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Sample records for accident prone drivers

  1. Jerky driving--An indicator of accident proneness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdadi, Omar; Várhelyi, András

    2011-07-01

    This study uses continuously logged driving data from 166 private cars to derive the level of jerks caused by the drivers during everyday driving. The number of critical jerks found in the data is analysed and compared with the self-reported accident involvement of the drivers. The results show that the expected number of accidents for a driver increases with the number of critical jerks caused by the driver. Jerk analyses make it possible to identify safety critical driving behaviour or "accident prone" drivers. They also facilitate the development of safety measures such as active safety systems or advanced driver assistance systems, ADAS, which could be adapted for specific groups of drivers or specific risky driving behaviour.

  2. Relationship between childhood hyperactivity and accident proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, W F; Bailey, C; Wagner, A; Hardesty, V A

    1986-10-01

    Previous research suggested that hyperactive children are especially susceptible to accidents. Two questions remain: is the relationship peculiar to hyperactivity in childhood or for behaviorally disturbed children in general and does the relationship hold for females as well as for males? To answer these questions 189 patients at a child psychiatric clinic were rated on a scale which included measures of hyperactivity and accident proneness. The hyperactive patients were more likely to be described as accident prone than nonhyperactive patients. The relationship between childhood hyperactivity and accident proneness is confirmed and is specific. The relationship holds for both boys and girls.

  3. Accidents of bus drivers : an epidemiological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L.I. Pokorny (Mirko); D.H.J. Blom (Dick)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractIn the history of accident research much emphasis has been laid on general statistics, different types of case studies concentrating on various personal factor-s, circumstantial influences etc. Often, in certain waves, the unequal initial liability theory (the accident proneness concept;

  4. Estimating likelihood of future crashes for crash-prone drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subasish Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available At-fault crash-prone drivers are usually considered as the high risk group for possible future incidents or crashes. In Louisiana, 34% of crashes are repeatedly committed by the at-fault crash-prone drivers who represent only 5% of the total licensed drivers in the state. This research has conducted an exploratory data analysis based on the driver faultiness and proneness. The objective of this study is to develop a crash prediction model to estimate the likelihood of future crashes for the at-fault drivers. The logistic regression method is used by employing eight years' traffic crash data (2004–2011 in Louisiana. Crash predictors such as the driver's crash involvement, crash and road characteristics, human factors, collision type, and environmental factors are considered in the model. The at-fault and not-at-fault status of the crashes are used as the response variable. The developed model has identified a few important variables, and is used to correctly classify at-fault crashes up to 62.40% with a specificity of 77.25%. This model can identify as many as 62.40% of the crash incidence of at-fault drivers in the upcoming year. Traffic agencies can use the model for monitoring the performance of an at-fault crash-prone drivers and making roadway improvements meant to reduce crash proneness. From the findings, it is recommended that crash-prone drivers should be targeted for special safety programs regularly through education and regulations.

  5. [Drivers of advanced age in traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilban, Marjan

    2002-12-01

    The elderly are vulnerable and potentially unpredictable active participants in traffic who deserve special attention. Longer life expectancy entails a greater number of senior drivers, that is, persons with various health problems and difficulties accompanying old age. At the turn of the millennium, the share of population aged 65 or more in Slovenia was around 13%, and in 25 years it will be near as much as 19%. The share of drivers from this age group was 28% a year ago, and it is expected to reach about 54%. Numerous studies have shown that there are many differences in driving attitude between the young and the elderly. The young are by large active victims, and their main offense and cause of accident is speeding, while the elderly are more passive and their main offense is ignoring and enforcing the right of way. This paper focuses on the differences in the occurrence and type of injuries between the young and the elderly drivers, based on an analysis of all road accidents in Slovenia in the period between 1998-2000. Older people (over 65) caused only 4.7% of all road accidents (16.7% of all accidents involving pedestrians, 11.5% of all involving cyclists, 2.7% involving motorcyclists and 5% of all accidents involving car drivers). Of all accidents, 89.3% were without injuries, and the fatal outcome was registered in 0.4% accidents. Among the elderly (65-74 years of age), however, this share was 1%, and rising to 2.7% with the age 75 and above. By calculating the weight index, which discriminates between minor and severe injuries, and the fatal outcome, it was established that age groups 65-74 and > or = 75 cause three and five times greater damage, respectively than age groups from 18 to 54 years. With years, psychophysical changes lead to a drop in driving ability, which in turn increases the risk of road accidents. It is true that elderly people cause less traffic accidents (and also drive less) than the young, but when they are involved in an accident

  6. Driver Personality Proneness Difference and Risk Factor of Traffic Accidents Analysis in Hongkou District of Shanghai%上海市虹口区驾驶员人格倾向及其发生交通事故的危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭俊; 冯学山; 黄智勇; 姚文

    2012-01-01

    目的:调查分析上海市虹口区驾驶员人格倾向及发生交通事故的危险因素,为采取针对性的预防控制措施提供依据.方法:采用自填式问卷方法调查2011年6-8月在虹口区车辆管理所正常验审的机动车驾驶员,内容主要包括驾驶员艾森克人格量表测量以及驾驶员发生交通事故的情况.结果:47.25%的驾驶员自我报告发生过交通事故,艾森克量表结果显示驾驶员性格外向、情绪稳定,有事故驾驶员相对无事故驾驶员性格更为内向.logistic回归分析显示A型血型、有过违章记录、驾驶行为得分低、艾森克量表E维度得分低是驾驶员多发交通事故的危险因素.结论:发生交通事故的驾驶员人格倾向有一定的特异性,建议有关部门结合调查发现的危险因素对驾驶员开展针对性的行车安全宣传和教育,以预防交通事故的发生.%Objective: To analyze the driver personality proneness difference and risk factor of traffic accidents in Hongkou district of Shanghai, and to provide the suggestions for prevention and control. Methods: Questionnaire survey was conducted in Hongkou district,1200 drivers who had finished the vehicle license inspection in vehicle administration department from June to August in 2011 were enrolled. Questionnaire included Eysenk Personality Test and traffic accidents situation of drivers. Results: 47.25% of drivers reported they had the traffic accident experience. The EPT analysis indicated drivers in this investigation were outgoing, steady, drivers with accidents while compared who without accidents were more introverted. Logistic regression indicated that drivers with type A blood, stigma of driving against the regulation, low driving assessment score and low marks of item E in EPT were risk factors for accidents. Conclusion: Drivers who with accidents have some specific characters, the related department should carry out targeted publicity and education to

  7. Level of neurotic disorders among drivers causing traffic accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Đurić Predrag; Filipović Danka

    2007-01-01

    Different aspects of driver personality may affect traffic safety. Extended driver reaction time causes deceleration of the reflexes, which is a major cause of traffic accidents. Cornell index was used in 30 drivers responsible for traffic accidents, with the aim to measure their level of neurotic disorder and compare them with results of controls (drivers not responsible for traffic accidents). Reaction time was measured and compared among subjects with normal results of Cornell test and tho...

  8. Medical risk factors amongst drivers in single-car accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gislason, T; Tómasson, K; Reynisdóttir, H; Björnsson, J K; Kristbjarnarson, H

    1997-03-01

    To estimate medical risk factors amongst drivers in single-car accidents with special reference to sleepiness and alcohol abuse. An epidemiological survey by means of multiple-choice questionnaires that were mailed to drivers and a random control group. Iceland. All drivers in single-car accidents (n = 471) during 1989-91 and a control group from the general population (n = 1000). Medical health profile and answers to questions concerning sleep disorders and alcohol abuse. Compared to the controls the drivers were younger and there were three times more males. The drivers abused alcohol more often. Chronic disorders such as epilepsy, diabetes mellitus, and cardiac disorders were not over-represented. Altogether, 15.4% claimed that sleepiness had caused their traffic accident, logistic regression analyses revealed that these 'sleepy' drivers more often had alcohol abuse and a history of 'almost falling a sleep whilst driving'. Compared to controls, drivers in single-car accidents are more likely to be young, male, have a history of sleepiness whilst driving, and also have a history suggestive of alcoholism. Chronic disorders like epilepsy and diabetes mellitus were not over-represented amongst the single-car accidents drivers. These results raise the question of how drivers with a high probability of causing an accident (sleepiness and alcoholism) can be identified in time and proper measures taken to prevent 'accidents waiting to happen'.

  9. Musculoskeletal disorders, personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of Chinese coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingming; Wu, Feng; Wang, Jun; Sun, Linyan

    2017-01-01

    Human factors comprise one of the important reasons leading to the casualty accidents in coal mines. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of coal miners. There were 1500 Chinese coal miners surveyed in this study. Among these miners, 992 valid samples were obtained. The study surveyed the MSDs, personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of coal miners with MSDs Likert scale, Eysenck personality questionnaire, Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) scale, and accident proneness questionnaire, respectively. The highest MSDs level was found in the waist. The increasing working age of the miners was connected with increased MSDs and psychological distress. Significant differences in MSDs and psychological distress of miners from different types of work were observed. Coal miners with higher MSDs had higher accident proneness. Coal miners with higher neuroticism dimension of Eysenck personality and more serious psychological distress had higher accident proneness. Phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism dimension of psychological distress were the three most important indicators that had significant positive relationships with accident proneness. The MSDs, neuroticism dimension, and psychological distress of the coal mine workers are important to work safety and require serious attention. Some implications concerning coal mine safety management in China were provided.

  10. Professional experience and traffic accidents/near-miss accidents among truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Edmarlon; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; González, Alberto Durán; Mesas, Arthur Eumann

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between the time working as a truck driver and the report of involvement in traffic accidents or near-miss accidents. A cross-sectional study was performed with truck drivers transporting products from the Brazilian grain harvest to the Port of Paranaguá, Paraná, Brazil. The drivers were interviewed regarding sociodemographic characteristics, working conditions, behavior in traffic and involvement in accidents or near-miss accidents in the previous 12 months. Subsequently, the participants answered a self-applied questionnaire on substance use. The time of professional experience as drivers was categorized in tertiles. Statistical analyses were performed through the construction of models adjusted by multinomial regression to assess the relationship between the length of experience as a truck driver and the involvement in accidents or near-miss accidents. This study included 665 male drivers with an average age of 42.2 (±11.1) years. Among them, 7.2% and 41.7% of the drivers reported involvement in accidents and near-miss accidents, respectively. In fully adjusted analysis, the 3rd tertile of professional experience (>22years) was shown to be inversely associated with involvement in accidents (odds ratio [OR] 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.52) and near-miss accidents (OR 0.17; 95% CI 0.05-0.53). The 2nd tertile of professional experience (11-22 years) was inversely associated with involvement in accidents (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.40-0.98). An evident relationship was observed between longer professional experience and a reduction in reporting involvement in accidents and near-miss accidents, regardless of age, substance use, working conditions and behavior in traffic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reaction time of drivers who caused road traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Predrag

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Human factor is the single cause of road traffic injuries in 57%, and together with other factors in more than 90% of all road traffic accidents. Human factor includes many aspects, where reaction time is very important. Material and methods. Thirty healthy drivers 28-40 y.o. with 50-500 km passed per week, having caused at least one road traffic accident in the last ten years were selected, provided they were not under the influence of alcohol and drugs during traffic accident. The same number of control were selected. Both cases and controls were tested to reaction time. Results. We found statistically significant difference between car drivers who caused car accidents and those who did not in both simple and choice reaction times. Discussion. Car drivers who caused road traffic accidents have longer reaction time (both simple and choice reaction time, but as the tasks were more complex, that difference was less visible. Since drivers involved in this study had introductory phase before measuring their reaction times, they faced with unpleasant sound when they made mistake, which forced them to be aware not to make a mistake in further tasks, so they showed longer reaction times. Conclusion. Measuring of reaction time seems to be important, and as we have showed they are different in drivers who have caused road traffic accidents and those who have do not.

  12. Predicting at-fault car accidents of older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Raedt, R; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, I

    2001-11-01

    Considerable research shows car accidents are difficult to predict using screening tests. The objective of this exploratory study is to determine whether detailed accident analysis taking into account the specific accident type might enhance the predictive power of a standardised road test and a set of selected neuropsychological tests. Moreover, this study addresses the validity and reliability of performance-based driving evaluation. The sample consisted of 84 older drivers between 65 and 96 years of age who were referred for a fitness-to-drive evaluation. Using discriminant analyses, the subjects were classified as drivers with and without at-fault accidents. We compared the accuracy of neuropsychological tests and a road test for postdicting all accidents, accidents classified into two categories and accidents classified into four different categories. The percentages of correctly classified subject were highest at the level of the most detailed classification. These results suggest that, although accident prediction is difficult, the predictability of car accidents by neurocognitive measurements and a road test increases when the kind of accident is specified.

  13. Neck sprain after motor vehicle accidents in drivers and passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegen, GJ; Kingma, J; Meijler, WJ; ten Duis, HJ

    2000-01-01

    Neck sprain is a general term denoting a soft tissue injury of the neck, which seldom causes major disability but is considered a modem epidemic. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of sprain of the neck injury due to motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) in both drivers and pa

  14. [Driver identification of the motorcycle in motorcycle/car accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyama, M

    1990-08-01

    A series of motorcycle/car collision experiments and in-depth investigations involving motorcycle/car accidents with two riders were carried out in order to study the difference in behavior and injuries between the driver and the passenger of the motorcycle during a collision, and to provide general data for identifying their seat positions on the motorcycle in traffic accidents. In all the tests, two Hybrid II dummies were seated on the double seats of the motorcycle as riders. The motorcycle collided against the front door, front end or rear door of the passenger car at a speed of 50 km/h, at impact angles of 60 degrees, 90 degrees or 120 degrees. The speeds of the passenger car were tested at 0 km/h or 25 km/h. With different speeds of vehicles and different impact angles, the difference in rider behavior between the driver and the passenger was distinctly verified by analysis of high speed films. It is possible to distinguish the driver's injuries from the passenger's. The abrasion and/or contusions in the chest, face and groin area were severe for the drivers, but less serious for the passengers. The typical injuries of the driver can be expected in terms of the rider behavior during collision from 25 ms to about 150 ms after starting contact. The data and information can be used to clarify the question of who was driving in accident reconstruction.

  15. Aberrant Behaviors and Road Accidents among Iranian Truck Drivers, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Houshang Mehrparvar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available structural dimensions of which as well as technologic failures such as road quality, and tech-nical faults of automobiles, need to be assessed in detail. Iran has the first order in the world for deadly road accidents. This study was designed to assess the association between aberrant behaviors of truck drivers and the incidence of road accidents in Yazd, center of Iran, in 2010.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 300 truck drivers in Yazd. We used 3 questionnaires, including one for demographic data, Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ, and one for drivers' self-evaluation of the of their driving.Results: Five types of the behavior had the highest frequency: Misjudge speed of oncoming vehicle when overtaking.; Deliberately disregard the speed limits late at night or very early in the morning.; Ignore 'give way' signs, and narrowly avoid colliding with traffic having right of way.; Stuck behind a slow-moving vehicle on a two-lane highway, you are driven by frustration to try to overtake in risky circumstances.; Drive with only 'half-an-eye' on the road while looking at a map, changing a cassette or radio channel, etc. The more the driver's driv-ing was influenced by emotional and mental states the more deliberate violations and slips.Conclusion: Among truck drivers, safety has not developed sufficiently, and because of the dangers of road accidents both for the drivers and other people and its economic losses, the importance of the presenting some solutions is completely obvious.

  16. Drug Use among Iranian Drivers Involved in Fatal Car Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Dejman, Masoumeh; Farnia, Marzieh; Alasvand, Ramin; Sehat, Mahmood; Roshanpazooh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mahmood; Jafari, Firoozeh; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Although the problem of substance use among drivers is not limited to certain parts of the world, most epidemiological reports on this topic have been published from industrial world. To investigate pattern of drug use among Iranian drivers who were involved in fatal road accidents. This study enrolled 51 Iranian adults who were involved in fatal vehicle accidents and were imprisoned thereafter. Data came from a national survey of drug abuse that was done among Iranian prisoners. The survey collected data at the entry to seven prisons in different regions of the country during a 4-month period in 2008. Self-reported lifetime, last year, and last month drug use was measured. Commercial substance screening tests were applied to detect recent substance use (opioids, cannabinoids, methamphetamines, and benzodiazepines). The commercial substance screening test showed three distinct patterns of recent illicit drug use: opioids (37.3%), cannabinoids (2.0%), opioids and cannabinoids (13.7%). 29.4% were also positive for benzodiazepines. The substance use screening test detected 23.5% of participants who had used drugs but did not disclose any substance use. Opioids are the most common illicit drugs being used by Iranian drivers who are involved in fatal car accidents. The high rate of substance use prior to fatal car accidents in Iran advocates for the need for drug use control policies and programs as major strategies for injury prevention in Iran. There is also a need for substance screening among all drivers involved in fatal car accidents in Iran, as more than 20% of users may not disclose substance use.

  17. Is there a connection between car accidents, near accidents, and type A drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlberg, L; Undén, A L; Elofsson, S; Krakau, I

    1998-01-01

    The authors examined Type A behavior pattern, which has been investigated primarily as a risk factor for coronary heart disease, as a risk factor for car accidents and near accidents. Type A behavior pattern, which is characterized by excessive impatience, competitiveness, hostility, and time pressure, was assessed by means of the Videotaped Structured Interview. One hundred thirty-five Swedish car drivers (66 men and 69 women) were studied: 78 Type A and 58 Type B (that is, not having, Type A behavior). Time pressure was significantly associated with near accidents when age, sex, annual mileage, and urban driving were controlled in a multivariate model.

  18. Substance use among Iranian drivers involved in fatal road accidents

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    Shervin eAssari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the problem of substance use among drivers is not limited to a special part of the world, most published epidemiological reports on this topic is from industrial world.Aim: To determine drug use among Iranian adults who were imprisoned for vehicle accidents with fatality. Methods: This study enrolled 51 Iranian adults who were imprisoned for vehicle accidents with fatality. This sample came from a national survey of prisoners. Data was collected at entry to prisons during the last 4 months of 2008 in 7 prisons in different parts of the country. Self reported drug use was registered. Commercial substance use screening tests were also done. Results: Drug test was positive for opioids, cannabis and both in 37.3%, 2.0% and 13.7%, respectively. 29.4% tested positive for benzodiazepines. Using test introduced 23.5% of our sample as drug users, who had declined to report any drug use. Conclusion: Opioids are the most used illicit drug in the case of vehicle accidents with fatality, however, 20% of users do not declare their use. This high rate of drug use in vehicle accidents with fatality reflects the importance of drug use control as a part of injury prevention in Iran. There might be a need for drug screening after severe car accidents.

  19. The Use of Accidents and Traffic Offences as Criteria for Evaluating Courses in Driver Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaoul, Jean

    A road safety study was conducted by the University of Salford, Great Britain, in order to evaluate the effects of secondary level driver education in reducing the occurrence of accidents. It examines the feasibility of using accidents and traffic offenses as criteria for evaluating courses in driver education. To achieve this objective, 1,800…

  20. [Relationship between symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and traffic accidents in the city drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoyunlu, Muhammed Emin; Kart, Levent; Uludağ, Murat; Bayram, Mehmet; Alisha, Gersi; Özçelik, Hatice; Karaköse, Fatmanur; Sezer, Murat

    2013-01-01

    There is a high tendency for traffic accidents in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Thus it's recommended to investigate OSAS symptoms before certification of professional drivers. However, to what degree OSAS symptoms predict traffic accidents is not clear. We aimed to investigate the relationship between OSAS symptoms and traffic accidents. Five hundred twenty bus drivers working at Istanbul Electricity, Tramway and Tunnel (IETT) general management were randomly selected. Berlin questionnaire was applied which included demographic data, accident ratios, total duration in profession, duration of working in a day and OSAS symptoms. Epworth sleepiness score (ESS) test was applied to assess day time slepiness. All drivers were male. Snoring were present in 324 (65.7%) of participants. Traffic accident history were present in 259 (49.7%) of drivers. Significant relationship was present between traffic accident and only daytime sleepiness among the OSAS symptoms. The mean of accident/year ratio of all participants were 0.092. Mean of ESS was 7.3 ± 3.2 for all participants. There is a positive correlation between ESS and accident/year ratio (r= 0.57, p= 0.012). Only daytime sleepiness among OSAS symptoms is related with traffic accident. The questioning of OSAS symptoms alone is inadequate to estimate traffic accident risk. Thus further consideration more than symptom questioning is needed at phase of authorization of professional drivers to detect OSAS.

  1. An epidemiologic survey of road traffic accidents in Iran: analysis of driver-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moafian, Ghasem; Aghabeigi, Mohammad-Reza; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Hoseinzadeh, Amin; Lankarani, Kamran Bagheri; Sarikhani, Yaser

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic accident (RTA) and its related injuries contribute to a significant portion of the burden of diseases in Iran. This paper explores the association between driver-related factors and RTA in the country. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran and all data regarding RTAs from March 20, 2010 to June 10, 2010 were obtained from the Traffic Police Department. We included 538 588 RTA records, which were classified to control for the main confounders: accident type, final cause of accident, time of accident and driver-related factors. Driver-related factors included sex, educational level, license type, type of injury, duration between accident and getting the driving license and driver's error type. A total of 538 588 drivers (91.83% male, sex ratio of almost 13:1) were involved in the RTAs. Among them 423 932 (78.71%) were uninjured; 224 818 (41.74%) had a diploma degree. Grade 2 driving license represented the highest proportion of all driving licenses (290 811, 54.00%). The greatest number of accidents took place at 12:00-13:59 (75 024, 13.93%). The proportion of drivers involved in RTAs decreased from 15.90% in the first year of getting a driving license to 3.13% after 10 years'of driving experience. Neglect of regulations was the commonest cause of traffic crashes (345 589, 64.17%). Non-observance of priority and inattention to the front were the most frequent final causes of death (138 175, 25.66% and 129 352, 24.02%, respectively). We found significant association between type of accident and sex, education, license type, time of accident, final cause of accident, driver's error as well as duration between accident and getting the driving license (all P less than 0.001). Our results will improve the traffic law enforcement measures, which will change inappropriate behavior of drivers and protect the least experienced road users.

  2. Visual impairment and road traffic accidents among drivers in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biza, Mohamed; Mossie, Andualem; Woldemichael, Kifle; Gelaw, Yeshigeta

    2013-04-01

    Vision play a vital role in driving where good and efficient visual functioning of the driver is essential. Any significant loss of visual function will diminish a driver's ability to operate a motor vehicle safely and will thus contribute to road traffic injury. However, there is little evidence indicating that defects of vision alone cause road traffic accidents. To determine the impact of visual impairment and other factors on road traffic accident among vehicle drivers. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 249 sampled drivers in Southwest Ethiopia. A pretested interviewer led questionnaire was used for interview and vision tests were done using Snellen's acuity chart and Ishihara pseudo-isochromatic plates. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 16.0. The mean age of drivers was 33.6 years (SD +/- 10.3). The relative frequency of self reported road traffic accident was 15.3%. The prevalence of uncorrected binocular visual impairment was 1.6% and there was a significant association between visual impairment and road traffic accident (P traffic accident. There is need for consistent inspection and screening, strict rules and regulations of licensing and health education for drivers to minimize road traffic accident.

  3. Truck Drivers' Experiences and Perspectives Regarding Factors Influencing Traffic Accidents: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Ranjbar, Hossein; Heydari, Abbas; Scurlock-Evans, Laura

    2015-08-01

    Traffic accidents are a major public health problem, leading to death and disability. Although pertinent studies have been conducted, little data are available in Iran. This study explored the experiences of truck drivers and their perspectives regarding factors contributing to traffic accidents. Eighteen truck drivers, purposively sampled, participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. A main theme, lack of ability to control stress, emerged as a factor influencing the incidence of traffic accidents. This main theme was found to have three subthemes: poor organization of the job, lack of workplace facilities and proper equipment, and unsupportive environment. Although several factors were found to contribute to traffic accidents, their effects were not independent, and all were considered significant. Identifying factors that contribute to traffic accidents requires a systematic and holistic approach. Findings could be used by the transportation industry and community health centers to prevent traffic accidents. © 2015 The Author(s).

  4. Shift sequences, duration of rest periods, and accident risk of bus drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pokorny, M.L.I.; Blom, D.H.J.; Leeuwen, P. van; Nooten, W.N. van

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a portion of the results of a comprehensive analysis of the etiology of bus driver accidents. This portion of the analysis concentrates on two questions. First, does the sequences of various shifts influence accident risk on a given day? Various analyses led us to conclude that

  5. Prevalence of sleep-related accidents among drivers in Saudi Arabia

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    Ahmad S BaHammam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of sleepy driving and sleep-related accidents (SRA varies widely, and no data exist regarding the prevalence of sleepy driving in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence and predictors of sleepy driving, near-misses, and SRA among drivers in Saudi Arabia. Materials And Methods: A questionnaire was developed to assess sleep and driving in detail based on previously published data regarding sleepy driving. The questionnaire included 50 questions addressing socio-demographics, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, driving items, and the Berlin Questionnaire. In total, 1,219 male drivers in public places were interviewed face-to-face. Results: The included drivers had a mean age of 32.4 ± 11.7 years and displayed a mean ESS score of 7.2 ± 3.8. Among these drivers, 33.1% reported at least one near-miss accident caused by sleepiness. Among those who had actual accidents, 11.6% were attributed to sleepiness. In the past six months, drivers reported the following: 25.2% reported falling asleep at least once during, driving and 20.8% had to stop driving at least once because of severe sleepiness. Young age, feeling very sleepy during driving, and having at least one near-miss accident caused by sleepiness in the past six months were the only predictors of accidents. Conclusion: Sleepy driving is prevalent among male drivers in Saudi Arabia. Near-miss accidents caused by sleepiness are an important risk factor for car accidents and should be considered as a strong warning signal of future accidents.

  6. Relation between workplace accidents and the levels of carboxyhemoglobin in motorcycle taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luiz Almeida; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz; Terra, Fábio de Souza

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relation between workplace accidents and the levels of carboxyhemoglobin found in motorcycle taxi drivers. Correlational, quantitative study involving 111 workers and data obtained in July 2012 through a questionnaire to characterize the participants and blood collection to measure carboxyhemoglobin levels. 28.8% had suffered workplace accidents; 27.6% had fractured the lower limbs and significant symptoms of carbon monoxide exposure were verified in smokers. The carboxyhemoglobin levels were higher among smokers and victims of workplace accidents. Motorcycle taxi drivers had increased levels of carboxyhemoglobin, possibly due to the exposure to carbon monoxide; these levels are also increased among smokers and victims of workplace accidents. The study provides advances in the knowledge about occupational health and environmental science, and also shows that carboxyhemoglobin can be an indicator of exposure to environmental pollutants for those working outdoors, which can be related to workplace accidents.

  7. Relation between workplace accidents and the levels of carboxyhemoglobin in motorcycle taxi drivers

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    Luiz Almeida da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate the relation between workplace accidents and the levels of carboxyhemoglobin found in motorcycle taxi drivers. METHOD: correlational, quantitative study involving 111 workers and data obtained in July 2012 through a questionnaire to characterize the participants and blood collection to measure carboxyhemoglobin levels. RESULT: 28.8% had suffered workplace accidents; 27.6% had fractured the lower limbs and significant symptoms of carbon monoxide exposure were verified in smokers. The carboxyhemoglobin levels were higher among smokers and victims of workplace accidents. CONCLUSION: motorcycle taxi drivers had increased levels of carboxyhemoglobin, possibly due to the exposure to carbon monoxide; these levels are also increased among smokers and victims of workplace accidents. The study provides advances in the knowledge about occupational health and environmental science, and also shows that carboxyhemoglobin can be an indicator of exposure to environmental pollutants for those working outdoors, which can be related to workplace accidents.

  8. A review of accidents and injuries to road transport drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Copsey, N.; Drupsteen, L.; Kampen, J. van; Kuijt-Evers, L.; Schmitz-Felten, E.; Verjans, M.

    2010-01-01

    This review presents reports of work-related road transport accidents, near misses, and other effects relating to ill health that give details concerning the causes and effects of the accidents. The main focus of the report is on road transport activities that take place on the public highway; howev

  9. An epidemiologic survey of road traffic accidents in Iran:analysis of driver-related factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghasem Moafian; Mohammad Reza Aghabeigi; Seyed Taghi Heydari; Amin Hoseinzadeh; Kamran Bagheri Lankarani; Yaser Sarikhani

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic accident (RTA)and its related injuries contribute to a significant portion of the burden of diseases in Iran.This paper explores the association between driver-related factors and RTA in the country.Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran and all data regarding RTAs from March 20,2010 to June 10,2010 were obtained from the Traffic Police Department.We included 538 588 RTA records,which were classified to control for the main confounders:accident type,final cause of accident,time of accident and driver-related factors.Driver-related factors included sex,educational level,license type,type of injury,duration between accident and getting the driving license and driver's error type.Results:Atotal of 538 588 drivers (91.83% male,sex ratio of almost 13:1) were involved in the RTAs.Among them 423 932 (78.71%) were uninjured; 224 818 (41.74%) had a diploma degree.Grade 2 driving license represented the highest proportion of all driving licenses (290 811,54.00%).The greatest number of accidents took place at 12:00-13:59(75 024,13.93%).The proportion of drivers involved in RTAs decreased from 15.90% in the first year of getting a driving license to 3.13% after 10 years' of driving experience.Neglect of regulations was the commonest cause of traffic crashes (345 589,64.17%).Non-observance of priority and inattention to the front were the most frequent final causes of death (138 175,25.66% and 129 352,24.02%,respectively).We found significant association between type of accident and sex,education,license type,time of accident,final cause of accident,driver's error as well as duration between accident and getting the driving license (all P<0.001).Conclusion:Our results will improve the traffic law enforcement measures,which will change inappropriate behavior of drivers and protect the least experienced road users.

  10. An epidemiologic survey of road traffic accidents in Iran: analysis of driver-related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moafian Ghasem

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Road traffic accident (RTA and its related injuries contribute to a significant portion of the burden of diseases in Iran. This paper explores the as-sociation between driver-related factors and RTA in the country. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran and all data regarding RTAs from March 20, 2010 to June 10, 2010 were obtained from the Traffic Police Department. We included 538 588 RTA records, which were classified to control for the main confounders: accident type, final cause of accident, time of accident and driver-related factors. Driver-related factors included sex, educational level, license type, type of injury, duration between accident and getting the driving license and driver’s error type. Results: A total of 538 588 drivers (91.83% male, sex ratio of almost 13:1 were involved in the RTAs. Among them 423 932 (78.71% were uninjured; 224 818 (41.74% had a diploma degree. Grade 2 driving license represented the highest proportion of all driving licenses (290 811, 54.00%. The greatest number of accidents took place at 12:00-13:59 (75 024, 13.93%. The proportion of drivers involved in RTAs decreased from 15.90% in the first year of getting a driving license to 3.13% after 10 years’ of driving experience. Ne-glect of regulations was the commonest cause of traffic crashes (345 589, 64.17%. Non-observance of priority and inattention to the front were the most frequent final causes of death (138 175, 25.66% and 129 352, 24.02%, respectively. We found significant association between type of acci-dent and sex, education, license type, time of accident, final cause of accident, driver’s error as well as duration between accident and getting the driving license (all P<0.001. Conclusion: Our results will improve the traffic law enforcement measures, which will change inappropriate be-havior of drivers and protect the least experienced road users. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Automobile

  11. Sleep habits and traffic accidents in inter-provincial bus drivers of Arequipa, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Caso, Alex; Universidad Católica de Santa María. Arequipa, Perú.; Rey de Castro, Jorge; CENTRES Clínica Anglo Americana. Lima, Perú. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Grupo de Investigación en Sueño. Lima, Perú.; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo; Grupo de Investigación en Sueño. Lima, Perú. Instituto Clínic del Tórax, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona. Barcelona, España. Médico Cirujano, Magister en Medicina, Máster en sueño: fisiología y medicina.

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine sleep habits in bus drivers and their relationship to accidents in the city of Arequipa, Peru, a crosssectional descriptive study was conducted in a non-probabilistic sample of 166 drivers. Driving hours per day were 9.4 ± 3.7. 54% (89) drive over 4 hours without stopping; 74% (123) drive at night; and 87% (145) sleep on the bus. 75% reported fatigue while driving (124). 27% (45) had drowsiness; 24% (40) reported having been in or on the verge of an accident while drivin...

  12. Road rage and road traffic accidents among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, M A; Shaikh, I A; Siddiqui, Z

    2012-04-01

    Road rage and road traffic accidents increase the burden of morbidity and mortality in a population. A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan (n = 901) to record their behaviours/experiences regarding road rage and road traffic accidents. Respondents were asked about incidents of shouting/cursing/rude gestures or threats to physically hurt the person/vehicle, by others or themselves, in the previous 24 hours or 3 months, and their involvement in road traffic accidents in the previous 12 months. Auto-rickshaw drivers were significantly more likely to report various road rage experiences/behaviours and involvement in accidents compared with bus and wagon drivers. A total of 112 respondents (12.4%) reported being involved in a road traffic accident in the previous 12 months but traffic police did not record the accident in 52.7% of cases. The results of this study underline the need to improve road safety in Pakistan.

  13. Acidentes de trabalho com mototaxistas Occupational accidents among mototaxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Rego Amorim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A utilização da motocicleta como meio de trabalho vem contribuindo para o aumento no número dos acidentes de trânsito e se constituindo em acidentes de trabalho para os mototaxistas. O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a incidência anual de acidentes de trabalho entre mototaxistas cadastrados em Feira de Santana, BA. Trata-se de um estudo de caráter descritivo e censitário. Foram entrevistados 267 profissionais dos 300 cadastrados na Secretaria Municipal de Transporte e Trânsito - SMTT, através de questionário estruturado. Procedeu-se à análise descritiva e foram estimadas incidências anuais de acidentes de trabalho segundo as variáveis de interesse. Calcularam-se os riscos relativos e, como medida de significância estatística, utilizou-se o teste de qui-quadrado de Pearson e o teste exato de Fisher, adotando-se p The use of motorcycles as a means of work has contributed to the increase in traffic accidents, in particular, mototaxi accidents. The aim of this study was to estimate and characterize the incidence of occupational accidents among the mototaxis registered in Feira de Santana, BA. This is a cross-sectional study with descriptive and census data. Of the 300 professionals registered at the Municipal Transportation Service, 267 professionals were interviewed through a structured questionnaire. Then, a descriptive analysis was conducted and the incidence of accidents was estimated based on the variables studied. Relative risks were calculated and statistical significance was determined using the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test, considering p < 0.05. Logistic regression was used in order to perform simultaneous adjustment of variables. Occupational accidents were observed in 10.5% of mototaxis. There were mainly minor injuries (48.7%, 27% of them requiring leaves of absence from work. There was an association between the days of work per week, fatigue in lower limbs and musculoskeletal complaints, and accidents

  14. Identification of traffic accident risk-prone areas under low lighting conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ivan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Besides other non-behavioural factors, the low lighting conditions significantly influence the frequency of the traffic accidents in the urban environment. This paper intends to identify the impact of low lighting conditions on the traffic accidents in the city of Cluj-Napoca. The dependence degree between lighting and the number of traffic accidents was analyzed by the Pearson's correlation and the relation between the spatial distribution of traffic accidents and the lighting conditions was determined by the frequency ratio model. The vulnerable areas within the city were identified based on the calculation of the injured persons rate for the 0.5 km2 equally-sized areas uniformly distributed within the study area. The results have shown a strong linear dependence between the low lighting conditions and the number of traffic accidents in terms of three seasonal variations and a high probability of traffic accidents occurrence under the above-mentioned conditions, at the city entrances-exits, which represent also vulnerable areas within the study area. Knowing the linear dependence and the spatial relation between the low lighting and the number of traffic accidents, as well as the consequences induced by their occurrence enabled us to identify the high traffic accident risk areas in the city of Cluj-Napoca.

  15. Identification of traffic accident risk-prone areas under low-light conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, K.; Haidu, I.; Benedek, J.; Ciobanu, S. M.

    2015-09-01

    Besides other non-behavioural factors, low-light conditions significantly influence the frequency of traffic accidents in an urban environment. This paper intends to identify the impact of low-light conditions on traffic accidents in the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The dependence degree between light and the number of traffic accidents was analysed using the Pearson correlation, and the relation between the spatial distribution of traffic accidents and the light conditions was determined by the frequency ratio model. The vulnerable areas within the city were identified based on the calculation of the injury rate for the 0.5 km2 areas uniformly distributed within the study area. The results show a strong linear correlation between the low-light conditions and the number of traffic accidents in terms of three seasonal variations and a high probability of traffic accident occurrence under the above-mentioned conditions at the city entrances/exits, which represent vulnerable areas within the study area. Knowing the linear dependence and the spatial relation between the low light and the number of traffic accidents, as well as the consequences induced by their occurrence, enabled us to identify the areas of high traffic accident risk in Cluj-Napoca.

  16. Identification of Drivers in Traffic Accidents and Determination of Passenger Position in a Vehicle by Finger Marks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Trapečar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paper aims to illustrate certain investigative activities in the forensic analysis and examination of the scene of traffic accidents. When a traffic accident occurs, the scene must be secured as soon as possible to enable professional and proper forensic investigation. Failure to secure the accident scene might result in losing or contaminating the traces, which makes it more difficult to prove or explain trace evidence in further procedure or even makes such evidence inadmissible. The topic is discussed from the viewpoint of crime scene examination, since analysing and investigating traffic accidents requires a great deal of expertise and attention of the investigators. Complex traffic accidents include feigned accidents, hit-and-run accidents as well as accidents in which the driver and passengers, dead or alive, need to be identified. In identifying the passengers, standard criminal investigation methods as well as police forensic and forensic medicine methods are followed. Such methods include confirming the identities with identity documents, other documents and vehicle ownership, fingerprints, biological traces, fibre traces, contact traces, traces of physical injuries on the driver and passengers, etc. According to the results obtained in fingerprint detection on human skin surfaces, this method can also be applied in confirming physical contact between the driver and the passengers in the accident, e.g. in the event of moving the victims and changing the scene of the accident.   Key words: traffic accidents, accident analysis, driver's identity, passengers' position, finger marks, human skin

  17. Injuries and absenteeism among motorcycle taxi drivers who are victims of traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Kevan G N; Lucas-Neto, Alfredo; Gama, Bruno D; Lima-Neto, Jose C; Lucas, Rilva Suely C C; d'Ávila, Sérgio

    2014-08-01

    Facial injuries frequently occur in traffic accidents involving motorcycles. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of facial injuries among motorcycle drivers who perform motorcycle taxi service. The study design was cross-sectional. A total of 210 participants who served as motorcycle taxi drivers in a city in northeastern Brazil completed a survey concerning their experience of accidents involving facial injuries and consequent hospitalization and absenteeism from work. The motorcycle drivers included in the study were randomly selected from a list provided by the city. Out of the respondents, 165 (78.6%) who were involved in traffic accidents in the last 12 months, 15 (9.1%) reported facial injuries. The types of facial injury most frequently reported involved soft tissues (n = 8; 53.3%), followed by simple fracture (n = 4; 26.7%) and dentoalveolar fracture (n = 3; 20%). We found an association between facial injuries and absenteeism, as well as an association between the presence of facial injury and the need for hospitalization for a period of 2 days or more. Respondents reported that they had accidents, but due to the use of full face motorcycle helmet the number of facial injuries was low. For most of them, absenteeism was observed for a period of one month or more. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. Visual functions of commercial drivers in relation to road accidents in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladehinde, M K; Adeoye, A O; Adegbehingbe, B O; Onakoya, A O

    2007-05-01

    To determine the effects of the visual functions on the occurrence of road traffic accidents (RTA) amongst commercial drivers in Ife central local government area (LGA) of Osun state of Nigeria. A cross-sectional study. Four major motor parks located at Ife Central LGA. Of the estimated 270 commercial drivers in the four major parks of the LGA, 215 consecutive drivers were interviewed and had their eyes examined. Structured questionnaires were administered by an ophthalmologist. The prevalence of visual impairment (visual acuity stereopsis and color vision impairment did not have any significant association with RTA. Poor visual acuity is strongly associated with RTA amongst Nigerian commercial drivers as opposed to visual field defect, abnormal color vision and stereopsis. A significant proportion of visual impairment was due to uncorrected refractive errors.

  19. Quantifying the Influence of Social Characteristics on Accident and Injuries Risk: A Comparative Study Between Motorcyclists and Car Drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Olesen, Morten N.; Hels, Tove

    2011-01-01

    as the control group. The available data for the regression consisted of accident and injury data for motorcyclists and car owners in the period of interest as well the social and demographic parameters: age, gender, income, educational level and family status. The odds ratio calculations showed that the risk....... In this analysis we establish relationships between social and demographic characteristics and the probability of being in an accident and being injured in an accident. Logistic regression was applied to both motorcyclists and car drivers with the purpose of calculating the odds ratio with the car drivers...... of being in an accident or in an injury accident decreased with age, educational level, and income. Furthermore, the risk of being in an accident was 1.72 to 1.96 times higher and the risk of being in an injury accident was 1.38 to 1.44 times higher for men compared to women. For motorcyclists compared...

  20. Driver behavior and accident frequency in school zones: Assessing the impact of sign saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawderman, Lesley; Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Huang, Yunchen; Nandi, Apurba

    2015-09-01

    Based on the models of human information processing, if a driver observes too many of the same signs, he or she may no longer pay attention to those signs. In the case of school zones, this expected effect may lead to non-compliance to posted speeds, negatively impacting safety around nearby schools. This study aims to investigate the effect of the number of nearby school zones on driver behavior (vehicle speed and compliance) and accident frequency. As a measure of the density of school zones, this study introduced and defined a new term sign saturation and presented a methodology to calculate sign saturation for school zones. Results found a significant effect of sign saturation on vehicle speed, compliance, and accident frequency. This study also examined the speeding behavior in school zones for different time of the day and day of the week. Results found that speeding was more prevalent in the early mornings and during the weekends.

