred; Berken, Antje, E-mail: antje.berken@mpi-dortmund.mpg.de [Department of Structural Biology, Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology, Otto-Hahn-Strasse 11, 44227 Dortmund (Germany)

    2006-06-01

    Crystals of the catalytic PRONE domain of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor RopGEF8 and its complex with the Rho-family protein Rop4 from A. thaliana were obtained that diffract to 2.2 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively. The PRONE domain of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor RopGEF8 (PRONE8) was purified and crystallized free and in complex with the Rho-family protein Rop4 using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. PRONE8 crystals were obtained using NaCl as precipitating agent and belong to the hexagonal space group P6{sub 5}22. Native and anomalous data sets were collected using synchrotron radiation at 100 K to 2.2 and 2.8 Å resolution, respectively. Crystals of the Rop4–PRONE8 complex belonging to space group P6{sub 3} were obtained using Tacsimate and PEG 3350 as precipitating agents and diffracted to 3.1 Å resolution.

  8. Severe accident management: radiation dose control, Fukushima Daiichi and TMI-2 nuclear plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Roger

    2014-01-01

    This presentation presents valuable dose information related to the Fukushima Daiichi and Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) Nuclear Plant accidents. Dose information is provided for what is well known for TMI-2, and what is available for Fukushima Daiichi. Particular emphasis is placed on the difference between the type of reactors involved, overarching plant damage issues, and radiation worker dose outcomes. For TMI-2, more in depth dose data is available for the accident and the subsequent recovery efforts. The comparisons demonstrate the need to understand the wide variation in potential dose management measures and outcomes for severe reactor accidents. (author)

  9. Trismus: An unusual presentation following road accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Jagdeep

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Trismus due to trauma usually follows road accidents leading to massive faciomaxillary injury. In the literature there is no report of a foreign body causing trismus following a road accident, this rare case is an exception. We present a case of isolated presentation of trismus following a road accident. This case report stresses on the thorough evaluation of patients presenting with trismus following a road accident.

  10. 32 CFR 634.29 - Traffic accident investigation reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic accident investigation reports. 634.29... records. Installation law enforcement officials will record traffic accident investigations on Service/DLA... traffic accident investigation reports pertaining to accidents investigated by military police that...

  11. Radioactive material (RAM) accident/incident data analysis program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerson, E.L.; McClure, J.D.

    1985-03-01

    This report describes the development of the Radioactive Material Transportation Accident/Incident Data Base (RAM-AIDB), which contains information on the occurrences of transportation accidents and incidents, for radioactive materials (RAM) that are involved in the process of transportation, loading and unloading operation, or temporary storage. These transportation operations are in support of the nuclear fuel cycle for electrical energy generation. This study analyzes in some detail basic accident/incident statistical data, RAM packaging accident response data, and the health effects associated with RAM transport accidents/incidents. This report presents a summary of US RAM transport accident/incident experience for the period 1971 through December 1981. In addition, a sample annual summary of accident/incident experience is presented for the calendar year 1981

  12. Modeling interactions betweenspotted owl and barred owl populations in fire-prone forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background / Question / Methods Efforts to conserve northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the eastern Cascades of Washington must merge the challenges of providing sufficient structurally complex forest habitat in a fire-prone landscape with the limitations impos...

  13. Analysis of Fukushima Daiichi Accident Using HFACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Saeed Almheiri

    2013-01-01

    The shadow of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident is still too big and will last long. On the other hand, it could still teach us lots of lessons to better design and operate nuclear power plants. In this paper, we will be focusing on the Fukushima Daiichi accident, especially on human organizational factors. We will analyze the accident using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in order to better understand the organizational climate of TEPCO 1 and NISA 2 that led to Fukushima Daiichi Accident. HFACS was developed for the U. S. aviation industry and has been used at many industries like the rail and mining industries. We found that the HFACS to be greatly beneficial in investigating the latent and organizational causes for the accident. The application results show that the causes of Fukushima Daiichi accident were spread out from sharp end (i.e. Unsafe Act) to blunt end (i. e. Organizational Influences). This means that the corresponding countermeasures should cover from front line staff to management. Thus, we managed to develop a better understanding on how to prevent similar errors or violations. The incident and near-miss have a lot of helpful information because it may show the actual and latent deficiencies of complex systems. We applied the HFACS into Fukushima Daiichi accident to better locate the causes related to both sharp and blunt ends of operation of NPP. In order to derive useful lessons from the accident analysis, the analyst should try to find the similarities not differences from the incident. It is imperative that whatever accident/incident analysis systems we use, we should fully utilize the disastrous Fukushima accident

