Sample records for accident prone locations

  1. Relationship between childhood hyperactivity and accident proneness.

    Gayton, W F; Bailey, C; Wagner, A; Hardesty, V A


    Previous research suggested that hyperactive children are especially susceptible to accidents. Two questions remain: is the relationship peculiar to hyperactivity in childhood or for behaviorally disturbed children in general and does the relationship hold for females as well as for males? To answer these questions 189 patients at a child psychiatric clinic were rated on a scale which included measures of hyperactivity and accident proneness. The hyperactive patients were more likely to be described as accident prone than nonhyperactive patients. The relationship between childhood hyperactivity and accident proneness is confirmed and is specific. The relationship holds for both boys and girls.

  2. Jerky driving--An indicator of accident proneness?

    Bagdadi, Omar; Várhelyi, András


    This study uses continuously logged driving data from 166 private cars to derive the level of jerks caused by the drivers during everyday driving. The number of critical jerks found in the data is analysed and compared with the self-reported accident involvement of the drivers. The results show that the expected number of accidents for a driver increases with the number of critical jerks caused by the driver. Jerk analyses make it possible to identify safety critical driving behaviour or "accident prone" drivers. They also facilitate the development of safety measures such as active safety systems or advanced driver assistance systems, ADAS, which could be adapted for specific groups of drivers or specific risky driving behaviour.

  3. Musculoskeletal disorders, personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of Chinese coal miners.

    Deng, Mingming; Wu, Feng; Wang, Jun; Sun, Linyan


    Human factors comprise one of the important reasons leading to the casualty accidents in coal mines. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of coal miners. There were 1500 Chinese coal miners surveyed in this study. Among these miners, 992 valid samples were obtained. The study surveyed the MSDs, personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of coal miners with MSDs Likert scale, Eysenck personality questionnaire, Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) scale, and accident proneness questionnaire, respectively. The highest MSDs level was found in the waist. The increasing working age of the miners was connected with increased MSDs and psychological distress. Significant differences in MSDs and psychological distress of miners from different types of work were observed. Coal miners with higher MSDs had higher accident proneness. Coal miners with higher neuroticism dimension of Eysenck personality and more serious psychological distress had higher accident proneness. Phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism dimension of psychological distress were the three most important indicators that had significant positive relationships with accident proneness. The MSDs, neuroticism dimension, and psychological distress of the coal mine workers are important to work safety and require serious attention. Some implications concerning coal mine safety management in China were provided.

  4. Identification of traffic accident risk-prone areas under low lighting conditions

    K. Ivan


    Full Text Available Besides other non-behavioural factors, the low lighting conditions significantly influence the frequency of the traffic accidents in the urban environment. This paper intends to identify the impact of low lighting conditions on the traffic accidents in the city of Cluj-Napoca. The dependence degree between lighting and the number of traffic accidents was analyzed by the Pearson's correlation and the relation between the spatial distribution of traffic accidents and the lighting conditions was determined by the frequency ratio model. The vulnerable areas within the city were identified based on the calculation of the injured persons rate for the 0.5 km2 equally-sized areas uniformly distributed within the study area. The results have shown a strong linear dependence between the low lighting conditions and the number of traffic accidents in terms of three seasonal variations and a high probability of traffic accidents occurrence under the above-mentioned conditions, at the city entrances-exits, which represent also vulnerable areas within the study area. Knowing the linear dependence and the spatial relation between the low lighting and the number of traffic accidents, as well as the consequences induced by their occurrence enabled us to identify the high traffic accident risk areas in the city of Cluj-Napoca.

  5. Identification of traffic accident risk-prone areas under low-light conditions

    Ivan, K.; Haidu, I.; Benedek, J.; Ciobanu, S. M.


    Besides other non-behavioural factors, low-light conditions significantly influence the frequency of traffic accidents in an urban environment. This paper intends to identify the impact of low-light conditions on traffic accidents in the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The dependence degree between light and the number of traffic accidents was analysed using the Pearson correlation, and the relation between the spatial distribution of traffic accidents and the light conditions was determined by the frequency ratio model. The vulnerable areas within the city were identified based on the calculation of the injury rate for the 0.5 km2 areas uniformly distributed within the study area. The results show a strong linear correlation between the low-light conditions and the number of traffic accidents in terms of three seasonal variations and a high probability of traffic accident occurrence under the above-mentioned conditions at the city entrances/exits, which represent vulnerable areas within the study area. Knowing the linear dependence and the spatial relation between the low light and the number of traffic accidents, as well as the consequences induced by their occurrence, enabled us to identify the areas of high traffic accident risk in Cluj-Napoca.

  6. Accident Locations, MDTA Accidents, Accidents on MDTA locations, Accidents on I 95, US 50, I 695, Accident on John F Kennedy Highway, Nice Bridge, Bay Bridge locations, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Maryland Transportation Authority.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Accident Locations dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2011. It is described as...

  7. Geometric and Road Environmental Effects against Total Number of Traffic Accidents in Kendari

    Kurdin, M. Akbar; Welendo, La; Annisa, Nur


    From the large number of traffic accidents that occurred, the carrying of Kendari as the biggest contributor to accidents in the Southeast. The number of accidents in Kendari row since 2011 was recorded at 18 accidents due to the influence of geometric road, in 2012 registered at 13 accident and in 2013 amounted to 6 accidents, with accident data because of the influence Geometric recorded for 3 consecutive years the biggest contributor to accidents because of the influence of geometric is Abeli districts. This study aimed to determine the road which common point of accident-prone (Black spot) in Kecamatan Abeli as accident-prone areas in Kendari, analyze the influence of geometric and road environment against accidents on roads in Kecamatan Abeli, provide alternative treatment based on the causes of accidents on the location of the accident-prone points (blackspot) to reduce the rate of traffic accidents. From the results of a study of 6 curve the accident-prone locations, that the curve I, II, and VI is the “Black Spot” influenced by the amount and condition of traffic accidents, while at the curve II, a traffic accident that occurred also be caused by unsafe geometric where the type of geometric should be changed from Spiral-Spiral type to Spiral-Circle-Spiral type. This indicates geometric effect on the number of accidents.

  8. Can butterflies evade fire? Pupa location and heat tolerance in fire prone habitats of Florida.

    Matthew D Thom

    Full Text Available Butterflies such as the atala hairstreak, Eumaeus atala Poey, and the frosted elfin, Callophrys irus Godart, are restricted to frequently disturbed habitats where their larval host plants occur. Pupae of these butterflies are noted to reside at the base of host plants or in the leaf litter and soil, which may allow them to escape direct mortality by fire, a prominent disturbance in many areas they inhabit. The capacity of these species to cope with fire is a critical consideration for land management and conservation strategies in the locations where they are found. Survival of E. atala pupae in relation to temperature and duration of heat pulse was tested using controlled water bath experiments and a series of prescribed fire field experiments. Survival of E. atala pupae was correlated to peak temperature and heat exposure in both laboratory and field trials. In addition, E. atala survival following field trials was correlated to depth of burial; complete mortality was observed for pupae at the soil surface. Fifty percent of E. atala survived the heat generated by prescribed fire when experimentally placed at depths ≥ 1.75 cm, suggesting that pupation of butterflies in the soil at depth can protect from fatal temperatures caused by fire. For a species such as E. atala that pupates above ground, a population reduction from a burn event is a significant loss, and so decreasing the impact of prescribed fire on populations is critical.

  9. Can butterflies evade fire? Pupa location and heat tolerance in fire prone habitats of Florida.

    Thom, Matthew D; Daniels, Jaret C; Kobziar, Leda N; Colburn, Jonathan R


    Butterflies such as the atala hairstreak, Eumaeus atala Poey, and the frosted elfin, Callophrys irus Godart, are restricted to frequently disturbed habitats where their larval host plants occur. Pupae of these butterflies are noted to reside at the base of host plants or in the leaf litter and soil, which may allow them to escape direct mortality by fire, a prominent disturbance in many areas they inhabit. The capacity of these species to cope with fire is a critical consideration for land management and conservation strategies in the locations where they are found. Survival of E. atala pupae in relation to temperature and duration of heat pulse was tested using controlled water bath experiments and a series of prescribed fire field experiments. Survival of E. atala pupae was correlated to peak temperature and heat exposure in both laboratory and field trials. In addition, E. atala survival following field trials was correlated to depth of burial; complete mortality was observed for pupae at the soil surface. Fifty percent of E. atala survived the heat generated by prescribed fire when experimentally placed at depths ≥ 1.75 cm, suggesting that pupation of butterflies in the soil at depth can protect from fatal temperatures caused by fire. For a species such as E. atala that pupates above ground, a population reduction from a burn event is a significant loss, and so decreasing the impact of prescribed fire on populations is critical.

  10. 煤矿井下作业工人工作倦怠与事故倾向性研究%The Research of Job Burnout with Accident Proneness among Coal Mine Workers

    孙林辉; 章艺蒙; 崔凯; 袁晓芳


    Objective Put the coal mine workers as the object research the relationship between the accident proneness and the job burnout. And discuss the degree of the age,length of service,department affect of job burnout Methods Questionnaire survey was conducted on 1015 coal mine workers,use job burnout inventory( MBI)and Eysenck scale of N dimension of subject. Results Analysis of 980 valid data,The results showed:①The three components of the mine worker burnout and o-verall score was a positive correlation with the accident proneness,where the emotional exhaustion,cynicism and accident proneness was significantly higher than reduced personal accomp;②Mine workers 20~50 years of age located between acci-dent grows gragually increased tendency value age;③Seniority between 1~5 and 10~20 years tendency among workers acci-dent higher than any other seniority workers;④Accident proneness highest value-assisted three main sectors in mining,auxil-iary,machine express,but is generally considered the most accident-prone mining sector has the lowest value of its tendency accident. Conclusion Coal mine accident tendency of workers exposed to job burnout,emotional exhaustion and cynicism two particularly prominent. Thus,in the coal mine safety management should pay attention to the problem of job burnout of employ-ees,especially for age,length of service in between 1 ~5 and 10 ~20 years,for which high levels of job burnout should promptly psychological counseling,workers in the secondary and machine express sector to do the key regulatory.%研究煤矿井下作业工人工作倦怠与事故倾向性的关系,并探讨年龄、工龄、工种对工作倦怠的影响程度。采用工作倦怠量表( MBI)和艾森克量表中选取的N维度题目对1015名煤矿井下作业工人事故倾向性与工作倦怠进行调查和统计分析。通过对980个有效数据进行分析显示:①煤矿工人工作倦怠及其3个分量与事故倾向性均呈正相关,其中

  11. Accident Locations, Centerlines with address ranges, Published in 2014, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Pierce County Wisconsin.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Accident Locations dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2014. It is described as...

  12. An analysis of the effectiveness of emergency locator transmitters to reduce response time and locate wreckage in U.S. general aviation accidents

    Jesudoss, Ajit

    Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELT) help search crews to locate aircraft in distress and to rescue survivors. This study analyzed ELT data from U.S. General Aviation accidents during the period 2006 to 2010. This study examined the effectiveness of ELTs in terms of ELT Success Rate (ESR) and False Negative Rate (FNR) based on ELT-Aided. This study found a significant difference between ELT-Operated and ELT-Aided. The ESR was found to be 38.58% whereas the FNR was found to be 61.42 %. The Missing Data Ratio (MDR), where accident reports had no ELT information, was found to be above 95%. Recommendations were made to include ELT information in all accident reports and to stress the importance of including response time in the accident report. Also the significant differences between ELT-Operated and ELT-Aided were explained.

  13. FCaZm intelligent recognition system for locating areas prone to strong earthquakes in the Andean and Caucasian mountain belts

    Gvishiani, A. D.; Dzeboev, B. A.; Agayan, S. M.


    The fuzzy clustering and zoning method (FCAZm) of systems analysis is suggested for recognizing the areas of the probable generation of the epicenters of significant, strong, and the strongest earthquakes. FCAZm is a modified version of the previous FCAZ algorithmic system, which is advanced by the creation of the blocks of artificial intelligence that develop the system-forming algorithms. FCAZm has been applied for recognizing areas where the epicenters of the strongest ( M ≥ 73/4) earthquakes within the Andes mountain belt in the South America and significant earthquakes ( M ≥ 5) in the Caucasus can emerge. The reliability of the obtained results was assessed by the seismic-history type control experiments. The recognized highly seismic zones were compared with the ones previously recognized by the EPA method and by the initial version of the FCAZ system. The modified FCAZm system enabled us to pass from simple pattern recognition in the problem of recognizing the locations of the probable emergence of strong earthquakes to systems analysis. In particular, using FCAZm we managed to uniquely recognize a subsystem of highly seismically active zones from the nonempty complement using the exact boundary.

  14. Accident Locations, Currently this layer is maintained by our County Sheriff Department & done with a desktop GIS program., Published in 2013, Not Applicable scale, Chippewa County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Accident Locations dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2013. It is described as 'Currently this...

  15. Analysis of Psychological Factors and Susceptibility Genes of Drivers′Accident Proneness%驾驶员产生事故倾向性的心理因素及易感基因分析

    王晓敏; 杨莉; 黄开勇; 苏华斌


    目的:研究驾驶员产生事故倾向性的心理因素及易感基因。方法采用病例对照研究方法,选取5年内发生3次(以上)责任事故的驾驶员46例为病例组(均为男性),另选择同期未发生交通事故的同性别、年龄、驾龄、驾驶车型等均衡可比的驾驶员46例为对照组。采用A型行为量表(TABP)和艾森克个性问卷(EPQ)量表进行心理评定;采用限制性片段长度多态性分析( PCR-RFLP )技术对候选基因5-羟色胺转运体基因启动子区(5-HTTLPR)进行基因型及等位基因检测。结果病例组驾驶员A型行为、精神质( P)和情绪性( N)因子得分均高于对照组(P均<0.05),而掩饰性(L)因子得分低于对照组(P<0.05);驾驶员的年龄与外向性(E)评分呈正相关关系(P<0.01);驾龄与E、P、N及A型行为评分均呈正相关关系(P均<0.05),而与L因子呈负相关关系(P<0.05)。病例组与对照组间5-HTTLPR基因的基因型构成及等位基因频率分布差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);经单因素及多因素logistic回归分析显示,精神质是驾驶员事故倾向性的危险因素(P<0.01),5-HTTLPR基因型及等位基因与驾驶员事故倾向性有关( P<0.05)。结论驾驶员A型行为、个性特征及5-HTTLPR基因与其事故倾向性有关;精神质是驾驶员事故倾向性的危险因素。%Objective To explore the psychological factors and susceptibility genes of the drivers ′accident proneness .Methods A case-control study was performed by using type-A behavior questionnaire ( TABP) and Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ) scale.Forty-six male drivers who had 3 accidents or more in 5 years were in the case group ,and another 46 male drivers who had not accident in 5 years with similar age ,driver′s experience and vehicle type as the drivers in the case group were in the control group .The

  16. Authority structure and industrial accidents

    As, Sicco van


    This paper deals with the influence of organizational characteristics on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. The general hypothesis is that the authority structure is a main cause of accident-proneness

  17. 车集矿实施站位管理预防安全事故%Location Management Is Implemented to Prevent Safety Accident in Cheji Colliery



    零打碎敲事故是矿井安全管理的重点和难点,本文提出了站位管理法,即通过规范职工在各项作业过程中所处的位置,以规避可能存在的风险,避免发生人身伤害事故。%Piecemeal accident is important and difficult for safety management of coal mine .The paper introduces the location management method ,w hich can avoid possible risk and personal injured accident by the specification of workers'location in various work processes .

  18. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl



    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  19. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad


    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Effect of Advanced Location Methods on Search and Rescue Duration for General Aviation Aircraft Accidents in the Contiguous United States

    Wallace, Ryan J.


    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of advanced search and rescue devices and techniques on search duration for general aviation aircraft crashes. The study assessed three categories of emergency locator transmitters, including 121.5 MHz, 406 MHz, and GPS-Assisted 406 MHz devices. The impact of the COSPAS-SARSAT organization…

  1. Driver Personality Proneness Difference and Risk Factor of Traffic Accidents Analysis in Hongkou District of Shanghai%上海市虹口区驾驶员人格倾向及其发生交通事故的危险因素分析

    谭俊; 冯学山; 黄智勇; 姚文


    目的:调查分析上海市虹口区驾驶员人格倾向及发生交通事故的危险因素,为采取针对性的预防控制措施提供依据.方法:采用自填式问卷方法调查2011年6-8月在虹口区车辆管理所正常验审的机动车驾驶员,内容主要包括驾驶员艾森克人格量表测量以及驾驶员发生交通事故的情况.结果:47.25%的驾驶员自我报告发生过交通事故,艾森克量表结果显示驾驶员性格外向、情绪稳定,有事故驾驶员相对无事故驾驶员性格更为内向.logistic回归分析显示A型血型、有过违章记录、驾驶行为得分低、艾森克量表E维度得分低是驾驶员多发交通事故的危险因素.结论:发生交通事故的驾驶员人格倾向有一定的特异性,建议有关部门结合调查发现的危险因素对驾驶员开展针对性的行车安全宣传和教育,以预防交通事故的发生.%Objective: To analyze the driver personality proneness difference and risk factor of traffic accidents in Hongkou district of Shanghai, and to provide the suggestions for prevention and control. Methods: Questionnaire survey was conducted in Hongkou district,1200 drivers who had finished the vehicle license inspection in vehicle administration department from June to August in 2011 were enrolled. Questionnaire included Eysenk Personality Test and traffic accidents situation of drivers. Results: 47.25% of drivers reported they had the traffic accident experience. The EPT analysis indicated drivers in this investigation were outgoing, steady, drivers with accidents while compared who without accidents were more introverted. Logistic regression indicated that drivers with type A blood, stigma of driving against the regulation, low driving assessment score and low marks of item E in EPT were risk factors for accidents. Conclusion: Drivers who with accidents have some specific characters, the related department should carry out targeted publicity and education to

  2. Accidents of bus drivers : an epidemiological approach

    M.L.I. Pokorny (Mirko); D.H.J. Blom (Dick)


    textabstractIn the history of accident research much emphasis has been laid on general statistics, different types of case studies concentrating on various personal factor-s, circumstantial influences etc. Often, in certain waves, the unequal initial liability theory (the accident proneness concept;

  3. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    Oppe, S.


    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures

  4. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    Oppe, S.


    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures

  5. Bicycle accidents.

    Lind, M G; Wollin, S


    Information concerning 520 bicycle accidents and their victims was obtained from medical records and the victims' replies to questionnaires. The analyzed aspects included risk of injury, completeness of accident registrations by police and in hospitals, types of injuries and influence of the cyclists' age and sex, alcohol, fatigue, hunger, haste, physical disability, purpose of cycling, wearing of protective helmet and other clothing, type and quality of road surface, site of accident (road junctions, separate cycle paths, etc.) and turning manoeuvres.

  6. Determination of accident-prone road sections using quantile regression

    Thomas Edison Guerrero-Barbosa


    Full Text Available La identificación acertada de sitios peligrosos a accidentalidad permite a las entidades gubernamentales, encargadas de realizar mejoras a la seguridad vial, una adecuada destinación de las inversiones a los tramos viales verdaderamente críticos; dada esta necesidad inmediata, la presente investigación se enfoca en determinar los tramos propensos a accidentes y la posterior elaboración de un ranking de peligrosidad efectuado a los tramos críticos encontrados en el perímetro urbano de Ocaña (Colombia, utilizando Regresión Cuantil (RC. A partir del modelo estimado correspondiente al cuantil 95 fue posible establecer relaciones de causalidad entre características como longitud del tramo vial, ancho de calzada, número de carriles, número de intersecciones, tránsito promedio diario y velocidad media con la frecuencia de accidentes, determinándose un total de 7 tramos críticos a los cuales se les estableció un ranking de peligrosidad.

  7. Characteristics of initial deposition and behavior of radiocesium in forest ecosystems of different locations and species affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Komatsu, Masabumi; Kaneko, Shinji; Ohashi, Shinta; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Shigeto; Saito, Satoshi; Kiyono, Yoshiyuki; Tonosaki, Mario; Miura, Satoru; Akama, Akio; Kajimoto, Takuya; Takahashi, Masamichi


    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, information about stand-level spatial patterns of radiocesium initially deposited in the surrounding forests was essential for predicting the future dynamics of radiocesium and suggesting a management plan for contaminated forests. In the first summer (approximately 6 months after the accident), we separately estimated the amounts of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs; Bq m(-2)) in the major components (trees, organic layers, and soils) in forests of three sites with different contamination levels. For a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) forest studied at each of the three sites, the radiocesium concentration greatly differed among the components, with the needle and organic layer having the highest concentrations. For these cedar forests, the proportion of the (137)Cs stock in the aboveground tree biomass varied from 22% to 44% of the total (137)Cs stock; it was 44% in highly contaminated sites (7.0 × 10(5) Bq m(-2)) but reduced to 22% in less contaminated sites (1.1 × 10(4) Bq m(-2)). In the intermediate contaminated site (5.0-5.8 × 10(4) Bq m(-2)), 34% of radiocesium was observed in the aboveground tree biomass of the Japanese cedar stand. However, this proportion was considerably smaller (18-19%) in the nearby mixed forests of the Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) and deciduous broad-leaved trees. Non-negligible amounts of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in both the sapwood and heartwood of all the studied tree species. This finding suggested that the uptake or translocation of radiocesium had already started within 6 months after the accident. The belowground compartments were mostly present in the organic layer and the uppermost (0-5 cm deep) mineral soil layer at all the study sites. We discussed the initial transfer process of radiocesium deposited in the forest and inferred that the type of initial deposition (i.e., dry versus wet radiocesium deposition), the amount of


    N. G. Vlasova


    Full Text Available Catalogue of the average annual effective exposure doses of the inhabitants of the territories contaminated due to the Chernobul accident had been developed according to the method of the assessment of the average annual effective exposure doses of the settlements inhabitants. The cost-efficacy of the use of the average annual effective dose assessment method was 250 000 USD for the current 5 years. Average annual effective dose exceeded 1 mSv/year for 191 Belarus settlements from 2613. About 50 000 persons are living in these settlements.

  9. Location, location, location

    Anderson, S.P.; Goeree, J.K.; Ramer, R.


    We analyze the canonical location-then-price duopoly game with general log- concave consumer densities. A unique pure-strategy equilibrium to the two-stage game exists if the density is not "too asymmetric" and not "too concave." These criteria are satisfied by many commonly used densities. Equilibr

  10. Accident Statistics

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  11. Sports Accidents



    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  12. Effect of reducing abdominal compression during prone CT colonography on ascending colonic rotation during supine-to-prone positional change

    Jang, Jong eon; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Hyun Jin; KIm, Ah Young; Ha, Hyun Kwon [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To determine the effect of reduced abdominal compression in prone position on ascending colonic movement during supine-to-prone positional change during CT colonography (CTC). Eighteen consecutive patients who had undergone prone CTC scanning with cushion blocks placed under the chest and hip/thigh to reduce abdominal compression and had confirmed sessile polyps ≥ 6 mm in the well-distended, straight, mid-ascending colon, were included. Radial location along the ascending colonic luminal circumference (°) was measured for 24 polyps and 54 colonic teniae on supine and prone CTC images. The supine-to-prone change ranging between -180° and +180° (- and + for internal and external colonic rotations, respectively), was determined. In addition, possible causes of any ascending colonic rotations were explored. Abdominal compression during prone CTC scanning completely disappeared with the use of cushion blocks in 17 of 18 patients. However, some degrees of ascending colonic rotation were still observed, with the radial location changes of -22° to 61° (median, 13.9°) for the polyps and similar degrees for teniae. Fifty-four percent and 56% of polyps and teniae, respectively, showed changes > 10°. The radial location change of the polyps was significantly associated with the degree of anterior shift of the small bowel and mesentery (r = 0.722, p < 0.001) and the degree of posterior displacement of the ascending colon (r = 0.566, p = 0.004) during supine-to-prone positional change. Ascending colonic rotation upon supine-to-prone positional change during CTC, mostly in the form of external rotation, is not eliminated by removing abdominal compression in prone position.

  13. Comparison of three small-break loss-of-coolant accident tests with different break locations using the system-integrated modular advanced reactor-integral test loop facility to estimate the safety of the smart design

    Hwang Bae


    Full Text Available Three small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA tests with safety injection pumps were carried out using the integral-effect test loop for SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor, i.e., the SMART-ITL facility. The types of break are a safety injection system line break, shutdown cooling system line break, and pressurizer safety valve line break. The thermal–hydraulic phenomena show a traditional behavior to decrease the temperature and pressure whereas the local phenomena are slightly different during the early stage of the transient after a break simulation. A safety injection using a high-pressure pump effectively cools down and recovers the inventory of a reactor coolant system. The global trends show reproducible results for an SBLOCA scenario with three different break locations. It was confirmed that the safety injection system is robustly safe enough to protect from a core uncovery.

  14. Power Network Lightning Accident Quick Inquiry with the Lightning Location System%利用雷电定位系统进行电网雷击故障快速查询

    聂智平; 赵文光; 张萍; 文银平; 陈维江


    At present, lightning is one of the 10 natural disasters, and it is also the top environmental factor of power interrup- tion. It often causes huge losses to the electric system. The Wuhan High Voltage Institute of the State Grid Corporation of China and Huazhong University of Science and Technology have been researching and developing lightning location systems (LLSs) since the late 1980s. In the mid-1990s, a lightning detection network was created in 29 provinces and cities in China. It is primarily applied to rapidly find lightning accidents, which greatly reduces power interruption. Also, it ensures high effi- ciency and safe operation of the electricity system. Remarkable benefit is achieved. China's LLS went through an "orientation positioning - time difference positioning - integrated positioning" development process. The positioning precision, detection efficiency, degree of automation, practicability and applied range are improved. Also, a lightning information system plan of the national network has been implemented, which services the whole society.

  15. Identification and Prioritization of “Black Spots” without Using Accident Information

    Mahmoudreza Keymanesh


    Full Text Available It is attempted to identify and prioritize the accident prone points (black spots in “Iraanshahr-Sarbaaz-Chabahar” road located in Baluchistan, Iran, without no use of accident data but rather using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, which is the enhanced procedure of road safety audit technique. First, by surveying the whole route, all factors that could influence accidents in this road were specified; then the route was divided into eight sections; this division was performed based on the uniformity and homogeny of each section in terms of geometric design and regional conditions. In each section, potentially hazardous locations were identified and some questionnaires were prepared, which were filled by 5 road traffic experts familiar with the route; then the collected data were analyzed by Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP using Expert Choice Software and the black spots were identified and prioritized. Finally, these black spots were compared with the black spots that had been obtained by traffic police based on accident data.

  16. Accident: Reminder


    There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

  17. Modelling of the transfer of Cs-137 from air to crops, milk, beef and human body following the Chernobyl accident in a location in Central Bohemia. Test of the model PRYMA T1

    Carrasco, E.; Garcia-Olivares, A.; Suanez, A.; Robles, B.; Simon, I.; Cancio, D.


    This work was made in the frame of the research programme on validation od models for the transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial, urban and aquatic environments. the acronym of this programme is VAMP (Validation of Model Predictions) and is co-ordinated by the International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA) and the Commission of the european Communities (CEC). The scenario was named CB and Was presented by the Multiple Pathway Working group. the scenario description was at the beginning a blind test, that is without knowing the location or the measured concentrations and doses. the input information included data of contamination in Cs-137 from the Chernobyl accident in Central Europe, in air and soils and ore, description of the scenario (data about crops, cattle, demography, human diet, etc.). the aim of the exercise was the contrast between model results and between observed data and model predictions. In this work the results obtained by the CIEMAT-IMA group of modelers are shown and discussed. (Author) 24 refs.

  18. Self-reported accidents

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth


    The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....

  19. Temporal Statistic of Traffic Accidents in Turkey

    Erdogan, S.; Yalcin, M.; Yilmaz, M.; Korkmaz Takim, A.


    Traffic accidents form clusters in terms of geographic space and over time which themselves exhibit distinct spatial and temporal patterns. There is an imperative need to understand how, where and when traffic accidents occur in order to develop appropriate accident reduction strategies. An improved understanding of the location, time and reasons for traffic accidents makes a significant contribution to preventing them. Traffic accident occurrences have been extensively studied from different spatial and temporal points of view using a variety of methodological approaches. In literature, less research has been dedicated to the temporal patterns of traffic accidents. In this paper, the numbers of traffic accidents are normalized according to the traffic volume and the distribution and fluctuation of these accidents is examined in terms of Islamic time intervals. The daily activities and worship of Muslims are arranged according to these time intervals that are spaced fairly throughout the day according to the position of the sun. The Islamic time intervals are never been used before to identify the critical hour for traffic accidents in the world. The results show that the sunrise is the critical time that acts as a threshold in the rate of traffic accidents throughout Turkey in Islamic time intervals.


    S. Erdogan


    Full Text Available Traffic accidents form clusters in terms of geographic space and over time which themselves exhibit distinct spatial and temporal patterns. There is an imperative need to understand how, where and when traffic accidents occur in order to develop appropriate accident reduction strategies. An improved understanding of the location, time and reasons for traffic accidents makes a significant contribution to preventing them. Traffic accident occurrences have been extensively studied from different spatial and temporal points of view using a variety of methodological approaches. In literature, less research has been dedicated to the temporal patterns of traffic accidents. In this paper, the numbers of traffic accidents are normalized according to the traffic volume and the distribution and fluctuation of these accidents is examined in terms of Islamic time intervals. The daily activities and worship of Muslims are arranged according to these time intervals that are spaced fairly throughout the day according to the position of the sun. The Islamic time intervals are never been used before to identify the critical hour for traffic accidents in the world. The results show that the sunrise is the critical time that acts as a threshold in the rate of traffic accidents throughout Turkey in Islamic time intervals.

  1. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    Rasmussen, B.; Groenberg, C.D.


    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs.

  2. Prone and supine percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    Lucarelli, G; Breda, A


    Since the first successful stone extraction through a nephrostomy in 1976, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has became the preferred procedure especially for treatment of large, complex and staghorn calculi. For decades this method has been performed with the patient in the prone position. More recently, particular interest has been taken on supine PCNL due to less anestesiological risks and the possibility of simultaneous anterograde and retrograde access to the whole urinary tract. Although many retrospective studies have been published, only two prospective trials comparing the two positions are reported in the literature. The best access to PCNL represents still a controversial issue. The overall experience reported in literature indicates that each modality is equally feasible and safe. Therefore, to date the surgeon's preference is the prime indication to one access over the other.

  3. Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees

    Hakobyan, Aram P.

    In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order based on the expert judgments. The main objective of this PhD dissertation was to develop a software tool (ADAPT) for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. As implied by the name, in dynamic event trees the order and timing of events are determined by the progression of the accident. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. The function of a dynamic APET developed includes prediction of the conditions, timing, and location of containment failure or bypass leading to the release of radioactive material, and calculation of probabilities of those failures. Thus, scenarios that can potentially lead to early containment failure or bypass, such as through accident induced failure of steam generator tubes, are of particular interest. Also, the work is focused on treatment of uncertainties in severe accident phenomena such as creep rupture of major RCS components, hydrogen burn, containment failure, timing of power recovery, etc. Although the ADAPT methodology (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) could be applied to any severe accident analysis code, in this dissertation the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the MELCOR code [1]. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a

  4. Prone positioning in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Gibson, Kristy; Dufault, Marlene; Bergeron, Kathy


    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a condition with a high morbidity and mortality rate, and treatment is often long and costly. Prone positioning is a rarely used intervention for patients with this syndrome, although research suggests it may be effective. A literature search was undertaken to examine the effects of prone positioning on oxygenation, morbidity and mortality in patients with ARDS. It revealed that prone positioning, when used with low tidal volume ventilation over an extended period, may reduce mortality rates in selected patients with severe ARDS. The selection of patients with severe ARDS for prone positioning should be done on a case-by-case basis to maximise benefits and minimise complications. Further research is required on the use of prone positioning in patients with severe ARDS to support or disclaim the therapy's use in practice, and to compare confounding variables such as ideal prone duration and mechanical versus manual pronation.

  5. Accident Page


    @@ Explosion in Nanjing Dingshan On February 4th, 2007 an isobutylene tank containing 14 tons of isobutylene exploded and caught fire at Nanjing Dingshan Fine Chemical Plant (Nanjing Dingshan) located in Qixia District, Nanjing, Jiangsu province. The explosion had effect on the nearby Nanjing Hongyan Plastic Plant and resulted in one death and six injuries.

  6. Accident Page


    @@ Explosion in Guangzhou Petrochemical On January 16th, 2007 a sewage recovery tank got exploded continually for two times and caught big fire at the No.2 Refinery Department in the Refinery Plant of Guangzhou Petrochemical Plant located in Huangpu District, Guangzhou, Guangdong province.

  7. Bacterial Interference in Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Flora of Otitis-prone and Non-otitis-prone Children

    J.M. Bernstein; S. Sagahtaheri-ALtaie; D.M. Dryja; J. Wactawski-Wende


    textabstractThe quantitative bacteriology of the adenoid was studied in 34 otitis-prone and 25 non-otitis prone children. Viridans streptococci appeared to be the predominant normal flora in children who are non-otitis prone. There was a significant decrease in viridans streptococci in the otitis-pr

  8. Bacterial Interference in Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Flora of Otitis-prone and Non-otitis-prone Children

    J.M. Bernstein; S. Sagahtaheri-ALtaie; D.M. Dryja; J. Wactawski-Wende


    textabstractThe quantitative bacteriology of the adenoid was studied in 34 otitis-prone and 25 non-otitis prone children. Viridans streptococci appeared to be the predominant normal flora in children who are non-otitis prone. There was a significant decrease in viridans streptococci in the

  9. Prone positioning in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: the Vollman Prone Positioner.

    Klein, D G


    ARDS continues to be associated with high mortality rates despite numerous advances in critical care. Improvements in oxygenation can be achieved by placing patients with ARDS prone. The Vollman Prone Positioner offers an easy, safe, and inexpensive method to turn patients prone (for more information:

  10. A Study of The Relationship Between The Components of The Five-Factor Model of Personality and The Occurrence of Occupational Accidents in Industry Workers

    Ehsanollah Habibi


    Full Text Available Accidents are among the most important problems of both the developed and the developing countries. Individual factors and personality traits are the primary causes of human errors and contribute to accidents. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between the components of the five-factor model of personality and the occurrence of occupational accidents in industrial workers. The independent T-test indicated that there is a meaningful relationship between the personality traits and accident proneness. In the two groups of industry workers injured in occupational accidents and industry workers without any occupational accidents, there is a significant relationship between personality traits, neuroticism (p=0.001, openness to experience (p=0.001, extraversion (p=0.024 and conscientiousness (p=0.021. Nonetheless, concerning the personality trait of agreeableness (p = 0.09, the group of workers with accidents did not differ significantly from the workers without any accidents. The results showed that there is a direct and significant relationship between accident proneness and the personality traits of neuroticism and openness to experience. Furthermore, there is a meaningful but inverse correlation between accident proneness and the personality traits of extraversion and conscientiousness, while there was no relationship between accident proneness and the personality trait of agreeableness.

  11. Cyclone hazard proneness of districts of India

    M Mohapatra


    Hazards associated with tropical cyclones (TCs) are long-duration rotatory high velocity winds, very heavy rain, and storm tide. India has a coastline of about 7516 km of which 5400 km is along the mainland. The entire coast is affected by cyclones with varying frequency and intensity. Thus classification of TC hazard proneness of the coastal districts is very essential for planning and preparedness aspects of management of TCs. So, an attempt has been made to classify TC hazard proneness of districts by adopting a hazard criteria based on frequency and intensity of cyclone, wind strength, probable maximum precipitation, and probable maximum storm surge. Ninety-six districts including 72 districts touching the coast and 24 districts not touching the coast, but lying within 100 km from the coast have been classified based on their proneness. Out of 96 districts, 12 are very highly prone, 41 are highly prone, 30 are moderately prone, and the remaining 13 districts are less prone. This classification of coastal districts based on hazard may be considered for all the required purposes including coastal zone management and planning. However, the vulnerability of the place has not been taken into consideration. Therefore, composite cyclone risk of a district, which is the product of hazard and vulnerability, needs to be assessed separately through a detailed study.

  12. Shame-proneness in attempted suicide patients

    Wiklander Maria


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that shame may be an important feature in suicidal behaviors. The disposition to react with shame, “shame-proneness”, has previously not been investigated in groups of attempted suicide patients. We examined shame-proneness in two groups of attempted suicide patients, one group of non-suicidal patients and one group of healthy controls. We hypothesized that the attempted suicide patients would be more shame-prone than non-suicidal patients and healthy controls. Methods The Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA, which is the most used measure of shame-proneness, was completed by attempted suicide patients (n = 175: 105 women and 3 men with borderline personality disorder [BPD], 45 women and 22 men without BPD, non-suicidal psychiatric patients (n = 162, and healthy controls (n = 161. The participants were convenience samples, with patients from three clinical research projects and healthy controls from a fourth research project. The relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide was studied with group comparisons and multiple regressions. Men and women were analyzed separately. Results Women were generally more shame-prone than men of the same participant group. Female suicide attempters with BPD were significantly more shame-prone than both female suicide attempters without BPD and female non-suicidal patients and controls. Male suicide attempters without BPD were significantly less shame-prone than non-suicidal male patients. In multiple regressions, shame-proneness was predicted by level of depression and BPD (but not by attempted suicide in female patients, and level of depression and non-suicidality in male patients. Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis and related previous research, there was no general relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide. Shame-proneness was differentially related to attempted suicide in different groups of suicide attempters

  13. Isometric elbow extensors strength in supine- and prone-lying positions.

    Abdelzaher, Ibrahim E; Ababneh, Anas F; Alzyoud, Jehad M


    The purpose of this study was to compare isometric strength of elbow extensors measured in supine- and prone-lying positions at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees. Twenty-two male subjects under single-blind procedures participated in the study. Each subject participated in both supine-lying and prone-lying measuring protocols. Calibrated cable tensiometer was used to measure isometric strength of the right elbow extensors and a biofeedback electromyography was used to assure no substitution movements from shoulder girdle muscles. The mean values of isometric strength of elbow extensors measured from supine-lying position at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees were 11.1  ±  4.2 kg and 13.1  ±  4.6 kg, while those measured from prone-lying position were 9.9  ±  3.6 kg and 12  ±  4.2 kg, respectively. There is statistical significant difference between the isometric strength of elbow extensors measured from supine-lying position at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees compared to that measured from prone-lying position (p  lying starting position is better than prone-lying starting position.

  14. Analysis of Fukushima Daiichi Accident Using HFACS

    Mohamed, Saeed Almheiri [Korea Advanced Institue of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The shadow of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident is still too big and will last long. On the other hand, it could still teach us lots of lessons to better design and operate nuclear power plants. In this paper, we will be focusing on the Fukushima Daiichi accident, especially on human organizational factors. We will analyze the accident using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in order to better understand the organizational climate of TEPCO{sup 1} and NISA{sup 2} that led to Fukushima Daiichi Accident. HFACS was developed for the U. S. aviation industry and has been used at many industries like the rail and mining industries. We found that the HFACS to be greatly beneficial in investigating the latent and organizational causes for the accident. The application results show that the causes of Fukushima Daiichi accident were spread out from sharp end (i.e. Unsafe Act) to blunt end (i. e. Organizational Influences). This means that the corresponding countermeasures should cover from front line staff to management. Thus, we managed to develop a better understanding on how to prevent similar errors or violations. The incident and near-miss have a lot of helpful information because it may show the actual and latent deficiencies of complex systems. We applied the HFACS into Fukushima Daiichi accident to better locate the causes related to both sharp and blunt ends of operation of NPP. In order to derive useful lessons from the accident analysis, the analyst should try to find the similarities not differences from the incident. It is imperative that whatever accident/incident analysis systems we use, we should fully utilize the disastrous Fukushima accident.

  15. Prone ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Claude Guérin


    Full Text Available Prone positioning has been used for many years in patients with acute lung injury (ALI/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, with no clear benefit for patient outcome. Meta-analyses have suggested better survival in patients with an arterial oxygen tension (PaO2/inspiratory oxygen fraction (FIO2 ratio <100 mmHg. A recent randomised controlled trial was performed in ARDS patients after a 12–24 h stabilisation period and severity criteria (PaO2/FIO2 <150 mmHg at a positive end-expiratory pressure ≥5 cmH2O. This trial has demonstrated a significant reduction in mortality from 32.8% in the supine group to 16% in the prone group (p<0.001. The reasons for this dramatic effect are not clear but probably involves a reduction in ventilator-induced lung injury due to prone positioning, for which there is ample evidence in experimental and clinical studies. The aims of this article are to discuss: the rationale of prone positioning in patients with ALI/ARDS; the evidence of its use based on trial analysis; and the limitations of its use as well as the current place of prone positioning in the management of patients with ALI/ARDS. From the currently available data, prone positioning should be used as a first-line therapy in patients with severe ALI/ARDS.

  16. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    Barat, K


    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  17. [Accidents with the "paraglider"].

    Lang, T H; Dengg, C; Gabl, M


    With a collective of 46 patients we show the details and kinds of accidents caused by paragliding. The base for the casuistry of the accidents was a questionnaire which was answered by most of the injured persons. These were questions about the theoretical and practical training, the course of the flight during the different phases, and the subjective point of view of the course of the accident. The patterns of the injuries showed a high incidence of injuries of the spinal column and high risks for the ankles. At the end, we give some advice how to prevent these accidents.

  18. Accidents (FARS) (National)

    Department of Transportation — Accident - (1975-current): This data file (NTAD) contains information about crash characteristics and environmental conditions at the time of the crash. There is one...


    B. K. BANIK


    Full Text Available Roads, highways and streets are fundamental infrastructure facilities to provide the transportation for passenger travel and goods movement from one place to another in Sylhet, north–eastern division of Bangladesh with rapid growth of road vehicle, being comparatively developed economic tourist prone area faces severe road traffic accident. Such severe road accidents cause harsh safety hazards on the roads of Sylhet area. This research work presents an overview of the road traffic accident and degraded road safety situation in Sylhet zone which in particular, discusses the key road accident problem characteristics identifying the hazardous roads and spots, most responsible vehicles and related components, conditions of drivers and pedestrians, most victims of accident, effects of accident on society, safety priorities and options available in Sylhet. In this regard, a comprehensive questionnaire survey was conducted on the concerned groups of transportation and detailed accident data was collected from a popular local newspaper. Analysis of the study reveals that Dhaka- Sylhet highway is the most hazardous in road basis and Sylhet Sador thana is the most vulnerable in thana basis in Sylhet region.

  20. Ethnic and gender differences in boredom proneness

    Gibson, G.S.; Morales,


    Although boredom may exhibit many shared elements, culturally specific attitudes have also been found to exist. The present paper investigated boredom proneness among African-American college students. Data from 120 participants on the Boredom Proneness (BP) Scale was analyzed and compared to cross-cultural participants. African-American females scored significantly higher than African-American males. Scores were presented from two other studies to show a comparative look at boredom proneness in five other ethnic groups. African-American females are the only female ethnic group to score higher on the BP Scale than their male counterparts. Additionally, overall African-Americans, were found to have higher BP scores than their Western counterparts.

  1. Traffic accident analysis using GIS: a case study of Kyrenia City

    Kara, Can; Akçit, Nuhcan


    Traffic accidents are causing major deaths in urban environments, so analyzing locations of the traffic accidents and their reasons is crucial. In this manner, patterns of accidents and hotspot distribution are analyzed by using geographic information technology. Locations of the traffic accidents in the years 2011, 2012 and 2013 are combined to generate the kernel distribution map of Kyrenia City. This analysis aims to find high dense intersections and segments within the city. Additionally, spatial autocorrelation methods Local Morans I and Getis-Ord Gi are employed . The results are discussed in detail for further analysis. Finally, required changes for numerous intersections are suggested to decrease potential risks of high dense accident locations.

  2. Communication and industrial accidents

    As, Sicco van


    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the conc

  3. Accidents - personal factors

    Zaitsev, S.L.; Tsygankov, A.V.


    This paper evaluates influence of selected personal factors on accident rate in underground coal mines in the USSR. Investigations show that so-called organizational factors cause from 80 to 85% of all accidents. About 70% of the organizational factors is associated with social, personal and economic features of personnel. Selected results of the investigations carried out in Donbass mines are discussed. Causes of miner dissatisfaction are reviewed: 14% is caused by unsatisfactory working conditions, 21% by repeated machine failures, 16% by forced labor during days off, 14% by unsatisfactory material supply, 16% by hard physical labor, 19% by other reasons. About 25% of miners injured during work accidents are characterized as highly professionally qualified with automatic reactions, and about 41% by medium qualifications. About 60% of accidents is caused by miners with less than a 3 year period of service. About 15% of accidents occurs during the first month after a miner has returned from a leave. More than 30% of accidents occurs on the first work day after a day or days off. Distribution of accidents is also presented: 19% of accidents occurs during the first 2 hours of a shift, 36% from the second to the fourth hour, and 45% occurs after the fourth hour and before the shift ends.

  4. Accident investigation and analysis

    Kampen, J. van; Drupsteen, L.


    Many organisations and companies take extensive proactive measures to identify, evaluate and reduce occupational risks. However, despite these efforts things still go wrong and unintended events occur. After a major incident or accident, conducting an accident investigation is generally the next ste

  5. Modeling accident frequency in Denmark for improving road safety

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Kaplan, Sigal

    Traffic accidents result in huge costs to society in terms of death, injury, lost productivity, and property damage. The main objective of the current study is the development of an accident frequency model that predicts the expected number of accidents on a given road segment, provided...... concerning police recorded accidents, link characteristics of the road network, traffic volumes from the national transport models are merged to estimate the model. Spatial correlation between road sections is taken into account for correcting for unobserved correlation between contiguous locations....

  6. Prone positioning for the ARDS patient.

    Vollman, K M


    Various strategies have been tested in attempts to improve gas exchange in patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). However, it appears that the simple non-invasive act of prone positioning of the critically ill ARDS patient may improve gas exchange while preventing potential complications of high positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP), volutrauma, and oxygen toxicity.

  7. [A project to reduce the incidence of facial pressure ulcers caused by prolonged surgery with prone positioning].

    Lee, Wen-Yi; Lin, Pao-Chen; Weng, Chia-Hsing; Lin, Yi-Lin; Tsai, Wen-Lin


    We observed in our institute a 13.6% incidence of prolonged surgery (>4 hours) induced facial pressure ulcers that required prone positioning. Causes identified included: (1) customized silicon face pillows used were not suited for every patient; (2) our institute lacked a standard operating procedure for prone positioning; (3) our institute lacked a postoperative evaluation and audit procedure for facial pressure ulcers. We designed a strategy to reduce post-prolonged surgery facial pressure ulcer incidence requiring prone positioning by 50% (i.e., from 13.6% to 6.8%). We implemented the following: (1) Created a new water pillow to relieve facial pressure; (2) Implemented continuing education pressure ulcer prevention and evaluation; (3) Established protocols on standard care for prone-position patients and proper facial pressure ulcer identification; (4) Established a face pressure ulcers accident reporting mechanism; and (5) Established an audit mechanism facial pressure ulcer cases. After implementing the resolution measures, 116 patients underwent prolonged surgery in a prone position (mean operating time: 298 mins). None suffered from facial pressure ulcers. The measures effectively reduced the incidence of facial pressure ulcers from 13.6% to 0.0%. The project used a water pillow to relieve facial pressure and educated staff to recognize and evaluate pressure ulcers. These measures were demonstrated effective in reducing the incidence of facial pressure ulcers caused by prolonged prone positioning.

  8. Road Traffic Accident Analysis of Ajmer City Using Remote Sensing and GIS Technology

    Bhalla, P.; Tripathi, S.; Palria, S.