  1. [Sleep habits and traffic accidents in inter-provincial bus drivers of Arequipa, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caso, Alex; Rey de Castro, Jorge; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine sleep habits in bus drivers and their relationship to accidents in the city of Arequipa, Peru, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in a non-probabilistic sample of 166 drivers. Driving hours per day were 9.4 ± 3.7. 54% (89) drive over 4 hours without stopping; 74% (123) drive at night; and 87% (145) sleep on the bus. 75% reported fatigue while driving (124). 27% (45) had drowsiness; 24% (40) reported having been in or on the verge of an accident while driving. Sleepiness or fatigue while driving was common in this population and their driving and rest habits could contribute to this.

  2. Sleep habits and road traffic accident risk for Iranian occupational drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Dehghani, Mohsen; Niiat, Khosro Sadegh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the sleep quality and sleep disorders (prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea and sleepiness) among occupational drivers in Iran and to determine which demographic factors and occupational habits are linked to road traffic accidents. In this analytic cross-sectional study 556 occupational road drivers from Shahroud city (in the northeast of Iran) participated, upon a prior verbal informed consent, during 2013-2014. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) standard questionnaire that scored on 7 point scale, the 8-item Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaire and the 8-question STOP-Bang questionnaire along with demographic information and occupational data were used. To explore the independent factors associated with odds of poor sleep quality and road accident, multiple logistic regression models were used. Prevalence of previous road accidents, sleepiness while driving, and obstructive sleep apnea scored ≥ 3 in the study, and drivers accounted for 23.8%, 29%, and 24.8%, respectively. The global mean score of sleep quality and excessive sleepiness score were 5.2 and 4.8, respectively. The main factors related to the odds of poor sleep quality were snoring (odds ratio (OR) = 2.34; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-4.77), smoking (OR = 2.12; 95% CI: 1.15-3.97), and driving times in a day (OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03-1.21). The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (OR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.07-1.23) and suffering from apnea (OR = 4.89; 95% CI: 1.07-23.83) were the best predictors for odds (increased risk) of road accidents. A considerable proportion of Iranian drivers had records of road accidents; poor sleep quality, sleepiness while driving, and sleep disorder breathing (obstructive sleep apnea - OSA). Snoring, smoking, driving time in a day, excessive sleepiness, and presumably apnea increase the odds of poor sleep quality and road traffic accident for Iranian occupational drivers. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under

  3. Sleep habits and road traffic accident risk for Iranian occupational drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Ebrahimi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the sleep quality and sleep disorders (prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea and sleepiness among occupational drivers in Iran and to determine which demographic factors and occupational habits are linked to road traffic accidents. Material and Methods: In this analytic cross-sectional study 556 occupational road drivers from Shahroud city (in the northeast of Iran participated, upon a prior verbal informed consent, during 2013–2014. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI standard questionnaire that scored on 7 point scale, the 8-item Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS questionnaire and the 8-question STOP-Bang questionnaire along with demographic information and occupational data were used. To explore the independent factors associated with odds of poor sleep quality and road accident, multiple logistic regression models were used. Results: Prevalence of previous road accidents, sleepiness while driving, and obstructive sleep apnea scored ≥ 3 in the study, and drivers accounted for 23.8%, 29%, and 24.8%, respectively. The global mean score of sleep quality and excessive sleepiness score were 5.2 and 4.8, respectively. The main factors related to the odds of poor sleep quality were snoring (odds ratio (OR = 2.34; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.15–4.77, smoking (OR = 2.12; 95% CI: 1.15–3.97, and driving times in a day (OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03–1.21. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (OR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.07–1.23 and suffering from apnea (OR = 4.89; 95% CI: 1.07–23.83 were the best predictors for odds (increased risk of road accidents. Conclusions: A considerable proportion of Iranian drivers had records of road accidents; poor sleep quality, sleepiness while driving, and sleep disorder breathing (obstructive sleep apnea – OSA. Snoring, smoking, driving time in a day, excessive sleepiness, and presumably apnea increase the odds of poor sleep quality and road traffic accident for Iranian

  4. Risky driving behaviors for road traffic accident among drivers in Mekele city, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Abrahim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to its perception as a disease of development, road traffic accident and related injuries tend to be under recognized as a major health problem in developing countries. However, majority of the world's fatalities on the roads occur in low income and middle income countries. Since the main cause of road traffic accident is attributed to human risky behaviors, it is important to identify significant factors for risky behaviors of drivers. Methods A quantitative cross-sectional study with a sample size of 350 drivers was conducted in April 2011. The study was conducted among Taxi, Bajaj (three tire vehicles and private owned car drivers. After proportion to size allocation for Taxi (75, Baja (103 and private owned car (172 drivers, we used systematic random sampling method to identify illegible study subjects. Data was collected with face to face interview using a pretested questioner. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis was done using SPSS version 16. Results The mean age of the respondents was 28.7 (SD 9.9. Majority were 339 (96.9% males. Significant number of the study subjects 233 (66.6% had risky driving behaviors. More than a quarter 100 (28.6% had less knowledge about basic traffic signs. Majority of drivers 181 (51.7% had negative attitude towards risky driving behaviors. Significant percent of them 148 (42.3% had a habit of using mobile phone while driving vehicle and 28 (9.7% had experience of driving after drinking alcohol. All the Bajaj, 97(62.6% house car and 58(37.4% taxi unfasten their seat belt while driving. Majority 303 (86.6% followed the recommended speed limit of driving. About 66 (18.9% of them had experience of punishment or warning by traffic polices in the previous 1 year and 77 (22% ever had car accident while driving. Conclusions Drivers of secondary education and with high average monthly income were more likely to have risky driving behavior. Having supportive attitude towards risky

  5. Professional shift-work drivers who adopt prophylactic naps can reduce the risk of car accidents during night work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, Sergio; Mascialino, Barbara; Penco, Maria Antonietta; Squarcia, Sandro; De Carli, Fabrizio; Nobili, Lino; Beelke, Manolo; Cuomo, Gianni; Ferrillo, Franco

    2004-11-01

    Night work can be dangerous because both circadian sleep propensity (process C) and sleep pressure due to the prolonged wakefulness (process S) contribute to the reduction of vigilance levels. As naps are a countermeasure to sleepiness, this study evaluates the role they play in preventing sleep-related accidents in Italian shift-working police drivers. The study concerns highway car accidents that occurred to Italian shift-working police drivers; it was performed in 2 steps: a retrospective analysis of the overall number of accidents that occurred during the years 1993--1997 (n, 1195), followed by a validation analysis of a smaller cohort of accidents prospectively collected during 2003 (n, 84). N/A. RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS: The influence of process S, process C, driver characteristics, and context conditions on accident risk, estimated by means of Cox hazard regression, revealed that nighttime accident risk was mainly influenced by process S levels. Consequently, an experimental mathematical model linking the hourly observed number of accidents to process S levels was designed. Its generalization to the theoretical case of drivers omitting naps showed an increase of about 38% of accidents. PROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS: In order to validate our results, we compared retrospective and prospective sleep patterns: no statistical difference was found. Again, the hourly number of accidents increased with homeostatic sleep pressure; the theoretical efficacy of napping was quantified in 48% accidents decrease. Our data seem to confirm that napping before working a night shift is an effective countermeasure to alertness and performance deterioration associated with night work. Moreover, this self-initiated behavior could have a prophylactic efficacy in reducing the number of car accidents.

  6. How to identify the key factors that affect driver perception of accident risk. A comparison between Italian and Spanish driver behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oña, Juan; de Oña, Rocio; Eboli, Laura; Forciniti, Carmen; Mazzulla, Gabriella

    2014-12-01

    Road crashes can be caused by different factors, including infrastructure, vehicles, and human variables. Many research studies have focused solely on identifying the key factors that cause road crashes. From these studies, it emerged that human factors have the most relevant impact on accident severity. More specifically, accident severity depends on several factors related directly to the driver, i.e., driving experience, driver's socio-economic characteristics, and driving behavior and attitudes. In this paper, we investigate driver behaviors and attitudes while driving and specifically focus on different methods for identifying the factors that most affect the driver's perception of accident risk. To this end, we designed and conducted a survey in two different European contexts: the city of Cosenza, which is located in the south of Italy, and the city of Granada, which is located in the south of Spain. Samples of drivers were contacted for their opinions on certain aspects of driving rules and attitudes while driving, and different types of questions were addressed to the drivers to assess their judgments of these aspects. Consequently, different methods of data analysis were applied to determine the aspects that heavily influence driver perception of accident risk. An experiment based on the stated preferences (SP) was carried out with the drivers, and the SP data were analyzed using an ordered probit (OP) model. Interesting findings emerged from different analyses of the data and from the comparisons among the data collected in the two different territorial contexts. We found that both Italian and Spanish drivers consider driving in an altered psychophysical state and violating the overtaking rules to be the most risky behaviors.

  7. Improving safety behaviour and accident rates of professional drivers: the Dead Sea project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calé, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    It was the aim of the Dead Sea project to change and improve traffic safety behaviour and lower the accident rates of professional drivers by applying principles and techniques known from social and traffic psychology. All interventions were based on a sample of 48 workers from one company. Extensive changes in attitudes were obtained by manipulating the workers' behaviour and causing them to publicly represent positive safety attitudes and values. The results show significant improvements in safety behaviour and reductions of accident rates. In spite of the fact that only a small minority of the workers in this plant directly participated in the programme, many others were influenced and improved their safety behaviour on the road. Therefore, the employed method seems to be not only effective but also very cost efficient.

  8. Patterns of driver stress and coping strategies in a Greek sample and their relationship to aberrant behaviors and traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogiannis, Tom

    2006-09-01

    This paper presents an investigation into the relationship between driver stress, coping strategies and aberrant driving of a Greek sample of company employees (N=714). The results supported the main factor structures of the Driver Behavior Inventory (Matthews, G., Tsuda, A., Xin, G., Ozeki, Y., 1999. Individual differences in driver stress vulnerability in a Japanese sample. Ergonomics 42, 401-415) and Driver Behavior Questionnaire (Kontogiannis, T., Kossiavelou, Z., Marmaras, N., 2002. Self-reports of aberrant behavior on the roads: errors and violations in a sample of Greek drivers. Accident Anal. Prev. 34, 391-399). An inventory of coping strategies was also examined in terms of self reports. Confrontive coping was characteristic of drivers high on aggression who also had higher rates of mistakes and violations. Coping in terms of self-criticism was exhibited by drivers high on dislike of driving (i.e., anxiety) who reported a higher incidence of mistakes. Task-focus coping was characteristic of alertness and had a weak correlation with confidence. Drivers high in confidence reported fewer mistakes and violations which, in association with low perception of risk, was a particularly worrying aspect of driving. A contextual model of accident involvement was tested with LISREL in which violations yielded a direct effect whilst aggression yielded an indirect effect mediated by violations. Alertness and confidence were both related to safety orientation but failed to predict accident rates and speeding convictions.

  9. Daytime sleepiness and sleep habits as risk factors of traffic accidents in a group of Turkish public transport drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, Cahit; Etcibaşı, Şeref; Öztürk, Levent

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To explore the association of daytime sleepiness, sleep complaints and sleep habits with self-reported car crashes among public transport drivers. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on male professional public drivers in two different cities using a validated, self-administered sleep questionnaire which comprised of symptoms suggesting sleep disorders, a subjective report of daytime sleepiness and driving characteristics. The subjects (mean age±SD, 40±11 years) were divided into two groups: (1) accident group and (2) no accident group. Results: Forty nine (15.3%) of the 320 public drivers reported that they had at least one sleepiness related motor vehicle accident and/or near-missed accident (Group 1). The mean age, body mass index and annual distance driven were similar in both groups. Although Group 1 reported less sleep time per night, more witnessed apneas, abnormal sleep, alcohol use and had higher mean Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores than Group 2, multivariate analysis of risk factors revealed that only daytime sleepiness increase the risk of traffic accidents [OR: 1.32 (1.19-1.47)]. Conclusion: These results suggest that self-reported sleepiness is a predictive sign of traffic accidents due to driver sleepiness. PMID:24482715

  10. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in drivers involved in road traffic accidents in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván-Ramírez, Ma de la Luz; Sánchez-Orozco, Laura Verónica; Rodríguez, Laura Rocío; Rodríguez, Saúl; Roig-Melo, Enrique; Troyo Sanromán, Rogelio; Chiquete, Erwin; Armendáriz-Borunda, Juan

    2013-10-11

    The prevalence of toxoplasmosis in the general population of Guadalajara, Mexico, is around 32%. Toxoplasmosis can cause ocular lesions and slowing of reaction reflexes. Latent toxoplasmosis has been related with traffic accidents. We aimed to assess the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and visual impairments related with traffic accidents in drivers from the metropolitan Guadalajara. We prospectively evaluated the prevalence of IgG and IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies in 159 individuals involved in traffic accidents, and in 164 control drivers never involved in accidents. Cases of toxoplasmosis reactivation or acute infection were detected by PCR in a subset of 71 drivers studied for the presence of T. gondii DNA in blood samples. Ophthalmologic examinations were performed in drivers with IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies in search of ocular toxoplasmosis. Fifty-four (34%) traffic accident drivers and 59 (36%) controls were positive to IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies (p = 0.70). Among the 113 seropositive participants, mean anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies titers were higher in traffic accident drivers than in controls (237.9 ± 308.5 IU/ml vs. 122.9 ± 112.7 IU/ml, respectively; p = 0.01 by Student's t test, p = 0.037 by Mann-Whitney U test). In multivariate analyses, anti-T. gondii IgG antibody titers were consistently associated with an increased risk of traffic accidents, whereas age showed an inverse association. The presence of IgM-anti-T. gondii antibodies was found in three (1.9%) subjects among traffic accident drives, and in two (1.2%) controls. Three (4.2%) samples were positive for the presence of T. gondii DNA, all among seropositive individuals. No signs of ocular toxoplasmosis were found in the entire cohort. Moreover, no other ocular conditions were found to be associated with the risk of traffic accidents in a multivariate analysis. Anti-T. gondii antibody titers are associated with the risk of traffic accidents. We could not determine any

  11. Professional and medical outcomes for French train drivers after "person under train" accidents: three year follow up study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothereau, C; de Beaurepaire, C; Payan, C; Cambou, J; Rouillon, F; Conso, F

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate psychiatric disorders, somatic health, and professional effects in French train drivers having experienced a "person under train" accident, and somatic health and professional effects. Methods: A total of 202 train drivers were evaluated several times: immediately after the event, three months later, and one, two, and three years later. These drivers were compared with 186 train drivers not exposed to that psychotraumatic shock. The evaluations relied primarily on the GHQ-28 and MINI questionnaires. Results: In the exposed group, at the first evaluation, the prevalence of post-traumatic stress was 4%; scores ⩾5 on the GHQ-28 were significantly higher than in the non-exposed group (32% versus 6%), for both the overall result and three sub-scores (somatic symptoms, anxiety and sleep, and psychosocial functioning). All these differences disappeared within a year. Vulnerability factors concerned prior traumas, acute and lasting life events, and the particular occupational situation where the driver is not accompanied but drives the train away alone in the aftermath of the accident. Over 95% of subjects had no short, medium, or long term impairment of their occupational fitness. Conclusions: Most of the psycho-behavioural disorders were observed in the immediate aftermath of the accident and disappeared within a year. The driver's occupational future does not seem to be affected by the "person under train" accident. Consideration of a traumatic accident as a job related risk and close psychological support of drivers after an accident probably increase the subject's ability to recover from the event. PMID:15150387

  12. Prevalence of drugs of abuse in urine of drivers involved in road accidents in France: a collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, P; Delpla, P A; Kerguelen, S; Bremond, J; Facy, F; Garnier, M; Guery, B; Lhermitte, M; Mathé, D; Pelissier, A L; Renaudeau, C; Vest, P; Seguela, J P

    1998-07-01

    The collaborative, anonymous, case-control study was intended to determine the prevalence of opiates, cocaine metabolites, cannabinoids and amphetamines in the urine of drivers injured in road accidents and to compare these values with those of non-accident subjects ("patients") in France. Recruitment was performed nationwide in the emergency departments of five hospitals and comprised 296 "drivers" aged 18 to 35 and 278 non-traumatic "patients" in the same age range. Females represented 28.4% of "drivers" and 44.2% of "patients." Screening for drugs in urine was performed by fluorescence polarization immunoassays in each center. Each positive result was verified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in a single laboratory. Statistical analysis comprised single-step logistic regression and simultaneously took account of confounding factors and the final differences in prevalence values between the two populations or different subgroups. Cannabinoids were found in 13.9% of drivers (16.0% of males and 8.3% of females, p urine samples (NS), and were more frequent in urine samples positive for cannabinoids, in drivers (p amphetamines 1.4 and 2.5%, respectively. No causal relationship between drugs and accidents should be inferred from this retrospective study. Nevertheless, the high prevalence of cannabis and opiate (licit or illicit) use in young people, whether injured drivers or patients, has potential implications for road traffic safety in France. Cocaine and amphetamines did not appear to be a major problem, unlike the experience in other countries.

  13. Analysis of Psychological Factors and Susceptibility Genes of Drivers′Accident Proneness%驾驶员产生事故倾向性的心理因素及易感基因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓敏; 杨莉; 黄开勇; 苏华斌

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究驾驶员产生事故倾向性的心理因素及易感基因。方法采用病例对照研究方法,选取5年内发生3次(以上)责任事故的驾驶员46例为病例组(均为男性),另选择同期未发生交通事故的同性别、年龄、驾龄、驾驶车型等均衡可比的驾驶员46例为对照组。采用A型行为量表(TABP)和艾森克个性问卷(EPQ)量表进行心理评定;采用限制性片段长度多态性分析( PCR-RFLP )技术对候选基因5-羟色胺转运体基因启动子区(5-HTTLPR)进行基因型及等位基因检测。结果病例组驾驶员A型行为、精神质( P)和情绪性( N)因子得分均高于对照组(P均<0.05),而掩饰性(L)因子得分低于对照组(P<0.05);驾驶员的年龄与外向性(E)评分呈正相关关系(P<0.01);驾龄与E、P、N及A型行为评分均呈正相关关系(P均<0.05),而与L因子呈负相关关系(P<0.05)。病例组与对照组间5-HTTLPR基因的基因型构成及等位基因频率分布差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);经单因素及多因素logistic回归分析显示,精神质是驾驶员事故倾向性的危险因素(P<0.01),5-HTTLPR基因型及等位基因与驾驶员事故倾向性有关( P<0.05)。结论驾驶员A型行为、个性特征及5-HTTLPR基因与其事故倾向性有关;精神质是驾驶员事故倾向性的危险因素。%Objective To explore the psychological factors and susceptibility genes of the driversaccident proneness .Methods A case-control study was performed by using type-A behavior questionnaire ( TABP) and Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ) scale.Forty-six male drivers who had 3 accidents or more in 5 years were in the case group ,and another 46 male drivers who had not accident in 5 years with similar age ,driver′s experience and vehicle type as the drivers in the case group were in the control group .The

  14. [Amphetamine use by truck drivers on highways of Sao Paulo State: a risk for the occurrence of traffic accidents?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takitane, Juliana; de Oliveira, Lucio Garcia; Endo, Ligia Góes; de Oliveira, Keziah Cristina Barbosa Gruber; Muñoz, Daniel Romero; Yonamine, Mauricio; Leyton, Vilma

    2013-05-01

    The use of amphetamines in Brazil is common among truck drivers, which may be an important factor in the occurrence of traffic accidents. This article seeks to estimate the prevalence of amphetamine use among truck drivers. Drivers (N = 134) were stopped on two different highways in Sao Paulo state and they were asked to answer a questionnaire and provide a urine sample for toxicological analysis. All data were analyzed on Stata 8.0. All participants were males with low levels of schooling, whose mean age was 40.8 years. The presence of amphetamines was detected in 10.8% of all urine samples collected, being commonly justified in order to make truck drivers able to maintain their state of awareness. Amphetamine use was detected among truck drivers on Sao Paulo highways. The problem is that when the stimulant effects wear off, sleepiness due to sleep deprivation reduces concentration and good driver performance, making drivers vulnerable to traffic accidents and the related effects.

  15. Bus drivers' mental conditions and their relation to bus passengers' accidents with a focus on the psychological stress concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Motoki; Sugiura, Miyuki; Tanaka, Sumio; Mizuno, Yuki; Yanagiya, Toshio; Hirosawa, Masataka

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the psychological factors of bus drivers' instability that were related to bus passengers' accidents according to the hypothesis model based on the stress concept of Lazarus and Folkman (1984). This research was carried out in 2006. Participants of the study were 39 Japanese male bus drivers. Their average age was 40.2 (SD: 11.1). The average duration of employment was 4.5 (SD:6.1) years. A questionnaire was used that was composed of items concerning the frequency of bus passengers' accidents, performance of safe driving, job stressors, stress reaction and recognition from others. Based on the results, a model assuming that stress reaction caused by job stressors disturbed the bus driver's safe driving and was associated with passengers' accidents in the bus was verified to some degree. Especially, melancholy and tired feeling toward passengers showed a strong relation to the passengers' accidents in the bus. This suggested much room for intervention. Moreover, the recognition from others of their job was confirmed to act as a control factor of the stress reaction.

  16. The evaluation of effects on driver behavior and accidents of concentrated general enforcement on interurban roads in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, A S; Gitelman, V; Cohen, A; Doveh, E; Umansky, T

    2001-01-01

    The study deals with the evaluation of the effects of a new deployment of the National Traffic Police in Israel--a concentrated general enforcement on 700 km of interurban roads, which contain 60% of all rural accidents and about half of the severe accident locations. The enforcement project began in April 1997 and lasted for 1 year, aiming at a 10% reduction of severe accidents on those roads. The evaluation study consisted of three main parts: (a) monitoring of everyday police operations on the project roads; (b) periodic evaluation of the project's influence on drivers' behavior and attitudes; and (c) the evaluation of accident changes within the project area, at the end of the project year. Speed measurements, performed before the police project launch, demonstrated that, depending on road type, up to 85% of drivers violated the rural road speed limits. Two rounds of field observations, before and during the project, took place at 32 sites throughout the project area and comprised eight behavior types: turning performance; signaling while turning; compliance with 'stop' and 'yield' signs; safety belt use by drivers and front-seat passengers, at the intersections; 'keeping to the right' on dual carriageway roads; and 'not-crossing of the white separating line' at single carriageway roads. A comparison revealed a general reduction in violation rates of most behaviors, during-the-project, except for compliance with 'stop' signs and signaling. Concurrently, two rounds of driver surveys were performed which examined the project's influence on the drivers' attitudes towards the police enforcement effectiveness and risk connected with traffic rule violations. An improvement was identified in perceived general level of police activity, during the project, whereas a lower or similar risk of apprehension was attributed by drivers to most specific violations of the traffic rules. Three groups of indices of police activity were estimated monthly during the study: inputs

  17. Road traffic accidents and self-reported Portuguese car driver's attitudes, behaviors, and opinions: Are they related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bon de Sousa, Teresa; Santos, Carolina; Mateus, Ceu; Areal, Alain; Trigoso, Jose; Nunes, Carla

    2016-10-02

    This study aims to characterize Portuguese car drivers in terms of demographic characteristics, driving experience, and attitudes, opinions, and behaviors concerning road traffic safety. Furthermore, associations between these characteristics and self-reported involvement in a road traffic accident as a driver in the last 3 years were analyzed. A final goal was to develop a final predictive model of the risk of suffering a road traffic accident. A cross-sectional analytic study was developed, based on a convenience sample of 612 car drivers. A questionnaire was applied by trained interviewers, embracing various topics related to road safety such as driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs, phone use while driving, speeding, use of advanced driver assistance systems, and the transport infrastructure and environment (European Project SARTRE 4, Portuguese version). From the 52 initial questions, 19 variables were selected through principal component analysis. Then, and in addition to the usual descriptive measures, logistic binary regression models were used in order to describe associations and to develop a predictive model of being involved in a road traffic accident. Of the 612 car drivers, 37.3% (228) reported being involved in a road traffic accident with damage or injury in the past 3 years. In this group, the majority were male, older than 65, with no children, not employed, and living in an urban area. In the multivariate model, several factors were identified: being widowed (vs. single; odds ratio [OR] = 3.478, 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.159-10.434); living in a suburban area (vs. a rural area; OR = 5.023, 95% CI, 2.260-11.166); having been checked for alcohol once in the last 3 years (vs. not checked; OR = 3.124, 95% CI, 2.040-4,783); and seldom drinking an energetic beverage such as coffee when tired (vs. always do; OR = 6.822, 95% CI, 2.619-17.769) all suffered a higher risk of being involved in a car accident. The results obtained with

  18. Short sleep duration and long spells of driving are associated with the occurrence of Japanese drivers' rear-end collisions and single-car accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takashi; Komada, Yoko; Nishida, Yasushi; Hayashida, Kenichi; Inoue, Yuichi

    2010-06-01

    Sleepiness and fatigue are important risk factors for traffic accidents. However, the relation between the accident type and lack of sleep as well as spells of driving has not been examined sufficiently. This study aimed to clarify that short sleep duration and long spells of driving are more associated with rear-end collisions and single-car accidents as compared with accidents of other types in cases of people who cause accidents. After removing drunken driving as a cause of accidents, 1772 parties involved in accidents were questioned. The quantities of rear-end collisions and single-car accidents were, respectively, 240 and 293. Logistic regression analysis showed that short nocturnal sleep (<6 h) and 10-min increments of spells of driving were significantly associated not only with rear-end collisions but also with single-car accidents as compared with accidents of other types. Furthermore, younger age (accidents as compared with accidents of other types. To prevent such accidents, countermeasures must be considered in light of the characteristics of drivers involved in each type of accident described above.

  19. Sleep Apnea, Sleep Debt and Daytime Sleepiness Are Independently Associated with Road Accidents. A Cross-Sectional Study on Truck Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Garbarino, Sergio; Durando, Paolo; Guglielmi, Ottavia; Dini, Guglielmo; Bersi, Francesca; Fornarino, Stefania; Toletone, Alessandra; Chiorri, Carlo; Magnavita, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent research has found evidence of an association between motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) or near miss accidents (NMAs), and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) or its main medical cause, Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). However, EDS can also be due to non-medical factors, such as sleep debt (SD), which is common among professional truck drivers. On the opposite side, rest breaks and naps are known to protect against accidents. Study Objectives To investigate the association of OSA,...

  20. Comparison of the effects of two legal blood alcohol limits: the presence of alcohol in traffic accidents according to category of driver in Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Akan; İdiz, Nuri; Dalgiç, Mustafa; Uluçay, Tarik; Sincar, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    Under existing Turkish road traffic law, there are 2 different blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limits allowed for drivers in 2013: zero blood alcohol and ≤0.50 g/L. All public transport, taxi, commercial, and official vehicle drivers must maintain a zero blood alcohol concentration while driving. Private vehicle drivers must maintain a BAC of 0.50 g/L or lower. The aim of the recent study was to evaluate the effect of these 2 legal blood alcohol limits on nonfatal traffic accidents that occurred due to the driver being under the influence of alcohol. This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the blood alcohol concentration of 224 drivers in nonfatal road accidents between June 2010 and July 2011 using headspace gas chromatography at the Izmir Forensic Medicine Group Presidency, Turkey. All cases evaluated by the toxicology department were entered into a database. We used descriptive statistics, χ(2) test, and independent sampling test to analyze the data. The total number of drivers involved in nonfatal traffic accidents was 224; 191 were private vehicle drivers and 33 were public transport, taxi, commercial, and official vehicle drivers. In the present study, alcohol was detected in the blood of about 27.2% (n = 61) of the 224 drivers. Sixty (31.4%) private vehicle drivers involved in nonfatal traffic accidents tested positive for alcohol. BAC values were also above the legal limit (0.50 g/L) in 27.7% (n = 53) of private vehicle drivers. However, the BAC was above the legal limit in only 3% (n = 1) of public transport, commercial, and official vehicle drivers involved in nonfatal traffic accidents. These results showed that private vehicle drivers subject to a BAC limit of ≤0.50 g/L were significantly associated with an increased risk of nonfatal accident involvement than drivers subject to a zero BAC limit (odds ratio [OR] = 12.29, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64-92.22; Fisher's exact test, P accidents in Turkey.

  1. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome as an accident risk factor in professional drivers in Yekaterinburg. Dangerous Sleep (DS-1 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Belkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available About 20% of all road traffic accidents may be associated with falling asleep while driving. This may be caused by sleep disorders leading to daytime sleepiness, the most common of which is obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. Objective: to study somatic and mental health, sleep disorders, OSAS in particular, in the population of Russian drivers (Sverdlovsk Region. Patients and methods. The descriptive cohort «Dangerous Sleep» (DS-1 study of 20 professional drivers having more than 5-year driving experience was conducted at the Clinical Institute of the Brain. The mean age of the drivers was 45.8 years. They underwent somatic evaluation for cardiovascular risk factors and a psychological examination involving a risk readiness diagnostic procedure, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and an electroencephalographic examination. A somnological examination assumed testing using the Epworth sleepiness scale, polysomnography, or overnight pulse metry. Results and discussion. 30% of the drivers were found to have marked attention disorders and an inability to adapt to extreme conditions, which create a risk for professional duties. The predisposing factors were noted to be alcohol addiction, overweight, and OSAS, the rate of the latter proved to be higher than that in the general population of able-bodied men. It was shown that a somnological examination should be obligatorily performed while hiring professional drivers, particularly to long hauliers. The drivers having a long length of experience, in whom a periodic examination detects sleep disorders, should be treated for somatic diseases and should also have individual working schedules to rule out their long night-time driving. 

  2. The role of personality traits and driving experience in self-reported risky driving behaviors and accident risk among Chinese drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Da; Zhang, Rui; Qu, Xingda

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of personality traits and driving experience in the prediction of risky driving behaviors and accident risk among Chinese population. A convenience sample of drivers (n=511; mean (SD) age=34.2 (8.8) years) completed a self-report questionnaire that was designed based on validated scales for measuring personality traits, risky driving behaviors and self-reported accident risk. Results from structural equation modeling analysis demonstrated that the data fit well with our theoretical model. While showing no direct effects on accident risk, personality traits had direct effects on risky driving behaviors, and yielded indirect effects on accident risk mediated by risky driving behaviors. Both driving experience and risky driving behaviors directly predicted accident risk and accounted for 15% of its variance. There was little gender difference in personality traits, risky driving behaviors and accident risk. The findings emphasized the importance of personality traits and driving experience in the understanding of risky driving behaviors and accident risk among Chinese drivers and provided new insight into the design of evidence-based driving education and accident prevention interventions.

  3. Associating Crash Avoidance Maneuvers with Driver Attributes and Accident Characteristics: A Mixed Logit Model Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the propensity of drivers to engage in crash avoidance maneuvers in relation to driver attributes, critical events, crash characteristics, vehicles involved, road characteristics and environmental attributes. Five alternative actions involving emergency lateral and speed...... as from the key role of the ability of drivers to perform effective corrective maneuvers for the success of automated in-vehicle warning and driver assistance systems. The analysis is conducted by means of a mixed logit model that accommodates correlations across alternatives and heteroscedasticity. Data...... for the analysis are retrieved from the General Estimates System (GES) crash database for the year 2009. Results show that (i) the nature of the critical event that made the crash imminent influences the choice of crash avoidance maneuvers, (ii) women and elderly have a lower propensity to conduct crash avoidance...

  4. Sleep habits, sleepiness and accidents among truck drivers Hábitos de sono, sonolência e acidentes em caminhoneiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Souza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of sleep, shift work, alcohol and psychostimulant drug use, and the prevalence of accidents among truck drivers. METHOD: Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI. Statistical analysis was conducted using the Student t, chi-square, Pearson and Fisher tests. RESULTS: 43.2% of the drivers drove over 16 h a day, and 2.9% worked shifts. Mean number of sleep hours/day was 5.97±1.47; 23.8% slept 5; 23 subjects snored more than three times a week (11.1%. Mean ESS was 6.56±4.2; 21.7% had a score >10. In the preceding five years, 27 drivers (13.1% were involved in accidents, 5 of which resulted in injuries and 3 in deaths. CONCLUSION: Results showed a high prevalence of sleep disorders, use of alcohol and psychostimulant drugs, and accidents.OBETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade do sono, trabalho em turnos, consumo de álcool e psicoestimulantes, e a prevalência de acidentes, entre caminhoneiros. MÉTDO: Foram aplicados questionários demográficos, a Escala de Epworth e o Índice de Pittsburgh. A análise estatística foi feita com os testes t de Student, qui-quadrado, Pearson e Fisher. RESULTADOS: 43,2% dirigiam mais que 16 h/dia; 2,9% faziam trabalho por turnos. A média de horas de sono foi 5,97 +/- 1,47. 23,8% dormiam menos de 5 horas. 50,9% faziam uso de bebida alcoólica; usavam cafeína 95,6% e anfetaminas 11,1%. A média do PSQI foi 4,95 +/- 2,56; 35,4% tinham o PSQI maior que 5; 23 sujeitos ressonavam mais que 3 vezes por semana (11,1%. A ESE teve uma média de 6,56 +/- 4,2; 21.7% um escore superior a 10. Nos últimos cinco anos 27 motoristas (13,1% estiveram envolvidos em acidentes, 5 com feridos e 3 com mortos. CONCLUSÃO: Foi alta a prevalência de distúrbios do sono, uso de álcool e estimulantes, e de acidentes.

  5. Associating crash avoidance maneuvers with driver attributes and accident characteristics: a mixed logit model approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    from the key role of proactive and state-aware road users within the concept of sustainable safety systems, as well as from the key role of effective corrective maneuvers in the success of automated in-vehicle warning and driver assistance systems. Methods: The analysis is conducted by means of a mixed...... the propensity to perform crash avoidance maneuvers, and (5) visual obstruction and artificial illumination decrease the probability to carry out crash avoidance maneuvers. Conclusions: The results emphasize the need for public awareness campaigns to promote safe driving style for senior drivers and warning...

  6. Accident reconstruction to analyze impact of injured drivers during the collision. Ankle fracture in the car-to-car offset frontal collision; Join no jusho jokyo ni kansuru jiko saigen. Joyosha doshi no offset zenmen shototsuji no ashi kansetsu kossetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, M. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    An accident reconstruction test of car-to-car crash was conducted in order to analyze the impact on the driver in the offset head-on collision. The ankle fracture of the driver resulting from the accident was examined with the test results and the accident data. The test results of the car-to-car crashes indicated that the belted driver`s ankle would have fractured in the early stage of the crash. The detailed information from the accident data, especially the cars` interior deformation and the driver`s X-ray photographs, was also very important in analyzing injury mechanisms of the ankle/foot region. The above results suggested an injury mechanism that the ankle joint fracture was due to dorsiflexion and valgus resulting from the impact and intrusion of the toeboard in the early stage of the crash. 12 refs., 11 figs.

  7. Cognitive characteristics of older Japanese drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilowati Indri H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some causes of accidents among older drivers are: not paying attention to traffic signals; missing stop lines; and having to deal with and misjudging emergency situations. These causes of accidents reveal problems with attention and cognition. Such incidents are also related to driver perception and stress-coping mechanisms. It is important to examine the relation of stress reactions to attention and cognition as a factor influencing the causes of accidents commonly involving older drivers. Finding Subjects were 10 young drivers (23.3 ± 3.33 years and 25 older drivers divided into two groups (older1 [60 to 65 years] and older2 [> 65 years]. This study revealed the correlation within driver stress inventory and driver coping questionnaires parameters was observed only in older drivers. They also needed a longer response time for Trail Making Test A and B. The factors affected the attention and cognition of older drivers by age but not driving experience itself, and coping parameters such as emotion focus, reappraisal, and avoidance were not included as stress inventory parameters. Being prone to fatigue was less for younger drivers than older drivers. Because they have shorter distances, shorter drive times, and no need for expressways, older drivers also had a significantly lower risk of thrill-seeking behaviour and more patience. Conclusion The intervention addressing their attention skills, aggressive feelings, and emotion focus should be considered. The technological improvements in cars will make older drivers feel safer and make driving easier which might lower the attention paid to the road, and regular driving training might be needed to assess and enhance their safety.

  8. Cognitive characteristics of older Japanese drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, Indri H; Yasukouchi, Akira

    2012-02-29

    Some causes of accidents among older drivers are: not paying attention to traffic signals; missing stop lines; and having to deal with and misjudging emergency situations. These causes of accidents reveal problems with attention and cognition. Such incidents are also related to driver perception and stress-coping mechanisms. It is important to examine the relation of stress reactions to attention and cognition as a factor influencing the causes of accidents commonly involving older drivers. Subjects were 10 young drivers (23.3 ± 3.33 years) and 25 older drivers divided into two groups (older1 [60 to 65 years] and older2 [> 65 years]). This study revealed the correlation within driver stress inventory and driver coping questionnaires parameters was observed only in older drivers. They also needed a longer response time for Trail Making Test A and B. The factors affected the attention and cognition of older drivers by age but not driving experience itself, and coping parameters such as emotion focus, reappraisal, and avoidance were not included as stress inventory parameters. Being prone to fatigue was less for younger drivers than older drivers. Because they have shorter distances, shorter drive times, and no need for expressways, older drivers also had a significantly lower risk of thrill-seeking behaviour and more patience. The intervention addressing their attention skills, aggressive feelings, and emotion focus should be considered. The technological improvements in cars will make older drivers feel safer and make driving easier which might lower the attention paid to the road, and regular driving training might be needed to assess and enhance their safety.

  9. [Presence of psychotropic drugs in the blood of drivers responsible for car accidents, and who consumed alcohol at the same time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, C; Lacalle, H; Fryc, O

    1994-01-01

    The presence of psychotropic drugs was determined in 383 blood samples of drivers being responsible for car accidents, having taken alcohol as well. Benzodiazepines were detected in 52 cases and cannabinoids in 31 cases. The characterisation of these positive cases showed a majority of classic benzodiazepines (diazepam, nordiazepam, and bromazepam). Even if the specific role of these two families of psychotropic drugs cannot be deduced from this study, the results should make drivers more aware of the dangers of the simultaneous consumption of alcohol and psychotropes.

  10. [Drivers with obstructive sleep apnea as potential authors of car accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyłowski, T; Korczyński, P; Broczek, K; Rzadkiewicz, E; Bielicki, P; Zimnoch, P; Droszcz, W

    1999-08-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate excessive somnolence and frequency of episodes of dozing off during driving a car in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Result of questionnaire and polysomnographic investigations were analysed in a group of 503 patients. Mean age for the whole group was 49.2 +/- 9.7 of years, BMI 32.1 +/- 1.4 kg/m2 and the value for apnea and hypopnea index 45.4 +/- 24.8. Excessive somnolence during driving was reported by 49.1% of patients. 31.2% of the group notified at least one episode of falling asleep while driving a car. Sleepy drivers (group A) were significantly younger (46.5 +/- 9.2 vs 50 +/- 9.8 years) and had higher values of BMI (34.1 +/- 7 vs 31.1 +/- 5.5 kg/m2) than the others (group B) Results of polysomnographic investigation showed more severe sleep apnea in the group A. Mean value of AHI for this group was 52.5 +/- 26.1 vs 41.6 +/- 23.5 in the group B. Besides, somnolence in many other practical situations was more often considered as a serious problem in the group A.