  14. Analysis of Fukushima Daiichi Accident Using HFACS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Saeed Almheiri [Korea Advanced Institue of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The shadow of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident is still too big and will last long. On the other hand, it could still teach us lots of lessons to better design and operate nuclear power plants. In this paper, we will be focusing on the Fukushima Daiichi accident, especially on human organizational factors. We will analyze the accident using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in order to better understand the organizational climate of TEPCO{sup 1} and NISA{sup 2} that led to Fukushima Daiichi Accident. HFACS was developed for the U. S. aviation industry and has been used at many industries like the rail and mining industries. We found that the HFACS to be greatly beneficial in investigating the latent and organizational causes for the accident. The application results show that the causes of Fukushima Daiichi accident were spread out from sharp end (i.e. Unsafe Act) to blunt end (i. e. Organizational Influences). This means that the corresponding countermeasures should cover from front line staff to management. Thus, we managed to develop a better understanding on how to prevent similar errors or violations. The incident and near-miss have a lot of helpful information because it may show the actual and latent deficiencies of complex systems. We applied the HFACS into Fukushima Daiichi accident to better locate the causes related to both sharp and blunt ends of operation of NPP. In order to derive useful lessons from the accident analysis, the analyst should try to find the similarities not differences from the incident. It is imperative that whatever accident/incident analysis systems we use, we should fully utilize the disastrous Fukushima accident.

  15. [Traffic accidents associated with emotional stress after divorce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li-Juan; Yi, Xu-Fu; Chen, Xiao-Gang

    2009-04-01

    In recent years, the traffic accidents increased gradually, especially those caused by the drivers daily emotional abnormality and in which the drivers were liable. This article reviewed the traffic accidents caused by divorced driver's emotional abnormality, illustrated the features of those accidents from the gender, age, occupation and mileage of drivers. It was considered that the major cause of those accidents was excessive drinking due to drivers' emotional stress. Suggestions about preventing the traffic accidents caused by emotional abnormality were put forward so as to make the corresponding rules and finally decrease the emotional abnormality traffic accidents.

  16. Electromagnetic Tracking of Intrafraction Prostate Displacement in Patients Externally Immobilized in the Prone Position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner, Nathan; Butler, Wayne M.; Reed, Joshua L.; Murray, Brian C.; Kurko, Brian S.; Wallner, Kent E.; Merrick, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate intrafraction prostate displacement among patients immobilized in the prone position using real-time monitoring of implanted radiofrequency transponders. Methods and Materials: The Calypso localization system was used to track prostate motion in patients receiving external beam radiation therapy (XRT) for prostate cancer. All patients were treated in the prone position and immobilized with a thermoplastic immobilization device. Real-time measurement of prostate displacement was recorded for each treatment fraction. These measurements were used to determine the duration and magnitude of displacement along the three directional axes. Results: The calculated centroid of the implanted transponders was offset from the treatment isocenter by ≥2 mm, ≥3 mm, and ≥4 mm for 38.0%, 13.9%, and 4.5% of the time. In the lateral dimension, the centroid was offset from the treatment isocenter by ≥2 mm, ≥3 mm, and ≥4 mm for 2.7%, 0.4%, and 0.06% of the time. In the superior-inferior dimension, the centroid was offset from the treatment isocenter by ≥2 mm, ≥3 mm, and ≥4 mm for 16.1%, 4.7%, and 1.5% of the time, respectively. In the anterior-posterior dimension, the centroid was offset from the treatment isocenter by ≥2 mm, ≥3 mm, and ≥4 mm for 13.4%, 3.0%, and 0.5% of the time. Conclusions: Intrafraction prostate displacement in the prone position is comparable to that in the supine position. For patients with large girth, in whom the supine position may preclude accurate detection of implanted radiofrequency transponders, treatment in the prone position is a suitable alternative.

  17. Character and consequence of nuclear criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinhua; Liu Hua; Wu Deqiang; Li Bing

    2001-01-01

    The author describes some concepts, the process and magnitude of energy release and the destruction of the nuclear criticality accident and also describes the radiation consequence of criticality accidents from three aspects: prompt radiation, contamination in working place and release of fission products to the environment. It shows that the effects of radioactivity release from criticality accidents in the nuclear fuel processing plants on the environment and the public is minor, the main danger is from the external exposure of prompt rays. The paper make as have a correct underst