    With advancement in technology, new and sophisticated models of vehicle are available and their numbers are increasing day by day. A traffic accident has multi-facet characteristics associated with it. In India 93% of crashes occur due to Human induced factor (wholly or partly). For proper traffic accident analysis use of GIS technology has become an inevitable tool. The traditional accident database is a summary spreadsheet format using codes and mileposts to denote location, type and severity of accidents. Geo-referenced accident database is location-referenced. It incorporates a GIS graphical interface with the accident information to allow for query searches on various accident attributes. Ajmer city, headquarter of Ajmer district, Rajasthan has been selected as the study area. According to Police records, 1531 accidents occur during 2009-2013. Maximum accident occurs in 2009 and the maximum death in 2013. Cars, jeeps, auto, pickup and tempo are mostly responsible for accidents and that the occurrence of accidents is mostly concentrated between 4PM to 10PM. GIS has proved to be a good tool for analyzing multifaceted nature of accidents. While road safety is a critical issue, yet it is handled in an adhoc manner. This Study is a demonstration of application of GIS for developing an efficient database on road accidents taking Ajmer City as a study. If such type of database is developed for other cities, a proper analysis of accidents can be undertaken and suitable management strategies for traffic regulation can be successfully proposed.

  9. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko


    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  10. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Rajković Miloš B.


    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  11. Accident progression event tree analysis for postulated severe accidents at N Reactor

    Wyss, G.D.; Camp, A.L.; Miller, L.A.; Dingman, S.E.; Kunsman, D.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Medford, G.T. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))


    A Level II/III probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been performed for N Reactor, a Department of Energy (DOE) production reactor located on the Hanford reservation in Washington. The accident progression analysis documented in this report determines how core damage accidents identified in the Level I PRA progress from fuel damage to confinement response and potential releases the environment. The objectives of the study are to generate accident progression data for the Level II/III PRA source term model and to identify changes that could improve plant response under accident conditions. The scope of the analysis is comprehensive, excluding only sabotage and operator errors of commission. State-of-the-art methodology is employed based largely on the methods developed by Sandia for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in support of the NUREG-1150 study. The accident progression model allows complex interactions and dependencies between systems to be explicitly considered. Latin Hypecube sampling was used to assess the phenomenological and systemic uncertainties associated with the primary and confinement system responses to the core damage accident. The results of the analysis show that the N Reactor confinement concept provides significant radiological protection for most of the accident progression pathways studied.

  12. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars


    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...

  13. Boating Accident Statistics

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  14. Accident resistant transport container

    Andersen, John A.; Cole, James K.


    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  15. The Fukushima accident; Accident nucleaire a Fukushima

    Delbecq, D.


    The Fukushima accident is characterized by a sequence of natural disasters: earthquake and tsunamis that deprived simultaneously 3 reactors from cooling and electrical power for quite a long time. A series of hydrogen explosion has added to the mess. Experts agree to say that certainly nuclear fuel has melt to form corium in all 3 reactors. The accident has contaminated tens of thousand acres of land around the plant and has jeopardized local coastal fishery. The human toll is unexpectedly low: no direct casualty in the population but several suicides among the people that was forced to leave their home. 5 people from the plant staff died certainly from the consequences of the tsunami. (A.C.)

  16. Sensory integrative processing in delinquent-prone and non-delinquent-prone adolescents.

    Fanchiang, S P; Snyder, C; Zobel-Lachiusa, J; Loeffler, C B; Thompson, M E


    The purposes of this study were to obtain a preliminary description of the sensory integrative and practic abilities of 114 non-delinquent-prone adolescents aged 12 through 18 years and to compare their performances with those of 12 delinquent-prone adolescents with learning problems. Ten of the 17 subtests of the Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (SIPT) (Ayres, 1989) as well as the Finger Posture Imitation Test (Druker, 1980) and the MacQuarrie Test for Mechanical Ability (MacQuarrie, 1925/1953) were administered to both groups. It was hypothesized that performance on some tests would correlate with age in the non-delinquent-prone adolescents. It was also hypothesized that some delinquent-prone adolescents with learning problems would perform significantly worse on the tests of sensory integrative and practic abilities than would the non-delinquent-prone adolescents. A data analysis indicated that performance on the praxis tests, Manual Form Perception, Graphesthesia, and Bilateral Motor Coordination showed a significant age correlation. The results of this study indicated a difference between the two groups, and it was concluded that the delinquent-prone group performed more poorly on all of the praxis-related tests and on the absolute values of the tests of Postrotary Nystagmus, Standing and Walking Balance, and Bilateral Motor Coordination. Some of the vestibular- and praxis-related tests, therefore, may still provide useful information on children older than 8 years of age.

  17. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Rajković Miloš B.


    Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eigh...

  18. Why is psychiatry prone to fads?

    Paris, Joel


    Psychiatry has long been prone to fads. The main reason is that mental illness is poorly understood and can be difficult to treat. Most diagnostic fads have involved the extension of well-known categories into broader spectra. The most prominent treatment fads have involved the overuse of pharmacological interventions and a proliferation of methods for psychotherapy. The best antidote to fads is a commitment to evidence-based psychiatry.

  19. Cyclical Fluctuations in Workplace Accidents

    Boone, J.; J. C. VAN OURS


    This Paper presents a theory and an empirical investigation on cyclical fluctuations in workplace accidents. The theory is based on the idea that reporting an accident dents the reputation of a worker and raises the probability that he is fired. Therefore a country with a high or an increasing unemployment rate has a low (reported) workplace accident rate. The empirical investigation concerns workplace accidents in OECD countries. The analysis confirms that workplace accident rates are invers...

  20. Application of Bayesian techniques for the identification of accident-prone road sections

    Thomas Edison Guerrero-Barbosa


    Full Text Available El uso de técnicas bayesianas para la identificación de tramos de carretera propensos a accidentes ha llegado a ser muy import ante en los últimos años. El objetivo de esta investigación consistió en id entificar los tramos de carretera propensos a accidentes en el municipio de Ocaña (Colombia, utilizando el método bayesiano (BM; el enfoq ue de modelación desarrollado consistió en la conformación de u na base de datos de accidentes ocurridos entre los años 2007 (enero y 2013 (agosto y la aplicación de la metodología en 15 tramos de carreteras urbanas. Los análisis finales muestran que el BM es una herrami enta poderosa y rápida de fácil implementación, que proporciona resultados en los que se identificaron 4 tramos de carretera propensos a l os accidentes o peligrosos y los clasificó por orden de peligro , el establecimiento de un ranking de peligro proporciona un orden d e prioridades para las inversiones y la aplicación de políticas preventivas y / o correctivas que maximicen los beneficios asociados con la seguridad vial.

  1. Development of Database for Accident Analysis in Indian Mines

    Tripathy, Debi Prasad; Guru Raghavendra Reddy, K.


    Mining is a hazardous industry and high accident rates associated with underground mining is a cause of deep concern. Technological developments notwithstanding, rate of fatal accidents and reportable incidents have not shown corresponding levels of decline. This paper argues that adoption of appropriate safety standards by both mine management and the government may result in appreciable reduction in accident frequency. This can be achieved by using the technology in improving the working conditions, sensitising workers and managers about causes and prevention of accidents. Inputs required for a detailed analysis of an accident include information on location, time, type, cost of accident, victim, nature of injury, personal and environmental factors etc. Such information can be generated from data available in the standard coded accident report form. This paper presents a web based application for accident analysis in Indian mines during 2001-2013. An accident database (SafeStat) prototype based on Intranet of the TCP/IP agreement, as developed by the authors, is also discussed.

  2. Development of Database for Accident Analysis in Indian Mines

    Tripathy, Debi Prasad; Guru Raghavendra Reddy, K.


    Mining is a hazardous industry and high accident rates associated with underground mining is a cause of deep concern. Technological developments notwithstanding, rate of fatal accidents and reportable incidents have not shown corresponding levels of decline. This paper argues that adoption of appropriate safety standards by both mine management and the government may result in appreciable reduction in accident frequency. This can be achieved by using the technology in improving the working conditions, sensitising workers and managers about causes and prevention of accidents. Inputs required for a detailed analysis of an accident include information on location, time, type, cost of accident, victim, nature of injury, personal and environmental factors etc. Such information can be generated from data available in the standard coded accident report form. This paper presents a web based application for accident analysis in Indian mines during 2001-2013. An accident database (SafeStat) prototype based on Intranet of the TCP/IP agreement, as developed by the authors, is also discussed.

  3. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)


    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  4. Current Suicide Proneness and Past Suicidal Behavior in Adjudicated Adolescents

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A.


    Youth recently assigned to probation (n = 233) were assessed for current suicide proneness, depression, and hopelessness, as well as for recent suicide ideation, previous suicide ideation, or suicide attempt(s). The Life Attitudes Schedule-Short Form (LAS-SF) was used to assess suicide proneness. As per the LAS-SF, suicide proneness was defined…

  5. 交通事故定位中ZIGBEE技术的应用研究%Application Research on ZIGBEE Technology in The Traffic Accident Localization

    陈璇; 李杨


    Moving vehicle positioned and tracked could solve the traffic accident localization problems by using wireless sensor network(WSN). The WSN was applied to the vehicle positioning and tracking based on ZigBee technology, the po-sitioning system hardwares design were given, and the terminal signal transmitter equations were derived. The whole sys-tem adapt to the traffic accident location management intelligence requirements, and had high precision positioning, re-quired relatively few reference nodes, it could be applied in traffic congestion and tunnels and accident-prone sections.%  利用无线传感器网络对移动车辆进行定位跟踪可以解决交通事故定位的问题。基于ZigBee技术,将无线传感器网络应用到车辆的定位跟踪上,给出了定位系统的硬件设计方案,并列出了终端信号发射器的计算方程。整套系统适应交通事故定位管理的智能化要求,并且定位精度高,所需参考节点相对较少,适合应用在车流拥挤和隧道等事故多发地段。

  6. Flood-prone areas and waterways, Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Meyer, Robert W.; Bowers, James C.


    Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) is in the Mojave Desert region of southern California. Although the climate in the study area is arid, occasional intense storms result in flooding on the base, damaging roads and buildings. To plan for anticipated development at EAFB, the U.S. Department of the Air Force (USAF) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a cooperative study to locate flood-prone areas on the base. This report describes flood hazards and shows flood-prone areas of the base.

  7. Traffic dynamics around weaving section influenced by accident: Cellular automata approach

    Kong, Lin-Peng; Li, Xin-Gang; Lam, William H. K.


    The weaving section, as a typical bottleneck, is one source of vehicle conflicts and an accident-prone area. Traffic accident will block lanes and the road capacity will be reduced. Several models have been established to study the dynamics around traffic bottlenecks. However, little attention has been paid to study the complex traffic dynamics influenced by the combined effects of bottleneck and accident. This paper presents a cellular automaton model to characterize accident-induced traffic behavior around the weaving section. Some effective control measures are proposed and verified for traffic management under accident condition. The total flux as a function of inflow rates, the phase diagrams, the spatial-temporal diagrams, and the density and velocity profiles are presented to analyze the impact of accident. It was shown that the proposed control measures for weaving traffic can improve the capacity of weaving section under both normal and accident conditions; the accidents occurring on median lane in the weaving section are more inclined to cause traffic jam and reduce road capacity; the capacity of weaving section will be greatly reduced when the accident happens downstream the weaving section.

  8. Who by accident? The social morphology of car accidents.

    Factor, Roni; Yair, Gad; Mahalel, David


    Prior studies in the sociology of accidents have shown that different social groups have different rates of accident involvement. This study extends those studies by implementing Bourdieu's relational perspective of social space to systematically explore the homology between drivers' social characteristics and their involvement in specific types of motor vehicle accident. Using a large database that merges official Israeli road-accident records with socioeconomic data from two censuses, this research maps the social order of road accidents through multiple correspondence analysis. Extending prior studies, the results show that different social groups indeed tend to be involved in motor vehicle accidents of different types and severity. For example, we find that drivers from low socioeconomic backgrounds are overinvolved in severe accidents with fatal outcomes. The new findings reported here shed light on the social regularity of road accidents and expose new facets in the social organization of death. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. ALICE Injected Beam Accidents

    Appleby, R B


    The ALICE (point 2) interaction region is sensitive to beam orbit errors arising from magnet setting errors on injection. In this report, beam accident scenarios under injection for ALICE are described, focusing on ultra- fast error injection scenarios for the interaction straight correctors and dipoles. Beam 1 and beam 2 accident scenarios are considered, where the errors can lead to beam orbits striking the ALICE vacuum chamber or elements of the machine. The required thresholds for magnet current interlocks are calculated to avoid machine and detector risk.

  10. LHCb Injected Beam Accidents

    Appleby, R B


    The LHCb (point 8) interaction region is sensitive to beam orbit errors arising from magnet setting errors on injection. In this report, beam accident scenarios under injection for LHCb are described, focusing on ultra- fast error injection scenarios for the interaction straight correctors and dipoles. Beam 1 and beam 2 accident scenarios are considered, where the errors can lead to beam orbits striking the LHCb vacuum chamber or elements of the machine. The required thresholds for magnet current interlocks are calculated to avoid machine and detector risk.

  11. Behavior of road accidents: Structural time series approach

    Junus, Noor Wahida Md; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Arsad, Zainudin


    Road accidents become a major issue in contributing to the increasing number of deaths. Few researchers suggest that road accidents occur due to road structure and road condition. The road structure and condition may differ according to the area and volume of traffic of the location. Therefore, this paper attempts to look up the behavior of the road accidents in four main regions in Peninsular Malaysia by employing a structural time series (STS) approach. STS offers the possibility of modelling the unobserved component such as trends and seasonal component and it is allowed to vary over time. The results found that the number of road accidents is described by a different model. Perhaps, the results imply that the government, especially a policy maker should consider to implement a different approach in ways to overcome the increasing number of road accidents.

  12. Designing of an emergency call system for traffic accidents

    Ziya Ekşi


    Full Text Available In our country, many people have been seriously injured or died in traffic accidents. Fatal accidents often occur because of not complying with traffic rules or carelessness. Except these driver mistakes, heavy injuries can result in deaths because of emergency aid teams failing to arrive to accident scene in time. In this study, an accident emergency call system is designed to help injured people's treatment as soon as possible by notifying emercengy team automatically in accidents. The designed system sends messages, including information such as vehicle location, exploding airbag number, vehicle model, age and registration plate, to emergency aid team using GPS module at the moment of crashed vehicle's airbag explosion.

  13. Factors associated with the severity of construction accidents: The case of South Australia

    Jantanee Dumrak


    Full Text Available While the causes of accidents in the construction industry have been extensively studied, severity remains an understudied area. In order to provide more evidence for the currently limited number of empirical investigations on severity, this study analysed 24,764 construction accidents reported during 2002-11 in South Australia. A conceptual model developed through literature uses personal characteristics such as age, experience, gender and language. It also employs work-related factors such as size of organization, project size and location, mechanism of accident and body location of the injury. These were shown to discriminate why some accidents result in only a minor severity while others are fatal. Factors such as time of accident, day of the week and season were not strongly associated with accident severity. When the factors affecting severity of an accident are well understood, preventive measures could be developed specifically to those factors that are at high risk.

  14. Effects of rupture location and the number of ruptured tubes on the analysis of SGTR accident%传热管破裂位置及根数对SGTR事故进程的影响

    蒋立国; 彭敏俊; 刘建阁; 郭赟


    A steam generator tube rupture event in the integral type reactor has been investigated using the best estimate thermal hydraulic system code, RELAP5/MOD3. 4. The effects of the parameters such as the number of ruptured tubes, rupture location on the analysis of the SGTR event in integral type reactor are examined. Results of these cases are provided for scoping purpose to show the mild influence of the break size on the total loss of mass. This confirms that the integral type reactor response to a steam generator tube rupture is not significantly impacted by the rupture location and the postulated number of ruptured tubes, and the total loss of mass from the primary system is always small compared to the RCS water inventory. It is found that the most dominant parameter governing the reactor reaponse is the leak flow rate.%以一体化反应堆为研究对象,应用RELAP5/MOD3.4程序对套管式直流蒸汽发生器发生传热管破裂事故时,影响事故进程的一些因素进行了分析,其中包括破口在传热管轴向高度不同断裂位置,以及同时断裂多根传热管等.分析结果表明:不同断裂位置处的SGTR事故,其系统响应大致相同;不同破裂面积的SGTR事故,其破口处临界喷放流量与破口面积有着密切的联系.但总体来看,无论直流蒸汽发生器发生何种形式的SGTR,其一回路冷却剂通过破口处向二回路侧泄漏的积分流量大致相同,而且这个积分流量决定了一体化反应堆的瞬态响应.

  15. Lessons learned from accidents investigations

    Zuniga-Bello, P. [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT), Mexico City (Mexico); Croft, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Glenn, J


    Accidents from three main practices: medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the described accidents are approached by subjects covering: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  16. Prediction of vehicle traffic accidents using Bayesian networks

    Seyed Shamseddin Alizadeh


    Full Text Available Every year, thousands of vehicle accidents occur in Iran and result thousands of deaths, injuries and material damage in country. Various factors such as driver characteristics, road characteristics, vehicle characteristics and atmospheric conditions affect the injuries severity of these accidents. In order to reduce the number and severity of these accidents, their analysis and prediction is essential. Currently, the accidents related data are collected which can be used to predict and prevent them. New technologies have enabled humans to collect the large volume of data in continuous and regular ways. One of these methods is to use Bayesian networks. Using the literature review, in this study a new method for analysis and prediction of vehicle traffic accidents is presented. These networks can be used for classification of traffic accidents, hazardous locations of roads and factors affecting accidents severity. Using of the results of the analysis of these networks will help to reduce the number of accidents and their severity. In addition, we can use the results of this analysis for developing of safety regulations.

  17. Explore on Identification Method of Hazardous Location of the Mountain Highway%山区公路危险路段(点)鉴别方法探讨

    李志中; 王晓安; 刘兵


    For current identification method of hazardous location of mountain highway with less,the relationship between road traffic accident and road conditions is analyzed, and studied the identification method of the existing accident-prone sections, then proposed the distinction index-random length stepwise method of the equivalent accident. This identification method will use to identify hazardous location of the mountain highway. Finally, Kunming to Stone Forest freeway in Yunnan to validate the identification method is selected. And the result shows that the identification method is reasonable and effective, can provides a theoretical and technical support for road safety audit.%针对目前山区公路危险路段(点)的鉴别方法较少的情况,在分析山区公路交通事故与道路条件之间的关系及现有事故多发路段鉴别方法的基础上,提出了当量事故数鉴别指数非定长分段法,对山区公路危险路段(点)进行鉴别.最后选取云南省昆明至石林高速公路进行了实例验证,验证结果表明,该鉴别方法合理有效,为道路安全审计提供了理论和技术支持.

  18. Predicting sales promotion contest proneness and participation

    Reid, Mike; Thompson, Peter; Mavondo, Felix

    There is growing interest by Consumer Packaged Goods manufacturers in using tnonprice sales promotions, including competitions and sweepstakes and in better understanding consumers’ engagement with and reaction to these forms of sales promotion (Kalra and Shi, 2010). A contest or sweepstake...... is a purchase incentive offering a chance to win one or more, generally uncertain, rewards. Interest has been driven by changing economic and competitive environments including a battle for supermarket shelf space, the penetration of store brands, increased manufacturer brand price discounting and improved...... promotional delivery mechanisms including the internet. Despite growing use of such promotions by manufacturers and retailers there is still limited knowledge of the factors that cause a consumer to be prone to such offers (Prendergast, Poon, Tsang, and Fan, 2008)....

  19. Predicting sales promotion contest proneness and participation

    Reid, Mike; Thompson, Peter; Mavondo, Felix

    There is growing interest by Consumer Packaged Goods manufacturers in using tnonprice sales promotions, including competitions and sweepstakes and in better understanding consumers’ engagement with and reaction to these forms of sales promotion (Kalra and Shi, 2010). A contest or sweepstake...... promotional delivery mechanisms including the internet. Despite growing use of such promotions by manufacturers and retailers there is still limited knowledge of the factors that cause a consumer to be prone to such offers (Prendergast, Poon, Tsang, and Fan, 2008)....... is a purchase incentive offering a chance to win one or more, generally uncertain, rewards. Interest has been driven by changing economic and competitive environments including a battle for supermarket shelf space, the penetration of store brands, increased manufacturer brand price discounting and improved...

  20. Home accidents amongst elderly people: A locality study in Scotland

    Gilhooly, M; Banks, P.; Barrett, W.; Wales, A.; Caldwell, S.; Macdonald, C.(Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom); Dunleavy, K


    Aim The aim of this locality study was to collect information on reported and unreported accidents amongst elderly people living in one locality in Scotland. Method Postal Survey- A postal questionnaire was sent to 3,757 men and women aged 65+ years living in one locality. The questionnaire asked respondents to indicate how many accidents they had experienced in the past twelve months, plus to indicate type and location. Information was gathered on living arrangements, ethnicity,...

  1. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Gittus, J.H.


    The paper concerns the Chernobyl reactor accident, with emphasis on the design of the RBMK reactor and nuclear safety. A description is given of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, including details of the RMBK reactor and safety systems. Comments on the design of the RBMK by UK experts prior to the accident are summarized, along with post-accident design changes to improve RBMK safety. Events of the Chernobyl accident are described, as well as design deficiencies highlighted by the accident. Differences between the USSR and UK approaches to nuclear safety are commented on. Finally source terms, release periods and environmental consequences are briefly discussed.

  2. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten


    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may...... be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... rate of accidents than Danish citizens. Age was a major risk factor for accidents causing permanent disability. Change of ship and the first period aboard a particular ship were identified as risk factors. Walking from one place to another aboard the ship caused serious accidents. The most serious...

  3. Report on preliminary analysis of state of nuclear criticality accident at JCO at Tokaimura, Ibaraki, Japan (I)

    Ha, J.J.; Park, J.H.; Chang, J.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)


    This preliminary report was prepared by the Special Task Force Team of KAERI in order to analysis status of nuclear criticality accident broken out at 10:35 September 30, 1999 at JCO nuclear conversion test facility located at Tokaimura, Ibaraki, Japan. The report was consisted of accident summary of cause of accident summary of cause of accident and response by relevant organizations, and preliminary technical analysis of radiation exposure of JCO workers, analysis of cause of accident, and accident assessment and preventive actions against criticality accident. It is expected that JCO accident, Japan's first nuclear criticality accident, would make significant effects to Japan nuclear policy and would be also a good example to Korea future actions to be taken in use and development of nuclear energy. 63 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  4. [Drowning accidents in childhood].

    Krandick, G; Mantel, K


    This is a report on five boys aged between 1 and 5 years who, after prolonged submersion in cold water, were treated at our department. On being taken out of the water, all the patients were clinically dead. After 1- to 3-hour successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, with a rectal temperature of about 27 degrees C, they were rewarmed at a rate of 1 degree/hour. Two patients died within a few hours after the accident. One patient survived with an apallic syndrome, 2 children survived with no sequelae. In the event of a water-related accident associated with hypothermia, we consider suitable resuscitation to have preference over rewarming measures. The most important treatment guidelines and prognostic factors are discussed.

  5. RENEB accident simulation exercise

    Brzozowska, Beata; Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Baert, Annelot; Beaton-Green, Lindsay; Barrios, Leonardo; Barquinero, Joan Francesc; Bassinet, Celine; Beinke, Christina; Benedek, Anett; Beukes, Philip; Bortolin, Emanuela; Buraczewska, Iwona; Burbidge, Christopher; De Amicis, Andrea; De Angelis, Cinzia


    Purpose: The RENEB accident exercise was carried out in order to train the RENEB participants in coordinating and managing potentially large data sets that would be generated in case of a major radiological event. Materials and methods: Each participant was offered the possibility to activate the network by sending an alerting email about a simulated radiation emergency. The same participant had to collect, compile and report capacity, triage categorization and exposure scenario results ob...

  6. Is rectal cancer prone to metastasize to lymph nodes than colon cancer?

    Takashi Akiyoshi; Toshiaki Watanabe; Masashi Ueno; Tetsuichiro Muto


    The biology of colorectal cancer differs according to itsitss location within the large intestine. A report publishedinpublished inin a previous issue of World Journal of Gastroenterology (November 2010) evaluated the importance of tumor location as a risk factor for lymph node metastasis in colorectal cancer, and showed that rectal cancer is prone to metastasize to lymph nodes as compared with colon cancer. However, in order to conclude that the tumor location is independently associated with the occurrence of lymph node metastasis, it is necessary to consider a selection bias or other patient- and tumor-related factors carefully.


    Jovica Jovanovic


    Full Text Available Medical services, physicians and nurses play an essential role in the plant safety program through primary treatment of injured workers and by helping to identify workplace hazards. The physician and nurse should participate in the worksite investigations to identify specific hazard or stresses potentially causing the occupational accidents and injuries and in planning the subsequent hazard control program. Physicians and nurses must work closely and cooperatively with supervisors to ensure the prompt reporting and treatment of all work related health and safety problems. Occupational accidents, work related injuries and fatalities result from multiple causes, affect different segments of the working population, and occur in a myriad of occupations and industrial settings. Multiple factors and risks contribute to traumatic injuries, such as hazardous exposures, workplace and process design, work organization and environment, economics, and other social factors. With such a diversity of theories, it will not be difficult to understand that there does not exist one single theory that is considered right or correct and is universally accepted. These theories are nonetheless necessary, but not sufficient, for developing a frame of reference for understanding accident occurrences. Prevention strategies are also varied, and multiple strategies may be applicable to many settings, including engineering controls, protective equipment and technologies, management commitment to and investment in safety, regulatory controls, and education and training. Research needs are thus broad, and the development and application of interventions involve many disciplines and organizations.

  8. Location Privacy

    Meng, Xiaofeng; Chen, Jidong

    With rapid development of sensor and wireless mobile devices, it is easy to access mobile users' location information anytime and anywhere. On one hand, LBS is becoming more and more valuable and important. On the other hand, location privacy issues raised by such applications have also gained more attention. However, due to the specificity of location information, traditional privacy-preserving techniques in data publishing cannot be used. In this chapter, we will introduce location privacy, and analyze the challenges of location privacy-preserving, and give a survey of existing work including the system architecture, location anonymity and query processing.

  9. Spinal injury resulting from car accident: Focus to prevention.

    Fakharian, Esmaeil; Mohammadzadeh, Mahdi; Saberi, Hamid Reza; Fazel, Mohammad Reza; Rejali, Mohsen; Akbari, Hossein; Mirzadeh, Azadeh Sadat; Mohammadzadeh, Javad


    To determine and compare the patterns of spinal injury in car occupants. Retrospective cross-sectional study enrolling all patients with spinal fracture after car accidents, who were admitted to hospital more than 24 h during 2004-2009. The lumbosacral spine was the most commonly involved region (64.8). Six patients had spinal cord injury (6.6%). The majority of the victims were drivers of the vehicle (86.8%) and remaining were passengers. There was a significant difference in lumbar anatomic region (P = 0.05) and place of accident (P = 0.05) in car occupants' position (P = 0.05). Car rollover was the most common mechanism of spinal fractures. There was a significant difference in lumbar anatomic region (P = 0.05), and two or more associated organ injuries (P ≤ 0.05) in car accident mechanism (P = 0.05). The chance of sustaining serious spine and associated multiple injuries in car accidents is quite high in our today's society. This may be due to the low level of standards for car manufacturing, absence or inadequacy of appropriate safety measures in cars, and poorly designed roads and problems in quality of driving to mention some reasons. Therefore, these victims are prone to significant morbidity and even mortality and need more specific prehospital supportive interventions.

  10. Stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats

    曾进胜; 贷如训; 苏镇培


    Purpose To summarized the methods for establishment, characteristics of vascular lesions in brain and heart and thc application of stroke-pronc renovascular hypertensive rats (RHRSP). Background Spontaneously hypcrtensivc rats (STR) and subtypes of SH R, especially stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) are considered as most important animal models at present for the studies of hypertension and its complications in heart and brain, evcn SHRSP arc considered as thc unique animal model in which prcvention of stroke can be studied cxperimentally Howcver, the applications of SHR and SHRSP are limited because of the effects of genetic deficits and thc difficulties with breeding Theretore, most of the researches on experimental stroke have been performed on the animal models with normotcnsion and normal structure of cerebral vessels. In fact, there are great differences in structure of cerebrovesscls, autoregulation of cerebral blood flow and extent of lesions in brain tissue, even the reaction to the medication after ischemia between the animals with extcnsive arteriosclerosis and with normal cerebral blood vessels. Obviously, thc relevancc of experimental stroke on normal animals to the stroke on cerebral arteriosclerotic patients clinically remains dubious. Data sources and methods Most published original articles about RHRSP in our laboratory were reviewed Results After the renal arteries were constricted bilaterally with ring-shape silver clips, the stroke-prone rcnovascular hypertensive rats were established. Hypertension was produced in all RHRSP(100%).The peak of blood pressure in RHRSP reached 29.1 ±3.0kPa. The lesions of cerebral arteries and arterioles and the damage of cerebral capillary structure by hypertension were observed in the RHRSP. The incidence of spontaneous stroke was 56.4% with in 40 weeks after the renal artery constriction. Left ventricular hypertrophy and small coronary arterial lesions in myocardium were discovered in all

  11. Identification and Prioritization of Hazardous Road Locations by Segmentation and Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

    Aliasghar Sadeghi


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is the representation of a method to identify and prioritize accident-prone sections (APSs based upon efficiency concept to emphasize accidents with regard to traffic, geometric and environmental circumstances of road which can consider the interaction of accidents as well as their casual factors. This study incorporates the segmentation procedure into data envelopment analysis (DEA technique which has no requirement of distribution function and special assumptions, unlike the regression models. A case study has been done on 144.4km length of Iran roads to describe the approach. Eleven accident-prone sections were identified among 154 sections obtained from the segmentation process and their prioritization was made based on the inefficiency values coming from DEA method. The comparisons demonstrated that the frequency and severity of accidents would not be only considered as the main factors for black-spots identification but proper rating can be possible by obtaining inefficiency values from this method for the road sections. This approach could applicably offer decision-making units for identifying accident-prone sections and their prioritizations. Also, it can be used to prioritize intersections, roundabouts or the total roads of the safety organization domain.

  12. Impact of prone surgical positioning on the scoliotic spine.

    Driscoll, Christopher Robert; Aubin, Carl-Éric; Canet, Fanny; Labelle, Hubert; Dansereau, Jean


    To study the impact of patient-specific prone positioning on the sagittal and coronal curves of scoliotic spines, including the impact of various patient and surgical frame factors. Prone operative positioning has been shown to impact the geometry of various individual spinal segments. Its impact on global spinal geometry and influential factors remains unknown. Lateral and coronal radiographs were acquired of 6 scoliotic patients while standing, prone on a dynamically adjustable surgical frame and intraoperatively on the Relton-Hall frame. Standing lateral bending radiographs were also acquired. Lordosis, kyphosis, and Cobb angles were measured in each position. Personalized finite element models (FEMs), including the spine, ribcage, pelvis, and lower limbs were generated for each patient based on their standing radiographs. The FEM's ability to reproduce prone spinal geometry was evaluated by using different values of intervertebral disc elastic moduli: published, optimized based on lateral bending radiographs and optimized based on prone radiographs. The 6 FEMs were then exploited to study the impact of surgical frame cushion configuration, standing curve magnitudes, and patient weight on spinal geometry changes due to prone positioning. All coronal and sagittal curves decreased in the prone position; averaging 12% in lordosis, 19% in kyphosis, 7%, 14%, and 26%, respectively, for proximal thoracic, main thoracic, and thoracolumbar/lumbar Cobb angles. FEM prone simulations yielded best results when optimized by using the prone position radiographs (Δ<5 degrees for all segmental curves). Lateral bending optimization yielded similar results by using published properties. Surgical frame cushion configuration, standing curve magnitudes, and patient weight all had an important impact on spinal geometries with the exception of thoracic cushion longitudinal position. A strong correlation (R=0.86) was found between standing kyphosis and its reduction in the prone

  13. Are Muslim countries more prone to violence?

    Nils Petter Gleditsch


    Full Text Available In recent years, most armed conflicts have taken place in Muslim countries. Are Muslim countries more war-prone? Not necessarily, if we look at data for the whole period after World War II. But in the post-Cold War era, most wars are civil wars and Muslim countries have a disproportionate share of these. This is not mainly because conflicts among Muslims have increased, but because other conflicts have declined. Muslim countries are also overrepresented among countries with high levels of other forms of internal violence, including non-state conflict, one-sided violence, highly repressive human rights policies, and countries that practice capital punishment. They also have a higher than average participation in interstate conflicts. This is not a “clash of civilizations”—most of the victims are Muslims. We list several hypotheses, apart from religion itself, for why this pattern has emerged, including colonial history, interventions from major powers, and economic and political development. Finally, on a more optimistic note, while many Muslims are exposed to violence, four of the five countries with the largest Muslim populations do not currently experience civil war.

  14. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    Takada, Jun


    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power.

  15. Effect of a new motorway on social-spatial patterning of road traffic accidents: A retrospective longitudinal natural experimental study.

    Olsen, Jonathan R; Mitchell, Richard; Ogilvie, David


    The World Health Organisation reports that road traffic accidents (accidents) could become the seventh leading cause of death globally by 2030. Accidents often occur in spatial clusters and, generally, there are more accidents in less advantaged areas. Infrastructure changes, such as new roads, can affect the locations and magnitude of accident clusters but evidence of impact is lacking. A new 5-mile motorway extension was opened in 2011 in Glasgow, Scotland. Previous research found no impact on the number of accidents but did not consider their spatial location or socio-economic setting. We evaluated impacts on these, both locally and city-wide. We used STATS19 data covering the period 2008 to 2014 and describing the location and details of all reported accidents involving a personal injury. Poisson-based continuous scan statistics were used to detect spatial clusters of accidents and any change in these over time. Change in the socio-economic distribution of accident cluster locations during the study period was also assessed. In each year accidents were strongly clustered, with statistically significant clusters more likely to occur in socio-economically deprived areas. There was no significant shift in the magnitude or location of accident clusters during motorway construction or following opening, either locally or city-wide. There was also no impact on the socio-economic patterning of accident cluster locations. Although urban infrastructure changes occur constantly, all around the world, this is the first study to evaluate the impact of such changes on road accident clusters. Despite expectations to the contrary from both proponents and opponents of the M74 extension, we found no beneficial or adverse change in the socio-spatial distribution of accidents associated with its construction, opening or operation. Our approach and findings can help inform urban planning internationally.

  16. How to avoid perioperative visual loss following prone spinal surgery

    Nancy E Epstein


    Conclusions: The best way to avoid POVL following prone spine surgery is to prevent it. Routine use of an arterial line, intraoperative monitoring, a 3-pin head holder, and elevation of the head 10° from the horizontal should limit the risk of encountering POVL after spinal procedures performed in the prone position.

  17. Network-level accident-mapping: Distance based pattern matching using artificial neural network.

    Deka, Lipika; Quddus, Mohammed


    The objective of an accident-mapping algorithm is to snap traffic accidents onto the correct road segments. Assigning accidents onto the correct segments facilitate to robustly carry out some key analyses in accident research including the identification of accident hot-spots, network-level risk mapping and segment-level accident risk modelling. Existing risk mapping algorithms have some severe limitations: (i) they are not easily 'transferable' as the algorithms are specific to given accident datasets; (ii) they do not perform well in all road-network environments such as in areas of dense road network; and (iii) the methods used do not perform well in addressing inaccuracies inherent in and type of road environment. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new accident mapping algorithm based on the common variables observed in most accident databases (e.g. road name and type, direction of vehicle movement before the accident and recorded accident location). The challenges here are to: (i) develop a method that takes into account uncertainties inherent to the recorded traffic accident data and the underlying digital road network data, (ii) accurately determine the type and proportion of inaccuracies, and (iii) develop a robust algorithm that can be adapted for any accident set and road network of varying complexity. In order to overcome these challenges, a distance based pattern-matching approach is used to identify the correct road segment. This is based on vectors containing feature values that are common in the accident data and the network data. Since each feature does not contribute equally towards the identification of the correct road segments, an ANN approach using the single-layer perceptron is used to assist in "learning" the relative importance of each feature in the distance calculation and hence the correct link identification. The performance of the developed algorithm was evaluated based on a reference accident dataset from the UK confirming that

  18. Piezoelectric control of structures prone to instabilities

    Kim, Sunjung

    Thin-walled structures such as stiffened panels fabricated out of high strength materials are ubiquitous in aerospace structures. These are prone to buckle in a variety of modes with strong possibility of adverse interaction under axial compression and/or bending. Optimally designed stiffened panels, at an appropriate combination of axial compression and suddenly applied lateral pressure undergo large amplitude oscillations and may experience divergence. Under aerodynamic loading, they can experience flutter instability with the amplitudes of oscillations attaining a limit (LCO) or escalating without any limit. Control of structures prone to these forms of instability using piezo-electric actuators is the theme of this dissertation. Issues involved in the control of stiffened panels under axial compression and liable to buckle simultaneously in local and overall modes are studied. The analytical approach employs finite elements in which are embedded periodic components of local buckling including the second order effects. It is shown that the adverse effects of mode interaction can be counteracted by simply controlling the overall bending of the stiffener by piezo-electric actuators attached its tips. Control is exercised by self-sensing actuators by direct negative feedback voltages proportional to the bending strains of the stiffener. In a dynamic loading environment, where vibrations are triggered by suddenly applied lateral pressure, negative velocity feedback is employed with voltages proportional to the bending strain-rate. The local plate oscillations are effectively controlled by a piezo-electric actuators placed along the longitudinal center line of the panel. The problem of flutter under aerodynamic pressure of stiffened panels in the linear and post-critical regimes is studied using modal analysis and finite strips. The analysis, control and interpretation of the response are facilitated by identification of two families of characteristic modes of

  19. Library Locations

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh locations including address, coordinates, phone number, square footage, and standard operating hours.

  20. Accurate and fast methods to estimate the population mutation rate from error prone sequences

    Miyamoto Michael M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The population mutation rate (θ remains one of the most fundamental parameters in genetics, ecology, and evolutionary biology. However, its accurate estimation can be seriously compromised when working with error prone data such as expressed sequence tags, low coverage draft sequences, and other such unfinished products. This study is premised on the simple idea that a random sequence error due to a chance accident during data collection or recording will be distributed within a population dataset as a singleton (i.e., as a polymorphic site where one sampled sequence exhibits a unique base relative to the common nucleotide of the others. Thus, one can avoid these random errors by ignoring the singletons within a dataset. Results This strategy is implemented under an infinite sites model that focuses on only the internal branches of the sample genealogy where a shared polymorphism can arise (i.e., a variable site where each alternative base is represented by at least two sequences. This approach is first used to derive independently the same new Watterson and Tajima estimators of θ, as recently reported by Achaz 1 for error prone sequences. It is then used to modify the recent, full, maximum-likelihood model of Knudsen and Miyamoto 2, which incorporates various factors for experimental error and design with those for coalescence and mutation. These new methods are all accurate and fast according to evolutionary simulations and analyses of a real complex population dataset for the California seahare. Conclusion In light of these results, we recommend the use of these three new methods for the determination of θ from error prone sequences. In particular, we advocate the new maximum likelihood model as a starting point for the further development of more complex coalescent/mutation models that also account for experimental error and design.

  1. Road Accident Analysis: A Case Study of Federal Route FT024 Yong Peng- Parit Sulong

    Mohd Masirin Mohd Idrus


    Full Text Available Traffic accidents are considered as an unplanned and unfortunate event which is a serious concern to the community as well as the authority. An accident-counter measure can reduce the rate of road accidents by initially identifying critical locations. The total of road accidents along FT 024 between 2009 and 2012 is 907 cases. Road accidents during the same period range between 24 % and 26 % each year. These accidents killed 34 people and injuring another 101 people. This research aims to identify factors that may contribute to the cause of accidents and to study the effects of speed, volume and road geometry on road accidents. In this study, the locations labelled as km 1, km 2, km 4, km 8, km 5 and km 14 of Federal Route FT 024 Yong Peng – Parit Sulong were selected as the study-case sections based on Accident Point Weightage of ranking, in which each location has different road characteristics. Speed study was carried out at selected road sections to evaluate the influence of speed upon road accidents; and traffic volume count was conducted at the same selected road sections to determine the existing condition of the route. Besides, road geometry observations and measurements were also conducted at selected sections, they were also studied to evaluate influence of road designs upon road accidents. The extracted data were analyzed by using regression analysis on different variables to evaluate the relationship between accident Weightage point and other dependent variables that were considered to have considerable effects upon road accidents such as mean speed, volume, shoulder width, lane width and access point. P value below 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. After conducting data analysis, this study showed that the number of road accidents increases with the increment of speed and access point. On the other hand, volume has no strong relationship to road accidents which means that it may not have an effect on accidents

  2. Radiation accident grips Goiania

    Roberts, L.


    On 13 September two young scavengers in Goiania, Brazil, removed a stainless steel cylinder from a cancer therapy machine in an abandoned clinic, touching off a radiation accident second only to Chernobyl in its severity. On 18 September they sold the cylinder, the size of a 1-gallon paint can, to a scrap dealer for $25. At the junk yard an employee dismantled the cylinder and pried open the platinum capsule inside to reveal a glowing blue salt-like substance - 1400 curies of cesium-137. Fascinated by the luminescent powder, several people took it home with them. Some children reportedly rubbed in on their bodies like carnival glitter - an eerie image of how wrong things can go when vigilance over radioactive materials lapses. In all, 244 people in Goiania, a city of 1 million in central Brazil, were contaminated. The eventual toll, in terms of cancer or genetic defects, cannot yet be estimated. Parts of the city are cordoned off as radiation teams continue washing down buildings and scooping up radioactive soil. The government is also grappling with the political fallout from the accident.

  3. Detection and analysis of black spots with even small accident figures. Contribution to the Seminar on Short-term and Area-wide Evaluation of Safety Measures, Amsterdam, April 19-21, 1982, p. 75-84.

    Oppe, S.


    In order to detect accident black spots we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures known to us, the various road locations are treated as isolated spots. With small accident figu

  4. Indoor Location Fingerprinting with Heterogeneous Clients

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun


    Heterogeneous wireless clients measure signal strength differently. This is a fundamental problem for indoor location fingerprinting, and it has a high impact on the positioning accuracy. Mapping-based solutions have been presented that require manual and error-prone calibration for each new client...

  5. Fatal motorcycle accidents and alcohol

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M


    A series of fatal motorcycle accidents from a 7-year period (1977-1983) has been analyzed. Of the fatalities 30 were operators of the motorcycle, 11 pillion passengers and 8 counterparts. Of 41 operators 37% were sober at the time of accident, 66% had measurable blood alcohol concentration (BAC...

  6. Learning from incidents and accidents

    Drupsteen, L.; Kampen, J. van


    There are many different definitions for what constitutes an incident or an accident, however the focus is always on unintended and often unforeseen events that cause unintended consequences. This article is focused on the process of learning from incidents and accidents. The focus is on making sure

  7. [Practical management of CPB accident].

    Depoix, J-P; Fenet, L; Provenchere, S


    Accident of CPB is a reality. It is important to be prepared for discussion with the family, with the hospital administration, eventually with the justice. But we have also to support perfusionnist and anesthetic team in charge of the patient during accident.

  8. Learning from incidents and accidents

    Drupsteen, L.; Kampen, J. van


    There are many different definitions for what constitutes an incident or an accident, however the focus is always on unintended and often unforeseen events that cause unintended consequences. This article is focused on the process of learning from incidents and accidents. The focus is on making sure

  9. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars


    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...... of accidents in normally Danish winter seasons are remarkable alike the amount of salt used in praxis in the winter 2011/2012. • 2.7 ton NaCl/km when using brine spread with nozzles • 5 ton NaCl/km when using pre wetted salt. • 5.7 ton NaCl/km when using kombi spreaders The explanation is that spreading...

  10. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.


    method could be used in all of the companies without revisions. The evaluation of accident cost showed that 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in the Danish corporate accounting systems reviewed while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents......The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...... occupational costs of companies for use by occupational health and safety professionals. The method was tested in nine Danish companies within three different industry sectors and the costs of 27 selected occupational accidents in these companies were calculated. One of the main conclusions is that the SACA...

  11. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio


    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents.

  12. Calculation reliability in vehicle accident reconstruction.

    Wach, Wojciech


    The reconstruction of vehicle accidents is subject to assessment in terms of the reliability of a specific system of engineering and technical operations. In the article [26] a formalized concept of the reliability of vehicle accident reconstruction, defined using Bayesian networks, was proposed. The current article is focused on the calculation reliability since that is the most objective section of this model. It is shown that calculation reliability in accident reconstruction is not another form of calculation uncertainty. The calculation reliability is made dependent on modeling reliability, adequacy of the model and relative uncertainty of calculation. All the terms are defined. An example is presented concerning the analytical determination of the collision location of two vehicles on the road in the absence of evidential traces. It has been proved that the reliability of this kind of calculations generally does not exceed 0.65, despite the fact that the calculation uncertainty itself can reach only 0.05. In this example special attention is paid to the analysis of modeling reliability and calculation uncertainty using sensitivity coefficients and weighted relative uncertainty.

  13. Atmospheric Dispersion of Radioactivity from Nuclear Power Plant Accidents: Global Assessment and Case Study for the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East

    Theodoros Christoudias


    Full Text Available We estimate the contamination risks from the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides released by severe nuclear power plant accidents using the ECHAM/Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy atmospheric chemistry (EMAC atmospheric chemistry-general circulation model at high resolution (50 km. We present an overview of global risks and also a case study of nuclear power plants that are currently under construction, planned and proposed in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East, a region prone to earthquakes. We implemented continuous emissions from each location, making the simplifying assumption that all potential accidents release the same amount of radioactivity. We simulated atmospheric transport and decay, focusing on 137Cs and 131I as proxies for particulate and gaseous radionuclides, respectively. We present risk maps for potential surface layer concentrations, deposition and doses to humans from the inhalation exposure of 131I. The estimated risks exhibit seasonal variability, with the highest surface level concentrations of gaseous radionuclides in the Northern Hemisphere during winter.

  14. Typologie des Accidents Cyclistes

    Amoros, Emmanuelle; BILLOT-GRASSET, Alice; Hours, Martine


    L'usage du vélo est en hausse en ville ; cette pratique est encouragée dans le cadre du développement durable et de la lutte contre la sédentarité. Pour accompagner cela, il faut réduire les risques d'accident, et pour ce faire, mieux les connaître. Nous utilisons le Registre des victimes de la circulation routière du Rhône, basé sur les services hospitaliers (dont les urgences) ; il est quasi-exhaustif : env. 1100 blessés à vélo/an versus 120 dans les données officielles. L'ensemble des cycl...

  15. Can butterflies evade fire? Pupa location and heat tolerance in fire prone habitats of Florida

    The imperiled frosted elfin butterfly, Callophrys irus Godart, is restricted to frequently disturbed habitats where its larval host plants, Lupinus perennis L. and Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R. Br. occur. C. irus pupae are noted to reside in both leaf litter and soil, which may allow them to escape dir...

  16. Seismic risk assessment at local level taking into account possible technological accidents

    Frolova, N.; Larionov, V.; Bonnin, J.


    Seismic safety of population and urban territories is one of the most complicated problems of seismology and earthquake engineering worldwide. It is especially vital for the earthquake prone regions with high level of seismicity and high density of population. The paper contains the results of the recent study that was done by Seismological Center of IGE, Russian Academy of Sciences, Extreme Situations Research Center and "Rosstrojizyskaniya" Ltd aimed at verification of engineering geological conditions, updating of previous map of seismic microzonation and seismic risk assessment for the Sochi City territory. The City is located in the Krasnodar area, which is characterized by a high density population and a rather high level of seismic hazard. According to maps of review seismic zoning of the Russian Federation territory, earthquakes with intensities I = 6-10 according to the MMSK-86 scale may occur here. The City territory is located along the Black Sea shore and characterized by different level potential of landslides, mudflow, erosion and other geological hazardous processes. The Imeretinskaya valley, where future Olympic Games' facilities are under construction, are located within the marine terrace composed predominantly by gravel-pebble deposits with sand and clay with thickness more than 30 m; the bedrock at the depth of about 70 -90 m, the groundwater level encountered at depths of 0.2-4 m from the surface. According to recent seismic risk assessment at regional level for more that 60% of the Krasnodar area territory, the values of seismic risk computed taking into account the secondary technological accidents exceed the value of 1.0×10-5 1/year. Regional estimation of risk obtained for the Sochi City is equal to 35.0×10-5; contribution of technological risk to seismic one is about 5.0×10-5. The work is under way within the Russian Federal Program "Development of the Sochi City as a mountain resort in 2006 - 2014". The paper will present the results

  17. Smart Kids Prone to Dumb Choices on Pot, Booze

    ... page: Smart Kids Prone to Dumb Choices on Pot, Booze ... 23, 2017 THURSDAY, Feb. 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Smart students usually know better than to light up ...