  11. Sleep Apnea, Sleep Debt and Daytime Sleepiness Are Independently Associated with Road Accidents. A Cross-Sectional Study on Truck Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, Ottavia; Dini, Guglielmo; Bersi, Francesca; Fornarino, Stefania; Toletone, Alessandra; Chiorri, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent research has found evidence of an association between motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) or near miss accidents (NMAs), and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) or its main medical cause, Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). However, EDS can also be due to non-medical factors, such as sleep debt (SD), which is common among professional truck drivers. On the opposite side, rest breaks and naps are known to protect against accidents. Study Objectives To investigate the association of OSA, SD, EDS, rest breaks and naps, with the occurrence of MVAs and NMAs in a large sample of truck drivers. Methods 949 male truck drivers took part in a cross-sectional medical examination and were asked to complete a questionnaire about sleep and waking habits, risk factors for OSA and EDS. Results MVAs and NMAs were reported by 34.8% and 9.2% of participants, respectively. MVAs were significantly predicted by OSA (OR = 2.32 CI95% = 1.68–3.20), SD (OR = 1.45 CI95% = 1.29–1.63), EDS (OR = 1.73 CI95% = 1.15–2.61) and prevented by naps (OR = 0.59 CI95% = 0.44–0.79) or rest breaks (OR = 0.63 CI95% = 0.45–0.89). NMAs were significantly predicted by OSA (OR = 2.39 CI95% = 1.47–3.87) and SD (OR = 1.49 CI95% = 1.27–1.76) and prevented by naps (OR = 0.52 CI95% = 0.32–0.85) or rest breaks (OR = 0.49 CI95% = 0.29–0.82). Conclusions When OSA, SD or EDS are present, the risk of MVAs or NMAs in truck drivers is severely increased. Taking a rest break or a nap appear to be protective against accidents. PMID:27902703

  12. 煤矿井下作业工人工作倦怠与事故倾向性研究%The Research of Job Burnout with Accident Proneness among Coal Mine Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙林辉; 章艺蒙; 崔凯; 袁晓芳

    2016-01-01

    Objective Put the coal mine workers as the object research the relationship between the accident proneness and the job burnout. And discuss the degree of the age,length of service,department affect of job burnout Methods Questionnaire survey was conducted on 1015 coal mine workers,use job burnout inventory( MBI)and Eysenck scale of N dimension of subject. Results Analysis of 980 valid data,The results showed:①The three components of the mine worker burnout and o-verall score was a positive correlation with the accident proneness,where the emotional exhaustion,cynicism and accident proneness was significantly higher than reduced personal accomp;②Mine workers 20~50 years of age located between acci-dent grows gragually increased tendency value age;③Seniority between 1~5 and 10~20 years tendency among workers acci-dent higher than any other seniority workers;④Accident proneness highest value-assisted three main sectors in mining,auxil-iary,machine express,but is generally considered the most accident-prone mining sector has the lowest value of its tendency accident. Conclusion Coal mine accident tendency of workers exposed to job burnout,emotional exhaustion and cynicism two particularly prominent. Thus,in the coal mine safety management should pay attention to the problem of job burnout of employ-ees,especially for age,length of service in between 1 ~5 and 10 ~20 years,for which high levels of job burnout should promptly psychological counseling,workers in the secondary and machine express sector to do the key regulatory.%研究煤矿井下作业工人工作倦怠与事故倾向性的关系,并探讨年龄、工龄、工种对工作倦怠的影响程度。采用工作倦怠量表( MBI)和艾森克量表中选取的N维度题目对1015名煤矿井下作业工人事故倾向性与工作倦怠进行调查和统计分析。通过对980个有效数据进行分析显示:①煤矿工人工作倦怠及其3个分量与事故倾向性均呈正相关,其中

  13. Increased incidence of traffic accidents in Toxoplasma-infected military drivers and protective effect RhD molecule revealed by a large-scale prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havlíček Jan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Latent toxoplasmosis, protozoan parasitosis with prevalence rates from 20 to 60% in most populations, is known to impair reaction times in infected subjects, which results, for example, in a higher risk of traffic accidents in subjects with this life-long infection. Two recent studies have reported that RhD-positive subjects, especially RhD heterozygotes, are protected against latent toxoplasmosis-induced impairment of reaction times. In the present study we searched for increased incidence of traffic accidents and for protective effect of RhD positivity in 3890 military drivers. Methods Male draftees who attended the Central Military Hospital in Prague for regular entrance psychological examinations between 2000 and 2003 were tested for Toxoplasma infection and RhD phenotype at the beginning of their 1 to1.5-year compulsory military service. Subsequently, the data on Toxoplasma infection and RhD phenotype were matched with those on traffic accidents from military police records and the effects of RhD phenotype and Toxoplasma infection on probability of traffic accident was estimated with logistic regression. Results We confirmed, using for the first time a prospective cohort study design, increased risk of traffic accidents in Toxoplasma-infected subjects and demonstrated a strong protective effect of RhD positivity against the risk of traffic accidents posed by latent toxoplasmosis. Our results show that RhD-negative subjects with high titers of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies had a probability of a traffic accident of about 16.7%, i.e. a more than six times higher rate than Toxoplasma-free or RhD-positive subjects. Conclusion Our results showed that a common infection by Toxoplasma gondii could have strong impact on the probability of traffic accident in RhD negative subjects. The observed effects could provide not only a clue to the long-standing evolutionary enigma of the origin of RhD polymorphism in humans (the effect of

  14. A Study of the Relationship between Personality Traits with Occupational Accidents and Quality of Sleep among Road Drivers in Isfahan City (Year 1390

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Khani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionDriving accidents and casualties are the second leading cause of death in Iran after heart disease. Also, after Sierra Leone, Iran has the highest number of road deaths and injuries among 190 countries of the world. Every 19 minutes one individual is killed in Iran due to road accidents. Every year about 800,000 accidents occur in Iran on average, as a result of which 23,000 individuals are killed and 280,000 are injured and/or disabled (RezaZadeh, 2012. Analyses show that in causing these accidents human factors account for the highest portion (Niat Sadeghi et al .2005 in the sense that it is responsible for 60 to 70 % of these accidents (Aminian, 2005. According to research from American Transportation Safety Administration, about 80% of accidents are due to human errors (Lgr, 1994. By official statistics, 400000 ‬ professional drivers are involved in Iran’s transportation system (Niat Sadeghi et al .2005. According to the findings of Evans’s (1991 research, there is a strong link between personality characteristics and probability of getting involved in an accident. Amado, et al (2004 showed that personality traits affect driving style and accident rates. Research findings of Naby and colleagues (2005 show that certain personality types are more at risk in driving, because they are reluctant to follow traffic rules. Allport defines personality as “a dynamic organization of physical- psychic systems within the individual which determines his specific thoughts and behaviors" (Allport, 1967, p 28. Likewise, Allport and Odbert define trait as” specific and comprehensive capabilities, entailing a durable condition of adaptation with environment" (Allport and Odbert, 1936, p 26. According to MacCra and Casta (1987 the big 5 personality trains include: 1. Conscientiousness (being reliable, responsible, industrious, and meticulous, which leads to better role performance and control of impulses or disorders in one’s activities

  15. 营运驾驶员驾驶事故影响因素仿真研究%Simulation research on influencing factors of traffic accidents for commercial drivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李乃文; 崔宏

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of traffic accidents caused by unsafe behavior of commercial drivers , a model of traffic accidents for commercial drivers was built based on CAS and ABMS .Through adjusting the factors such as the vehicle condition , the management and supervision level of manager , the emotional state , safety educa-tion level, driving experience of commercial drivers , and the comprehensive environmental conditions , the effects of safety management level , safety responsibility consciousness and mental load level of commercial drivers on the traf -fic accidents were analyzed by using NetLogo platform .The results showed that the occurrence system of traffic ac-cidents for commercial drivers is a typical CAS , the traffic accidents of commercial drivers are the result of interac-tion between three various subject and behavior environment , and the interaction extent are different .Therefore, in order to reduce the occurrence of traffic accidents for commercial drivers , the transportation company should consid-er various factors and adopt the corresponding measures .%为解决营运驾驶员驾驶事故频发的不安全行为问题,基于复杂适应系统( CAS )理论和多主体建模与仿真( ABMS)方法,构建营运驾驶员驾驶事故模型。通过调节车辆状况、管理者管理监督水平、营运驾驶员情绪状态、安全教育水平、驾驶经验和环境综合条件等因素,运用NetLogo仿真平台分析安全管理水平、营运驾驶员安全责任意识、心理负荷水平对驾驶事故的影响。研究表明:营运驾驶员驾驶事故的发生系统是一种典型的CAS,营运驾驶员驾驶事故是三大主体属性和行为环境交互的结果,且交互作用程度不同。因此,运输企业要考虑多种因素,采取相应的措施来降低营运驾驶员驾驶事故的发生。

  16. Reducing accident potential by improving the ergonomics and safety of locomotive and FSV driver cabs by retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rushworth, A.M. [International Mining Consultants Limited (United Kingdom). Ergonomics and Safety Management Unit

    1996-06-01

    The paper provides a review of two projects supported jointly by British Coal and the European Coal and Steel Community Ergonomics Action Programme. The aims of the two projects were to identify and prove practical retrofit improvements that would reduce human error potential and, thereby, accident probability in existing free steered vehicle (FSV) and locomotive operations. The paper opens by identifying a range of ergonomic limitations associated with the design of the two classes of equipment, many of which can be implicated in serious accidents and incidents. The development of a retrofit index is described. The index was central to both projects in that it provided a working framework within which both ergonomic and engineering considerations were combined into a rational cost sensitive approach to the selection and assessment of retrofit changes. A representative sample of machines was examined from which three FSVs and two locomotives were selected as test beds on which to evaluate and demonstrate the practicality of a wide range of retrofit ideas. The ideas ranged from very simple, relatively inexpensive solutions to more fundamental changes. The paper describes and illustrates a number of the more significant improvements. The two projects described clearly demonstrated that significant improvements to the safety and performance standards of existing FSV and locomotive cab design can be achieved by low cost and easily implemented retrofit changes. The paper concludes with a summary of the various uses and fields of application of the index. In particular, it is considered in the context of its wider potential in design and purchasing decisions and for dealing with safety risks associated with operations involving other types of equipment. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Authority structure and industrial accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational characteristics on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. The general hypothesis is that the authority structure is a main cause of accident-proneness

  18. ROAD ACCIDENT AND SAFETY STUDY IN SYLHET REGION OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. BANIK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Roads, highways and streets are fundamental infrastructure facilities to provide the transportation for passenger travel and goods movement from one place to another in Sylhet, north–eastern division of Bangladesh with rapid growth of road vehicle, being comparatively developed economic tourist prone area faces severe road traffic accident. Such severe road accidents cause harsh safety hazards on the roads of Sylhet area. This research work presents an overview of the road traffic accident and degraded road safety situation in Sylhet zone which in particular, discusses the key road accident problem characteristics identifying the hazardous roads and spots, most responsible vehicles and related components, conditions of drivers and pedestrians, most victims of accident, effects of accident on society, safety priorities and options available in Sylhet. In this regard, a comprehensive questionnaire survey was conducted on the concerned groups of transportation and detailed accident data was collected from a popular local newspaper. Analysis of the study reveals that Dhaka- Sylhet highway is the most hazardous in road basis and Sylhet Sador thana is the most vulnerable in thana basis in Sylhet region.

  19. Who by accident? The social morphology of car accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor, Roni; Yair, Gad; Mahalel, David

    2010-09-01

    Prior studies in the sociology of accidents have shown that different social groups have different rates of accident involvement. This study extends those studies by implementing Bourdieu's relational perspective of social space to systematically explore the homology between drivers' social characteristics and their involvement in specific types of motor vehicle accident. Using a large database that merges official Israeli road-accident records with socioeconomic data from two censuses, this research maps the social order of road accidents through multiple correspondence analysis. Extending prior studies, the results show that different social groups indeed tend to be involved in motor vehicle accidents of different types and severity. For example, we find that drivers from low socioeconomic backgrounds are overinvolved in severe accidents with fatal outcomes. The new findings reported here shed light on the social regularity of road accidents and expose new facets in the social organization of death. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  1. [The use of the sequential mathematical analysis for the determination of the driver's seat position inside the car passenger compartment from the injuries to the extremities in the case of a traffic accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabova, Z S; Smirenin, S A; Fetisov, V A; Tamberg, D K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the diagnostic coefficients (DC) for the injuries to the upper and lower extremities of the vehicle drivers inflicted inside the passenger compartment in the case of a traffic accident. We have analysed the archival expert documents collected from 45 regional bureaus of forensic medical expertise during the period from 1995 to 2014 that contained the results of examination of 200 corpses and 300 survivors who had suffered injuries in the traffic accidents. The statistical and mathematical treatment of these materials with the use of sequential mathematical analysis based on the Bayes and Wald formulas yielded diagnostic coefficients that make it possible to elucidate the most informative features characterizing the driver of a vehicle. In case of a lethal outcome, the most significant injuries include bleeding from the posterior left elbow region (DC +7.6), skin scratches on the palm surface of the right wrist (DC +7.6), bleeding from the postrerior region of the left lower leg (DC +7.6), wounds on the dorsal surface of the left wrist (DC +6.3), bruises at the anterior surface of the left knee (DC +6.3), etc. The most informative features in the survivals of the traffic accidents are bone fractures (DC +7.0), tension of ligaments and dislocation of the right talocrural joint (DC +6.5), fractures of the left kneecap and left tibial epiphysis (DC +5.4), hemorrhage and bruises in the anterior right knee region (DC + 5.4 each), skin scratches in the right posterior carpal region (DC +5.1). It is concluded that the use of the diagnostic coefficients makes it possible to draw the attention of the experts to the above features and to objectively determine the driver's seat position inside the car passenger compartment in the case of a traffic accident. Moreover such an approach contributes to the improvement of the quality of expert conclusions and the results of forensic medical expertise of the circumstance of traffic

  2. A Study of the Relationship between Personality Traits with Occupational Accidents and Quality of Sleep among Road Drivers in Isfahan City (Year 1390)

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Khani; Seyed Mohammadreza Samsam Shariat; Seyed Hamid Atashpour

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionDriving accidents and casualties are the second leading cause of death in Iran after heart disease. Also, after Sierra Leone, Iran has the highest number of road deaths and injuries among 190 countries of the world. Every 19 minutes one individual is killed in Iran due to road accidents. Every year about 800,000 accidents occur in Iran on average, as a result of which 23,000 individuals are killed and 280,000 are injured and/or disabled (RezaZadeh, 2012). Analyses show that in cau...

  3. A Study of the Relationship between Personality Traits with Occupational Accidents and Quality of Sleep among Road Drivers in Isfahan City (Year 1390)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionDriving accidents and casualties are the second leading cause of death in Iran after heart disease. Also, after Sierra Leone, Iran has the highest number of road deaths and injuries among 190 countries of the world. Every 19 minutes one individual is killed in Iran due to road accidents. Every year about 800,000 accidents occur in Iran on average, as a result of which 23,000 individuals are killed and 280,000 are injured and/or disabled (RezaZadeh, 2012). Analyses show that in cau...

  4. Older drivers, crashes and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaanie; Bohensky, Megan; Langford, Jim; Taranto, David

    2011-10-01

    This article aimed to identify the main features of older driver casualty crashes, including detailed descriptions of injury outcomes. Data were obtained from the Transport Accident Commission insurance claims database for 2 groups of drivers: aged 41 to 55 years (middle-aged drivers) and aged 65 years and older (older drivers). In terms of crash circumstances, the majority of crashes involved a collision with another vehicle (70.0% of middle-aged drivers and 68.7% of older drivers). The 2 main maneuvers at the time of crash were driving straight ahead (44.6% of middle-aged drivers and 42.8% of older drivers) and turning right (equivalent of left turn in North America; 15.2% of middle-aged drivers and 17.6% of older drivers). In terms of injury outcomes, older drivers sustained a significantly higher proportion of injuries to the thorax (30.9% compared to 18.5% of middle-aged drivers). Conversely, a significantly higher proportion of middle-aged drivers sustained some form of injury to the neck (30.6% compared to 12.1% of older drivers). These findings highlight the situations that are particularly risky for older drivers and provide important insights for developing solutions to reduce older driver crash and injury risk.

  5. Spinal injury resulting from car accident: Focus to prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakharian, Esmaeil; Mohammadzadeh, Mahdi; Saberi, Hamid Reza; Fazel, Mohammad Reza; Rejali, Mohsen; Akbari, Hossein; Mirzadeh, Azadeh Sadat; Mohammadzadeh, Javad

    2017-01-01

    To determine and compare the patterns of spinal injury in car occupants. Retrospective cross-sectional study enrolling all patients with spinal fracture after car accidents, who were admitted to hospital more than 24 h during 2004-2009. The lumbosacral spine was the most commonly involved region (64.8). Six patients had spinal cord injury (6.6%). The majority of the victims were drivers of the vehicle (86.8%) and remaining were passengers. There was a significant difference in lumbar anatomic region (P = 0.05) and place of accident (P = 0.05) in car occupants' position (P = 0.05). Car rollover was the most common mechanism of spinal fractures. There was a significant difference in lumbar anatomic region (P = 0.05), and two or more associated organ injuries (P ≤ 0.05) in car accident mechanism (P = 0.05). The chance of sustaining serious spine and associated multiple injuries in car accidents is quite high in our today's society. This may be due to the low level of standards for car manufacturing, absence or inadequacy of appropriate safety measures in cars, and poorly designed roads and problems in quality of driving to mention some reasons. Therefore, these victims are prone to significant morbidity and even mortality and need more specific prehospital supportive interventions.

  6. Relationships of driving coping styles with driving behaviors and road accidents of drivers%汽车驾驶员应对方式与驾驶行为和事故的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦章; 贾杰; 尹莲; 唐勤

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨驾驶员应对方式与驾驶行为、事故的关系.方法 采用简单随机抽样方法,抽取347名驾驶员进行应对方式问卷、驾驶行为问卷的调查.结果 (1)除回避性应对与驾驶行为相关不显著外,对抗性应对、情绪性应对与驾驶行为有显著正相关( r=0.18~0.56,P<0.01);积极评估应对与驾驶行为有显著负相关(r=-0.34~-0.41,P<0.01).(2)积极评估应对、对抗性应对和情绪性应对对错误行为和疏忽行为均有显著的预测作用,解释率分别为33.5%和23.5%.对抗性应对和积极评估应对对超速及违规行为有显著预测作用,解释率为40.2%.(3)在轻微事故和一般事故中,事故驾驶员和安全驾驶员均在对抗性应对上差异有统计学意义(t=-2.75;2.80,P<0.01).结论 驾驶员应对方式是影响驾驶行为和事故安全的重要因素.%Objective To explore the relationships of driving coping styles with driving behaviors and road accidents of drivers.Methods Three hundreds and thirty-seven drivers were randomly surveyed by Driving Coping Questionnaire ( DCQ),Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ).Results ( 1 ) Except avoidance coping style,confrontive coping and emotion-focused coping were correlated positively with the three driving behaviors ( r =0.18 ~ 0.56,P < 0.01 ),and positive appraisal coping had negatively correlations with them (( r =-0.34 ~-0.41,P<0.01 ).(2)Positive appraisal coping,confrontive coping and emotion-focused coping could predict 33.5% of error behaviors and 23.5% of slip behaviors.And confrontive coping and positive appraisal coping could predict 40.2% of speeding and violation behaviors.(3) Compared with safety drivers,accident drivers had significantly differences in confrontive coping in mild and moderate crashes( t=-2.75,2.80,P< 0.01 ).Conclusion Driving coping styles are the important factors influencing drivers' behaviors and road safety.

  7. Risk factors for road traffic accidents in Gulu municipality, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors for road traffic accidents in Gulu municipality, Uganda. ... Traffic Accidents (RTA), establish the safety measures in place to protect road users to ... drivers of different categories of vehicles, motorcyclists and bicyclists locally known ...

  8. Reducing accident potential by improving the ergonomics and safety of locomotive and safety of locomotive and FSV driver cabs by retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rushworth, A.M.; Simpson, G.C. [International Mining Consultants Limited (United Kingdom). Ergonomics and Safety Management Unit

    1994-12-01

    In order to reduce accident potential in existing underground haulage and transport operations two research projects were commissioned. The projects were supported jointly by British Coal and the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Ergonomics Action Programme. The aims of the two projects were to identify and prove practical retrofit improvements that would reduce human error potential and, thereby, accident potential in existing FSV and locomotive operations. More specifically, the plan was to take six long-life locomotives and FSVs from the existing BCC fleet and examine them against the existing recommendations for `ideal` ergonomics. For each unit, a series of viable retrofits would be defined and suitable modifications implemented and tested in operational conditions. The work is fully documented in Rushworth`s reports. This article outlines the major findings and the method used to produce and implement solutions. The method is also considered in the context of its wider potential for dealing with the safety risks associated with mining operations involving other types of equipment. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. Geometric and Road Environmental Effects against Total Number of Traffic Accidents in Kendari

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdin, M. Akbar; Welendo, La; Annisa, Nur

    2017-05-01

    From the large number of traffic accidents that occurred, the carrying of Kendari as the biggest contributor to accidents in the Southeast. The number of accidents in Kendari row since 2011 was recorded at 18 accidents due to the influence of geometric road, in 2012 registered at 13 accident and in 2013 amounted to 6 accidents, with accident data because of the influence Geometric recorded for 3 consecutive years the biggest contributor to accidents because of the influence of geometric is Abeli districts. This study aimed to determine the road which common point of accident-prone (Black spot) in Kecamatan Abeli as accident-prone areas in Kendari, analyze the influence of geometric and road environment against accidents on roads in Kecamatan Abeli, provide alternative treatment based on the causes of accidents on the location of the accident-prone points (blackspot) to reduce the rate of traffic accidents. From the results of a study of 6 curve the accident-prone locations, that the curve I, II, and VI is the “Black Spot” influenced by the amount and condition of traffic accidents, while at the curve II, a traffic accident that occurred also be caused by unsafe geometric where the type of geometric should be changed from Spiral-Spiral type to Spiral-Circle-Spiral type. This indicates geometric effect on the number of accidents.

  10. 广西柳州市酒后驾驶致严重道路交通事故的现况分析%Analysis on status of severe traffic accidents induced by driving under the influence of alcohol in motor vehicle drivers in Liuzhou city in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷凯; 佘桂松; 蒙进怀; 张俊华; 袁和; 李少旦; 赵红军

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解柳州市机动车驾驶员酒后驾驶行为在严重道路交通事故中的比例,为制定预防和控制酒后驾驶行为的政策和干预措施提供依据.方法 2007年1月1日至2007年6月30日,共发生严重道路交通事故100起,连续对所有导致至少有一人严重受伤或死亡的道路交通事故的机动车驾驶员(包括摩托车驾驶员)进行问卷调查和血液酒精含量测试.结果 酒后驾驶事故48起,事故主要发生在晚上21时至凌晨2时,共30起;以30~39岁为高发年龄,占46%;驾龄越长,酒后驾驶事故发生比例越高;非职业驾驶员发生酒后驾驶事故的比例高于职业驾驶员;摩托车驾驶员发生酒后驾驶事故的比例高于轿车驾驶员和客车驾驶员.结论 酒后驾驶是导致柳州市严重道路交通事故的最主要原因之一,必须采取广泛而有效的干预措施来降低酒后驾驶的发生率.%Objective To study and analysis the status of severe traffic accidents induced by driving under the influence (DUI) among drivers in Liuzhou city and provide reference for relative governmental policy and preventive measures for preventing and controlling driving under influence of alcohol and drunk driving.Methods The questionnaire was designed to investigate the motor vehicle drivers (including motorcycle drivers) in 100 cases of severe traffic accident including at least one person badly injured by DUI and drivers' blood alcohol concentration (BAC) were also tested and analyzed in Liuzhou city from January 1 of 2007 to June 30 of 2007.Results It was found that the constituent ratio of severe traffic accidents attributing to DUI was 48.00%,and the total accidents was 100 including 48 ones of DUI.The incidence rate of the traffic accidents induced by DUI from 21:00 to 03:00 of the next day was 62.5%,and group of aged 30 was accounting for 46%.The longer the age of driving was,the higher incident rate of traffic accidents by DUI was.Among alcohol

  11. Reducing risky driver behaviour through the implementation of a driver risk management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Luke

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has one of the highest incidences of road accidents in the world. Most accidents are avoidable and are caused by driver behaviour and errors. The purpose of this article was to identify the riskiest driver behaviours in commercial fleets in South Africa, to determine the business impact of such behaviour, to establish a framework for the management of risky driver behaviour and to test the framework by applying a leading commercial driver behaviour management system as a case study. The case study comprised three South African commercial fleets. Using data from these fleets, critical incident triangles were used to determine the ratio data of risky driver behaviour to near-collisions and collisions. Based on managing the riskiest driver behaviours as causes of more serious incidents and accidents, the results indicated that through the implementation of an effective driver risk management system, risky incidents were significantly reduced.

  12. Impact of the 1970 legal BAC 0.05 mg% limit legislation on drunk-driver-involved traffic fatalities, accidents, and DWI in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshapriya, E B; Iwase, N

    1998-12-01

    Official statistics of motor vehicle fatality data have indicated that alcohol involvement in fatal crashes has declined substantially in Japan since 1970. The national campaign against drunken driving in Japan provides a natural experiment in which to test the predictions of deterrence theory. Utilizing official data over the 1960-1995 period, we report conclusive evidence that 1970s legislation is having a measurable and long-term effect on alcohol-related motor vehicle fatalities. Enactment of the lower legal blood alcohol limit with a combination of other severe sanctions has been more desirable in the prevention of alcohol-related fatalities in the long term as shown in this study. Further extensive research is necessary to investigate performance at the lower legal limit in other societies in order to inspire a strong "international lobby" to support the reduced legal blood alcohol limit for drivers all over the world, as there is no doubt that a reduction in alcohol-impaired driving will result in a substantial savings of human lives and resource worldwide.

  13. Driver style and driver skills – clustering drivers differing in their potential danger in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI) are two of the most frequently used measures of driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to test drivers’ insight into their own driving ability based on a combined use of the DBQ......, annual mileage and accident involvement. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. The results suggested that the drivers have good insight into their own driving ability, as the driving skill level mirrored the frequency of aberrant driving behaviors. K-means cluster analysis revealed four...... and the DSI. Moreover, the joint use of the two instruments was applied to identify sub-groups of drivers that differ in their potential danger in traffic, as well as to test for heterogeneity across the population, namely whether the sub-groups of drivers differed in characteristics such as age, gender...

  14. Driver style and driver skills – clustering drivers differing in their potential danger in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    and the DSI. Moreover, the joint use of the two instruments was applied to identify sub-groups of drivers that differ in their potential danger in traffic, as well as to test for heterogeneity across the population, namely whether the sub-groups of drivers differed in characteristics such as age, gender......, annual mileage and accident involvement. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. The results suggested that the drivers have good insight into their own driving ability, as the driving skill level mirrored the frequency of aberrant driving behaviors. K-means cluster analysis revealed four...... distinct clusters that differed in the frequency of aberrant driving behavior and driving skills, as well as individual characteristics and driving related factors such as annual mileage, accident frequency and number of tickets and fines. Thus, two sub-groups were identified as more unsafe than the two...

  15. A Research on Darkness Adaptation of Drivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the results of darkness adaptation test fordrivers. It is shown that there is a significant difference (p10 s is 7.3%, implying that the high accident rate of the drivers in accident group might be caused by their longer darkness adaptation time.

  16. Bicycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, M G; Wollin, S

    1986-01-01

    Information concerning 520 bicycle accidents and their victims was obtained from medical records and the victims' replies to questionnaires. The analyzed aspects included risk of injury, completeness of accident registrations by police and in hospitals, types of injuries and influence of the cyclists' age and sex, alcohol, fatigue, hunger, haste, physical disability, purpose of cycling, wearing of protective helmet and other clothing, type and quality of road surface, site of accident (road junctions, separate cycle paths, etc.) and turning manoeuvres.

  17. Determination of accident-prone road sections using quantile regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Edison Guerrero-Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La identificación acertada de sitios peligrosos a accidentalidad permite a las entidades gubernamentales, encargadas de realizar mejoras a la seguridad vial, una adecuada destinación de las inversiones a los tramos viales verdaderamente críticos; dada esta necesidad inmediata, la presente investigación se enfoca en determinar los tramos propensos a accidentes y la posterior elaboración de un ranking de peligrosidad efectuado a los tramos críticos encontrados en el perímetro urbano de Ocaña (Colombia, utilizando Regresión Cuantil (RC. A partir del modelo estimado correspondiente al cuantil 95 fue posible establecer relaciones de causalidad entre características como longitud del tramo vial, ancho de calzada, número de carriles, número de intersecciones, tránsito promedio diario y velocidad media con la frecuencia de accidentes, determinándose un total de 7 tramos críticos a los cuales se les estableció un ranking de peligrosidad.

  18. [Clinical examinations for the traffic accident patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitosugi, Masahito

    2008-11-30

    Traffic accident is a leading cause of unintentional death and about six-thousands annually died in Japan. As about one-million of persons suffer from traffic injuries, most of them seek medical attention. Therefore, medical staffs have to find the injuries accurately and treat immediately. Furthermore, the cause of accident should also be considered; why the accident was occurred, human error of the driver? To solve these problems, clinical examinations were needed. Medical staffs have to understand the characteristics of the traffic injuries: severe and multiple blunt injuries, popular injuries can be estimated with considering the pattern of the accident. Because some of the accidents are occurred when the driver is under the influence of alcohol and other drugs, screening of these subjects should be performed. Because the public is largely unaware of the preventable nature of traffic injuries, in addition to diagnose and treat accurately, we medical staffs have to attend on the primary prevention of the traffic injuries.

  19. DRIVER INATTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard TAY

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Driver inattention, especially driver distraction, is an extremely influential but generally neglected contributing factor of road crashes. This paper explores some of the common behaviours associated with several common forms of driver inattention, with respect to their perceived crash risks, rates of self-reported behaviours and whether drivers regulate such behaviours depending on the road and traffic environment, and provides some policy recommendations to address issues raised.

  20. Driving fatigue in professional drivers: a survey of truck and taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanxing; Li, Shuling; Cao, Lingzhi; Li, Musen; Peng, Qijia; Wang, Chunhui; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue among truck drivers has been studied extensively; however, less is known regarding the fatigue experience of taxi drivers in heavily populated metropolitan areas. This study aimed to compare the differences and similarities between truck and taxi driver fatigue to provide implications for the fatigue management and education of professional drivers. A sample of 274 truck drivers and 286 taxi drivers in Beijing was surveyed via a questionnaire, which included items regarding work characteristics, fatigue experience, accident information, attitude toward fatigue, and methods of counteracting fatigue. Driver fatigue was prevalent among professional drivers, and it was even more serious for taxi drivers. Taxi drivers reported more frequent fatigue experiences and were involved in more accidents. Among the contributing factors to fatigue, prolonged driving time was the most important factor identified by both driver groups. Importantly, the reason for the engagement in prolonged driving was neither due to the lack of awareness concerning the serious outcome of fatigue driving nor because of their poor detection of fatigue. The most probable reason was the optimism bias, as a result of which these professional drivers thought that fatigue was more serious for other drivers than for themselves, and they thought that they were effective in counteracting the effect of fatigue on their driving performance. Moreover, truck drivers tended to employ methods that require stopping to counteract fatigue, whereas taxi drivers preferred methods that were simultaneous with driving. Although both driver groups considered taking a nap as one of the most effective means to address fatigue, this method was not commonly used. Interestingly, these drivers were aware that the methods they frequently used were not the most effective means to counteract fatigue. This study provides knowledge on truck and taxi drivers' characteristics in fatigue experience, fatigue attitude, and

  1. Uso de anfetaminas por motoristas de caminhão em rodovias do Estado de São Paulo: um risco à ocorrência de acidentes de trânsito? Amphetamine use by truck drivers on highways of Sao Paulo State: a risk for the occurrence of traffic accidents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Yonamine

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, é comum o uso de anfetaminas por motoristas de caminhão, o que pode culminar na ocorrência de acidentes de trânsito. O objetivo deste artigo é estimar a prevalência do uso de anfetaminas entre caminhoneiros. Motoristas (N = 134 foram abordados em duas rodovias do Estado de São Paulo e solicitados a responder um questionário, assim como a fornecer uma amostra de urina para realização de análises toxicológicas. Todos os dados foram analisados em Stata 8.0. Todos os participantes eram do sexo masculino, de idade média de 40,8 anos e de baixa escolaridade. A presença de anfetaminas foi detectada em 10,8% das amostras de urina, cujo uso foi justificado para manter a vigília durante o trabalho. O uso de anfetaminas foi detectado entre caminhoneiros em rodovias de São Paulo. Cessado o efeito estimulante, a sonolência advinda de uma possível privação de sono diminui a atenção e o bom desempenho na direção, predispondo o condutor aos acidentes de trânsito e seus custos relacionados.The use of amphetamines in Brazil is common among truck drivers, which may be an important factor in the occurrence of traffic accidents. This article seeks to estimate the prevalence of amphetamine use among truck drivers. Drivers (N = 134 were stopped on two different highways in Sao Paulo state and they were asked to answer a questionnaire and provide a urine sample for toxicological analysis. All data were analyzed on Stata 8.0. All participants were males with low levels of schooling, whose mean age was 40.8 years. The presence of amphetamines was detected in 10.8% of all urine samples collected, being commonly justified in order to make truck drivers able to maintain their state of awareness. Amphetamine use was detected among truck drivers on Sao Paulo highways. The problem is that when the stimulant effects wear off, sleepiness due to sleep deprivation reduces concentration and good driver performance, making drivers vulnerable to

  2. Observed and reported driver behaviour at junctions : implications for driver training

    OpenAIRE

    Bottomley, David M.

    1991-01-01

    Over half of the accidents on British roads occur at junctions and it was the primary goal of this research to develop an increased understanding of the underlying factors behind these accidents. The vast majority of all road accidents are attributable to human error and the research investigated junction negotiation with respect to drivers' perceptions of the social and environmental components of driving. The first part of the research, an observation study, gathe...

  3. Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  4. Assisting Driver Sovereignty: A Fail-Safe Design Approach to Driver Distraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gijssel, A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the potential of a fail-safe approach to driver distraction through novel interface concepts for integrated Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Traffic accidents are a negative side effect of the universal and economical desire for mobility. The year 2009 saw the alar

  5. Assisting Driver Sovereignty: A Fail-Safe Design Approach to Driver Distraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gijssel, A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the potential of a fail-safe approach to driver distraction through novel interface concepts for integrated Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Traffic accidents are a negative side effect of the universal and economical desire for mobility. The year 2009 saw the alar

  6. Sports Accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    Kiebel

    1972-01-01

    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  7. SLEEPINESS AMONG IRANIAN LORRY DRIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sadeghniiat Y. Labbafinejad

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS denotes a propensity to doze off or fall asleep unintentionally during the day, particularly in passive situations. There is cumulative evidence pointing to an association between sleepiness and probability of involvement in motor vehicle crashes. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of sleepiness in a group of Iranian lorry drivers and its association with accidents. A cross-sectional study was carried out in lorry drivers of Tehran goods transportation terminal in 2005. This study used a questionnaire and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS. The questionnaire included questions regarding demographic features, professional data, sleep habits and excessive daytime sleepiness. A total of 386 male drivers, aged 43.23 ± 9.72 years were included in the study. ESS was higher than 10 points in 9.1% of the interviewees; 50.8% never have driven drowsy, although 36% rarely, 7.3% half of the times, 4.9% almost always and 1% always have driven drowsy. Logistic regression analysis indicated that EDS, age and job satisfaction were associated with an increased risk of accidents. Sleepiness is a prevailing symptom in lorry drivers and is probably related to accidents.

  8. Sprain of the neck in clinically treated patients in The Netherlands: an inventory of different categories of car accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteegen, G J; Kingma, J; ten Duis, H J

    2001-06-01

    Different categories of car accidents of victims with sprain of the neck were investigated for both drivers and passengers. The predominant category of the car crash was a collision with another car for drivers as well as for passengers. The second cause was unknown. The distribution of the accidents was statistically significantly different for drivers and passengers.

  9. Un chercheur du CERN tué dans un accident

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The accident occured on Sunday between Collonges and Pougnu (Pays de Gex): 4 russians scientists were aboard the vehicle; the driver lost the control of the vehicle and the car made a barrel. (1/4 page)

  10. Truckers' Poor Health: An Accident Waiting to Happen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163147.html Truckers' Poor Health: An Accident Waiting to Happen? Multiple medical ... pain and diabetes -- that have been linked with poor driving performance. Truck drivers with three or more ...

  11. New technology for accident prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byne, P. [Shiftwork Solutions, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This power point presentation examined the effects of fatigue in the workplace and presented 3 technologies designed to prevent or monitor fatigue. The relationship between mental fatigue, circadian rhythms and cognitive performance was explored. Details of vigilance related degradations in the workplace were presented, as well as data on fatigue-related accidents and a time-line of meter-reading errors. It was noted that the direct cause of the Exxon Valdez disaster was sleep deprivation. Fatigue related accidents during the Gulf War were reviewed. The effects of fatigue on workplace performance include impaired logical reasoning and decision-making; impaired vigilance and attention; slowed mental operations; loss of situational awareness; slowed reaction time; and short cuts and lapses in optional or self-paced behaviours. New technologies to prevent fatigue-related accidents include (1) the driver fatigue monitor, an infra-red camera and computer that tracks a driver's slow eye-lid closures to prevent fatigue related accidents; (2) a fatigue avoidance scheduling tool (FAST) which collects actigraphs of sleep activity; and (3) SAFTE, a sleep, activity, fatigue and effectiveness model. refs., tabs., figs.

  12. Driver style and driver skill – Clustering sub-groups of drivers differing in their potential danger in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    based on a combined use of the DBQ and the DSI. Moreover, the joint use of the two instruments was applied to identify sub-groups of drivers that differ in their potential danger in traffic (as measured by frequency of aberrant driving behaviors and level of driving skills), as well as to test whether...... the sub-groups of drivers differed in characteristics such as age, gender, annual mileage and accident involvement. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. The results suggested that the drivers are consistent in their reporting of driving ability, as the self-reported driving skill level...... mirrored the self-reported frequency of aberrant driving behaviors. K-means cluster analysis revealed four distinct clusters that differed in the frequency of aberrant driving behavior and driving skills, as well as individual characteristics and driving related factors such as annual mileage, accident...

  13. 75 FR 82170 - Hours of Service of Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... workplace (and leisure time) accidents and in mortality due to an increase in the incidence of high blood... truck vehicle miles traveled rose only 4 percent), but declined sharply in 2008. (Driver...

  14. Driver drowsiness detection using multimodal sensor fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Elena O.; Aarabi, Parham; Philiastides, Marios G.; Mohajer, Keyvan; Emami, Majid

    2004-04-01

    This paper proposes a multi-modal sensor fusion algorithm for the estimation of driver drowsiness. Driver sleepiness is believed to be responsible for more than 30% of passenger car accidents and for 4% of all accident fatalities. In commercial vehicles, drowsiness is blamed for 58% of single truck accidents and 31% of commercial truck driver fatalities. This work proposes an innovative automatic sleep-onset detection system. Using multiple sensors, the driver"s body is studied as a mechanical structure of springs and dampeners. The sleep-detection system consists of highly sensitive triple-axial accelerometers to monitor the driver"s upper body in 3-D. The subject is modeled as a linear time-variant (LTV) system. An LMS adaptive filter estimation algorithm generates the transfer function (i.e. weight coefficients) for this LTV system. Separate coefficients are generated for the awake and asleep states of the subject. These coefficients are then used to train a neural network. Once trained, the neural network classifies the condition of the driver as either awake or asleep. The system has been tested on a total of 8 subjects. The tests were conducted on sleep-deprived individuals for the sleep state and on fully awake individuals for the awake state. When trained and tested on the same subject, the system detected sleep and awake states of the driver with a success rate of 95%. When the system was trained on three subjects and then retested on a fourth "unseen" subject, the classification rate dropped to 90%. Furthermore, it was attempted to correlate driver posture and sleepiness by observing how car vibrations propagate through a person"s body. Eight additional subjects were studied for this purpose. The results obtained in this experiment proved inconclusive which was attributed to significant differences in the individual habitual postures.

  15. ACCOUNT OF ROAD CONDITIONS WHILE INVESTIGATING TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Selioukov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems on better traffic safety at government, authority, engineering and driver activity levels, account of road conditions while investigating traffic accidents. The paper also provides road defects mentioned in forensic transport examinations of traffic accidents.

  16. Older Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in this topic was provided by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Topic last reviewed: March 2015 For ... see Traffic Safety Facts 2012: Older Population. (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration). Crashes Down Among Older Drivers Fortunately, ...

  17. Tarantula: Killing driver bugs before they hatch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles; Urunuela, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The Linux operating system is undergoing continual evolution. Evolution in the kernel and generic driver modules often triggers the need for corresponding evolutions in specific device drivers. Such collateral evolutions are tedious, because of the large number of device drivers, and error......-prone, because of the complexity of the code modifications involved. We propose an automatic tool, Tarantula, to aid in this process. In this paper, we examine some recent evolutions in Linux and the collateral evolutions they trigger, and assess the corresponding requirements on Tarantula....

  18. Tarantula: Killing driver bugs before they hatch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles; Urunuela, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The Linux operating system is undergoing continual evolution. Evolution in the kernel and generic driver modules often triggers the need for corresponding evolutions in specific device drivers. Such collateral evolutions are tedious, because of the large number of device drivers, and error......-prone, because of the complexity of the code modifications involved. We propose an automatic tool, Tarantula, to aid in this process. In this paper, we examine some recent evolutions in Linux and the collateral evolutions they trigger, and assess the corresponding requirements on Tarantula....

  19. Accident: Reminder

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

  20. Cellular phones and traffic accidents: an epidemiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, J M; Marshall, J R

    1996-03-01

    Using epidemiological case-control design and logistic regression techniques, this study examined the association of cellular phone use in motor vehicles and traffic accident risk. The amount of time per month spent talking on a cellular phone and 18 other driver inattention factors were examined. Data were obtained from: (1) a case group of 100 randomly selected drivers involved in accidents within the past 2 years, and (2) a control group of 100 randomly selected licensed drivers not involved in accidents within the past 10 years. Groups were matched on geographic residence. Approximately 13% (N = 7) of the accident and 9% (N = 7) of the non-accident group reported use of cellular phones while driving. Data was obtained from Department of Motor Vehicles accident reports and survey information from study subjects. We hypothesized that increased use of cellular phones while driving was associated with increased odds of a traffic accident. Results indicated that talking more than 50 minutes per month on cellular phones in a vehicle was associated with a 5.59-fold increased risk in a traffic accident. The combined use of cellular phones and motor and cognitive activities while driving were also associated with increased traffic accident risk. Readers should be cautioned that this study: (1) consists of a small sample, (2) reveals statistical associations and not causal relationships, and (3) does not conclude that talking on cellular phones while driving is inherently dangerous.

  1. Antecedents of Truck Drivers’ Job Satisfaction and Retention Proneness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prockl, Günter; Teller, Christoph; Kotzab, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) explore the antecedents of truck drivers’ job satisfaction, (2) identify the impact of financial and nonfinancial job properties on satisfaction with the job and with one's employer, and (3) the drivers’ proneness to retaining their jobs. Based on the extant...... literature, we develop a conceptual model that is tested using survey data for 164 truck drivers. Multiple linear and ordinal logistic regressions were used to estimate the proposed effects. The results reveal that nonfinancial job properties and satisfaction with one's employer affect job satisfaction...... is statistically significant. Financial and nonfinancial job properties affect satisfaction with one's employer whereas the former shows a lower impact compared to the latter. Satisfaction with the job and one's employer impacts retention proneness. The contribution of this study was to (1) add...

  2. Nonresponse analysis and adjustment in a mail survey on car accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivesten, Emma; Jonsson, Sofia; Jakobsson, Lotta; Norin, Hans

    2012-09-01

    Statistical accident data plays an important role for traffic safety development involving the road system, vehicle design, and driver education. Vehicle manufacturers use data from accident mail surveys as an integral part of the product development process. Low response rates has, however, lead to concerns on whether estimates from a mail survey can be trusted as a source for making strategic decisions. The main objective of this paper was to investigate nonresponse bias in a mail survey addressing driver behaviour in accident situations. Insurance data, available for both respondents and nonrespondents were used to analyze, as well as adjust for nonresponse. Response propensity was investigated by using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses. The survey data was then weighted by using inverse propensity weights. Two specific examples of survey estimates are addressed, namely driver vigilance and driver's distraction just before the accident. The results from this paper reveal that driver age and accident type were the most influential variables for nonresponse weighting. Driver gender and size of town where the driver resides also had some influence, but not for all survey variables investigated. The main conclusion of this paper is that nonresponse weighting can increase confidence in accident data collected by a mail survey, especially when response rates are low. Weighting has a moderate influence on this survey, but a larger influence may be expected if applied on a more diverse driver population. The development of auxiliary data collection can further improve accident mail survey methodology in future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sexual behavior among truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv Kumar; Joshi, Hari Shankar

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on Lucknow highway in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh to study the knowledge of truck drivers about HIV transmission and prevention and to study the sexual behaviour of these drivers with reference to HIV/AIDS. Age, marital status, education, income, drinking alcohol, length of stay away from home, knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV, and HIV-prone behavior of truck drivers were studied. Chi-square, mean, and SD were calculated. In all, 289 (97.6%) drivers had heard about HIV/AIDS. Only 242 (81.8%) were aware of HIV transmission by heterosexual route. Misconceptions such as HIV transmission by mosquito bites, living in same room, shaking hands, and sharing food were found. Out of 174 (58.8%) who visited Commercial Sex Workers (CSW), 146 (83.9%) used a condom. 38 (12.8%) visited more than 5 CSW in the last 3 months. Time away from home on the road, marital status, alcohol use, and income class were associated with visiting CSW. High-risk behavior was established in the study population. Safe sex and use of condoms need to be promoted among the truck drivers and better condom availability needs to be assured on highways.