  18. Empathy, Guilt Proneness, and Gender: Relative Contributions to Prosocial Behaviour.

    Torstveit, Linda; Sütterlin, Stefan; Lugo, Ricardo Gregorio


    Guilt is a moral emotion that is often looked upon as a negative trait. However, studies show that some individuals are more predisposed to think, feel and act in a more ethical manner because of a lower threshold to experience guilt. Some theories of helping behaviour emphasize the evolutionary mechanisms, while other theories stress the importance of social variables. This study investigated whether guilt proneness as a dispositional trait can be associated with prosocial behaviour. Five hundred sixty-nine participants reported in an online survey their own levels of guilt proneness, frequency of prosocial behaviour, and related cognitions such as empathy. This study is among the first to demonstrate how guilt proneness combined with empathy can explain additional variance in prosocial behaviour. The findings also indicate gender differences in the precursors of prosocial behaviour, suggesting women are more influenced by the effects of guilt proneness on prosocial behaviour than men.

  19. Dissociation and fantasy proneness in psychiatric patients: a preliminary study.

    Merckelbach, Harald; à Campo, Joost; Hardy, Solange; Giesbrecht, Timo


    Nonclinical studies found that dissociative experiences are intimately linked to a trait known as fantasy proneness. We examined the links among dissociative symptoms, fantasy proneness, and impulsivity in psychiatric outpatients. Our sample consisted of 22 patients with schizophrenia, 20 patients with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder, and 19 patients with a major depressive disorder. For the whole sample, levels of dissociation were found to be related to fantasy proneness and impulsivity. There were group differences in dissociative symptoms, with patients with borderline personality disorder reporting more such symptoms than patients with either schizophrenia or major depressive disorder. The overlap between dissociation and fantasy proneness may have important ramifications for studies addressing comorbid phenomena of dissociative symptoms.

  20. Workers’ health surveillance: a study of major accidents at work

    Karini da Rosa


    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Work accidents are the biggest health problem of Brazilian workers, thus, the objective of the study is to characterize sociodemographic and occupational data affected by serious accidents workers work in the municipality of Santa Cruz do Sul/RS. Method: this is a field study, documental, retrospective, with data collection in epidemiological report forms of the Municipal Unit Worker Health Reference (UMREST in the period of 2008 to 2010. Results: We conducted data collection in 1263 patient notification forms of the UMREST, and found 986 cases of serious work accident, and 78.59% of cases with male workers aged 20 to 29 years. In 2008 there were more cases reported in the information systems of Occupational Health. The occupations with the highest occurrence were the production line feeders (13,48%, tobacco processing assistant (8.0%, workers in the maintenance and conservation of buildings and public parks (7.0%. Among the types of accidents, 66.63% were typical accidents and 31.23% of commuting accidents. It identified the central area of the city as the most frequent cases with 47.2%, followed by the Industrial District neighborhood with 27.1% of cases. Final Thoughts: it was found that the accidents occurred more often on male workers, young, from labor institutions located in the central area of the city. Thus, we emphasize the need for prevention and care actions that meet the profile of the workers studied. KEYWORDS: Accidents at work. Occupational health surveillance. Occupational health

  1. Mortality in traffic accidents with older adults in Colombia

    Cardona, Angela Maria Segura; Arango, Doris Cardona; Fernández, Dedsy Yajaira Berbesí; Martínez, Alejandra Agudelo


    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the traffic accident mortality in the Colombian older adults during the 1998-2012 period and show the loss of productive years and mortality from this cause. METHODS Quantitative study of the trend analysis of deaths in Colombia in traffic accidents, from 1998 to 2012, according to death records and population projected by the Colombian National Administrative Department of Statistics. Frequency distribution profile of the deceased, death rates per hundred thousand inhabitants, potential years of life lost and calculation of excess mortality by age in the over 60 were made. RESULTS In the study period 100,758 deaths occurred in traffic accidents, 6,717 annual average, of which 18.5% occurred in people aged 60 years and over. The predominated deaths were men; the risk of dying was 32.15 per hundred thousand people in this age range, with double risk of dying those under 60 years. CONCLUSIONS The young population has a higher proportion of deaths, but those over 60 years are at increased risk of death, leading to the need to turn our gaze to the improvement of road infrastructure and standards, to educate the population in self-care and compliance with safety measures and prepare society for an ever more adult population, more numerous and more prone to take risks.

  2. 脑血管意外后抑郁症状群与病灶 CT 定位及躯体、心理、社会变量的关系探讨%Preliminary study of depressive symptoms group and CT location,physical,psychological and social variables after cerebral vascular accident



    Objective To explore the correlation of the post - stroke depression(PSD)and CT location,physical,psychological and social variables. Methods 536 acute cerebrovascular accident patients during October 2012 to January 2013 were included as the research object. Their clinical data were analyzed comprehensively and retrospectively. Results The closer the left hemisphere lesions to the frontal pole,the higher the degree of PSD,while brainˊs right hemisphere lesions on CT location and its relationship with the incidence of PSD was not obvious. Through the un-conditioned logistic regression analysis of 9 indicators,such as course of disease,the lesion area,hand movement function,determination of personal-ity,family conflicts,social support,sex,family cohesion,activities of daily living ability index,we find that PSD and CT location,physical,psy-chological and social variables have significant correlation. Conclusion CT location,physical,psychological and social variables are significantly associated with PSD,but if we implement corresponding solutions at different times of PSD,symptoms of PSD can be prevent in advance.%目的:探讨脑血管意外后抑郁症状群与病灶 CT 定位及躯体、心理、社会变量的关系。方法选取2012年10月至2013年1月收治的536例急性脑血管意外患者作为研究对象,全面回顾性分析临床病例资料,分析脑血管意外后抑郁症状群与 CT 定位及躯体、心理、社会变量的相关性。结果脑血管意外后抑郁(PSD)程度随大脑左半球病灶靠近额极升高,其发生及严重程度与右半球内病灶 CT 定位无明显相关性。通过对病程、病变部位、手的运动功能、个性测定、家庭矛盾性、社会支持、性别、家庭亲密性、日常生活活动能力指数9个因素进行多因素非条件 Logistic 回归分析,得出脑血管意外后抑郁症状群与病灶 CT 定位及躯体、心理、社会变量有显著相关性。结论脑血管

  3. The Role of a Prone Setup in Breast Radiation Therapy

    Huppert, Nelly; Jozsef, Gabor; DeWyngaert, Keith; Formenti, Silvia Chiara


    Most patients undergoing breast conservation therapy receive radiotherapy in the supine position. Historically, prone breast irradiation has been advocated for women with large pendulous breasts in order to decrease acute and late toxicities. With the advent of CT planning, the prone technique has become both feasible and reproducible. It was shown to be advantageous not only for women with larger breasts but in most patients since it consistently reduces, if not eliminates, the inclusion of ...

  4. Effectiveness of electronic stability control on single-vehicle accidents

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie


    the following were significant. For the driver: Age, gender, driving experience, valid driving license, and seat belt use. For the vehicle: Year of registration, weight, and ESC. For the accident surroundings: Visibility, light, and location. Finally, for the road: Speed limit, surface, and section...

  5. Familial aggregation of delusional proneness in schizophrenia and bipolar pedigrees.

    Schürhoff, Franck; Szöke, Andrei; Méary, Alexandre; Bellivier, Frank; Rouillon, Frédéric; Pauls, David; Leboyer, Marion


    Clinical, familial, and, more recently, genetic linkage studies suggest that overlapping genetic susceptibility might contribute to both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. To identify a potential psychotic dimension common to families of both bipolar and schizophrenia probands, the authors tested if delusional proneness was observed among first-degree relatives of bipolar and schizophrenia probands. The authors included 32 schizophrenia probands and 61 bipolar probands and their respective first-degree relatives (N=63 and N=59). They were all interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies, and delusional proneness was assessed with a self-report questionnaire, the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory. Schizophrenia and bipolar probands were subdivided into subgroups according to the intensity of delusional symptoms assessed by Peters et al. Delusions Inventory scores, and the authors compared delusional proneness in their respective first-degree relatives. Familial aggregation of delusional proneness was demonstrated, since Peters et al. Delusions Inventory scores were higher among nonschizophrenic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia probands with productive symptoms and among first-degree relatives of bipolar probands with psychotic features during their affective episodes. The authors also found an intrafamilial correlation of delusional proneness scores in nonaffected siblings of schizophrenia and bipolar probands. Delusional proneness appears to be an inherited predisposition common to both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. In the future, this dimension might be valuable when used as a quantitative phenotype in linkage and association studies.

  6. The role of a prone setup in breast radiation therapy

    Nelly eHuppert


    Full Text Available Most patients undergoing breast conservation therapy (BCT receive radiotherapy in the supine position. Historically, prone breast irradiation has been advocated for women with large pendulous breasts in order to decrease acute and late toxicities. With the advent of CT planning, the prone technique has become both feasible and reproducible. It was shown to be advantageous not only for women with larger breasts but in most patients since it consistently reduces, if not eliminates, the inclusion of heart and lung within the field. The prone setup has been accepted as the best localizing position for both MRI and stereotactic biopsy, but its adoption has been delayed in radiotherapy. New technological advances including image-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT and image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT have made possible the exploration of accelerated fractionation schemes with a concomitant boost to the tumor bed in the prone position, along with better imaging and verification of reproducibility of patient setup. This review describes some of the available techniques for prone breast radiotherapy and the available experience in their application. The NYU prone breast radiotherapy approach is discussed, including a summary of the results from several prospective trials.

  7. The role of a prone setup in breast radiation therapy.

    Huppert, Nelly; Jozsef, Gabor; Dewyngaert, Keith; Formenti, Silvia Chiara


    Most patients undergoing breast conservation therapy receive radiotherapy in the supine position. Historically, prone breast irradiation has been advocated for women with large pendulous breasts in order to decrease acute and late toxicities. With the advent of CT planning, the prone technique has become both feasible and reproducible. It was shown to be advantageous not only for women with larger breasts but in most patients since it consistently reduces, if not eliminates, the inclusion of heart and lung within the field. The prone setup has been accepted as the best localizing position for both MRI and stereotactic biopsy, but its adoption has been delayed in radiotherapy. New technological advances including image-modulated radiation therapy and image-guided radiation therapy have made possible the exploration of accelerated fractionation schemes with a concomitant boost to the tumor bed in the prone position, along with better imaging and verification of reproducibility of patient setup. This review describes some of the available techniques for prone breast radiotherapy and the available experience in their application. The NYU prone breast radiotherapy approach is discussed, including a summary of the results from several prospective trials.

  8. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Gittus, J.H.; Bonell, P.G.; Hicks, D.


    The USSR power reactor programme is first described. The reasons for the accident at the Chernobyl-4 RBMK nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986, the sequence of events that took place, and the immediate and long-term consequences are considered. A description of the RBMK-type reactors is given and the design changes resulting from the experience of the accident are explained. The source terms describing the details of the radioactivity release associated with the accident and the environmental consequences are covered in the last two sections of the report. Throughout the text comments referring to the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate Safety assessment principles have been inserted. (U.K.).

  9. Comparison of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography for Breast Target Volume Delineation in Prone and Supine Positions.

    Pogson, Elise M; Delaney, Geoff P; Ahern, Verity; Boxer, Miriam M; Chan, Christine; David, Steven; Dimigen, Marion; Harvey, Jennifer A; Koh, Eng-Siew; Lim, Karen; Papadatos, George; Yap, Mei Ling; Batumalai, Vikneswary; Lazarus, Elizabeth; Dundas, Kylie; Shafiq, Jesmin; Liney, Gary; Moran, Catherine; Metcalfe, Peter; Holloway, Lois


    To determine whether T2-weighted MRI improves seroma cavity (SC) and whole breast (WB) interobserver conformity for radiation therapy purposes, compared with the gold standard of CT, both in the prone and supine positions. Eleven observers (2 radiologists and 9 radiation oncologists) delineated SC and WB clinical target volumes (CTVs) on T2-weighted MRI and CT supine and prone scans (4 scans per patient) for 33 patient datasets. Individual observer's volumes were compared using the Dice similarity coefficient, volume overlap index, center of mass shift, and Hausdorff distances. An average cavity visualization score was also determined. Imaging modality did not affect interobserver variation for WB CTVs. Prone WB CTVs were larger in volume and more conformal than supine CTVs (on both MRI and CT). Seroma cavity volumes were larger on CT than on MRI. Seroma cavity volumes proved to be comparable in interobserver conformity in both modalities (volume overlap index of 0.57 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.54-0.60) for CT supine and 0.52 (95% CI 0.48-0.56) for MRI supine, 0.56 (95% CI 0.53-0.59) for CT prone and 0.55 (95% CI 0.51-0.59) for MRI prone); however, after registering modalities together the intermodality variation (Dice similarity coefficient of 0.41 (95% CI 0.36-0.46) for supine and 0.38 (0.34-0.42) for prone) was larger than the interobserver variability for SC, despite the location typically remaining constant. Magnetic resonance imaging interobserver variation was comparable to CT for the WB CTV and SC delineation, in both prone and supine positions. Although the cavity visualization score and interobserver concordance was not significantly higher for MRI than for CT, the SCs were smaller on MRI, potentially owing to clearer SC definition, especially on T2-weighted MR images. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T


    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  11. Modelling of the transfer of CS-137 from air to crops, milk, beef and human body following the Chernobyl accident, in a location in Central Bohemia. Test of the model PRYMA T1; Modelizacion de la transferencia de CS-137 desde el aire a las cosechas, la leche, la carne de vacuno y el cuerpo humano producido por el accidente de Chernobyl, en una localizacion en la Bohemia Central. Test del modelo PRYMA T1

    Carrasco, E.; Garcia-Olivares, A.; Suaez, A.; Robles, B. Simon, I.; Cancio, D.


    This work was made in the frame of the research programme on validation of models for the transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial, urban and aquatic environments. The acronym of this programme is VAMP (Validation of Model Predictions) and is coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC). The scenario was named CB and was presented by the Multiple Pathway Working group. The scenario description was at the beginning a blind test, that is without knowing the location or the measured concentrations and doses. The input information included data of contamination in Cs-137 from the Chernobyl accident in Central Europe, in air and soils and more description of the scenario (data about crops, cattele, demography, human diet, etc.). The aim of the exercise was the contrast between model results and between observed data and model predictions. In this work the results obtained by the CIEMAT-IMA group of modelers are shown and discussed.

  12. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  13. The Window of locational opportunity-concept

    Boschma, Ron


    This article aims to set out a theoretical concept, i.e. the Window of Locational Opportunity concept, which accounts for notions like indeterminacy, human agency and historical accidents when explaining the spatial pattern of newly emerging industries. We will state that their spatial formation doe

  14. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    Ayer, J E; Clark, A T; Loysen, P; Ballinger, M Y; Mishima, J; Owczarski, P C; Gregory, W S; Nichols, B D


    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH.

  15. Paragliding accidents in remote areas.

    Fasching, G; Schippinger, G; Pretscher, R


    Paragliding is an increasingly popular hobby, as people try to find new and more adventurous activities. However, there is an increased and inherent danger with this sport. For this reason, as well as the inexperience of many operators, injuries occur frequently. This retrospective study centers on the helicopter rescue of 70 individuals in paragliding accidents. All histories were examined, and 43 patients answered a questionnaire. Nineteen (42%) pilots were injured when taking off, 20 (44%) during the flight, and six (13%) when landing. Routine and experience did not affect the prevalence of accident. Analysis of the causes of accident revealed pilot errors in all but three cases. In 34 rescue operations a landing of the helicopter near the site of the accident was possible. Half of the patients had to be rescued by a cable winch or a long rope fixed to the helicopter. Seven (10%) of the pilots suffered multiple trauma, 38 (54%) had injuries of the lower extremities, and 32 (84%) of them sustained fractures. Injuries to the spine were diagnosed in 34 cases with a fracture rate of 85%. One patient had an incomplete paraplegia. Injuries to the head occurred in 17 patients. No paraglider pilot died. The average hospitalization was 22 days, and average time of working inability was 14 weeks. Fourteen (34%) patients suffered from a permanent damage to their nerves or joints. Forty-three percent of the paragliders continued their sport despite the accident; two of them had another accident. An improved training program is necessary to lower the incidence of paragliding accidents. Optimal equipment to reduce injuries in case of accidents is mandatory. The helicopter emergency physician must perform a careful examination, provide stabilization of airways and circulation, give analgesics, splint fractured extremities, and transport the victim on a vacuum mattress to the appropriate hospital.

  16. DEM-based Approaches for the Identification of Flood Prone Areas

    Samela, Caterina; Manfreda, Salvatore; Nardi, Fernando; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Roth, Giorgio; Sole, Aurelia


    The remarkable number of inundations that caused, in the last decades, thousands of deaths and huge economic losses, testifies the extreme vulnerability of many Countries to the flood hazard. As a matter of fact, human activities are often developed in the floodplains, creating conditions of extremely high risk. Terrain morphology plays an important role in understanding, modelling and analyzing the hydraulic behaviour of flood waves. Research during the last 10 years has shown that the delineation of flood prone areas can be carried out using fast methods that relay on basin geomorphologic features. In fact, the availability of new technologies to measure surface elevation (e.g., GPS, SAR, SAR interferometry, RADAR and LASER altimetry) has given a strong impulse to the development of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) based approaches. The identification of the dominant topographic controls on the flood inundation process is a critical research question that we try to tackle with a comparative analysis of several techniques. We reviewed four different approaches for the morphological characterization of a river basin with the aim to provide a description of their performances and to identify their range of applicability. In particular, we explored the potential of the following tools. 1) The hydrogeomorphic method proposed by Nardi et al. (2006) which defines the flood prone areas according to the water level in the river network through the hydrogeomorphic theory. 2) The linear binary classifier proposed by Degiorgis et al. (2012) which allows distinguishing flood-prone areas using two features related to the location of the site under exam with respect to the nearest hazard source. The two features, proposed in the study, are the length of the path that hydrologically connects the location under exam to the nearest element of the drainage network and the difference in elevation between the cell under exam and the final point of the same path. 3) The method by

  17. Risk-based Analysis of Construction Accidents in Iran During 2007-2011-Meta Analyze Study.

    Amiri, Mehran; Ardeshir, Abdollah; Fazel Zarandi, Mohammad Hossein


    The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of occupational accidents and frequency and severity of work related accidents in the construction industry among Iranian insured workers during the years 20072011. The Iranian Social Security Organization (ISSO) accident database containing 21,864 cases between the years 2007-2011 was applied in this study. In the next step, Total Accident Rate (TRA), Total Severity Index (TSI), and Risk Factor (RF) were defined. The core of this work is devoted to analyzing the data from different perspectives such as age of workers, occupation and construction phase, day of the week, time of the day, seasonal analysis, regional considerations, type of accident, and body parts affected. Workers between 15-19 years old (TAR=13.4%) are almost six times more exposed to risk of accident than the average of all ages (TAR=2.51%). Laborers and structural workers (TAR=66.6%) and those working at heights (TAR=47.2%) experience more accidents than other groups of workers. Moreover, older workers over 65 years old (TSI=1.97%> average TSI=1.60%), work supervisors (TSI=12.20% >average TSI=9.09%), and night shift workers (TSI=1.89% >average TSI=1.47%) are more prone to severe accidents. It is recommended that laborers, young workers, weekend and night shift workers be supervised more carefully in the workplace. Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) should be compulsory in working environments, and special attention should be undertaken to people working outdoors and at heights. It is also suggested that policymakers pay more attention to the improvement of safety conditions in deprived and cold western regions.

  18. Risk-based Analysis of Construction Accidents in Iran During 2007-2011-Meta Analyze Study.

    Mehran Amiri


    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of occupational accidents and frequency and severity of work related accidents in the construction industry among Iranian insured workers during the years 20072011.The Iranian Social Security Organization (ISSO accident database containing 21,864 cases between the years 2007-2011 was applied in this study. In the next step, Total Accident Rate (TRA, Total Severity Index (TSI, and Risk Factor (RF were defined. The core of this work is devoted to analyzing the data from different perspectives such as age of workers, occupation and construction phase, day of the week, time of the day, seasonal analysis, regional considerations, type of accident, and body parts affected.Workers between 15-19 years old (TAR=13.4% are almost six times more exposed to risk of accident than the average of all ages (TAR=2.51%. Laborers and structural workers (TAR=66.6% and those working at heights (TAR=47.2% experience more accidents than other groups of workers. Moreover, older workers over 65 years old (TSI=1.97%> average TSI=1.60%, work supervisors (TSI=12.20% >average TSI=9.09%, and night shift workers (TSI=1.89% >average TSI=1.47% are more prone to severe accidents.It is recommended that laborers, young workers, weekend and night shift workers be supervised more carefully in the workplace. Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE should be compulsory in working environments, and special attention should be undertaken to people working outdoors and at heights. It is also suggested that policymakers pay more attention to the improvement of safety conditions in deprived and cold western regions.

  19. Effects of prone and reverse trendelenburg positioning on ocular parameters.

    Grant, Geordie P; Szirth, Bernard C; Bennett, Henry L; Huang, Sophia S; Thaker, Rajesh S; Heary, Robert F; Turbin, Roger E


    : In a pilot study of awake volunteers, intraocular pressure (IOP), choroid layer thickness, and optic nerve diameter were shown to increase in the prone position over 5 h with a nonsignificant trend of attenuation using a 4-degree increase of table inclination. These effects have previously not been isolated from anesthetic and fluid administration over a prolonged period, using an adequate sample size. : After institutional review board approval, 10 healthy volunteers underwent IOP measurement (Tono-Pen XL, Medtronic Solan, Jacksonville, FL) as well as choroidal thickness and optic nerve diameter assessment (Sonomed B-1000, Sonomed, Inc., Lake Success, NY, or the I System-ABD, Innovative Imaging, Inc., Sacramento, CA) on a Jackson table (Orthopedic Systems, Inc., Union City, CA), during 5 h horizontal prone and 5 h 4-degree reverse Trendelenburg positioning. Measurements were assessed as initial supine, initial prone, and hourly thereafter. Vital signs were recorded at each position and time point. : IOP, choroidal thickness, and optic nerve diameter were observed to increase with time in the prone position. A small degree of reverse Trendelenburg attenuated the increase in choroidal thickness but not IOP or optic nerve diameter. : Prolonged prone positioning increases IOP, choroid layer thickness, and optic nerve diameter independent of anesthetics and intravenous fluid infusion and 4 degrees of table inclination (15 cm of head to foot vertical disparity) may not attenuate these effects.

  20. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Laboratory; Chichester, Heather [Idaho National Laboratory; Johns, Jesse [Texas A& M University; Teague, Melissa [Idaho National Laboratory; Tonks, Michael Idaho National Laboratory; Youngblood, Robert [Idaho National Laboratory


    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant

  1. [Accidents of fulguration].

    Virenque, C; Laguerre, J


    Fulguration, first electric accident in which the man was a victim, is to day better known. A clap of thunder is decomposed in two elements: lightning, and thunder. Lightning is caused by an electrical discharge, either within a cloud, or between two clouds, or, above all, between a cloud and the surface of the ground. Experimental equipments owned by the French Electricity Company and by the Atomic Energy Commission, have allowed to photograph lightnings and to measure certain physical characteristics (Intensity variable between 25 to 100 kA, voltage variable between 20 to 1 000 kV). The frequency of storms was learned: the isokeraunic level, in France, is about 20, meaning that thunder is heard twenty days during one year. Man may be stricken by thunder by direct hit, by sudden bursting, by earth current, or through various conductors. The electric charge which reached him may go to the earth directly by contact with the ground or may dissipate in the air through a bony promontory (elbow). The total number of victims, "wounded" or deceased, is not now known by statistics. Death comes by insulation breakdown of one of several anatomic cephalic formations: skull, meninx, brain. Many various lesions may happen in survivors: loss of consciousness, more or less long, sensorial or motion deficiencies. All these signs are momentary and generally reversible. Besides one may observe much more intense lesions on the skin: burns and, over all, characteristic aborescence (skin effect by high frequency current). The heart is protected, contrarily to what happens with industrial electrocution. The curative treatment is merely symptomatic : reanimation, surgery for burns or associated traumatic lesions. A prevention is researched to help the lonely man, in the country or in the mountains in the houses (lightning conductor, Faraday cage), in vehicles (aircraft, cars, ships). The mysterious and unforseeable character of lightning still stays, leaving a door opened for numerous

  2. Accident Tolerant Fuel Analysis

    Curtis Smith; Heather Chichester; Jesse Johns; Melissa Teague; Michael Tonks; Robert Youngblood


    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional “accident-tolerant” (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  3. A New Method for Identifying Hazardous Road Locations Using GPS and Accelerometer

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner; Andersen, Camilla Sloth; Agerholm, Niels


    Identification of hazardous road locations is of key importance to traffic safety and has traditionally relied on accident statistics. Due to a declining quality of statistics on accidents in many countries, a need exist for new methods to identify hazardous road locations. This article presents...

  4. Criticality accident detector coverage analysis using the Monte Carlo Method

    Zino, J.F.; Okafor, K.C.


    As a result of the need for a more accurate computational methodology, the Los Alamos developed Monte Carlo code MCNP is used to show the implementation of a more advanced and accurate methodology in criticality accident detector analysis. This paper will detail the application of MCNP for the analysis of the areas of coverage of a criticality accident alarm detector located inside a concrete storage vault at the Savannah River Site. The paper will discuss; (1) the generation of fixed-source representations of various criticality fission sources (for spherical geometries); (2) the normalization of these sources to the ``minimum criticality of concern`` as defined by ANS 8.3; (3) the optimization process used to determine which source produces the lowest total detector response for a given set of conditions; and (4) the use of this minimum source for the analysis of the areas of coverage of the criticality accident alarm detector.

  5. Woodworking injuries: a comparative study of work-related and hobby-related accidents.

    Loisel, F; Bonin, S; Jeunet, L; Pauchot, J; Tropet, Y; Obert, L


    The primary objective of this study was to describe the injury characteristics and demographics of patients injured during woodworking activities, upon their arrival to the emergency department in a regional of France where this industry is prevalent. The secondary objective was to compare patient and injury characteristics for work-related and hobby-related accidents. A cohort of 87 patients who had suffered a woodworking accident over a two-year period was evaluated; 79 were available for follow-up. The context and circumstances of the accident, nature and location of the injuries and patient demographics were recorded. Hobby-related accidents accounted for two-thirds of the accidents (51/79). Most of the injured workers were either loggers (35%) or carpenters (46%). The hand was injured in 53 cases (67%). Work-related accidents resulted in significantly more serious consequences in terms of hospital stay, work stoppage, resumption of work or retraining than hobby-related accidents. For the workplace accidents, 86% occurred on new machines; more than 25% of the machines involved in accidents at home were over 15 years. Sixty-eight per cent of workers were wearing their safety gear, while only 31% of those injured during recreational woodworking wore the appropriate gear. Several elements of prevention should be improved: information about the need to maintain the equipment, protect the worker with suitable clothing, and learn which maneuvers are considered hazardous. Safety gear should be regularly inspected in the workplace.

  6. The relationship between fantasy proneness and schizotypy in adolescents.

    Sánchez-Bernardos, María Luisa; Avia, María Dolores


    Previous research has found substantial relationships between fantasy proneness and schizotypy in adulthood. The aim of the present study is to examine the connections between these constructs in an adolescent sample. A sample of 511 adolescents filled out a measure of fantasy proneness and a measure of psychotic-like phenomena. The factorial pattern for schizotypal traits in adolescents replicate the earlier documented three-factor structure. Also, the full range of schizotypal features was found to be related to imaginative tendencies tapped by fantasy proneness. Finally, joint analysis of fantasy and schizotypy showed that, in adolescents, fantasy converges with magical ideation and the cognitive-perceptual dimension of schizotypy, but diverges from the interpersonal aspects of schizotypy.

  7. Estimating likelihood of future crashes for crash-prone drivers

    Subasish Das


    Full Text Available At-fault crash-prone drivers are usually considered as the high risk group for possible future incidents or crashes. In Louisiana, 34% of crashes are repeatedly committed by the at-fault crash-prone drivers who represent only 5% of the total licensed drivers in the state. This research has conducted an exploratory data analysis based on the driver faultiness and proneness. The objective of this study is to develop a crash prediction model to estimate the likelihood of future crashes for the at-fault drivers. The logistic regression method is used by employing eight years' traffic crash data (2004–2011 in Louisiana. Crash predictors such as the driver's crash involvement, crash and road characteristics, human factors, collision type, and environmental factors are considered in the model. The at-fault and not-at-fault status of the crashes are used as the response variable. The developed model has identified a few important variables, and is used to correctly classify at-fault crashes up to 62.40% with a specificity of 77.25%. This model can identify as many as 62.40% of the crash incidence of at-fault drivers in the upcoming year. Traffic agencies can use the model for monitoring the performance of an at-fault crash-prone drivers and making roadway improvements meant to reduce crash proneness. From the findings, it is recommended that crash-prone drivers should be targeted for special safety programs regularly through education and regulations.

  8. How to avoid perioperative visual loss following prone spinal surgery

    Epstein, Nancy E.


    Background: In a prior article, “Perioperative visual loss (POVL) following prone spinal surgery: A review,” Epstein documented that postoperative visual loss (POVL) occurs in from 0.013% to 0.2% of spine procedures performed in the prone position. POVL is largely attributed to ischemic optic neuropathy (ION), central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO), cortical blindness (CB), direct compression (prone pillows/horseshoe, eye protectors), and rarely, acute angle closure glaucoma. Methods: Risk factors for ION include prolonged surgery, extensive fusions, anemia, hypotension, hypovolemia, diabetes, obesity, use of the Wilson frame, male sex, and microvascular pathology. CRAO may result from improper prone positioning (e.g., eye compression or rotation contributing to jugular/venous or carotid compression), while CB more typically results from both direct compression and obesity. Results: Several preventive/prophylactic measures should limit the risk of POVL. The routine use of an arterial line and continuous intraoperative monitoring document intraoperative hypotension/hypovolemia/anemia that can be immediately corrected with appropriate resuscitative measures. Application of a 3-pin head holder completely eliminates direct eye compression and maintains the neck in a neutral posture, thus avoiding rotation that can contribute to jugular/venous obstruction and/or inadvertent carotid compression. In addition, elevating the head 10° from the horizontal directly reduces intraocular pressure. Conclusions: The best way to avoid POVL following prone spine surgery is to prevent it. Routine use of an arterial line, intraoperative monitoring, a 3-pin head holder, and elevation of the head 10° from the horizontal should limit the risk of encountering POVL after spinal procedures performed in the prone position. PMID:27274406

  9. Hypnotic responsiveness: expectancy, attitudes, fantasy proneness, absorption, and gender.

    Green, Joseph P; Lynn, Steven Jay


    This study examines the effect of providing information linking participants' attitudes toward hypnosis with later hypnotic performance. Using total scale scores from McConkey's Opinions About Hypnosis scale, as well as subscale scores, the authors found a weak association between attitudes and performance among 460 student participants; however, the correlation was unaffected by prehypnotic information specifically connecting attitudes and performance. A brief, 3-item measure of hypnotic expectancies generated the strongest correlation with hypnotic responsiveness. The authors also found that the association between fantasy proneness and hypnotizability was unaffected by the order of scale administration. Finally, the study highlighted gender differences across measures of fantasy proneness, absorption, expectancy, and hypnotizability.

  10. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    Hull, A.P.


    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive /sup 131/I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of /sup 131/I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 10/sup 6/ person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 10/sup 7/ person-rem (2 x 10/sup 5/ Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs.

  11. Radioactive materials transport accident analysis

    McSweeney, T.I.; Maheras, S.J.; Ross, S.B. [Battelle Memorial Inst. (United States)


    Over the last 25 years, one of the major issues raised regarding radioactive material transportation has been the risk of severe accidents. While numerous studies have shown that traffic fatalities dominate the risk, modeling the risk of severe accidents has remained one of the most difficult analysis problems. This paper will show how models that were developed for nuclear spent fuel transport accident analysis can be adopted to obtain estimates of release fractions for other types of radioactive material such as vitrified highlevel radioactive waste. The paper will also show how some experimental results from fire experiments involving low level waste packaging can be used in modeling transport accident analysis with this waste form. The results of the analysis enable an analyst to clearly show the differences in the release fractions as a function of accident severity. The paper will also show that by placing the data in a database such as ACCESS trademark, it is possible to obtain risk measures for transporting the waste forms along proposed routes from the generator site to potential final disposal sites.

  12. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies.

    Sims, C S


    Twenty-two nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast-pulse Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a total of 62 different organizations a forum for discussion of criticality accident dosimetry, an opportunity to test their neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry systems under a variety of simulated criticality accident conditions, and the experience of comparing results with reference dose values as well as with the measured results obtained by others making measurements under identical conditions. Sixty-nine nuclear accidents (27 with unmoderated neutron energy spectra and 42 with eight different shielded spectra) have been simulated in the studies. Neutron doses were in the 0.2-8.5 Gy range and gamma doses in the 0.1-2.0 Gy range. A total of 2,289 dose measurements (1,311 neutron, 978 gamma) were made during the intercomparisons. The primary methods of neutron dosimetry were activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and blood sodium activation. The main methods of gamma dose measurement were thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiophotoluminescent glass, and film. About 68% of the neutron measurements met the accuracy guidelines (+/- 25%) and about 52% of the gamma measurements met the accuracy criterion (+/- 20%) for accident dosimetry.

  13. 44 CFR 60.24 - Planning considerations for flood-related erosion-prone areas.


    ... flood-related erosion-prone areas. 60.24 Section 60.24 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL..., Mudslide (i.e., Mudflow)-Prone and Flood-Related Erosion-Prone Areas § 60.24 Planning considerations for flood-related erosion-prone areas. The planning process for communities identified under part 65 of this...

  14. 44 CFR 60.22 - Planning considerations for flood-prone areas.


    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Planning considerations for... CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Additional Considerations in Managing Flood-Prone, Mudslide (i.e., Mudflow)-Prone and Flood-Related Erosion-Prone Areas § 60.22 Planning considerations for flood-prone areas...

  15. Predicting cycling accident risk in Brussels: a spatial case-control approach.

    Vandenbulcke, Grégory; Thomas, Isabelle; Int Panis, Luc


    This paper aims at predicting cycling accident risk for an entire network and identifying how road infrastructure influences cycling safety in the Brussels-Capital Region (Belgium). A spatial Bayesian modelling approach is proposed using a binary dependent variable (accident, no accident at location i) constructed from a case-control strategy. Control sites are sampled along the 'bikeable' road network in function of the potential bicycle traffic transiting in each ward. Risk factors are limited to infrastructure, traffic and environmental characteristics. Results suggest that a high risk is statistically associated with the presence of on-road tram tracks, bridges without cycling facility, complex intersections, proximity to shopping centres or garages, and busy van and truck traffic. Cycle facilities built at intersections and parked vehicles located next to separated cycle facilities are also associated with an increased risk, whereas contraflow cycling is associated with a reduced risk. The cycling accident risk is far from being negligible in points where there is actually no reported cycling accident but where they are yet expected to occur. Hence, mapping predicted accident risks provides planners and policy makers with a useful tool for accurately locating places with a high potential risk even before accidents actually happen. This also provides comprehensible information for orienting cyclists to the safest routes in Brussels.

  16. The child accident repeater: a review.

    Jones, J G


    The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.

  17. Hindsight Bias in Cause Analysis of Accident

    Atsuo Murata; Yasunari Matsushita


    It is suggested that hindsight becomes an obstacle to the objective investigation of an accident, and that the proper countermeasures for the prevention of such an accident is impossible if we view the accident with hindsight. Therefore, it is important for organizational managers to prevent hindsight from occurring so that hindsight does not hinder objective and proper measures to be taken and this does not lead to a serious accident. In this study, a basic phenomenon potentially related to accidents, that is, hindsight was taken up, and an attempt was made to explore the phenomenon in order to get basically insights into the prevention of accidents caused by such a cognitive bias.

  18. Severe accident simulation at Olkiuoto

    Tirkkonen, H.; Saarenpaeae, T. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), Olkiluoto (Finland); Cliff Po, L.C. [Micro-Simulation Technology, Montville, NJ (United States)


    A personal computer-based simulator was developed for the Olkiluoto nuclear plant in Finland for training in severe accident management. The generic software PCTRAN was expanded to model the plant-specific features of the ABB Atom designed BWR including its containment over-pressure protection and filtered vent systems. Scenarios including core heat-up, hydrogen generation, core melt and vessel penetration were developed in this work. Radiation leakage paths and dose rate distribution are presented graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an 486 DX2-66, PCTRAN-TVO achieves a speed about 15 times faster than real-time. A convenient and user-friendly graphic interface allows full interactive control. In this paper a review of the component models and verification runs are presented.

  19. Road characteristics and bicycle accidents.

    Nyberg, P; Björnstig, U; Bygren, L O


    In Umeå, Sweden, defects in the physical road surface contributed to nearly half of the single bicycle accidents. The total social cost of these injuries to people amount to at least SEK 20 million (SEK 60,000 or about USD 8,500 per accident), which corresponds to the estimated loss of "eight life equivalents a year". Improved winter maintenance seems to have the greatest injury prevention potential and would probably reduce the number of injuries considerably, whereas improved road quality and modification of kerbs would reduce the most severe injuries. A local traffic safety program should try to prevent road accidents instead of handling the consequences of them. In accordance with Parliament decisions on traffic we would like to see increased investment in measures favoring bicycle traffic, where cycling is seen as a solution, not as a problem.

  20. Bathtub immersion accidents involving children.

    Pearn, J; Nixon, J


    A review of 19 consecutive serious bathtub immersion accidents (11 survivals, 8 fatalities) is presented. In all instances, consciousness was lost in the water. Unlike other childhood accidents which usually show a male predominance, the sexes are equally affected. The modal age is 11 months. Six separate causes of bath drownings and near-drownings have been identified, and in 14 of the 19 accidents, two or more causes were operating concurrently. Median estimated immersion time for survivals was four minutes, and five minutes for fatalities. The median depth of water was eight inches. An 'at risk' profile for home bathtub drownings is presented; this includes the youngest or second youngest child of a large family, a family of grade 4 to 7 sociooccupational status (congalton) and a family in which routine is temporarily broken.

  1. Internal Accident Report on EDH

    SC Department


    The A2 Safety Code requires that, the Internal Accident Report form must be filled in by the person concerned or any witness to ensure that all the relevant services are informed. Please note that an electronic version of this form has been elaborated in collaboration with SC-IE, HR-OPS-OP and IT-AIS. Whenever possible, the electronic form shall be used. The relative icon is available on the EDH Desktop, Other tasks page, under the Safety heading, or directly here: If you have any questions, please contact the SC Secretariat, tel. 75097 Please notice that the Internal Accident Report is an integral part of the Safety Code A2 and does not replace the HS50.

  2. Fukushima accident study using MELCOR

    Randall O Gauntt


    The accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station stunned the world as the sequences played out over severals days and videos of hydrogen explosions were televised as they took place.The accidents all resulted in severe damage to the reactor cores and releases of radioactivity to the environment despite heroic measures had taken by the operating personnel.The following paper provides some background into the development of these accidents and their root causes,chief among them,the prolonged station blackout conditions that isolated the reactors from their ultimate heat sink — the ocean.The interpretations given in this paper are summarized from a recently completed report funded by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE).

  3. Effect of In-Vessel Retention Strategies under Postulated SGTR Accidents of OPR1000

    Choi, Wonjun; Lee, Yongjae; Kim, Sung Joong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwan-Yeol; Park, Rae-Joon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    environment though MSSV which is located on broken steam generator. (2) In Mitigation 1 case, no core degradation occurred and severe accident was terminated. Thus, recovery of feed water is a top priority of severe accident management in SGTR accident. In case of Mitigation 2, RPV failure was delayed up to 2.85 hours and fission product retained in containment building. Therefore, it could be a proper mitigation strategy, if none of safety feature such as AFW pump or HPSI pump is recovered. (3) Opening PORV of SDS which is mitigation action of Mitigation 2 case can increase containment pressure and temperature.

  4. Mindfulness, emotional dysregulation, impulsivity, and stress proneness among hypersexual patients

    Reid, RC; Bramen, JE; Anderson, A; Cohen, MS


    Objective: The current study explores relationships between mindfulness, emotional regulation, impulsivity, and stress proneness in a sample of participants recruited in a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder Fifth Edition Field Trial for Hypersexual Disorder and healthy controls to assess whether mindfulness attenuates symptoms of hypersexuality. Method: Hierarchal regression analysis was used to assess whether significant relationships between mindfulness and hypersexuality ...

  5. Absorption, fantasy proneness, and the false fame effect

    Horselenberg, Robert; Merckelbach, Harald; Wessel, Ineke; Verhoeven, Charlotte; Zeles, Gwenny


    Participants tend to claim that nonfamous names refer to well-known people when they have previously been required to read these nonfamous names. This false fame effect originates from source monitoring errors. In two studies, we explored whether high levels of absorption or fantasy proneness are re

  6. Prone position in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Setten, Mariano; Plotnikow, Gustavo Adrián; Accoce, Matías


    Acute respiratory distress syndrome occupies a great deal of attention in intensive care units. Despite ample knowledge of the physiopathology of this syndrome, the focus in intensive care units consists mostly of life-supporting treatment and avoidance of the side effects of invasive treatments. Although great advances in mechanical ventilation have occurred in the past 20 years, with a significant impact on mortality, the incidence continues to be high. Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, especially the most severe cases, often present with refractory hypoxemia due to shunt, which can require additional treatments beyond mechanical ventilation, among which is mechanical ventilation in the prone position. This method, first recommended to improve oxygenation in 1974, can be easily implemented in any intensive care unit with trained personnel. Prone position has extremely robust bibliographic support. Various randomized clinical studies have demonstrated the effect of prone decubitus on the oxygenation of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome measured in terms of the PaO2/FiO2 ratio, including its effects on increasing patient survival. The members of the Respiratory Therapists Committee of the Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva performed a narrative review with the objective of discovering the available evidence related to the implementation of prone position, changes produced in the respiratory system due to the application of this maneuver, and its impact on mortality. Finally, guidelines are suggested for decision-making. PMID:27925054

  7. The Social Antecedents of Anger Proneness in Young Adulthood

    Turner, R. Jay; Russell, David; Glover, Regan; Hutto, Pamela


    Anger has been shown to be an important factor in occupational maladjustment, family conflict, physical and sexual assault, criminal behavior, and substance abuse. It has also been linked with such adverse health outcomes as hypertension, heart disease, and cancer. Focusing on anger proneness, conceptualized as a relatively enduring propensity to…

  8. Prone surgery and laryngeal mask airways: an overview of recent ...


    Aug 17, 2013 ... muscular blocking drugs with their own risks and side- ... Clinicians tend to avoid the use of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in ... Patients are more haemodynamically stable if induced in the prone position .... be more pertinent in male patients.4 ... average body mass index (BMI) was 30.6 kg/m2 for females.

  9. Analyzing the Change-Proneness of APIs and web APIs

    Romano, D.


    Analyzing the Change-Proneness of APIs and web APIs APIs and web APIs are used to expose existing business logic and, hence, to ease the reuse of functionalities across multiple software systems. Software systems can use the business logic of legacy systems by binding their APIs and web APIs. With t

  10. Study of vehicle accident reconstruction based on the information of the tire marks


    The tire mark is the important legacy in formation left at the accident scene. Based on the vehicle collision dynamics model, this study provided an optimized algorithm with vehicle final location and other related information for the tire marks. When the tire marks simulation results fit the real one well. The state of vehicle can be understood as the real state in the accident. Based on above. The vehicle velocity and direction are decided. According to the velocity and direction of the vehicle, the complete accident process can be simulated. With the help of the Pc-Crash software. The method has been applied in typical collision accident cases analysis. The reconstruction results will provide the scientific and numerical References for vehicle collision accidents analyzing and appraising.

  11. Perioperative visual loss following prone spinal surgery: A review

    Epstein, Nancy E.


    Background: Postoperative visual loss (POVL) following prone spine surgery occurs in from 0.013% to 1% of cases and is variously attributed to ischemic optic neuropathy (ION: anterior ION or posterior ION [reported in 1.9/10,000 cases: constitutes 89% of all POVL cases], central retinal artery occlusion [CRAO], central retinal vein occlusion [CRVO], cortical blindness [CB], direct compression [horseshoe, prone pillows, and eye protectors Dupaco Opti-Gard]), and acute angle closure glaucoma (AACG). Methods: Risk factors for ION include prolonged operative times, long-segment spinal instrumentation, anemia, intraoperative hypotension, diabetes, obesity, male sex, using the Wilson frame, microvascular pathology, decreased the percent of colloid administration, and extensive intraoperative blood loss. Risk factors for CRAO more typically include improper positioning during the surgery (e.g., cervical rotation), while those for CB included prone positioning and obesity. Results: POVL may be avoided by greater utilization of crystalloids versus colloids, administration of α-2 agonists (e.g., decreases intraocular pressure), avoidance of catecholamines (e.g., avoid vasoconstrictors), avoiding intraoperative hypotension, and averting anemia. Patients with glaucoma or glaucoma suspects may undergo preoperative evaluation by ophthalmologists to determine whether they require prophylactic treatment prior to prone spinal surgery and whether and if prophylactic treatment is warranted. Conclusions: The best way to avoid POVL is to recognize its multiple etiologies and limit the various risk factors that contribute to this devastating complication of prone spinal surgery. Furthermore, routinely utilizing a 3-pin head holder will completely avoid ophthalmic compression, while maintaining the neck in a neutral posture, largely avoiding the risk of jugular vein and/or carotid artery compromise and thus avoiding increasing IOP. PMID:27274409

  12. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was preventable

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas


    On 11 March 2011, the fourth largest earthquake in recorded history triggered a large tsunami, which will probably be remembered from the dramatic live pictures in a country, which is possibly the most tsunami-prepared in the world. The earthquake and tsunami caused a major nuclear power plant (NPP) accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi, owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The accident was likely more severe than the 1979 Three Mile Island and less severe than the Chernobyl 1986 accidents. Yet, after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami had hit the Madras Atomic Power Station there had been renewed interest in the resilience of NPPs to tsunamis. The 11 March 2011 tsunami hit the Onagawa, Fukushima Dai-ichi, Fukushima Dai-ni, and Tokai Dai-ni NPPs, all located approximately in a 230km stretch along the east coast of Honshu. The Onagawa NPP was the closest to the source and was hit by an approximately height of 13m tsunami, of the same height as the one that hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi. Even though the Onagawa site also subsided by 1m, the tsunami did not reach to the main critical facilities. As the International Atomic Energy Agency put it, the Onagawa NPP survived the event "remarkably undamaged." At Fukushima Dai-ichi, the three reactors in operation were shut down due to strong ground shaking. The earthquake damaged all offsite electric transmission facilities. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) provided back up power and started cooling down the reactors. However, the tsunami flooded the facilities damaging 12 of its 13 EDGs and caused a blackout. Among the consequences were hydrogen explosions that released radioactive material in the environment. It is unfortunately clear that TEPCO and Japan's principal regulator Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) had failed in providing a professional hazard analysis for the plant, even though their last assessment had taken place only months before the accident. The main reasons are the following. One

  13. How to reduce the number of accidents


    Among the safety objectives that the Director-General has established for CERN in 2012 is a reduction in the number of workplace accidents.   The best way to prevent workplace accidents is to learn from experience. This is why any accident, fire, instance of pollution, or even a near-miss, should be reported using the EDH form that can be found here. All accident reports are followed up. The departments investigate all accidents that result in sick leave, as well as all the more common categories of accidents at CERN, essentially falls (slipping, falling on stairs, etc.), regardless of whether or not they lead to sick leave. By studying the accident causes that come to light in this way, it is possible to take preventive action to avoid such accidents in the future. If you have any questions, the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at HSE Unit

  14. Arthropods of Medical Importance in Brazil: Retrospective Epidemiological Information about Accidents Involving these Animals

    Danon Clemes Cardoso


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The epidemiological information about arthropods bites/sting in Criciúma region no was reported. The aim of this Research was to draw the epidemiologic profile of accidents with arthropods in Criciúma region. Approach: The information regarding accidents with arthropods from 1994-2006 was prospectively collected from SINAN (System of Injury Notification Information files of the 21a Municipal Health Secretary of Criciúma region. Was calculated the frequency for each variable studied and incidence coefficient for period of study. Results: Results were recorded 1821 notifications of accidents with arthropods in region studied. The numbers of occurrence increased along of the years studied. The arthropod that most result in accidents was the spider with 1,126 (75.9% cases followed by Honeybees and others Arthropods with 149 (10.0% cases, Caterpillars including Lonomia genus and others genera (54/3.7% and scorpions with the least number of accidents with 6 (0.4% cases. The incidence of accidents every thousand inhabitants had a significant increase starting in the year of 2000. The majority of accidents occurred in the warmest months, increasing in the spring and summer seasons. Was recorded more than twice of accidents with arthropods in Urban area than in rural areas. The Chi-square test revealed that the frequency of accidents between locations and type of arthropods is different. Likewise, the number the victims and activity type in moment of the bite/sting had been a differ behavior between arthropods type. However, the number of accidents involving victims of male and female gender is equal. Conclusion: Epidemiological studies of this type in the extreme south of Santa Catarina are scarce. Only few studies have reported the patterns of occurrence and incidence of accidents with poisonous animals. These and other studies are of great importance for implementation of measures mitigation programs and education for

  15. Trismus: An unusual presentation following road accident

    Thakur Jagdeep


    Full Text Available Trismus due to trauma usually follows road accidents leading to massive faciomaxillary injury. In the literature there is no report of a foreign body causing trismus following a road accident, this rare case is an exception. We present a case of isolated presentation of trismus following a road accident. This case report stresses on the thorough evaluation of patients presenting with trismus following a road accident.

  16. The Physics of Traffic Accidents

    Knight, Peter


    Shows how physics can be used to analyze and prevent traffic accidents by determining critical speeds on curves, the behavior of motor cycles and stability of articulated vehicles, and the visibility that is needed to make a minor road junction safe. (MLH)

  17. Work Accidents and Professional Diseases

    Doru Hauptmann


    Full Text Available The major accident is defined as “any event occurred, like an emission of dangerous materials or agents, which emerges from uncontrolled evolutions along the exploitation of any objective that leads to the immediate or delayed occurrence of serious dangers with impact over human health or over the environment, inside or outside the objective in which are involved one or more than one dangerous materials”.The dangerous phenomenon is a potential source of harms. In the ambit of industrial risks of accidental origins, this expression more frequently refers to physical phenomena like conflagrations, explosions, toxic gases dispersion, etc.Any accident scenario relates itself to the potential effects at the level of environmental “targets”. In the case of major accidents, we can distinguish the following categories of “targets”: human (employees of the objective, working or resident people in the nearby of the emplacement; the installation or equipments that may stay at the origin of the accidents (dangerous equipments; certain all-important equipments to ensure the safety level of the installation (critical security equipments: control rooms, civil fire brigade headquarters, etc; goods and structures situated in the installation’ environment (ground water, rivers, soil, flora, fauna.

  18. New technology for accident prevention

    Byne, P. [Shiftwork Solutions, Vancouver, BC (Canada)


    This power point presentation examined the effects of fatigue in the workplace and presented 3 technologies designed to prevent or monitor fatigue. The relationship between mental fatigue, circadian rhythms and cognitive performance was explored. Details of vigilance related degradations in the workplace were presented, as well as data on fatigue-related accidents and a time-line of meter-reading errors. It was noted that the direct cause of the Exxon Valdez disaster was sleep deprivation. Fatigue related accidents during the Gulf War were reviewed. The effects of fatigue on workplace performance include impaired logical reasoning and decision-making; impaired vigilance and attention; slowed mental operations; loss of situational awareness; slowed reaction time; and short cuts and lapses in optional or self-paced behaviours. New technologies to prevent fatigue-related accidents include (1) the driver fatigue monitor, an infra-red camera and computer that tracks a driver's slow eye-lid closures to prevent fatigue related accidents; (2) a fatigue avoidance scheduling tool (FAST) which collects actigraphs of sleep activity; and (3) SAFTE, a sleep, activity, fatigue and effectiveness model. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.


    The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...

  20. Crime, accidents and social control

    Junger, Marianne; Terlouw, Gert-Jan; van der Heijden, Peter G.M.


    This paper addresses to questions. (1) Is there a demonstrable relation between accidents and crime, does this relation hold for each type of crime and each means of transport, and does it subsist after controlling for age and gender? (2) Can social control theory explain involvements in both

  1. [The prone position in ARDS. A successful therapeutic strategy].

    Hörmann, C; Benzer, H; Baum, M; Wicke, K; Putensen, C; Putz, G; Hartlieb, S


    As early as 1974, Brian advocated the prone position for ventilated patients. He suggested that this position might enhance ventilation of the dorsal parts of the lungs, thereby improving oxygenation. These considerations have been confirmed by several experimental and clinical studies. Better secretion removal, decreased intrapulmonary shunting, and an increased FRC are thought to be responsible for the observed improvement of oxygenation. However, the prone position never became very popular in the clinical treatment of the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Routine performance of thoracic CT scans in ARDS patients demonstrated preferential distribution of pathological densities in the dependent lung areas. The prone position therefore could possibly benefit these patients, as shown by two recent studies. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of repeatedly turning the patient to the prone position on gas exchange and thoracic CT findings in multiple-trauma patients. METHODS. Seven ventilated intensive care patients with severe ARDS (Murray Score > 2.5, Quotient > 0.7, mean airway pressure > 18 cm H2O, thoracic CT scan showing dorsal atelectases) were included in the study. Patients were turned from the supine to the prone position at 12-h intervals using an air-cushion bed (Mediscus, Austria). Redistribution of dystelectatic or atelectatic dependent lung areas was verified by means of repeated thoracic CT scans (Figs. 1, 8). RESULTS. The patients were intermittently turned for 6.5 +/- 1.1 days. The course of gas exchange is shown in Figs. 2 and 3. Initially, improvement of the respiratory quotient could only be achieved during prone positioning, from the 2nd day in the supine position as well. Intrapulmonary shunting showed a similar trend (Figs. 4 and 5). No significant changes in cardiovascular parameters could be observed. Control thoracic CT scans showed uniform reduction of atelectases in dependent lung areas (Figs. 1 and 8). The

  2. Risk analysis of emergent water pollution accidents based on a Bayesian Network.

    Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jie


    To guarantee the security of water quality in water transfer channels, especially in open channels, analysis of potential emergent pollution sources in the water transfer process is critical. It is also indispensable for forewarnings and protection from emergent pollution accidents. Bridges above open channels with large amounts of truck traffic are the main locations where emergent accidents could occur. A Bayesian Network model, which consists of six root nodes and three middle layer nodes, was developed in this paper, and was employed to identify the possibility of potential pollution risk. Dianbei Bridge is reviewed as a typical bridge on an open channel of the Middle Route of the South to North Water Transfer Project where emergent traffic accidents could occur. Risk of water pollutions caused by leakage of pollutants into water is focused in this study. The risk for potential traffic accidents at the Dianbei Bridge implies a risk for water pollution in the canal. Based on survey data, statistical analysis, and domain specialist knowledge, a Bayesian Network model was established. The human factor of emergent accidents has been considered in this model. Additionally, this model has been employed to describe the probability of accidents and the risk level. The sensitive reasons for pollution accidents have been deduced. The case has also been simulated that sensitive factors are in a state of most likely to lead to accidents.

  3. Characterization of radioactive particles from the Palomares accident

    Aragon, A. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Avenida Complutense, 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain)], E-mail:; Espinosa, A.; Cruz, B. de la [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Avenida Complutense, 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Fernandez, J.A. [Empresa Nacional del Uranio Sociedad Anonima, ENUSA Industrias Avanzadas, S.A., C/Santiago Rusinol, 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain)


    As a consequence of the nuclear accident that took place in Palomares (Almeria, Spain) more than 40 years ago, actinides contamination is present in the area nowadays. Previous investigations performed with soil samples collected in different locations of Palomares indicate that the contamination in the area is highly inhomogeneous, suggesting the existence of radioactive particles, thus hindering the evaluation of the radiological situation. This work presents the methodology used for the location of the radioactive particles in the field and their isolation in the laboratory for further speciation and characterization studies. Colour pictures, electron microscopy images and EDX analyses show that most of the studied particles present a granular appearance with a variable grain size and a high fragmentation tendency, being plutonium and uranium the most abundant nuclear elements. Radiochemical determinations and activity isotopic ratios prove that the nuclear material is aged weapon grade plutonium arising from the Palomares accident.

  4. Intersection layout, traffic volumes and accidents.

    Poppe, F.


    This paper reports on the accident research carried out as a part of a large project started in 1983. For this accident research an inventory was made of a large number of intersections.Recorded were layout features, accident data and estimates of traffic volumes. Attention will be given to the

  5. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the clause at FAR 52.236-13, Accident Prevention....

  6. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I....

  7. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause...

  8. Barriers to learning from incidents and accidents

    Dechy, N.; Dien, Y.; Drupsteen, L.; Felicio, A.; Cunha, C.; Roed-Larsen, S.; Marsden, E.; Tulonen, T.; Stoop, J.; Strucic, M.; Vetere Arellano, A.L.; Vorm, J.K.J. van der; Benner, L.


    This document provides an overview of knowledge concerning barriers to learning from incidents and accidents. It focuses on learning from accident investigations, public inquiries and operational experience feedback, in industrial sectors that are exposed to major accident hazards. The document disc

  9. Analysing truck position data to study roundabout accident risk

    Kamla, Jwan Jameel Shekh Mohammed


    In order to reduce accident risk, highway authorities prioritise maintenance budgets partly based upon previous accident history. However, as accident rates have continued to fall in most contexts, this approach has become problematic as accident ‘black spots’ have been treated and the number of accidents at any individual site has fallen. Another way of identifying sites of higher accident risk might be to identify near-miss accidents (where an accident nearly happened, but was avoided), whi...

  10. Impact of mass media exposure and innovation proneness on cocoon production

    Mir M A


    Full Text Available A total of 75 farmers were selected from the four sericulturally important districts viz., Kupwara, Baramulla, Budgam and Pulwama of Kashmir valley (India to study the impact of mass media exposure and changing proneness on the cocoon marketing and cocoon production. Results of study indicated that 58.67 per cent of the respondents had low exposure to mass media, while 34 per cent of them had medium level exposure and only 7.33 per cent enjoyed high level exposure. Change proneness status of stakeholders revealed that overall 50 per cent of respondents belonged to medium category of change proneness; this was followed by low category (42% and high category (8% respectively. With respect to marketing, 67.67 percent of the studied farmers complained about delayed marketing and only 26 per cent of them were satisfied with present marketing operations. Although 51 per cent of the farmers expressed that markets were established in the vicinity of district headquarters, yet 49 per cent were not satisfied with the location of market. Furthermore 90.67 per cent of beneficiaries expressed their displeasure over the competitiveness of marketing and as a result of poor marketing, while 77.67 percent of the rearers expressed that they were not getting remunerative prices for the final produce. On cocoon production side, majority of respondents (72% fall into low category whereas 22.33 and 5.67 percent of them were reported in medium and high category of cocoon production respectively. The cocoon productivity figures also revealed that 30.33 percent of respondents of study area harvested 6-31 kg of green cocoons/ounce of silkworm seed, while 61% percent harvested 31.56 kg/ounce whereas only 8.67 per cent of them harvested 56-81 kg of cocoons/ounce of seed

  11. Enhancing disaster management by mapping disaster proneness and preparedness.

    Mishra, Vishal; Fuloria, Sanjay; Bisht, Shailendra Singh


    The focus of most disaster management programmes is to deploy resources-physical and human-from outside the disaster zone. This activity can produce a delay in disaster mitigation and recovery efforts, and a consequent loss of human lives and economic resources. It may be possible to expedite recovery and prevent loss of life by mapping out disaster proneness and the availability of resources in advance. This study proposes the development of two indices to do so. The Indian census data of 2001 is used to develop a methodology for creating one index on disaster proneness and one on resourcefulness for administrative units (tehsils). Findings reveal that tehsil residents face an elevated risk of disaster and that they are also grossly under-prepared for such events. The proposed indices can be used to map regional service provision facilities and to assist authorities in evaluating immediate, intermediate, and long-term disaster recovery needs and resource requirements.

  12. Atypical diabetes in children: ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes.

    Vaibhav, Atul; Mathai, Mathew; Gorman, Shaun


    Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes mellitus also known as atypical or flatbush diabetes is being increasingly recognised worldwide. These patients are typically obese, middle-aged men with a strong family history of type 2 diabetes. The aetiology and pathophysiological mechanism is still unclear but some initial research suggests that patients with ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes have a unique predisposition to glucose desensitisation. These patients have negative autoantibodies typically associated with type 1 diabetes but have shown to have human leucocyte antigen (HLA) positivity. At initial presentation, there is an impairment of both insulin secretion and action. β Cell function and insulin sensitivity can be markedly improved by initiating aggressive diabetes management to allow for discontinuation of insulin therapy within a few months of treatment. These patients can be maintained on oral hypoglycaemic agents and insulin therapy can be safely discontinued after few months depending on their β cell function.

  13. Antecedents of Truck Drivers’ Job Satisfaction and Retention Proneness

    Prockl, Günter; Teller, Christoph; Kotzab, Herbert


    The aim of this study was to (1) explore the antecedents of truck drivers’ job satisfaction, (2) identify the impact of financial and nonfinancial job properties on satisfaction with the job and with one's employer, and (3) the drivers’ proneness to retaining their jobs. Based on the extant...... literature, we develop a conceptual model that is tested using survey data for 164 truck drivers. Multiple linear and ordinal logistic regressions were used to estimate the proposed effects. The results reveal that nonfinancial job properties and satisfaction with one's employer affect job satisfaction...... is statistically significant. Financial and nonfinancial job properties affect satisfaction with one's employer whereas the former shows a lower impact compared to the latter. Satisfaction with the job and one's employer impacts retention proneness. The contribution of this study was to (1) add...

  14. [Hanggliding accidents. Distribution of injuries and accident analysis].

    Ballmer, F T; Jakob, R P


    Paragliding--a relatively new sport to Switzerland--brought 23 patients with 48 injuries (38% lower limb and 29% spinal) within a period of 8 months to the Inselspital University hospital in Berne. The aim of the study in characterizing these injuries is to formulate some guidelines towards prevention. With over 90% of accidents occurring at either take off or landing, emphasis on better training for the beginner is proposed with strict guidelines for the more experienced pilot flying in unfavourable conditions.

  15. Preliminary Modeling of Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts under Accident Conditions

    Gamble, Kyle A.; Hales, Jason D.


    The catastrophic events that occurred at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011 have led to widespread interest in research of alternative fuels and claddings that are proposed to be accident tolerant. Thus, the United States Department of Energy through its NEAMS (Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation) program has funded an Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) High Impact Problem (HIP). The ATF HIP is funded for a three-year period. The purpose of the HIP is to perform research into two potential accident tolerant concepts and provide an in-depth report to the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) describing the behavior of the concepts, both of which are being considered for inclusion in a lead test assembly scheduled for placement into a commercial reactor in 2022. The initial focus of the HIP is on uranium silicide fuel and iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloy cladding. Utilizing the expertise of three national laboratory participants (INL, LANL, and ANL) a comprehensive mulitscale approach to modeling is being used including atomistic modeling, molecular dynamics, rate theory, phase-field, and fuel performance simulations. In this paper, we present simulations of two proposed accident tolerant fuel systems: U3Si2 fuel with Zircaloy-4 cladding, and UO2 fuel with FeCrAl cladding. The simulations investigate the fuel performance response of the proposed ATF systems under Loss of Coolant and Station Blackout conditions using the BISON code. Sensitivity analyses are completed using Sandia National Laboratories’ DAKOTA software to determine which input parameters (e.g., fuel specific heat) have the greatest influence on the output metrics of interest (e.g., fuel centerline temperature). Early results indicate that each concept has significant advantages as well as areas of concern. Further work is required prior to formulating the proposition report for the Advanced Fuels Campaign.

  16. Perioperative visual loss following prone spinal surgery: A review

    Nancy E Epstein


    Conclusions: The best way to avoid POVL is to recognize its multiple etiologies and limit the various risk factors that contribute to this devastating complication of prone spinal surgery. Furthermore, routinely utilizing a 3-pin head holder will completely avoid ophthalmic compression, while maintaining the neck in a neutral posture, largely avoiding the risk of jugular vein and/or carotid artery compromise and thus avoiding increasing IOP.

  17. Mismatch-mediated error prone repair at the immunoglobulin genes.

    Chahwan, Richard; Edelmann, Winfried; Scharff, Matthew D; Roa, Sergio


    The generation of effective antibodies depends upon somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) of antibody genes by activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and the subsequent recruitment of error prone base excision and mismatch repair. While AID initiates and is required for SHM, more than half of the base changes that accumulate in V regions are not due to the direct deamination of dC to dU by AID, but rather arise through the recruitment of the mismatch repair complex (MMR) to the U:G mismatch created by AID and the subsequent perversion of mismatch repair from a high fidelity process to one that is very error prone. In addition, the generation of double-strand breaks (DSBs) is essential during CSR, and the resolution of AID-generated mismatches by MMR to promote such DSBs is critical for the efficiency of the process. While a great deal has been learned about how AID and MMR cause hypermutations and DSBs, it is still unclear how the error prone aspect of these processes is largely restricted to antibody genes. The use of knockout models and mice expressing mismatch repair proteins with separation-of-function point mutations have been decisive in gaining a better understanding of the roles of each of the major MMR proteins and providing further insight into how mutation and repair are coordinated. Here, we review the cascade of MMR factors and repair signals that are diverted from their canonical error free role and hijacked by B cells to promote genetic diversification of the Ig locus. This error prone process involves AID as the inducer of enzymatically-mediated DNA mismatches, and a plethora of downstream MMR factors acting as sensors, adaptors and effectors of a complex and tightly regulated process from much of which is not yet well understood.

  18. Anger proneness, gender, and the risk of heart failure.

    Kucharska-Newton, Anna M; Williams, Janice E; Chang, Patricia P; Stearns, Sally C; Sueta, Carla A; Blecker, Saul B; Mosley, Thomas H


    Evidence regarding the association of anger proneness with incidence of heart failure is lacking. Anger proneness was ascertained among 13,171 black and white participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study cohort with the use of the Spielberger Trait Anger Scale. Incident heart failure events, defined as occurrence of ICD-9-CM code 428.x, were ascertained from participants' medical records during follow-up in the years 1990-2010. Relative hazard of heart failure across categories of trait anger was estimated with the use of Cox proportional hazard models. Study participants (mean age 56.9 [SD 5.7] years) experienced 1,985 incident HF events during 18.5 (SD 4.9) years of follow-up. Incidence of HF was greater among those with high, as compared to those with low or moderate trait anger, with higher incidence observed for men than for women. The relative hazard of incident HF was modestly high among those with high trait anger, compared with those with low or moderate trait anger (age-adjusted hazard ratio for men: 1.44 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-1.69). Adjustment for comorbidities and depressive symptoms attenuated the estimated age-adjusted relative hazard in men to 1.26 (95% CI 1.00-1.60). Assessment of anger proneness may be necessary in successful prevention and clinical management of heart failure, especially in men. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Livelihood Analysis in Merapi Prone Area After 2010 Eruption

    Susy Nofrita


    Full Text Available As stated in Regent Regulation No. 20 Year 2011 about Merapi Volcano Disaster-Prone Area, Merapi eruption in 2010 affected larger area than before included Kalitengah Lor, Kalitengah Kidul and Srunen hamlet which was now categorized as prone area zone III or the most dangerous area related to Merapi volcano hazard and was forbidden to live at. But its local people agreed to oppose the regulation and this area had been 100% reoccupied. This research examined about the existing livelihood condition in Kalitengah Lor, Kalitengah Kidul and Srunen that had been changed and degraded after 2010 great eruption. The grounded based information found that 80% of households sample were at the middle level of welfare status, meanwhile the high and low were at 13% and 7% respectively. Each status represented different livelihood strategy in facing the life in prone area with no one considered the Merapi hazard, but more economic motivation and assets preservation. The diversity in strategy was found in diversification of livelihood resources which were dominated by sand mining, farming and dairy farming.

  20. Aggression proneness: Transdiagnostic processes involving negative valence and cognitive systems.

    Verona, Edelyn; Bresin, Konrad


    Aggressive behavior is observed in persons with various mental health problems and has been studied from the perspectives of neuroscience and psychophysiology. The present research reviews some of the extant experimental literature to help clarify the interplay between domains of functioning implicated in aggression proneness. We then convey a process-oriented model that elucidates how the interplay of the Negative Valence and Cognitive System domains of NIMH's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) helps explain aggression proneness, particularly reactive aggression. Finally, we report on a study involving event-related potential (ERP) indices of emotional and inhibitory control processing during an emotional-linguistic go/no-go task among 67 individuals with histories of violence and criminal offending (30% female, 44% African-American) who reported on their aggressive tendencies using the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Results provide evidence that tendencies toward angry and aggressive behavior relate to reduced inhibitory control processing (no-go P3) specifically during relevant threat-word blocks, suggesting deterioration of cognitive control by acute or sustained threat sensitivity. These findings highlight the value of ERP methodologies for clarifying the interplay of Negative Valence and Cognitive System processes in aggression proneness.

  1. Accident Emergency Response And Routing Software (AERARS using Genetic Algorithm

    Naveen Ramachandran,


    Full Text Available AERARS is a response and routing software for accident emergency requirement. A method has been proposed in this project for using a genetic algorithm to find the shortest route between a source and adestination. It make use of genetic algorithms ability to search the opt solution from the population helping to solve spatially addressed problem. The numbers of accident spots are plotted in ArcGISenvironment and ten major accident spots are identified. The software package is designed with closest facility estimation and shortest route generation along with other basic software facilities in Visual Basic environment. Genetic algorithm provided a great optimality to the solutions. The closest facility tool helps to estimate the nearest hospital, ambulance, police station and fire station. The shortest route estimation tool generates shortest path between a locations to the hospital or ambulance spot. The various risk zonesare assessed and more safety measures can be taken to reduce the frequency of accident. The software efficiency can be further increased by incorporating GPS and satellite technology.

  2. A System Supporting the Analysis of Motorway Traffic Accidents

    Davide Anghinolfi


    Full Text Available This work presents a business intelligence tool for monitoring traffic accidents on motorways and supporting decisions relevant to road safety. The system manages information on road characteristics, traffic accidents and traffic volumes and produces reports for monitoring the evolution of key performance indicators for road safety, supporting decisions on actions for risk mitigation and safety improvements for road users. The paper illustrates the different types of analyses performed by the system. Pattern based analysis is used to evaluate safety performance indicators for the road sections matching defined patterns. Two different road segmentation algorithms, used to identify the most critical road sections according to various severity indicators, are presented and discussed. Differential analysis compares the value of selected severity indicators before and after the implementation of an intervention on a road. Finally, a graphical user interface allows the accident locations to be visualized and accidents with specific characteristics to be highlighted. The system was evaluated on the data collected between 2009 and 2011 for the A15 motorway in Italy, connecting Parma to La Spezia.

  3. Exploratory analysis of Spanish energetic mining accidents.

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Freijo, Modesto; Rossell, Josep M


    Using data on work accidents and annual mining statistics, the paper studies work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining sector in 1999-2008. The following 3 parameters are considered: age, experience and size of the mine (in number of workers) where the accident took place. The main objective of this paper is to show the relationship between different accident indicators: risk index (as an expression of the incidence), average duration index for the age and size of the mine variables (as a measure of the seriousness of an accident), and the gravity index for the various sizes of mines (which measures the seriousness of an accident, too). The conclusions of this study could be useful to develop suitable prevention policies that would contribute towards a decrease in work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining industry.

  4. The dominance of accidents caused by banalities

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    . Nevertheless, the fact is that the simpler accidents normally caused by what might be regarded as banalities occur at a much higher frequencies and with many more fatalities and invalidities than any of what are usually regarded as the most dangerous kinds of accidents. In depth analysis of national statistics...... on accidents could reveal the kind of accidents we are talking about, where they happen, to whom, how, and what can be done about them. This would require a special registration system of the events leading up to the accident. The main results for the four most frequent types of accident will be described...... as an example of how much information such systems can offer in general for the work of accident prevention in more traditional and common enterprises....

  5. Job stress, mental health, and accidents among offshore workers in the oil and gas extraction industries.

    Cooper, C L; Sutherland, V J


    Psychosocial and occupational stressors among 194 male employees on drilling rig and production platform installations in the United Kingdom and Dutch sectors of the North Sea were studied. Mental well-being and job satisfaction were also assessed, with attention to the incidence of accidents offshore. This occupational group were found to be much less satisfied with their jobs than their onshore counterparts. Although overall mental well-being compared favorably with that of the general population, levels of anxiety were significantly higher. Multivariate analysis showed "relationships at work and at home" to be a strong predictor of both job dissatisfaction and mental ill-health. Type A coronary-prone behavior was also found to be a significant predictor of reduced mental well-being and increased accident rates offshore.

  6. Explorative spatial analysis of traffic accident statistics and road mortality among the provinces of Turkey.

    Erdogan, Saffet


    The aim of the study is to describe the inter-province differences in traffic accidents and mortality on roads of Turkey. Two different risk indicators were used to evaluate the road safety performance of the provinces in Turkey. These indicators are the ratios between the number of persons killed in road traffic accidents (1) and the number of accidents (2) (nominators) and their exposure to traffic risk (denominator). Population and the number of registered motor vehicles in the provinces were used as denominators individually. Spatial analyses were performed to the mean annual rate of deaths and to the number of fatal accidents that were calculated for the period of 2001-2006. Empirical Bayes smoothing was used to remove background noise from the raw death and accident rates because of the sparsely populated provinces and small number of accident and death rates of provinces. Global and local spatial autocorrelation analyses were performed to show whether the provinces with high rates of deaths-accidents show clustering or are located closer by chance. The spatial distribution of provinces with high rates of deaths and accidents was nonrandom and detected as clustered with significance of Paccidents and deaths were located in the provinces that contain the roads connecting the Istanbul, Ankara, and Antalya provinces. Accident and death rates were also modeled with some independent variables such as number of motor vehicles, length of roads, and so forth using geographically weighted regression analysis with forward step-wise elimination. The level of statistical significance was taken as Paccidents according to denominators in the provinces. The geographically weighted regression analyses did significantly better predictions for both accident rates and death rates than did ordinary least regressions, as indicated by adjusted R(2) values. Geographically weighted regression provided values of 0.89-0.99 adjusted R(2) for death and accident rates, compared with 0

  7. Lumbar Lordosis of Spinal Stenosis Patients during Intraoperative Prone Positioning

    Lee, Su-Keon; Song, Kyung-Sub; Park, Byung-Moon; Lim, Sang-Youn; Jang, Geun; Lee, Beom-Seok; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Lee, Hwan-Mo


    Background To evaluate the effect of spondylolisthesis on lumbar lordosis on the OSI (Jackson; Orthopaedic Systems Inc.) frame. Restoration of lumbar lordosis is important for maintaining sagittal balance. Physiologic lumbar lordosis has to be gained by intraoperative prone positioning with a hip extension and posterior instrumentation technique. There are some debates about changing lumbar lordosis on the OSI frame after an intraoperative prone position. We evaluated the effect of spondylolisthesis on lumbar lordosis after an intraoperative prone position. Methods Sixty-seven patients, who underwent spinal fusion at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery of Gwangmyeong Sungae Hospital between May 2007 and February 2012, were included in this study. The study compared lumbar lordosis on preoperative upright, intraoperative prone and postoperative upright lateral X-rays between the simple stenosis (SS) group and spondylolisthesis group. The average age of patients was 67.86 years old. The average preoperative lordosis was 43.5° (± 14.9°), average intraoperative lordosis was 48.8° (± 13.2°), average postoperative lordosis was 46.5° (± 16.1°) and the average change on the frame was 5.3° (± 10.6°). Results Among all patients, 24 patients were diagnosed with simple spinal stenosis, 43 patients with spondylolisthesis (29 degenerative spondylolisthesis and 14 isthmic spondylolisthesis). Between the SS group and spondylolisthesis group, preoperative lordosis, intraoperative lordosis and postoperative lordosis were significantly larger in the spondylolisthesis group. The ratio of patients with increased lordosis on the OSI frame compared to preoperative lordosis was significantly higher in the spondylolisthesis group. The risk of increased lordosis on frame was significantly higher in the spondylolisthesis group (odds ratio, 3.325; 95% confidence interval, 1.101 to 10.039; p = 0.033). Conclusions Intraoperative lumbar lordosis on the OSI frame with a prone

  8. Frequency of road accidents in prishtina in the period 2007-2010

    Basri Lenjani; Salih Krasniqi; Njiazi Gashi; Ilaz Bunjaku; Thaxhedin Zaimi


    Objective: To assess the predictors of fatal road traffic accidents following the war during the year 1999. Methods: The period January 2007-December 2010 has been considered for this research. The used criterion for this research was the distribution of vehicle accidents on a yearly basis, injuries based on systems, vehicle drivers based on their sex, age, causes, accident location, road type, accident type and presence of driving permit. Results: The injured in traffic accidents who have sought emergency medical assistance in the Emergency Center from January 2008 until December 2010. In the period January to December 2007 was 44 111, from which 2 235 or 5.06% were the injured in the road traffic accidents. In the period January to December 2008 the total number of sick, injured and poisoned persons who have sought emergency medical assistance in the Emergency Center was 43 610, with a total number of 2 148 or 5.00% injured in the road traffic accidents. In the period January to December 2009 the total number of sick, injured and poisoned persons who have sought emergency medical assistance in the Emergency Center was 44 228, and the total number of injured in the road traffic accidents was 2 774, or 6.27%. In the period January to December 2010 the total number of sick, injured and poisoned who have sought emergency medical assistance in the Emergency Center was 41 614, and injured from road traffic accidents were 2 384, or 5.72%. Conclusions: Young age, high speed, and alcohol are predictors of fatal road traffic accidents in Pristine district.

  9. Practical approaches in accident analysis

    Stock, M.

    An accident analysis technique based on successive application of structural response, explosion dynamics, gas cloud formation, and plant operation failure mode models is proposed. The method takes into account the nonideal explosion characteristic of a deflagration in the unconfined cloud. The resulting pressure wave differs significantly from a shock wave and the response of structures like lamp posts and walls can differ correspondingly. This gives a more realistic insight into explosion courses than a simple TNT-equivalent approach.

  10. The consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Ion Chioșilă


    Full Text Available These days marks 30 years since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, followed by massive radioactive contamination of the environment and human in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, and resulted in many deaths among people who intervened to decrease the effects of the nuclear disaster. The 26 April 1986 nuclear accident contaminated all European countries, but at a much lower level, without highlighted consequences on human health. In special laboratories, the main radionuclides (I-131, Cs-137, Cs-134 and Sr-90 were also analyzed in Romania from environmental samples, food, even human subjects. These radionuclides caused the population to receive a low dose of about 1 mSv in 1986 that is half of the dose of the natural background radiation (2.4 mSv per year. As in all European countries (excluding Ukraine, Belarus and Russia this dose of about 1 mSv fell rapidly by 1990, reaching levels close to ones before the accident at the nuclear tests.

  11. [Multicenter paragliding accident study 1990].

    Lautenschlager, S; Karli, U; Matter, P


    During the period from 1.1.90 until 31.12.90, 86 injuries associated with paragliding were analyzed in a prospective study in 12 different Swiss hospitals with reference to causes, patterns, and frequencies. The injuries showed a mean score of over 2 and were classified as severe. Most frequent spine injuries (36%) and lesions of the lower extremity (35%) with a high risk of the ankles were diagnosed. One accident was fatal. 60% of the accidents happened during landing, 26% during launching and 14% during flight. Half of the pilots were affected during their primary training course. Most accidents were caused by inflight error of judgement--especially incorrect estimation of wind conditions--and further the choice of unfavourable landing sites. In contrast to previous injury-reports, only one equipment failure could be noted, but often the equipment was not corresponding with the experience and the weight of the pilot. To reduce the frequency of paragliding-injuries an accurate choice of equipment and an increased attention to environmental factors is mandatory. Furthermore an education-program regarding the attitude and intelligence of the pilot should be included in training courses.

  12. Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Galstyan I.A.


    Full Text Available Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS, developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

  13. Retrospective self-reports of childhood accidents causing unconsciousness in phallometrically diagnosed pedophiles.

    Blanchard, Ray; Christensen, Bruce K; Strong, Scott M; Cantor, James M; Kuban, Michael E; Klassen, Philip; Dickey, Robert; Blak, Thomas


    The present study investigated whetherhead injuries in childhood might increase the risk of pedophilia in males. The subjects were 1206 patients referred to a clinical sexology service for assessment of their erotic preferences. These were classified, on the basis of phallometric test results, as pedophilic (n = 413) or nonpedophilic (n = 793). Information regarding early head injuries, other signs of possible neurodevelopmental problems, and parental histories of psychiatric treatment were collected with self-administered questionnaires. The results showed that childhood accidents that resulted in unconsciousness were associated with pedophilia and with lower levels of intelligence and education. These associations were statistically significant for accidents that occurred before the age of 6, but not for accidents that occurred between the ages of 6 and 12. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental perturbations in early childhood may increase the risk of pedophilia. They are also, however, compatible with the alternative explanation that prior neurodevelopmental problems lead to accident-proneness and head injury, on the one hand, and to pedophilia, on the other, and that head injury has no causal influence on pedophilia. A secondary finding was that the pedophiles were more likely to report that their mothers had undergone psychiatric treatment. This finding suggests that pedophilia may be influenced by genetic factors, which are manifested in women as an increased risk of psychiatric problems, and in their sons, as an increased risk of erotic interest in children.

  14. Serum Antibody Response to Five Streptococcus pneumoniae Proteins during Acute Otitis Media in Otitis Prone and Non-Otitis Prone Children

    Kaur, Ravinder; Casey, Janet R.; Pichichero, Michael E.


    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) is one of the common bacteria responsible for episodic acute otitis media (AOM; non-otitis prone), recurrent AOM (otitis-prone) and AOM treatment failure (AOMTF) in children. Objective From a population of 268 children we sought to compare the serum IgG antibody titers to five different Spn proteins (PhtD, LytB, PcpA, PhtE and Ply) that are vaccine candidates in children with episodic AOM (n=34), who were otitis prone (n=35), and who had AOMTF (n=25) caused by Spn. Methods Antibody was quantitated by ELISA. Results At their acute AOM visit, anti-PhtD, -LytB, -PhtE and −Ply IgG antibody titers in otitis-prone children were significantly lower compared to non-otitis prone children (p otitis-prone, AOMTF and non-otitis prone children had no significant change in geometric mean IgG antibody titers against the five proteins (except for PhtE in children with AOMTF), but detailed analysis showed that about one-third of the children in each cohort had a 2-fold rise in antibody to the studied antigens. While non-otitis prone children had significant increases (p otitis-prone children either failed to show rises or the rises were significantly less than the non-otitis prone children. Conclusion Otitis-prone and AOMTF children mount less of an IgG serum antibody response than non-otitis prone children to Spn proteins following AOM and nasopharyngeal colonization. PMID:21487325

  15. [Accidents in travellers - the hidden epidemic].

    Walz, Alexander; Hatz, Christoph


    The risk of malaria and other communicable diseases is well addressed in pre-travel advice. Accidents are usually less discussed. Thus, we aimed at assessing accident figures for the Swiss population, based on data of the register from 2004 to 2008 of the largest Swiss accident insurance organization (SUVA). More than 139'000 accidents over 5 years showed that 65 % of the accidents overseas are injuries, and 24 % are caused by poisoning or harm by cold, heat or air pressure. Most accidents happened during leisure activities or sports. More than one third of the non-lethal and more than 50 % of the fatal accidents happened in Asia. More than three-quarters of non-lethal accidents take place in people between 25 and 54 years. One out of 74 insured persons has an accident abroad per year. Despite of many analysis short-comings of the data set with regard to overseas travel, the figures document the underestimated burden of disease caused by accidents abroad and should affect the given pre-health advice.

  16. Severe Accident Recriticality Analyses (SARA)

    Frid, W. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Hoejerup, F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Puska, E.K. [VTT Energy, Helsinki (Finland); Nilsson, Lars [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Sjoevall, H. [Teoliisuuden Voima Oy (Finland)


    Recriticality in a BWR has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In a BWR, the B{sub 4}C control rods would melt and relocate from the core before the fuel during core uncovery and heat-up. If electric power returns during this time-window unborated water from ECCS systems will start to reflood the partly control rod free core. Recriticality might take place for which the only mitigating mechanisms are the Doppler effect and void formation. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management measures, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: 1. the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst, 2. the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst and 3. containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core state initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality - both superprompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation - for the studied range of parameters, i. e. with core uncovery and heat-up to maximum core temperatures around 1800 K and water flow rates of 45 kg/s to 2000 kg/s injected into the downcomer. Since the recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core the power densities are high which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal/g, was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding

  17. 44 CFR 60.23 - Planning considerations for mudslide (i.e., mudflow)-prone areas.


    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Planning considerations for... Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Additional Considerations in Managing Flood-Prone, Mudslide (i.e., Mudflow)-Prone and Flood-Related Erosion-Prone Areas § 60.23 Planning considerations for...

  18. Predicting Debris-Slide Locations in Northwestern California

    Mark E. Reid; Stephen D. Ellen; Dianne L. Brien; Juan de la Fuente; James N. Falls; Billie G. Hicks; Eric C. Johnson


    We tested four topographic models for predicting locations of debris-slide sources: 1) slope; 2) proximity to stream; 3) SHALSTAB with "standard" parameters; and 4) debris-slide-prone landforms, which delineates areas similar to "inner gorge" and "headwall swale" using experience-based rules. These approaches were compared in three diverse...

  19. [Spatial analysis of road traffic accidents with fatalities in Spain, 2008-2011].

    Gómez-Barroso, Diana; López-Cuadrado, Teresa; Llácer, Alicia; Palmera Suárez, Rocío; Fernández-Cuenca, Rafael


    To estimate the areas of greatest density of road traffic accidents with fatalities at 24 hours per km(2)/year in Spain from 2008 to 2011, using a geographic information system. Accidents were geocodified using the road and kilometer points where they occurred. The average nearest neighbor was calculated to detect possible clusters and to obtain the bandwidth for kernel density estimation. A total of 4775 accidents were analyzed, of which 73.3% occurred on conventional roads. The estimated average distance between accidents was 1,242 meters, and the average expected distance was 10,738 meters. The nearest neighbor index was 0.11, indicating that there were aggregations of accidents in space. A map showing the kernel density was obtained with a resolution of 1 km(2), which identified the areas of highest density. This methodology allowed a better approximation to locating accident risks by taking into account kilometer points. The map shows areas where there was a greater density of accidents. This could be an advantage in decision-making by the relevant authorities. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China: Characteristics and Lessons for Risk Management

    Yao, Hong; Zhang, Tongzhu; Liu, Bo; Lu, Feng; Fang, Shurong; You, Zhen


    Understanding historical accidents is important for accident prevention and risk mitigation; however, there are no public databases of pollution accidents in China, and no detailed information regarding such incidents is readily available. Thus, 653 representative cases of surface water pollution accidents in China were identified and described as a function of time, location, materials involved, origin, and causes. The severity and other features of the accidents, frequency and quantities of chemicals involved, frequency and number of people poisoned, frequency and number of people affected, frequency and time for which pollution lasted, and frequency and length of pollution zone were effectively used to value and estimate the accumulated probabilities. The probabilities of occurrences of various types based on origin and causes were also summarized based on these observations. The following conclusions can be drawn from these analyses: (1) There was a high proportion of accidents involving multi-district boundary regions and drinking water crises, indicating that more attention should be paid to environmental risk prevention and the mitigation of such incidents. (2) A high proportion of accidents originated from small-sized chemical plants, indicating that these types of enterprises should be considered during policy making. (3) The most common cause (49.8 % of the total) was intentional acts (illegal discharge); accordingly, efforts to increase environmental consciousness in China should be enhanced.

  1. Setup accuracy for prone and supine whole breast irradiation

    Mulliez, Thomas; Vercauteren, Tom; Greveling, Annick van; Speleers, Bruno; Neve, Wilfried de; Veldeman, Liv [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent (Belgium); Gulyban, Akos [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent (Belgium); University Hospital Liege, Department of Radiotherapy, Liege (Belgium)


    To evaluate cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) based setup accuracy and margins for prone and supine whole breast irradiation (WBI). Setup accuracy was evaluated on 3559 CBCT scans of 242 patients treated with WBI and uncertainty margins were calculated using the van Herk formula. Uni- and multivariate analysis on individual margins was performed for age, body mass index (BMI) and cup size. The population-based margin in vertical (VE), lateral (LA) and longitudinal (LO) directions was 10.4/9.4/9.4 mm for the 103 supine and 10.5/22.4/13.7 mm for the 139 prone treated patients, being significantly (p < 0.01) different for the LA and LO directions. Multivariate analysis identified a significant (p < 0.05) correlation between BMI and the LO margin in supine position and the VE/LA margin in prone position. In this series, setup accuracy is significantly worse in prone compared to supine position for the LA and LO directions. However, without proper image-guidance, uncertainty margins of about 1 cm are also necessary for supine WBI. For patients with a higher BMI, larger margins are required. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Arbeit war es, die interfraktionelle Repositionierungsgenauigkeit in Bauchlage (BL) versus Rueckenlage (RL) bei Ganzbrustbestrahlung (GBB) mittels Cone-Beam-CT (CBCT) zu bestimmen, um die notwendigen PTV-Sicherheitsabstaende zu definieren. Die Repositionierungsgenauigkeit wurde basierend an 3559 CBCT-Scans von 242 mit GBB behandelten Patienten ausgewertet. Die PTV-Sicherheitsabstaende wurden unter Verwendung der ''van-Herk''-Formel berechnet. Uni- und multivariable Analysen wurden fuer Sicherheitsabstaende in jede Richtung auf Basis von Alter, Body-Mass-Index (BMI) und Koerbchengroesse durchgefuehrt. Die basierend auf den taeglichen CBCT-Verschiebungen berechneten PTV-Sicherheitsabstaende betrugen in anteroposteriorer (AP), lateraler (LT oder links-rechts) und kraniokaudaler (CC) Richtung 10,4/9,4/9,4 mm fuer die RL (103 Patienten) und

  2. Mutagenesis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: absence of error-prone repair

    Campbell, L.A.; Yasbin, R.E.


    The lethal and mutagenic effects of various mutagens on Neisseria gonorrhoeae were investigated. Lethality studies demonstrated that N. gonorrhoeae was relatively sensitive to ethyl methanesulfonate, UV light, and methyl methanesulfonate. Although N. gonorrhoeae was readily mutated by ethyl methanesulfonate and N-methyl-n'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine for the three genetic markers assayed, no increase in the mutation frequency was observed for any of the selective markers after UV irradiation of methyl methanesulfonate treatment. These results suggest than N. gonorrhoeae lacks an error-prone repair mechanism.

  3. Prone Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: 5-Year Results

    Osa, Etin-Osa O.; DeWyngaert, Keith [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Roses, Daniel [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Speyer, James [Department of Medical Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Guth, Amber; Axelrod, Deborah [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Fenton Kerimian, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Goldberg, Judith D. [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Formenti, Silvia C., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States)


    Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a technique of prone breast radiation therapy delivered by a regimen of accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concurrent boost to the tumor bed. Methods and Materials: Between 2003 and 2006, 404 patients with stage I-II breast cancer were prospectively enrolled into 2 consecutive protocols, institutional trials 03-30 and 05-181, that used the same regimen of 40.5 Gy/15 fractions delivered to the index breast over 3 weeks, with a concomitant daily boost to the tumor bed of 0.5 Gy (total dose 48 Gy). All patients were treated after segmental mastectomy and had negative margins and nodal assessment. Patients were set up prone: only if lung or heart volumes were in the field was a supine setup attempted and chosen if found to better spare these organs. Results: Ninety-two percent of patients were treated prone, 8% supine. Seventy-two percent had stage I, 28% stage II invasive breast cancer. In-field lung volume ranged from 0 to 228.27 cm{sup 3}, mean 19.65 cm{sup 3}. In-field heart volume for left breast cancer patients ranged from 0 to 21.24 cm{sup 3}, mean 1.59 cm{sup 3}. There was no heart in the field for right breast cancer patients. At a median follow-up of 5 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence of isolated ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence was 0.82% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65%-1.04%). The 5-year cumulative incidence of regional recurrence was 0.53% (95% CI 0.41%-0.69%), and the 5-year overall cumulative death rate was 1.28% (95% CI 0.48%-3.38%). Eighty-two percent (95% CI 77%-85%) of patients judged their final cosmetic result as excellent/good. Conclusions: Prone accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concomitant boost results in excellent local control and optimal sparing of heart and lung, with good cosmesis. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 1005, a phase 3, multi-institutional, randomized trial is ongoing and is evaluating the equivalence of a similar dose and

  4. Quantifying the risk of extreme aviation accidents

    Das, Kumer Pial; Dey, Asim Kumer


    Air travel is considered a safe means of transportation. But when aviation accidents do occur they often result in fatalities. Fortunately, the most extreme accidents occur rarely. However, 2014 was the deadliest year in the past decade causing 111 plane crashes, and among them worst four crashes cause 298, 239, 162 and 116 deaths. In this study, we want to assess the risk of the catastrophic aviation accidents by studying historical aviation accidents. Applying a generalized Pareto model we predict the maximum fatalities from an aviation accident in future. The fitted model is compared with some of its competitive models. The uncertainty in the inferences are quantified using simulated aviation accident series, generated by bootstrap resampling and Monte Carlo simulations.




    Full Text Available This paper discusses about designing a Smart Display and Control [SDC] which will monitor the zone and maintains the specified speed in the zone levels, which runs on an embedded system. This system includes three modules; automatic speed control module, accident detection and information sending module and security enabling module. Automatic speed control module includes RF transmitter placed in specific location and RF receiver in the vehicle. Accident detection module includes GSM and GPS technology. Security enabling module includes sensory units which ensures the condition of seat belt and the driver. This module includes alcohol sensor and eye sensor. The smart display and control is composed of two separate units: Zone status Transmitter unit and Receiver (speed Display and Control Unit.

  6. Injuries to pedestrians in road traffic accidents.

    Atkins, R. M.; Turner, W H; Duthie, R. B.; Wilde, B. R.


    Although there have been many reports on injuries to occupants of cars in road traffic accidents, there have been few prospective studies of injuries to pedestrians in such accidents. For this reason a two year prospective study of pedestrians in road traffic accidents in the Oxford region was carried out. The incidence of death in pedestrians was significantly higher than in car occupants or motorcyclists. The principal determinant of death was the weight of the vehicle concerned. The most c...

  7. Why Airplanes Crash: Causes of Accidents Worldwide

    Oster, Clinton V.; John S. Strong; Zorn, Kurt


    In this paper, we report the results of a detailed examination of the causes of 700 fatal aviation accidents that occurred worldwide between 1990 and 2006 in commercial passenger service. We look at both scheduled and nonscheduled and both domestic and international service. We also categorize the accident aircraft as large jets, regional and medium jets, small jets, turboprops, and piston powered aircraft. We find that the mix of causes of those accidents vary substantially across regions of...

  8. Is "Safety-in-numbers" theory applies to the pattern of pedestrian accidents in Seoul, South Korea.

    Choi, Y.; Yoon, H.