  4. Bus crash severity in the United-States: The role of driver behavior, service type, road factors and environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    for the analysis are retrieved from the General Estimates System (GES) database for the years 2005-2009. Results show that accident severity increases: (i) for young bus drivers under the age of 25; (ii) for drivers beyond the age of 55, and most prominently for drivers over 65 years old; (iii) for female drivers...

  5. Fatal traffic accidents and forensic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Kibayashi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a traffic accident fatality, the death is reported as an “unusual death,” an inquest is conducted, and, if necessary, a forensic autopsy is performed to prove any causal relationship between the accident and the death, identify the vehicle at fault, and determine the cause of the accident. A forensic autopsy of a traffic accident fatality needs to both determine the cause of death and identify the mechanism of injury, an analytical task that requires observation of three major traffic accident factors: the body, the vehicles involved, and the scene of the accident. Also crucial to determining the cause of death is the process of looking into whether the people involved in the accident had any diseases that might affect their driving performance or were under the influence of alcohol or drugs. In order to reduce the number of people killed in traffic accidents, it will be important to promote joint research uniting forensic medicine, clinical medicine, automotive engineering, and road engineering, take measures to limit the impact of inebriated pedestrians and pedestrians suffering from dementia, and ensure proper screening of alcohol and illegal drug consumption in drivers.

  6. Occupational safety conditions of bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jewelle Ann; Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2016-12-01

    The study looks into the occupational safety and working conditions among bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines. Quantitative data were collected through survey interviews of 95 bus drivers using the stratified sampling technique. Results showed that bus drivers worked an average of 16 h/day and were engaged in risky driving behaviors such as over-speeding and road racing in order to reach their quota for the day. Fifty-nine percent experienced work-related accidents, with a mean of three accidents. The most common accident was hitting another vehicle followed by side swipe. The accidents were blamed on other drivers, followed by vehicle defect, inattentiveness and tiredness/micro-sleep or sudden involuntary sleep while driving. The most common health symptoms experienced by the bus drivers were fatigue, back pain, and cough and colds. This study underlines the need for an occupational health and safety program for bus drivers in the Philippines.

  7. Cognitive screening of older drivers does not produce safety benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Meng, Annette

    2012-01-01

    in Denmark. The primary data used came from the Danish road accident register. The present study compared the number of fatal accidents before and after the implementation of screening for cognitive impairment.There were two main findings. First, there was no statistically significant difference...... in the number of older drivers involved in fatal accidents before and after the implementation of the screening process, indicating that the screening had no effect on the safety of older drivers. Second, there was a significant increase in the number of unprotected older (but not younger) road users who were...

  8. Safety analysis of surface haulage accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolph, R.F.; Boldt, C.M.K.

    1996-12-31

    Research on improving haulage truck safety, started by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, is being continued by its successors. This paper reports the orientation of the renewed research efforts, beginning with an update on accident data analysis, the role of multiple causes in these accidents, and the search for practical methods for addressing the most important causes. Fatal haulage accidents most often involve loss of control or collisions caused by a variety of factors. Lost-time injuries most often involve sprains or strains to the back or multiple body areas, which can often be attributed to rough roads and the shocks of loading and unloading. Research to reduce these accidents includes improved warning systems, shock isolation for drivers, encouraging seatbelt usage, and general improvements to system and task design.

  9. Self-reported accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2016-01-01

    The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....

  10. Driver Fatigue Features Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gengtian Niu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Driver fatigue is the main cause of traffic accidents. How to extract the effective features of fatigue is important for recognition accuracy and traffic safety. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new method of driver fatigue features extraction based on the facial image sequence. In this method, first, each facial image in the sequence is divided into nonoverlapping blocks of the same size, and Gabor wavelets are employed to extract multiscale and multiorientation features. Then the mean value and standard deviation of each block’s features are calculated, respectively. Considering the facial performance of human fatigue is a dynamic process that developed over time, each block’s features are analyzed in the sequence. Finally, Adaboost algorithm is applied to select the most discriminating fatigue features. The proposed method was tested on a self-built database which includes a wide range of human subjects of different genders, poses, and illuminations in real-life fatigue conditions. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Fighting Accident Using Eye Detection forSmartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Mohamed

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to investigate an important problem and approaches of human eye detection, blinking, and tracking. A new system was proposed and implemented using android technology for smartphones. System creatively reduces accidents due to drivers’ fatigue by focusing on treating the driver after fatigue has been detected to achieve decrease in accident likelihood. Smartphone's have been the important tools in our society for the abundant functions including communication, entertainment and online office etc. as the pivotal devices of mobile computing. Smartphone development has also become more important than before. Android is one of the emerging leading operating systems for smartphones as an open source system platform. Many smartphones have adopted this platform and more smartphones will do so in the future. The proposed system is well-suited for real world driving conditions since it can be non-intrusive by using video cameras to detect changes. Driver operation and vehicle behavior can be implemented by equipping automobiles with the ability to monitoring the response of the driver. This involves periodically requesting the driver to send a response to the system to indicate alertness. The propose system based on eyes closer count & yawning count of the driver. By monitoring the eyes and face, it is believed that the symptoms of driver fatigue can be detected early enough to avoid a car accident and providing the driver with a warning if the driver takes his or her eye off the road.

  12. The contributions of sleep-related risk factors to diurnal car accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucidi, Fabio; Mallia, Luca; Violani, Cristiano; Giustiniani, Gabriele; Persia, Luca

    2013-03-01

    This study was intended to estimate the presence and number of individual sleep-related risk factors in a sample of diurnal car accidents and to analyze the extent to which these risk factors tended to be more represented in diurnal accidents involving only one vehicle, involving young drivers or occurring on non-urban roads. Two hundred fifty-three drivers involved in diurnal accidents were interviewed immediately after the accidents to assess their sleepiness-related personal conditions and the circumstances prior to the accident (i.e., individual sleep-related risk factors), such as poor sleep, changes in habitual sleeping patterns, prolonged wakefulness, self-reported acute sleepiness and daytime sleepiness, night-shift jobs and insomnia. A total of 12.3% of the drivers were classified as having at least one of the seven risk factors assessed in the study, supporting the general notion that drivers' sleepiness conditions are crucial, even in diurnal driving circumstances in which they are less likely to depend on chrono-biological processes. Furthermore, consistent with the guiding hypotheses, specific sleep-related risk factors were more evident in single (vs. multiple) car accidents, among young drivers and in car accidents occurring on non-urban roads. In summary, sleep-related risk factors seemed to have a negative impact on drivers' safety in circumstances of diurnal driving, especially when the accidents involved young individuals and occurred on non-urban roads. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sprain of the neck in clinically treated patients in The Netherlands : An inventory of different categories of car accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegen, GJ; Kingma, J; ten Duis, HJ

    2001-01-01

    Different categories of car accidents of victims with sprain of the neck were investigated for both drivers and passengers. The predominant category of the car crash was a collision with another car for drivers as well as for passengers. The second cause was unknown. The distribution of the accident

  14. When feeling bad leads to feeling good: guilt-proneness and affective organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Francis J; Schaumberg, Rebecca L

    2012-01-01

    The authors posit that higher levels of guilt-proneness are associated with higher levels of affective organizational commitment. To explain this counterintuitive link, the authors suggest that a dispositional tendency to feel guilt motivates individuals to exert greater effort on their work-related tasks that, in turn, strengthens their affinity for the organization. The authors tested this idea using a laboratory study and field data from 2 samples of working adults. Individuals who are more guilt-prone reported higher levels of organizational attachment compared with less guilt-prone individuals. Furthermore, mediation analyses indicate that the link between guilt-proneness and affective commitment is driven by greater task effort. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the affective drivers of commitment in organizations.

  15. Prone and supine percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarelli, G; Breda, A

    2013-06-01

    Since the first successful stone extraction through a nephrostomy in 1976, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has became the preferred procedure especially for treatment of large, complex and staghorn calculi. For decades this method has been performed with the patient in the prone position. More recently, particular interest has been taken on supine PCNL due to less anestesiological risks and the possibility of simultaneous anterograde and retrograde access to the whole urinary tract. Although many retrospective studies have been published, only two prospective trials comparing the two positions are reported in the literature. The best access to PCNL represents still a controversial issue. The overall experience reported in literature indicates that each modality is equally feasible and safe. Therefore, to date the surgeon's preference is the prime indication to one access over the other.

  16. Assessing the relationship between the Driver Behavior Questionnaire and the Driver Skill Inventory: Revealing sub-groups of drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire and the Driver Skill Inventory are two of the most frequently used measures of self-reported driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to identify sub-groups of drivers that potentially act dangerously in traffic (as measured...... by frequency of aberrant driving behaviors and level of driving skills), as well as to test whether the sub-groups differ in characteristics such as age, gender, annual mileage and accident involvement. Furthermore, the joint analysis of the two instruments was used to test drivers’ assessment of their own...... self-reported driving skills and whether the reported skill level was reflected in the reported aberrant driving behaviors. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. K-means cluster analysis revealed four distinct sub-groups that differed in driving skills and frequency of aberrant driving...

  17. Indicadores psicossociais relacionados a acidentes de trânsito envolvendo motoristas de ônibus Indicadores psicosociales relacionados a accidentes de tráfico envolviendo conductores de ómnibus Psychological and social indicators associated to traffic accidents involving bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Carla Ferreira de Oliveira

    2007-04-01

    retraso y problemas familiares. La perspectiva temporal de presente no mostró relación con envolvimiento en accidentes. Se concluyó que la incidencia del envolvimiento de conductores de ómnibus en accidentes de tráfico puede ser evitada, o al menos disminuida, por medio de mejorías de aquellas condiciones de trabajo y de políticas públicas de salud y seguridad pública.Psychological and social conditions potentially related to traffic accidents involving bus drivers are identified. Participants were 457 drivers, males and employees of local public transportation companies of Natal, RN, Brazil. Questionnaire contained items on professional performance comprising potentially stressing situations, effects of organizational policies and socio-demographic characteristics, in addition to Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Variables highly associated to accident occurrences included extra work hours, work during vacations, medical leave, passengers' complaints, excessive daytime sleepiness, and concern about sleep, arriving late and family problems. Present time perspective was not related to involvement in accidents. Results suggest that involvement in traffic accidents may be avoided, or at least diminished, by an improvement in work conditions and through public policies of health and safety.

  18. Understanding Collateral Evolution in Linux Device Drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padioleau, Yoann; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    no tools to help in this process, collateral evolution is thus time consuming and error prone.In this paper, we present a qualitative and quantitative assessment of collateral evolution in Linux device driver code. We provide a taxonomy of evolutions and collateral evolutions, and use an automated patch......-analysis tool that we have developed to measure the number of evolutions and collateral evolutions that affect device drivers between Linux versions 2.2 and 2.6. In particular, we find that from one version of Linux to the next, collateral evolutions can account for up to 35% of the lines modified in such code....

  19. Understanding Collateral Evolution in Linux Device Drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padioleau, Yoann; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    no tools to help in this process, collateral evolution is thus time consuming and error prone.In this paper, we present a qualitative and quantitative assessment of collateral evolution in Linux device driver code. We provide a taxonomy of evolutions and collateral evolutions, and use an automated patch......-analysis tool that we have developed to measure the number of evolutions and collateral evolutions that affect device drivers between Linux versions 2.2 and 2.6. In particular, we find that from one version of Linux to the next, collateral evolutions can account for up to 35% of the lines modified in such code....

  20. Car accidents as a method of suicide: a comprehensive overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Innamorati, Marco; Montebovi, Franco; Palermo, Mario; Campi, Sandra; Stefani, Henry; Giordano, Gloria; Telesforo, Ludovica; Amore, Mario; Girardi, Paolo

    2012-11-30

    The research literature provides evidence on the possible link between single-car accident drivers and suicidal intent, and some scholars have stressed the role of unconscious suicidal motivations in some single-car accidents. This paper review relevant literature on the topic and sheds light on neglected factors that may play a central role in reducing the number of deaths due to car accidents. We performed careful PubMed, and PsycInfo searches to identify all papers and book chapters in English during the period 1955-2011. Our overview of the literature indicates that above 2% of the traffic accidents are suicide behaviors. However, the phenomenon may be underreported, considering that suicides by car accidents may be reported as accidental in the national statistics. On the other hand, the association between accident-pronesses and unconscious self-destructive impulses is an issue that is difficult to solve. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Driver support in congestion : an assessment of user needs and impacts on driver and traffic flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, van Cornelia Jacoba Geertje

    2007-01-01

    Mobility is a key factor for modern societies. However, it also brings about problems, such as congestion, accidents and pollution. High expectations rest on in-vehicle systems to contribute to solving these problems. These so-called driver support systems use advanced information and communication

  2. Driver support in congestion. An assessment of user needs and impacts on driver and traffic flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, Cornelie

    2007-01-01

    Mobility is a key factor for modern societies. However, it also brings about problems, such as congestion, accidents and pollution. High expectations rest on in-vehicle systems to contribute to solving these problems. These so-called driver support systems use advanced information and communication

  3. How to improve a safe and sustainable driver behaviour - driver's fatigue?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Reducing the number of accidents that are caused by drowsiness or fatigue could be achieved by applying different strategies. This paper focuses on the on-line, real time detection of deteriorating driver state and driving behaviour, and on the question what should be done after this has been

  4. The importance of sight for drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Pas-Wyroślak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sight is the basic sense for drivers. Condition of the eye determines correct, comfortable and safe performance of the work as drivers. This article presents various factors influencing the sight condition. There are two groups of factors, external (environment, the kind and time of work, stress caused by work and internal (systemic and local disorders. All these factors can reduce significantly visual functions, such as visual acuity, field of vision, color vision, strereoscopic vision, twilight vision and glare sensitivity. There are also presented actual requirements for drivers and causes of the car accidents in various age groups. Impairments in vision functions can be dangerous for both the driver and other road users. Med Pr 2013;64(3:419–425

  5. Prone positioning in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Kristy; Dufault, Marlene; Bergeron, Kathy

    2015-08-12

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a condition with a high morbidity and mortality rate, and treatment is often long and costly. Prone positioning is a rarely used intervention for patients with this syndrome, although research suggests it may be effective. A literature search was undertaken to examine the effects of prone positioning on oxygenation, morbidity and mortality in patients with ARDS. It revealed that prone positioning, when used with low tidal volume ventilation over an extended period, may reduce mortality rates in selected patients with severe ARDS. The selection of patients with severe ARDS for prone positioning should be done on a case-by-case basis to maximise benefits and minimise complications. Further research is required on the use of prone positioning in patients with severe ARDS to support or disclaim the therapy's use in practice, and to compare confounding variables such as ideal prone duration and mechanical versus manual pronation.

  6. Clinical symptoms of sleep apnea syndrome and automobile accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraldsson, P O; Carenfelt, C; Diderichsen, Finn

    1990-01-01

    Patients with clinical features of sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) and self-reported sleep spells at the wheel do poorly in simulated monotonous driving. To evaluate whether drivers with defined symptoms of SAS (heavy snoring, sleep disturbances and daytime sleepiness) compensate in real traffic...... by careful driving or not, the rate of car accidents over a 5-year period was investigated. A questionnaire was addressed to 140 patients with and 142 controls without symptoms associated to SAS. Seventy-three of the patients had a complete triad of SAS-associated symptoms. Fifty-two percent...... of these patients reported habitual sleep spells at the wheel, as opposed to less than one percent by the controls. The ratio of drivers being involved in one or more combined-car accident was similar for patients and control drivers, but for single-car accidents the ratio was about 7 times higher for patients...

  7. Risk factors associated with bus accident severity in the United States: A generalized ordered logit model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in improving bus safety operations worldwide. While in the United States buses are considered relatively safe, the number of bus accidents is far from being negligible, triggering the introduction of the Motor-coach Enhanced Safety Act...... that accident severity increases: (i) for young bus drivers under the age of 25; (ii) for drivers beyond the age of 55, and most prominently for drivers over 65 years old; (iii) for female drivers; (iv) for very high (over 65 mph) and very low (under 20 mph) speed limits; (v) at intersections; (vi) because...

  8. The influence of age, seat belt, time of day, and type of vehicles on road accidents in Kerman, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ghorbanali

    2009-04-01

    Traffic accidents are one of the main external causes of morbidity and mortality in various parts of the world, including Kerman, a city that has experienced rapid growth in the number of cars in the last 5 years. The objective of this article was to identify the influence of age, belt use, time of day, and type of vehicle road accidents of southeastern Iran. This study used data obtained from Kerman police force reports on incidents of road traffic accidents (RTAs). We analyzed the police reports of total road accidents that occurred from 2005 to 2007. The involvement in fatal and non-fatal accidents was determined for females than among males. The analysis of the data indicated that the female drivers have a much better road safety record than male drivers, especially with regards to their involvement in severe traffic accidents. Forty-nine percent of accidents involve passenger cars, which is higher than other type of vehicles. Female drivers were found to be generally safer drivers than their male counterparts; male drivers who did not use seat belts had a higher involvement rate in road traffic accidents. Time of day analyses suggested that the problems of accidents in darkness are not a matter of visibility but a consequence of the way drivers use the roads at night. A number of recommended measures for the improvement of road safety in southeastern Iran are suggested.

  9. Do alcohol excise taxes affect traffic accidents? Evidence from Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Indrek

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the association between alcohol excise tax rates and alcohol-related traffic accidents in Estonia. Monthly time series of traffic accidents involving drunken motor vehicle drivers from 1998 through 2013 were regressed on real average alcohol excise tax rates while controlling for changes in economic conditions and the traffic environment. Specifically, regression models with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) errors were estimated in order to deal with serial correlation in residuals. Counterfactual models were also estimated in order to check the robustness of the results, using the level of non-alcohol-related traffic accidents as a dependent variable. A statistically significant (P traffic accidents was disclosed under alternative model specifications. For instance, the regression model with ARIMA (0, 1, 1)(0, 1, 1) errors revealed that a 1-unit increase in the tax rate is associated with a 1.6% decrease in the level of accidents per 100,000 population involving drunk motor vehicle drivers. No similar association was found in the cases of counterfactual models for non-alcohol-related traffic accidents. This article indicates that the level of alcohol-related traffic accidents in Estonia has been affected by changes in real average alcohol excise taxes during the period 1998-2013. Therefore, in addition to other measures, the use of alcohol taxation is warranted as a policy instrument in tackling alcohol-related traffic accidents.

  10. Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents.

  11. Factors that dissuade young drivers from committing traffic violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félonneau, Marie-Line; Aigrot, Florence; Causse, Elsa

    2009-04-01

    During a period of overinvolvement of young drivers in road accidents and an increasing number of police checks, this study was done to identify factors dissuading individuals from committing traffic violations in this segment of the population. The model used examines the perceptions of accident risk and risk of getting a ticket. A special questionnaire was designed to investigate the following subscales: Driving Offences Declared, Perceived Danger, Perceived Police Check, and Perceived Impunity. The sample tested included 514 young adults (324 men, 187 women). Analysis showed committing traffic violations was inhibited mainly by fear of danger. Sex and mileage covered influenced violations: women had a lower Driving Offences Declared score than men, and high-mileage drivers declared committing more violations than low-mileage drivers. Further, those who had ever been ticketed and who had been involved in an accident had higher scores for Driving Offences Declared.

  12. Traffic accidents involving fatigue driving and their extent of casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Zhang, Xun; Li, Yanyan

    2016-02-01

    The rapid progress of motorization has increased the number of traffic-related casualties. Although fatigue driving is a major cause of traffic accidents, the public remains not rather aware of its potential harmfulness. Fatigue driving has been termed as a "silent killer." Thus, a thorough study of traffic accidents and the risk factors associated with fatigue-related casualties is of utmost importance. In this study, we analyze traffic accident data for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. The study data were extracted from the traffic accident database of China's Public Security Department. A logistic regression model is used to assess the effect of driver characteristics, type of vehicles, road conditions, and environmental factors on fatigue-related traffic accident occurrence and severity. On the one hand, male drivers, trucks, driving during midnight to dawn, and morning rush hours are identified as risk factors of fatigue-related crashes but do not necessarily result in severe casualties. Driving at night without street-lights contributes to fatigue-related crashes and severe casualties. On the other hand, while factors such as less experienced drivers, unsafe vehicle status, slippery roads, driving at night with street-lights, and weekends do not have significant effect on fatigue-related crashes, yet accidents associated with these factors are likely to have severe casualties. The empirical results of the present study have important policy implications on the reduction of fatigue-related crashes as well as their severity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Yellow taxis have fewer accidents than blue taxis because yellow is more visible than blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Teck-Hua; Chong, Juin Kuan; Xia, Xiaoyu

    2017-01-01

    Is there a link between the color of a taxi and how many accidents it has? An analysis of 36 mo of detailed taxi, driver, and accident data (comprising millions of data points) from the largest taxi company in Singapore suggests that there is an explicit link. Yellow taxis had 6.1 fewer accidents per 1,000 taxis per month than blue taxis, a 9% reduction in accident probability. We rule out driver difference as an explanatory variable and empirically show that because yellow taxis are more noticeable than blue taxis—especially when in front of another vehicle, and in street lighting—other drivers can better avoid hitting them, directly reducing the accident rate. This finding can play a significant role when choosing colors for public transportation and may save lives as well as millions of dollars. PMID:28265081

  14. Bacterial Interference in Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Flora of Otitis-prone and Non-otitis-prone Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Bernstein; S. Sagahtaheri-ALtaie; D.M. Dryja; J. Wactawski-Wende

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe quantitative bacteriology of the adenoid was studied in 34 otitis-prone and 25 non-otitis prone children. Viridans streptococci appeared to be the predominant normal flora in children who are non-otitis prone. There was a significant decrease in viridans streptococci in the otitis-pr

  15. Bacterial Interference in Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Flora of Otitis-prone and Non-otitis-prone Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Bernstein; S. Sagahtaheri-ALtaie; D.M. Dryja; J. Wactawski-Wende

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe quantitative bacteriology of the adenoid was studied in 34 otitis-prone and 25 non-otitis prone children. Viridans streptococci appeared to be the predominant normal flora in children who are non-otitis prone. There was a significant decrease in viridans streptococci in the

  16. Prone positioning in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: the Vollman Prone Positioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, D G

    1999-08-01

    ARDS continues to be associated with high mortality rates despite numerous advances in critical care. Improvements in oxygenation can be achieved by placing patients with ARDS prone. The Vollman Prone Positioner offers an easy, safe, and inexpensive method to turn patients prone (for more information: www.vollman.com).

  17. Driver's Face Tracking Based on Improved CAMShift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamarul Hawari Bin Ghazali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The statistic shows that the number of casualty increase in every year due to road accident related to driver drowsiness. After long journey or sleepless night, vehicle driver will perform some bio-features with regard to drowsiness on them face. It is self-evident that getting location information of head in continuous monitoring and surveillance system rapidly and accurately can help prevent many accidents, and consequently save money and reduce personal suffering. In this paper, according the real situation in vehicle, an improved CAMShift approach is proposed to tracking motion of driver’s head. Results from experiment show the significant performance of proposed approach in driver’s head tracking.

  18. A Study of The Relationship Between The Components of The Five-Factor Model of Personality and The Occurrence of Occupational Accidents in Industry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanollah Habibi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Accidents are among the most important problems of both the developed and the developing countries. Individual factors and personality traits are the primary causes of human errors and contribute to accidents. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between the components of the five-factor model of personality and the occurrence of occupational accidents in industrial workers. The independent T-test indicated that there is a meaningful relationship between the personality traits and accident proneness. In the two groups of industry workers injured in occupational accidents and industry workers without any occupational accidents, there is a significant relationship between personality traits, neuroticism (p=0.001, openness to experience (p=0.001, extraversion (p=0.024 and conscientiousness (p=0.021. Nonetheless, concerning the personality trait of agreeableness (p = 0.09, the group of workers with accidents did not differ significantly from the workers without any accidents. The results showed that there is a direct and significant relationship between accident proneness and the personality traits of neuroticism and openness to experience. Furthermore, there is a meaningful but inverse correlation between accident proneness and the personality traits of extraversion and conscientiousness, while there was no relationship between accident proneness and the personality trait of agreeableness.

  19. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  20. Do drivers have a realistic view of their driving ability?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI) are two of the most frequently used measures of driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to test drivers’ insight into their own driving ability based on a combined use of the DBQ......, annual mileage and accident involvement. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. The results suggested that the drivers have good insight into their own driving ability, as the driving skill level mirrored the frequency of aberrant driving behaviors. K-means cluster analysis revealed four...... and the DSI. Moreover, the joint use of the two instruments was applied to identify sub-groups of drivers that differ in their potential danger in traffic, as well as to test for heterogeneity across the population, namely whether the sub-groups of drivers differed in characteristics such as age, gender...

  1. Designing of an emergency call system for traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Ekşi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In our country, many people have been seriously injured or died in traffic accidents. Fatal accidents often occur because of not complying with traffic rules or carelessness. Except these driver mistakes, heavy injuries can result in deaths because of emergency aid teams failing to arrive to accident scene in time. In this study, an accident emergency call system is designed to help injured people's treatment as soon as possible by notifying emercengy team automatically in accidents. The designed system sends messages, including information such as vehicle location, exploding airbag number, vehicle model, age and registration plate, to emergency aid team using GPS module at the moment of crashed vehicle's airbag explosion.

  2. Analysis of traffic accident size for Korean highway using structural equation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Yeon; Chung, Jin-Hyuk; Son, Bongsoo

    2008-11-01

    Accident size can be expressed as the number of involved vehicles, the number of damaged vehicles, the number of deaths and/or the number of injured. Accident size is the one of the important indices to measure the level of safety of transportation facilities. Factors such as road geometric condition, driver characteristic and vehicle type may be related to traffic accident size. However, all these factors interact in complicate ways so that the interrelationships among the variables are not easily identified. A structural equation model is adopted to capture the complex relationships among variables because the model can handle complex relationships among endogenous and exogenous variables simultaneously and furthermore it can include latent variables in the model. In this study, we use 2649 accident data occurred on highways in Korea and estimate relationship among exogenous factors and traffic accident size. The model suggests that road factors, driver factors and environment factors are strongly related to the accident size.

  3. Cyclone hazard proneness of districts of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Mohapatra

    2015-04-01

    Hazards associated with tropical cyclones (TCs) are long-duration rotatory high velocity winds, very heavy rain, and storm tide. India has a coastline of about 7516 km of which 5400 km is along the mainland. The entire coast is affected by cyclones with varying frequency and intensity. Thus classification of TC hazard proneness of the coastal districts is very essential for planning and preparedness aspects of management of TCs. So, an attempt has been made to classify TC hazard proneness of districts by adopting a hazard criteria based on frequency and intensity of cyclone, wind strength, probable maximum precipitation, and probable maximum storm surge. Ninety-six districts including 72 districts touching the coast and 24 districts not touching the coast, but lying within 100 km from the coast have been classified based on their proneness. Out of 96 districts, 12 are very highly prone, 41 are highly prone, 30 are moderately prone, and the remaining 13 districts are less prone. This classification of coastal districts based on hazard may be considered for all the required purposes including coastal zone management and planning. However, the vulnerability of the place has not been taken into consideration. Therefore, composite cyclone risk of a district, which is the product of hazard and vulnerability, needs to be assessed separately through a detailed study.

  4. An analysis of accident data for franchised public buses in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W A; Courtney, A J

    1985-10-01

    This paper analyses data on accidents involving franchised public buses operating in Hong Kong. The data were obtained from the Royal Hong Kong Police, the Hong Kong Government Transport Department, the two major franchised bus operators and international sources. The analysis includes an international comparison of accidents with emphasis on the situation in Hong Kong compared to urban areas in the United Kingdom. An attempt has been made to identify the characteristics of bus accidents; accident incidence has been related to time of day, day of the week, time of year, weather conditions, driver's age and experience, hours on duty and policy-reported cause. The results indicate that Hong Kong has a high accident rate compared to Japan, the U.K. and the U.S.A., with particularly high pedestrian involvement rates. Bus accidents peak at around 9:00 AM and 4:00 PM but the accident rate is high throughout the day. Monday and Saturday appear to have a higher than average accident rate. The variability of accident rate throughout the year does not seem to be significant and the accident rate does not appear to be influenced by weather conditions. Older, more experienced drivers generally have a safer driving record than their younger, less experienced colleagues. Accident occurrence is related to the time the driver has been on duty. The paper questions the reliability of police-reported accident causation data and suggests improvements in the design of the accident report form and in the training of police investigators. The relevance of the Hong Kong study for accident research in general is also discussed.

  5. Effects of driver behavior style differences and individual differences on driver sleepiness detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyong Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Driving sleepiness is still a major causes of traffic accidents. Individual drivers, under various conditions, act and respond in different manners. This article presents the attempt of a straight-line driving simulator study that examined the effects of driver behavior style differences and individual differences on driver sleepiness detection which is based on driving performance measures. A total of 15 drivers who were classified into two categories through subjective assessment based on a Driver Behavior Questionnaire participated in driving simulator experiments. A total of 18 detection models, including 15 SE models for each subject, an A model for the aggressive drivers, an NA model for the non-aggressive drivers, and a G model for all experiment participants, were developed using support vector machine method based on driving performance characteristic parameters. The results show that the G model is not suitable for all drivers due to its lower mean accuracy of 69.88% (standard deviation = 7.70% and higher standard deviation. The SE models for each subject show the best detection accuracy performance of 84.26% (standard deviation = 5.38%; however, it is impossible to set up a special detection model for every individual driver. The SD models on different style categories show an accuracy value of 77.54% (standard deviation = 5.78%. The results demonstrate that driver style differences as well as individual differences have great effects on driver sleepiness detection (F = 19.148, p < 0.000.

  6. Shame-proneness in attempted suicide patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiklander Maria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that shame may be an important feature in suicidal behaviors. The disposition to react with shame, “shame-proneness”, has previously not been investigated in groups of attempted suicide patients. We examined shame-proneness in two groups of attempted suicide patients, one group of non-suicidal patients and one group of healthy controls. We hypothesized that the attempted suicide patients would be more shame-prone than non-suicidal patients and healthy controls. Methods The Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA, which is the most used measure of shame-proneness, was completed by attempted suicide patients (n = 175: 105 women and 3 men with borderline personality disorder [BPD], 45 women and 22 men without BPD, non-suicidal psychiatric patients (n = 162, and healthy controls (n = 161. The participants were convenience samples, with patients from three clinical research projects and healthy controls from a fourth research project. The relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide was studied with group comparisons and multiple regressions. Men and women were analyzed separately. Results Women were generally more shame-prone than men of the same participant group. Female suicide attempters with BPD were significantly more shame-prone than both female suicide attempters without BPD and female non-suicidal patients and controls. Male suicide attempters without BPD were significantly less shame-prone than non-suicidal male patients. In multiple regressions, shame-proneness was predicted by level of depression and BPD (but not by attempted suicide in female patients, and level of depression and non-suicidality in male patients. Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis and related previous research, there was no general relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide. Shame-proneness was differentially related to attempted suicide in different groups of suicide attempters

  7. Isometric elbow extensors strength in supine- and prone-lying positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelzaher, Ibrahim E; Ababneh, Anas F; Alzyoud, Jehad M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare isometric strength of elbow extensors measured in supine- and prone-lying positions at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees. Twenty-two male subjects under single-blind procedures participated in the study. Each subject participated in both supine-lying and prone-lying measuring protocols. Calibrated cable tensiometer was used to measure isometric strength of the right elbow extensors and a biofeedback electromyography was used to assure no substitution movements from shoulder girdle muscles. The mean values of isometric strength of elbow extensors measured from supine-lying position at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees were 11.1  ±  4.2 kg and 13.1  ±  4.6 kg, while those measured from prone-lying position were 9.9  ±  3.6 kg and 12  ±  4.2 kg, respectively. There is statistical significant difference between the isometric strength of elbow extensors measured from supine-lying position at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees compared to that measured from prone-lying position (p  lying starting position is better than prone-lying starting position.

  8. Accidents at level crossings : contrary to popular belief, careless behaviour is not the only cause.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    This article reviews the results of 2 surveys on the causes of accidents at level crossings. In the first survey, driver behaviour was observed at 2 crossings. These crossings had no particular features that could affect driver behaviour. The level crossing warning lights and fences were visible fro

  9. Accidents at level crossings : contrary to popular belief, careless behaviour is not the only cause.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    This article reviews the results of 2 surveys on the causes of accidents at level crossings. In the first survey, driver behaviour was observed at 2 crossings. These crossings had no particular features that could affect driver behaviour. The level crossing warning lights and fences were visible

  10. Accidents, aberrant behaviours, and speeding of young moped riders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, L.; Van Brussel, A.

    2009-01-01

    Moped riders, particularly youngsters, are amongst the highest risk group in traffic. We used an adapted version of the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire to examine why moped riders are often involved in traffic accidents. We conducted a questionnaire study among 146 young moped riders in the Netherlan

  11. Effectiveness of electronic stability control on single-vehicle accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2015-01-01

    the following were significant. For the driver: Age, gender, driving experience, valid driving license, and seat belt use. For the vehicle: Year of registration, weight, and ESC. For the accident surroundings: Visibility, light, and location. Finally, for the road: Speed limit, surface, and section...

  12. Accidents, aberrant behaviours, and speeding of young moped riders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, L.; Van Brussel, A.

    2009-01-01

    Moped riders, particularly youngsters, are amongst the highest risk group in traffic. We used an adapted version of the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire to examine why moped riders are often involved in traffic accidents. We conducted a questionnaire study among 146 young moped riders in the

  13. Comparisons of Traffic Collisions between Expressways and Rural Roads in Truck Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangbok Lee

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: This study can be used as a guideline and a base line to develop a plan of action to prevent traffic accidents. It can also help to prepare formal regulations about a truck driver's vehicle maintenance and driving attitude for a precaution on road accidents.

  14. Prone ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Guérin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prone positioning has been used for many years in patients with acute lung injury (ALI/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, with no clear benefit for patient outcome. Meta-analyses have suggested better survival in patients with an arterial oxygen tension (PaO2/inspiratory oxygen fraction (FIO2 ratio <100 mmHg. A recent randomised controlled trial was performed in ARDS patients after a 12–24 h stabilisation period and severity criteria (PaO2/FIO2 <150 mmHg at a positive end-expiratory pressure ≥5 cmH2O. This trial has demonstrated a significant reduction in mortality from 32.8% in the supine group to 16% in the prone group (p<0.001. The reasons for this dramatic effect are not clear but probably involves a reduction in ventilator-induced lung injury due to prone positioning, for which there is ample evidence in experimental and clinical studies. The aims of this article are to discuss: the rationale of prone positioning in patients with ALI/ARDS; the evidence of its use based on trial analysis; and the limitations of its use as well as the current place of prone positioning in the management of patients with ALI/ARDS. From the currently available data, prone positioning should be used as a first-line therapy in patients with severe ALI/ARDS.

  15. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. A comparison of the hazard perception ability of accident-involved and accident-free motorcycle riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Andy S K; Ng, Terry C K; Lee, Hoe C

    2011-07-01

    Hazard perception is the ability to read the road and is closely related to involvement in traffic accidents. It consists of both cognitive and behavioral components. Within the cognitive component, visual attention is an important function of driving whereas driving behavior, which represents the behavioral component, can affect the hazard perception of the driver. Motorcycle riders are the most vulnerable types of road user. The primary purpose of this study was to deepen our understanding of the correlation of different subtypes of visual attention and driving violation behaviors and their effect on hazard perception between accident-free and accident-involved motorcycle riders. Sixty-three accident-free and 46 accident-involved motorcycle riders undertook four neuropsychological tests of attention (Digit Vigilance Test, Color Trails Test-1, Color Trails Test-2, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test), filled out the Chinese Motorcycle Rider Driving Violation (CMRDV) Questionnaire, and viewed a road-user-based hazard situation with an eye-tracking system to record the response latencies to potentially dangerous traffic situations. The results showed that both the divided and selective attention of accident-involved motorcycle riders were significantly inferior to those of accident-free motorcycle riders, and that accident-involved riders exhibited significantly higher driving violation behaviors and took longer to identify hazardous situations compared to their accident-free counterparts. However, the results of the regression analysis showed that aggressive driving violation CMRDV score significantly predicted hazard perception and accident involvement of motorcycle riders. Given that all participants were mature and experienced motorcycle riders, the most plausible explanation for the differences between them is their driving style (influenced by an undesirable driving attitude), rather than skill deficits per se. The present study points to the importance of

  17. Analysis of Individual and Environmental Factors for Road Traffic Accidents in Sirjan-Bandarabbas Road between 2010 and 2011, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbanali Mohammadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sirjan -Bandarabbas road is one of the important commercial roads in Iran and for Sirjan’s area situation and relevance between Sirjan and other states in Iran so high percentage of goods that forwarded from Bandarabbas to other states transit from Sirjan .Therefore this road is as one important transition road and traffic road too .This study analyzed road traffic accidents were occurred between 2010 and 201in Sirjan- Bandarabbas road. Individual and demographic factors include Time of accidents, Drivers age, time of the days, seat belt and safety laws, Guilty vehicle, Mode of accident and education Level. Time of day analyses suggested that the highest percentage of road traffic injuries occurred in the time group between 12-18 hours. Drivers with the age group of 36-50 had more involvement in death accidents. The findings of this study also revealed that most of the collisions was front to back and front to side. Female drivers were found to be generally safer drivers than their male counterparts; male drivers had a higher involvement rate in road traffic accidents. This study indicated that Observe safety laws, Guilty vehicle and Mode of accidents have a meaningful relationship with Type of accidents in road traffic accidents in Sirjan Bandarabbas road.

  18. Drugs related to motor vehicle crashes in northern European countries: A study of fatally injured drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørland, Jørg; Steentoft, Anni; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese

    2011-01-01

    , and psychoactive medicinal drugs were detected less frequently than in younger age groups. In 75% of single vehicle crashes, the driver was under 50 years. Thus, the majority of accidents where the drivers must be considered responsible, occurred with drivers who had recently used alcohol, or drugs, alone...... within 24 h of the accident, in the years 2001 and 2002 in the five Nordic countries (total population about 24 million inhabitants). The samples were analysed for more than 200 different drugs in addition to alcohol, using a similar analytical programme and cut-off limits in all countries. In three...... countries (Finland, Norway and Sweden) blood samples were available for more than 70% of the drivers, allowing representative prevalence data to be collected. 60% of the drivers in single vehicle crashes had alcohol and/or drug in their blood samples, compared with 30% of drivers killed in collisions...

  19. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  20. Prediction of vehicle traffic accidents using Bayesian networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Shamseddin Alizadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Every year, thousands of vehicle accidents occur in Iran and result thousands of deaths, injuries and material damage in country. Various factors such as driver characteristics, road characteristics, vehicle characteristics and atmospheric conditions affect the injuries severity of these accidents. In order to reduce the number and severity of these accidents, their analysis and prediction is essential. Currently, the accidents related data are collected which can be used to predict and prevent them. New technologies have enabled humans to collect the large volume of data in continuous and regular ways. One of these methods is to use Bayesian networks. Using the literature review, in this study a new method for analysis and prediction of vehicle traffic accidents is presented. These networks can be used for classification of traffic accidents, hazardous locations of roads and factors affecting accidents severity. Using of the results of the analysis of these networks will help to reduce the number of accidents and their severity. In addition, we can use the results of this analysis for developing of safety regulations.

  1. Discriminating Drivers through Human Factor and Behavioral Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Seok Oh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Since Greenwood and Woods' (1919 study in tendency of accident, many researchers have insisted that various human factors (sensation seeking, anger, anxiety are highly correlated with reckless driving and traffic accidents. Oh and Lee (2011 designed the Driving Behavior Determinants Questionnaire, a psychological tool to predict danger level of drivers and discriminate them into three groups (normal, unintentionally reckless, and intentionally reckless by their characteristics, attitude, and expected reckless behavior level. This tool's overall accuracy of discrimination was 70%. This study aimed to prove that the discrimination reflects the behavioral difference of drivers. Twenty-four young drivers were requested to react to the visual stimuli (tests for subjective speed sense, simple visual reaction time, and left turning at own risk. The results showed no differences in subjective speed sense among the driver groups, which means drivers' excessive speeding behaviors occur due to intention based on personality and attitude, not because of sensory disorders. In addition, there were no differences in simple reaction time among driver groups. However, the results of the ‘Left turning at drivers’ own risk task” revealed significant group differences. All reckless drivers showed a greater degree of dangerous left turning behaviors than the normal group did.

  2. Risky attitudes towards road use in pre-drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waylen, Andrea E; McKenna, Frank P

    2008-05-01

    Motor vehicle accidents are one of the principal causes of adolescent disability or mortality and male drivers are more likely to be involved in road accidents than female drivers. In part such associations between driver age and sex have been linked to differences in risky behaviour (e.g. speed, violations) and individual characteristics (e.g. sensation seeking, deviant behaviour). The aim of this research is to determine whether associations between risky road user behaviour and individual characteristics are a function of driver behaviour or whether they are intrinsic and measurable in individuals too young to drive. Five hundred and sixty-seven pre-driver students aged 11-16 from three secondary schools completed questionnaires measuring enthusiasm for speed, sensation seeking, deviant behaviour and attitudes towards driver violations. Boys reported more risky attitudes than girls for all measures. Associations between sensation seeking, deviant behaviour and attitudes towards risky road use were present from early adolescence and were strongest around age 14, before individuals learn to drive. Risky attitudes towards road use are associated with individual characteristics and are observed in adolescents long before they learn to drive. Safe attitudes towards road use and driver behaviour should be promoted from childhood in order to be effective.