    Every year, about 1.25 million people die of vehicle-related accidents, among which half are pedestrians with higher vulnerability: pedestrian, cyclists and motorcyclist (World Health Organization, 2016). This urges city governments in the world to strive for pedestrian safety and to apply diverse theories to transportation planning and design. The common belief is that the number of pedestrian accidents is directly and positively associated with the volume of pedestrian, however, another hypothesis, called "safety-in-numbers" effect, tells an opposite story in that accident rates declines with increase of the volume of pedestrian. In this study, we examine first, whether the safety-in-numbers theory applies to the pattern of pedestrian accidents in Seoul, and second, further investigate environmental factors that are associated with the pedestrian safety. On the first count, we use geospatial statistical analyses of the multi-year pedestrian accident data collected by Korea Road Traffic Authority (KoRoad) and the pedestrian volume data collected by SK Telecom (SKT). With Kernel Density Estimation and Bivariate Local Moran's I, we identify spatial clustering of pedestrian accidents in the city, and examine whether those locations match with concentrations of pedestrian volume. On the second count, we use statistical analysis, tobit, poisson and negative binomial regression to investigate relationships between pedestrian volume and number of pedestrian accident for the two types of geographic areas by the results of the aforementioned analysis; Area 1- locations of high volume of pedestrian with high number of accident, Area 2- locations of high volume of pedestrian with low number of accident. For environmental factors potentially explaining pedestrian accidents, we include land use composition, number of traffic lanes, crosswalk presence, pedestrian signal, traffic island and sidewalk width in our analysis. This research will be valuable in city governments

  9. Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control (HIRARC Accidents at Power Plant

    Ahmad Asmalia Che


    Full Text Available Power plant had a reputation of being one of the most hazardous workplace environments. Workers in the power plant face many safety risks due to the nature of the job. Although power plants are safer nowadays since the industry has urged the employer to improve their employees’ safety, the employees still stumble upon many hazards thus accidents at workplace. The aim of the present study is to investigate work related accidents at power plants based on HIRARC (Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control process. The data were collected at two coal-fired power plant located in Malaysia. The finding of the study identified hazards and assess risk relate to accidents occurred at the power plants. The finding of the study suggested the possible control measures and corrective actions to reduce or eliminate the risk that can be used by power plant in preventing accidents from occurred

  10. Absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Inoue, K; Hosoda, M; Fukushi, M; Furukawa, M; Tokonami, S


    The monitoring of absorbed dose rate in air has been carried out continually at various locations in metropolitan Tokyo after the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. While the data obtained before the accident are needed to more accurately assess the effects of radionuclide contamination from the accident, detailed data for metropolitan Tokyo obtained before the accident have not been reported. A car-borne survey of the absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was carried out during August to September 2003. The average absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was 49±6 nGy h(-1). The absorbed dose rate in air in western Tokyo was higher compared with that in central Tokyo. Here, if the absorbed dose rate indoors in Tokyo is equivalent to that outdoors, the annual effective dose would be calculated as 0.32 mSv y(-1).

  11. Pattern Recognition and Classification of Fatal Traffic Accidents in Israel A Neural Network Approach

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo


    on 1,793 fatal traffic accidents occurred during the period between 2003 and 2006 and applies Kohonen and feed-forward back-propagation neural networks with the objective of extracting from the data typical patterns and relevant factors. Kohonen neural networks reveal five compelling accident patterns....... Feed-forward back-propagation neural networks indicate that sociodemographic characteristics of drivers and victims, accident location, and period of the day are extremely relevant factors. Accident patterns suggest that countermeasures are necessary for identified problems concerning mainly vulnerable...... road users such as pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists and young drivers. A “safe-system” integrating a system approach for the design of countermeasures and a monitoring process of performance indicators might address the priorities highlighted by the neural networks....


    S.O. Bader


    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  13. Systematics of Reconstructed Process Facility Criticality Accidents

    Pruvost, N.L.; McLaughlin, T.P.; Monahan, S.P.


    The systematics of the characteristics of twenty-one criticality accidents occurring in nuclear processing facilities of the Russian Federation, the United States, and the United Kingdom are examined. By systematics the authors mean the degree of consistency or agreement between the factual parameters reported for the accidents and the experimentally known conditions for criticality. The twenty-one reported process criticality accidents are not sufficiently well described to justify attempting detailed neutronic modeling. However, results of classic hand calculations confirm the credibility of the reported accident conditions.

  14. Methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions

    Elvik, Rune


    This paper proposes methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions. An accident modification function is a mathematical function describing systematic variation in the effects of road safety measures. The paper describes ten guidelines. An example is given of how to use...... limitations in developing accident modification functions are the small number of good evaluation studies and the often huge variation in estimates of effect. It is therefore still not possible to develop accident modification functions for very many road safety measures. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...

  15. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria.

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef


    The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction.

  16. Aerospace Accident - Injury Autopsy Data System -

    Department of Transportation — The Aerospace Accident Injury Autopsy Database System will provide the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) Aerospace Medical Research Team (AMRT) the ability to...

  17. Accident Management in VVER-1000

    F. D'Auria


    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the investigation study on accident management in VVER-1000 reactor type conducted in the framework of a European Commission funded project. The mentioned study involved both experimental and computational fields. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the main findings from the execution of a wide-range analysis focused on AM in VVER-1000 with main regard to the qualification of computational tools and the proposal for an optimal AM strategy for this kind of NPP.

  18. HTGR severe accident sequence analysis

    Harrington, R.M.; Ball, S.J.; Kornegay, F.C.


    Thermal-hydraulic, fission product transport, and atmospheric dispersion calculations are presented for hypothetical severe accident release paths at the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). Off-site radiation exposures are calculated for assumed release of 100% of the 24 hour post-shutdown core xenon and krypton inventory and 5.5% of the iodine inventory. The results show conditions under which dose avoidance measures would be desirable and demonstrate the importance of specific release characteristics such as effective release height. 7 tables.

  19. Accident Prediction Models for Akure – Ondo Carriageway, Ondo ...


    Accident data on the 52km Akure-Ondo Carriageway and Spot Speed data were collected ... fatal accident and 62% non-fatal accident, However, the regression analysis ... corresponding vehicle kilometre of travel, commerce, and transportation ... of accident can provide insight into the causes that contributed to accident.

  20. Ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization in prone position

    Sofi Khalid


    Full Text Available Central venous catheterization (CVC is a commonly performed intraoperative procedure. Traditionally, CVC placement is performed blindly using anatomic landmarks as a guide to vessel position. Real-time ultrasound provides the operator the benefit of visualizing the target vein and the surrounding anatomic structures prior to and during the catheter insertion, thereby minimizing complications and increasing speed of placement. A 22-year-old male underwent open reduction and internal fixation of acetabulum fracture in prone position. Excessive continuous bleeding intraoperatively warranted placement of CVC in right internal jugular vein (IJV, which was not possible in prone position without the help of ultrasound. Best view of right IJV was obtained and CVC was placed using real-time ultrasound without complications. Ultrasound-guided CVC placement can be done in atypical patient positions where traditional anatomic landmark technique has no role. Use of ultrasound not only increases the speed of placement but also reduces complications known with the traditional blind technique.

  1. Posição prona Prone position

    Kelly Cristina de Albuquerque Paiva


    Full Text Available A posição prona é uma manobra utilizada para combater a hipoxemia nos pacientes com síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. Apesar de hoje ser considerada um modo eficaz de melhorar a oxigenação, os mecanismos fisiológicos que levam à melhora da função respiratória ainda não estão completamente esclarecidos. O objetivo principal desta revisão é discutir os aspectos fisiológicos e clínicos da posição prona na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo.The prone position is a maneuver used to combat hypoxemia in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Despite the fact that this is currently considered an efficient way to improve oxygenation, the physiological mechanisms that bring about improvements in respiratory function are not yet fully understood. The aim of this review is to discuss the physiological and clinical aspects of the prone position in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  2. [Reactance proneness, collectivism, uniqueness, and resistance to persuasion].

    Imajo, Shuzo


    This study examined the reliability and validity of Japanese psychological reactance scales. A total of 167 undergraduates completed a questionnaire of Therapeutic Reactance Scale (TRS), the Hong Reactance Scale (HRS), the Uniqueness Scale, and the Collectivism Scale. They also received messages involving three persuasion situations that were either high or low in terms of threat, and were asked to describe their reactions to them. The author categorized the reactions into three: acceptance, indirect resistance, and direct resistance. Reliabilities of the reactance scales were satisfactory. Their scores positively correlated with uniqueness scores, and negatively with collectivism scores. Those high on reactance proneness were less persuaded in two of the three situations. But in the third, an HRS by threat interaction was observed, indicating that only those who were high on reactance proneness under the high-threat condition showed resistance to persuasion. These results suggest that the Japanese versions of reactance scale were reliable and valid. However, the assertiveness aspect of TRS may not be appropriate for the definition of reactance. The influence of culture on psychological reactance was also discussed.

  3. Predicting Fault-Prone Modules: A Comparative Study

    Jia, Hao; Shu, Fengdi; Yang, Ye; Wang, Qing

    Offshore and outsourced software development is a rapidly increasing trend in global software business environment. Predicting fault-prone modules in outsourced software product may allow both parties to establish mutually satisfactory, cost-effective testing strategies and product acceptance criteria, especially in iterative transitions. In this paper, based on industrial software releases data, we conduct an empirical study to compare ten classifiers over eight sets of code attributes, and provide recommendations to aid both the client and vendor to assess the products’ quality through defect prediction. Overall, a generally high accuracy is observed, which confirms the usefulness of the metric-based classification. Furthermore, two classification techniques, Random Forest and Bayesian Belief Network, outperform the others in terms of predictive accuracy; in more detail, the former is the most cost-effective and the latter is of the lowest fault-prone module escaping rate. Our study also concludes that code metrics including size, traditional complexity, and object-oriented complexity perform fairly well.

  4. Seismic hazard assessment and pattern recognition of earthquake prone areas in the Po Plain (Italy)

    Gorshkov, Alexander; Peresan, Antonella; Soloviev, Alexander; Panza, Giuliano F.


    . The identified earthquake prone areas provide first-order systematic information that may significantly contribute to seismic hazard assessment in the Italian territory. The information about the possible location of strong earthquakes provided by the morphostructural analysis, in fact, can be naturally incorporated in the neo-deterministic procedure for seismic hazard assessment (NDSHA), so as to fill in possible gaps in known seismicity. Moreover, the space information about earthquake prone areas can be fruitfully combined with the space-time information provided by the quantitative analysis of the seismic flow, so as to identify the priority areas (with linear dimensions of few tens kilometers), where the probability of a strong earthquake is relatively high, for detailed local scale studies. The new indications about the seismogenic potential obtained from this study, although less accurate than detailed fault studies, have the advantage of being independent on past seismicity information, since they rely on the systematic and quantitative analysis of the available geological and morphostructural data. Thus, this analysis appears particularly useful in areas where historical information is scarce; special attention should be paid to seismogenic nodes that are not related with known active faults or past earthquakes.

  5. Simple Method for Assessing Spread of Flood Prone Areas under Historical and Future Rainfall in the Upper Citarum Watershed

    Bambang Dwi Dasanto


    Full Text Available From 1931 to 2010 the flood frequency in Upper Citarum Watershed had increased sharply indicating the decline of the wateshed quality. With the change of climate, risk of the flood may get worse. This study aims to determine effective rainfall that caused flooding and to evaluate the impact of future rainfall changes on the flood prone areas. Effective rainfall which contributes to direct runoff (DRO and leads to flooding was determined using regression equation relating the DRO and cumulative rainfall of a number of consecutive days. Mapping the flood prone areas was developed using the GIS techniques. Results showed that the effective rainfall which caused flooding was the rainfall accumulation for four consecutive days before occurrence of peak of DRO. The percentage of accuracy between estimated and actual flood maps was about 76.9%. According to historical rainfall, the flood prone areas spreaded at right and left directions of the Upstream Citarum River. If this area experiences the climate change, the frequency and flood extents will increase. This study can only identify locations and possibility of flood occurrence but it cannot demonstrate widespread of flood inundation precisely. However, this simple approach can evaluate the flood frequency and intensity quite well.

  6. [Multiple injuries in mass accidents].

    Wondrák, E


    The treatment starts with reanimation, managing the shock, followed by life-saving surgery on the central nervous system, chest, abdomen, large blood vessels and the uropoietic system. From the very beginning the therapy should be conducted on an intradisciplinary basis, first with the anaesthesiologist, later with other specialists as required. Once the patient's life has been saved, treatment of eyes, hands and systematic attention to extremities should follow. Shock has to be managed within 24 hours. Luxations of large joints should be reposed on the date of injury, open fractures closed, all fractures immobilized in favourable position. No extension should be applied in patients suffering from brain injuries; fractures of the femur should be fixed surgically by a second team in the course of the neurosurgical operation. A stomatologist's assistance makes general anaesthesia possible even with fractures of the jaw. In mass accidents the therapeutic plan for the polytraumatized should be fixed on the following day. A mass accident involving 35 injured treated within two and a half hours demonstrates this procedure in 7 polytraumatized persons.

  7. Radiological accidents balance in medicine; Bilan des accidents radiologiques en medecine

    Nenot, J.C.


    This work deals with the radiological accidents in medicine. In medicine, the radiation accidents on medical personnel and patients can be the result of over dosage and bad focusing of radiotherapy sealed sources. Sometimes, the accidents, if they are unknown during a time enough for the source to be spread and to expose a lot of persons (in the case of source dismantling for instance) can take considerable dimensions. Others accidents can come from bad handling of linear accelerators and from radionuclide kinetics in some therapies. Some examples of accidents are given. (O.L.). 11 refs.

  8. Key Characteristics of Combined Accident including TLOFW accident for PSA Modeling

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)


    The conventional PSA techniques cannot adequately evaluate all events. The conventional PSA models usually focus on single internal events such as DBAs, the external hazards such as fire, seismic. However, the Fukushima accident of Japan in 2011 reveals that very rare event is necessary to be considered in the PSA model to prevent the radioactive release to environment caused by poor treatment based on lack of the information, and to improve the emergency operation procedure. Especially, the results from PSA can be used to decision making for regulators. Moreover, designers can consider the weakness of plant safety based on the quantified results and understand accident sequence based on human actions and system availability. This study is for PSA modeling of combined accidents including total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident. The TLOFW accident is a representative accident involving the failure of cooling through secondary side. If the amount of heat transfer is not enough due to the failure of secondary side, the heat will be accumulated to the primary side by continuous core decay heat. Transients with loss of feedwater include total loss of feedwater accident, loss of condenser vacuum accident, and closure of all MSIVs. When residual heat removal by the secondary side is terminated, the safety injection into the RCS with direct primary depressurization would provide alternative heat removal. This operation is called feed and bleed (F and B) operation. Combined accidents including TLOFW accident are very rare event and partially considered in conventional PSA model. Since the necessity of F and B operation is related to plant conditions, the PSA modeling for combined accidents including TLOFW accident is necessary to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities.The PSA is significant to assess the risk of NPPs, and to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities. Even though the combined accident is very rare event, the consequence of combined

  9. A Serious Game for Traffic Accident Investigators

    Binsubaih, Ahmed; Maddock, Steve; Romano, Daniela


    In Dubai, traffic accidents kill one person every 37 hours and injure one person every 3 hours. Novice traffic accident investigators in the Dubai police force are expected to "learn by doing" in this intense environment. Currently, they use no alternative to the real world in order to practice. This paper argues for the use of an…

  10. Occupational blood exposure accidents in the Netherlands.

    Wijk, P.T.L. van; Schneeberger, P.M.; Heimeriks, K.; Boland, G.J.; Karagiannis, I.; Geraedts, J.; Ruijs, W.L.M.


    BACKGROUND: To make proper evaluation of prevention policies possible, data on the incidence and associated medical costs of occupational blood exposure accidents in the Netherlands are needed. METHODS: Descriptive analysis of blood exposure accidents and risk estimates for occupational groups. Cost

  11. Fatal traffic accidents and forensic medicine

    Kazuhiko Kibayashi


    Full Text Available In the event of a traffic accident fatality, the death is reported as an “unusual death,” an inquest is conducted, and, if necessary, a forensic autopsy is performed to prove any causal relationship between the accident and the death, identify the vehicle at fault, and determine the cause of the accident. A forensic autopsy of a traffic accident fatality needs to both determine the cause of death and identify the mechanism of injury, an analytical task that requires observation of three major traffic accident factors: the body, the vehicles involved, and the scene of the accident. Also crucial to determining the cause of death is the process of looking into whether the people involved in the accident had any diseases that might affect their driving performance or were under the influence of alcohol or drugs. In order to reduce the number of people killed in traffic accidents, it will be important to promote joint research uniting forensic medicine, clinical medicine, automotive engineering, and road engineering, take measures to limit the impact of inebriated pedestrians and pedestrians suffering from dementia, and ensure proper screening of alcohol and illegal drug consumption in drivers.

  12. Squeal Those Tires! Automobile-Accident Reconstruction.

    Caples, Linda Griffin


    Methods use to reconstruct traffic accidents provide settings for real life applications for students in precalculus, mathematical analysis, or trigonometry. Described is the investigation of an accident in conjunction with the local Highway Patrol Academy integrating physics, vector, and trigonometry. Class findings were compared with those of…

  13. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36.513 Section 36.513 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention,...

  14. Chapter 6: Accidents; Capitulo 6: Acidentes



    The chapter 6 talks about the accidents with radiators all over the world, specifically, the Stimos, in Italy, 1975, San Salvador, in El Salvador, 1989, Soreq, in Israel, 1990, Nesvizh, in Byelorussian, 1991, in Illinois, US, 1965, in Maryland, US, 1991, Hanoi, Vietnam, 1992, Fleurus, in Belgium, 2006. Comments on the accidents and mainly the learned lessons.

  15. 22 CFR 102.8 - Reporting accidents.


    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND OTHER FUNCTIONS CIVIL AVIATION United States Aircraft Accidents Abroad § 102.8 Reporting accidents. (a) To airline and Civil Aeronautics Administration representatives. If a scheduled United States air carrier is involved the airline representatives concerned will...

  16. An introduction to serious nuclear accident chemistry

    Mark Russell St. John Foreman


    A review of the chemistry occurring inside a nuclear power plant during a serious reactor accident is presented. This includes some aspects of the behavior of nuclear fuel, its cladding, cesium and iodine. This review concentrates on the chemistry of an accident in a water-cooled reactor loaded with uranium dioxide or mixed metal oxide fuel.

  17. Global estimates of fatal occupational accidents.

    Takala, J


    Data on occupational accidents are not available from all countries in the world. Furthermore, underreporting, limited coverage by reporting and compensation schemes, and non-harmonized accident recording and notification systems undermine efforts to obtain worldwide information on occupational accidents. This paper presents a method and new estimated global figures of fatal accidents at work by region. The fatal occupational accident rates reported to the International Labour Office are extended to the total employed workforce in countries and regions. For areas not covered by the reported information, rates from other countries that have similar or comparable conditions are applied. In 1994, an average estimated fatal occupational accident rate in the whole world was 14.0 per 100,000 workers, and the total estimated number of fatal occupational accidents was 335,000. The rates are different for individual countries and regions and for separate branches of economic activity. In conclusion, fatal occupational accident figures are higher than previously estimated. The new estimates can be gradually improved by obtaining and adding data from countries where information is not yet available. Sectoral estimates for at least key economic branches in individual countries would further increase the accuracy.

  18. Mean-field theory for car accidents

    Huang, Ding-Wei; Tseng, Wei-Chung


    We study analytically the occurrence of car accidents in the Nagel-Schreckenberg traffic model. We obtain exact results for the occurrence of car accidents Pac as a function of the car density ρ and the degree of stochastic braking p1 in the case of speed limit vmax=1. Various quantities are calculated analytically. The nontrivial limit p1-->0 is discussed.

  19. Pressure Transducer Locations

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Files are located here, defining the locations of the pressure transducers on the HIRENASD model. These locations also correspond to the locations that analysts...

  20. Mapping radon-prone areas - a geophysical approach

    Shirav, M. [Geological Survey of Israel, Jerusalem (Israel); Vulkan, U. [Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne (Israel)


    Radon-prone areas in Israel were mapped on the basis of direct measurements of radon ({sup 222}Rn) in the soil/rock gas of all exposed geological units, supported by the accumulated knowledge of local stratigraphy and sub-surface geology. Measurements were carried out by a modified alpha-track detection system, resulting in high radon levels mainly in rocks of the Senonian-Paleocene-aged Mount Scopus Group, comprised of chert-bearing marly chalks, rich in phosphorite which acts as the major uranium source. Issues of source depth, seasonal variations and comparison with indoor radon levels are addressed as well. This approach could be applied to other similar terrains, especially the Mediterranean Phosphate Belt. (orig.)

  1. Desire for control, locus of control, and proneness to depression.

    Burger, J M


    Two personality constructs, desire for control and locus of control, were related to depression among college students. Measures of levels of depression, desire for control, and locus of control were taken from subjects. Approximately six months later 71% of these subjects returned a questionnaire concerning their experiences with depression during that six-month period. It was found that locus of control scores, particularly the extent to which subjects perceived that their lives were controlled by chance, were significantly related to the depression levels. It was also found that high desire for control subjects who held external perceptions of control were most likely to seek nonprofessional help for depression. In addition, high desire for control subjects who perceived their lives as generally controlled by chance were most likely to have suicidal thoughts. The results are interpreted in terms of a general style that may promote a proneness to depression for certain individuals.


    Branislav M Ćorović


    Full Text Available We are aware of a large number of marine accidents that result in numerous casualties and even deaths and substantial negative environmental effects. The objective of this paper is to indicate factors that contribute to human errors which is identified as the most frequent cause to marine accidents. Despite rapid technological development and safety legislation, this paper identifies the human factor as the waekest link in maritime safety system. This analysis could lead to decrease of vessel accidents. In addition, starting from the European Maritime Safety Agency data and by linear regression model application, we have obtained the trend of number of ships involved in marine accidents as well as the trend of lives lost in marine accidents  in and around European Union waters.

  3. [Clinical examinations for the traffic accident patients].

    Hitosugi, Masahito


    Traffic accident is a leading cause of unintentional death and about six-thousands annually died in Japan. As about one-million of persons suffer from traffic injuries, most of them seek medical attention. Therefore, medical staffs have to find the injuries accurately and treat immediately. Furthermore, the cause of accident should also be considered; why the accident was occurred, human error of the driver? To solve these problems, clinical examinations were needed. Medical staffs have to understand the characteristics of the traffic injuries: severe and multiple blunt injuries, popular injuries can be estimated with considering the pattern of the accident. Because some of the accidents are occurred when the driver is under the influence of alcohol and other drugs, screening of these subjects should be performed. Because the public is largely unaware of the preventable nature of traffic injuries, in addition to diagnose and treat accurately, we medical staffs have to attend on the primary prevention of the traffic injuries.

  4. Review of Severe Accident Phenomena in LWR and Related Severe Accident Analysis Codes

    Muhammad Hashim


    Full Text Available Firstly, importance of severe accident provision is highlighted in view of Fukushima Daiichi accident. Then, extensive review of the past researches on severe accident phenomena in LWR is presented within this study. Various complexes, physicochemical and radiological phenomena take place during various stages of the severe accidents of Light Water Reactor (LWR plants. The review deals with progression of the severe accidents phenomena by dividing into core degradation phenomena in reactor vessel and post core melt phenomena in the containment. The development of various computer codes to analyze these severe accidents phenomena is also summarized in the review. Lastly, the need of international activity is stressed to assemble various severe accidents related knowledge systematically from research organs and compile them on the open knowledge base via the internet to be available worldwide.

  5. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    J. Schulz


    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  6. Single night postoperative prone posturing in idiopathic macular hole surgery.


    Purpose. To evaluate the role of postoperative prone posturing for a single night in the outcome of trans pars plana vitrectomy (TPPV) with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peel and 20% perfluoroethane (C2F6) internal tamponade for idiopathic macular hole. Methods. This prospective trial enrolled 14 eyes in 14 consecutive patients with idiopathic macular hole. All eyes underwent TPPV with vision blue assisted ILM peeling with and without phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) for macular hole. Intraocular gas tamponade (20% C2F6) was used in all cases with postoperative face-down posturing overnight and without specific posturing afterwards. LogMAR visual acuity, appearance by slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and ocular coherence tomography (OCT) scans were compared preoperatively and postoperatively to assess outcome. Results. Among 14 eyes recruited, all eyes were phakic; 50% of patients underwent concurrent phacoemulsification with IOL. The macular holes were categorized preoperatively by OCT appearance, 4 (28.57%) were stage 2, 7 (50%) were stage 3, and 3 (21.43%) were stage 4. Mean macular hole size was 0.35 disk diameters. Symptoms of macular hole had been present for an average of 6.5 months. All holes (100%) were closed 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Mean visual acuity (logMAR) was improved to 0.61 at 3 months and was stable at 6 months after the surgery. None of the eyes had worse vision postoperatively. Conclusions. Vitrectomy with ILM peeling and 20% C2F6 gas with a brief postoperative 1 night prone posturing regimen is a reasonable approach to achieve anatomic closure in idiopathic macular hole. Concurrent cataract extraction did not alter outcomes and was not associated with any additional complications.

  7. Quantitative electroencephalography as a biomarker for proneness toward developing psychosis.

    Fuggetta, Giorgio; Bennett, Matthew A; Duke, Philip A; Young, Andrew M J


    The fully dimensional approach to the relationship between schizotypal personality traits and schizophrenia describes schizotypy as a continuum throughout the general population ranging from low schizotypy (LoS) and psychological health to high schizotypy (HiS) and psychosis-proneness. However, no biological markers have yet been discovered that reliably quantify an individual's degree of schizotypy and/or psychosis. This study aimed to evaluate quantitative electroencephalographic (qEEG) measures of power spectra as potential biomarkers of the proneness towards the development of psychosis in schizotypal individuals. The resting-state oscillatory brain dynamics under eyes-closed condition from 16 LoS and 16 HiS individuals were analysed for qEEG measures of background rhythm frequency, relative power in δ, θ, low-α, high-α, low-β, high-β and low-γ frequency bands, and the high-temporal cross-correlation of power spectra between low- and high-frequency bands observed by averaging signals from whole-head EEG electrodes. HiS individuals at rest locked the thalamocortical loop in the low-α band at a lower-frequency oscillation and displayed an abnormally high level of neural synchronisation. In addition, the high-α band was found to be positively correlated with both the high-β and low-γ bands unlike LoS individuals, indicating widespread thalamocortical resonance in HiS individuals. The increase of regional alpha oscillations in HiS individuals suggests abnormal high-level attention, whereas the pattern of correlation between frequency bands resembles the thalamocortical dysrhythmia phenomenon which underlies the symptomatology of a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. These qEEG biomarkers may aid clinicians in identifying HiS individuals with a high-risk of developing psychosis.

  8. Skull registration for prone patient position using tracked ultrasound

    Underwood, Grace; Ungi, Tamas; Baum, Zachary; Lasso, Andras; Kronreif, Gernot; Fichtinger, Gabor


    PURPOSE: Tracked navigation has become prevalent in neurosurgery. Problems with registration of a patient and a preoperative image arise when the patient is in a prone position. Surfaces accessible to optical tracking on the back of the head are unreliable for registration. We investigated the accuracy of surface-based registration using points accessible through tracked ultrasound. Using ultrasound allows access to bone surfaces that are not available through optical tracking. Tracked ultrasound could eliminate the need to work (i) under the table for registration and (ii) adjust the tracker between surgery and registration. In addition, tracked ultrasound could provide a non-invasive method in comparison to an alternative method of registration involving screw implantation. METHODS: A phantom study was performed to test the feasibility of tracked ultrasound for registration. An initial registration was performed to partially align the pre-operative computer tomography data and skull phantom. The initial registration was performed by an anatomical landmark registration. Surface points accessible by tracked ultrasound were collected and used to perform an Iterative Closest Point Algorithm. RESULTS: When the surface registration was compared to a ground truth landmark registration, the average TRE was found to be 1.6+/-0.1mm and the average distance of points off the skull surface was 0.6+/-0.1mm. CONCLUSION: The use of tracked ultrasound is feasible for registration of patients in prone position and eliminates the need to perform registration under the table. The translational component of error found was minimal. Therefore, the amount of TRE in registration is due to a rotational component of error.

  9. Cold Vacuum Drying facility design basis accident analysis documentation

    CROWE, R.D.


    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR. The calculations in this document address the design basis accidents (DBAs) selected for analysis in HNF-3553, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report'', Annex B, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' The objective is to determine the quantity of radioactive particulate available for release at any point during processing at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and to use that quantity to determine the amount of radioactive material released during the DBAs. The radioactive material released is used to determine dose consequences to receptors at four locations, and the dose consequences are compared with the appropriate evaluation guidelines and release limits to ascertain the need for preventive and mitigative controls.

  10. Simulation of reactivity accidents utilizing the IGR reactor

    Asmolov, V.G.; Tukhvatulin, Sh.T.; Cherepnin, Yu.S.


    The Impulse Graphite Reactor (IGR) is located on the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site - 50 km southwest of the town of Kurchatov (Semipalatinsk-21), Republic of Kazakhstan. The reactor has been in operation since January 8, 1961. One of the principal objectives of the IGR program has been to obtain direct experimental data on the behavior of fuel elements and reactor components under accident conditions. Measurements include determination of threshold destructive characteristics. These data are then used to develop and verify the computational models used to analyze accident consequences. The IGR has a cubical core assembled from uranium-loaded graphite blocks. The core is reflected with the same graphite blocks but without the uranium loading. The reactor has a negative temperature coefficient and is operated by a system of vertical control and safety rods. Two vertical chambers, one within the reactor core and one at the core-reflector interface, provide two channels to carry out experimental studies of materials and systems under accident conditions. The central channel can accommodate hardened capsules that allow melting and destruction of fuel assemblies. The IGR parameters are provided.

  11. Techniques and Tools of NASA's Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    McDanels, Steve J.


    The Space Shuttle Columbia accident investigation was a fusion of many disciplines into a single effort. From the recovery and reconstruction of the debris, Figure 1, to the analysis, both destructive and nondestructive, of chemical and metallurgical samples, Figure 2, a multitude of analytical techniques and tools were employed. Destructive and non-destructive testing were utilized in tandem to determine if a breach in the left wing of the Orbiter had occurred, and if so, the path of the resultant high temperature plasma flow. Nondestructive analysis included topometric scanning, laser mapping, and real-time radiography. These techniques were useful in constructing a three dimensional virtual representation of the reconstruction project, specifically the left wing leading edge reinforced carbon/carbon heat protectant panels. Similarly, they were beneficial in determining where sampling should be performed on the debris. Analytic testing included such techniques as Energy Dispersive Electron Microprobe Analysis (EMPA), Electron Spectroscopy Chemical Analysis (ESCA), and X-Ray dot mapping; these techniques related the characteristics of intermetallics deposited on the leading edge of the left wing adjacent to the location of a suspected plasma breach during reentry. The methods and results of the various analyses, along with their implications into the accident, are discussed, along with the findings and recommendations of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board. Likewise, NASA's Return To Flight efforts are highlighted.

  12. Accident prediction model for public highway-rail grade crossings.

    Lu, Pan; Tolliver, Denver


    Considerable research has focused on roadway accident frequency analysis, but relatively little research has examined safety evaluation at highway-rail grade crossings. Highway-rail grade crossings are critical spatial locations of utmost importance for transportation safety because traffic crashes at highway-rail grade crossings are often catastrophic with serious consequences. The Poisson regression model has been employed to analyze vehicle accident frequency as a good starting point for many years. The most commonly applied variations of Poisson including negative binomial, and zero-inflated Poisson. These models are used to deal with common crash data issues such as over-dispersion (sample variance is larger than the sample mean) and preponderance of zeros (low sample mean and small sample size). On rare occasions traffic crash data have been shown to be under-dispersed (sample variance is smaller than the sample mean) and traditional distributions such as Poisson or negative binomial cannot handle under-dispersion well. The objective of this study is to investigate and compare various alternate highway-rail grade crossing accident frequency models that can handle the under-dispersion issue. The contributions of the paper are two-fold: (1) application of probability models to deal with under-dispersion issues and (2) obtain insights regarding to vehicle crashes at public highway-rail grade crossings.

  13. Assessment of interfractional prostate motion in patients immobilized in the prone position using a thermoplastic shell.

    Ikeda, Itaru; Mizowaki, Takashi; Sawada, Yohei; Nakata, Manabu; Norihisa, Yoshiki; Ogura, Masakazu; Hiraoka, Masahiro


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the interfractional prostate motion of patients immobilized in the prone position using a thermoplastic shell. A total of 24 patients with prostate calcifications detectable using a kilo-voltage X-ray image-guidance system (ExacTrac X-ray system) were examined. Daily displacements of the calcification within the prostate relative to pelvic bony structures were calculated by the ExacTrac X-ray system. The average displacement and standard deviation (SD) in each of the left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) directions were calculated for each patient. Based on the results of interfractional prostate motion, we also calculated planning target volume (PTV) margins using the van Herk formula and examined the validity of the PTV margin of our institute (a 9-mm margin everywhere except posteriorly, where a 6-mm margin was applied). In total, 899 data measurements from 24 patients were obtained. The average prostate displacements ± SD relative to bony structures were 2.8 ± 3.3, -2.0 ± 2.0 and 0.2 ± 0.4 mm, in the SI, AP and LR directions, respectively. The required PTV margins were 9.7, 6.1 and 1.4 mm in the SI, AP and LR directions, respectively. The clinical target volumes of 21 patients (87.5%) were located within the PTV for 90% or more of all treatment sessions. Interfractional prostate motion in the prone position with a thermoplastic shell was equivalent to that reported for the supine position. The PTV margin of our institute is considered appropriate for alignment, based on bony structures.

  14. Regulation Plans on Severe Accidents developed by KINS Severe Accident Regulation Preparation TFT

    Kim, Kyun Tae; Chung, Ku Young; Na, Han Bee [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Some nuclear power plants in Fukushima Daiichi site had lost their emergency reactor cooling function for long-time so the fuels inside the reactors were molten, and the integrity of containment was damaged. Therefore, large amount of radioactive material was released to environment. Because the social and economic effects of severe accidents are enormous, Korean Government already issued 'Severe Accident Policy' in 2001 which requires nuclear power plant operators to set up 'Quantitative Safety Goal', to do 'Probabilistic Safety Analysis', to install 'Severe Accident Countermeasures' and to make 'Severe Accident Management Plan'. After the Fukushima disaster, a Special Safety Inspection was performed for all operating nuclear power plants of Korea. The inspection team from industry, academia, and research institutes assessed Korean NPPs capabilities to cope with or respond to severe accidents and emergency situation caused by natural disasters such as a large earthquake or tsunami. As a result of the special inspection, about 50 action items were identified to increase the capability to cope with natural disaster and severe accidents. Nuclear Safety Act has been amended to require NPP operators to submit Accident Management Plant as part of operating license application. The KINS Severe Accident Regulation Preparation TFT had first investigated oversea severe accident regulation trend before and after the Fukushima accident. Then, the TFT has developed regulation draft for severe accidents such as Severe accident Management Plans, the required design features for new NPPs to prevent severe accident against multiple failures and beyond-design external events, countermeasures to mitigate severe accident and to keep the integrity of containment, and assessment methodology on safety assessment plan and probabilistic safety assessment.

  15. Radioactivity measurements in air over Europe after the Chernobyl accident

    Raes, F.; Graziani, G.; Stanners, D.; Girardi, F. (Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre)


    A comprehensive European data set of radioactivity in air caused by the accident at the Chenobyl nuclear power plant is presented. For the first 2 weeks after the beginning of the release, levels of particulate I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137 (85 locations) and of total I-131 (10 locations) are given. All data are stored in a computerized data base. For the first time the passage of the Chenobyl cloud over Europe is mapped after re-averaging the time histories in each location to produce coherent daily concentrations. Cs-134/Cs-137 ratios were analysed: the 'European' average ratio calculated from 1239 samples is 0.55, with a standard deviation of 0.25. (author).

  16. Assessment of trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure in murine strains genetically-prone and non-prone to develop autoimmune disease.

    Keil, Deborah E; Peden-Adams, Margie M; Wallace, Stacy; Ruiz, Phillip; Gilkeson, Gary S


    There is increasing laboratory and epidemiologic evidence relating exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) with autoimmune disease including scleroderma and lupus. New Zealand Black/New Zealand White (NZBWF1) and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to TCE (0, 1, 400 or 14,000 ppb) via drinking water for 27 or 30 weeks, respectively. NZBWF1 mice spontaneously develop autoimmune disease while B6C3F1 mice, a standard strain used in immunotoxicology testing, are not genetically prone to develop autoimmune disease. During the TCE exposure period, serum levels of total IgG, and autoantibodies (anti-ssDNA, -dsDNA, and -glomerular antigen [GA]) were monitored. At the termination of the study, renal pathology, natural killer (NK) cell activity, total IgG levels, autoantibody production, T-cell activation, and lymphocytic proliferative responses were evaluated. TCE did not alter NK cell activity, or T- and B-cell proliferation in either strain. Numbers of activated T-cells (CD4+/CD44+) were increased in the B6C3F1 mice but not in the NZBWF1 mice. Renal pathology, as indicated by renal score, was significantly increased in the B6C3F1, but not in the NZBWF1 mice. Serum levels of autoantibodies to dsDNA and ssDNA were increased at more time points in B6C3F1, as compared to the NZBWF1 mice. Anti-GA autoantibodies were increased by TCE treatment in early stages of the study in NZBWF1 mice, but by 23 weeks of age, control levels were comparable to those of TCE-exposed animals. Serum levels anti-GA autoantibodies in B6C3F1 were not affected by TCE exposure. Overall, these data suggest that TCE did not contribute to the progression of autoimmune disease in autoimmune-prone mice during the period of 11-36 weeks of age, but rather lead to increased expression of markers associated with autoimmune disease in a non-genetically prone mouse strain.

  17. Leukemia following the Chernobyl accident.

    Howe, Geoffrey R


    The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine in 1986 led to a substantial increase of thyroid cancer among those exposed as children. The other cancer that is the most sensitive to the effects of ionizing radiation is leukemia, and this paper evaluates the evidence relating exposure to Chernobyl radioactivity and leukemia risk. Two types of objectives are identified, namely, scientific evidence and public health, and two approaches to addressing such objectives are discussed. Empirical studies in affected populations are summarized, and it is concluded that, possibly apart from Russian cleanup workers, no meaningful evidence of any statistical association between exposure and leukemia risk as yet exists. However, it is important to carry on with such studies to satisfy various public health objectives.

  18. Numerical Reconstruction and Injury Biomechanism in a Car-Pedestrian Crash Accident

    ZOU Dong-hua; LI Zheng-dong; SHAO Yu; FENG Hao; CHEN Jian-guo; LIU Ning-guo; HUANG Ping; CHEN Yi-jiu


    Objective To reconstruct a car-pedestrian crash accident using numerical simulation technology and explore the injury biomechanism as forensic evidence for injury identification.Methods An integration of multi-body dynamic,finite elcment (FE),and classical method was applied to a car-pedestrian crash accident.The location of the collision and the details of the traffic accident were determined by vehicle trace verification and autopsy.The accident reconstruction was performed by coupling the three-dimensional car behavior from PC-CRASH with a MADYMO dummy model.The collision FE models of head and leg,developed from CT scans of human remains,were loaded with calculated dummy collision parameters.The data of the impact biomechanical responses were extracted in terms of von Mises stress,relative displacement,strain and stress fringes.Results The accident reconstruction results were identical with the examined ones and the biomechanism of head and leg injuries,illustrated through the FE methods,were consistent with the classical injury theories.Conclusion The numerical simulation technology is proved to be effective in identifying traffic accidents and exploring of injury biomechanism.

  19. Evaluation of accidents indicators as ergonomic intervention proposition in a chicken slaughterhouse

    Fabiano Takeda


    Full Text Available The slaughterhouse industry makes Brazil a major producer and exporter of meat. In this perspective, this industry keeps in constant pursuit of competitiveness, and the activities within this sector are intensified to achieve greater productivity which results in occupational diseases and injury hazards. In order to propose measures that can contribute to the reduction of occupational accidents in poultry slaughterhouse, this research aims to evaluate and propose demands of ergonomic interventions based on accident numbers that occurred in the years 2012, 2013 and 2014 in a poultry slaughterhouse located in the region of São José – SC. The study is a field research with documental analysis and with the use of the inductive method. The data were evaluated quantitatively using spreadsheet and graphics. The results show that the total of 161 accidents assessed, the accidents with cuts were those with the highest number of cases. The causative agent that generated most accidents was the use of knives and the most affected part of the body was the upper limbs. The results show that the slaughterhouse presents demands of ergonomic interventions to adapt working conditions with a focus on reducing workplace accidents.

  20. Occupational accidents in artisanal mining in Katanga, D.R.C.

    Myriam Elenge


    Full Text Available Introduction: This study focuses on accidents in artisanal mining, to support policies improving miners' employability. Materials and Methods: Based on a questionnaire administered in November 2009 to a sample of 180 miners from the artisanal mining of LUPOTO, in the Province of Katanga, we explored significant trends between the accidents and their consequences and behavioral or sociological variables. Results: During the 12 months preceding the study, 392 accidents occurred, affecting 72.2% of miners. Tools handling represents 51.5%, of the accidents' causes, followed by handling heavy loads (32.9%. Factors such as age, seniority or apprenticeship did not generate significant differences. Contusions were the most common injuries (50.2%, followed by wounds (44.4%. These injuries were located in upper limbs (50.5% and in lower limbs (29.3%. 80.5% of miners were cared for by their colleagues and 50% of them could not work for more than 3 days. Physical sequelae were reported by 19% of the injured miners. Discussion: Many surveys related to accidents in the area of artisanal mining report such high frequency. The unsuitability of tools to jobs to be done is usually raised as one of the major causes of accidents. The lack of differentiation of the tasks carried out in relation to age is another factor explaining the lack of protective effect of seniority as it minimizes the contribution of experience in the worker's safety. The apprenticeship reported is inadequate; it is rather a learning by doing than anything else. That is why it lacks protective effect. Low income combined with precariousness of artisanal mining are likely to explain the low level of work stoppages. Conclusion: Tools improvement associated with adequate training seem to be the basis of accident prevention. Availability of suitable medical care should improve artisanal miners' recovery after accidents.

  1. Road accidents and business cycles in Spain.

    Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa


    This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties.

  2. An analysis of aircraft accidents involving fires

    Lucha, G. V.; Robertson, M. A.; Schooley, F. A.


    All U. S. Air Carrier accidents between 1963 and 1974 were studied to assess the extent of total personnel and aircraft damage which occurred in accidents and in accidents involving fire. Published accident reports and NTSB investigators' factual backup files were the primary sources of data. Although it was frequently not possible to assess the relative extent of fire-caused damage versus impact damage using the available data, the study established upper and lower bounds for deaths and damage due specifically to fire. In 12 years there were 122 accidents which involved airframe fires. Eighty-seven percent of the fires occurred after impact, and fuel leakage from ruptured tanks or severed lines was the most frequently cited cause. A cost analysis was performed for 300 serious accidents, including 92 serious accidents which involved fire. Personal injury costs were outside the scope of the cost analysis, but data on personnel injury judgements as well as settlements received from the CAB are included for reference.

  3. Accidents in Canada: mortality and hospitalization.

    Riley, R; Paddon, P


    For Canadians under 45, accidents are the leading cause of both death and hospitalization. For the Canadian population as a whole, accidents rank fourth as a cause of death, after cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and respiratory disease. This article analyzes accident mortality and hospitalization in Canada using age-specific rates, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), and potential years of life lost (PYLL). The six major causes of accidental death for men are motor vehicle traffic accidents (MVTA), falls, drowning, fires, suffocation and poisoning. For women, the order is slightly different: MVTA, falls, fires, suffocation, poisoning and drowning. From 1971 to 1986, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for accidents decreased by 44% for men and 39% for women. The largest decrease occurred in the under 15 age group. Accidents accounted for 11.5% of total hospital days in 1985, and 8% of hospital discharges. Because young people have the highest rates of accidental death, potential years of life lost (PYLL) are almost as high for accidents as for cardiovascular disease, although CVD deaths outnumbered accidental deaths by almost five to one in 1985.

  4. Professional experience and traffic accidents/near-miss accidents among truck drivers.

    Girotto, Edmarlon; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; González, Alberto Durán; Mesas, Arthur Eumann


    To investigate the relationship between the time working as a truck driver and the report of involvement in traffic accidents or near-miss accidents. A cross-sectional study was performed with truck drivers transporting products from the Brazilian grain harvest to the Port of Paranaguá, Paraná, Brazil. The drivers were interviewed regarding sociodemographic characteristics, working conditions, behavior in traffic and involvement in accidents or near-miss accidents in the previous 12 months. Subsequently, the participants answered a self-applied questionnaire on substance use. The time of professional experience as drivers was categorized in tertiles. Statistical analyses were performed through the construction of models adjusted by multinomial regression to assess the relationship between the length of experience as a truck driver and the involvement in accidents or near-miss accidents. This study included 665 male drivers with an average age of 42.2 (±11.1) years. Among them, 7.2% and 41.7% of the drivers reported involvement in accidents and near-miss accidents, respectively. In fully adjusted analysis, the 3rd tertile of professional experience (>22years) was shown to be inversely associated with involvement in accidents (odds ratio [OR] 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.52) and near-miss accidents (OR 0.17; 95% CI 0.05-0.53). The 2nd tertile of professional experience (11-22 years) was inversely associated with involvement in accidents (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.40-0.98). An evident relationship was observed between longer professional experience and a reduction in reporting involvement in accidents and near-miss accidents, regardless of age, substance use, working conditions and behavior in traffic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. How safe is the prone position in acute respiratory distress syndrome at late pregnancy?

    Samanta, Sukhen; Samanta, Sujay; Wig, Jyotsna; Baronia, A K


    We encountered a case of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome in late pregnancy due to influenza (H1N1) with refractory hypoxemia to conventional mechanical ventilation. Ventilation in prone position rescued this patient by maintaining oxygenation and sustaining improvement thereafter. Here, we discuss the mechanism of prone ventilation with special references to safety management of acute respiratory distress syndrome in the third trimester of pregnancy. It requires frequent monitoring of possible complications due to prone position and highly dedicated supporting staffs. More data are required on safety of proning in the late pregnancy.

  6. Cross-Cultural Differences and Similarities in Proneness to Shame: An Adaptationist and Ecological Approach

    Daniel Sznycer


    Full Text Available People vary in how easily they feel ashamed, that is, in their shame proneness. According to the information threat theory of shame, variation in shame proneness should, in part, be regulated by features of a person's social ecology. On this view, shame is an emotion program that evolved to mitigate the likelihood or costs of reputation-damaging information spreading to others. In social environments where there are fewer possibilities to form new relationships (i.e., low relational mobility, there are higher costs to damaging or losing existing ones. Therefore, shame proneness toward current relationship partners should increase as perceived relational mobility decreases. In contrast, individuals with whom one has little or no relationship history are easy to replace, and so shame-proneness towards them should not be modulated by relational mobility. We tested these predictions cross-culturally by measuring relational mobility and shame proneness towards friends and strangers in Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Japanese subjects were more shame-prone than their British and American counterparts. Critically, lower relational mobility was associated with greater shame proneness towards friends (but not strangers, and this relationship partially mediated the cultural differences in shame proneness. Shame proneness appears tailored to respond to relevant features of one's social ecology.

  7. Procrastination and suicide proneness: A moderated-mediation model for cognitive schemas and gender.

    Klibert, Jeffrey; LeLeux-LaBarge, Kayla; Tarantino, Nicholas; Yancey, Thresa; Lamis, Dorian A


    This study examined the direct and indirect paths between procrastination and suicide proneness while considering gender differences. Participants included 547 undergraduates from a southeastern university. Procrastination was positively related to suicide proneness for both genders, although this relation was stronger for women. Moderated-mediation analyses with bootstrapping highlighted insufficient self-control schemas as a mediator in the relation between procrastination and suicide proneness. However, indirect pathways did not vary by gender. Results represent an extension of the Procrastination-Health Model by highlighting the contribution of cognitive factors in explaining the relation between procrastination and suicide proneness.

  8. Highway Accident Report: Schoolbus/Automobile Collision and Fire, Near Reston, Virginia, February 29, 1972.

    National Transportation Safety Board (DOT), Washington, DC. Bureau of Surface Transportation Safety.