  3. Transition of Control: automation giving back control to the driver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, D.M.C.; Stuiver, A.; Hogema, J.

    2014-01-01

    The automotive domain is currently moving towards automated driver assistance applications, like automatic evasive maneuvers to avoid accidents, and even beyond assistance towards automated driving. However, in the near future these systems will only be active under certain conditions, thus still re

  4. Transition of Control : Automation Giving Back Control to the Driver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahram, T; Karwowski, W; Marek, T; Willemsen, D; Stuiver, A; Hogema, J

    2014-01-01

    The automotive domain is currently moving towards automated driver assistance applications, like automatic evasive maneuvers to avoid accidents, and even beyond assistance towards automated driving. However, in the near future these systems will only be active under certain conditions, thus still re

  5. [Accidents with the "paraglider"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T H; Dengg, C; Gabl, M

    1988-09-01

    With a collective of 46 patients we show the details and kinds of accidents caused by paragliding. The base for the casuistry of the accidents was a questionnaire which was answered by most of the injured persons. These were questions about the theoretical and practical training, the course of the flight during the different phases, and the subjective point of view of the course of the accident. The patterns of the injuries showed a high incidence of injuries of the spinal column and high risks for the ankles. At the end, we give some advice how to prevent these accidents.

  6. Accidents (FARS) (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Accident - (1975-current): This data file (NTAD) contains information about crash characteristics and environmental conditions at the time of the crash. There is one...

  7. Android Based Rush And Drunk Driver Alerting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmoy D. Goswami

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Rush driving and driving after consumption of alcohol is a major cause of road accident worldwide. In this paper we proposed an idea to alert rush and drunk driver at early stage before actual accident take place. Complete system works on a cell phone having software installed in it with some sensor. The program calculates the sensor reading and matches with the pattern already present in system, if match found then an alert will give to driver and also a text message will send to the relative asking for help with location details. This system will design on an android based cell phone. Our proposed system will prevent many accidents to occur and save lives.

  8. Ethnic and gender differences in boredom proneness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, G.S.; Morales,

    1996-02-01

    Although boredom may exhibit many shared elements, culturally specific attitudes have also been found to exist. The present paper investigated boredom proneness among African-American college students. Data from 120 participants on the Boredom Proneness (BP) Scale was analyzed and compared to cross-cultural participants. African-American females scored significantly higher than African-American males. Scores were presented from two other studies to show a comparative look at boredom proneness in five other ethnic groups. African-American females are the only female ethnic group to score higher on the BP Scale than their male counterparts. Additionally, overall African-Americans, were found to have higher BP scores than their Western counterparts.

  9. Driver Behavior and Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Patricia

    School bus driver behavior and motivation are continuing concerns for leaders/administrators in the field of transportation. Motivation begins with selection of a potential new driver. Drivers must like children and be patient, loyal, and punctual. The applicant's background must be verified, in view of the national concern for child safety.…

  10. [Use of personal protective equipment for motorcycle taxi drivers: perception of risks and associated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Jules Ramon Brito; Santos, Ninalva de Andrade; Sales, Zenilda Nogueira; Moreira, Ramon Missias; Boery, Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira; Boery, Eduardo Nagib; Santos, Ramon Araújo dos; Mota, Tilson Nunes

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the practices and perceptions of motorcycle taxi drivers concerning the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), based on field research and an exploratory and descriptive qualitative approach. Thirty motorcycle taxi drivers from Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil, were interviewed. Data collection used a semi-structured interview and questionnaire. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. The results showed: Category 1 - risk perception, subcategory conditioning/determinant factors for the use of PPE; Category 2 - adherence, subcategory adherence to the use of personal protective equipment; Category 3 - PPE as a protective factor against traffic accidents, subcategories 1 - work-related accidents, 2 - use of PPE at the time of the accident, 3 - non-use of PPE at the time of the accident. Finally, motorcycle taxi drivers clearly have some knowledge of personal protective equipment and even acknowledge the importance of its use, despite not always using it properly.

  11. Communication and industrial accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the conc

  12. Accidents - personal factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaitsev, S.L.; Tsygankov, A.V.

    1982-03-01

    This paper evaluates influence of selected personal factors on accident rate in underground coal mines in the USSR. Investigations show that so-called organizational factors cause from 80 to 85% of all accidents. About 70% of the organizational factors is associated with social, personal and economic features of personnel. Selected results of the investigations carried out in Donbass mines are discussed. Causes of miner dissatisfaction are reviewed: 14% is caused by unsatisfactory working conditions, 21% by repeated machine failures, 16% by forced labor during days off, 14% by unsatisfactory material supply, 16% by hard physical labor, 19% by other reasons. About 25% of miners injured during work accidents are characterized as highly professionally qualified with automatic reactions, and about 41% by medium qualifications. About 60% of accidents is caused by miners with less than a 3 year period of service. About 15% of accidents occurs during the first month after a miner has returned from a leave. More than 30% of accidents occurs on the first work day after a day or days off. Distribution of accidents is also presented: 19% of accidents occurs during the first 2 hours of a shift, 36% from the second to the fourth hour, and 45% occurs after the fourth hour and before the shift ends.

  13. Accident investigation and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, J. van; Drupsteen, L.

    2013-01-01

    Many organisations and companies take extensive proactive measures to identify, evaluate and reduce occupational risks. However, despite these efforts things still go wrong and unintended events occur. After a major incident or accident, conducting an accident investigation is generally the next ste

  14. Occupational accidents among ambulance drivers in the emergency relief Accidentes del trabajo de conductores de ambulancia que brindan atención de urgencia Acidentes de trabalho com motoristas de ambulâncias que realizam socorro de urgência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Takeda

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the occurrence of occupational accidents (OA among ambulance drivers in Emergency Relief (ER, with a view to disclosing the types of events and their causes. A quantitative-qualitative study was carried out through the interview of 22 workers in a city in São Paulo, Brazil. The subjects were male, between 36 and 40 years old (40.9%, married (81.82%, with uncompleted primary education (40.9%, individual (90.9% and family (54.55% income between two and four Brazilian minimum wages, not performing any other paid occupation (45.45%. The majority of the OA were typical, due to an excess of exercises and vigorous and repeated movements (42.11% and aggression through body strength and other means (26.33%. The OA occurs mainly because drivers carry out tasks that do not suit their professional formation.Fue estudiada la frecuencia de accidentes del trabajo (AT con chóferes de ambulancia que brinda Atención de Urgencia (AU, buscando encontrar los tipos de accidentes y sus causas. La investigación fue cuanti-cualitativa, para lo cual fueron entrevistados 22 trabajadores de una ciudad en el Estado de São Paulo. Los sujetos eran de sexo masculino, con edades entre 36 y 40 años (40,9%, casados (81,82%, con educación primaria incompleta (40,9%, sueldo individual (90,9%, sueldo familiar (54,55% entre dos y cuatro sueldos mínimos y sin otra ocupación (45,45%. La gran mayoría de los AT fueron típicos, por exceso de ejercicios, movimientos enérgicos y repetidos (42,11% y daño por fuerza corporal y otras formas (26,33%. Los AT se dieron principalmente porque los chóferes realizaban actividades que no iban de acuerdo con su formación profesional.Estudou-se a ocorrência de acidentes de trabalho (AT com motoristas de ambulância que realizam Socorro de Urgência (SU, buscando evidenciar os tipos desses eventos e suas causas. A investigação foi quanti-qualitativa, entrevistando-se 22 trabalhadores que atuam em uma cidade paulista. Os

  15. Prone positioning for the ARDS patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, K M

    1997-01-01

    Various strategies have been tested in attempts to improve gas exchange in patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). However, it appears that the simple non-invasive act of prone positioning of the critically ill ARDS patient may improve gas exchange while preventing potential complications of high positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP), volutrauma, and oxygen toxicity.

  16. [A project to reduce the incidence of facial pressure ulcers caused by prolonged surgery with prone positioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Yi; Lin, Pao-Chen; Weng, Chia-Hsing; Lin, Yi-Lin; Tsai, Wen-Lin

    2012-06-01

    We observed in our institute a 13.6% incidence of prolonged surgery (>4 hours) induced facial pressure ulcers that required prone positioning. Causes identified included: (1) customized silicon face pillows used were not suited for every patient; (2) our institute lacked a standard operating procedure for prone positioning; (3) our institute lacked a postoperative evaluation and audit procedure for facial pressure ulcers. We designed a strategy to reduce post-prolonged surgery facial pressure ulcer incidence requiring prone positioning by 50% (i.e., from 13.6% to 6.8%). We implemented the following: (1) Created a new water pillow to relieve facial pressure; (2) Implemented continuing education pressure ulcer prevention and evaluation; (3) Established protocols on standard care for prone-position patients and proper facial pressure ulcer identification; (4) Established a face pressure ulcers accident reporting mechanism; and (5) Established an audit mechanism facial pressure ulcer cases. After implementing the resolution measures, 116 patients underwent prolonged surgery in a prone position (mean operating time: 298 mins). None suffered from facial pressure ulcers. The measures effectively reduced the incidence of facial pressure ulcers from 13.6% to 0.0%. The project used a water pillow to relieve facial pressure and educated staff to recognize and evaluate pressure ulcers. These measures were demonstrated effective in reducing the incidence of facial pressure ulcers caused by prolonged prone positioning.

  17. Technology and teen drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John D

    2007-01-01

    The rapid evolution of computing, communication, and sensor technology is likely to affect young drivers more than others. The distraction potential of infotainment technology stresses the same vulnerabilities that already lead young drivers to crash more frequently than other drivers. Cell phones, text messaging, MP3 players, and other nomadic devices all present a threat because young drivers may lack the spare attentional capacity for vehicle control and the ability to anticipate and manage hazards. Moreover, young drivers are likely to be the first and most aggressive users of new technology. Fortunately, emerging technology can also support safe driving. Electronic stability control, collision avoidance systems, intelligent speed adaptation, and vehicle tracking systems can all help mitigate the threats to young drivers. However, technology alone is unlikely to make young drivers safer. One promising approach to tailoring technology to teen drivers is to extend proven methods for enhancing young driver safety. The success of graduated drivers license programs (GDL) and the impressive safety benefit of supervised driving suggest ways of tailoring technology to the needs of young drivers. To anticipate the effects of technology on teen driving it may be useful to draw an analogy between the effects of passengers and the effects of technology. Technology can act as a teen passenger and undermine safety or it can act as an adult passenger and enhance safety. Rapidly developing technology may have particularly large effects on teen drivers. To maximize the positive effects and minimize the negative effects will require a broad range of industries to work together. Ideally, vehicle manufacturers would work with infotainment providers, insurance companies, and policy makers to craft new technologies so that they accommodate the needs of young drivers. Without such collaboration young drivers will face even greater challenges to their safety as new technologies emerge.

  18. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  19. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  20. Study of the Severity of Accidents in Tehran Using Statistical Modeling and Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesamaldin Razi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackgrounds and Aims: The Tehran province was subject to the second highest incidence of fatalities due to traffic accidents in 1390. Most studies in this field examine rural traffic accidents, but this study is based on the use of logit models and artificial neural networks to evaluate the factors that affect the severity of accidents within the city of Tehran.Materials and Methods: Among the various types of crashes, head-on collisions are specified as the most serious type, which is investigated in this study with the use of Tehran’s accident data. In the modeling process, the severity of the accident is the dependent variable and defined as a binary covariate, which are non-injury accidents and injury accidents. The independent variables are parameters such as the characteristics of the driver, time of the accident, traffic and environmental characteristics. In addition to the prediction accuracy comparison of the two models, the elasticity of the logit model is compared with a sensitivity analysis of the neural network.Results: The results show that the proposed model provides a good estimate of an accident's severity. The explanatory variables that have been determined to be significant in the final models are the driver’s gender, age and education, along with negligence of the traffic rules, inappropriate acceleration, deviation to the left, type of vehicle, pavement conditions, time of the crash and street width.Conclusion: An artificial neural network model can be useful as a statistical model in the analysis of factors that affect the severity of accidents. According to the results, human errors and illiteracy of drivers increase the severity of crashes, and therefore, educating drivers is the main strategy that will reduce accident severity in Iran. Special attention should be given to a driver’s age group, with particular care taken when they are very young.

  1. Sleepiness, driving, and motor vehicle accidents: A questionnaire-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwahlen, Daniel; Jackowski, Christian; Pfäffli, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    In Switzerland, the prevalence of an excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in drivers undergoing a driving capacity assessment is currently not known. In this study, private and professional drivers were evaluated by means of a paper-based questionnaire, including Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Berlin Questionnaire, and additional questions to sleepiness-related accidents, near-miss accidents, health issues, and demographic data. Of the 435 distributed questionnaires, 128 completed were returned. The response rate was 29%. The mean age of the investigated drivers was 42.5 years (20-85 years). According to the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, 9% of the participants are likely to suffer from excessive daytime sleepiness. An equal percentage has a high risk for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome based on the Berlin Questionnaire. 16% admitted an involuntary nodding off while driving a motor vehicle. This subset of the participants scored statistically significant higher on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (p = 0.036). 8% of the participants already suffered an accident because of being sleepy while driving. An equal number experienced a sleepiness-related near-miss accident on the road. The study shows that a medical workup of excessive daytime sleepiness is highly recommended in each driver undergoing a driving capacity assessment. Routine application of easily available and time-saving assessment tools such as the Epworth Sleepiness Scale questionnaire could prevent accidents in a simple way. The applicability of the Berlin Questionnaire to screen suspected fatal sleepiness-related motor vehicle accidents is discussed.

  2. Alcohol, psychoactive substances and non-fatal road traffic accidents - a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogstrand Stig

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances is high in biological specimens from injured drivers, while the prevalence of these psychoactive substances in samples from drivers in normal traffic is low. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of alcohol and psychoactive substances in drivers admitted to hospital for treatment of injuries after road traffic accidents with that in drivers in normal traffic, and calculate risk estimates for the substances, and combinations of substances found in both groups. Methods Injured drivers were recruited in the hospital emergency department and drivers in normal conditions were taken from the hospital catchment area in roadside tests of moving traffic. Substances found in blood samples from injured drivers and oral fluid samples from drivers in moving traffic were compared using equivalent cut off concentrations, and risk estimates were calculated using logistic regression analyses. Results In 21.9% of the injured drivers, substances were found: most commonly alcohol (11.5% and stimulants eg. cocaine or amphetamines (9.4%. This compares to 3.2% of drivers in normal traffic where the most commonly found substances were z-hypnotics (0.9% and benzodiazepines (0.8%. The greatest increase in risk of being injured was for alcohol combined with any other substance (OR: 231.9, 95% CI: 33.3- 1615.4, p  Conclusion The prevalence of psychoactive substances was higher among injured drivers than drivers in normal moving traffic. The risk of accident is greatly increased among drivers who tested positive for alcohol, in particular, those who had also ingested one or more psychoactive substances. Various preventive measures should be considered to curb the prevalence of driving under the influence of psychoactive substances as these drivers constitute a significant risk for other road users as well as themselves.

  3. Towards a general theory of driver behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Ray

    2005-05-01

    Taylor [Taylor, D.H., 1964. Drivers' galvanic skin response and the risk of accident. Ergonomics 7, 439-451] argued that drivers attempt to maintain a constant level of anxiety when driving which Wilde [Wilde, G.J.S., 1982. The theory of risk homeostasis: implications for safety and health. Risk Anal. 2, 209-225] interpreted to be coupled to subjective estimates of the probability of collision. This theoretical paper argues that what drivers attempt to maintain is a level of task difficulty. Naatanen and Summala [Naatanen, R., Summala, H., 1976. Road User Behaviour and Traffic Accidents. North Holland/Elsevier, Amsterdam, New York] similarly rejected the concept of statistical risk as a determinant of driver behaviour, but in so doing fell back on the learning process to generate a largely automatised selection of appropriate safety margins. However it is argued here that driver behaviour cannot be acquired and executed principally in such S-R terms. The concept of task difficulty is elaborated within the framework of the task-capability interface (TCI) model, which describes the dynamic interaction between the determinants of task demand and driver capability. It is this interaction which produces different levels of task difficulty. Implications of the model are discussed regarding variation in performance, resource allocation, hierarchical decision-making and the interdependence of demand and capability. Task difficulty homeostasis is proposed as a key sub-goal in driving and speed choice is argued to be the primary solution to the problem of keeping task difficulty within selected boundaries. The relationship between task difficulty and mental workload and calibration is clarified. Evidence is cited in support of the TCI model, which clearly distinguishes task difficulty from estimates of statistical risk. However, contrary to expectation, ratings of perceived risk depart from ratings of statistical risk but track difficulty ratings almost perfectly. It now

  4. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...

  5. Sprain of the neck in clinically treated patients in The Netherlands : An inventory of different categories of car accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegen, GJ; Kingma, J; ten Duis, HJ

    Different categories of car accidents of victims with sprain of the neck were investigated for both drivers and passengers. The predominant category of the car crash was a collision with another car for drivers as well as for passengers. The second cause was unknown. The distribution of the

  6. Boating Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  7. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, John A.; Cole, James K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  8. The Fukushima accident; Accident nucleaire a Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, D.

    2012-02-15

    The Fukushima accident is characterized by a sequence of natural disasters: earthquake and tsunamis that deprived simultaneously 3 reactors from cooling and electrical power for quite a long time. A series of hydrogen explosion has added to the mess. Experts agree to say that certainly nuclear fuel has melt to form corium in all 3 reactors. The accident has contaminated tens of thousand acres of land around the plant and has jeopardized local coastal fishery. The human toll is unexpectedly low: no direct casualty in the population but several suicides among the people that was forced to leave their home. 5 people from the plant staff died certainly from the consequences of the tsunami. (A.C.)

  9. Sensory integrative processing in delinquent-prone and non-delinquent-prone adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanchiang, S P; Snyder, C; Zobel-Lachiusa, J; Loeffler, C B; Thompson, M E

    1990-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to obtain a preliminary description of the sensory integrative and practic abilities of 114 non-delinquent-prone adolescents aged 12 through 18 years and to compare their performances with those of 12 delinquent-prone adolescents with learning problems. Ten of the 17 subtests of the Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (SIPT) (Ayres, 1989) as well as the Finger Posture Imitation Test (Druker, 1980) and the MacQuarrie Test for Mechanical Ability (MacQuarrie, 1925/1953) were administered to both groups. It was hypothesized that performance on some tests would correlate with age in the non-delinquent-prone adolescents. It was also hypothesized that some delinquent-prone adolescents with learning problems would perform significantly worse on the tests of sensory integrative and practic abilities than would the non-delinquent-prone adolescents. A data analysis indicated that performance on the praxis tests, Manual Form Perception, Graphesthesia, and Bilateral Motor Coordination showed a significant age correlation. The results of this study indicated a difference between the two groups, and it was concluded that the delinquent-prone group performed more poorly on all of the praxis-related tests and on the absolute values of the tests of Postrotary Nystagmus, Standing and Walking Balance, and Bilateral Motor Coordination. Some of the vestibular- and praxis-related tests, therefore, may still provide useful information on children older than 8 years of age.

  10. Effects of Pay-As-You-Drive vehicle insurance on young drivers' speed choice : Results of a Dutch field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolderdijk, J.W.; Knockaert, J.; Steg, L.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2011-01-01

    Speeding is an important cause for young drivers' involvement in traffic accidents. A reduction in driving speeds of this group could result in fewer accidents. One way of reducing driving speed is offering explicit financial incentives. In collaboration with five Dutch car insurance companies, we t

  11. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eigh...

  12. Social desirability effects in driver behavior inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Af Wåhlberg, A E

    2010-04-01

    The use of lie scales to control for common method variance in driver behavior inventories has been very limited. Given that such questionnaires often use self-reported safety variables as criteria, and have social implications, the risk of artefactual associations is high. A questionnaire containing scales from several well known driver inventories that have been claimed to predict traffic accident involvement was distributed three times to a group of young drivers in a driver education program, as well as a random group twice. The Driver Impression Management scale (DIM) was used to control for socially desirable responding. For all behavior scales, the correlation with the DIM scale was substantial. If a scale correlated with self-reported crashes, the amount of predictive power was more than halved when social desirability was controlled for. Results were similar for both samples and all waves. The predictive power of the behavior scales was not increased when values were averaged over questionnaire waves, as should have been the case if the measurement and predictive power were valid. Results were similar for self-reported penalty points. The present results indicate that even the most well-known and accepted psychometric scales used in driver research are susceptible to social desirability bias. As social desirability is only one of a number of common method variance mechanisms that can create artefactual associations, and the great popularity of the self-report methodology, the problem for traffic research is grave. Organizations that fund traffic safety research need to re-evaluate their policies regarding what methods are acceptable. The use of self-reported independent and dependent variables can lead to directly misleading results, with negative effects on traffic safety. Copyright 2010 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Motor racing accidents at Brands Hatch, 1988/9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, M A; Oni, J

    1991-09-01

    Little is known about the incidence of injury to race track motor-cyclists and car drivers. In a 1-year study at Brands Hatch, 70 of 33,184 competitors required hospital treatment. We found this injury rate to be higher than on the public highway. However, the anatomical distribution of injury caused by motor-bike accidents is similar to that found on the public highway. Motor-cyclists are more likely than car drivers to sustain limb trauma requiring outpatient treatment only. The number of participants requiring admission to hospital is broadly similar for car and bike races, being less than 0.1%.

  14. Why is psychiatry prone to fads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Joel

    2013-10-01

    Psychiatry has long been prone to fads. The main reason is that mental illness is poorly understood and can be difficult to treat. Most diagnostic fads have involved the extension of well-known categories into broader spectra. The most prominent treatment fads have involved the overuse of pharmacological interventions and a proliferation of methods for psychotherapy. The best antidote to fads is a commitment to evidence-based psychiatry.

  15. Risky behavior, personality traits and road accidents among university students Comportamiento de riesgo, rasgos de personalidad y accidentes de carretera en estudiantes universitarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristides I. Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The personality traits that mediate risky driving and accidents among university students drivers were investigated. Study 1 (N=132 tested for the relation between risky behaviors and personality (16PF-5 second order dimensions. Three factors were extracted concerning risky driving: driving errors of commission, distraction, and driving errors of omission. Individuals with low self-control and high levels of anxiety were more prone to commit distractive behavior and driving errors of omission. Low self-control and high independence levels were associated with driving errors of commission. In study 2 (N=540, we tested if the number of road accidents for which an individual has been responsible was related to risky driving behavior. Drivers who committed more accidents presented higher scores in three new risky driving factors obtained: reckless driving, impaired concentration and division of attention.

    Key words: Risky driving, personality, accidents, behavior.
    En este estudio se investigaron los rasgos de personalidad relacionados con la conducción de riesgo y los accidentes en estudiantes universitarios. El primer estudio (N=132 evaluó la relación entre los comportamientos de riesgo y la personalidad (16PF-5 dimensiones de segundo orden. Tres factores fueron extraídos en relación con la conducción de riesgo: cometer errores de conducción, distracción, errores de omisión en la conducción. Los individuos con bajo autocontrol y altos niveles de ansiedad eran más propensos a tener comportamientos distractores y cometer errores de omisión en la conducción. Mientras que sujetos con bajo autocontrol y altos niveles de independencia se asociaron con el factor cometer errores de conducción. En el segundo estudio (N=540 evaluamos si el número de accidentes de tráfico, de los que una persona ha sido responsable, está relacionado con el comportamiento de riesgo en la conducción. Los resultados muestran que los conductores

  16. National Driver Register (NDR) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Information regarding individuals who have had their driver licenses revoked, suspended or otherwise denied for cause, or who have been convicted of certain traffic...

  17. Driving into the Sunset: Supporting Cognitive Functioning in Older Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark S.; Bunce, David

    2011-01-01

    The rise in the aging driver population presents society with a significant challenge—how to maintain safety and mobility on the roads. On the one hand, older drivers pose a higher risk of an at-fault accident on a mile-for-mile basis; on the other hand, independent mobility is a significant marker of quality of life in aging. In this paper, we review the respective literatures on cognitive neuropsychology and ergonomics to suggest a previously unexplored synergy between these two fields. We argue that this conceptual overlap can form the basis for future solutions to what has been called “the older driver problem.” Such solutions could be found in a range of emerging driver assistance technologies offered by vehicle manufacturers, which have the potential to compensate for the specific cognitive decrements associated with aging that are related to driving. PMID:21748014

  18. Cognitive screening of older drivers does not produce safety benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Meng, Annette

    2012-01-01

    in the number of older drivers involved in fatal accidents before and after the implementation of the screening process, indicating that the screening had no effect on the safety of older drivers. Second, there was a significant increase in the number of unprotected older (but not younger) road users who were....... Previous research on age-based mandatory screening of older drivers has not been able to demonstrate any safety benefits from screening measures.The present study is a population-based evaluation of the safety effects that the introduction of the cognitive test as an age-based screening tool has had...... killed between the two periods of observation, suggesting that the screening process produced a modal shift among older persons from driving to unprotected, significantly less safe modes of transportation. As a consequence, the number of fatalities in this group increased.Older driver screening...

  19. Driving into the Sunset: Supporting Cognitive Functioning in Older Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Young

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The rise in the aging driver population presents society with a significant challenge—how to maintain safety and mobility on the roads. On the one hand, older drivers pose a higher risk of an at-fault accident on a mile-for-mile basis; on the other hand, independent mobility is a significant marker of quality of life in aging. In this paper, we review the respective literatures on cognitive neuropsychology and ergonomics to suggest a previously unexplored synergy between these two fields. We argue that this conceptual overlap can form the basis for future solutions to what has been called “the older driver problem.” Such solutions could be found in a range of emerging driver assistance technologies offered by vehicle manufacturers, which have the potential to compensate for the specific cognitive decrements associated with aging that are related to driving.

  20. Cyclical Fluctuations in Workplace Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, J.; J. C. VAN OURS

    2002-01-01

    This Paper presents a theory and an empirical investigation on cyclical fluctuations in workplace accidents. The theory is based on the idea that reporting an accident dents the reputation of a worker and raises the probability that he is fired. Therefore a country with a high or an increasing unemployment rate has a low (reported) workplace accident rate. The empirical investigation concerns workplace accidents in OECD countries. The analysis confirms that workplace accident rates are invers...

  1. Driver Drowsiness Warning System Using Visual Information for Both Diurnal and Nocturnal Illumination Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores MarcoJavier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year, traffic accidents due to human errors cause increasing amounts of deaths and injuries globally. To help reduce the amount of fatalities, in the paper presented here, a new module for Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS which deals with automatic driver drowsiness detection based on visual information and Artificial Intelligence is presented. The aim of this system is to locate, track, and analyze both the drivers face and eyes to compute a drowsiness index, where this real-time system works under varying light conditions (diurnal and nocturnal driving. Examples of different images of drivers taken in a real vehicle are shown to validate the algorithms used.

  2. Driver Drowsiness Warning System Using Visual Information for Both Diurnal and Nocturnal Illumination Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Javier Flores

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year, traffic accidents due to human errors cause increasing amounts of deaths and injuries globally. To help reduce the amount of fatalities, in the paper presented here, a new module for Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS which deals with automatic driver drowsiness detection based on visual information and Artificial Intelligence is presented. The aim of this system is to locate, track, and analyze both the drivers face and eyes to compute a drowsiness index, where this real-time system works under varying light conditions (diurnal and nocturnal driving. Examples of different images of drivers taken in a real vehicle are shown to validate the algorithms used.

  3. Six reasons why hours of service regulations for truck drivers are violated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Sisse

      ABSTRACT Two decades of research has established a correlation between tiredness and fatigue, and traffic accident involving truck drivers.  Regulations limiting the driving hours of truck drivers thus are necessary precautions. But compliance is a problem. The answer from authorities tend......, because a truck driver's work is unpredictable and independent, but the regulation is action-defining and inflexible. Thus the regulations provoke violations because they counteract with the reality of truck drivers´ work conditions. The fifth reason is that the regulation counteracts with a general...

  4. The influences of drivers/riders in road traffic crashes in Ghana between 2001 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo, Thompson

    2014-04-07

    The road traffic accident (RTA) is a global misfortune and the leading cause of death among young drivers. In safeguarding and developing innovative safety strategies to curtail the situation, the factors causing this menace needs proper attention and investigation. The objective of this study is to identify the potential factors responsible for causing a traffic accident in Ghana. In studying these factors extensively, a descriptive study with quantitative technique was employed. Analyses used data between 2001 and 2011 obtained from the Building and Road Research Institute (BRRI) with specific focus on the age, drinking, vehicle defect, driver/rider error, injury, road surface type and weather. A total of 200,528 cases of drivers/riders were analysed and discovered that, people with younger age (21-40) contribute 62.97% of total crashes. Crashes reduce steadily as drivers/riders age increases. Also, the vehicle defect analysis shows that 87.46% of accidents cannot be linked to the fault of the vehicle before incidence, while the majority (75.38%) of drivers/riders had no injury during a traffic accident. Higher number of fatalities are recorded on tar good roads (81.57%) and clear weather (91.75%). The fight against this canker by the authorities must consider periodic refresher courses for younger drivers/riders on traffic law to bring to bear the adherence of good driving/riding principles and attitudes to ensure that safety is guaranteed for all road users in the country.

  5. Traffic Accidents Involving Cyclists Identifying Causal Factors Using Questionnaire Survey, Traffic Accident Data, and Real-World Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Shoko; Hirose, Toshiya; Aomura, Shigeru; Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the mechanism of traffic accidents involving cyclists. The focus is on the characteristics of cyclist accidents and scenarios, because the number of traffic accidents involving cyclists in Tokyo is the highest in Japan. First, dangerous situations in traffic incidents were investigated by collecting data from 304 cyclists in one city in Tokyo using a questionnaire survey. The survey indicated that cyclists used their bicycles generally while commuting to work or school in the morning. Second, the study investigated the characteristics of 250 accident situations involving cyclists that happened in the city using real-world bicycle accident data. The results revealed that the traffic accidents occurred at intersections of local streets, where cyclists collided most often with vehicles during commute time in the morning. Third, cyclists' behavior was observed at a local street intersection in the morning in the city using video pictures. In one hour during the morning commute period, 250 bicycles passed through the intersection. The results indicated that one of the reasons for traffic accidents involving cyclists might be the combined effect of low visibility, caused by the presence of box-like building structures close to the intersections, and the cyclists' behavior in terms of their velocity and no confirming safety. It was observed that, on average, bicycle velocity was 3.1 m/s at the initial line of an intersection. The findings from this study could be useful in developing new technologies to improve cyclist safety, such as alert devices for cyclists and vehicle drivers, wireless communication systems between cyclists and vehicle drivers, or advanced vehicles with bicycle detection and collision mitigation systems.

  6. Traffic accident or dumping? - Striking results of a traffic accident reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerger, Eric; Bayer, Ronny; Gärtner, Tobias; Dreßler, Jan; Ondruschka, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    An atypical traffic accident scenario should be investigated directly at the crash site from all concerned professions, especially police men, forensic pathologists and technical experts, to get a personal overview and impression of the situation and the opportunity for interdisciplinary discussion. We present the rare case of a fatal traffic accident on a German motorway which was initially thought to be an accidental discovery of dumping a corpse. Based on autopsy findings, the technical investigation and the accident reconstruction, this case was solved as a spectacular form of a collision between a pedestrian and a bonnet-front car, which was not described elsewhere in scientific literature to the best of our knowledge. The pedestrian was hit in an upright body position, was lifted up by the car, smashed the windscreen and flew over the car with several body rotations. His flight curve ends directly at the roof of the car during brake processing, where the body touched the roof, smashed the rear-window and landed in the trunk. Based on the technical investigation, the driver of the car was not able to hide the accident. However, the pedestrian could have avoided the collision if he did not cross the motorway on foot.

  7. Application of Bayesian techniques for the identification of accident-prone road sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Edison Guerrero-Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso de técnicas bayesianas para la identificación de tramos de carretera propensos a accidentes ha llegado a ser muy import ante en los últimos años. El objetivo de esta investigación consistió en id entificar los tramos de carretera propensos a accidentes en el municipio de Ocaña (Colombia, utilizando el método bayesiano (BM; el enfoq ue de modelación desarrollado consistió en la conformación de u na base de datos de accidentes ocurridos entre los años 2007 (enero y 2013 (agosto y la aplicación de la metodología en 15 tramos de carreteras urbanas. Los análisis finales muestran que el BM es una herrami enta poderosa y rápida de fácil implementación, que proporciona resultados en los que se identificaron 4 tramos de carretera propensos a l os accidentes o peligrosos y los clasificó por orden de peligro , el establecimiento de un ranking de peligro proporciona un orden d e prioridades para las inversiones y la aplicación de políticas preventivas y / o correctivas que maximicen los beneficios asociados con la seguridad vial.

  8. Fatal truck-bicycle accident involving dragging for 45 km.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klintschar, M; Darok, M; Roll, P

    2003-08-01

    Vehicle-bicycle accidents with subsequent dragging of the rider over long distances are extremely rare. The case reported here is that of a 16-year-old mentally retarded bike rider who was run over by a truck whose driver failed to notice the accident. The legs of the victim became trapped by the rear axle of the trailer and the body was dragged over 45 km before being discovered under the parked truck. The autopsy revealed that the boy had died from the initial impact and not from the dragging injuries which had caused extensive mutilation. The reports of the technical expert and the forensic pathologist led the prosecutor to drop the case against the truck driver for manslaughter.

  9. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  10. Pattern Recognition and Classification of Fatal Traffic Accidents in Israel A Neural Network Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    on 1,793 fatal traffic accidents occurred during the period between 2003 and 2006 and applies Kohonen and feed-forward back-propagation neural networks with the objective of extracting from the data typical patterns and relevant factors. Kohonen neural networks reveal five compelling accident patterns....... Feed-forward back-propagation neural networks indicate that sociodemographic characteristics of drivers and victims, accident location, and period of the day are extremely relevant factors. Accident patterns suggest that countermeasures are necessary for identified problems concerning mainly vulnerable...... road users such as pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists and young drivers. A “safe-system” integrating a system approach for the design of countermeasures and a monitoring process of performance indicators might address the priorities highlighted by the neural networks....

  11. Young novice drivers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    In The Netherlands, young novice drivers (18-24 years of age) show a crash rate that is five times higher than that of experienced drivers (30-59 years of age). The rate of young males is even seven times as high. The main reasons are lack of driving experience and hazardous behaviour typical of ado

  12. A Simple Wave Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…

  13. Motorcycle Fatal Accidents in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Seyyed Nozadi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: All over the world motorcycle accident are one of the major causes of road death and injury. This study aimed to determine the pattern of Motorcycle Fatal Accidents in Mashhad-Iran. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 to analyze the epidemiological pattern of the mo­tor­cycle accident in Mashhad, North-Eastern Iran. Three hundred fifty cases of motorcycle accidents were included. Data gath­ering tool was a standard questionnaire. The compiled data were analyzed using SPSS11 and χ 2 test. The significance level was considered 0.05 in all statistical tests.Results: In the time span of the study, 350 cases of motorcycle accident occurred, most of which happened at 8pm to 12pm. In 119 cases, the motorcyclist was the blameful rider. Generally, 84.2% of the motorcycle riders did not have safety hel­mets. About two third of blameful motorcycle riders (63.1% were less than 25 years old. The major cause of the accidents (55.1% was due to neglecting the Yield Right of Way. Motorcycle riders endanger pedestrian, other drivers, passengers and their own life.Conclusion: Paying attention to cultural and instructional issues of correct motorcycle riding and performing appropriate monitor­ing in traffic and transportation system such as honoring our and others safety and setting limitations on using this vehi­cle by the youth is of great importance. .

  14. Sono, qualidade de vida e acidentes em caminhoneiros brasileiros e portugueses Sueño, la calidad de vida y accidentes en brasileños y portugueses conductores de camiones Sleep, quality of life and accidents in the lives of Brazilian and Portuguese truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Souza

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os distúrbios do sono, trabalho em turnos, sonolência excessiva diurna (SDE e qualidade de vida (QV de 206 caminhoneiros brasileiros e 200 portugueses. Aplicaram-se a Escala de Sonolência de Epworth, o SF-36 e o PSQI. Os portugueses dormem mais nos dias de trabalho (pSe evaluaron disturbios del sueño, trabajo en turnos, somnolencia diurna excesiva (SDE y calidad de vida (CV, de 206 camioneros brasileños y 200 portugueses. Se aplicaron la Escala de Somnolencia de Epworth, SF-36 y PSQI. Los portugueses duermen más los días de trabajo (pSleep disorders, shift work, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS and quality of life (QL were evaluated by Epworth sleepiness scale, SF-36 and PSQI in 206 Brazilian and 200 Portuguese truck drivers. Portuguese drivers sleep more on working days (p<0.0001 and on non-working days (p=0.0720 and do more shift work (37.50%, whereas Brazilian drivers wake up earlier on working days (p<0.0001 and on non-working days (p<0.0001. Sleep disorders affected 35.40% of Brazilian drivers and 21.50% of Portuguese drivers (p=0.0019, whereas 32.00% and 21.00% had respectively EDS (p=0.0015. Brazilian truck drivers drive over 16 hours a day (43.20% and use more amphetamines (11.10% (p<0.0001, while Portuguese drivers consume more alcohol (73.50% (p<0.0001. QL scores were better for Portuguese drivers regarding mental health (p<0.0001 and pain (p<0.0001 and better for Brazilian drivers regarding physical function (p<0.0001, vitality (p=0.0002 and social function (p<0.0001. Sleep disorders are highly prevalent in both countries.

  15. Current Suicide Proneness and Past Suicidal Behavior in Adjudicated Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A.

    2008-01-01

    Youth recently assigned to probation (n = 233) were assessed for current suicide proneness, depression, and hopelessness, as well as for recent suicide ideation, previous suicide ideation, or suicide attempt(s). The Life Attitudes Schedule-Short Form (LAS-SF) was used to assess suicide proneness. As per the LAS-SF, suicide proneness was defined…

  16. Risk of severe driver injury by driving with psychoactive substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hels, Tove; Lyckegaard, Allan; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2013-01-01

    Driving with alcohol and other psychoactive substances imposes an increased risk of severe injury accidents. In a population-based case-control design, the relative risks of severe driver injury (MAIS ≥ 2) by driving with ten substance groups were approximated by odds ratios (alcohol, amphetamines...... (N = 2490) were collected from severely injured drivers of passenger cars or vans in selected hospitals in various regions of the countries. Control samples (N = 15,832) were sampled in a uniform sampling scheme stratified according to country, time, road type and season. Relative risks were...

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Sleepiness and Accidental Risk in 36140 Regularly Registered Highway Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Pierre; Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Taillard, Jacques; Canel, Annick; Sagaspe, Patricia; Bioulac, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a frequent neurodevelopmental disorder that increases accidental risk. Recent studies show that some patients with ADHD can also suffer from excessive daytime sleepiness but there are no data assessing the role of sleepiness in road safety in patients with ADHD. We conducted an epidemiological study to explore sleep complaints, inattention and driving risks among automobile drivers. Methods and Findings From August to September 2014, 491186 regular highway users were invited to participate in an Internet survey on driving habits. 36140 drivers answered a questionnaire exploring driving risks, sleep complaints, sleepiness at the wheel, ADHD symptoms (Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale) and distraction at the wheel. 1.7% of all drivers reported inattention-related driving accidents and 0.3% sleep-related driving accidents in the previous year. 1543 drivers (4.3%) reported ADHD symptoms and were more likely to report accidents than drivers without ADHD symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.24, [1.03–1.51], p 15) versus 3.2% of drivers without ADHD symptoms and 20.5% reported severe sleepiness at the wheel versus 7.3%. Drivers with ADHD symptoms reported significantly more sleep-related (adjusted OR = 1.4, [1.21–1.60], p < .0001) and inattention-related (adjusted OR = 1.9, [1.71–2.14], p<0001) near misses than drivers without ADHD symptoms. The fraction of near-misses attributable to severe sleepiness at the wheel was 4.24% for drivers without ADHD symptoms versus 10,35% for drivers with ADHD symptoms. Conclusion Our study shows that drivers with ADHD symptoms have more accidents and a higher level of sleepiness at the wheel than drivers without ADHD symptoms. Drivers with ADHD symptoms report more sleep-related and inattention-related near misses, thus confirming the clinical importance of exploring both attentional deficits and sleepiness at the wheel in these drivers. Road safety campaigns should be improved to

  18. Traffic dynamics around weaving section influenced by accident: Cellular automata approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lin-Peng; Li, Xin-Gang; Lam, William H. K.

    2015-07-01

    The weaving section, as a typical bottleneck, is one source of vehicle conflicts and an accident-prone area. Traffic accident will block lanes and the road capacity will be reduced. Several models have been established to study the dynamics around traffic bottlenecks. However, little attention has been paid to study the complex traffic dynamics influenced by the combined effects of bottleneck and accident. This paper presents a cellular automaton model to characterize accident-induced traffic behavior around the weaving section. Some effective control measures are proposed and verified for traffic management under accident condition. The total flux as a function of inflow rates, the phase diagrams, the spatial-temporal diagrams, and the density and velocity profiles are presented to analyze the impact of accident. It was shown that the proposed control measures for weaving traffic can improve the capacity of weaving section under both normal and accident conditions; the accidents occurring on median lane in the weaving section are more inclined to cause traffic jam and reduce road capacity; the capacity of weaving section will be greatly reduced when the accident happens downstream the weaving section.

  19. Sociological study on the course of the traffic system and the traffic accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Yaşar Erjem

    2007-01-01

    The subject of this research is the operation of the traffic system and traffic accidents from a sociological perspective. In the research , the traffic system is taken as a sub-system of the social system. In this context the effects of the social, cultural and demographic factors on traffic accidents are examined . The data were collected from 681 people of whom 300 are drivers 300 pedestrians, 4 directors and 20 instructors of driving courses in Konya in Turkey. The research findings showe...

  20. Modeling Driver Behavior near Intersections in Hidden Markov Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; He, Qinglian; Zhou, Hang; Guan, Yunlin; Dai, Wei

    2016-12-21

    Intersections are one of the major locations where safety is a big concern to drivers. Inappropriate driver behaviors in response to frequent changes when approaching intersections often lead to intersection-related crashes or collisions. Thus to better understand driver behaviors at intersections, especially in the dilemma zone, a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is utilized in this study. With the discrete data processing, the observed dynamic data of vehicles are used for the inference of the Hidden Markov Model. The Baum-Welch (B-W) estimation algorithm is applied to calculate the vehicle state transition probability matrix and the observation probability matrix. When combined with the Forward algorithm, the most likely state of the driver can be obtained. Thus the model can be used to measure the stability and risk of driver behavior. It is found that drivers' behaviors in the dilemma zone are of lower stability and higher risk compared with those in other regions around intersections. In addition to the B-W estimation algorithm, the Viterbi Algorithm is utilized to predict the potential dangers of vehicles. The results can be applied to driving assistance systems to warn drivers to avoid possible accidents.

  1. Factors contributing to driver’s condition after fatal and injury vehicle accidents in North Khorasan province- New Year 1391

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Rezazadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aim: Injuries from traffic accidents are a major public health problem, and the third leading cause of mortality in people aged 1 to 40 years. Each year 31.8 persons per hundred thousands of Iranians are killed in car accidents. Neighboring of North Khorasan province with Razavi Khorasan, a province with a lot of pilgrims caused a large number of passengers travel via North Khorasan province. This study aimed to evaluate the road accidents and its related factors in the city of bojnurd in March 2012. Materials and Methods: this cross-sectional study was done from … to … 2012(the New Year vacation in Iran. All injured or victims from car accidents who referred to the emergency department of the Imam Ali Hospital formed the research community. Data was gathered by a questionnaire consisting vehicle specification, driver and injured characteristics. For victims and those were not able to answer, we used the family members or relatives for gathering the data. All data analysis was done in SPSS version 19.Results: during the study period, 148 injured people were admitted to the hospital. Drivers’ mean age were 33.9 with the SD of 11.9 years; among them 43.2% were used seat belt. One driver and three passengers were killed immediately, and two drivers and three passengers died in the first 24 hours of admission. Fastening seat belt by drivers reduce the hospitalization rate significantly (p-value<0.0001. 50.7% of the accidents were head-on collisions. Violation from the speed limit (41.3%, indiscretions (25.4% and drowsiness were the most common causes of accident respectively. Conclusion: training the drivers, obligation for using seat belt by driver and passengers, rest after long hours driving , and more control of traffic police especially in two way roads could reduce the car accident or in case of accident help to prevent severe damage and injury.

  2. Video event data recording of a taxi driver used for diagnosis of epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Sakurai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A video event data recorder (VEDR in a motor vehicle records images before and after a traffic accident. This report describes a taxi driver whose seizures were recorded by VEDR, which was extremely useful for the diagnosis of epilepsy. The patient was a 63-year-old right-handed Japanese male taxi driver. He collided with a streetlight. Two years prior to this incident, he raced an engine for a long time while parked. The VEDR enabled confirmation that the accidents depended on an epileptic seizure and he was diagnosed with symptomatic localization-related epilepsy. The VEDR is useful not only for traffic accident evidence; it might also contribute to a driver's health care and road safety.

  3. Video event data recording of a taxi driver used for diagnosis of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Kotaro; Yamamoto, Junko; Kurita, Tsugiko; Takeda, Youji; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    A video event data recorder (VEDR) in a motor vehicle records images before and after a traffic accident. This report describes a taxi driver whose seizures were recorded by VEDR, which was extremely useful for the diagnosis of epilepsy. The patient was a 63-year-old right-handed Japanese male taxi driver. He collided with a streetlight. Two years prior to this incident, he raced an engine for a long time while parked. The VEDR enabled confirmation that the accidents depended on an epileptic seizure and he was diagnosed with symptomatic localization-related epilepsy. The VEDR is useful not only for traffic accident evidence; it might also contribute to a driver's health care and road safety.

  4. Test analysis and research on static choice reaction ability of commercial vehicle drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingchao; Wei, Lang; Qiao, Jie; Tian, Shun; Wang, Shengchang

    2017-03-01

    Drivers' choice reaction ability has a certain relation with safe driving. It has important significance to research its influence on traffic safety. Firstly, the paper uses a choice reaction detector developed by research group to detect drivers' choice reaction ability of commercial vehicles, and gets 2641 effective samples. Then by using mathematical statistics method, the paper founds that average reaction time from accident group has no difference with non-accident group, and then introduces a variance rate of reaction time as a new index to replace it. The result shows that the test index choice reaction errors and variance rate of reaction time have positive correlations with accidents. Finally, according to testing results of the detector, the paper formulates a detection threshold with four levels for helping transportation companies to assess commercial vehicles drivers.

  5. An exploratory analysis of land abandonment drivers in areas prone to desertification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosmas, C.; Kairis, O.; Karavitis, C.; Hessel, R.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    The abandonment of land is a global problemwith environmental and socioeconomic implications. An approach to assess the relationship between land abandonment and a large set of indicators was illustrated in the present study by using data collected in the framework of the European Union DESIRE resea

  6. [Mobility, traffic accidents, and associated factors among Guatemalan university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Guzmán, Sandra; Jiménez-Mejías, Eladio; Martínez-Ruiz, Virginia; Lupiáñez-Tapia, Fernando; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the association between the amount of driving (km/year), traffic accidents, and other factors among university students in Guatemala. A cross-sectional study was performed during the 2010-2011 school year in a sample of 1,016 drivers who completed a self-administered questionnaire that assessed mobility patterns, use of safety accessories, driving style, and automobile crashes. The results showed a positive association between amount of driving and greater involvement in risky driving (adjusted regression coefficient 3.25, 95%CI: 2.23-4.27, for the highest level of exposure). More frequent involvement in risky driving and older age showed the strongest associations with traffic accidents. Although the amount of driving was positively associated with a higher accident rate, most of this association was found to be mediated by involvement in risky driving practices.

  7. ALICE Injected Beam Accidents

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE (point 2) interaction region is sensitive to beam orbit errors arising from magnet setting errors on injection. In this report, beam accident scenarios under injection for ALICE are described, focusing on ultra- fast error injection scenarios for the interaction straight correctors and dipoles. Beam 1 and beam 2 accident scenarios are considered, where the errors can lead to beam orbits striking the ALICE vacuum chamber or elements of the machine. The required thresholds for magnet current interlocks are calculated to avoid machine and detector risk.

  8. LHCb Injected Beam Accidents

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb (point 8) interaction region is sensitive to beam orbit errors arising from magnet setting errors on injection. In this report, beam accident scenarios under injection for LHCb are described, focusing on ultra- fast error injection scenarios for the interaction straight correctors and dipoles. Beam 1 and beam 2 accident scenarios are considered, where the errors can lead to beam orbits striking the LHCb vacuum chamber or elements of the machine. The required thresholds for magnet current interlocks are calculated to avoid machine and detector risk.

  9. Driving with a partially autonomous forward collision warning system: how do drivers react?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhrer, Elke; Reinprecht, Klaus; Vollrath, Mark

    2012-10-01

    The effects of a forward collision warning (FCW) and braking system (FCW+) were examined in a driving simulator study analyzing driving and gaze behavior and the engagement in a secondary task. In-depth accident analyses indicate that a lack of appropriate expectations for possible critical situations and visual distraction may be the major causes of rear-end crashes. Studies with FCW systems have shown that a warning alone was not enough for a driver to be able to avoid the accident. Thus,an additional braking intervention by such systems could be necessary. In a driving simulator experiment, 30 drivers took part in a car-following scenario in an urban area. It was assumed that different lead car behaviors and environmental aspects would lead to different drivers' expectations of the future traffic situation. Driving with and without FCW+ was introduced as a between-subjects factor. Driving with FCW+ resulted in significantly fewer accidents in critical situations. This result was achieved by the system's earlier reaction time as compared with that of drivers. The analysis of the gaze behavior showed that driving with the system did not lead to a stronger involvement in secondary tasks. The study supports the hypotheses about the importance of missing expectations for the occurrence of accidents. These accidents can be prevented by an FCW+ that brakes autonomously. The results indicate that an autonomous braking intervention should be implemented in FCW systems to increase the effectiveness of these assistance systems.

  10. Measurement of the Driver Response Time in the Simulated and Real Emergency Driving Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Magister

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the real reaction time of a driver involved in an accidentwill always be unknown to reconstruction experts, and becausethe driver's reaction time databases published in the respectiveliterature have become almost obscure and hard tocompare with the everyday practice of the accident reconstruction,expert decision was made at Transport Safety Laboratoryto engage in research of the driver's reaction time and in the reactiontime measurement techniques as well and to develop aPC-based simulator for measurements of the driver reactiontime. The structure of the Driver Reaction Timer simulator andits components are described as well as its measuring algorithm.The measurements of the driver's reaction time in thereal and simulated driving environment were performed, andthe results obtained are discussed. By comparing these results,the quality evaluation of the current stage of development of thesimulator is addressed and the necessary further developmentof the simulator defined.

  11. The impact of personality on driving safety among Chinese high-speed railway drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Wei, Wei; Liao, Ganli; Chu, Fulei

    2016-07-01

    This study explored the impact of personality traits on driving safety in high-speed railway drivers. A sample of high-speed railway drivers in Beijing (N=214) completed a questionnaire, including information on personality traits and background variables. The NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) was administered to characterize participants based on five personality traits: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness to Experience, and Conscientiousness. The survey data were combined with naturalistic data of accident involvement and risky driving behavior in China. Poisson regression results show that drivers with high Conscientiousness and Extraversion caused fewer accidents. Higher Conscientiousness and lower Agreeableness were related to less frequent risky driving behavior. Education level and age negatively moderated the relation between certain personality traits and driving safety. The findings suggest that personality traits should be considered when selecting and training high-speed railway drivers.

  12. Drugs related to motor vehicle crashes in northern European countries: A study of fatally injured drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørland, Jørg; Steentoft, Anni; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese

    2011-01-01

    with other vehicles. In single vehicle accidents, 66% of the drivers under 30 years of age had alcohol and/or drugs in their blood (alcohol only – 40%; drugs only – 12%; alcohol and drugs – 14%). The drugs found were mostly illicit drugs and psychoactive medicinal drugs with warning labels (in 57% and 58...... within 24 h of the accident, in the years 2001 and 2002 in the five Nordic countries (total population about 24 million inhabitants). The samples were analysed for more than 200 different drugs in addition to alcohol, using a similar analytical programme and cut-off limits in all countries. In three......% respectively of the drivers under 30 with drugs present). Similar findings were obtained for drivers 30–49 years of age (63% with alcohol and/or drugs). In drivers aged 50 years and above, killed in single vehicle crashes (48% with alcohol and/or drugs) illicit drugs were found in only one case...

  13. Lessons learned from accidents investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga-Bello, P. [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT), Mexico City (Mexico); Croft, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Glenn, J

    1997-12-31

    Accidents from three main practices: medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the described accidents are approached by subjects covering: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  14. Examining fire-prone forest landscapes as coupled human and natural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. Spies

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fire-prone landscapes are not well studied as coupled human and natural systems (CHANS and present many challenges for understanding and promoting adaptive behaviors and institutions. Here, we explore how heterogeneity, feedbacks, and external drivers in this type of natural hazard system can lead to complexity and can limit the development of more adaptive approaches to policy and management. Institutions and social networks can counter these limitations and promote adaptation. We also develop a conceptual model that includes a robust characterization of social subsystems for a fire-prone landscape in Oregon and describe how we are building an agent-based model to promote understanding of this social-ecological system. Our agent-based model, which incorporates existing ecological models of vegetation and fire and is based on empirical studies of landowner decision-making, will be used to explore alternative management and fire scenarios with land managers and various public entities. We expect that the development of CHANS frameworks and the application of a simulation model in a collaborative setting will facilitate the development of more effective policies and practices for fire-prone landscapes.

  15. Benzodiazepine-Like Hypnotics and the Associated Risk of Road Traffic Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the association between the use of benzodiazepine or benzodiazepine-like hypnotics and the risk of road traffic accidents. Data from three French national databases were matched: the health-care insurance database, police reports, and the police database of injury-related traffic accidents. A total of 72,685 drivers involved in injury-related road traffic accidents in France, from 2005 to 2008, were included in the study. The risk of being responsible f...

  16. Drivers 65 Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... see, hear, and feel in relation to other cars and drivers, traffic signs and signals, conditions of the highway, and the performance of your car. These decisions are usually made close to other ...

  17. Proactive driver training program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vossler, W. [Kinetic Safety Consulting Inc., Grande Prairie, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Skid avoidance training is a recent approach to driver training and has been employed in various countries with a high degree of success. Among top ranked countries, motor vehicle incidents trends indicate higher incident rates among drivers are often due to lack of knowledge, experience and risk awareness. If lowered age limit experience is attained under direct supervision and in safe training conditions, it was suggested, incident frequency is reduced. A Norway study confirmed an increase in vehicle incident rates after drivers had received skid control training. The drivers were unable to maintain skill levels needed to react to critical driving tasks and had unrealistic expectations of skill after training. However, a skid avoidance training program launched in Sweden in 1999 has resulted in a 50 per cent reduction of vehicle incidents in the last 2 years. Details of the Skidcar System were presented, including details of the driving simulator, where simulation of actual driving situations is achieved by simply adjusting the amount of grip the vehicle has with the driving surface. Instructors modify driving behaviors based upon the driver's ability to maintain grip. There are over 200 units in North America. In addition, a Proactive Light Vehicle Driver Training/ Heavy Vehicle Assessment Program was initiated in 2003, with a motor vehicle incident rate reduction of 50 per cent at the end of 2004. Various examples of situations in which drivers have used their skid avoidance skills to avoid incidents were included. It was noted that the trend among driver training professionals has been towards decision-based rather than skills-based training, as skills-based training will diminish over time, and requires frequent re-training periods. Cognitive and perceptual skills were examined, as well as cognitive, associative and autonomous learning phases. It was concluded that skid avoidance is largely a decision-based skill. tabs, figs.

  18. Tragedy on grade crossing: driver failure or systemic fragility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Manoela Gomes Reis; de Gouveia Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade; de Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz; Mioto, Odilamar Lopes; Takahashi, Mara Alice Batista Conti; Perin, Fernanda Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, an accident occurred in Americana-SP, Brazil, involving two trains and one bus on a Grade Crossing, when 10 people died and 17 were injured including workers. This paper aims to analyze the accident using the Model of Analysis and Prevention of Work Accidents (MAPA). The method provides observation of work, interviews and analysis of documents to understand precedents of the event in the following stages: to understand the usual work from the involved people, the changes occurred in the system, the operation of barriers, managerial and organizational aspects. By the end, measures are suggested to avoid new occurrences. The accident took place at night in a site with insufficient lighting. The working conditions of bus drivers, train operators and watchmen are inadequate. There were only symbolic barriers (visual and acoustic signals) triggered manually by watchman upon train operator radio communication. The fragility of the barrier system associated to poor lighting and short time to trigger the signaling seem to play a critical role in the event. Contrary to the official report which resulted in guilt of the bus driver, the conclusion of the paper emphasizes the fragility of the safety system and the need of level crossing reproject.

  19. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus g

  20. Predicting sales promotion contest proneness and participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Mike; Thompson, Peter; Mavondo, Felix

    There is growing interest by Consumer Packaged Goods manufacturers in using tnonprice sales promotions, including competitions and sweepstakes and in better understanding consumers’ engagement with and reaction to these forms of sales promotion (Kalra and Shi, 2010). A contest or sweepstake...... is a purchase incentive offering a chance to win one or more, generally uncertain, rewards. Interest has been driven by changing economic and competitive environments including a battle for supermarket shelf space, the penetration of store brands, increased manufacturer brand price discounting and improved...... promotional delivery mechanisms including the internet. Despite growing use of such promotions by manufacturers and retailers there is still limited knowledge of the factors that cause a consumer to be prone to such offers (Prendergast, Poon, Tsang, and Fan, 2008)....

  1. Predicting sales promotion contest proneness and participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Mike; Thompson, Peter; Mavondo, Felix

    There is growing interest by Consumer Packaged Goods manufacturers in using tnonprice sales promotions, including competitions and sweepstakes and in better understanding consumers’ engagement with and reaction to these forms of sales promotion (Kalra and Shi, 2010). A contest or sweepstake...... promotional delivery mechanisms including the internet. Despite growing use of such promotions by manufacturers and retailers there is still limited knowledge of the factors that cause a consumer to be prone to such offers (Prendergast, Poon, Tsang, and Fan, 2008)....... is a purchase incentive offering a chance to win one or more, generally uncertain, rewards. Interest has been driven by changing economic and competitive environments including a battle for supermarket shelf space, the penetration of store brands, increased manufacturer brand price discounting and improved...

  2. Students’ driving behaviour as a risk factor of road accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zografakis-Sfakianakis M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRoad accidents are considered to be a public health problem since they have been massively adverse consequences in demography. Since there is a human loss, especially of young people, the problem should be investigated extensively. The driving behaviour (either alone or in combination with other factors is the most important cause of road accidents for 80-90%.Purpose Investigating students’ driving behaviour (culture of a technological educational institute and how positively or negatively they take actions, preventing themselves of accidents.Material and Method400 questionnaires were supplemented. The questionnaire was consisted of 18 closed type questions, created by the research group using bibliographical sources. The data were analyzed using the x2 test, in all cases, statistical significant was considered the two-tailed P<0,05.Results A 21,7% of students has driven the previous 7 days having consumed alcohol while 57% has been passengers. Men’s alcohol consumption has showed increased infringement (93,3% in relation to women (6,7%. (x2=53,983; p <0,001. In other crucial provisions of road traffic regulation, violation was found which exceeds 50% (speeding, wrong lane driving, etc.. The highest percentage, without a safety belt or a helmet -never or and rarely - are male drivers (x2=12,074; P=0,017.It was found that a particularly large percentage of students (61% were involved in a traffic accident. From those, who have been involved in a traffic accident, as drivers (97 students, as guilty pleaded 26,8%, while non-guilty 73,2%. Statistically males were a high majority (x2=23,425; p <0,001. The traffic accident occurred during their student years in percentage of 47,5%. 18,8% of students have been transferred to hospital as a casualty of a traffic accident. ConclusionIt is confirmed once again that the concepts of 'dangerous driving behaviour" and "young" are compatible. Male students have increased risk behaviour, mainly

  3. Multiple logistic regression model of signalling practices of drivers on urban highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puan, Othman Che; Ibrahim, Muttaka Na'iya; Zakaria, Rozana

    2015-05-01

    Giving signal is a way of informing other road users, especially to the conflicting drivers, the intention of a driver to change his/her movement course. Other users are exposed to hazard situation and risks of accident if the driver who changes his/her course failed to give signal as required. This paper describes the application of logistic regression model for the analysis of driver's signalling practices on multilane highways based on possible factors affecting driver's decision such as driver's gender, vehicle's type, vehicle's speed and traffic flow intensity. Data pertaining to the analysis of such factors were collected manually. More than 2000 drivers who have performed a lane changing manoeuvre while driving on two sections of multilane highways were observed. Finding from the study shows that relatively a large proportion of drivers failed to give any signals when changing lane. The result of the analysis indicates that although the proportion of the drivers who failed to provide signal prior to lane changing manoeuvre is high, the degree of compliances of the female drivers is better than the male drivers. A binary logistic model was developed to represent the probability of a driver to provide signal indication prior to lane changing manoeuvre. The model indicates that driver's gender, type of vehicle's driven, speed of vehicle and traffic volume influence the driver's decision to provide a signal indication prior to a lane changing manoeuvre on a multilane urban highway. In terms of types of vehicles driven, about 97% of motorcyclists failed to comply with the signal indication requirement. The proportion of non-compliance drivers under stable traffic flow conditions is much higher than when the flow is relatively heavy. This is consistent with the data which indicates a high degree of non-compliances when the average speed of the traffic stream is relatively high.

  4. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1987-06-01

    The paper concerns the Chernobyl reactor accident, with emphasis on the design of the RBMK reactor and nuclear safety. A description is given of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, including details of the RMBK reactor and safety systems. Comments on the design of the RBMK by UK experts prior to the accident are summarized, along with post-accident design changes to improve RBMK safety. Events of the Chernobyl accident are described, as well as design deficiencies highlighted by the accident. Differences between the USSR and UK approaches to nuclear safety are commented on. Finally source terms, release periods and environmental consequences are briefly discussed.

  5. The impact of mental health symptoms on heavy goods vehicle drivers' performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Michael F; Staddon, Zoe; Sheridan, Judith; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2009-05-01

    High levels of psychological distress in fulltime employees are prevalent (4.5% per month). Symptoms of impaired mental health include difficulties with attention, concentration, motivation, decision-making, visuo-motor control, and psychomotor reaction times. There is limited research on the impact these symptoms have on heavy goods vehicle (HGV) drivers' performance. In this study 1324 HGV drivers were surveyed using the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS) and the Health and Performance at Work Questionnaire (HPQ). Depression, anxiety and stress had little effect on driver absenteeism rates or self-rated driving performance. However, severe (1.5% of drivers) and very severe (1.8% of drivers) depression was associated with an increased odds ratio (OR=4.5 and 5.0, respectively) for being involved in an accident or near miss in the past 28 days. This odd ratio is akin to driving with a blood alcohol content of about 0.08%. Given the number of HGV vehicles and the prevalence of depression this equates to 10,950 HGV drivers with an increased statistical risk of an accident or near miss. As the impact of HGV accidents is potentially large, including loss of life, it would be sensible to extend the research findings here into an action plan.

  6. Port Moresby road traffic accident survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourie, J; Sinha, S

    1983-01-01

    Road Traffic Accidents (RTA's) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Papua New Guinea today. A survey of casualties from RTA's attending Port Moresby General Hospital over a seven-month period from November 1982 to June 1983 showed that of 209 patients seen, one-third were in cars and one-quarter were in utilities. The most dangerous positions in vehicles were (1) in the open back of a utility or truck, and (2) in the front seat (driver or passenger) of a car or utility. Only 13% of injured front-seat occupants of cars or utilities were wearing a seat-belt; in one-third of vehicles no seat belts were fitted. A plea is made for the strengthening of legislation to ensure the safety of passengers travelling in the open back of trucks or utilities, and for the introduction of legislation for fitting and wearing of seat-belts by front-seat occupants.

  7. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    LI J

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus group discussion, and in-car tests. The main characteristics of Chinese driver behavior have been identified. A new method is developed for a simulation model calibration based on the study results.

  8. Augmented reality cues to assist older drivers with gap estimation for left-turns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Michelle L; Schall, Mark C; Lee, John D; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Rizzo, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of augmented reality (AR) cues designed to assist middle-aged and older drivers with a range of UFOV impairments, judging when to make left-turns across oncoming traffic. Previous studies have shown that AR cues can help middle-aged and older drivers respond to potential roadside hazards by increasing hazard detection without interfering with other driving tasks. Intersections pose a critical challenge for cognitively impaired drivers, prone to misjudge time-to-contact with oncoming traffic. We investigated whether AR cues improve or interfere with hazard perception in left-turns across oncoming traffic for drivers with age-related cognitive decline. Sixty-four middle-aged and older drivers with a range of UFOV impairment judged when it would be safe to turn left across oncoming traffic approaching the driver from the opposite direction in a rural stop-sign controlled intersection scenario implemented in a static base driving simulator. Outcome measures used to evaluate the effectiveness of AR cueing included: Time-to-Contact (TTC), Gap Time Variation (GTV), Response Rate, and Gap Response Variation (GRV). All drivers estimated TTCs were shorter in cued than in uncued conditions. In addition, drivers responded more often in cued conditions than in uncued conditions and GRV decreased for all drivers in scenarios that contained AR cues. For both TTC and response rate, drivers also appeared to adjust their behavior to be consistent with the cues, especially drivers with the poorest UFOV scores (matching their behavior to be close to middle-aged drivers). Driver ratings indicated that cueing was not considered to be distracting. Further, various conditions of reliability (e.g., 15% miss rate) did not appear to affect performance or driver ratings.

  9. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may...... be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... rate of accidents than Danish citizens. Age was a major risk factor for accidents causing permanent disability. Change of ship and the first period aboard a particular ship were identified as risk factors. Walking from one place to another aboard the ship caused serious accidents. The most serious...

  10. Aspects Concerning The Rules And The Investigation Of Traffic Accidents As Work Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnu, Lucian Ioan

    2015-07-01

    When Romania joined the European Union, it was imposed that the Romanian legislation in the field of the security and health at work be in line with the European one. The concept of health as it is defined by the International Body of Health, refers to a good physical, mental and social condition. The improvement of the activity of preventing the traffic accidents as work accidents must have as basis the correct and accurate evaluation of risks of getting injured. The goal of the activity of prevention and protection is to ensure the best working conditions, the prevention of accidents and occupational diseases and the adjustment to the scientific and technological progress. In the road transport sector, as in any other sector, it is very important to pay attention to working conditions to ensure a workforce motivated and well qualified. Some features make it a more difficult sector risk management than other sectors. However, if one takes into account how it works in practice this sector and the characteristics of drivers and how they work routinely, risks, dangers and threats can be managed efficiently and with great success.

  11. Risk of severe driver injury by driving with psychoactive substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hels, Tove; Lyckegaard, Allan; Bernhoft, Inger Marie;

    2013-01-01

    /L) and benzoylecgonine. The least risky drug seemed to be cannabis and benzodiazepines and Z-drugs. For male drivers, the risk of being severely injured by driving with any of the psychoactive substances was about 65% of that of female drivers. For each of the substance groups there was a decrease in the risk of severe......Driving with alcohol and other psychoactive substances imposes an increased risk of severe injury accidents. In a population-based case-control design, the relative risks of severe driver injury (MAIS ≥ 2) by driving with ten substance groups were approximated by odds ratios (alcohol, amphetamines......, benzoylecgonine, cocaine, cannabis, illicit opiates, benzodiazepines and Z-drugs, i.e. zolpidem and zopiclone, medicinal opioids, alcohol-drug combinations and drug-drug combinations). Data from six countries were included in the study: Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Lithuania and the Netherlands. Case samples...

  12. Drowsy drivers--medical implication of highway traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, S

    2011-01-01

    The estimates of the contribution of drowsiness and fatigue to the number of road crashes is often neglected considerably, due both to under-reporting of these factors by drivers, and technical difficulty in investigating the problem. Preventing and treating the reasons for falling asleep behind the wheel may have considerable contribution in traffic safety. Therefore the licensing authorities in co-operation with the medical profession should attend more closely to the issue of sleep related disorders and their implications for driving in cases with notoriously high risk. The police and other enforcement authorities need appropriate knowledge and procedures to detect drivers at risk of falling asleep while driving. Considering the increasing number of road traffic accidents day per day, it is a need of the hour to detect drivers possibly at risk, and to take appropriate precautions in terms of education, advice and treatment regimes, as well as restrictions on licensing.

  13. [Drowning accidents in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krandick, G; Mantel, K

    1990-09-30

    This is a report on five boys aged between 1 and 5 years who, after prolonged submersion in cold water, were treated at our department. On being taken out of the water, all the patients were clinically dead. After 1- to 3-hour successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, with a rectal temperature of about 27 degrees C, they were rewarmed at a rate of 1 degree/hour. Two patients died within a few hours after the accident. One patient survived with an apallic syndrome, 2 children survived with no sequelae. In the event of a water-related accident associated with hypothermia, we consider suitable resuscitation to have preference over rewarming measures. The most important treatment guidelines and prognostic factors are discussed.

  14. Features of the traffic accidents happened in the province of Aydın between 2005 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirlik, Musa; Bostancıoğlu, Başak Çakır; Elbek, Tülay; Korkmaz, Bedir; Çallak Kallem, Füsun; Gün, Berk

    2014-09-01

    In this study, it was aimed to analyze the traffic accidents with postmortem examinations and autopsies. From the one thousand eight hundred and fifteen forensic autopsies, reports of 334 traffic accidents were searched. Features such as the scene of the accident, type of the accident, type of the vehicles involved in the accident, the year, season, day and hour of the accident, the positions of the victims in the traffic, concomitant orthopedic injuries, whether autopsy was performed, and cause of death were investigated. Among the one thousand eight hundred and fifteen forensic death cases, observed cause of death was determined to be traffic accidents in 334 (18.4%) cases. Male cases accounted 84.1%, and male to female ratio was 5.3 to 1. From the reports, 32.6% of the accidents happened in summer and most commonly during holidays (33%). The rate of the accidents happened in the city center was 35.3% and 32.9% of these cases died due to pedestrian collision. Moreover, it was determined that the most injured person was the driver. Automobiles took the lead in the causes of the traffic accidents. It is realized that traffic accident-related deaths have a substantial place among forensic deaths and continue to be an important public health problem. It is conspicuous that improving public education on traffic safety, increasing traffic management and control measures are of great significance.

  15. RENEB accident simulation exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Brzozowska, Beata; Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Baert, Annelot; Beaton-Green, Lindsay; Barrios, Leonardo; Barquinero, Joan Francesc; Bassinet, Celine; Beinke, Christina; Benedek, Anett; Beukes, Philip; Bortolin, Emanuela; Buraczewska, Iwona; Burbidge, Christopher; De Amicis, Andrea; De Angelis, Cinzia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The RENEB accident exercise was carried out in order to train the RENEB participants in coordinating and managing potentially large data sets that would be generated in case of a major radiological event. Materials and methods: Each participant was offered the possibility to activate the network by sending an alerting email about a simulated radiation emergency. The same participant had to collect, compile and report capacity, triage categorization and exposure scenario results ob...

  16. Powered two-wheeler drivers' crash risk associated with the use of bus lanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clabaux, Nicolas; Fournier, Jean-Yves; Michel, Jean-Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    Authorizing powered two-wheeler drivers to drive in lanes reserved to buses is a measure that is sometimes mentioned to improve mobility conditions for these users. But what effect would this measure have on the safety of these users and on the safety of the other users with whom they share the traffic space? The objective of this study is to contribute elements to help answer this question. More precisely, the objective is to estimate the risk of having an accident per kilometer driven by powered two-wheeler drivers who drive in bus lanes and to compare this risk with that of powered two-wheeler drivers who drive in general traffic lanes. Using the bodily injury accidents recorded by the police over two years on 13 roads in the city of Marseille and a campaign of periodical observations of powered two-wheeler traffic, we estimated the risk per kilometer driven by powered two-wheeler drivers who drive in bus lanes and compared it with that of drivers who do not drive in them. The results show that the risk for powered two-wheeler drivers who drive in bus lanes of being involved in a bodily injury accident is significantly higher than the risk run by drivers who drive in general traffic lanes. For the 13 roads studied, it is on average 3.25 times higher (95% CI: 2.03; 5.21). In the current situation, powered two-wheeler drivers who drive in bus lanes are less safe than those who drive in general traffic lanes. The analysis of police reports suggests that part of this increased risk comes from collisions between automobile drivers turning right and powered two-wheelers driving in the bus lane who continue straight ahead. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Jovanovic

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical services, physicians and nurses play an essential role in the plant safety program through primary treatment of injured workers and by helping to identify workplace hazards. The physician and nurse should participate in the worksite investigations to identify specific hazard or stresses potentially causing the occupational accidents and injuries and in planning the subsequent hazard control program. Physicians and nurses must work closely and cooperatively with supervisors to ensure the prompt reporting and treatment of all work related health and safety problems. Occupational accidents, work related injuries and fatalities result from multiple causes, affect different segments of the working population, and occur in a myriad of occupations and industrial settings. Multiple factors and risks contribute to traumatic injuries, such as hazardous exposures, workplace and process design, work organization and environment, economics, and other social factors. With such a diversity of theories, it will not be difficult to understand that there does not exist one single theory that is considered right or correct and is universally accepted. These theories are nonetheless necessary, but not sufficient, for developing a frame of reference for understanding accident occurrences. Prevention strategies are also varied, and multiple strategies may be applicable to many settings, including engineering controls, protective equipment and technologies, management commitment to and investment in safety, regulatory controls, and education and training. Research needs are thus broad, and the development and application of interventions involve many disciplines and organizations.

  18. Highway Accident Report: Schoolbus/Automobile Collision and Fire, Near Reston, Virginia, February 29, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Transportation Safety Board (DOT), Washington, DC. Bureau of Surface Transportation Safety.

    This accident report illustrates and exemplifies three significant safety issues with which the Board has long been concerned: (1) the use of seatbelts by the drivers of schoolbuses, (2) the location and security of schoolbus fuel tanks, and (3) the mode of opening of schoolbus service doors. (Photographs may reproduce poorly.) (Author)

  19. Stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾进胜; 贷如训; 苏镇培

    2000-01-01

    Purpose To summarized the methods for establishment, characteristics of vascular lesions in brain and heart and thc application of stroke-pronc renovascular hypertensive rats (RHRSP). Background Spontaneously hypcrtensivc rats (STR) and subtypes of SH R, especially stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) are considered as most important animal models at present for the studies of hypertension and its complications in heart and brain, evcn SHRSP arc considered as thc unique animal model in which prcvention of stroke can be studied cxperimentally Howcver, the applications of SHR and SHRSP are limited because of the effects of genetic deficits and thc difficulties with breeding Theretore, most of the researches on experimental stroke have been performed on the animal models with normotcnsion and normal structure of cerebral vessels. In fact, there are great differences in structure of cerebrovesscls, autoregulation of cerebral blood flow and extent of lesions in brain tissue, even the reaction to the medication after ischemia between the animals with extcnsive arteriosclerosis and with normal cerebral blood vessels. Obviously, thc relevancc of experimental stroke on normal animals to the stroke on cerebral arteriosclerotic patients clinically remains dubious. Data sources and methods Most published original articles about RHRSP in our laboratory were reviewed Results After the renal arteries were constricted bilaterally with ring-shape silver clips, the stroke-prone rcnovascular hypertensive rats were established. Hypertension was produced in all RHRSP(100%).The peak of blood pressure in RHRSP reached 29.1 ±3.0kPa. The lesions of cerebral arteries and arterioles and the damage of cerebral capillary structure by hypertension were observed in the RHRSP. The incidence of spontaneous stroke was 56.4% with in 40 weeks after the renal artery constriction. Left ventricular hypertrophy and small coronary arterial lesions in myocardium were discovered in all

  20. Alternate laser fusion drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleasance, L.D.

    1979-11-01

    Over the past few years, several laser systems have been considered as possible laser fusion drivers. Recently, there has been an increasing effort to evaluate these systems in terms of a reactor driver application. The specifications for such a system have become firmer and generally more restrictive. Several of the promising candidates such as the group VI laser, the metal vapor excimers and some solid state lasers can be eliminated on the basis of inefficiency. New solid state systems may impact the long range development of a fusion driver. Of the short wavelength gas lasers, the KrF laser used in conjunction with Raman compression and pulse stacking techniques is the most promising approach. Efficiencies approaching 10% may be possible with this system. While technically feasible, these approaches are complex and costly and are unsatisfying in an aethetic sense. A search for new lasers with more compelling features is still needed.

  1. Hybrid Model for Early Onset Prediction of Driver Fatigue with Observable Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingheng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid model for early onset prediction of driver fatigue, which is the major reason of severe traffic accidents. The proposed method divides the prediction problem into three stages, that is, SVM-based model for predicting the early onset driver fatigue state, GA-based model for optimizing the parameters in the SVM, and PCA-based model for reducing the dimensionality of the complex features datasets. The model and algorithm are illustrated with driving experiment data and comparison results also show that the hybrid method can generally provide a better performance for driver fatigue state prediction.

  2. The Research of Personality Characteristics of Motor Vehicle Drivers%机动车驾驶员人格特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥红; 连珂

    2004-01-01

    Using Cattell 16 PF personality test, the authors test the personality of 600 motor vehicle drivers of Handan City, reach the conclusion that there is a significant difference of 8 personality characteristics between drivers of accident group and those of safe group.

  3. Autonomous Vehicles: Disengagements, Accidents and Reaction Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Vinayak V; Chand, Sai; Nair, Divya J

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles are being viewed with scepticism in their ability to improve safety and the driving experience. A critical issue with automated driving at this stage of its development is that it is not yet reliable and safe. When automated driving fails, or is limited, the autonomous mode disengages and the drivers are expected to resume manual driving. For this transition to occur safely, it is imperative that drivers react in an appropriate and timely manner. Recent data released from the California trials provide compelling insights into the current factors influencing disengagements of autonomous mode. Here we show that the number of accidents observed has a significantly high correlation with the autonomous miles travelled. The reaction times to take control of the vehicle in the event of a disengagement was found to have a stable distribution across different companies at 0.83 seconds on average. However, there were differences observed in reaction times based on the type of disengagements, type of roadway and autonomous miles travelled. Lack of trust caused by the exposure to automated disengagements was found to increase the likelihood to take control of the vehicle manually. Further, with increased vehicle miles travelled the reaction times were found to increase, which suggests an increased level of trust with more vehicle miles travelled. We believe that this research would provide insurers, planners, traffic management officials and engineers fundamental insights into trust and reaction times that would help them design and engineer their systems.

  4. TRAFFIC SAFETY AND DRIVER EDUCATION IN SAN JUAN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arístides Osvaldo Fernández DE CIEZA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available With over 8,100 traffic fatalities in 1997 and an accident rate per 100 million vehicle kilometres travelled, approximately five times that of United States, Argentinean road authorities are now beginning to focus attention on traffic safety and driver education. One of the main problems in the search of causes for car accidents in Argentina is the lack of a reliable and updated data base. The results and conclusions presented in this paper are based on a thorough analysis of car accidents in the Province of San Juan, Argentina. A seven-year data base of car accidents has been compiled from police reports, including the results of traffic counts at intersections and other collision locations. In addition, topographic and filmed reports of such places and their surroundings bring about parameters such as stop lines, visibility triangles, road size, traffic light performance, etc., which allow to carrying out of a traffic flow analysis for proposing measures aiming to minimize accidents. For San Juan province, in general, the main causes are: high absolute car speeds, speed differences between vehicles, lack of good lighting, poor driving habits, lack of traffic control devices such as signs, signals, and an absence of road markings.

  5. Reducing Side-Sweep Accidents with Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamini Bulumulle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Side-sweep accidents are one of the major causes of loss of life and property damage on highways. This type of accident is caused by a driver initiating a lane change while another vehicle is blocking the road in the target lane. In this article, we are trying to quantify the degree to which different implementations of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communication could reduce the occurrence of such accidents. We present the design of a simulator that takes into account common sources of lack of driver awareness such as blind-spots and lack of attention. Then, we study the impact of both traditional, non-technological communication means such as turning signals as well as unidirectional and bidirectional V2V communications.

  6. Impact of prone surgical positioning on the scoliotic spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Christopher Robert; Aubin, Carl-Éric; Canet, Fanny; Labelle, Hubert; Dansereau, Jean

    2012-05-01

    To study the impact of patient-specific prone positioning on the sagittal and coronal curves of scoliotic spines, including the impact of various patient and surgical frame factors. Prone operative positioning has been shown to impact the geometry of various individual spinal segments. Its impact on global spinal geometry and influential factors remains unknown. Lateral and coronal radiographs were acquired of 6 scoliotic patients while standing, prone on a dynamically adjustable surgical frame and intraoperatively on the Relton-Hall frame. Standing lateral bending radiographs were also acquired. Lordosis, kyphosis, and Cobb angles were measured in each position. Personalized finite element models (FEMs), including the spine, ribcage, pelvis, and lower limbs were generated for each patient based on their standing radiographs. The FEM's ability to reproduce prone spinal geometry was evaluated by using different values of intervertebral disc elastic moduli: published, optimized based on lateral bending radiographs and optimized based on prone radiographs. The 6 FEMs were then exploited to study the impact of surgical frame cushion configuration, standing curve magnitudes, and patient weight on spinal geometry changes due to prone positioning. All coronal and sagittal curves decreased in the prone position; averaging 12% in lordosis, 19% in kyphosis, 7%, 14%, and 26%, respectively, for proximal thoracic, main thoracic, and thoracolumbar/lumbar Cobb angles. FEM prone simulations yielded best results when optimized by using the prone position radiographs (Δ<5 degrees for all segmental curves). Lateral bending optimization yielded similar results by using published properties. Surgical frame cushion configuration, standing curve magnitudes, and patient weight all had an important impact on spinal geometries with the exception of thoracic cushion longitudinal position. A strong correlation (R=0.86) was found between standing kyphosis and its reduction in the prone

  7. Are Muslim countries more prone to violence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Petter Gleditsch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, most armed conflicts have taken place in Muslim countries. Are Muslim countries more war-prone? Not necessarily, if we look at data for the whole period after World War II. But in the post-Cold War era, most wars are civil wars and Muslim countries have a disproportionate share of these. This is not mainly because conflicts among Muslims have increased, but because other conflicts have declined. Muslim countries are also overrepresented among countries with high levels of other forms of internal violence, including non-state conflict, one-sided violence, highly repressive human rights policies, and countries that practice capital punishment. They also have a higher than average participation in interstate conflicts. This is not a “clash of civilizations”—most of the victims are Muslims. We list several hypotheses, apart from religion itself, for why this pattern has emerged, including colonial history, interventions from major powers, and economic and political development. Finally, on a more optimistic note, while many Muslims are exposed to violence, four of the five countries with the largest Muslim populations do not currently experience civil war.

  8. Really Scary Drivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莲花

    2005-01-01

    A new wave of "road killers", or new drivers, on Beijing's streets has prompted traffic authorities to do something to make driving tests more difficult. This year, the move has targeted new drivers to keep them from posing a threat, the Beijing Traffic Management Bureau says. The new test has been adopted citywide and the average pass rate is down to 50 per cent from a previous 80 per cent, at the city's 22 test centers, said Jiang Jing, a bureau press officer. The test now has six mandatory items chosen r...

  9. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power.

  10. Benzodiazepine-like hypnotics and the associated risk of road traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orriols, L; Philip, P; Moore, N; Castot, A; Gadegbeku, B; Delorme, B; Mallaret, M; Lagarde, E

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the association between the use of benzodiazepine or benzodiazepine-like hypnotics and the risk of road traffic accidents. Data from three French national databases were matched: the health-care insurance database, police reports, and the police database of injury-related traffic accidents. A total of 72,685 drivers involved in injury-related road traffic accidents in France, from 2005 to 2008, were included in the study. The risk of being responsible for a traffic accident was higher in users of benzodiazepine hypnotics (odds ratio (OR) = 1.39 (1.08-1.79)) and in the 155 drivers to whom a dosage of more than one pill of zolpidem a day had been dispensed during the 5 months before the collision (OR = 2.46 (1.70-3.56)). No association was found between the use of zopiclone and risk of traffic accidents. Although this study did not find any association between the use of zolpidem as recommended and causation of traffic accidents, the potential risk related to possible abuse of the drug and risky driving behaviors should be further investigated. The results related to benzodiazepine hypnotics are consistent with those of previous studies.