    This accident report illustrates and exemplifies three significant safety issues with which the Board has long been concerned: (1) the use of seatbelts by the drivers of schoolbuses, (2) the location and security of schoolbus fuel tanks, and (3) the mode of opening of schoolbus service doors. (Photographs may reproduce poorly.) (Author)

  9. Bayes classifiers for imbalanced traffic accidents datasets.

    Mujalli, Randa Oqab; López, Griselda; Garach, Laura


    Traffic accidents data sets are usually imbalanced, where the number of instances classified under the killed or severe injuries class (minority) is much lower than those classified under the slight injuries class (majority). This, however, supposes a challenging problem for classification algorithms and may cause obtaining a model that well cover the slight injuries instances whereas the killed or severe injuries instances are misclassified frequently. Based on traffic accidents data collected on urban and suburban roads in Jordan for three years (2009-2011); three different data balancing techniques were used: under-sampling which removes some instances of the majority class, oversampling which creates new instances of the minority class and a mix technique that combines both. In addition, different Bayes classifiers were compared for the different imbalanced and balanced data sets: Averaged One-Dependence Estimators, Weightily Average One-Dependence Estimators, and Bayesian networks in order to identify factors that affect the severity of an accident. The results indicated that using the balanced data sets, especially those created using oversampling techniques, with Bayesian networks improved classifying a traffic accident according to its severity and reduced the misclassification of killed and severe injuries instances. On the other hand, the following variables were found to contribute to the occurrence of a killed causality or a severe injury in a traffic accident: number of vehicles involved, accident pattern, number of directions, accident type, lighting, surface condition, and speed limit. This work, to the knowledge of the authors, is the first that aims at analyzing historical data records for traffic accidents occurring in Jordan and the first to apply balancing techniques to analyze injury severity of traffic accidents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Years of life lost because of premature death due to intentional and unintentional accidents in Ghazvin province from 2004 till 2008

    Nahid Jafari


    Full Text Available Background: Accidents are the second cause of death in Iran and one of the significant challenges in public health. They can affect people in all ages. In this study, we try to calculate years of life lost due to intentional and unintentional injuries, which is considered as one of the main indicators for prioritizing public health problems.  Methods: This study is a practical cross sectional survey research HSR (health system research that uses secondary analysis on the death data of Ghazvin province. The calculations also take into account the WHO standards in age group, sex and years of life lost (YLL due to death.  Results: This study showed that the unintentional accidents were the leading cause of death based on YLL from 2004 until 2008 in Ghazvin province. The number of deaths due to intentional and unintentional accidents was 3796 deaths as of which 2954 (77.8% was male and 842 (22.2% female. In general three quarter of the YLL due to early death relates to accidents for males and less than a quarter relates to accidents for females. Between 2004 until 2008, the maximum number of years of life lost (YLL in both sexes is for the age group of 15 to 49.  Conclusion: Considering the high level of years of life lost (YLL due to accident in this province, especially in men, more appropriate interventions for the more risk prone age groups and male in general need to be taken into account.

  11. Algorithm for Detecting Significant Locations from Raw GPS Data

    Kami, Nobuharu; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Baba, Teruyuki; Yoshikawa, Takashi

    We present a fast algorithm for probabilistically extracting significant locations from raw GPS data based on data point density. Extracting significant locations from raw GPS data is the first essential step of algorithms designed for location-aware applications. Assuming that a location is significant if users spend a certain time around that area, most current algorithms compare spatial/temporal variables, such as stay duration and a roaming diameter, with given fixed thresholds to extract significant locations. However, the appropriate threshold values are not clearly known in priori and algorithms with fixed thresholds are inherently error-prone, especially under high noise levels. Moreover, for N data points, they are generally O(N 2) algorithms since distance computation is required. We developed a fast algorithm for selective data point sampling around significant locations based on density information by constructing random histograms using locality sensitive hashing. Evaluations show competitive performance in detecting significant locations even under high noise levels.

  12. A Location Privacy Aware Friend Locator

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Thomsen, Jeppe Rishede; Saltenis, Simonas


    to trade their location privacy for quality of service, limiting the attractiveness of the services. The challenge is to develop a communication-efficient solution such that (i) it detects proximity between a user and the user’s friends, (ii) any other party is not allowed to infer the location of the user...

  13. Signature of an aggregation-prone conformation of tau

    Eschmann, Neil A.; Georgieva, Elka R.; Ganguly, Pritam; Borbat, Peter P.; Rappaport, Maxime D.; Akdogan, Yasar; Freed, Jack H.; Shea, Joan-Emma; Han, Songi


    The self-assembly of the microtubule associated tau protein into fibrillar cell inclusions is linked to a number of devastating neurodegenerative disorders collectively known as tauopathies. The mechanism by which tau self-assembles into pathological entities is a matter of much debate, largely due to the lack of direct experimental insights into the earliest stages of aggregation. We present pulsed double electron-electron resonance measurements of two key fibril-forming regions of tau, PHF6 and PHF6*, in transient as aggregation happens. By monitoring the end-to-end distance distribution of these segments as a function of aggregation time, we show that the PHF6(*) regions dramatically extend to distances commensurate with extended β-strand structures within the earliest stages of aggregation, well before fibril formation. Combined with simulations, our experiments show that the extended β-strand conformational state of PHF6(*) is readily populated under aggregating conditions, constituting a defining signature of aggregation-prone tau, and as such, a possible target for therapeutic interventions.

  14. Hepatitis C virus infection among transmission-prone medical personnel.

    Zaaijer, H L; Appelman, P; Frijstein, G


    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected physicians have been reported to infect some of their patients during exposure-prone procedures (EPPs). There is no European consensus on the policy for the prevention of this transmission. To help define an appropriate preventive policy, we determined the prevalence of HCV infection among EPP-performing medical personnel in the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The prevalence of HCV infection was studied among 729 EPP-performing health care workers. Serum samples, stored after post-hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination testing in the years 2000-2009, were tested for HCV antibodies. Repeat reactive samples were confirmed by immunoblot assay and the detection of HCV RNA. The average age of the 729 health care workers was 39 years (range 18-66), suggesting a considerable cumulative occupational exposure to the blood. Nevertheless, only one of the 729 workers (0.14%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: <0.01% to 0.85%) was tested and confirmed to be positive for anti-HCV and positive for HCV RNA, which is comparable to the prevalence of HCV among Amsterdam citizens. Against this background, for the protection of personnel and patients, careful follow-up after needlestick injuries may be sufficient. If a zero-risk approach is desirable and costs are less relevant, the recurrent screening of EPP-performing personnel for HCV is superior to the follow-up of reported occupational exposures.

  15. Genome-wide association study of proneness to anger.

    Eric Mick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Community samples suggest that approximately 1 in 20 children and adults exhibit clinically significant anger, hostility, and aggression. Individuals with dysregulated emotional control have a greater lifetime burden of psychiatric morbidity, severe impairment in role functioning, and premature mortality due to cardiovascular disease. METHODS: With publically available data secured from dbGaP, we conducted a genome-wide association study of proneness to anger using the Spielberger State-Trait Anger Scale in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study (n = 8,747. RESULTS: Subjects were, on average, 54 (range 45-64 years old at baseline enrollment, 47% (n = 4,117 were male, and all were of European descent by self-report. The mean Angry Temperament and Angry Reaction scores were 5.8 ± 1.8 and 7.6 ± 2.2. We observed a nominally significant finding (p = 2.9E-08, λ = 1.027 - corrected pgc = 2.2E-07, λ = 1.0015 on chromosome 6q21 in the gene coding for the non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase, Fyn. CONCLUSIONS: Fyn interacts with NDMA receptors and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3-gated channels to regulate calcium influx and intracellular release in the post-synaptic density. These results suggest that signaling pathways regulating intracellular calcium homeostasis, which are relevant to memory, learning, and neuronal survival, may in part underlie the expression of Angry Temperament.

  16. Development of Korean Smartphone addiction proneness scale for youth.

    Dongil Kim

    Full Text Available This study developed a Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS based on the existing internet and cellular phone addiction scales. For the development of this scale, 29 items (1.5 times the final number of items were initially selected as preliminary items, based on the previous studies on internet/phone addiction as well as the clinical experience of involved experts. The preliminary scale was administered to a nationally representative sample of 795 students in elementary, middle, and high schools across South Korea. Then, final 15 items were selected according to the reliability test results. The final scale consisted of four subdomains: (1 disturbance of adaptive functions, (2 virtual life orientation, (3 withdrawal, and (4 tolerance. The final scale indicated a high reliability with Cronbach's α of .880. Support for the scale's criterion validity has been demonstrated by its relationship to the internet addiction scale, KS-II (r  =  .49. For the analysis of construct validity, we tested the Structural Equation Model. The results showed the four-factor structure to be valid (NFI  =  .943, TLI  =  .902, CFI  =  .902, RMSEA  =  .034. Smartphone addiction is gaining a greater spotlight as possibly a new form of addiction along with internet addiction. The SAPS appears to be a reliable and valid diagnostic scale for screening adolescents who may be at risk of smartphone addiction. Further implications and limitations are discussed.

  17. Epidemiological Characteristics of Fatal Traumatic Accidents in Babol, Iran: A Hospital-Based Survey

    Seyed Reza Modarres


    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the epidemiological characteristics of fatal traumatic accidents in patients referred to a hospital in Babol, Northern Iran. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study being performed during a 1-year period including all the dead trauma patients referred to Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Babol. We included all those patients who were transferred to our center to trauma and injuries and passed away during the hospital stay. Those who died due to electrical shock, drowning and suffocation caused by hanging sand poisoning were excluded from the study. Demographic information such as age, sex, marital status, education, employment, the type, location, and time of injury, injured parts of body and treatment methods, the cause, location and time of death were recorded. Results: From the 92 dead patients, 76 were men (82.6% and 16 were women (17.4%. The cause of death in 53 cases (57.6% was head injury. Regarding the location,30patients (32.6% died at the scene of the accident, 62(67.4% died in the hospital. The maximum rate of trauma occurred in the afternoon shift between the hours of 13:30 to 19:30.The head and face were the most damaged organs. Road traffic accidents were the most common cause of injury related mortality recorded in 81 patients (88.0%. Most of the accidents occurred in intercity roads in 27 people (33.3% and the others in rural-urban roads. Pedestrians were the most common victims of road traffic accidents mortality being reported in 29 people (35.8%. Conclusion: Road traffic accidents are among the most common cause of injury related mortality in our region. Increasing the public knowledge and improve the traffic law enforcement measures should be considered for decreasing the morbidity and mortality.

  18. The Chernobyl accident consequences; Consequences de l'accident de Tchernobyl



    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  19. 32 CFR 634.29 - Traffic accident investigation reports.


    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic accident investigation reports. 634.29... records. Installation law enforcement officials will record traffic accident investigations on Service/DLA... traffic accident investigation reports pertaining to accidents investigated by military police that...

  20. 32 CFR 636.13 - Traffic accident investigation reports.


    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic accident investigation reports. 636.13... Stewart, Georgia § 636.13 Traffic accident investigation reports. In addition to the requirements in § 634... record traffic accident investigations on DA Form 3946 (Military Police Traffic Accident Report) and DA...

  1. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.


    ... States vessel wherever such casualty or accident occurs; or (3) With respect to a foreign tank vessel... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  2. 48 CFR 852.236-87 - Accident prevention.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 852... Accident prevention. As prescribed in 836.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (SEP 1993....236-13, Accident Prevention. However, only the Contracting Officer may issue an order to stop all...

  3. Assessment of accident risks in the CRBRP. Volume 2. Appendices



    Appendices to Volume I include core-related accident-sequence definition, CRBRP risk-assessment sequence-probability determinations, failure-probability data, accident scenario evaluation, radioactive material release analysis, ex-core accident analysis, safety philosophy and design features, calculation of reactor accident consequences, sensitivity study, and risk from fires.

  4. 46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section 196.30-5... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  5. 46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section 97.30-5 Shipping... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  6. 46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.


    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section 78.33-5 Shipping... Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use of the...

  7. The epidemiology of bicyclist's collision accidents

    Larsen, L. B.


    of bicyclists and risk situations. The findings should make a basis for preventive programmes in order to decrease the number and severity of bicyclists collision accidents. Data from the emergency room in a 2 year period was combined with data from questionnaires. The study group consisted of 1021 bicyclists...... group of accidents were the collisions with the 'soft' road users (bicyclists, mopeds, and pedestrians) and another group were the collisions with the 'hard' road users (motor vehicles, motorcycles). Preventive measures have to be directed at both these groups of accidents. To decrease the number...... of collision accidents with motor vehicles it is necessary to separate the bicyclists from the 'hard road traffic' especially at crossings. Preventive measures must also be directed at the bicyclists. Information must be given to warn the bicyclists against the risks, not only for collisions with motor...

  8. Review of methodology for accident consequence assessment

    Strenge, D.L.; Soldat, J.K.; Watson, E.C.


    This report reviews current methodologies for reactor accident consequence analysis and describes areas where modifications are warranted. Methodologies reviewed are: (1) Models in Regulatory Guides 1.109, 1.111 and 1.113 used for evaluation of compliance with 10 CFR 50 Appendix I; (2) Models in Regulatory Guides used for evaluation of consequences from accidents of Classes 3-8; (3) Models for evaluation of Class 9 accidents presented in the Reactor Safety Study; and (4) Models in the Liquid Pathway Generic Study. The review is designed to aid in the ultimate goal of selection of a comprehensive set of models to extend the Class 9 methodology of the Reactor Safety Study to the analysis of Classes 3-8 accidents.

  9. Agricultural implications of the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Nakanishi, Tomoko M; Tanoi, Keitaro


    Following the Fukushima nuclear accident, a large volume of monitoring data has been collected about the soil, air, dust, and seawater, along with data about an immense number of foods supplied to the market...

  10. MELCOR analysis of the TMI-2 accident

    Boucheron, E.A.


    This paper describes the analysis of the Three Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) standard problem that was performed with MELCOR. The MELCOR computer code is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of analyzing severe accident in nuclear power plants. The primary role of MELCOR is to provide realistic predictions of severe accident phenomena and the radiological source team. The analysis of the TMI-2 standard problem allowed for comparison of the model predictions in MELCOR to plant data and to the results of more mechanistic analyses. This exercise was, therefore valuable for verifying and assessing the models in the code. The major trends in the TMI-2 accident are reasonably well predicted with MELCOR, even with its simplified modeling. Comparison of the calculated and measured results is presented and, based on this comparison, conclusions can be drawn concerning the applicability of MELCOR to severe accident analysis. 5 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Safety analysis of surface haulage accidents

    Randolph, R.F.; Boldt, C.M.K.


    Research on improving haulage truck safety, started by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, is being continued by its successors. This paper reports the orientation of the renewed research efforts, beginning with an update on accident data analysis, the role of multiple causes in these accidents, and the search for practical methods for addressing the most important causes. Fatal haulage accidents most often involve loss of control or collisions caused by a variety of factors. Lost-time injuries most often involve sprains or strains to the back or multiple body areas, which can often be attributed to rough roads and the shocks of loading and unloading. Research to reduce these accidents includes improved warning systems, shock isolation for drivers, encouraging seatbelt usage, and general improvements to system and task design.

  12. Review of models applicable to accident aerosols

    Glissmeyer, J.A.


    Estimations of potential airborne-particle releases are essential in safety assessments of nuclear-fuel facilities. This report is a review of aerosol behavior models that have potential applications for predicting aerosol characteristics in compartments containing accident-generated aerosol sources. Such characterization of the accident-generated aerosols is a necessary step toward estimating their eventual release in any accident scenario. Existing aerosol models can predict the size distribution, concentration, and composition of aerosols as they are acted on by ventilation, diffusion, gravity, coagulation, and other phenomena. Models developed in the fields of fluid mechanics, indoor air pollution, and nuclear-reactor accidents are reviewed with this nuclear fuel facility application in mind. The various capabilities of modeling aerosol behavior are tabulated and discussed, and recommendations are made for applying the models to problems of differing complexity.

  13. Ruthenium release from fuel in accident conditions

    Brillant, G.; Marchetto, C.; Plumecocq, W. [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, DPAM, SEMIC, LETR and LIMSI, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)


    During a hypothetical nuclear power plant accident, fission products may be released from the fuel matrix and then reach the containment building and the environment. Ruthenium is a very hazardous fission product that can be highly and rapidly released in some accident scenarios. The impact of the atmosphere redox properties, temperature, and fuel burn-up on the ruthenium release is discussed. In order to improve the evaluation of the radiological impact by accident codes, a model of the ruthenium release from fuel is proposed using thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. In addition, a model of fuel oxidation under air is described. Finally, these models have been integrated in the ASTEC accident code and validation calculations have been performed on several experimental tests. (orig.)

  14. The Chornobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment

    Vargo, G.J. [ed.; Poyarkov, V.; Bar`yakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.; Kholosha, V.; Shestopalov, V.


    The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chornobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chornobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chornobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

  15. [Severe parachuting accident. Analysis of 122 cases].

    Krauss, U; Mischkowsky, T


    Based on a population of 122 severely injured patients the causes of paragliding accidents and the patterns of injury are analyzed. A questionnaire is used to establish a sport-specific profile for the paragliding pilot. The lower limbs (55.7%) and the lower parts of the spine (45.9%) are the most frequently injured parts of the body. There is a high risk of multiple injuries after a single accident because of the tremendous axial power. The standard of equipment is good in over 90% of the cases. Insufficient training and failure to take account of geographical and meteorological conditions are the main determinants of accidents sustained by paragliders, most of whom are young. Nevertheless, 80% of our patients want to continue paragliding. Finally some advice is given on how to prevent paragliding accidents and injuries.

  16. Bilateral Shoulder Dislocations Following a Motocross Accident

    H J Schroepfer; B M Martin; P J Millett


    .... A professional motocross racer experienced a high speed traumatic accident which resulted in bilateral shoulder dislocations with a rare associated complete anterosuperior RC tear due to a posterior dislocation...

  17. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    Frid, W.; Højerup, C.F.; Lindholm, I.


    three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto I plant in Finland...... with all three codes. The core initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality-both super-prompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power...... generation-for the range of parameters studied, i.e. with core uncovering and heat-up to maximum core temperatures of approximately 1800 K, and water flow rates of 45-2000 kg s(-1) injected into the downcomer. Since recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core, the power densities are high...

  18. Learning lessons from Natech accidents - the eNATECH accident database

    Krausmann, Elisabeth; Girgin, Serkan


    When natural hazards impact industrial facilities that house or process hazardous materials, fires, explosions and toxic releases can occur. This type of accident is commonly referred to as Natech accident. In order to prevent the recurrence of accidents or to better mitigate their consequences, lessons-learned type studies using available accident data are usually carried out. Through post-accident analysis, conclusions can be drawn on the most common damage and failure modes and hazmat release paths, particularly vulnerable storage and process equipment, and the hazardous materials most commonly involved in these types of accidents. These analyses also lend themselves to identifying technical and organisational risk-reduction measures that require improvement or are missing. Industrial accident databases are commonly used for retrieving sets of Natech accident case histories for further analysis. These databases contain accident data from the open literature, government authorities or in-company sources. The quality of reported information is not uniform and exhibits different levels of detail and accuracy. This is due to the difficulty of finding qualified information sources, especially in situations where accident reporting by the industry or by authorities is not compulsory, e.g. when spill quantities are below the reporting threshold. Data collection has then to rely on voluntary record keeping often by non-experts. The level of detail is particularly non-uniform for Natech accident data depending on whether the consequences of the Natech event were major or minor, and whether comprehensive information was available for reporting. In addition to the reporting bias towards high-consequence events, industrial accident databases frequently lack information on the severity of the triggering natural hazard, as well as on failure modes that led to the hazmat release. This makes it difficult to reconstruct the dynamics of the accident and renders the development of

  19. [Spatial exploratory analysis of road accidents in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico].

    Hernández Hernández, Vladimir


    Prepare a tool for the exploratory study of road accidents in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, that exclusively applies the spatial geographical variable (location). Observational and cross-sectional study that uses a Geographic Information System to explore the spatial nature of 13 305 road accidents recorded during 2008 and 2009 in Ciudad Juarez. Indicators were constructed that approximated the transit flow and included two variables: indices of the level of urbanization and population density. The value of the global spatial autocorrelation was positive, indicating the presence of groupings that were identified through the spatial association indicators. There are road risk clusters located in areas with a high level of urbanization, low population density, and a high transit flow level. The exploratory analysis of spatial data is a phase that precedes the use of multivariate techniques with a broader scope. The application of exploratory analysis techniques in itself makes it possible to standardize spatial groupings, identify global autocorrelation, and indicate the direction of the variables under study.

  20. APRI-6. Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance

    Garis, Ninos; Ljung, J (eds.) (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)); Agrenius, Lennart (ed.) (Agrenius Ingenjoersbyraa AB, Stockholm (Sweden))


    Since the early 1980s, nuclear power utilities in Sweden and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) collaborate on the research in severe reactor accidents. In the beginning focus was mostly on strengthening protection against environmental impacts after a severe reactor accident, for example by develop systems for the filtered relief of the reactor containment. Since the early 90s, this focus has shifted to the phenomenological issues of risk-dominant significance. During the years 2006-2008, the partnership continued in the research project APRI-6. The aim was to show whether the solutions adopted in the Swedish strategy for incident management provides adequate protection for the environment. This is done by studying important phenomena in the core melt estimating the amount of radioactivity that can be released to the atmosphere in a severe accident. To achieve these objectives the research has included monitoring of international research on severe accidents and evaluation of results and continued support for research of severe accidents at the Royal Inst. of Technology (KTH) and Chalmers University. The follow-up of international research has promoted the exchange of knowledge and experience and has given access to a wealth of information on various phenomena relevant to events in severe accidents. The continued support to KTH has provided increased knowledge about the possibility of cooling the molten core in the reactor tank and the processes associated with coolability in the confinement and about steam explosions. Support for Chalmers has increased knowledge of the accident chemistry, mainly the behavior of iodine and ruthenium in the containment after an accident.

  1. Health effects resulting from the Chernobyl accident.

    Sumner, David


    This article reviews the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. The clearest effect to be seen to date is the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in children. The evidence for increased leukaemia is less clear, but there are indications of increased leukaemia incidence in Russian clean-up workers. There is also evidence of increases in breast cancer, cataract and cardiovascular disease. However, to date the largest public health problem caused by the accident is the mental health impact.

  2. Personality characteristics of the child accident repeater

    Manheimer, Dean I.; Mellinger, Glen D


    From 8874 boys and girls aged 4 to 18 in Berkeley-Oakland, California, 684 were selected to represent high-, intermediateor low-accident-liability children, based on records of medically attended injuries. Using data from intensive interviews with mothers supplemented with school records, we found a statistically significant relation between accident liability and indexes of extraversion, daring, roughhousing, and other traits tending to expose children to hazards. Similar relations held for ...

  3. Severe accident testing of electrical penetration assemblies

    Clauss, D.B. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))


    This report describes the results of tests conducted on three different designs of full-size electrical penetration assemblies (EPAs) that are used in the containment buildings of nuclear power plants. The objective of the tests was to evaluate the behavior of the EPAs under simulated severe accident conditions using steam at elevated temperature and pressure. Leakage, temperature, and cable insulation resistance were monitored throughout the tests. Nuclear-qualified EPAs were produced from D. G. O'Brien, Westinghouse, and Conax. Severe-accident-sequence analysis was used to generate the severe accident conditions (SAC) for a large dry pressurized-water reactor (PWR), a boiling-water reactor (BWR) Mark I drywell, and a BWR Mark III wetwell. Based on a survey conducted by Sandia, each EPA was matched with the severe accident conditions for a specific reactor type. This included the type of containment that a particular EPA design was used in most frequently. Thus, the D. G. O'Brien EPA was chosen for the PWR SAC test, the Westinghouse was chosen for the Mark III test, and the Conax was chosen for the Mark I test. The EPAs were radiation and thermal aged to simulate the effects of a 40-year service life and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) before the SAC tests were conducted. The design, test preparations, conduct of the severe accident test, experimental results, posttest observations, and conclusions about the integrity and electrical performance of each EPA tested in this program are described in this report. In general, the leak integrity of the EPAs tested in this program was not compromised by severe accident loads. However, there was significant degradation in the insulation resistance of the cables, which could affect the electrical performance of equipment and devices inside containment at some point during the progression of a severe accident. 10 refs., 165 figs., 16 tabs.

  4. Severe accident risks from external events

    Randall O Gauntt


    This paper reviews the early development of design requirements for seismic events in USA early developing nuclear electric generating fleet.Notable safety studies,including WASH-1400,Sandia Siting Study and the NUREG-1150 probabilistic risk study,are briefly reviewed in terms of their relevance to extreme accidents arising from seismic and other severe accident initiators.Specific characteristic about the nature of severe accidents in nuclear power plant (NPP) are reviewed along with present day state-of-art analysis methodologies (methods for estimation of leakages and consequences of releases (MELCOR) and MELCOR accident consequence code system (MACCS)) that are used to evaluate severe accidents and to optimize mitigative and protective actions against such accidents.It is the aim of this paper to make nuclear operating nations aware of the risks that accompany a much needed energy resource and to identify some of the tools,techniques and landmark safety studies that serve to make the technology safer and to maintain vigilance and adequate safety culture for the responsible management of this valuable but unforgiving technology.


    O. Gamankova


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the peculiarities of financial provision of public and private accident insurance. Analyzes the methodology of forming insurance premium rates in private accident insurance. The study examines the practice of reforming the financial security of the state social insurance against accidents. The results show need to implement scientifically proven approach to determining premium rates in the state social insurance based on mathematical statistics and actuarial calculations to ensure that such conditions on the one hand, can insure the risk, and the other - to provide the insurer the ability to perform insurance obligations' commitments. One of the promising areas of improvement Accident Insurance determines to define increasing the role of the private sector to create and attraction of investments, financing, reduce costs, and provision of insurance services on insurance against accidents at a qualitatively higher level. The results show the need to consider the usefulness of a mixed provision of services to accident insurance under state or non-state system, and the viability and effectiveness of the combination of these systems.




    Full Text Available

    Introduction. Car accident mortality is the third order causes of death in the USA, following cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Given present survival and outcome Iranian data, more than 14,000 patients die annually in road accidents. Having a valid and reliable data could be useful in reduce mortality and morbidity reduction.
    Methods. Twenty five percent of total traumatic patients in Isfahan were selected (N=2809 at the time of study (1997-1998. Forty five percent of them with car accident were asked about causes of accidents and risk factors for the severity and type of injuries were recorded based on International Classification of Disease 10.
    Results. Most of the victims were young (10-20 years old, students and industrial workers. Statistically unreasonable numbers of cars without extension of roads and high ways, using old and unsafe cars will affects on accidents.
    Discussion. In comparison with European and some Asian countries, Iran has unacceptable road accidents and it seems necessary to pay more attention to stop the current increasing data.


  7. Carbohydrate intake improves cognitive performance of stress-prone individuals under controllable laboratory stress

    Markus, C.R.; Panhuysen, G.; Jonkman, L.M.; Bachman, M.


    Cognitive performance has been found to decline after exposure to stress, particularly in stress-prone subjects. The present study investigated whether a carbohydrate-rich, protein-poor (CR/PP) diet, which may enhance cerebral serotonin function in stress-prone subjects due to increases in the

  8. Prone position is associated with mild cerebral oxygen desaturation in elderly surgical patients.

    Stacie Deiner

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: A variety of hemodynamic and respiratory alterations accompany patients in the prone position; however the effect of the prone position on intraoperative cerebral saturation has not been studied. We sought to examine whether the incidence of cerebral oxygen desaturation in elderly patients (≥68 years of age undergoing spine surgery in the prone position was more common than patients undergoing major surgery in the supine position. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 205 patients; 63 patients underwent surgery in the prone position and 142 in the supine position. Patients were evaluated for cerebral desaturation with bilateral cerebral oximetry. The primary predictor was position, secondary were: length of the surgery, incidence and duration of cerebral desaturation episodes at several thresholds, average time of Bispectral index below threshold of 45 in minutes, average electroencephalogram suppression ratio >0, amount of blood transfused, and the incidence of hypotension and hypertension. RESULTS: Elderly spine surgery patients in the prone position were more than twice as likely to experience mild cerebral desaturation as patients in the supine position. Patients in the prone position had longer surgeries; however cerebral desaturation in the prone position was significantly more common even when adjusted for surgery time and the occurrence of intraoperative hypotension. CONCLUSION: Cerebral desaturation is related to the prone position in elderly surgery patients. Future studies are necessary to determine whether this translates to a higher incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction and delirium.

  9. Carbohydrate intake improves cognitive performance of stress-prone individuals under controllable laboratory stress

    Markus, C.R.; Panhuysen, G.; Jonkman, L.M.; Bachman, M.


    Cognitive performance has been found to decline after exposure to stress, particularly in stress-prone subjects. The present study investigated whether a carbohydrate-rich, protein-poor (CR/PP) diet, which may enhance cerebral serotonin function in stress-prone subjects due to increases in the avail

  10. Clinical characteristics and heterogeneity in patients with ketosis-prone diabetes



    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics,peripheral insulin sensitivity,andβ-cell function in patients with ketosis-prone diabetes(KPD).Methods Thirty-one patients with newly diagnosed ketosis-prone diabetes were admitted to West China Hospital from January2004 to December 2009.They were divided into 2 groups according to

  11. Carbohydrate intake improves cognitive performance of stress-prone individuals under controllable laboratory stress

    Markus, C.R.; Panhuysen, G.; Jonkman, L.M.; Bachman, M.


    Cognitive performance has been found to decline after exposure to stress, particularly in stress-prone subjects. The present study investigated whether a carbohydrate-rich, protein-poor (CR/PP) diet, which may enhance cerebral serotonin function in stress-prone subjects due to increases in the avail

  12. Suicide Proneness in College Students: Relationships with Gender, Procrastination, and Achievement Motivation

    Klibert, Jeffrey; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Luna, Amy; Robichaux, Michelle


    This study examined the relationships between 2 academic dispositions (i.e., procrastination and achievement motivation) and 2 indices of suicidal proneness in college women and men. The degree these 2 academic dispositions could predict unique variance in suicide proneness scores, above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem was…

  13. The Relationship of Stress Arousal and Stress Prone Personality Traits to Menstrual Distress.

    Marini, David C.

    The various relationships of stress arousal and stress-prone personality traits to menstrual distress were investigated in order to quantify psychophysiological arousal differences between high and low menstrual distress symptom reporters and examine differences in stress-prone personality traits between high and low menstrual distress symptom…

  14. Suicide Proneness in College Students: Relationships with Gender, Procrastination, and Achievement Motivation

    Klibert, Jeffrey; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Luna, Amy; Robichaux, Michelle


    This study examined the relationships between 2 academic dispositions (i.e., procrastination and achievement motivation) and 2 indices of suicidal proneness in college women and men. The degree these 2 academic dispositions could predict unique variance in suicide proneness scores, above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem was…

  15. Effect of Head Rotation on Cerebral Blood Velocity in the Prone Position

    Jakob Højlund


    %. Conclusion. During positive pressure breathing the prone position with sideways rotated head reduces MCA Vmean ~10% in spite of an elevated MAP. Prone positioning with rotated head affects both CBF and cerebrovenous drainage indicating that optimal brain perfusion requires head centering.

  16. Locative Inversion in Cantonese.

    Mok, Sui-Sang

    This study investigates the phenomenon of "Locative Inversion" in Cantonese. The term "Locative Inversion" indicates that the locative phrase (LP) syntactic process in Cantonese and the appears at the sentence-initial position and its logical subject occurs postverbally. It is demonstrated that this Locative Inversion is a…

  17. DTMs Assessment to the Definition of Shallow Landslides Prone Areas

    Martins, Tiago D.; Oka-Fiori, Chisato; Carvalho Vieira, Bianca; Montgomery, David R.


    Predictive methods have been developed, especially since the 1990s, to identify landslide prone areas. One of the examples it is the physically based model SHALSTAB (Shallow Landsliding Stability Model), that calculate the potential instability for shallow landslides based on topography and physical soil properties. Normally, in such applications in Brazil, the Digital Terrain Model (DTM), is obtained mainly from conventional contour lines. However, recently the LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) system has been largely used in Brazil. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate different DTM's, generated from conventional data and LiDAR, and their influence in generating susceptibility maps to shallow landslides using SHALSTAB model. For that were analyzed the physical properties of soil, the response of the model when applying conventional topographical data and LiDAR's in the generation of DTM, and the shallow landslides susceptibility maps based on different topographical data. The selected area is in the urban perimeter of the municipality of Antonina (PR), affected by widespread landslides in March 2011. Among the results, it was evaluated different LiDAR data interpolation, using GIS tools, wherein the Triangulation/Natural Neighbor presented the best performance. It was also found that in one of evaluation indexes (Scars Concentration), the LiDAR derived DTM presented the best performance when compared with the one originated from contour lines, however, the Landslide Potential index, has presented a small increase. Consequently, it was possible to assess the DTM's, and the one derived from LiDAR improved very little the certitude percentage. It is also noted a gap in researches carried out in Brazil on the use of products generated from LiDAR data on geomorphological analysis.

  18. [Drivers of advanced age in traffic accidents].

    Bilban, Marjan


    The elderly are vulnerable and potentially unpredictable active participants in traffic who deserve special attention. Longer life expectancy entails a greater number of senior drivers, that is, persons with various health problems and difficulties accompanying old age. At the turn of the millennium, the share of population aged 65 or more in Slovenia was around 13%, and in 25 years it will be near as much as 19%. The share of drivers from this age group was 28% a year ago, and it is expected to reach about 54%. Numerous studies have shown that there are many differences in driving attitude between the young and the elderly. The young are by large active victims, and their main offense and cause of accident is speeding, while the elderly are more passive and their main offense is ignoring and enforcing the right of way. This paper focuses on the differences in the occurrence and type of injuries between the young and the elderly drivers, based on an analysis of all road accidents in Slovenia in the period between 1998-2000. Older people (over 65) caused only 4.7% of all road accidents (16.7% of all accidents involving pedestrians, 11.5% of all involving cyclists, 2.7% involving motorcyclists and 5% of all accidents involving car drivers). Of all accidents, 89.3% were without injuries, and the fatal outcome was registered in 0.4% accidents. Among the elderly (65-74 years of age), however, this share was 1%, and rising to 2.7% with the age 75 and above. By calculating the weight index, which discriminates between minor and severe injuries, and the fatal outcome, it was established that age groups 65-74 and > or = 75 cause three and five times greater damage, respectively than age groups from 18 to 54 years. With years, psychophysical changes lead to a drop in driving ability, which in turn increases the risk of road accidents. It is true that elderly people cause less traffic accidents (and also drive less) than the young, but when they are involved in an accident

  19. Analysis of Core Degradation in Fukushima Unit 1 Accident with MELCOR

    Kim, Sung Il; Kim, Tae Woon; Ha, Kwang Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, an accident analysis of Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 was performed using MELCOR 1.8.6. The behavior of the initial stage of the accident was focused during 30 hours after the reactor scram, because it was predicted that the vessel failure (severe accident) occurred before 20 hours. A hydrogen explosion also occurred at about 24 hours after the accident, and thus the phenomenon of core degradation before 30 hours was highlighted. Moreover, the effect of the amount of fresh water injection on the core degradation was performed by changing the amount of injection water. It was expected that a large portion of the injection water could not reach the core because of leakage. Thus, core damage was observed according to the amount of water that reached the core. The plant geometries and operating conditions were obtained from TEPCO (Tokyo Electric Power Company) through the OECD/NEA BSAF (Benchmark Study of the Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station) Project. An analysis of the Fukushima accident was also performed by Sandia National Laboratories, but several conditions were revised and added in this study. First, the flow rate of the steam into turbine and water into downcomer were considered at the initial stage of accident. The water level followed well the measured data by adding this mechanism. Second, SRV stuck open was included in this calculation. SRV stuck open can occur due to high temperature and frequent operation, and was modeled in calculation. The timing of SRV stuck open was closed to the timing of MSL failure, and thus the depressurization of RPV could have originated from both of MSL failure and SRV stuck open. The effect of injection water was observed, and it was found that the proper water injection can prevent a severe accident at the initial stage of the accident. In conclusion, an analysis of the severe accident occurring in Fukushima Unit 1 was conducted by using MELCOR. The analysis results were consistent with the

  20. Proof collection from car black box using smart phone for accident detection

    Divyashree K


    Full Text Available According to the WHO, more than a million people in the world die each year because of vehicle accidents. In order to react to this situation, the black box concept is used as first step to solve the problem[1]. In order to overcome from this problem, in this paper we are trying to implement the concept of “black box” in the car. Car black box is a device used to record the information’s such as engine temperature, presence of obstacle, alcohol content and exact location of the accident about the vehicle. Along with this we are using smartphone to get the snap shots which are related to accidents and finally send this information along with the snaps to police sever.

  1. Evaluation of severe accident risks, Peach Bottom, Unit 2: Main report

    Payne, A.C.; Breeding, R.J.; Jow, H.N.; Shiver, A.W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Helton, J.C. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA)); Smith, L.N. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))


    In support of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) assessment of the risk from severe accidents at commercial nuclear power plants in the US reported NUREG-1150, the Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SARRP) has completed a revised calculation of the risk to the general public from severe accidents at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 2. This power plant, located in southeastern Pennsylvania, is operated by the Philadelphia Electric Company. The emphasis in this risk analysis was not on determining a so-called'' point estimate of risk. Rather, it was to determine the distribution of risk, and to discover the uncertainties that account for the breadth of this distribution. Off-site risk initiated by events both internal and external to the power station were assessed. 39 refs., 174 figs., 133 tabs.

  2. Geomorphic classifiers for flood-prone areas delineation for data-scarce environments

    Samela, Caterina; Troy, Tara J.; Manfreda, Salvatore


    Knowing the location and the extent of the areas exposed to flood hazards is essential to any strategy for minimizing the risk. Unfortunately, in ungauged basins the use of traditional floodplain mapping techniques is prevented by the lack of the extensive data required. The present work aims to overcome this limitation by defining an alternative simplified procedure for a preliminary floodplain delineation based on the use of geomorphic classifiers. To validate the method in a data-rich environment, eleven flood-related morphological descriptors derived from remotely sensed elevation data have been used as linear binary classifiers over the Ohio River basin and its sub-catchments. Their performances have been measured at the change of the topography and the size of the calibration area, allowing to explore the transferability of the calibrated parameters, and to define the minimum extent of the calibration area. The best performing classifiers among those analysed have been applied and validated across the continental U.S. The results suggest that the classifier based on the Geomorphic Flood Index (GFI), is the most suitable to detect the flood-prone areas in data-scarce regions and for large-scale applications, providing good accuracies with low requirements in terms of data and computational costs. This index is defined as the logarithm of the ratio between the water depth in the element of the river network closest to the point under exam (estimated using a hydraulic scaling function based on contributing area) and the elevation difference between these two points.

  3. Serum Antibody Response to Three Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae Outer Membrane Proteins During Acute Otitis Media and Nasopharyngeal Colonization in Otitis Prone and Non-Otitis Prone Children

    Kaur, Ravinder; Casey, Janet R.; Pichichero, Michael E.


    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is the most common bacteria responsible for episodic acute otitis media (AOM; non-otitis prone), recurrent AOM (rAOM; otitis prone) and AOM treatment failure (AOMTF) in children. In this 3.5 years of prospective study, we measured the serum antibody response to outer membrane proteins D, P6 and OMP26 of NTHi in children with AOM (n= 26), rAOM (n= 32), AOMTF (n=27). The geometric mean titers (GMTs) of IgG at their acute AOM visit against protein D in otitis prone children were significantly lower compared to AOMTF (p value otitis prone (p value otitis prone children had significantly lower IgG levels to P6 compared to AOMTF children (p value otitis prone children had significantly lower IgG levels to OMP26 compared to AOMTF children (p value otitis prone and AOMTF children had no significant change in total IgG against all the three proteins, while non-otitis prone children had significant increases to protein D. Anti-Protein D, P6 and OMP26 antibody levels measured longitudinally during NP colonization between age 6 and 24 months in 10 otitis prone children and 150 non-otitis prone children showed otitis prone children compared to > 4 fold increases in the non-otitis prone children (p value otitis prone children mount less of an IgG serum antibody response toward Protein D, P6 and OMP26 after AOM which may account for recurrent infections. The data on acute sera of otitis prone versus non-otitis prone children and the acute-to-convalescence response in non-otitis prone children point to a possible link of anti-PD to protection. Moreover, the data suggest that otitis prone children should be evaluated for their responses to Protein D, P6 and OMP26 vaccine antigens of NTHi. PMID:21129398

  4. Exploring Environmental Effects of Accidents During Marine Transport of Dangerous Goods by Use of Accident Descriptions

    Rømer, Hans Gottberg; Haastrup, P.; Petersen, H J Styhr


    On the basis of 1776 descriptions of water transport accidents involving dangerous goods, environmental problems in connection with releases of this kind are described and discussed. It was found that most detailed descriptions of environmental consequences concerned oil accidents, although most...

  5. The dynamic nature of risk perceptions after a fatal transit accident.

    Wernstedt, Kris; Murray-Tuite, Pamela


    In 2009, two trains of Washington, DC's Metrorail system collided, resulting in nine deaths and 50 serious injuries. Based on a multiwave survey of Metrorail users in the months after the crash, this article reports how the accident appears to have (1) changed over time the tradeoffs among safety, speed, frequency of service, cost, and reliability that the transit users stated they were willing to make in the postaccident period and (2) altered transit users' concerns about safety as a function of time and distance from the accident site. We employ conditional logit models to examine tradeoffs among stated preferences for system performance measures after the accident, as well as the influence that respondent characteristics of transit use, location, income, age, and gender have on these preference tradeoffs. As expected, respondents appear averse to longer headways between trains, longer travel durations, higher travel costs, a higher number of late trains, and a higher number of fatalities. The models also show evidence of higher aversion to fatalities from transit system operation among females compared to males. In addition, respondents less experienced with Metrorail travel and those with lower household incomes show higher aversion to fatalities, and this aversion increases as a subject's psychological distance from the accident site decreases. Contrary to expectations shaped by previous studies, aversion to fatalities appears to have increased between the early months after the accident and the end of the survey period, and the expected relationship between age and aversion to fatalities is not statistically significant. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Accidents in nuclear facilities: classification, incidence and impact; Accidentes en instalaciones nucleares: clasificacion, incidencia e impacto

    Galicia A, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Paredes G, L. C., E-mail: [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    A general analysis of the 146 accidents reported officially in nuclear facilities from 1945 to 2012 is presented, among them some took place in: power or research nuclear reactors, critical and subcritical nuclear assemblies, handling of nuclear materials inside laboratories belonging to institutes or universities, in radiochemistry industrial plants and nuclear fuel factories. In form graph the incidence of these accidents is illustrated classified for; category, decades, geographical localization, country classification before the OECD, failure type, and the immediate or later victims. On the other hand, the main learned lessons of the nuclear accidents of Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima are stood out, among those that highlight; the human factors, the necessity of designs more innovative and major technology for the operation, control and surveillance of the nuclear facilities, to increase the criterions of nuclear, radiological and physics safety applied to these facilities, the necessity to carry out probabilistic analysis of safety more detailed for cases of not very probable accidents and their impact, to revalue the selection criterions of the sites for nuclear locations, the methodology of post-accident sites recovery and major instrumentation for parameters evaluation and the radiological monitoring among others. (Author)

  7. Reactor Safety Gap Evaluation of Accident Tolerant Components and Severe Accident Analysis

    Farmer, Mitchell T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bunt, R. [Southern Nuclear, Atlanta, GA (United States); Corradini, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ellison, Paul B. [GE Power and Water, Duluth, GA (United States); Francis, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gabor, John D. [Erin Engineering, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Gauntt, R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Henry, C. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Linthicum, R. [Exelon Corp., Chicago, IL (United States); Luangdilok, W. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Lutz, R. [PWR Owners Group (PWROG); Paik, C. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Plys, M. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rempe, J. [Rempe and Associates LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Robb, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wachowiak, R. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States)


    The overall objective of this study was to conduct a technology gap evaluation on accident tolerant components and severe accident analysis methodologies with the goal of identifying any data and/or knowledge gaps that may exist, given the current state of light water reactor (LWR) severe accident research, and additionally augmented by insights obtained from the Fukushima accident. The ultimate benefit of this activity is that the results can be used to refine the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Reactor Safety Technology (RST) research and development (R&D) program plan to address key knowledge gaps in severe accident phenomena and analyses that affect reactor safety and that are not currently being addressed by the industry or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  8. Biomass accident investigations – missed opportunities for learning and accident prevention

    Hedlund, Frank Huess


    selected serious accidents involving biogas and wood pellets in Denmark and argues that such opportunities for learning were missed because accident investigations were superficial, follow-up incomplete and information sharing absent. In one particularly distressing case, a facility saw a repeat accident......, this time with fatal outcome, still without any learning taking place. The paper presents some information on other biomass accidents in Denmark, mostly involving biogas from anaerobic digestion. Details are lacking however, precisely because the accidents were insufficiently investigated and results...... not communicated. The biomass industry needs to pay more attention to safety. Utmost care should be taken to avoid so-called mediashifting i.e. that the resolution of a problem within one domain, the environmental, creates a new problem in another, the workplace safety domain....

  9. Radon gas monitoring survey for the determination of Radon Prone Areas in Lombardia

    Bartolo, D. de; Alberici, A.; Gallini, R.; Maggioni, T.; Mondini, A.; Zini, E. [A.R.P.A. della Lombardia, Milano (Italy); Arrigoni, S.; Cazzaniga, P.; Cugini, A.; Gallinari, G.; Olivieri, F.; Romanelli, M. [A.R.P.A. della Lombardia, Dipt. di Bergamo, Bergamo (Italy)


    Region Lombardia has carried out a radon gas monitoring survey on its territory to localize radon prone areas as by law 241/00 enacted. To plan the survey, the Lombardia territory has been divided into two different types according to the morphology as well as the presence of a substratum of rock. The area with hills and mountains has been investigated with more attention compared to the plain because we can assume higher variability in radon concentration distribution due to the geological and morphological characteristics. The territory subdivision was based on the standard grid.. of the techniregional cartography (8 x 5 km). To perform radon indoor concentration measurements about 3600 measuring points were selected. They are located at the ground floor of buildings with the characteristics to ensure the tests are representative and comparable. It has also been taken into account evaluations done with previous surveys in accordance with the defined specification of the sites. The measurements were carried out using C.R. 39 trace detector technique. The detectors were contained in closed plastic canisters and they were positioned in situ for one year and measured each semester. The detectors were chemically treated and the traces counted using the automated optical system installed at the Radiometric Laboratory of the A.R.P.A. Department in Bergamo. The instrument accuracy and precision were evaluated using data obtained with different methods: using detectors exposed to radon known concentrations, participating to an international intercomparison as well as exposing the detector in a national calibration centre. Due to the large amount of detectors involved, a particular attention was taken for the detector homogeneity response and for the optimization of the analysis parameters. For further investigating the reliability of the measurements, two detectors were used in parallel in 10% of the tests. The results show higher values in the areas of Bergamo, Brescia

  10. Modeling fluxes and form in landslide-prone terrain

    Roering, J. J.; Booth, A. M.; Stock, J. D.