  11. How to avoid perioperative visual loss following prone spinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E Epstein

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The best way to avoid POVL following prone spine surgery is to prevent it. Routine use of an arterial line, intraoperative monitoring, a 3-pin head holder, and elevation of the head 10° from the horizontal should limit the risk of encountering POVL after spinal procedures performed in the prone position.

  12. Logit Model of Motorcycle Accidents in the Philippines Considering Personal and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary R. Seva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to determine significant personal and environmental variables in predicting motorcycle accidents in the Philippines, compare the results with findings in other countries, and propose possible government interventions. Data were gathered from 177 participants through the use of a survey in a licensing center in the largest city in Metro Manila. Logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of an accident from variables considered in the model. Three variables were found to be significant predictors of motorcycle accidents: age, driving behavior, and junction type. Younger drivers are more likely to be involved in accidents. The significance of age was unexpected because similar models found this to be insignificant. Driving behavior, specifically, committing violation predicts accident likelihood. Driving at t- and y-junctions also predicts motorcycle accidents. In the Philippines, a unique set of variables were found to predict motorcycle accidents. Although previous studies have established the effect of these variables to accident likelihood, the combination was unforeseen. Government agencies can focus on interventions directed at these three variables.

  13. Description of Various Factors Contributing to Traffic Accidents in Youth and Measures Proposed to Alleviate Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquel, Ludovic; Ordonneau, Pauline; Blot, Emilie; Toillon, Charlotte; Ingrand, Pierre; Romo, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Traffic accidents are the leading cause of hospitalization in adolescence, with the 18-24-year-old age group accounting for 23% of deaths by traffic accidents. Recurrence rate is also high. One in four teenagers will have a relapse within the year following the first accident. Cognitive impairments known in adolescence could cause risky behaviors, defined as repetitive engagement in dangerous situations such as road accidents. Two categories of factors seem to be associated with traffic accidents: (1) factors specific to the traffic environment and (2) "human" factors, which seem to be the most influential. Moreover, the establishment of a stronger relation to high speed driving increases traffic accident risks and can also be intensified by sensation seeking. Other factors such as substance use (alcohol, drugs, and "binge drinking") are also identified as risk factors. Furthermore, cell phone use while driving and attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity also seem to be important risk factors for car accidents. The family environment strongly influences a young person's driving behavior. Some interventional driving strategies and preventive measures have reduced the risk of traffic accidents among young people, such as the graduated driver licensing program and advertising campaigns. So far, few therapeutic approaches have been implemented. Reason why, we decided to set up an innovative strategy consisting of a therapeutic postaccident group intervention, entitled the ECARR2 protocol, to prevent recurrence among adolescents and young adults identified at risk, taking into account the multiple risk factors.

  14. Description of Various Factors Contributing to Traffic Accidents in Youth and Measures Proposed to Alleviate Recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Gicquel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents are the leading cause of hospitalization in adolescence, with the 18–24-year-old age group accounting for 23% of deaths by traffic accidents. Recurrence rate is also high. One in four teenagers will have a relapse within the year following the first accident. Cognitive impairments known in adolescence could cause risky behaviors, defined as repetitive engagement in dangerous situations such as road accidents. Two categories of factors seem to be associated with traffic accidents: (1 factors specific to the traffic environment and (2 “human” factors, which seem to be the most influential. Moreover, the establishment of a stronger relation to high speed driving increases traffic accident risks and can also be intensified by sensation seeking. Other factors such as substance use (alcohol, drugs, and “binge drinking” are also identified as risk factors. Furthermore, cell phone use while driving and attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity also seem to be important risk factors for car accidents. The family environment strongly influences a young person’s driving behavior. Some interventional driving strategies and preventive measures have reduced the risk of traffic accidents among young people, such as the graduated driver licensing program and advertising campaigns. So far, few therapeutic approaches have been implemented. Reason why, we decided to set up an innovative strategy consisting of a therapeutic postaccident group intervention, entitled the ECARR2 protocol, to prevent recurrence among adolescents and young adults identified at risk, taking into account the multiple risk factors.

  15. Personality, Driving Behavior and Mental Disorders Factors as Predictors of Road Traffic Accidents Based on Logistic Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Salman Alavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of variables such as personality traits, driving behavior and mental illness on road traffic accidents among the drivers with accidents and those without road crash. Methods: In this cohort study, 800 bus and truck drivers were recruited. Participants were selected among drivers who referred to Imam Sajjad Hospital (Tehran, Iran during 2013-2015. The Manchester driving behavior questionnaire (MDBQ, big five personality test (NEO personality inventory and semi-structured interview (SADS were used. After two years, we surveyed all accidents due to human factors that involved the recruited drivers. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software by performing the descriptive statistics, t-test, and multiple logistic regression analysis methods. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: In terms of controlling the effective and demographic variables, the findings revealed significant differences between the two groups of drivers that were and were not involved in road accidents. In addition, it was found that depression and anxiety could increase the odds ratio (OR of road accidents by 2.4- and 2.7-folds, respectively (P=0.04, P=0.004. It is noteworthy to mention that neuroticism alone can increase the odds of road accidents by 1.1-fold (P=0.009, but other personality factors did not have a significant effect on the equation. Conclusion: The results revealed that some mental disorders affect the incidence of road collisions. Considering the importance and sensitivity of driving behavior, it is necessary to evaluate multiple psychological factors influencing drivers before and after receiving or renewing their driver’s license.

  16. Personality, Driving Behavior and Mental Disorders Factors as Predictors of Road Traffic Accidents Based on Logistic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Seyyed Salman; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Souri, Hamid; Mohammadi Kalhori, Soroush; Jannatifard, Fereshteh; Sepahbodi, Ghazal

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of variables such as personality traits, driving behavior and mental illness on road traffic accidents among the drivers with accidents and those without road crash. Methods: In this cohort study, 800 bus and truck drivers were recruited. Participants were selected among drivers who referred to Imam Sajjad Hospital (Tehran, Iran) during 2013-2015. The Manchester driving behavior questionnaire (MDBQ), big five personality test (NEO personality inventory) and semi-structured interview (schizophrenia and affective disorders scale) were used. After two years, we surveyed all accidents due to human factors that involved the recruited drivers. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software by performing the descriptive statistics, t-test, and multiple logistic regression analysis methods. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: In terms of controlling the effective and demographic variables, the findings revealed significant differences between the two groups of drivers that were and were not involved in road accidents. In addition, it was found that depression and anxiety could increase the odds ratio (OR) of road accidents by 2.4- and 2.7-folds, respectively (P=0.04, P=0.004). It is noteworthy to mention that neuroticism alone can increase the odds of road accidents by 1.1-fold (P=0.009), but other personality factors did not have a significant effect on the equation. Conclusion: The results revealed that some mental disorders affect the incidence of road collisions. Considering the importance and sensitivity of driving behavior, it is necessary to evaluate multiple psychological factors influencing drivers before and after receiving or renewing their driver’s license. PMID:28293047

  17. [Drunk driving in professional drivers in the Vía Blanca highway in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanche Garcell, Humberto; Suárez Enríquez, Tomás; Gutiérrez García, Francisco; Martínez Quesada, Carlos; Mendoza Pérez, Ramón

    2006-01-01

    To determine the frequency of drunk driving in professional drivers (Via Blanca, Havana City), we carried out a descriptive study of 832 drivers selected by multistage stratified sampling. A structured interview with each driver was carried out to record the variables under study, and a breath alcohol test was subsequently performed. The frequency of drunk driving was 8.18% (95% CI, 5.94%-10.42%), with a predominance of drivers with alcohol levelsDrunk driving was more frequent in "high risk" hours, in drivers aged between 40 and 49 years old (10.3%), and in those with 15 to 24 years of experience (11.02%). The frequency of drunk driving found in this study highlights the need to design traffic accident prevention strategies.

  18. Improving Driver Performance. A Curriculum for Licensed Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highway Users Federation for Safety and Mobility, Washington, DC.

    Curriculum material presented in this manual is for use in the development of an instructional program for drivers who either want or need to improve their driving performance. Three principal units are included: man and highway transportation, driver performance, and factors influencing driver behavior. Each unit is further divided into episodes…

  19. Simulators in driver training.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    In 2010, about 150 driving simulators were being used for the basic driver training in the Netherlands. According to theories about how people learn, simulator training has both advantages and disadvantages. In order to be able to learn something from a simulator, its technical quality must be

  20. Simulators in driver training.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    In 2010, about 150 driving simulators were being used for the basic driver training in the Netherlands. According to theories about how people learn, simulator training has both advantages and disadvantages. In order to be able to learn something from a simulator, its technical quality must be adequ

  1. Seven Performance Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Recent work with automotive e-commerce clients led to the development of a performance analysis methodology called the Seven Performance Drivers, including: standards, incentives, capacity, knowledge and skill, measurement, feedback, and analysis. This methodology has been highly effective in introducing and implementing performance improvement.…

  2. Piezoelectric control of structures prone to instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunjung

    Thin-walled structures such as stiffened panels fabricated out of high strength materials are ubiquitous in aerospace structures. These are prone to buckle in a variety of modes with strong possibility of adverse interaction under axial compression and/or bending. Optimally designed stiffened panels, at an appropriate combination of axial compression and suddenly applied lateral pressure undergo large amplitude oscillations and may experience divergence. Under aerodynamic loading, they can experience flutter instability with the amplitudes of oscillations attaining a limit (LCO) or escalating without any limit. Control of structures prone to these forms of instability using piezo-electric actuators is the theme of this dissertation. Issues involved in the control of stiffened panels under axial compression and liable to buckle simultaneously in local and overall modes are studied. The analytical approach employs finite elements in which are embedded periodic components of local buckling including the second order effects. It is shown that the adverse effects of mode interaction can be counteracted by simply controlling the overall bending of the stiffener by piezo-electric actuators attached its tips. Control is exercised by self-sensing actuators by direct negative feedback voltages proportional to the bending strains of the stiffener. In a dynamic loading environment, where vibrations are triggered by suddenly applied lateral pressure, negative velocity feedback is employed with voltages proportional to the bending strain-rate. The local plate oscillations are effectively controlled by a piezo-electric actuators placed along the longitudinal center line of the panel. The problem of flutter under aerodynamic pressure of stiffened panels in the linear and post-critical regimes is studied using modal analysis and finite strips. The analysis, control and interpretation of the response are facilitated by identification of two families of characteristic modes of

  3. Traffic accidents in Belo Horizonte: the view from three different sources, 2008 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Lúcia Maria Miana Mattos; Gontijo, Eliane Dias; Drumond, Eliane de Freitas; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the contribution of three data sources in the description of traffic accidents in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Exploratory study of databases: BHTRANS (metropolitan traffic and transportation authority), Hospital Admissions and Mortality Information Systems, with estimation of proportions, coefficients and odds ratios. Incomplete data was observed in the three sources, especially regarding alcohol consumption by drivers and use of safety equipment. The victim profile among the sources was consistent: young adults, males, motorcycle riders and pedestrians. In addition to the high mortality rate (19.4 per 100.000 inhabitants), an increase in the number of non-fatal accidents was observed. An increase of 34% in hospital admissions and of 53% in hospital costs was evidenced. The motorcycle accident rate is higher than expected given the fleet composition. Male drivers have the highest risk of injury or death; relative to drivers, passengers or pedestrians have a 1,8 times higher risk of death. There was a 12% increase in the number of deaths at the site of the accident, 55% of which showed positive evidence of alcohol use and 50% higher risk of fatal accidents on weekends. Despite some incomplete record keeping and non-specific death registry codes, it was possible to characterize the main factors associated with accidents: elderly pedestrians, motorcycle riders, alcohol consumption and speeding. The study demonstrated the complementarity of the three data sources, with their different goals, and revealed important features of the traffic accident event-chain and victim profile, providing key data for the development of mitigation strategies.

  4. An econometric analysis of the effects of the penalty points system driver's license in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Manzano, José I; Castro-Nuño, Mercedes; Pedregal, Diego J

    2010-07-01

    This article seeks to quantify the effects of the penalty points system driver's license during the 18-month period following its coming into force. This is achieved by means of univariate and multivariate unobserved component models set up in a state space framework estimated using maximum likelihood. A detailed intervention analysis is carried out in order to test for the effects and their duration of the introduction of the penalty points system driver's license in Spain. Other variables, mainly indicators of the level of economic activity in Spain, are also considered. Among the main effects, we can mention an average reduction of almost 12.6% in the number of deaths in highway accidents. It would take at least 2 years for that effect to disappear. For the rest of the safety indicator variables (vehicle occupants injured in highway accidents and vehicle occupants injured in accidents built-up areas) the effects disappeared 1 year after the law coming into force.

  5. Review of global menace of road accidents with special reference to malaysia- a social perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareem, Abdul

    2003-07-01

    Road accident is 'a global tragedy' with ever-rising trend. The goal of this article includes review of the causes and nature of accidents, statistical data regarding road accidents and the economical impact. 1.17 million deaths occur each year worldwide due to road accidents 70 % of which occur in developing countries. 65% of deaths involve pedestrians, 35 % of which are children. Estimates suggest that 23-34 million people are injured worldwide every year in road crashes - a value almost twice that previously estimated. It is estimated that more than 200 U.S. citizens die each year due to road accidents abroad. Every year in Europe, more than 50,000 peoples are killed in road accidents, and more than 150,000 remain disabled. It is a sad fact that the total number of road accidents in Malaysia exceeded 223,000 in 1999. On the average, 16 persons died from these road accidents, every single day in 1999. Lack of attention, reckless driving, lack of proper protection, speeding, bad personal habits, social and behavioral misconduct and inconsiderate drivers of larger vehicles are some of the problems that cause accidents. In Malaysia, motorcycle fatal accidents (60%) warrant a high degree of concern. Young children and senior citizens are found to be in the vulnerable age group. In Malaysia, in 1999 alone, general insurers paid RM1.67 billion or an average of RM4.6 million a day on motor claims. It is now recognized that road traffic accidents represent a major public health problem, because of the high number of victims involved and because of the seriousness of the consequences for themselves and for their families.

  6. Excessive sleepiness, sleep hygiene, and coping strategies among night bus drivers: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Uma Maheswari; Chhabria, Mamta S.; Rao, Aditi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sleep disruption and excessive sleepiness are the known consequences of shift work. The recent spate of night-time road and air accidents, with some being directly attributed to driver sleepiness prompted us to undertake this study. Aims: To screen for excessive sleepiness, coping practices, and post-shift sleep hygiene in night bus drivers. Settings and Design: This prospective study was carried out on night bus drivers of a public transport organization in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: Bus drivers driving for ≥8 h at night were screened with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and a prevalidated shift work questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the compiled data using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Results: One hundred and eighty bus drivers aged 22–63 years were screened. Excessive Sleepiness: Although only 2 (1.1%) drivers scored above the cutoff on ESS, 10 (5.6%) and 103 (57.2%) drivers admitted to feeling sleepy during daytime and night driving respectively. None of the drivers admitted to causing accidents related to sleepiness. The coping strategies for nocturnal sleepiness included consuming coffee/tea (16.7%), chewing tobacco (12.8%), smoking (6.1%), and walking (3.9%). Post-Shift Sleep Practices: Post-shift sleep duration ranged between 1 h and 10 h. Twenty-six (14.4%) and 16 (8.9%) drivers had difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep, respectively, while 9 (5%) reported frequent awakening during daytime sleep. Conclusion and Implications: This study has demonstrated a high incidence of nocturnal sleepiness and daytime sleep disruption among night bus drivers, thus necessitating the need for education about shift work and alertness testing among shift workers in critical professions. PMID:28194081

  7. Angry drivers: a test of state-trait theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L; Richards, Tracy L; Filetti, Linda B; Lynch, Rebekah S

    2005-08-01

    Tested hypotheses from state-trait theory applied to anger while driving. College student drivers high in trait driving anger were compared to drivers low in trait driving anger. High anger drivers were more frequently angered in day-to-day driving (frequency hypothesis). They reported more intense anger in their most angering driving situations, when visualizing provocative driving events, and in day-to-day driving (intensity hypothesis). Driving diaries and surveys showed they engaged in more aggressive behavior and expressed their anger through more verbal, physical, and vehicular means (aggression hypothesis). They reported handling of their anger less well when visualizing provocative events and on the Adaptive/Constructive Expression scale (reduced adaptive expression hypothesis). They engaged in risky behavior (risky behavior hypothesis) and experienced more moving violations, close calls, and losses of concentration, but not more major or minor accidents (partial support for crash-related outcomes hypothesis). High anger drivers were more generally angry and impulsive and employed more negative, less controlled forms of general anger expression. Results supported state-trait theory and added to the literature showing that high anger drivers have some other psychological and behavioral characteristics that may interact negatively with anger behind the wheel.

  8. Integrated Context-Aware Driver Assistance System Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhadi M. Shakshuki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, significant improvements have been made in the area of vehicular communication systems. Furthermore, vehicle-to-vehicle communication is considered a key concept for keeping roads safe. An efficient implementation of these systems is necessary to ensure the safety of driving situations and to reduce the collision rates. This paper proposes a Context-Aware Driver Assistance System that links drivers with the physical environment surrounding them using multiple types of sensors and traffic systems as well as considering the senior driver's difficulties and the system processing time. This is achieved by developing a warning system that assists drivers to avoid collisions and improve their response times. The proposed system architecture consists of a set of components to process the user's request such as parking assistance, and to provide responses and advices when needed. These components include communication, knowledge exchange, knowledge update, and context-history. Also, it includes other processes such as context-history manipulation, hazard detection, and hazard detection control. The main goal of the proposed system is to reduce the number of car accidents and improve driver's decisions. The NXT Robotic environment is used to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system.

  9. Accurate and fast methods to estimate the population mutation rate from error prone sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto Michael M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The population mutation rate (θ remains one of the most fundamental parameters in genetics, ecology, and evolutionary biology. However, its accurate estimation can be seriously compromised when working with error prone data such as expressed sequence tags, low coverage draft sequences, and other such unfinished products. This study is premised on the simple idea that a random sequence error due to a chance accident during data collection or recording will be distributed within a population dataset as a singleton (i.e., as a polymorphic site where one sampled sequence exhibits a unique base relative to the common nucleotide of the others. Thus, one can avoid these random errors by ignoring the singletons within a dataset. Results This strategy is implemented under an infinite sites model that focuses on only the internal branches of the sample genealogy where a shared polymorphism can arise (i.e., a variable site where each alternative base is represented by at least two sequences. This approach is first used to derive independently the same new Watterson and Tajima estimators of θ, as recently reported by Achaz 1 for error prone sequences. It is then used to modify the recent, full, maximum-likelihood model of Knudsen and Miyamoto 2, which incorporates various factors for experimental error and design with those for coalescence and mutation. These new methods are all accurate and fast according to evolutionary simulations and analyses of a real complex population dataset for the California seahare. Conclusion In light of these results, we recommend the use of these three new methods for the determination of θ from error prone sequences. In particular, we advocate the new maximum likelihood model as a starting point for the further development of more complex coalescent/mutation models that also account for experimental error and design.

  10. Radiation accident grips Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, L.

    1987-11-20

    On 13 September two young scavengers in Goiania, Brazil, removed a stainless steel cylinder from a cancer therapy machine in an abandoned clinic, touching off a radiation accident second only to Chernobyl in its severity. On 18 September they sold the cylinder, the size of a 1-gallon paint can, to a scrap dealer for $25. At the junk yard an employee dismantled the cylinder and pried open the platinum capsule inside to reveal a glowing blue salt-like substance - 1400 curies of cesium-137. Fascinated by the luminescent powder, several people took it home with them. Some children reportedly rubbed in on their bodies like carnival glitter - an eerie image of how wrong things can go when vigilance over radioactive materials lapses. In all, 244 people in Goiania, a city of 1 million in central Brazil, were contaminated. The eventual toll, in terms of cancer or genetic defects, cannot yet be estimated. Parts of the city are cordoned off as radiation teams continue washing down buildings and scooping up radioactive soil. The government is also grappling with the political fallout from the accident.

  11. Measuring and Ranking Value Drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Akalu

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAnalysis of the strength of value drivers is crucial to understand their influence in the process of free cash flow generation. The paper addresses the issue of value driver measurement and ranking. The research reveals that, value drivers have similar pattern across industries.

  12. Measuring and Ranking Value Drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Akalu

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAnalysis of the strength of value drivers is crucial to understand their influence in the process of free cash flow generation. The paper addresses the issue of value driver measurement and ranking. The research reveals that, value drivers have similar pattern across industries. Furtherm

  13. Background music as a risk factor for distraction among young-novice drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Warren; Slor, Zack

    2013-10-01

    There are countless beliefs about the power of music during driving. The last thing one would think about is: how safe is it to listen or sing to music? Unfortunately, collisions linked to music devices have been known for some time; adjusting the radio controls, swapping tape-cassettes and compact-discs, or searching through MP3 files, are all forms of distraction that can result in a near-crash or crash. While the decrement of vehicular performance can also occur from capacity interference to central attention, whether or not music listening is a contributing factor to distraction is relatively unknown. The current study explored the effects of driver-preferred music on driver behavior. 85 young-novice drivers completed six trips in an instrumented Learners Vehicle. The study found that all participants committed at-least 3 driver deficiencies; 27 needed a verbal warning/command and 17 required a steering or braking intervention to prevent an accident. While there were elevated positive moods and enjoyment for trips with driver-preferred music, this background also produced the most frequent severe driver miscalculations and inaccuracies, violations, and aggressive driving. However, trips with music structurally designed to generate moderate levels of perceptual complexity, improved driver behavior and increased driver safety. The study is the first within-subjects on-road high-dose double-exposure clinical-trial investigation of musical stimuli on driver behavior.

  14. WIRELESS ACCIDENT INFORMATION SYSTEM USING GSM AND GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.RATHINAKUMAR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses about designing a Smart Display and Control [SDC] which will monitor the zone and maintains the specified speed in the zone levels, which runs on an embedded system. This system includes three modules; automatic speed control module, accident detection and information sending module and security enabling module. Automatic speed control module includes RF transmitter placed in specific location and RF receiver in the vehicle. Accident detection module includes GSM and GPS technology. Security enabling module includes sensory units which ensures the condition of seat belt and the driver. This module includes alcohol sensor and eye sensor. The smart display and control is composed of two separate units: Zone status Transmitter unit and Receiver (speed Display and Control Unit.

  15. Willingness to use safety belt and levels of injury in car accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lapparent, Matthieu

    2008-05-01

    In this article, we develop a bivariate ordered Probit model to analyze the decision to fasten the safety belt in a car and the resulting severity of accidents if it happens. The approach takes into account the fact that the decision to fasten the safety belt has a direct causal effect on the category of injury if an accident happens. Our application to a sample drawn from the database of French accident reports in 2003 for three populations of car users (drivers, front passengers, rear passengers) shows that fastening the safety belt is significantly related to a decrease in severe injuries but it shows also that these car users compensate partly for this safety benefit. Furthermore, it is observed that demographic characteristics of car users, as well as transport facilities, play important roles in decisions to fasten safety belts and in the eventual resulting accident injuries.

  16. Fatal motorcycle accidents and alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M

    1987-01-01

    A series of fatal motorcycle accidents from a 7-year period (1977-1983) has been analyzed. Of the fatalities 30 were operators of the motorcycle, 11 pillion passengers and 8 counterparts. Of 41 operators 37% were sober at the time of accident, 66% had measurable blood alcohol concentration (BAC...

  17. Learning from incidents and accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drupsteen, L.; Kampen, J. van

    2014-01-01

    There are many different definitions for what constitutes an incident or an accident, however the focus is always on unintended and often unforeseen events that cause unintended consequences. This article is focused on the process of learning from incidents and accidents. The focus is on making sure

  18. [Practical management of CPB accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depoix, J-P; Fenet, L; Provenchere, S

    2012-05-01

    Accident of CPB is a reality. It is important to be prepared for discussion with the family, with the hospital administration, eventually with the justice. But we have also to support perfusionnist and anesthetic team in charge of the patient during accident.

  19. Learning from incidents and accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drupsteen, L.; Kampen, J. van

    2014-01-01

    There are many different definitions for what constitutes an incident or an accident, however the focus is always on unintended and often unforeseen events that cause unintended consequences. This article is focused on the process of learning from incidents and accidents. The focus is on making sure

  20. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...... of accidents in normally Danish winter seasons are remarkable alike the amount of salt used in praxis in the winter 2011/2012. • 2.7 ton NaCl/km when using brine spread with nozzles • 5 ton NaCl/km when using pre wetted salt. • 5.7 ton NaCl/km when using kombi spreaders The explanation is that spreading...

  1. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.

    2004-01-01

    method could be used in all of the companies without revisions. The evaluation of accident cost showed that 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in the Danish corporate accounting systems reviewed while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents......The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...... occupational costs of companies for use by occupational health and safety professionals. The method was tested in nine Danish companies within three different industry sectors and the costs of 27 selected occupational accidents in these companies were calculated. One of the main conclusions is that the SACA...

  2. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents.

  3. Elements to diminish radioactive accidents; Elementos para disminuir accidentes radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes I, M.E.; Ramirez G, F.P. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, C.P. 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    In this work it is presented an application of the cause-effect diagram method or Ichikawa method identifying the elements that allow to diminish accidents when the radioactive materials are transported. It is considered the transport of hazardous materials which include radioactive materials in the period: December 1996 until March 1997. Among the identified elements by this method it is possible to mention: the road type, the radioactive source protection, the grade driver responsibility and the preparation that the OEP has in the radioactive material management. It is showed the differences found between the country inner roads and the Mexico City area. (Author)

  4. Automobile Driver Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enev Miro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s automobiles leverage powerful sensors and embedded computers to optimize efficiency, safety, and driver engagement. However the complexity of possible inferences using in-car sensor data is not well understood. While we do not know of attempts by automotive manufacturers or makers of after-market components (like insurance dongles to violate privacy, a key question we ask is: could they (or their collection and later accidental leaks of data violate a driver’s privacy? In the present study, we experimentally investigate the potential to identify individuals using sensor data snippets of their natural driving behavior. More specifically we record the in-vehicle sensor data on the controllerarea- network (CAN of a typical modern vehicle (popular 2009 sedan as each of 15 participants (a performed a series of maneuvers in an isolated parking lot, and (b drove the vehicle in traffic along a defined ~ 50 mile loop through the Seattle metropolitan area. We then split the data into training and testing sets, train an ensemble of classifiers, and evaluate identification accuracy of test data queries by looking at the highest voted candidate when considering all possible one-vs-one comparisons. Our results indicate that, at least among small sets, drivers are indeed distinguishable using only incar sensors. In particular, we find that it is possible to differentiate our 15 drivers with 100% accuracy when training with all of the available sensors using 90% of driving data from each person. Furthermore, it is possible to reach high identification rates using less than 8 minutes of training data. When more training data is available it is possible to reach very high identification using only a single sensor (e.g., the brake pedal. As an extension, we also demonstrate the feasibility of performing driver identification across multiple days of data collection

  5. Risk factors associated with traffic violations and accident severity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Chen, Guanghan

    2013-10-01

    With the recent economic boom in China, vehicle volume and the number of traffic accident fatalities have become the highest in the world. Meanwhile, traffic accidents have become the leading cause of death in China. Systematically analyzing road safety data from different perspectives and applying empirical methods/implementing proper measures to reduce the fatality rate will be an urgent and challenging task for China in the coming years. In this study, we analyze the traffic accident data for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. These data, extracted from the Traffic Management Sector-Specific Incident Case Data Report, are the only officially available and reliable source of traffic accident data (with a sample size>7000 per year). In particular, we focus on two outcome measures: traffic violations and accident severity. Human, vehicle, road and environmental risk factors are considered. First, the results establish the role of traffic violations as one of the major risks threatening road safety. An immediate implication is: if the traffic violation rate could be reduced or controlled successfully, then the rate of serious injuries and fatalities would be reduced accordingly. Second, specific risk factors associated with traffic violations and accident severity are determined. Accordingly, to reduce traffic accident incidence and fatality rates, measures such as traffic regulations and legislation-targeting different vehicle types/driver groups with respect to the various human, vehicle and environment risk factors-are needed. Such measures could include road safety programs for targeted driver groups, focused enforcement of traffic regulations and road/transport facility improvements. Data analysis results arising from this study will shed lights on the development of similar (adjusted) measures to reduce traffic violations and/or accident fatalities and injuries, and to promote road safety in other regions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  6. Typologie des Accidents Cyclistes

    OpenAIRE

    Amoros, Emmanuelle; BILLOT-GRASSET, Alice; Hours, Martine

    2015-01-01

    L'usage du vélo est en hausse en ville ; cette pratique est encouragée dans le cadre du développement durable et de la lutte contre la sédentarité. Pour accompagner cela, il faut réduire les risques d'accident, et pour ce faire, mieux les connaître. Nous utilisons le Registre des victimes de la circulation routière du Rhône, basé sur les services hospitaliers (dont les urgences) ; il est quasi-exhaustif : env. 1100 blessés à vélo/an versus 120 dans les données officielles. L'ensemble des cycl...

  7. a Study of the Reconstruction of Accidents and Crime Scenes Through Computational Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. J.; Chae, S. W.; Kim, S. H.; Yang, K. M.; Chung, H. S.

    Recently, with an increase in the number of studies of the safety of both pedestrians and passengers, computer software, such as MADYMO, Pam-crash, and LS-dyna, has been providing human models for computer simulation. Although such programs have been applied to make machines beneficial for humans, studies that analyze the reconstruction of accidents or crime scenes are rare. Therefore, through computational experiments, the present study presents reconstructions of two questionable accidents. In the first case, a car fell off the road and the driver was separated from it. The accident investigator was very confused because some circumstantial evidence suggested the possibility that the driver was murdered. In the second case, a woman died in her house and the police suspected foul play with her boyfriend as a suspect. These two cases were reconstructed using the human model in MADYMO software. The first case was eventually confirmed as a traffic accident in which the driver bounced out of the car when the car fell off, and the second case was proved to be suicide rather than homicide.

  8. Effect of reducing abdominal compression during prone CT colonography on ascending colonic rotation during supine-to-prone positional change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jong eon; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Hyun Jin; KIm, Ah Young; Ha, Hyun Kwon [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To determine the effect of reduced abdominal compression in prone position on ascending colonic movement during supine-to-prone positional change during CT colonography (CTC). Eighteen consecutive patients who had undergone prone CTC scanning with cushion blocks placed under the chest and hip/thigh to reduce abdominal compression and had confirmed sessile polyps ≥ 6 mm in the well-distended, straight, mid-ascending colon, were included. Radial location along the ascending colonic luminal circumference (°) was measured for 24 polyps and 54 colonic teniae on supine and prone CTC images. The supine-to-prone change ranging between -180° and +180° (- and + for internal and external colonic rotations, respectively), was determined. In addition, possible causes of any ascending colonic rotations were explored. Abdominal compression during prone CTC scanning completely disappeared with the use of cushion blocks in 17 of 18 patients. However, some degrees of ascending colonic rotation were still observed, with the radial location changes of -22° to 61° (median, 13.9°) for the polyps and similar degrees for teniae. Fifty-four percent and 56% of polyps and teniae, respectively, showed changes > 10°. The radial location change of the polyps was significantly associated with the degree of anterior shift of the small bowel and mesentery (r = 0.722, p < 0.001) and the degree of posterior displacement of the ascending colon (r = 0.566, p = 0.004) during supine-to-prone positional change. Ascending colonic rotation upon supine-to-prone positional change during CTC, mostly in the form of external rotation, is not eliminated by removing abdominal compression in prone position.

  9. A Logic Architecture for 360 ADAS-Alerts for Hazards Detection Based in Driver Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izquierdo-Reyes Javier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work is presented a novel approach for passive safety in vehicles by Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS alert emission in 360° around driver to notify about hazards nearby the vehicle depending on the actions taken by driver per the context. This proposal would create a more robust system compared to current passive ADAS systems since the feedback to driver is in the same direction that hazard is detected (Punctual Sound Source Alert, compared with most assistance systems that emits sounds from the monitor or from the dashboard provoking distractions when emits alerts unnecessarily. The increase of security by this method will allow the driver to be aware of their surroundings even in a very quiet cabin or in a noisy environment. Also, it would detect the steering wheel angle, speed of movement and the activation of turning lights among other alerts, which would allow us to define a critical action during driving; apart from using sensors and cameras aimed at the driver to detect patterns of movement during these critical actions and have a prediction of a possible turn or manoeuvre when driving, refer to Figure 1. It will be necessary a reconfiguration of the alert in frequency, time of action depending upon the level of risk to prevent an accident or to reduce the consequences in an imminent accident.

  10. Smart Kids Prone to Dumb Choices on Pot, Booze

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163762.html Smart Kids Prone to Dumb Choices on Pot, Booze ... 23, 2017 THURSDAY, Feb. 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Smart students usually know better than to light up ...

  11. Empathy, Guilt Proneness, and Gender: Relative Contributions to Prosocial Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torstveit, Linda; Sütterlin, Stefan; Lugo, Ricardo Gregorio

    2016-05-01

    Guilt is a moral emotion that is often looked upon as a negative trait. However, studies show that some individuals are more predisposed to think, feel and act in a more ethical manner because of a lower threshold to experience guilt. Some theories of helping behaviour emphasize the evolutionary mechanisms, while other theories stress the importance of social variables. This study investigated whether guilt proneness as a dispositional trait can be associated with prosocial behaviour. Five hundred sixty-nine participants reported in an online survey their own levels of guilt proneness, frequency of prosocial behaviour, and related cognitions such as empathy. This study is among the first to demonstrate how guilt proneness combined with empathy can explain additional variance in prosocial behaviour. The findings also indicate gender differences in the precursors of prosocial behaviour, suggesting women are more influenced by the effects of guilt proneness on prosocial behaviour than men.

  12. Dissociation and fantasy proneness in psychiatric patients: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckelbach, Harald; à Campo, Joost; Hardy, Solange; Giesbrecht, Timo

    2005-01-01

    Nonclinical studies found that dissociative experiences are intimately linked to a trait known as fantasy proneness. We examined the links among dissociative symptoms, fantasy proneness, and impulsivity in psychiatric outpatients. Our sample consisted of 22 patients with schizophrenia, 20 patients with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder, and 19 patients with a major depressive disorder. For the whole sample, levels of dissociation were found to be related to fantasy proneness and impulsivity. There were group differences in dissociative symptoms, with patients with borderline personality disorder reporting more such symptoms than patients with either schizophrenia or major depressive disorder. The overlap between dissociation and fantasy proneness may have important ramifications for studies addressing comorbid phenomena of dissociative symptoms.

  13. The relationship between benzodiazepine use and traffic accidents: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smink, Beitske E; Egberts, Antoine C G; Lusthof, Klaas J; Uges, Donald R A; de Gier, Johan J

    2010-08-01

    In many countries, benzodiazepines are the most commonly used and misused psychoactive medicinal drugs. Results of epidemiological studies investigating the association between benzodiazepine use and traffic accidents seem to be inconclusive or inconsistent at first sight. However, the outcome of epidemiological studies may be influenced by several methodological factors like study design, study population, exposure measurement, outcome definitions and possible confounders. Our objective was to conduct a systematic literature review of epidemiological studies that investigated the association between benzodiazepine use and traffic accidents, including related outcomes like culpability and injury or accident severity. We searched EMBASE, PubMed and Forensic Science Abstracts 3/0 (FORS) for references included in these databases at 1 June 2009 using the term 'benzodiazepines' in combination with 'driving performance' or 'accident risk' or 'traffic accident'. For inclusion in this review, the study design had to be comparative, include road users involved in accidents and provide specific data about benzodiazepines. Sixty-six studies were included in the review. The study populations varied from the general (driving) population, accident-involved road users with or without injury and persons admitted to a hospital to fatally injured accident-involved drivers. Exposure assessment was performed by using toxicological results, prescription data or questionnaires. The divergent study populations and comparison groups and the variety of methods used to express the outcome of interest hampered comparison between results. Evidence is growing that exposure to benzodiazepines is related to increased accident risk. The literature indicates that the greatest accident risk is associated with the use of long half-life benzodiazepines, increasing dosage and the first few weeks of use of benzodiazepines. Clear evidence of increased culpability associated with benzodiazepine use is

  14. Frequency of road accidents in prishtina in the period 2007-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Basri Lenjani; Salih Krasniqi; Njiazi Gashi; Ilaz Bunjaku; Thaxhedin Zaimi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the predictors of fatal road traffic accidents following the war during the year 1999. Methods: The period January 2007-December 2010 has been considered for this research. The used criterion for this research was the distribution of vehicle accidents on a yearly basis, injuries based on systems, vehicle drivers based on their sex, age, causes, accident location, road type, accident type and presence of driving permit. Results: The injured in traffic accidents who have sought emergency medical assistance in the Emergency Center from January 2008 until December 2010. In the period January to December 2007 was 44 111, from which 2 235 or 5.06% were the injured in the road traffic accidents. In the period January to December 2008 the total number of sick, injured and poisoned persons who have sought emergency medical assistance in the Emergency Center was 43 610, with a total number of 2 148 or 5.00% injured in the road traffic accidents. In the period January to December 2009 the total number of sick, injured and poisoned persons who have sought emergency medical assistance in the Emergency Center was 44 228, and the total number of injured in the road traffic accidents was 2 774, or 6.27%. In the period January to December 2010 the total number of sick, injured and poisoned who have sought emergency medical assistance in the Emergency Center was 41 614, and injured from road traffic accidents were 2 384, or 5.72%. Conclusions: Young age, high speed, and alcohol are predictors of fatal road traffic accidents in Pristine district.

  15. The Importance of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis in the Investigation of Road Traffic Accidents: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younis M. Albalooshi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bloodstain pattern analysis has become a field of specialization in Forensic sciences and plays an important role in the reconstruction of events at a crime scene. Research, books, and articles have been published on the analysis and interpretation of bloodstain patterns We present a case study of a road traffic accident in which bloodstain pattern analysis helped us to solve the discrepancy between reports produced by forensic examiners and by the forensic biology department. The case was of a 22-year-old man who died immediately and a 31- year-old woman who survived a road traffic accident. They were both found outside their overturned car and it was impossible to ascertain from initial observations which of the victims was driving the car at the time of the accident. An external examination of the man revealed multiple injuries, and the cause of his death was severe brain injury. The woman survived with a fracture of the forearm, dislocated clavicle bone, and other minor injuries. After initial examination of the car and based on the pattern of injuries the deceased received, forensic examiner concluded that the man was the driving the car at the time of accident. On the other hand, the forensic DNA analysis of bloodstains obtained from the driver's seat matched that of the woman, suggesting that she was the driver. This apparent discrepancy directed the forensic examiner to carry out a bloodstain pattern analysis on the driver's seat. The bloodstain pattern analysis helped resolve the discrepancy and enabled the investigators to identify the driver correctly. This case report emphasizes the importance of bloodstain pattern analysis in the reconstruction of cases involving road traffic accidents.

  16. Mortality in traffic accidents with older adults in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Angela Maria Segura; Arango, Doris Cardona; Fernández, Dedsy Yajaira Berbesí; Martínez, Alejandra Agudelo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the traffic accident mortality in the Colombian older adults during the 1998-2012 period and show the loss of productive years and mortality from this cause. METHODS Quantitative study of the trend analysis of deaths in Colombia in traffic accidents, from 1998 to 2012, according to death records and population projected by the Colombian National Administrative Department of Statistics. Frequency distribution profile of the deceased, death rates per hundred thousand inhabitants, potential years of life lost and calculation of excess mortality by age in the over 60 were made. RESULTS In the study period 100,758 deaths occurred in traffic accidents, 6,717 annual average, of which 18.5% occurred in people aged 60 years and over. The predominated deaths were men; the risk of dying was 32.15 per hundred thousand people in this age range, with double risk of dying those under 60 years. CONCLUSIONS The young population has a higher proportion of deaths, but those over 60 years are at increased risk of death, leading to the need to turn our gaze to the improvement of road infrastructure and standards, to educate the population in self-care and compliance with safety measures and prepare society for an ever more adult population, more numerous and more prone to take risks.

  17. French validation of a new version of the driver behavior questionnaire (DBQ) for drivers of all ages and level of experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guého, Ludivine; Granié, Marie-Axelle; Abric, Jean-Claude

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate a new version of the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) on a sample of French drivers in order to gain a better understanding of different driver behaviors, by differentiating two types of violations (aggressive and ordinary), three types of errors (dangerous, inattention and inexperience) and by taking positive behaviors into account. 525 drivers (205 men and 320 women), between 18 and 79 years of age, filled in a questionnaire on line including the 41 items in the new version of the DBQ and information relative to their mobility and their accident history. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed a six-factor structure: "dangerous errors", "inattention errors", "inexperience errors", "ordinary violations", "aggressive violations" and "positive behaviors". A revised version with 23 items of the new version of the DBQ was produced by selecting the items that loaded most strongly on the six factors. The results also showed the link between demographic variables (age and gender), mobility (kilometers driven weekly), the DBQ scores and the involvement in an accident in the previous five years. This study permitted to validate a more detailed version of the "Driving Behavior Questionnaire" among French drivers of all age and all level of experience.