    Landslides dramatically alter the Earth's surface over short timescales. The mass transfer associated with a limited number of slope failures can dominate the sediment budget of a region for decades or longer. The initiation, failure geometry, and runout of individual landslides depend on a range of factors and cannot be predicted from current models. Given these realities of landslide behavior over human timescales, it is challenging to reasonably represent these processes in landscape evolution models. Here, we evaluate the ability of two landslide models, both of which are formulated to apply at geomorphic timescales, to generate topographic patterns and sediment flux rates observed in natural landscapes. Episodic debris flow activity is ubiquitous in steep, low-order mountainous catchments and generates valley networks with low concavity. A physically-based model for debris flow incision (Stock and Dietrich, GSA Bull, 2006) proposes that incision rates depend on the frequency, volume, and velocity of debris flows as well as the density of trigger sites and the state of bedrock weathering in low-order valleys. Valley slope angles are predicted to decline with drainage area according to how these properties vary spatially. We calibrated the model for a well-studied small catchment in the Oregon Coast Range using cosmogenic radionuclide erosion rates and then analyzed the slope-area signature of low-order valleys across much of the Central Oregon Coast Range to explore spatial variations in baselevel lowering. This endeavor shows that baselevel lowering rates vary significantly due to patches of resistant bedrock, drainage reorganization, and tectonic forcing. In regions with weak sedimentary bedrock, earthflows can reduce hillslope gradients, promote gullying, and dominate sediment yield through their downslope translation. A one-dimensional, physically-based model for earthflow-prone hillslope evolution (Booth and Roering, JGR, in press) incorporates earthflow

  11. Accident history, risk perception and traffic safe behaviour.

    Ngueutsa, Robert; Kouabenan, Dongo Rémi


    This study clarifies the associations between accident history, perception of the riskiness of road travel and traffic safety behaviours by taking into account the number and severity of accidents experienced. A sample of 525 road users in Cameroon answered a questionnaire comprising items on perception of risk, safe behaviour and personal accident history. Participants who reported involvement in more than three accidents or involvement in a severe accident perceived road travel as less risky and also reported behaving less safely compared with those involved in fewer, or less severe accidents. The results have practical implications for the prevention of traffic accidents. Practitioner Summary: The associations between accident history, perceived risk of road travel and safe behaviour were investigated using self-report questionnaire data. Participants involved in more than three accidents, or in severe accidents, perceived road travel as less risky and also reported more unsafe behaviour compared with those involved in fewer, or less severe accidents. Campaigns targeting people with a less serious, less extensive accident history should aim to increase awareness of hazards and the potential severity of their consequences, as well as emphasising how easy it is to take the recommended preventive actions. Campaigns targeting those involved in more frequent accidents, and survivors of serious accidents, should address feelings of invulnerability and helplessness.

  12. Comprehensive analysis of atmospheric radionuclides just after the Fukushima accident

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Moriguchi, Yuichi; Nakajima, Teruyuki


    Even six years passed after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FD1NPP) accident, we still have large uncertainty for atmospheric transport and deposition models, the estimate of release rate of source terms and of internal exposure from inhalation. For our better understanding and to reduce the uncertainty, we thoroughly analyzed all the published data of radionuclides such as Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133, and of radiation dose rates at many monitoring sites in eastern Japan. We also retrieved the spatio-temporal distributions of Cs-137 just after the accident by using the unique dataset of hourly radionuclides in atmospheric aerosols collected on the used filter-tapes installed in the suspended particulate matter (SPM) monitors operated at more than 100 stations in the air pollution monitoring network of Japan. The most important findings are summarized as follows. Analyzing the hourly Cs-137 concentrations at two SPM stations located within 20 km from the FD1NPP, we revealed the complicated behavior of plumes and atmospheric radionuclides near the FD1NPP just after the accident. The transport pathways to the northwestern and northern areas from the FD1NPP are clarified especially on March 12-21, 2011. Analysis of the published data clearly shows that atmospheric ratio of I-131/Cs-137 (=R) was mainly divided into two groups, one (R≦10) is for the plumes before March 21, 2011, and the other (R>100) is after that day. These two groups are consistent in all the measured sites, whether the sites are in the Fukushima prefecture or in the Tokyo Metropolitan area. These results are expected partially to identify the source term for each plume.

  13. Iodine behaviour in severe accidents

    Dutton, L.M.C.; Grindon, E.; Handy, B.J.; Sutherland, L. [NNC Ltd., Knutsford (United Kingdom); Bruns, W.G.; Sims, H.E. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Dickinson, S. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Hueber, C.; Jacquemain, D. [IPSN/CEA, Cadarache, Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France)


    A description is given of analyses which identify which aspects of the modelling and data are most important in evaluating the release of radioactive iodine to the environment following a potential severe accident at a PWR and which identify the major uncertainties which affect that release. Three iodine codes are used namely INSPECT, IODE and IMPAIR, and their predictions are compared with those of the PSA code MAAP. INSPECT is a mechanistic code which models iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, spray water and sump water, and the partitioning of volatile species between the aqueous phases and containment gas space. Organic iodine is not modelled. IODE and IMPAIR are semi-empirical codes which do not model iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, but model organic iodine. The fault sequences addressed are based on analyses for the Sizewell `B` design. Two types of sequence have been analysed.: (a) those in which a major release of fission products from the primary circuit to the containment occur, e.g. a large LOCAS, (b) those where the release by-passes the containment, e.g. a leak into the auxiliary building. In the analysis of the LOCA sequences where the pH of the sump is controlled to be a value of 8 or greater, all three codes predict that the oxidation of iodine to produce gas phase species does not make a significant contribution to the source term due to leakage from the reactor building and that the latter is dominated by iodide in the aerosol. In the case where the pH of the sump is not controlled, it is found that the proportion of gas phase iodine increases significantly, although the cumulative leakage predicted by all three codes is not significantly different from that predicted by MAAP. The radiolytic production of nitric acid could be a major factor in determining the pH, and if the pH were reduced, the codes predict an increase in gas phase iodine species leaked from the containment. (author) 4 figs., 7 tabs., 13 refs.

  14. Fatal accidents among Danes with multiple sclerosis

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Koch-Henriksen, Nils


    We compared the rate of fatal accidents among Danes with multiple sclerosis (MS) with that of the general population. The study was based on linkage of the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry to the Cause of Death Registry and covered all 10174 persons in whom MS was diagnosed during the period 1953......-1996. The end of follow-up was 1 January 1999. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for various types of fatal accidents. A total of 76 persons (48 men and 28 women) died from accidents, whereas the expected number of fatalities from such causes was 55.7 (31.4 men and 24.3 women). Thus, the risk...... for death from accidents among persons with MS was 37% higher than that of the general population (SMR = 1.37). We found no significant excess risk for fatal road accidents (SMR = 0.80). The risk for falls was elevated (SMR = 1.29) but not statistically significantly so. The risks were particularly high...

  15. Association of cytokine gene polymorphisms and risk factors with otitis media proneness in children.

    Miljanović, Olivera; Cikota-Aleksić, Bojana; Likić, Dragan; Vojvodić, Danilo; Jovićević, Ognjen; Magić, Zvonko


    In order to assess the association between gene polymorphisms and otitis media (OM) proneness, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA) -308, interleukin (IL) 10-1082 and -3575, IL6 -597, IL2 -330, and CD14 -159 genotyping was performed in 58 OM-prone children and 85 controls who were exposed to similar number and frequency of environmental and host risk factors. The frequencies of genotypes (wild type vs. genotypes containing at least one polymorphic allele) were not significantly different between groups, except for IL10 -1082. Polymorphic genotypes IL10 -1082 GA and GG were more frequent in OM-prone children than in control group (RR 1.145, 95 % CI 1.011-1.298; p = 0.047). However, logistic regression did not confirm IL10 -1082 polymorphic genotypes as an independent risk factor for OM proneness. The present study indicates that high-producing IL10 -1082 GA/GG genotypes may increase the risk for OM proneness in its carriers when exposed to other environmental/host risk factors (day care attendance, passive smoking, male sex, respiratory infections, and atopic manifestations). This study revealed no significant independent genetic association, but the lack of breastfeeding in infancy was found to be the only independent risk factor for development of OM-prone phenotype, implying that breastfeeding had a protective role in development of susceptibility to OM. • The pathogenesis of OM is of multifactorial nature, dependent on infection, environmental factors, and immune response of the child. • Cytokines and CD14 play an important role in the presentation and clinical course of otitis media, but a clear link with otitis media proneness was not established. What is new: • This is the first clinical and genetic study on Montenegrin children with the otitis media-prone phenotype. • The study revealed that high-producing IL10 -1082 genotypes may influence otitis media proneness in children exposed to other environmental/host risk factors.

  16. Effect of Head Rotation on Cerebral Blood Velocity in the Prone Position

    Højlund, Jakob; Sandmand, Marie; Sonne, Morten; Mantoni, Teit; Jørgensen, Henrik L.; Belhage, Bo; van Lieshout, Johannes J.; Pott, Frank C.


    Background. The prone position is applied to facilitate surgery of the back and to improve oxygenation in the respirator-treated patient. In particular, with positive pressure ventilation the prone position reduces venous return to the heart and in turn cardiac output (CO) with consequences for cerebral blood flow. We tested in healthy subjects the hypothesis that rotating the head in the prone position reduces cerebral blood flow. Methods. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), stroke volume (SV), and CO were determined, together with the middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA Vmean) and jugular vein diameters bilaterally in 22 healthy subjects in the prone position with the head centered, respectively, rotated sideways, with and without positive pressure breathing (10 cmH2O). Results. The prone position reduced SV (by 5.4 ± 1.5%; P < 0.05) and CO (by 2.3 ± 1.9 %), and slightly increased MAP (from 78 ± 3 to 80 ± 2 mmHg) as well as bilateral jugular vein diameters, leaving MCA Vmean unchanged. Positive pressure breathing in the prone position increased MAP (by 3.6 ± 0.8 mmHg) but further reduced SV and CO (by 9.3 ± 1.3 % and 7.2 ± 2.4 % below baseline) while MCA Vmean was maintained. The head-rotated prone position with positive pressure breathing augmented MAP further (87 ± 2 mmHg) but not CO, narrowed both jugular vein diameters, and reduced MCA Vmean (by 8.6 ± 3.2 %). Conclusion. During positive pressure breathing the prone position with sideways rotated head reduces MCA Vmean ~10% in spite of an elevated MAP. Prone positioning with rotated head affects both CBF and cerebrovenous drainage indicating that optimal brain perfusion requires head centering. PMID:22988456

  17. Law Enforcement Locations

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  18. [Activities and awareness of public health nurses working at local government facilities and health centers regarding potential nuclear accidents].

    Kitamiya, Chiaki


    The purpose was to study public health service activities developed during non-emergency periods to respond to potential nuclear accidents and to contribute to an understanding of public health nurses' awareness of the possibility of such accidents. For the purpose of this study, we chose prefectural health centers located in a prefecture with a nuclear power plant and in two adjacent prefectures, along with all local administrative bodies (cities, towns, and villages) in these prefectures. For each one of 124 entities, we selected one public health nurse in charge of health crisis management from among the personnel to be targeted for a questionnaire survey conducted by mail. The survey period was from October to November 2009, and the questionnaire contained questions on the following: whether there had been any disasters over the past ten years; whether the respondent had received training in public health services regarding nuclear accidents; and public health service activities developed during non-emergency periods to respond to potential nuclear accidents (and the amount of work done in this regard). The response rate for our survey was 71.8%. Of the total of 124 entities chosen, 9 were aware of the possibility of radiation accidents and 12 had manuals on radiation accidents. Two local governments and five health centers had participated in accident drills, and at both of two local governments, public health nurses were expected to act as guides during resident evacuation in the event of a nuclear accident. Public health nurses were sent to participate in workshops on radiation at four facilities located in the prefecture with a nuclear power plant. Our analysis revealed a lack of knowledge (beta = -0.404, P manuals, provision of opportunities to gain knowledge of materials regarding past damage to the health of residents and how such damage can be coped with is likely to be effective in developing effective measures in response to disasters.

  19. Spatial Analysis in Determination Of Flood Prone Areas Using Geographic Information System and Analytical Hierarchy Process at Sungai Sembrong's Catchment

    Bukari, S. M.; Ahmad, M. A.; Wai, T. L.; Kaamin, M.; Alimin, N.


    Floods that struck Johor state in 2006 and 2007 and the East Coastal in 2014 have triggered a greatly impact to the flood management here in Malaysia. Accordingly, this study conducted to determine potential areas of flooding, especially in Batu Pahat district since it faces terrifying experienced with heavy flood. This objective is archived by using the application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) on study area of flood risk location at the watershed area of Sungai Sembrong. GIS functions as spatial analysis is capable to produce new information based on analysis of data stored in the system. Meanwhile the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used as a method for setting up in decision making concerning the existing data. By using AHP method, preparation and position of the criteria and parameters required in GIS are neater and easier to analyze. Through this study, a flood prone area in the watershed of Sungai Sembrong was identified with the help of GIS and AHP. Analysis was conducted to test two different cell sizes, which are 30 and 5. The analysis of flood prone areas were tested on both cell sizes with two different water levels and the results of the analysis were displayed by GIS. Therefore, the use of AHP and GIS are effective and able to determine the potential flood plain areas in the watershed area of Sungai Sembrong.

  20. Flood Risk and Probabilistic Benefit Assessment to Support Management of Flood-Prone Lands: Evidence From Candaba Floodplains, Philippines

    Juarez, A. M.; Kibler, K. M.; Sayama, T.; Ohara, M.


    Flood management decision-making is often supported by risk assessment, which may overlook the role of coping capacity and the potential benefits derived from direct use of flood-prone land. Alternatively, risk-benefit analysis can support floodplain management to yield maximum socio-ecological benefits for the minimum flood risk. We evaluate flood risk-probabilistic benefit tradeoffs of livelihood practices compatible with direct human use of flood-prone land (agriculture/wild fisheries) and nature conservation (wild fisheries only) in Candaba, Philippines. Located north-west to Metro Manila, Candaba area is a multi-functional landscape that provides a temporally-variable mix of possible land uses, benefits and ecosystem services of local and regional value. To characterize inundation from 1.3- to 100-year recurrence intervals we couple frequency analysis with rainfall-runoff-inundation modelling and remotely-sensed data. By combining simulated probabilistic floods with both damage and benefit functions (e.g. fish capture and rice yield with flood intensity) we estimate potential damages and benefits over varying probabilistic flood hazards. We find that although direct human uses of flood-prone land are associated with damages, for all the investigated magnitudes of flood events with different frequencies, the probabilistic benefits ( 91 million) exceed risks by a large margin ( 33 million). Even considering risk, probabilistic livelihood benefits of direct human uses far exceed benefits provided by scenarios that exclude direct "risky" human uses (difference of 85 million). In addition, we find that individual coping strategies, such as adapting crop planting periods to the flood pulse or fishing rather than cultivating rice in the wet season, minimize flood losses ( 6 million) while allowing for valuable livelihood benefits ($ 125 million) in flood-prone land. Analysis of societal benefits and local capacities to cope with regular floods demonstrate the

  1. Onderzoek location based marketing: Mobile = location = effect

    Gisbergen, M.S. van; Huhn, A.E.; Khan, V.J.; Ketelaar, P.E.


    Onderzoekers van de NHTV (Internationaa Hoger Onderwijs Breda, Radboud Universiteit, DVJ Insights en Popai Benelux lieten consumenten in een virtuele supermarkt advertenties via de smartphone ontvangen wanneer men langs het geadverteerde product liep. De uitkomsten laten zien dat 'location based adv

  2. Onderzoek location based marketing: Mobile = location = effect

    Gisbergen, M.S. van; Huhn, A.E.; Khan, V.J.; Ketelaar, P.E.


    Onderzoekers van de NHTV (Internationaa Hoger Onderwijs Breda, Radboud Universiteit, DVJ Insights en Popai Benelux lieten consumenten in een virtuele supermarkt advertenties via de smartphone ontvangen wanneer men langs het geadverteerde product liep. De uitkomsten laten zien dat 'location based advertising' effectief is.

  3. Locatives in Kpelle.

    Kuha, Mai

    This paper examines the differences between locative expressions in Kpelle and English, based on the dialect of one native speaker of Kpelle. It discusses the crucial role of the reference object in defining the meaning of locatives in Kpelle, in contrast to English, where the characteristics of the object to be located are less important. An…

  4. A study on industrial accident rate forecasting and program development of estimated zero accident time in Korea.

    Kim, Tae-gu; Kang, Young-sig; Lee, Hyung-won


    To begin a zero accident campaign for industry, the first thing is to estimate the industrial accident rate and the zero accident time systematically. This paper considers the social and technical change of the business environment after beginning the zero accident campaign through quantitative time series analysis methods. These methods include sum of squared errors (SSE), regression analysis method (RAM), exponential smoothing method (ESM), double exponential smoothing method (DESM), auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, and the proposed analytic function method (AFM). The program is developed to estimate the accident rate, zero accident time and achievement probability of an efficient industrial environment. In this paper, MFC (Microsoft Foundation Class) software of Visual Studio 2008 was used to develop a zero accident program. The results of this paper will provide major information for industrial accident prevention and be an important part of stimulating the zero accident campaign within all industrial environments.

  5. The effect of a yellow bicycle jacket on cyclist accidents

    Lahrmann, Harry; Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Olesen, Anne Vingaard


    Highlights •A randomised controlled trial with 6793 cyclists shows a reduced accident risk due to a yellow bicycle jacket. •The test group had 47% fewer multiparty accidents with personal injury. •The test group had 55% fewer multiparty accidents against motorised vehicles.......Highlights •A randomised controlled trial with 6793 cyclists shows a reduced accident risk due to a yellow bicycle jacket. •The test group had 47% fewer multiparty accidents with personal injury. •The test group had 55% fewer multiparty accidents against motorised vehicles....

  6. Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents.

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang


    This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents.

  7. A Review of Criticality Accidents 2000 Revision

    Thomas P. McLaughlin; Shean P. Monahan; Norman L. Pruvost; Vladimir V. Frolov; Boris G. Ryazanov; Victor I. Sviridov


    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Sixty accidental power excursions are reviewed. Sufficient detail is provided to enable the reader to understand the physical situation, the chemistry and material flow, and when available the administrative setting leading up to the time of the accident. Information on the power history, energy release, consequences, and causes are also included when available. For those accidents that occurred in process plants, two new sections have been included in this revision. The first is an analysis and summary of the physical and neutronic features of the chain reacting systems. The second is a compilation of observations and lessons learned. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this report.

  8. Enhanced Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels: Metrics Development

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Lori Braase; Rose Montgomery; Chris Stanek; Robert Montgomery; Lance Snead; Larry Ott; Mike Billone


    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is conducting research and development on enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) for light water reactors (LWRs). This mission emphasizes the development of novel fuel and cladding concepts to replace the current zirconium alloy-uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel system. The overall mission of the ATF research is to develop advanced fuels/cladding with improved performance, reliability and safety characteristics during normal operations and accident conditions, while minimizing waste generation. The initial effort will focus on implementation in operating reactors or reactors with design certifications. To initiate the development of quantitative metrics for ATR, a LWR Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels Metrics Development Workshop was held in October 2012 in Germantown, MD. This paper summarizes the outcome of that workshop and the current status of metrics development for LWR ATF.

  9. Assessment of CRBR core disruptive accident energetics

    Theofanous, T.G.; Bell, C.R.


    The results of an independent assessment of core disruptive accident energetics for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor are presented in this document. This assessment was performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission under the direction of the CRBR Program Office within the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. It considered in detail the accident behavior for three accident initiators that are representative of three different classes of events; unprotected loss of flow, unprotected reactivity insertion, and protected loss of heat sink. The primary system's energetics accommodation capability was realistically, yet conservatively, determined in terms of core events. This accommodation capability was found to be equivalent to an isentropic work potential for expansion to one atmosphere of 2550 MJ or a ramp rate of about 200 $/s applied to a classical two-phase disassembly.

  10. Predicting road accidents: Structural time series approach

    Junus, Noor Wahida Md; Ismail, Mohd Tahir


    In this paper, the model for occurrence of road accidents in Malaysia between the years of 1970 to 2010 was developed and throughout this model the number of road accidents have been predicted by using the structural time series approach. The models are developed by using stepwise method and the residual of each step has been analyzed. The accuracy of the model is analyzed by using the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and the best model is chosen based on the smallest Akaike information criterion (AIC) value. A structural time series approach found that local linear trend model is the best model to represent the road accidents. This model allows level and slope component to be varied over time. In addition, this approach also provides useful information on improving the conventional time series method.

  11. Road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia.

    Shanks, N J; Ansari, M; al-Kalai, D


    Road traffic accidents are a major health hazard in Saudi Arabia, particularly during Ramadan. The ensuing trauma has increased in direct proportion to the increase in the number of road vehicles. An audit of RTAs over a one-year period revealed that, out of 361 victims, 16% were under 10 years and 47% between 11 and 30 years. None of those involved in accidents was wearing a seat belt. Half of the children injured were pedestrians. There was a male to female ratio of 4:1 reflecting the driving laws in Saudi Arabia. Burst tyres due to intense heat were identified as a common cause (39%) of accidents. The introduction of seat belt legislation and stricter law enforcement should lead to a rapid reduction in morbidity and mortality on the roads in Saudi Arabia.

  12. Internal Accident Report: fill it out!


    It is important to report all accidents, near-misses and dangerous situations so that they can be avoided in the future.   Reporting these events allows the relevant services to take appropriate action and implement corrective and preventive measures. It should be noted that the routing of the internal accident report was recently changed to make sure that the people who need to know are informed. Without information, corrective action is not possible. Without corrective action, there is a risk that the events will recur. As soon as you experience or see something amiss, fill out an internal accident report! If you have any questions the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at The HSE Unit

  13. Agricultural implications of the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Nakanishi, Tomoko M.


    More than 4 years has passed since the accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. Immediately after the accident, 40 to 50 academic staff of the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Tokyo created an independent team to monitor the behavior of the radioactive materials in the field and their effects on agricultural farm lands, forests, rivers, animals, etc. When the radioactive nuclides from the nuclear power plant fell, they were instantly adsorbed at the site where they first touched; consequently, the fallout was found as scattered spots on the surface of anything that was exposed to the air at the time of the accident. The adsorption has become stronger over time, so the radioactive nuclides are now difficult to remove. The findings of our study regarding the wide range of effects on agricultural fields are summarized in this report. PMID:27538845

  14. Noise Source Location Optimization

    Ed O’Keefe


    Full Text Available This article describes a method to determine locations of noise sources that minimize modal coupling in complex acoustic volumes. Using the acoustic source scattering capabilities of the boundary element method, predictions are made of mode shape and pressure levels due to various source locations. Combining knowledge of the pressure field with a multivariable function minimization technique, the source location generating minimum pressure levels can be determined. The analysis also allows for an objective comparison of “best/worst” locations. The technique was implemented on a personal computer for the U.S. Space Station, predicting 5–10 dB noise reduction using optimum source locations.

  15. Smartphones as locative media

    Frith, Jordan


    Smartphone adoption has surpassed 50% of the population in more than 15 countries, and there are now more than one million mobile applications people can download to their phones. Many of these applications take advantage of smartphones as locative media, which is what allows smartphones to be located in physical space. Applications that take advantage of people's location are called location-based services, and they are the focus of this book. Smartphones as locative media raise important questions about how we understand the complicated relationship between the Internet and physical space

  16. MDCT findings in sports and recreational accidents

    Bensch, Frank V; Koivikko, Mika P; Koskinen, Seppo K (Dept. of Radiology, Toeoeloe Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)), email:


    Background. Sports and recreational accidents involving critical areas of the body occur commonly in the general population. Reports on their demographics and recommendations for screening procedures are, however, few. Purpose. To assess injuries of the craniofacial area, spine, and torso resulting from sports and recreational accidents with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as primary imaging method in a Level I trauma center. Material and Methods. All emergency room CT requests over a time span of 105 months were reviewed retrospectively for trauma mechanism and injury. Patients were identified using an electronic picture archiving and communications system (PACS), and MDCT studies interpreted by two radiologists independently. Results. Of a total of 5898 patients, 492 patients (301 boys/men, 191 girls/women, age range 2-76 years, mean 33.5 years, median 29.5 years) with sports or recreational accidents emerged. A total of 102 traumatic findings were diagnosed, thereof 72 (71%) serious. The three most commonly encountered serious injuries were intracranial injury, fractures of facial bones, and vertebral injuries. The three most common injury mechanisms were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. Patients from recreational activities were on average significantly younger (29.2 years) than those from sports accidents (36.9 years; P < 0.001). Only age groups <21 years and 41-50 years differed in injury severity from the other age groups (P = 0.004 and P = 0.063, respectively). Of all trauma mechanisms, only bicycling had a significantly increased risk of injury (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Injuries in sports and recreational accidents presented with an overall incidence of 21%, of which 71% are serious. The most common mechanisms of injury were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. The largest incidence of serious injury involved bicycling. Because of the high probability of a serious injury and the high energies that are often involved

  17. Nowcasting of Lightning-Related Accidents in Africa

    Ihrlich, Laura; Price, Colin


    Tropical Africa is the world capital of thunderstorm activity with the highest density of strikes per square kilometer per year. As a result it is also the continent with perhaps the highest casualties and injuries from direct lightning strikes. This region of the globe also has little lightning protection of rural homes and schools, while many casualties occur during outdoor activities (e.g. farming, fishing, sports, etc.) In this study we investigated two lightning-caused accidents that got wide press coverage: A lightning strike to a Cheetah Center in Namibia which caused a huge fire and great destruction (16 October 2013), and a plane crash in Mali where 116 people died (24 July 2014). Using data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) we show that the lightning data alone can provide important early warning information that can be used to reduce risks and damages and loss of life from lightning strikes. We have developed a now-casting scheme that allows for early warnings across Africa with a relatively low false alarm rate. To verify the accuracy of our now-cast, we have performed some statistical analysis showing relatively high skill at providing early warnings (lead time of a few hours) based on lightning alone. Furthermore, our analysis can be used in forensic meteorology for determining if such accidents are caused by lightning strikes.

  18. Dependence of maximum concentration from chemical accidents on release duration

    Hanna, Steven; Chang, Joseph


    Chemical accidents often involve releases of a total mass, Q, of stored material in a tank over a time duration, td, of less than a few minutes. The value of td is usually uncertain because of lack of knowledge of key information, such as the size and location of the hole and the pressure and temperature of the chemical. In addition, it is rare that eyewitnesses or video cameras are present at the time of the accident. For inhalation hazards, serious health effects (such as damage to the respiratory system) are determined by short term averages (pressurized liquefied chlorine releases from tanks are given, focusing on scenarios from the Jack Rabbit I (JR I) field experiment. The analytical calculations and the predictions of the SLAB dense gas dispersion model agree that the ratio of maximum C for two different td's is greatest (as much as a factor of ten) near the source. At large distances (beyond a few km for the JR I scenarios), where tt exceeds both td's, the ratio of maximum C approaches unity.


    Buckley, R.; Hunter, C.


    The United States Forest Service-Savannah River (USFS) routinely performs prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. This facility covers {approx}800 square kilometers and is mainly wooded except for scattered industrial areas containing facilities used in managing nuclear materials for national defense and waste processing. Prescribed fires of forest undergrowth are necessary to reduce the risk of inadvertent wild fires which have the potential to destroy large areas and threaten nuclear facility operations. This paper discusses meteorological observations and numerical model simulations from a period in early 2002 of an incident involving an early-morning multicar accident caused by poor visibility along a major roadway on the northern border of the SRS. At the time of the accident, it was not clear if the limited visibility was due solely to fog or whether smoke from a prescribed burn conducted the previous day just to the northwest of the crash site had contributed to the visibility. Through use of available meteorological information and detailed modeling, it was determined that the primary reason for the low visibility on this night was fog induced by meteorological conditions.

  20. Source term analysis for a nuclear submarine accident

    Lewis, B.J.; Hugron, J.J.M.R. [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)


    A source term analysis has been conducted to determine the activity release into the environment as a result of a large-break loss-of-coolant accident aboard a visiting nuclear-powered submarine to a Canadian port. This best-estimate analysis considers the fractional release from the core, and fission product transport in the primary heat transport system, primary containment (i.e. reactor compartment) and submarine hull. Physical removal mechanisms such as vapour and aerosol deposition are treated in the calculation. Since a thermalhydraulic analysis indicated that the integrity of the reactor compartment is maintained, release from the reactor compartment will only occur by leakage; however, it is conservatively assumed that the secondary containment is not isolated for a 24-h period where release occurs through an open hatch in the submarine hull. Consequently, during this period, the activity release into the atmosphere is estimated as 4.6 TBq, leading to a maximum individual dose equivalent of 0.5 mSv at 800 metres from the berthing location. This activity release is comparable to that obtained in the BEREX TSA study (for a similar accident scenario) but is four orders of magnitude less than that reported in the earlier Davis study where, unrealistically, no credit had been taken for the containment system or for any physical removal processes. (author)

  1. Dose estimates from the Chernobyl accident

    Lange, R.; Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.


    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) responded to the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union by utilizing long-range atmospheric dispersion modeling to estimate the amount of radioactivity released (source term) and the radiation dose distribution due to exposure to the radioactive cloud over Europe and the Northern Hemisphere. In later assessments, after the release of data on the accident by the Soviet Union, the ARAC team used their mesoscale to regional scale model to focus in on the radiation dose distribution within the Soviet Union and the vicinity of the Chernobyl plant. 22 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. The medical investigation of airship accidents.

    Stahl, C J; McMeekin, R R; Ruehle, C J; Canik, J J


    A review of the autopsy reports for 18 of 21 victims in 3 of the 4 nonrigid Navy airship accidents during the period 1955 to 1966 revealed that the patterns of injury, complicated by postcrash entrapment, immersion, or fire, are similar to the injuries observed in the low-speed, low-altitude crashes of rigid airships and of light aircraft. With the renewed interest in the development of airships for military purposes, there is a need for improved design related to crashworthiness and to aircrew habitability, safety, restraint, and egress in order to enhance the chance for survival in the event of an accident.


    Woods, Michael; /SLAC


    A graduate student received a laser eye injury from a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser beam while adjusting a polarizing beam splitter optic. The direct causes for the accident included failure to follow safe alignment practices and failure to wear the required laser eyewear protection. Underlying root causes included inadequate on-the-job training and supervision, inadequate adherence to requirements, and inadequate appreciation for dimly visible beams outside the range of 400-700nm. This paper describes how the accident occurred, discusses causes and lessons learned, and describes corrective actions being taken.

  4. Lessons learned from early criticality accidents

    Malenfant, R.E.


    Four accidents involving the approach to criticality occurred during the period July, 1945, through May, 1996. These have been described in the format of the OPERATING EXPERIENCE WEEKLY SUMMARY which is distributed by the Office of Nuclear and Facility Safety. Although the lessons learned have been incorporated in standards, codes, and formal procedures during the last fifty years, this is their first presentation in this format. It is particularly appropriate that they be presented in the forum of the Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Project Workshop closest to the fiftieth anniversary of the last of the four accidents, and that which was most instrumental in demonstrating the need to incorporate lessons learned.

  5. Accident tolerant fuels for LWRs: A perspective

    Zinkle, S. J.; Terrani, K. A.; Gehin, J. C.; Ott, L. J.; Snead, L. L.


    The motivation for exploring the potential development of accident tolerant fuels in light water reactors to replace existing Zr alloy clad monolithic (U, Pu) oxide fuel is outlined. The evaluation includes a brief review of core degradation processes under design-basis and beyond-design-basis transient conditions. Three general strategies for accident tolerant fuels are being explored: modification of current state-of-the-art zirconium alloy cladding to further improve oxidation resistance (including use of coatings), replacement of Zr alloy cladding with an alternative oxidation-resistant high-performance cladding, and replacement of the monolithic ceramic oxide fuel with alternative fuel forms.

  6. Accident Safety Design for High Speed Elevator

    Tawiwat Veeraklaew


    Full Text Available There have been many elevators exist in buildings for such a long time; however, an accident might happen as a free fall due to lacks of maintenance or some other accident such as firing. Although this situation is rarely occurred, many people are still concerned about it. The question here is how to make passengers to feel safe and confident when they are using an elevator, especially, high speed elevator. This problem is studied here in this paper as a free fall spring-mass-damper system with the stiffness and damping coefficient can be computed as minimum jerk of the system with given constraints on trajectories.

  7. Traffic accident injuries in a referral Orthopedic Hospital in North West of Iran during summer 2009

    Amir Mohammad Navali


    Full Text Available Introduction: Road traffic injuries are a major public health problem, requiring huge efforts for effective and sustainable prevention. Because of the high occurrence of traffic accidents in Iran, basic data acquisition is highly needed to implement prevention plans. The present research is conducted as an epidemiological study of the traffic accident victims referred to a referral orthopedic center in North West of Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during a 3 months period from June to September 2009 in Tabriz, Iran. A total of 16681 patients were admitted to the emergency ward, and 3246 patients (19.5% were hospitalized during this period because of traffic related injuries. After randomization, 630 cases were selected to be enrolled in the study. The location of an accident, position of road users, type of crashed vehicle, cause of accident, type of injury, time interval from accident to hospitalization and treatment outcome were recorded. Statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS software. Results: The mean age of the patients was 31 years (range, 6 months to 98 years and 77.0% of patients (468 cases were men. A total of 193 (36.6% patients sustained traffic accident in open roads and 335 (63.4% in urban corridors. In 67 (12.9% of accidents, there was only a single occupant in the vehicle. The time interval between the accident and admission was 6.6 ± 3.2 hours. Of the 608 cases, 45.7% were drivers, 30.3% passengers, and 24.0% pedestrians. Most cases of the car accident happened in urban areas, and the male victims were largely in the driver group. The most frequent type of injury was knee, leg and head trauma. Conclusion: The large number of traffic-related injuries admitted to our emergency ward that comprise mostly young adults should be considered as an alarming signal to policy makers and health providers in our province. Strict control on drivers’ behavior should be taken into account if increasing human

  8. Global atmospheric dispersion modelling after the Fukushima accident

    Suh, K.S.; Youm, M.K.; Lee, B.G.; Min, B.I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Raul, P. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)


    A large amount of radioactive material was released to the atmosphere due to the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011. The radioactive materials released into the atmosphere were mostly transported to the Pacific Ocean, but some of them were fallen on the surface due to dry and wet depositions in the northwest area from the Fukushima nuclear site. Therefore, northwest part of the nuclear site was seriously contaminated and it was designated with the restricted zone within a radius of 20 ∼ 30 km around the Fukushima nuclear site. In the early phase of the accident from 11 March to 30 March, the radioactive materials were dispersed to an area of the inland and offshore of the nuclear site by the variations of the wind. After the Fukushima accident, the radionuclides were detected through the air monitoring in the many places over the world. The radioactive plume was transported to the east part off the site by the westerly jet stream. It had detected in the North America during March 17-21, in European countries during March 23-24, and in Asia during from March 24 to April 6, 2011. The radioactive materials were overall detected across the northern hemisphere passed by 15 ∼ 20 days after the accident. Three dimensional numerical model was applied to evaluate the dispersion characteristics of the radionuclides released into the air. Simulated results were compared with measurements in many places over the world. Comparative results had good agreements in some places, but they had a little differences in some locations. The difference between the calculations and measurements are due to the meteorological data and relatively coarse resolutions in the model. Some radioactive materials were measured in Philippines, Taiwan, Hon Kong and South Korea during from March 23-28. It inferred that it was directly transported from the Fukushima by the northeastern monsoon winds. This event was well represented in the numerical model. Generally, the simulations had a good

  9. Detection of radioxenon in Darwin, Australia following the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Orr, Blake; Schöppner, Michael; Tinker, Rick; Plastino, Wolfango


    A series of (133)Xe detections in April 2011 made at the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) International Monitoring System noble gas station in Darwin, Australia, were analysed to determine the most likely source location. Forward and backwards atmospheric transport modelling simulations using FLEXPART were conducted. It was shown that the most likely source location was the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. Other potential sources in the southern hemisphere were analysed, including the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) radiopharmaceutical facility, but it was shown that sources originating from these locations were highly unlikely to be the source of the observed (133)Xe Darwin detections.

  10. Reduction of cerebral injury in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats by amlodipine

    Blezer, ELA; Nicolay, K; Goldschmeding, R; Koomans, HA; Joles, JA


    Dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel antagonists, initiated together with high salt intake, prevent the development of hypertension and subsequent cerebral damage in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). We hypothesized that the dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel antagonist amlodipine (approximate

  11. Elevation Certificates for Flood Prone Structures, Published in unknown, Sauk County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Elevation Certificates for Flood Prone Structures dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Sauk County Coordinate System coordinate...

  12. Scientific research can be prone to bubbles too – neuroscience risks being the next one

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella


    Science, like any other field that attracts investment, is prone to bubbles. Overly optimistic investments in scientific fields, research methods and technologies generate episodes comparable to those experienced by financial markets prior to crashing. Assessing the toxic intellectual debt...

  13. When feeling bad leads to feeling good: guilt-proneness and affective organizational commitment.

    Flynn, Francis J; Schaumberg, Rebecca L


    The authors posit that higher levels of guilt-proneness are associated with higher levels of affective organizational commitment. To explain this counterintuitive link, the authors suggest that a dispositional tendency to feel guilt motivates individuals to exert greater effort on their work-related tasks that, in turn, strengthens their affinity for the organization. The authors tested this idea using a laboratory study and field data from 2 samples of working adults. Individuals who are more guilt-prone reported higher levels of organizational attachment compared with less guilt-prone individuals. Furthermore, mediation analyses indicate that the link between guilt-proneness and affective commitment is driven by greater task effort. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the affective drivers of commitment in organizations.

  14. Modeling interactions betweenspotted owl and barred owl populations in fire-prone forests

    Background / Question / Methods Efforts to conserve northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the eastern Cascades of Washington must merge the challenges of providing sufficient structurally complex forest habitat in a fire-prone landscape with the limitations impos...

  15. Airway Rescue using the LMA Supreme™ in the prone position: a case report

    Massimiliano Sorbello


    Full Text Available Surgery in prone positioning may pose considerable challenges to Anesthesiologists because of general accessibility to the patient; this is particularly true if referring to airway management, because the airway could be relatively inaccessible while the patient is lying prone.We report a case of an obese women scheduled for lower limbs surgery in the prone position in which the initial anesthetic choice for spinal anesthesia needed to be switched to general anesthesia during the procedure both for the occurrence of surgical complications and because the patient began to become uncooperative. We successfully managed this problem by inserting a LMA SupremeTM leaving the patient in the same prone position, and maintaining anesthesia in mechanical ventilation, thus allowing surgical procedure to be completed uneventfully. The possible options in similar cases and the specific features of LMA SupremeTM which allowed such a choice are discussed.

  16. Reduction of cerebral injury in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats by amlodipine

    Blezer, ELA; Nicolay, K; Goldschmeding, R; Koomans, HA; Joles, JA


    Dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel antagonists, initiated together with high salt intake, prevent the development of hypertension and subsequent cerebral damage in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). We hypothesized that the dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel antagonist amlodipine (approximate

  17. [Prone position: effect on gas exchange and functional capacity for exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension].

    Bastidas-L, Andrea Carolina; Colina-Chourio, José A; Guevara, Jesnel M; Nunez, Alexis


    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate gas exchange and cardiopulmonary functional behavior in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) before, during and after the change to a prone position. Thirty patients with PH and alterations in gas exchange were included in the study. Gas exchange measurements were performed in four stages: at the baseline supine position and after 30, 120 and 240 minutes in prone position. Also, the patients were evaluated by the six minutes walking test (6MWT) after 30 days in prone position during night's sleep. After four hours in prone position, all patients showed an increase of PaO2 and arterial saturation of oxygen (SaO2), with a decrease of intrapulmonary shunts, improving the gas exchange and therefore the physiological demand imposed by exercise in patients with PH.

  18. Prone positioning in the patient who has acute respiratory distress syndrome: the art and science.

    Vollman, Kathleen M


    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a significant contributor to the morbidity and mortality of patients in the ICU. A variety of treatments are used to support the lung of the patient who has ARDS and improve gas exchange during the acute injury phase. It seems, however, that the simple, safe, and noninvasive act of prone positioning of the critically ill patient who has ARDS may improve gas exchange while preventing potential complications of high positive end-expiratory pressure, volutrauma, and oxygen toxicity. This article provides the critical care nurse with the physiologic rationale for use of the prone position, indications and contraindications for use, safe strategies for prone positioning, and care techniques and monitoring methods of the patient who is in the prone position.

  19. First international workshop on severe accidents and their consequences. [Chernobyl Accident


    An international workshop on past severe nuclear accidents and their consequences was held in Dagomys region of Sochi, USSR on October 30--November 3, 1989. The plan of this meeting was approved by the USSR Academy of Sciences and by the USSR State Committee of the Utilization of Atomic Energy. The meeting was held under the umbrella of the ANS-SNS agreement of cooperation. Topics covered include analysis of the Chernobyl accident, safety measures for RBMK type reactors and consequences of the Chernobyl accident including analysis of the ecological, genetic and psycho-social factors. Separate reports are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  20. Is there a connection between car accidents, near accidents, and type A drivers?

    Karlberg, L; Undén, A L; Elofsson, S; Krakau, I


    The authors examined Type A behavior pattern, which has been investigated primarily as a risk factor for coronary heart disease, as a risk factor for car accidents and near accidents. Type A behavior pattern, which is characterized by excessive impatience, competitiveness, hostility, and time pressure, was assessed by means of the Videotaped Structured Interview. One hundred thirty-five Swedish car drivers (66 men and 69 women) were studied: 78 Type A and 58 Type B (that is, not having, Type A behavior). Time pressure was significantly associated with near accidents when age, sex, annual mileage, and urban driving were controlled in a multivariate model.

  1. Safety accident analysis for second phase projects of Shenzhen metro%深圳地铁二期工程建设期安全事故分析

    杨晨; 张佐汉


    By the statistics analysis of safety accidents in Shenzhen Subway Phase Ⅱ Construction,this paper detected that collapse accidents were the accidents most likely happening during construction,and the accidents were prone to happen in the process of foundation pit engineering,shield propelling, underground tunneling and high-formwork construction. By combining with the main methods of subway construction process,this paper showed that auxiliary methods and the temporary bearing structures were the basic reasons for the accident,and put forward the key points of the accident prevention through analysis of the engineering accidents and the construction management experience,which could provide the security management experience for the next subway construction safety.%  通过统计与分析深圳市地铁二期工程在建设期所发生的安全事故,发现坍塌是地铁工程建设期间的多发事故,地铁工程在基坑工程、盾构推进、隧道暗挖和高支模施工的过程中易发生安全事故。结合地铁建设过程中的主要工法,通过进一步分析,发现对辅助工法施工重视不够,临时承重结构施工时抢工期常常是引发事故的重要原因。结合工程事故的分析及建设管理经验,提出事故预防的重点,以期为下阶段大规模的地铁工程建设活动提供安全管理经验。

  2. Estimation of the total population moving into and out of the 20 km evacuation zone during the Fukushima NPP accident as calculated using "Auto-GPS" mobile phone data.

    Hayano, Ryugo S; Adachi, Ryutaro


    The first objective data showing the geographical locations of people in Fukushima after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident, obtained by an analysis of GPS (Global Positioning System)-enabled mobile phone logs, are presented. The method of estimation is explained, and the flow of people into and out of the 20 km evacuation zone during the accident is visualized.


    Mohammed SALIFU, MSc., PhD, MIHT, MGhIE


    The accident prediction models developed have a potentially wide area of application and their systematic use is likely to improve considerably the quality and delivery of the engineering aspects of accident mitigation and prevention in Ghana.

  4. Risk factors for road traffic accidents in Gulu municipality, Uganda ...

    Risk factors for road traffic accidents in Gulu municipality, Uganda. ... Traffic Accidents (RTA), establish the safety measures in place to protect road users to ... drivers of different categories of vehicles, motorcyclists and bicyclists locally known ...

  5. Efficacy of prone position in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients: A pathophysiology-based review.

    Koulouras, Vasilios; Papathanakos, Georgios; Papathanasiou, Athanasios; Nakos, Georgios


    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a syndrome with heterogeneous underlying pathological processes. It represents a common clinical problem in intensive care unit patients and it is characterized by high mortality. The mainstay of treatment for ARDS is lung protective ventilation with low tidal volumes and positive end-expiratory pressure sufficient for alveolar recruitment. Prone positioning is a supplementary strategy available in managing patients with ARDS. It was first described 40 years ago and it proves to be in alignment with two major ARDS pathophysiological lung models; the "sponge lung" - and the "shape matching" -model. Current evidence strongly supports that prone positioning has beneficial effects on gas exchange, respiratory mechanics, lung protection and hemodynamics as it redistributes transpulmonary pressure, stress and strain throughout the lung and unloads the right ventricle. The factors that individually influence the time course of alveolar recruitment and the improvement in oxygenation during prone positioning have not been well characterized. Although patients' response to prone positioning is quite variable and hard to predict, large randomized trials and recent meta-analyses show that prone position in conjunction with a lung-protective strategy, when performed early and in sufficient duration, may improve survival in patients with ARDS. This pathophysiology-based review and recent clinical evidence strongly support the use of prone positioning in the early management of severe ARDS systematically and not as a rescue maneuver or a last-ditch effort.

  6. Does prone repositioning before posterior fixation produce greater lordosis in lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF)?

    Yson, Sharon C; Sembrano, Jonathan N; Santos, Edward R G; Luna, Jeffrey T P; Polly, David W


    Retrospective comparative radiographic review. To determine if lateral to prone repositioning before posterior fixation confers additional operative level lordosis in lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) procedures. In a review of 56 consecutive patients who underwent LLIF, there was no statistically significant change in segmental lordosis from lateral to prone once a cage is in place. The greatest lordosis increase was observed after cage insertion. We reviewed 56 consecutive patients who underwent LLIF in the lateral position followed by posterior fixation in the prone position. Eighty-eight levels were fused. Disk space angle was measured on intraoperative C-arm images, and change in operative level segmental lordosis brought about by each of the following was determined: (1) cage insertion, (2) prone repositioning, and (3) posterior instrumentation. Paired t test was used to determine significance (α=0.05). Mean lordosis improvement brought about by cage insertion was 2.6 degrees (P=0.00005). There was a 0.1 degree mean lordosis change brought about by lateral to prone positioning (P=0.47). Mean lordosis improvement brought about by posterior fixation, including rod compression, was 1.0 degree (P=0.03). In LLIF procedures, the largest increase in operative level segmental lordosis is brought about by cage insertion. Further lordosis may be gained by placing posterior fixation, including compressive maneuvers. Prone repositioning after cage placement does not produce any incremental lordosis change. Therefore, posterior fixation may be performed in the lateral position without compromising operative level sagittal alignment.

  7. Vocational interests and career indecision among psychosis-prone college students.

    Poreh, A M; Schullen, C


    This study investigated the relationship between scores on scales that purport to measure psychosis-proneness and scores on vocational interests, identity, and differentiation scales in a sample of 233 college students who completed the Perceptual Aberration and Magical Ideation scales, the Strong Campbell Interest Inventory, and the Career Decision Scale. The present findings are consistent with prior work indicating a sex-related association of scores on measures of psychosis-proneness and vocational interests. A positive correlation between scores on vocational indecision and measures of psychosis-proneness was also found, suggesting that both men and women who score high on psychosis-proneness find it difficult to formulate long-term career goals. Finally, there was no significant correlation between scores on measures of psychosis-proneness and Holland's Vocational Differentiation Index. Present results are discussed in light of previously reported sex differences among psychosis-prone adults and diagnosed schizophrenics. The implications of the findings for vocational counselors are also addressed.

  8. Risk Assessment of Oil Pipeline Accidents in Special Climatic Conditions

    Vtorushina, A. N.; Anishchenko, Y. V.; Nikonova, E. D.


    The present study identifies the main accidents’ factors and causes for oil pipeline located in Siberia and operated in special climatic conditions. Various types of pipeline accident scenarios were modeled. It is showed that the most dangerous scenarios are oil spills fire and oil vapor explosion due to the loss of piping integrity (rupture) of the pipeline’s section, laying on marshlands and oil spill on the water surface due to the loss of piping integrity (puncture). The most probable scenario is oil spills fire due to the loss of piping integrity (puncture) of the pipeline’s section, laying on dry lands and marshlands. To estimate the scenarios «event tree analysis» is used. Also such risk indexes as individual, societal, public and potential risks were determined.

  9. Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm

    Tayloe, R.W. Jr. (Battelle Columbus (USA)); McGinnis, B. (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (USA))


    Measurements of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm signal response time, sound wave frequency, and sound volume levels were made to demonstrate compliance with ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986. A steady-state alarm signal is produced within one-half second of obtaining a two-out-of-three detector trip. The fundamental alarm sound wave frequency is 440 hertz. The sound volume levels are greater than 10 decibels above background and ranged from 100 to 125 A-weighted decibels. The requirements of the standard were met; however the recommended maximum sound volume level of 115 dBA was exceeded. Emergency procedures require immediate evacuation upon initiation of a facility's radiation alarm. Comparison with standards for allowable time of exposure at different noise levels indicate that the elevated noise level at this location does not represent an occupational injury hazard. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Modeling secondary accidents identified by traffic shock waves.

    Junhua, Wang; Boya, Liu; Lanfang, Zhang; Ragland, David R


    The high potential for occurrence and the negative consequences of secondary accidents make them an issue of great concern affecting freeway safety. Using accident records from a three-year period together with California interstate freeway loop data, a dynamic method for more accurate classification based on the traffic shock wave detecting method was used to identify secondary accidents. Spatio-temporal gaps between the primary and secondary accident were proven be fit via a mixture of Weibull and normal distribution. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate major factors contributing to secondary accident occurrence. Traffic shock wave speed and volume at the occurrence of a primary accident were explicitly considered in the model, as a secondary accident is defined as an accident that occurs within the spatio-temporal impact scope of the primary accident. Results show that the shock waves originating in the wake of a primary accident have a more significant impact on the likelihood of a secondary accident occurrence than the effects of traffic volume. Primary accidents with long durations can significantly increase the possibility of secondary accidents. Unsafe speed and weather are other factors contributing to secondary crash occurrence. It is strongly suggested that when police or rescue personnel arrive at the scene of an accident, they should not suddenly block, decrease, or unblock the traffic flow, but instead endeavor to control traffic in a smooth and controlled manner. Also it is important to reduce accident processing time to reduce the risk of secondary accident. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Violent deaths among composers (accidents, drownings and murders)

    Breitenfeld, Darko; Vodanović, Marijo; Akrap, Ankica; Juran, Dominik; Kranjčec, Darko; Vuksanović, Marina


    In this study, we described different accidents, drowning and murders as the main cause of death among 145 composers. We included accidents (48 composers), drowning (26 composers) and murders (71 composers) which were mainly fatal, and premature. Accidents are the third leading cause of deaths today. Murders were often during the wars and revolutions (World War I, II, French, Russian revolution). We mentioned all of the etiologies of these accidents, drowning and murders according to the c...

  12. Generic Network Location Service

    Laban Mwansa


    Full Text Available This work presents the Generic Network Location Service based on the Chord implementation utilizing data structures called distributed hash tables (DHT or structured overlay networks, which are used to build scalable self-managing distributed systems. The provided algorithms guarantee resilience in the presence of dynamism: they guarantee consistent lookup results in the presence of nodes failing and leaving. Generic Network Location Service provides a Location Service system based on DHT technology, which is storing device location records in nodes within a Chord DHT. Location records are consisting of network device identification keys as attributes, which are used to create replicas of additional location records through established Chord hashing mechanisms. Storing device location records, in places address-able (using the DHT lookup by individual location record keys provides a simple way of implementing transla¬tion functions similar to well¬ known network services (e.g. ARP, DNS, ENUM. The generic network location ser¬vice presented in the paper is not supposed to be a substitu¬tion of the existing translation techniques (e.g. ARP, DNS, ENUM, but it is considered as an overlay service that uses data available in existing systems and provides some translations currently unavailable.

  13. Smart Location Database - Download

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  14. Smart Location Database - Service

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  15. Analysis of Credible Accidents for Argonaut Reactors

    Hawley, S. C.; Kathern, R. L.; Robkin, M. A.


    Five areas of potential accidents have been evaluated for the Argonaut-UTR reactors. They are: • insertion of excess reactivity • catastrophic rearrangement of the core • explosive chemical reaction • graphite fire • fuel-handling accident. A nuclear excursion resulting from the rapid insertion of the maximum available excess reactivity would produce only 12 MWs which is insufficient to cause fuel melting even with conservative assumptions. Although precise structural rearrangement of the core would create a potential hazard, it is simply not credible to assume that such an arrangement would result from the forces of an earthquake or other catastrophic event. Even damage to the fuel from falling debris or other objects is unlikely given the normal reactor structure. An explosion from a metal-water reaction could not occur because there is no credible source of sufficient energy to initiate the reaction. A graphite fire could conceivably create some damage to the reactor but not enough to melt any fuel or initiate a metal-water reaction. The only credible accident involving offsite doses was determined to be a fuel-handling accident which, given highly conservative assumptions, would produce a whole-body dose equivalent of 2 rem from noble gas immersion and a lifetime dose equivalent commitment to the thyroid of 43 rem from radioiodines.

  16. [Current situation of accidents in the world].

    Aguilar-Zinser, José Valente


    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of traffic accidents is of concern. About 1.2 million people die every year on the roadways and about 20 to 50 million suffer from non-lethal trauma. Countries with low or medium incomes have higher rates of lethality by traffic accidents (21.5 and 19.5 per 100,000 habitants, respectively) than countries with higher incomes (10.3 per 100,000). It is estimated that the cost of traffic accidents in countries that are members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), escalate to rates that are between 2-5% of the gross domestic product (GDP). According to data from the health sector in Mexico, these rates are equivalent to 1.3 of GDR The WHO foresees that traffic accident traumas will rise to be the third cause of mortality in 2030. Because of the high complexity of the transport sector, it is necessary that the Transport and Communication Ministry works in a multidisciplinary and intersectorial fashion to ensure that the land transportation systems operate effectively in accordance with national economic development and the quality of life of the Mexican people.

  17. Accidents with biological material in workers

    Cleonice Andréa Alves Cavalcante


    Full Text Available The objective was to describe the accidents with biological material occurred among workers of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, between 2007 and 2009. Secondary data were collected in the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System by exporting data to Excel using Tabwin. Among the types of occupational accidents reported in the state, the biological accidents (no. = 1,170 accounted for 58.3% with a predominance of cases among nurses (48.6%. The percutaneous exposure was the most frequent occurrence and the circumstances of the accidents were related to the handling of sharps and the most common organic material was blood (63.5%. More than 50% of the workers were vaccinated against hepatitis B, but without information regarding the evaluation of vaccine response. The study revealed the need of improvement in the quality of the information, once the sub-entries and inconsistencies make the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System less trustworthy in the characterization of the affected workers.

  18. Speed Variance and Its Influence on Accidents.

    Garber, Nicholas J.; Gadirau, Ravi

    A study was conducted to investigate the traffic engineering factors that influence speed variance and to determine to what extent speed variance affects accident rates. Detailed analyses were carried out to relate speed variance with posted speed limit, design speeds, and other traffic variables. The major factor identified was the difference…

  19. Inventory of socioeconomic costs of work accidents

    Mossink, J.; Greef, M. de


    The European Commission has prioritised the need to develop knowledge of the economic and social costs arising from occupational accidents and illnesses in their communication about a new Community strategy on safety and health at work for 2002-06. This report from the Agency aims to contribute to t

  20. The cyanide accident in Barskoon (Kyrgyzstan)

    Cleven RFMJ; Bruggen M van; LAC


    On May 20, 1998, a truck with 20 tons of sodium cyanide crashed and fell into the Barskoon River (Kyrgyzstan). This small stream, used by the local population for irrigation and drinking water purposes, flows into Lake Issyk-Kul, a major tourist resort. As a result of the accident, some 1700 - 1800

  1. Fatal accidents among Danes with multiple sclerosis

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Koch-Henriksen, Nils


    We compared the rate of fatal accidents among Danes with multiple sclerosis (MS) with that of the general population. The study was based on linkage of the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry to the Cause of Death Registry and covered all 10174 persons in whom MS was diagnosed during the period 1953...

  2. Diving Accidents. Analyses of Underlying Variables.


    Nitrogen narcosis 3 0.3 bad gas 3 0.3 Total 1,036 100.1 1,033 100.2 Another factor of potential relevance in mishap occurrence was the time of day...exposure air, and nitrogen -oxygen equivalent air were all at relatively high risk of terminating in a mishap. Accident rates for the other variables

  3. Chernobyl accident. [Radiation monitoring in UK

    Gittus, J.H.


    A brief report is given of the implications for the UK from the radioactivity released during the Chernobyl accident. Results of radio-activity monitoring around the UK are given and the additional radiation doses to the UK population are evaluated.

  4. Occupational Accident Declaration Form (HS50)

    HR Department

    2007-01-01 •\tIt must be completed within 10 working days of the date on which the accident occurred (§ 29.2.1), unless the person concerned is materially unable to meet this deadline. • The completed formula must be accompanied by a medical certificate giving details of any bodily injuries resulting from the accident (Annex 1, § 5). The medical certificate must be obtained from the doctor who has been consulted for that purpose. Benefits resulting from illnesses and accidents Medical treatment will cease to be reimbursed under the occupational scheme in the event of cure (defined in § 15 as the certified end to the impairment of the patient’s state of health caused by the illness or accident), or consolidation (defined in § 14 as certification that no further improvement in the patient’s state of health can be expected from appropriate medical treatment). The right to such reimbursement shall resume only in the...

  5. Severe Accident Test Station Activity Report

    Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL


    Enhancing safety margins in light water reactor (LWR) severe accidents is currently the focus of a number of international R&D programs. The current UO2/Zr-based alloy fuel system is particularly susceptible since the Zr-based cladding experiences rapid oxidation kinetics in steam at elevated temperatures. Therefore, alternative cladding materials that offer slower oxidation kinetics and a smaller enthalpy of oxidation can significantly reduce the rate of heat and hydrogen generation in the core during a coolant-limited severe accident. In the U.S. program, the high temperature steam oxidation performance of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding solutions has been evaluated in the Severe Accident Test Station (SATS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 2012. This report summarizes the capabilities of the SATS and provides an overview of the oxidation kinetics of several candidate cladding materials. A suggested baseline for evaluating ATF candidates is a two order of magnitude reduction in the steam oxidation resistance above 1000ºC compared to Zr-based alloys. The ATF candidates are categorized based on the protective external oxide or scale that forms during exposure to steam at high temperature: chromia, alumina, and silica. Comparisons are made to literature and SATS data for Zr-based alloys and other less-protective materials.

  6. Accident prevention in a contextual approach

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang


    of such a contextual approach is shortly described and demonstrated in relation to a Danish case on accident prevention. It is concluded that the approach presently offers a post-ante, descriptive analytical understanding, and it is argued that it can be developed to a frame of reference for planning actions...

  7. Accidents due to falls from roof slabs

    Bruno Alves Rudelli

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Falls from the roof slabs of houses are accidents of high potential severity that occur in large Brazilian cities and often affect children and adolescents. The aims of this study were to characterize the factors that predispose towards this type of fall involving children and adolescents, quantify the severity of associated lesions and suggest preventive measures. DESIGN AND SETTING Descriptive observational prospective longitudinal study in two hospitals in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. METHODS Data were collected from 29 cases of falls from roof slabs involving children and adolescents between October 2008 and October 2009. RESULTS Cases involving males were more prevalent, accounting for 84%. The predominant age group was schoolchildren (7 to 12 years old; 44%. Leisure activities were most frequently being practiced on the roof slab at the time of the fall (86%, and flying a kite was the most prevalent game (37.9%. In 72% of the cases, the children were unaccompanied by an adult responsible for them. Severe conditions such as multiple trauma and traumatic brain injuries resulted from 79% of the accidents. CONCLUSION Falls from roof slabs are accidents of high potential severity, and preventive measures aimed towards informing parents and guardians about the dangers and risk factors associated with this type of accident are needed, along with physical protective measures, such as low walls around the slab and gates with locks to restrict free access to these places.

  8. Tragic Car Accident Involves ESO Employees


    Saturday, May 27, turned into a tragic day for ESO. The team installing TIMMI2 at La Silla, went on an excursion to the Elqui valley, 70 km east of the city of La Serena and suffered a serious car accident, crashing against another car driving from the opposite direction.

  9. ANS severe accident program overview & planning document

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.


    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) severe accident document was developed to provide a concise and coherent mechanism for presenting the ANS SAP goals, a strategy satisfying these goals, a succinct summary of the work done to date, and what needs to be done in the future to ensure timely licensability. Guidance was received from various bodies [viz., panel members of the ANS severe accident workshop and safety review committee, Department of Energy (DOE) orders, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements for ALWRs and advanced reactors, ACRS comments, world-wide trends] were utilized to set up the ANS-relevant SAS goals and strategy. An in-containment worker protection goal was also set up to account for the routine experimenters and other workers within containment. The strategy for achieving the goals is centered upon closing the severe accident issues that have the potential for becoming certification issues when assessed against realistic bounding events. Realistic bounding events are defined as events with an occurrency frequency greater than 10{sup {minus}6}/y. Currently, based upon the level-1 probabilistic risk assessment studies, the realistic bounding events for application for issue closure are flow blockage of fuel element coolant channels, and rapid depressurization-related accidents.

  10. Accidents due to falls from roof slabs.

    Rudelli, Bruno Alves; Silva, Marcelo Valerio Alabarce da; Akkari, Miguel; Santili, Claudio


    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Falls from the roof slabs of houses are accidents of high potential severity that occur in large Brazilian cities and often affect children and adolescents. The aims of this study were to characterize the factors that predispose towards this type of fall involving children and adolescents, quantify the severity of associated lesions and suggest preventive measures. DESIGN AND SETTING Descriptive observational prospective longitudinal study in two hospitals in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. METHODS Data were collected from 29 cases of falls from roof slabs involving children and adolescents between October 2008 and October 2009. RESULTS Cases involving males were more prevalent, accounting for 84%. The predominant age group was schoolchildren (7 to 12 years old; 44%). Leisure activities were most frequently being practiced on the roof slab at the time of the fall (86%), and flying a kite was the most prevalent game (37.9%). In 72% of the cases, the children were unaccompanied by an adult responsible for them. Severe conditions such as multiple trauma and traumatic brain injuries resulted from 79% of the accidents. CONCLUSION Falls from roof slabs are accidents of high potential severity, and preventive measures aimed towards informing parents and guardians about the dangers and risk factors associated with this type of accident are needed, along with physical protective measures, such as low walls around the slab and gates with locks to restrict free access to these places.

  11. Utilization of accident databases and fuzzy sets to estimate frequency of HazMat transport accidents.

    Qiao, Yuanhua; Keren, Nir; Mannan, M Sam


    Risk assessment and management of transportation of hazardous materials (HazMat) require the estimation of accident frequency. This paper presents a methodology to estimate hazardous materials transportation accident frequency by utilizing publicly available databases and expert knowledge. The estimation process addresses route-dependent and route-independent variables. Negative binomial regression is applied to an analysis of the Department of Public Safety (DPS) accident database to derive basic accident frequency as a function of route-dependent variables, while the effects of route-independent variables are modeled by fuzzy logic. The integrated methodology provides the basis for an overall transportation risk analysis, which can be used later to develop a decision support system.

  12. Development of the Severe Accident Analysis DB for the Severe Accident Management Expert System (I)

    Park, Soo Yong; Ahn, Kwang Il [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    This report contains analysis methodologies and calculation results of 5 initiating events of the severe accident analysis database system. The Ulchin 3,4 NPP has been selected as reference plants. Based on the probabilistic safety analysis of the corresponding plant, 54 accident scenarios, which was predicted to have more than 10-10 /ry occurrence frequency, have been analyzed as base cases for the Large loss of Coolant sequence database. The functions of the severe accident analysis database system will be to make a diagnosis of the accident by some input information from the plant symptoms, to search a corresponding scenario, and finally to provide the user phenomenological information based on the pre-analyzed results. The MAAP 4.06 calculation results in this report will be utilized as input data to develop the database system

  13. The legacy of war: an epidemiological study of cluster weapon and land mine accidents in Quang Tri Province, Vietnam.

    Phung, Tran Kim; Le, Viet; Husum, Hans


    The study examines the epidemiology of cluster weapon and land mine accidents in Quang Tri Province since the end of the Vietnam War. The province is located just south of the demarcation line and was the province most affected during the war. In 2009, a cross sectional household study was conducted in all nine districts of the province. During the study period of 1975-2009, 7,030 persons in the study area were exposed to unexploded ordnances (UXO) or land mine accidents, or 1.1% of the provincial population. There were 2,620 fatalities and 4,410 accident survivors. The study documents that the main problem is cluster weapons and other unexploded ordnances; only 4.3% of casualties were caused by land mines. The legacy of the war affects poor people the most; the accident rate was highest among villagers living in mountainous areas, ethnic minorities, and low-income families. The most common activities leading to the accidents were farming (38.6%), collecting scrap metal (11.2%), and herding of cattle (8.3%). The study documents that the people of the Quang Tri Province until this day have suffered heavily due to the legacy of war. Mine risk education programs should account for the epidemiological findings when future accident prevention programs are designed to target high-risk areas and activities.

  14. Moderate, strong and strongest earthquake-prone areas in the Caucasus, California and the Andes

    Dzeboev, Boris; Gvishiani, Alexei


    We present this study on recognition of areas of possible occurrence of strong earthquakes. The study deals with the earthquake-prone areas in three regions with different geological and tectonic structures located in different parts of the world. The authors created a new method (FCAZ - Fuzzy Clustering and Zoning) for recognition of highly seismic areas, where epicenters of earthquakes with magnitude M≥M0 can occur. The magnitude threshold M0 depends on the seismic activity of the region. The objects of clustering are earthquake epicenters. The new method allows us to implement uniformly necessary clustering of the recognition objects respectively for moderate, strong and strongest events. Suggested approach consists of two steps: clustering of known earthquake epicenters by the original DPS (Discrete Perfect Sets) algorithm and delineating highly seismic zones around the recognized clusters by another original E2XT algorithm. By means of this method we detected the areas of possible occurrence of the epicenters of strong earthquakes in the Caucasus (M≥5), in California (M≥6.5) and in the mountain belt of the Andes (M≥7.75). The latter case relates to the possible areas of natural disaster occurence. Reliability of the results is confirmed by numerous control experiments, including individual and complete seismic history. Two strongest recent Chilean earthquakes occurred in 2014 and 2015 after the moment the results were published. Their epicenters belong to the zone recognized as high seismically hazardous. It is a strong independent argument which confirms the reliability of the results. The presented results integrate most recent outcomes of more than 40 years of research in pattern recognition and systems analysis for seismic zoning implemented in Russian Academy of Science. This research is supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project № 15-17-30020).

  15. Facial trauma among victims of terrestrial transport accidents

    Sérgio d'Avila; Kevan Guilherme Nóbrega Barbosa; Ítalo de Macedo Bernardino; Lorena Marques da Nóbrega; Patrícia Meira Bento; Efigênia Ferreira e Ferreira


    ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: In developing countries, terrestrial transport accidents - TTA, especially those involving automobiles and motorcycles - are a major cause of facial trauma, surpassing urban violence. OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional census study attempted to determine facial trauma occurrence with terrestrial transport accidents etiology, involving cars, motorcycles, or accidents with pedestrians in the northeastern region of Brazil, and examine victims' socio-demographic characteri...

  16. Developmental and social factors in Nigerian children's accidents.

    Pfeffer, K


    Accidents to children are discussed in terms of developmental and social factors in Nigeria. The types of accidents involving children and age trends in accident incidence are reported. Physical, perceptual, cognitive and social development are discussed. Social factors identified are family variables, the physical environment, and attitudes and folk beliefs.

  17. [Fatal electric arc accidents due to high voltage].

    Strauch, Hansjürg; Wirth, Ingo


    The frequency of electric arc accidents has been successfully reduced owing to preventive measures taken by the professional association. However, the risk of accidents has continued to exist in private setting. Three fatal electric arc accidents caused by high voltage are reported with reference to the autopsy findings.

  18. 49 CFR 178.345-8 - Accident damage protection.


    ... or more than 2 inches from the point of attachment to the tank must have accident damage protection... accident damage protection device; or (iii) Attached to the cargo tank in accordance with the requirements... damaged in an accident could result in a loss of lading from the cargo tank must be protected by...

  19. 48 CFR 52.236-13 - Accident Prevention.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 52.236-13 Section 52.236-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....236-13 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 36.513, insert the following clause: Accident...

  20. Concussion in Motor Vehicle Accidents: The Concussion Identification Index


    Motor Vehicle Accidents; TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury); Brain Contusion; Brain Injuries; Cortical Contusion; Concussion Mild; Cerebral Concussion; Brain Concussion; Accidents, Traffic; Traffic Accidents; Traumatic Brain Injury With Brief Loss of Consciousness; Traumatic Brain Injury With no Loss of Consciousness; Traumatic Brain Injury With Loss of Consciousness

  1. Developing techniques for cause-responsibility analysis of occupational accidents.

    Jabbari, Mousa; Ghorbani, Roghayeh


    The aim of this study was to specify the causes of occupational accidents, determine social responsibility and the role of groups involved in work-related accidents. This study develops occupational accidents causes tree, occupational accidents responsibility tree, and occupational accidents component-responsibility analysis worksheet; based on these methods, it develops cause-responsibility analysis (CRA) techniques, and for testing them, analyzes 100 fatal/disabling occupational accidents in the construction setting that were randomly selected from all the work-related accidents in Tehran, Iran, over a 5-year period (2010-2014). The main result of this study involves two techniques for CRA: occupational accidents tree analysis (OATA) and occupational accidents components analysis (OACA), used in parallel for determination of responsible groups and responsibilities rate. From the results, we find that the management group of construction projects has 74.65% responsibility of work-related accidents. The developed techniques are purposeful for occupational accidents investigation/analysis, especially for the determination of detailed list of tasks, responsibilities, and their rates. Therefore, it is useful for preventing work-related accidents by focusing on the responsible group's duties.

  2. Car accidents determined by stopped cars and traffic flow

    Yang, Xian-qing; Ma, Yu-qiang


    The product of traffic flow and the fraction of stopped cars is proposed to determine the probability Pac for car accidents in the Fukui-Ishibashi model by analysing the necessary conditions of the occurrence of car accidents. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the probability Pac can well be explained. A strategy for avoiding car accidents is suggested.

  3. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders in Reactions to Car Accidents.

    Pasahow, Robert J.

    This paper explains the most frequent psychological symptom that a car accident victim experiences and describes the nature of an anxiety and avoidant reaction to being in a car following an accident. The description of these responses is based on clinical and in-vivo observations from the treatment of more than 450 cases. Accident victim…

  4. Exact results for car accidents in a traffic model

    Huang, Ding-wei


    Within the framework of a recent model for car accidents on single-lane highway traffic, we study analytically the probability of the occurrence of car accidents. Exact results are obtained. Various scaling behaviours are observed. The linear dependence of the occurrence of car accidents on density is understood as the dominance of a single velocity in the distribution.

  5. Severe Accident Test Station Design Document

    Snead, Mary A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yan, Yong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howell, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Keiser, James R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The purpose of the ORNL severe accident test station (SATS) is to provide a platform for evaluation of advanced fuels under projected beyond design basis accident (BDBA) conditions. The SATS delivers the capability to map the behavior of advanced fuels concepts under accident scenarios across various temperature and pressure profiles, steam and steam-hydrogen gas mixtures, and thermal shock. The overall facility will include parallel capabilities for examination of fuels and irradiated materials (in-cell) and non-irradiated materials (out-of-cell) at BDBA conditions as well as design basis accident (DBA) or loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. Also, a supporting analytical infrastructure to provide the data-needs for the fuel-modeling components of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program will be put in place in a parallel manner. This design report contains the information for the first, second and third phases of design and construction of the SATS. The first phase consisted of the design and construction of an out-of-cell BDBA module intended for examination of non-irradiated materials. The second phase of this work was to construct the BDBA in-cell module to test irradiated fuels and materials as well as the module for DBA (i.e. LOCA) testing out-of-cell, The third phase was to build the in-cell DBA module. The details of the design constraints and requirements for the in-cell facility have been closely captured during the deployment of the out-of-cell SATS modules to ensure effective future implementation of the in-cell modules.

  6. Motorcycle accidents, rider behaviour, and psychological models.

    Özkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo; Doğruyol, Burak; Yıldırım, Zümrüt; Çoymak, Ahmet


    The aims of the present study were to: (a) investigate the factor structure of the Motorcycle Rider Behaviour Questionnaire (MRBQ) [Elliott, M.A., Baughan, B.J., Sexton, B.F., 2007. Errors and violations in relation to motorcyclists' crash risk. Accident Analysis and Prevention 39, 491-499] in among Turkish riders, and (b) study the relationships between different types of rider behaviour and motorcyclists' active and passive accidents and offences, and (c) investigate the usefulness of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Health Belief Model (HBM), and Locus of Control (T-LOC) in explaining rider behaviours. MRBQ was administered to a sample of motorcyclists (N=451). Principal components analysis yielded a 5-factor solution including traffic errors, control errors, speed violations, performance of stunts, and use of safety equipment. Annual mileage was related to higher number of active and passive accidents and offences whereas age was related to lower number of active and passive accidents. Stunts were the main predictors of active accidents and offences. Speeding violations predicted offences. Stunts and speeding violations were associated with the fate factor of the T-LOC, and with attitudes, subjective norms, and intention components of TPB, and cues to action and perceived severity components of the HBM. Use of safety equipment was related to the high level of perceived behavioural control and intention components of the TPB, the low score of perceived barriers component of the HBM, and the low fate factor of the T-LOC. While traffic errors were associated with the high score of perceived barriers and cues to action component of the HBM, control errors were related to the high score of vehicle and environment factor of the T-LOC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Industrial location and competitiveness

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.H. Garretsen (Harry); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)


    textabstractThe interaction between the extent of location advantages and the intensity of firm competition relative to the size of the market jointly determines the location of industrial activity. Technology, factor endowments, geography, and scale economies are influential for determining locatio

  8. Appraising manufacturing location

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.


    International location of manufacturing activities is an issue for managers of manufacturing companies as well as public policy makers. For managers, the issue is relevant because international locations offer opportunities for lowering costs due to productivity improvements. For governments the iss

  9. Assessing manufacturing location

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.


    International location of manufacturing activities is an issue for managers of manufacturing companies as well as public policy-makers. For managers, the issue is relevant because international locations offer opportunities for lowering costs due to productivity improvements. For governments the iss

  10. Analysis of surface powered haulage accidents, January 1990--July 1996

    Fesak, G.M.; Breland, R.M.; Spadaro, J. [Dept. of Labor, Arlington, VA (United States)


    This report addresses surface haulage accidents that occurred between January 1990 and July 1996 involving haulage trucks (including over-the-road trucks), front-end-loaders, scrapers, utility trucks, water trucks, and other mobile haulage equipment. The study includes quarries, open pits and surface coal mines utilizing self-propelled mobile equipment to transport personnel, supplies, rock, overburden material, ore, mine waste, or coal for processing. A total of 4,397 accidents were considered. This report summarizes the major factors that led to the accidents and recommends accident prevention methods to reduce the frequency of these accidents.

  11. Comparative Assessment of Severe Accidents in the Chinese Energy Sector

    Hirschberg, S.; Burgherr, P.; Spiekerman, G.; Cazzoli, E.; Vitazek, J.; Cheng, L


    This report deals with the comparative assessment of accidents risks characteristic for the various electricity supply options. A reasonably complete picture of the wide spectrum of health, environmental and economic effects associated with various energy systems can only be obtained by considering damages due to normal operation as well as due to accidents. The focus of the present work is on severe accidents, as these are considered controversial. By severe accidents we understand potential or actual accidents that represent a significant risk to people, property and the environment and may lead to large consequences. (author)

  12. Evaluation Metrics Applied to Accident Tolerant Fuels

    Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton; Jon Carmack; Frank Goldner


    The safe, reliable, and economic operation of the nation’s nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the United States’ nuclear industry. Continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels, remains central to the industry’s success. Decades of research combined with continual operation have produced steady advancements in technology and have yielded an extensive base of data, experience, and knowledge on light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance under both normal and accident conditions. One of the current missions of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is to develop nuclear fuels and claddings with enhanced accident tolerance for use in the current fleet of commercial LWRs or in reactor concepts with design certifications (GEN-III+). Accident tolerance became a focus within advanced LWR research upon direction from Congress following the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex. The overall goal of ATF development is to identify alternative fuel system technologies to further enhance the safety, competitiveness and economics of commercial nuclear power. Enhanced accident tolerant fuels would endure loss of active cooling in the reactor core for a considerably longer period of time than the current fuel system while maintaining or improving performance during normal operations. The U.S. DOE is supporting multiple teams to investigate a number of technologies that may improve fuel system response and behavior in accident conditions, with team leadership provided by DOE national laboratories, universities, and the nuclear industry. Concepts under consideration offer both evolutionary and revolutionary changes to the current nuclear fuel system. Mature concepts will be tested in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory beginning in Summer 2014 with additional concepts being

  13. Bayesian optimization analysis of containment-venting operation in a boiling water reactor severe accident

    Zheng, Xiaoyu; Ishikawa, Jun; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Maryyama, Yu [Nuclear Safety Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan)


    Containment venting is one of several essential measures to protect the integrity of the final barrier of a nuclear reactor during severe accidents, by which the uncontrollable release of fission products can be avoided. The authors seek to develop an optimization approach to venting operations, from a simulation-based perspective, using an integrated severe accident code, THALES2/KICHE. The effectiveness of the containment-venting strategies needs to be verified via numerical simulations based on various settings of the venting conditions. The number of iterations, however, needs to be controlled to avoid cumbersome computational burden of integrated codes. Bayesian optimization is an efficient global optimization approach. By using a Gaussian process regression, a surrogate model of the “black-box” code is constructed. It can be updated simultaneously whenever new simulation results are acquired. With predictions via the surrogate model, upcoming locations of the most probable optimum can be revealed. The sampling procedure is adaptive. Compared with the case of pure random searches, the number of code queries is largely reduced for the optimum finding. One typical severe accident scenario of a boiling water reactor is chosen as an example. The research demonstrates the applicability of the Bayesian optimization approach to the design and establishment of containment-venting strategies during severe accidents.

  14. SAMPSON Parallel Computation for Sensitivity Analysis of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Pellegrini, M.; Bautista Gomez, L.; Maruyama, N.; Naitoh, M.; Matsuoka, S.; Cappello, F.


    On March 11th 2011 a high magnitude earthquake and consequent tsunami struck the east coast of Japan, resulting in a nuclear accident unprecedented in time and extents. After scram started at all power stations affected by the earthquake, diesel generators began operation as designed until tsunami waves reached the power plants located on the east coast. This had a catastrophic impact on the availability of plant safety systems at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi, leading to the condition of station black-out from unit 1 to 3. In this article the accident scenario is studied with the SAMPSON code. SAMPSON is a severe accident computer code composed of hierarchical modules to account for the diverse physics involved in the various phases of the accident evolution. A preliminary parallelization analysis of the code was performed using state-of-the-art tools and we demonstrate how this work can be beneficial to the nuclear safety analysis. This paper shows that inter-module parallelization can reduce the time to solution by more than 20%. Furthermore, the parallel code was applied to a sensitivity study for the alternative water injection into TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi unit 3. Results show that the core melting progression is extremely sensitive to the amount and timing of water injection, resulting in a high probability of partial core melting for unit 3.

  15. Potential for containment leak paths through electrical penetration assemblies under severe accident conditions. [PWR; BWR

    Sebrell, W.


    The leakage behavior of containments beyond design conditions and knowledge of failure modes is required for evaluation of mitigation strategies for severe accidents, risk studies, emergency preparedness planning, and siting. These studies are directed towards assessing the risk and consequences of severe accidents. An accident sequence analysis conducted on a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), Mark I (MK I), indicated very high temperatures in the dry-well region, which is the location of the majority of electrical penetration assemblies. Because of the high temperatures, it was postulated in the ORNL study that the sealants would fail and all the electrical penetration assemblies would leak before structural failure would occur. Since other containments had similar electrical penetration assemblies, it was concluded that all containments would experience the same type of failure. The results of this study, however, show that this conclusion does not hold for PWRs because in the worst accident sequence, the long time containment gases stabilize to 350/sup 0/F. BWRs, on the other hand, do experience high dry-well temperatures and have a higher potential for leakage.

  16. Education Free Virtual Massfor the Prevention of Road Accidents in Ambato

    Fredy Maximiliano Jordán Cordone


    Full Text Available Traffic accidents is a problem of a global nature, the World Health Organization in its 2009 report notes that are 1.2 million deaths a year from this cause, also indicates that the prevention of traffic accidents involves a wide range of measures where education is a fundamental pillar. In Ecuador the situation is the same, by 2014 more than 35000 traffic incidents were reported This project proposes a process of massive virtual training on issues related to traffic laws, signs and statistics in order to achieve an awareness among drivers, and based on this reduce accident rates. Is taken as a case study, driving schools Trade Union of Professional Drivers of Tungurahua, a population had to investigate comprising students of these training centers, this population is 1600 people, we worked with a sample that arrived 350 people. The study based on surveys, it was concluded that there are several factors to traffic accidents, but the most common are: speeding, driving inebriated, little caution and fatigue, it was also concluded that all people are willing to receive training processes in person or virtual. After the study, the MOOC was implemented located in the direction, around 500 people enrolled and trained them. The project was supplemented by various accesses to the platform and mobile applications, promotional posters with QR codes and more.

  17. Improvement of severe accident analysis method for KSNP

    Park, Jae Hong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Song Won; Cho, Youn Soo [Korea Radiation Technology Institute Co., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The objective of this study is preparation of MELCOR 1.8.5 input deck for KSNP and simulation of some major severe accidents. The contents of this project are preparation of MELCOR 1.8.5 base input deck for KSNP to understand severe accident phenomena and to assess severe accident strategy, preparation of 20 cell containment input deck to simulate the distribution of hydrogen and fission products in containment, simulation of some major severe accident scenarios such as TLOFW, SBO, SBLOCA, MBLOCA, and LBLOCA. The method for MELCOR 1.8.5 input deck preparation can be used to prepare the input deck for domestic PWRs and to simulate severe accident experiments such as ISP-46. Information gained from analyses of severe accidents may be helpful to set up the severe accident management strategy and to develop regulatory guidance.

  18. The effect of roundabout design features on cyclist accident rate

    Hels, Tove; Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka


    yearly rate of cyclist accidents on one hand and roundabout geometry, age and traffic volume (vehicles and cyclists) on the other. We related all roundabout cyclist accidents recorded by the hospital emergency department of the town of Odense, Denmark, through the years 1999-2003 (N = 171) to various...... geometric features, age and traffic volume of all roundabouts on the Danish island of Funen (N = 88). Cyclist and vehicle volumes turned out to be significant predictors in most of our models-the higher the volumes, the more accidents. Moreover, potential vehicle speed was a significant predictor, and so...... was age of the roundabout-older roundabouts related to more accidents and higher accident probability. Excluding 48 single cyclist accidents strengthened the relationship between accidents on one hand and vehicle and cyclist volume and potential vehicle speed on the other. This stresses the significance...

  19. Decision Tree Model for Non-Fatal Road Accident Injury

    Fatin Ellisya Sapri


    Full Text Available Non-fatal road accident injury has become a great concern as it is associated with injury and sometimes leads to the disability of the victims. Hence, this study aims to develop a model that explains the factors that contribute to non-fatal road accident injury severity. A sample data of 350 non-fatal road accident cases of the year 2016 were obtained from Kota Bharu District Police Headquarters, Kelantan. The explanatory variables include road geometry, collision type, accident time, accident causes, vehicle type, age, airbag, and gender. The predictive data mining techniques of decision tree model and multinomial logistic regression were used to model non-fatal road accident injury severity. Based on accuracy rate, decision tree with CART algorithm was found to be more accurate as compared to the logistic regression model. The factors that significantly contribute to non-fatal traffic crashes injury severity are accident cause, road geometry, vehicle type, age and collision type.

  20. Coal Mine Accidents in Bangladesh: Its Causes and Remedial Measures



    Full Text Available Barapukuria coal mine (BCM is located at Dinajpur district, NW Bangladesh. Total area is about 6.68 km2 and coal was encountered at a depth ranging between 118 and 509 m. Six major coal seams (seam I to seam VI were identified at BCM, of which, thickest one is the seam-VI (~36 m. The estimated coal reserves is about 390 million tons and of this, nearly 64 million tons of coal is extractable. The annual production of coal is about 1 million ton. In this study several parameters were used to explore minimization of accidents and improvement of coal production in BCM. Considering the geological, hydrological and other technical parameters, longwall mining method is applied for extraction of coal. Longwall retreating mining method is also applied for extraction of coal from single face with the operational area protected by self-advancing hydraulic powered roof support (HPRS system. These supports are moved forward causing the roof behind them to form an extensive abandoned area named goaf, which may lead to collapse with air blast. Coal in BCM is extracted from seam VI, using a multislice Longwall top coal caving method. Average ventilated air composition is ~20.94% oxygen, ~79.00% nitrogen, ~0.04% carbon monoxide, and minor water steam with huge dust. Production of coal was completed from 12 Longwall faces of 1st slice from seam VI. During production period several accidents and troubles within BCM have occurred. Poisonous gases such as carbon monoxide were detected during/after development of 1110 Longwall face, which increases up to 6000 ppm, therefore, sealed-off the face with mining equipments. During the development of belt gate roadway of 1101 Longwall face, maximum temperature and humidity increases up to 37 oC and 100%, respectively. Miners of BCM experienced some difficulties to work in that adverse environment. Air return roadway temperature was always 40 to 41oC in 1101 Longwall face during production period, faces temperature 46o

  1. Smart Location Mapping

    The Smart Location Database, Access to Jobs and Workers via Transit, and National Walkability Index tools can help assess indicators related to the built environment, transit accessibility, and walkability.

  2. Waste Recovery Locations

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Locations where City residents are encouraged to drop off and dispose or recycle of unwanted materials. Information provided is subject to change. Please call ahead...

  3. Electronic apex locators.

    Gordon, M P J; Chandler, N P


    Prior to root canal treatment at least one undistorted radiograph is required to assess canal morphology. The apical extent of instrumentation and the final root filling have a role in treatment success, and are primarily determined radiographically. Electronic apex locators reduce the number of radiographs required and assist where radiographic methods create difficulty. They may also indicate cases where the apical foramen is some distance from the radiographic apex. Other roles include the detection of root canal perforation. A review of the literature focussed first on the subject of electronic apex location. A second review used the names of apex location devices. From the combined searches, 113 pertinent articles in English were found. This paper reviews the development, action, use and types of electronic apex locators.

  4. Allegheny County Dam Locations

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the point locations of dams in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  5. VT Hospital Site Locations

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This data layer contains point locations of all major community, regional, comprehensive health, and healthcare provider hospitals in the state of...

  6. IHS Facility Locator

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This map can be used to find an Indian Health Service, Tribal or Urban Indian Health Program facility. This map can be used to: Zoom in to a general location to...

  7. USAID Activity Locations

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID Activities dataset is a snapshot of activities supported by USAID including their geographical locations within countries at the time of the snapshot. The...

  8. Eldercare Locator Database

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Eldercare Locator is a searchable database that allows a user to search via zip code or city/ state for agencies at the State and local levels that provide...

  9. Uranium Location Database

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A GIS compiled locational database in Microsoft Access of ~15,000 mines with uranium occurrence or production, primarily in the western United States. The metadata...

  10. Global Volcano Locations Database

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a database of over 1,500 volcano locations obtained from the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Volcanoes of the World publication. The...

  11. A Study on the Operation Strategy for Combined Accident including TLOFW accident

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Gook Young [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)


    It is difficult for operators to recognize the necessity of a feed-and-bleed (F-B) operation when the loss of coolant accident and failure of secondary side occur. An F-B operation directly cools down the reactor coolant system (RCS) using the primary cooling system when residual heat removal by the secondary cooling system is not available. The plant is not always necessary the F-B operation when the secondary side is failed. It is not necessary to initiate an F-B operation in the case of a medium or large break because these cases correspond to low RCS pressure sequences when the secondary side is failed. If the break size is too small to sufficiently decrease the RCS pressure, the F-B operation is necessary. Therefore, in the case of a combined accident including a secondary cooling system failure, the provision of clear information will play a critical role in the operators' decision to initiate an F-B operation. This study focuses on the how we establish the operation strategy for combined accident including the failure of secondary side in consideration of plant and operating conditions. Previous studies have usually focused on accidents involving a TLOFW accident. The plant conditions to make the operators confused seriously are usually the combined accident because the ORP only focuses on a single accident and FRP is less familiar with operators. The relationship between CET and PCT under various plant conditions is important to decide the limitation of initiating the F-B operation to prevent core damage.

  12. Severe accident approach - final report. Evaluation of design measures for severe accident prevention and consequence mitigation.

    Tentner, A. M.; Parma, E.; Wei, T.; Wigeland, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division; SNL; INL


    An important goal of the US DOE reactor development program is to conceptualize advanced safety design features for a demonstration Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key safety issues in the design approach for advanced SFR systems. It is necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of the risk of severe accidents for the SFR so that appropriate risk management measures can be implemented early in the design process. This report presents the results of a review of the SFR features and phenomena that directly influence the sequence of events during a postulated severe accident. The report identifies the safety features used or proposed for various SFR designs in the US and worldwide for the prevention and/or mitigation of Core Disruptive Accidents (CDA). The report provides an overview of the current SFR safety approaches and the role of severe accidents. Mutual understanding of these design features and safety approaches is necessary for future collaborations between the US and its international partners as part of the GEN IV program. The report also reviews the basis for an integrated safety approach to severe accidents for the SFR that reflects the safety design knowledge gained in the US during the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) and Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) programs. This approach relies on inherent reactor and plant safety performance characteristics to provide additional safety margins. The goal of this approach is to prevent development of severe accident conditions, even in the event of initiators with safety system failures previously recognized to lead directly to reactor damage.

  13. Neurodevelopmental correlates of proneness to guilt and shame in adolescence and early adulthood

    Sarah Whittle


    Full Text Available Investigating how brain development during adolescence and early adulthood underlies guilt- and shame-proneness may be important for understanding risk processes for mental disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the neurodevelopmental correlates of interpersonal guilt- and shame-proneness in healthy adolescents and young adults using structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI. Sixty participants (age range: 15–25 completed sMRI and self-report measures of interpersonal guilt- and shame-proneness. Independent of interpersonal guilt, higher levels of shame-proneness were associated with thinner posterior cingulate cortex (PCC thickness and smaller amygdala volume. Higher levels of shame-proneness were also associated with attenuated age-related reductions in thickness of lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC. Our findings highlight the complexities in understanding brain–behavior relationships during the adolescent/young adult period. Results were consistent with growing evidence that accelerated cortical thinning during adolescence may be associated with superior socioemotional functioning. Further research is required to understand the implications of these findings for mental disorders characterized by higher levels of guilt and shame.

  14. Comparison of standard, prone and cine MRI in the evaluation of tethered cord

    Singh, Sukhjinder [Cohen Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Kline-Fath, Beth; Racadio, Judy M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Bierbrauer, Karin [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Salisbury, Shelia; Macaluso, Maurizio [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Jackson, Elizabeth C. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Nephrology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Egelhoff, John C. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Phoenix Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)


    Tethered cord syndrome (TCS) is defined by abnormal traction on the spinal cord that confines its movement. Surgical cord release usually stops neurological deterioration; therefore, early and accurate neuroradiological diagnosis is important. Supine MRI is the imaging modality of choice, but prone MRI and cine MRI can demonstrate cord movement. We compared the diagnostic accuracies of standard MRI, prone MRI and cine MRI in patients with clinical suspicion of TCS and evaluated inter-reader reliability for MR imaging. Children who underwent MRI for suspicion of TCS were retrospectively identified. Supine, prone and cine MRI studies were re-read by two pediatric neuroradiologists. Conus level, filum appearance and cord movement were documented. Thirteen of 49 children had tethered cord documented at surgery. Conus level had the highest diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 69-77%, specificity 94%, positive predictive value 82-83%, negative predictive value 89-92%, correct diagnosis 88-90%) and highest between-reader concordance (98%). Prone and cine MRI did not add to the accuracy of the supine imaging. Conus level provides the highest diagnostic accuracy and inter-reader reliability in TCS. Until a larger series is evaluated, it remains questionable whether prone or cine MRI provides enough additional diagnostic information to warrant routine use. (orig.)

  15. Cognitive correlates of boredom proneness: the role of private self-consciousness and absorption.

    Seib, H M; Vodanovich, S J


    The contributions of private self-consciousness and absorption in explaining boredom proneness were investigated. University students enrolled at a public university in the southeastern United States completed a packet containing the Boredom Proneness Scale (BPS; R. Farmer & N. D. Sundberg, 1986), the Self-Consciousness Scale (SCS; A. Fenigstein, M. F. Scheier, & A. H. Buss, 1975), the Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS; A. Tellegen & G. Atkinson, 1974), the Need for Cognition Scale (NCS; J. T. Cacioppo, R. E. Petty, & C. F. Kao, 1984), and a demographic questionnaire. Scores on the Boredom Proneness subscale, Internal Stimulation, which indicates the difficulty in keeping oneself interested and entertained, were significantly lower for individuals high in absorption (a measure of attention). Individuals high in positive self-awareness, representing awareness of one's internal states, reported lower overall boredom. Individuals high in negative self-awareness, which focuses on evaluation and judgment, reported increased total boredom proneness scores. Implications of these findings for the treatment of boredom proneness and future research are discussed.

  16. Location and logistics

    Alumura, Sibel A.; Karab, Bahar Y.; Melo, M. Teresa


    Facility location decisions play a critical role in designing logistics networks. This article provides some guidelines on how location decisions and logistics functions can be integrated into a single mathematical model to optimize the configuration of a logistics network. This will be illustrated by two generic models, one supporting the design of a forward logistics network and the other addressing the specific requirements of a reverse logistics network. Several special cases and extensio...

  17. Location and logistics

    Alumura, Sibel A.; Karab, Bahar Y.; Melo, M. Teresa


    Facility location decisions play a critical role in designing logistics networks. This article provides some guidelines on how location decisions and logistics functions can be integrated into a single mathematical model to optimize the configuration of a logistics network. This will be illustrated by two generic models, one supporting the design of a forward logistics network and the other addressing the specific requirements of a reverse logistics network. Several special cases and extensio...

  18. Comparative Assessment Of Natural Gas Accident Risks

    Burgherr, P.; Hirschberg, S


    The study utilizes a hierarchical approach including (1) comparative analyses of different energy chains, (2) specific evaluations for the natural gas chain, and (3) a detailed overview of the German situation, based on an extensive data set provided by Deutsche Vereinigung des Gas- und Wasserfaches (DVGW). According to SVGW-expertise DVGW-data can be regarded as fully representative for Swiss conditions due to very similar technologies, management, regulations and safety culture, but has a substantially stronger statistical basis because the German gas grid is about 30 times larger compared to Switzerland. Specifically, the following tasks were carried out by PSI to accomplish the objectives of this project: (1) Consolidation of existing ENSAD data, (2) identification and evaluation of additional sources, (3) comparative assessment of accident risks, and (4) detailed evaluations of specific issues and technical aspects for severe and smaller accidents in the natural gas chain that are relevant under Swiss conditions. (author)

  19. Accident prevention in SME using ORM

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Troen, Hanne


    Risk perception in SMEs is normally low, and this is closely related to the fact that the chance of a mall enterprise experiencing a serious accident is very small compared to companies that employ a large workforce. This is a fact even though the SMEs together have a higher accident frequency...... compared with large enterprises. To reach the SMEs we must find a way of supporting them, because they normally have neither the time nor the resources to acquire the knowledge and awareness necessary for working with their own safety. The Occupational Risk Model (ORM) developed by the Dutch Workgroup...... safety in SMEs, as the project also focuses on management factors that can motivate the SMEs to increase their risk awareness and own initiatives. The project is now half way through the project period....

  20. On Hobbes’s distinction of accidents

    Lupoli Agostino


    Full Text Available An interpolation introduced by K. Schuhmann in his critical edition of "De corpore" (chap. VI, § 13 diametrically overturns the meaning of Hobbes’s doctrine of distinction of accidents in comparison with all previous editions. The article focuses on the complexity of this crucial juncture in "De corpore" argument on which depends the interpretation of Hobbes’s whole conception of science. It discusses the reasons pro and contra Schuhmann’s interpolation and concludes against it, because it is not compatible with the rationale underlying the complex architecture of "De corpore", which involves a symmetry between the ‘logical’ distinction of accidents and the ‘metaphysical’ distinction of phantasms.