  18. Prevalence of drugs in oral fluid from truck drivers in Brazilian highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombana, Henrique Silva; Gjerde, Hallvard; Dos Santos, Marcelo Filonzi; Jamt, Ragnhild Elén Gjulem; Yonamine, Mauricio; Rohlfs, Waldo José Caram; Muñoz, Daniel Romero; Leyton, Vilma

    2017-03-01

    Traffic accidents are responsible for 1.25 million deaths worldwide and are the most common cause of death among those aged 15-29 years. In Brazil, traffic accidents caused more than 44,000 deaths in 2014. The use of psychoactive drugs is an important risk factor for being involved in traffic accidents. Previous studies have found that psychoactive substances are commonly used by truck drivers in Brazil to maintain their extensive work schedule and stay awake while driving during nighttime hours. The state of Sao Paulo is one of the most important states regarding goods transportation. Important highways cross through Sao Paulo to other regions from Brazil and to other countries in Latin America. This study aims to determine the prevalence of illicit drug use by truck drivers in the state of Sao Paulo through toxicological analyses of oral fluid. Truck drivers were randomly stopped by police officers on federal roads during morning hours. Oral fluid samples were collected using the Quantisal™ device. In addition, a questionnaire concerning sociodemographic characteristics and health information was administered. Oral fluid samples were screened for amphetamine, cocaine, and tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) by ELISA and the confirmation was performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection (UPLC-MS/MS). Of the 764 drivers stopped, 762 agreed to participate. The participants were driving an average of 614km and 9.4h a day. Of the total samples, 5.2% (n=40) tested positive for drugs. Cocaine was the most frequently found drug (n=21), followed by amphetamine (n=16) and Δ9-THC (n=8). All drivers were men with an average age of 42.5 years. With these results we were able to verify that many truck drivers were still consuming psychoactive drugs while driving, and cocaine was the most prevalent one. This reinforces the need for preventive measures aimed at controlling the use of illicit drugs by truck drivers in Brazil.

  19. Risk Factors for Near Miss Incident among Long Distance Bus Drivers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Nor Ronaidi NIK MAHDI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic accident is a worldwide public health issue that has its highest impact on low and middle income countries including Malaysia. Many previous studies concerned on the causality of the actual accidents and little attention were given to near miss incidents. Hence, the current study was designed to determine the prevalence and associated factors for near miss incident among long distance bus drivers in Malaysia.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 517 long distance bus drivers. Data were collected using interview-guided translated and validated Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Manchester Driver Behaviour questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the significant factors for near miss incident among long distance bus drivers in Malaysia.Results: The prevalence of near miss incident among long distance bus drivers was 37.5% (95% CI: 33.5, 41.8. The significant associated factors for near miss incident were younger age group (ORadj : 1.99; 95% CI: 1.32, 3.01, longer distance travelled per day (ORadj : 2.34; 95% CI: 1.52, 3.60, sleep disturbances (ORadj : 1.74; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.54 and errors in driving behaviour (ORadj : 1.31; 95% CI: 1.23, 1.39.Conclusion: Self-reported near miss incidents were relatively high among long distance bus drivers in Malaysia. This issue should be taken seriously and preventive action should consider the significant human factors such as younger age group, errors in driving behaviours, sleep disturbances as well as occupational factors like distance travelled per day. Keywords: Road traffic accident, Near miss, Bus drivers, Malaysia 

  20. An Amusing Car Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    @@ It was about midnight. My son was riding in the back seat with a friend of his in a car driven by a Chinese schoolmate, when a police car suddenly approached from behind with its siren sounding ominously. The driver immediately stopped his car by the roadside and stepped out to see what was happening. Just at that moment, he seemed to hear a policeman shouting to him: “Back your car!” (Actually, his order was: “Go back into your car!”) Then the student set about backing his car. In a flurry, he went so far as to bump into the police car, which made the cops very much alarmed.

  1. The Role of a Prone Setup in Breast Radiation Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Huppert, Nelly; Jozsef, Gabor; DeWyngaert, Keith; Formenti, Silvia Chiara

    2011-01-01

    Most patients undergoing breast conservation therapy receive radiotherapy in the supine position. Historically, prone breast irradiation has been advocated for women with large pendulous breasts in order to decrease acute and late toxicities. With the advent of CT planning, the prone technique has become both feasible and reproducible. It was shown to be advantageous not only for women with larger breasts but in most patients since it consistently reduces, if not eliminates, the inclusion of ...

  2. Familial aggregation of delusional proneness in schizophrenia and bipolar pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürhoff, Franck; Szöke, Andrei; Méary, Alexandre; Bellivier, Frank; Rouillon, Frédéric; Pauls, David; Leboyer, Marion

    2003-07-01

    Clinical, familial, and, more recently, genetic linkage studies suggest that overlapping genetic susceptibility might contribute to both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. To identify a potential psychotic dimension common to families of both bipolar and schizophrenia probands, the authors tested if delusional proneness was observed among first-degree relatives of bipolar and schizophrenia probands. The authors included 32 schizophrenia probands and 61 bipolar probands and their respective first-degree relatives (N=63 and N=59). They were all interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies, and delusional proneness was assessed with a self-report questionnaire, the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory. Schizophrenia and bipolar probands were subdivided into subgroups according to the intensity of delusional symptoms assessed by Peters et al. Delusions Inventory scores, and the authors compared delusional proneness in their respective first-degree relatives. Familial aggregation of delusional proneness was demonstrated, since Peters et al. Delusions Inventory scores were higher among nonschizophrenic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia probands with productive symptoms and among first-degree relatives of bipolar probands with psychotic features during their affective episodes. The authors also found an intrafamilial correlation of delusional proneness scores in nonaffected siblings of schizophrenia and bipolar probands. Delusional proneness appears to be an inherited predisposition common to both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. In the future, this dimension might be valuable when used as a quantitative phenotype in linkage and association studies.

  3. The role of a prone setup in breast radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly eHuppert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Most patients undergoing breast conservation therapy (BCT receive radiotherapy in the supine position. Historically, prone breast irradiation has been advocated for women with large pendulous breasts in order to decrease acute and late toxicities. With the advent of CT planning, the prone technique has become both feasible and reproducible. It was shown to be advantageous not only for women with larger breasts but in most patients since it consistently reduces, if not eliminates, the inclusion of heart and lung within the field. The prone setup has been accepted as the best localizing position for both MRI and stereotactic biopsy, but its adoption has been delayed in radiotherapy. New technological advances including image-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT and image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT have made possible the exploration of accelerated fractionation schemes with a concomitant boost to the tumor bed in the prone position, along with better imaging and verification of reproducibility of patient setup. This review describes some of the available techniques for prone breast radiotherapy and the available experience in their application. The NYU prone breast radiotherapy approach is discussed, including a summary of the results from several prospective trials.

  4. The role of a prone setup in breast radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Nelly; Jozsef, Gabor; Dewyngaert, Keith; Formenti, Silvia Chiara

    2011-01-01

    Most patients undergoing breast conservation therapy receive radiotherapy in the supine position. Historically, prone breast irradiation has been advocated for women with large pendulous breasts in order to decrease acute and late toxicities. With the advent of CT planning, the prone technique has become both feasible and reproducible. It was shown to be advantageous not only for women with larger breasts but in most patients since it consistently reduces, if not eliminates, the inclusion of heart and lung within the field. The prone setup has been accepted as the best localizing position for both MRI and stereotactic biopsy, but its adoption has been delayed in radiotherapy. New technological advances including image-modulated radiation therapy and image-guided radiation therapy have made possible the exploration of accelerated fractionation schemes with a concomitant boost to the tumor bed in the prone position, along with better imaging and verification of reproducibility of patient setup. This review describes some of the available techniques for prone breast radiotherapy and the available experience in their application. The NYU prone breast radiotherapy approach is discussed, including a summary of the results from several prospective trials.

  5. Epidemiological study of trauma caused by traffic accidents on Hefei—Nanjing expressway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永征; 邵成颂; 等

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the epidemiological data of trauma caused by traffic accidents on Hefei-Nanjing expressway from the year of 1995 to 1996.Methods:The data provided by Anhui Provincial Traffic Police Bureau were analyzed and discussed. Rsults:Mortality rates in 1995 and in 1996 were respectively 0.19 and 0.12 er 10000vehicles.Traffic accidents occurred mostly in fine weather from 22:00 to 6:00.The cause of traffic acidents in the first place was the head-tail collision,then the collision with fixtures or overturning,Traffic accidents bringing about by drivers accounted for more than 70 percent of the cases.The reasons was weary driving,illegal parking and over-speed driving.The breakdown of vehicles and pedestrians on highway were also the cause of accidents.Conclusions:In order to reduce the incidence of traum caused by traffic accidents on expressway,the followings should be carried out as strengthening the policy or traffic administration on expressway,examining strictly vehicles annually,educating drivers to abide by traffic rules,propagandizing people's traffic safety consciousness and forbidding pedestrians to walk into expressways.

  6. Analysis of local subassembly accident in KALIMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Young Min; Jeong, Kwan Seong; Hahn, Do Hee

    2000-10-01

    Subassembly Accidents (S-A) in the Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) may cause extensive clad and fuel melting and are thus regarded as a potential whole core accident initiator. The possibility of S-A occurrence must be very low frequency by the design features, and reactor must have specific instrumentation to interrupt the S-A sequences by causing a reactor shutdown. The evaluation of the relevant initiators, the event sequences which follow them, and their detection are the essence of the safety issue. Particularly, the phenomena of flow blockage caused by foreign materials and/or the debris from the failed fuel pin have been researched world-widely. The foreign strategies for dealing with the S-A and the associated safety issues with experimental and theoretical R and D results are reviewed. This report aims at obtaining information to reasonably evaluate the thermal-hydraulic effect of S-A for a wire-wrapped LMR fuel pin bundle. The mechanism of blockage formation and growth within a pin bundle and at the subassembly entrance is reviewed in the phenomenological aspect. Knowledge about the recent LMR subassembly design and operation procedure to prevent flow blockage will be reflected for KALIMER design later. The blockage analysis method including computer codes and related analytical models are reviewed. Especially SABRE4 code is discussed in detail. Preliminary analyses of flow blockage within a 271-pin driver subassembly have been performed using the SABRE4 computer code. As a result no sodium boiling occurred for the central 24-subchannel blockage as well as 6-subchannel blockage.

  7. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.; Bonell, P.G.; Hicks, D.

    1987-01-01

    The USSR power reactor programme is first described. The reasons for the accident at the Chernobyl-4 RBMK nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986, the sequence of events that took place, and the immediate and long-term consequences are considered. A description of the RBMK-type reactors is given and the design changes resulting from the experience of the accident are explained. The source terms describing the details of the radioactivity release associated with the accident and the environmental consequences are covered in the last two sections of the report. Throughout the text comments referring to the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate Safety assessment principles have been inserted. (U.K.).

  8. Automobile driver fatalities in frontal impacts: air bags compared with manual belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zador, P L; Ciccone, M A

    1993-05-01

    The effectiveness of air bags was estimated in this study by comparing driver fatalities in frontal crashes with driver fatalities in nonfrontal crashes, for cars with air bags and manual belts and cars with manual belts only. Fatal Accident Reporting System data for drivers fatally injured during 1985 to 1991 in 1985 to 1991 model year cars that were equipped with air bags in or before model year 1991 were analyzed. Driver fatalities in frontal crashes in air bag cars were 28% lower than those in comparable cars with manual belts only. This percentage was used for estimating the overall fatality reduction in air bag cars. The reduction was greater in large cars (50%) than in midsize cars (19%) or in small cars (14%). Air bags reduced driver fatalities in frontal crashes involving ejection by about 9%. Fatalities in frontal crashes among drivers who were reportedly using manual belts at the time of the crash were reduced by about 15%. The comparable reduction among drivers who were reportedly not using manual belts was 31%. It was estimated that air bags reduced the total number of all driver fatalities by about 19%.

  9. Drivers' social-work relationships as antecedents of unsafe driving: A social network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizon Peretz, Renana; Luria, Gil

    2017-07-13

    In order to reduce road accidents rates, studies around the globe have attempted to shed light on the antecedents for unsafe road behaviors. The aim of the current research is to contribute to this literature by offering a new organizational antecedent of driver's unsafe behavior: The driver's relationships with his or her peers, as reflected in three types of social networks: negative relationships network, friendship networks and advice networks (safety consulting). We hypothesized that a driver's position in negative relationship networks, friendship networks, and advice networks will predict unsafe driving. Additionally, we hypothesized the existence of mutual influences among the driver's positions in these various networks, and suggested that the driver's positions interact to predict unsafe driving behaviors. The research included 83 professional drivers from four different organizations. Driving behavior data were gathered via the IVDR (In-Vehicle Data Recorder) system, installed in every truck to measure and record the driver's behavior. The findings indicated that the drivers' position in the team networks predicts safe driving behavior: Centrality in negative relationship networks is positively related to unsafe driving, and centrality in friendship networks is negatively related to unsafe driving, while centrality in advice networks is not related to unsafe driving. Furthermore, we found an interaction effect between negative network centrality and centrality in friendship networks. The relation between negative networks and unsafe behavior is weaker when high levels of friendship network centrality exist. The implications will be presented in the Discussion section. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleep Apnea Related Risk of Motor Vehicle Accidents is Reduced by Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: Swedish Traffic Accident Registry Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mahssa; Hedner, Jan; Häbel, Henrike; Nerman, Olle; Grote, Ludger

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). The rate of MVAs in patients suspected of having OSA was determined and the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was investigated. Design: MVA rate in patients referred for OSA was compared to the rate in the general population using data from the Swedish Traffic Accident Registry (STRADA), stratified for age and calendar year. The risk factors for MVAs, using demographic and polygraphy data, and MVA rate before and after CPAP were evaluated in the patient group. Setting: Clinical sleep laboratory and population based control (n = 635,786). Patients: There were 1,478 patients, male sex 70.4%, mean age 53.6 (12.8) y. Interventions: CPAP. Measurements and Results: The number of accidents (n = 74) among patients was compared with the expected number (n = 30) from a control population (STRADA). An increased MVA risk ratio of 2.45 was found among patients compared with controls (P accident risk was most prominent in the elderly patients (65–80 y, seven versus two MVAs). In patients, driving distance (km/y), EDS (Epworth Sleepiness score ≥ 16), short habitual sleep time (≤ 5 h/night), and use of hypnotics were associated with increased MVA risk (odds ratios 1.2, 2.1, 2.7 and 2.1, all P ≤ 0.03). CPAP use ≥ 4 h/night was associated with a reduction of MVA incidence (7.6 to 2.5 accidents/1,000 drivers/y). Conclusions: The motor vehicle accident risk in this large cohort of unselected patients with obstructive sleep apnea suggests a need for accurate tools to identify individuals at risk. Sleep apnea severity (e.g., apnea-hypopnea index) failed to identify patients at risk. Citation: Karimi M, Hedner J, Häbel H, Nerman O, Grote L. Sleep apnea related risk of motor vehicle accidents is reduced by continuous positive airway pressure: Swedish traffic accident registry data. SLEEP 2015;38(3):341–349. PMID:25325460

  11. Analysis of Traffic Accident-Related Facial Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Su Hyun; Gu, Ja Hea; Kang, Dong Hee

    2016-10-01

    The consequences of facial trauma remain of great significance both functionally and esthetically. Traffic accident-related facial trauma is a frequent and significant cause of maxillofacial injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the natural history of traffic accident-related facial injuries in 846 patients over a 10-year period at a regional emergency center. The authors report a retrospective study of 846 patients with facial trauma from traffic accidents. The medical records of these patients were reviewed and analyzed to determine clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of traffic accident-related facial trauma. In total, 687 of the 846 patients (81.2%) had fractures of the face, and nasal bone fractures were the most common followed by zygomatic complex fractures, blow-out fractures, and maxilla fractures. About 51.2% patients had open wounds on the face, such as lacerations, abrasions, skin or soft tissue defects, and friction burns. Only 7.4% of patients were treated conservatively and the others underwent repair or closed and open reduction. The complication rate was 46.3%, and scars were the most common followed by nose-related complication, hypoesthesia, and eyelid deformities. In addition, 47.6% of complication patients underwent secondary operations. Almost 15% of drivers were drunk, and about 8.7% were confessed drowsy during drive. Almost 30% of pedestrians were hit when they jaywalked across the street. Epidemiological data regarding traffic accident-related facial trauma are important and useful not only for decisions about patient care and developing optimal treatment regimens but to develop new methods to prevent injuries.

  12. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  13. Higher prevalence of toxoplasmosis in victims of traffic accidents suggest increased risk of traffic accident in Toxoplasma-infected inhabitants of Istanbul and its suburbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocazeybek, Bekir; Oner, Yasar Ali; Turksoy, Recep; Babur, Cahit; Cakan, Huseyin; Sahip, Nilgun; Unal, Ali; Ozaslan, Abdi; Kilic, Selcuk; Saribas, Suat; Aslan, Mustafa; Taylan, Aysegul; Koc, Sermet; Dirican, Ahmet; Uner, Huseyin Bulent; Oz, Vecdet; Ertekin, Cemalettin; Kucukbasmaci, Omer; Torun, Müzeyyen Mamal

    2009-05-30

    Reflexes of drivers who have toxoplasmosis have been shown to deteriorate from the actions of the parasitic cysts. The cysts can change the level of the neurotransmitters such as dopamine in the brain and by doing so extend the muscle response time and change personality profiles. In this study, we aimed to determine the frequency of the latent toxoplasmosis (LT) in the driver population who were either injured or died in traffic accidents reported in Istanbul and its suburbs. We compared the results with a control group and discussed the relationship between the LT and the traffic accidents. We included 218 (89.7%) non-fatal, 25 (10.3%) fatal cases in our study as study groups. A total 243 subjects, 234 (96%) male, 9 (4%) female (who were alcohol negative) compared with 191 (95.5%) male and 9 (4.5%) female subjects (control group) who had a traffic accident before but no history of toxoplasmosis were studied. Serologic tests, enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for IgG and IgM, and microimmunoflorescence (MIF) for IgG were used as the reference test, the Sabin-Feldman Dye test (SFDT) was used. According to serologic test results, LT seroprevalence in the study groups was 130 (53.5%) and in the control group 56 (28%) (paccident. In a prospective study, Toxoplasma positive and negative subjects can be monitored before they are involved in a traffic accident to clarify the cause and result relationship.

  14. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayer, J E; Clark, A T; Loysen, P; Ballinger, M Y; Mishima, J; Owczarski, P C; Gregory, W S; Nichols, B D

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH.

  15. Paragliding accidents in remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, G; Schippinger, G; Pretscher, R

    1997-08-01

    Paragliding is an increasingly popular hobby, as people try to find new and more adventurous activities. However, there is an increased and inherent danger with this sport. For this reason, as well as the inexperience of many operators, injuries occur frequently. This retrospective study centers on the helicopter rescue of 70 individuals in paragliding accidents. All histories were examined, and 43 patients answered a questionnaire. Nineteen (42%) pilots were injured when taking off, 20 (44%) during the flight, and six (13%) when landing. Routine and experience did not affect the prevalence of accident. Analysis of the causes of accident revealed pilot errors in all but three cases. In 34 rescue operations a landing of the helicopter near the site of the accident was possible. Half of the patients had to be rescued by a cable winch or a long rope fixed to the helicopter. Seven (10%) of the pilots suffered multiple trauma, 38 (54%) had injuries of the lower extremities, and 32 (84%) of them sustained fractures. Injuries to the spine were diagnosed in 34 cases with a fracture rate of 85%. One patient had an incomplete paraplegia. Injuries to the head occurred in 17 patients. No paraglider pilot died. The average hospitalization was 22 days, and average time of working inability was 14 weeks. Fourteen (34%) patients suffered from a permanent damage to their nerves or joints. Forty-three percent of the paragliders continued their sport despite the accident; two of them had another accident. An improved training program is necessary to lower the incidence of paragliding accidents. Optimal equipment to reduce injuries in case of accidents is mandatory. The helicopter emergency physician must perform a careful examination, provide stabilization of airways and circulation, give analgesics, splint fractured extremities, and transport the victim on a vacuum mattress to the appropriate hospital.

  16. Counter-driver shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamba, T.; Nguyen, T. M.; Takeya, K.; Harasaki, T.; Iwakawa, A.; Sasoh, A.

    2015-11-01

    A "counter-driver" shock tube was developed. In this device, two counter drivers are actuated with an appropriate delay time to generate the interaction between a shock wave and a flow in the opposite direction which is induced by another shock wave. The conditions for the counter drivers can be set independently. Each driver is activated by a separate electrically controlled diaphragm rupture device, in which a pneumatic piston drives a rupture needle with a temporal jitter of better than 1.1 ms. Operation demonstrations were conducted to evaluate the practical performance.

  17. Safety Education. A Guide To Help Prevent Accidents Associated with the Home, Student Transportation, Disasters, Pedestrians, Passengers, Fires, Consumerism, Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This teacher's guide presents 10 instructional units for one portion of the Texas-approved course in driver and safety education. The units cover the following topics: what is safety?; accident causation and prevention; home safety; student transportation safety; disasters; pedestrian safety; passenger safety; fire safety; consumer safety; and…

  18. The efficacy of a first aid training course for drivers: an experience from northern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Ali Vakili; Ali Mohjervatan; Seyed Taghi Heydari; Armin Akbarzadeh; Nazanin Sadat Hosini; Farideh Alizad; Peyman Arasteh

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of a first aid training course for a group of drivers.Methods:This study comprised 500 drivers,randomly selected from the road transport companies.They underwent a course of first aid training and the results were evaluated at 0-3 and 4-6 months after training.Results:Both quantitative and qualitative improvements were observed in the drivers' efficacy in giving first aid.Also the rate of correct interventions was higher at 4-6 months than at 0-3 months.The exception was airway management which was not favorably improved after training.Conclusion:The first aid training course for drivers is beneficial and helpful for prehospital care system in road traffic accidents.

  19. Fast SCR Thyratron Driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, M.N.; /SLAC

    2007-06-18

    As part of an improvement project on the linear accelerator at SLAC, it was necessary to replace the original thyratron trigger generator, which consisted of two chassis, two vacuum tubes, and a small thyratron. All solid-state, fast rise, and high voltage thyratron drivers, therefore, have been developed and built for the 244 klystron modulators. The rack mounted, single chassis driver employs a unique way to control and generate pulses through the use of an asymmetric SCR, a PFN, a fast pulse transformer, and a saturable reactor. The resulting output pulse is 2 kV peak into 50 {Omega} load with pulse duration of 1.5 {mu}s FWHM at 180 Hz. The pulse risetime is less than 40 ns with less than 1 ns jitter. Various techniques are used to protect the SCR from being damaged by high voltage and current transients due to thyratron breakdowns. The end-of-line clipper (EOLC) detection circuit is also integrated into this chassis to interrupt the modulator triggering in the event a high percentage of line reflections occurred.

  20. Dextromethorphan in Wisconsin drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochems, Amy; Harding, Patrick; Liddicoat, Laura

    2007-05-01

    Dextromethorphan is a synthetic analogue of codeine used in hundreds of over-the-counter medications for its antitussive effects. There have been numerous reports of dextromethorphan abuse by young adults. Dextromethorphan can produce psychoactive effects similar to that of marijuana, and higher doses will produce dissociative effects, including sensory enhancement and hallucinations. The Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene examined data from blood samples submitted from January 1999 through December 2004 to determine the incidence of dextromethorphan in suspected impaired drivers. A total of 108 samples were found to be positive for dextromethorphan during this time. Dextromethorphan concentrations in these cases ranged from less than 5 to 1800 ng/mL (mean 207 ng/mL), compared to an expected therapeutic concentration range of 0.5-5.9 ng/mL. Overall, the highest dextromethorphan concentrations observed were in males aged 16-20 years. Ninety-six percent of the specimens included in this study were also found to be positive for drugs other than dextromethorphan. A review of police and drug recognition expert reports from several of these cases showed that dextromethorphan-impaired drivers exhibited poor psychomotor performance on standardized field sobriety tests, horizontal gaze nystagmus, vertical gaze nystagmus, and overall signs of central nervous system depression.

  1. Driver behaviour at roadworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy; Calvert, Malcolm

    2015-11-01

    There is an incompatibility between how transport engineers think drivers behave in roadworks and how they actually behave. As a result of this incompatibility we are losing approximately a lane's worth of capacity in addition to those closed by the roadworks themselves. The problem would have little significance were it not for the fact a lane of motorway costs approx. £30 m per mile to construct and £43 k a year to maintain, and that many more roadworks are planned as infrastructure constructed 40 or 50 years previously reaches a critical stage in its lifecycle. Given current traffic volumes, and the sensitivity of road networks to congestion, the effects of roadworks need to be accurately assessed. To do this requires a new ergonomic approach. A large-scale observational study of real traffic conditions was used to identify the issues and impacts, which were then mapped to the ergonomic knowledge-base on driver behaviour, and combined to developed practical guidelines to help in modelling future roadworks scenarios with greater behavioural accuracy. Also stemming from the work are novel directions for the future ergonomic design of roadworks themselves.

  2. Is it reliable that speed-calming solutions as ISA can reach the drivers, who needed it most?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels

    A significant number of trials with Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) have been carried out within the last two decades. Almost all with a promising result; the drivers reduce their proportion of speeding and are in general positive to ISA. However, two tings question this offhand success story; 1......: there has been no commercial break through for ISA so far, even though estimated has shown that ISA can reduce the n. of fatalities in traffic accidents with up to 59%, and 2: in the only ISA trial included drivers, who not participated voluntary in the trial, ISA had virtually no effect on these drivers...

  3. Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakobyan, Aram P.

    In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order based on the expert judgments. The main objective of this PhD dissertation was to develop a software tool (ADAPT) for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. As implied by the name, in dynamic event trees the order and timing of events are determined by the progression of the accident. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. The function of a dynamic APET developed includes prediction of the conditions, timing, and location of containment failure or bypass leading to the release of radioactive material, and calculation of probabilities of those failures. Thus, scenarios that can potentially lead to early containment failure or bypass, such as through accident induced failure of steam generator tubes, are of particular interest. Also, the work is focused on treatment of uncertainties in severe accident phenomena such as creep rupture of major RCS components, hydrogen burn, containment failure, timing of power recovery, etc. Although the ADAPT methodology (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) could be applied to any severe accident analysis code, in this dissertation the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the MELCOR code [1]. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a

  4. Powered two-wheeler drivers' risk of hitting a pedestrian in towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clabaux, Nicolas; Fournier, Jean-Yves; Michel, Jean-Emmanuel

    2014-12-01

    The risk of collision between pedestrians and powered two-wheelers is poorly understood today. The objective of this research is to determine the risk for powered two-wheeler drivers of hitting and injuring a pedestrian per kilometer driven in towns and to compare this risk with that run by four-wheeled vehicle drivers. Using the bodily injury accidents recorded by the police on nine roads in the city of Marseille in 2011 and a campaign of observations of powered two-wheeler traffic, we estimated the risk per kilometer driven by powered two-wheeler drivers of hitting a pedestrian and compared it with the risk run by four-wheeled vehicle drivers. The results show that the risk for powered two-wheeler drivers of hitting and injuring a pedestrian is significantly higher than the risk run by four-wheeled vehicle drivers. On the nine roads studied, it is on average 3.33 times higher (95% CI: 1.63; 6.78). Taking four more years into account made it possible to consolidate these results and to tighten the confidence interval. There does indeed seem to be problems in the interactions between pedestrians and powered two-wheeler users in urban traffic. These interaction problems lead to a higher risk of hitting and injuring a pedestrian for powered two-wheeler drivers than for four-wheeled vehicle drivers. The analysis of the police reports suggests that part of this increased risk comes from filtering maneuvers by powered two-wheelers. Possible countermeasures deal with the urban street layout. Measures consisting in reducing the width and the number of traffic lanes to a strict minimum and installing medians or pedestrian islands could be an effective way for the prevention of urban accidents between pedestrians and powered two-wheelers. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk-based Analysis of Construction Accidents in Iran During 2007-2011-Meta Analyze Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mehran; Ardeshir, Abdollah; Fazel Zarandi, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of occupational accidents and frequency and severity of work related accidents in the construction industry among Iranian insured workers during the years 20072011. The Iranian Social Security Organization (ISSO) accident database containing 21,864 cases between the years 2007-2011 was applied in this study. In the next step, Total Accident Rate (TRA), Total Severity Index (TSI), and Risk Factor (RF) were defined. The core of this work is devoted to analyzing the data from different perspectives such as age of workers, occupation and construction phase, day of the week, time of the day, seasonal analysis, regional considerations, type of accident, and body parts affected. Workers between 15-19 years old (TAR=13.4%) are almost six times more exposed to risk of accident than the average of all ages (TAR=2.51%). Laborers and structural workers (TAR=66.6%) and those working at heights (TAR=47.2%) experience more accidents than other groups of workers. Moreover, older workers over 65 years old (TSI=1.97%> average TSI=1.60%), work supervisors (TSI=12.20% >average TSI=9.09%), and night shift workers (TSI=1.89% >average TSI=1.47%) are more prone to severe accidents. It is recommended that laborers, young workers, weekend and night shift workers be supervised more carefully in the workplace. Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) should be compulsory in working environments, and special attention should be undertaken to people working outdoors and at heights. It is also suggested that policymakers pay more attention to the improvement of safety conditions in deprived and cold western regions.

  6. Risk-based Analysis of Construction Accidents in Iran During 2007-2011-Meta Analyze Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Amiri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of occupational accidents and frequency and severity of work related accidents in the construction industry among Iranian insured workers during the years 20072011.The Iranian Social Security Organization (ISSO accident database containing 21,864 cases between the years 2007-2011 was applied in this study. In the next step, Total Accident Rate (TRA, Total Severity Index (TSI, and Risk Factor (RF were defined. The core of this work is devoted to analyzing the data from different perspectives such as age of workers, occupation and construction phase, day of the week, time of the day, seasonal analysis, regional considerations, type of accident, and body parts affected.Workers between 15-19 years old (TAR=13.4% are almost six times more exposed to risk of accident than the average of all ages (TAR=2.51%. Laborers and structural workers (TAR=66.6% and those working at heights (TAR=47.2% experience more accidents than other groups of workers. Moreover, older workers over 65 years old (TSI=1.97%> average TSI=1.60%, work supervisors (TSI=12.20% >average TSI=9.09%, and night shift workers (TSI=1.89% >average TSI=1.47% are more prone to severe accidents.It is recommended that laborers, young workers, weekend and night shift workers be supervised more carefully in the workplace. Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE should be compulsory in working environments, and special attention should be undertaken to people working outdoors and at heights. It is also suggested that policymakers pay more attention to the improvement of safety conditions in deprived and cold western regions.

  7. Effects of prone and reverse trendelenburg positioning on ocular parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Geordie P; Szirth, Bernard C; Bennett, Henry L; Huang, Sophia S; Thaker, Rajesh S; Heary, Robert F; Turbin, Roger E

    2010-01-01

    : In a pilot study of awake volunteers, intraocular pressure (IOP), choroid layer thickness, and optic nerve diameter were shown to increase in the prone position over 5 h with a nonsignificant trend of attenuation using a 4-degree increase of table inclination. These effects have previously not been isolated from anesthetic and fluid administration over a prolonged period, using an adequate sample size. : After institutional review board approval, 10 healthy volunteers underwent IOP measurement (Tono-Pen XL, Medtronic Solan, Jacksonville, FL) as well as choroidal thickness and optic nerve diameter assessment (Sonomed B-1000, Sonomed, Inc., Lake Success, NY, or the I System-ABD, Innovative Imaging, Inc., Sacramento, CA) on a Jackson table (Orthopedic Systems, Inc., Union City, CA), during 5 h horizontal prone and 5 h 4-degree reverse Trendelenburg positioning. Measurements were assessed as initial supine, initial prone, and hourly thereafter. Vital signs were recorded at each position and time point. : IOP, choroidal thickness, and optic nerve diameter were observed to increase with time in the prone position. A small degree of reverse Trendelenburg attenuated the increase in choroidal thickness but not IOP or optic nerve diameter. : Prolonged prone positioning increases IOP, choroid layer thickness, and optic nerve diameter independent of anesthetics and intravenous fluid infusion and 4 degrees of table inclination (15 cm of head to foot vertical disparity) may not attenuate these effects.

  8. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Laboratory; Chichester, Heather [Idaho National Laboratory; Johns, Jesse [Texas A& M University; Teague, Melissa [Idaho National Laboratory; Tonks, Michael Idaho National Laboratory; Youngblood, Robert [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant

  9. [Accidents of fulguration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virenque, C; Laguerre, J

    1976-01-01

    Fulguration, first electric accident in which the man was a victim, is to day better known. A clap of thunder is decomposed in two elements: lightning, and thunder. Lightning is caused by an electrical discharge, either within a cloud, or between two clouds, or, above all, between a cloud and the surface of the ground. Experimental equipments owned by the French Electricity Company and by the Atomic Energy Commission, have allowed to photograph lightnings and to measure certain physical characteristics (Intensity variable between 25 to 100 kA, voltage variable between 20 to 1 000 kV). The frequency of storms was learned: the isokeraunic level, in France, is about 20, meaning that thunder is heard twenty days during one year. Man may be stricken by thunder by direct hit, by sudden bursting, by earth current, or through various conductors. The electric charge which reached him may go to the earth directly by contact with the ground or may dissipate in the air through a bony promontory (elbow). The total number of victims, "wounded" or deceased, is not now known by statistics. Death comes by insulation breakdown of one of several anatomic cephalic formations: skull, meninx, brain. Many various lesions may happen in survivors: loss of consciousness, more or less long, sensorial or motion deficiencies. All these signs are momentary and generally reversible. Besides one may observe much more intense lesions on the skin: burns and, over all, characteristic aborescence (skin effect by high frequency current). The heart is protected, contrarily to what happens with industrial electrocution. The curative treatment is merely symptomatic : reanimation, surgery for burns or associated traumatic lesions. A prevention is researched to help the lonely man, in the country or in the mountains in the houses (lightning conductor, Faraday cage), in vehicles (aircraft, cars, ships). The mysterious and unforseeable character of lightning still stays, leaving a door opened for numerous

  10. Accident Tolerant Fuel Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Smith; Heather Chichester; Jesse Johns; Melissa Teague; Michael Tonks; Robert Youngblood

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional “accident-tolerant” (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  11. Psychological Factors related to traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín Aldea Muñoz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Automobile drivers fine themselves affected by series psychological factors which are directly related to traffic accidents. In this study we intend to investigate these variables, basing our work on the most convenient sources of information, coming from the police, the General Direction of Traffic, the courts, insurance companies, the Red Cross, Social Security, and forensics. Neither could we ignore the influence which certain forces hold over people´s mental health; this can sometimes intensely affect how they drive. In fact, in the most diverse situations we can observe the way in which a person carries out a task can be conditioned by the presence of other person who may have no direct relationship to him. Society has established its limitations and rules, but speed itself feels omnipotence when imposing controls over the most profound behavior in others; man in usually not conscious of these controls. People generally drive their automobiles in a way similar to their habitual behavior and their personality traits. Nevertheless, it is also important to consider the adaptation of their way of driving to their state of mind at any given moment. The majority of subjects tend to adapt their driving to their emotional state.

  12. Psychological Factors related to traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín Aldea Muñoz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Automobile drivers fine themselves affected by series psychological factors which are directly related to traffic accidents. In this study we intend to investigate these variables, basing our work on the most convenient sources of information, coming from the police, the General Direction of Traffic, the courts, insurance companies, the Red Cross, Social Security, and forensics.Neither could we ignore the influence which certain forces hold over people´s mental health; this can sometimes intensely affect how they drive. In fact, in the most diverse situations we can observe the way in which a person carries out a task can be conditioned by the presence of other person who may have no direct relationship to him. Society has established its limitations and rules, but speed itself feels omnipotence when imposing controls over the most profound behavior in others; man in usually not conscious of these controls. People generally drive their automobiles in a way similar to their habitual behavior and their personality traits. Nevertheless, it is also important to consider the adaptation of their way of driving to their state of mind at any given moment. The majority of subjects tend to adapt their driving to their emotional state.

  13. Knowledge of Traffic Laws and Drivers Behavior on the Roads of Tripoli City, Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussin A.M. Yahia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the knowledge of traffic rules and laws among a sample of drivers from the city of Tripoli and their behavior with respect to the same. A random sample of 416 drivers was selected from various regions for Tripoli, namely: Tajura, Abo Saleem, City Centre and Janzour and administered a questionnaire that would elicit and record their knowledge and behavior regarding road rules and regulations. The study revealed that traffic accidents are most affected by and positively, statistically correlated with certain key behavioral variables determinants such as: commitment to the speed limit, respect for traffic signals, compliance with seat belt use, use of mobile phones, driving under psychological stress or when sick and eating while driving. The study also found that 56% are no committed to the speed limit, only 41% were seat-belt compliant while driving and 71% of them used mobile phones while driving. Sixty nine percent of drivers opted financial penalty for mobile phone use during driving, this may be an indication that alternate traffic rules penalties may be enforced to deter drivers from repeat offenses. Thereto, a numbers of recommendations were presented for implementation by the relevant authorities. Overall, the study found that Tripoli drivers' knowledge of/on traffic laws and accident-risks didn't affect their behavior on the road.

  14. Safety and health of professional drivers who drive on Brazilian highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Veruska Narciso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traffic accidents and resulting injuries and deaths have become a global epidemic. In Brazil, most professional drivers, especially truck drivers, face irregular working hours and can be awake for more than 18 hours/day, which reduces their performance and alertness. In this article, we discuss the laws related to Brazilian professional drivers and their current amendments (No. 12,619/2012 and No. 13,103/2015 in relation to working hours at the wheel and rest breaks, which are vital for the quality of life of drivers and society in general. We note that the new law appears to be less efficient than the previous one as it causes insecurity and concern to the users of the transportation system, drivers, and employers. To restrict and reduce accidents, deaths, and injuries in traffic, appropriate legislation is essential, aiming at the safety of workers and users of highways. The law must also benefit the commercial aspect, strengthening the reduction in production and logistics losses. Additionally, traffic education programs are needed, as well as better supervision in relation to total working hours.

  15. The relationship between fantasy proneness and schizotypy in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Bernardos, María Luisa; Avia, María Dolores

    2006-06-01

    Previous research has found substantial relationships between fantasy proneness and schizotypy in adulthood. The aim of the present study is to examine the connections between these constructs in an adolescent sample. A sample of 511 adolescents filled out a measure of fantasy proneness and a measure of psychotic-like phenomena. The factorial pattern for schizotypal traits in adolescents replicate the earlier documented three-factor structure. Also, the full range of schizotypal features was found to be related to imaginative tendencies tapped by fantasy proneness. Finally, joint analysis of fantasy and schizotypy showed that, in adolescents, fantasy converges with magical ideation and the cognitive-perceptual dimension of schizotypy, but diverges from the interpersonal aspects of schizotypy.

  16. Drivers of Collaborative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Gudrid

    Drawing upon extant alliance literature, this article substantiates the argument that we need to look beyond mere structural and formative aspects of cooperation in order to fully understand the performance antecedents of public-private partnerships. Currently, scholarly work on operational...... processes and behavioural dimensions is practically non-existent. This article tries to remedy the current gap in the literature by reviewing research findings on interfirm collaboration (alliances). On that basis a conceptual framework for analyzing partnership processes is developed. Finally......, the antecedents of collaborative advantage are theoretically examined, and the organizational competences contributing to collaborative success are identified. The conclusion is that operational processes and social dynamics are vital drivers of collaborative advantage. Another significant conclusion...

  17. Drivers for Welfare Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has become a key goal towards which teaching and workplace learning needs to be directed. Now perceived as germane and even necessary in almost all kinds of welfare work, the innovation potential in everyday practices and ways of allowing for employer creativity have become a highly...... on the empirical material, the paper proposes a ‘driver’ model for context sensitive research of innovation in welfare workplaces. The model involves three elements which can be regarded as drivers for innovation: i) craft (i.e. professional skills and knowledge), ii) levers (i.e. experiments and adjustment...... that are not necessarily perceived, performed, and changed in phases. A pragmatic and situated perspective on welfare innovation suggests a conception of welfare innovation which is not translated from firm innovation, but derived directly from welfare contexts....

  18. How to avoid perioperative visual loss following prone spinal surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In a prior article, “Perioperative visual loss (POVL) following prone spinal surgery: A review,” Epstein documented that postoperative visual loss (POVL) occurs in from 0.013% to 0.2% of spine procedures performed in the prone position. POVL is largely attributed to ischemic optic neuropathy (ION), central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO), cortical blindness (CB), direct compression (prone pillows/horseshoe, eye protectors), and rarely, acute angle closure glaucoma. Methods: Risk factors for ION include prolonged surgery, extensive fusions, anemia, hypotension, hypovolemia, diabetes, obesity, use of the Wilson frame, male sex, and microvascular pathology. CRAO may result from improper prone positioning (e.g., eye compression or rotation contributing to jugular/venous or carotid compression), while CB more typically results from both direct compression and obesity. Results: Several preventive/prophylactic measures should limit the risk of POVL. The routine use of an arterial line and continuous intraoperative monitoring document intraoperative hypotension/hypovolemia/anemia that can be immediately corrected with appropriate resuscitative measures. Application of a 3-pin head holder completely eliminates direct eye compression and maintains the neck in a neutral posture, thus avoiding rotation that can contribute to jugular/venous obstruction and/or inadvertent carotid compression. In addition, elevating the head 10° from the horizontal directly reduces intraocular pressure. Conclusions: The best way to avoid POVL following prone spine surgery is to prevent it. Routine use of an arterial line, intraoperative monitoring, a 3-pin head holder, and elevation of the head 10° from the horizontal should limit the risk of encountering POVL after spinal procedures performed in the prone position. PMID:27274406

  19. Novel application of red-light runner proneness theory within traffic microsimulation to an actual signal junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Margaret Carol; Galatioto, Fabio; Giuffrè, Tullio; Tesoriere, Giovanni

    2012-05-01

    Building on previous research a conceptual framework, based on potential conflicts analysis, has provided a quantitative evaluation of 'proneness' to red-light running behaviour at urban signalised intersections of different geometric, flow and driver characteristics. The results provided evidence that commonly used violation rates could cause inappropriate evaluation of the extent of the red-light running phenomenon. Initially, an in-depth investigation of the functional form of the mathematical relationship between the potential and actual red-light runners was carried out. The application of the conceptual framework was tested on a signalised intersection in order to quantify the proneness to red-light running. For the particular junction studied proneness for daytime was found to be 0.17 north and 0.16 south for opposing main road approaches and 0.42 east and 0.59 west for the secondary approaches. Further investigations were carried out using a traffic microsimulation model, to explore those geometric features and traffic volumes (arrival patterns at the stop-line) that significantly affect red-light running. In this way the prediction capability of the proposed potential conflict model was improved. A degree of consistency in the measured and simulated red-light running was observed and the conceptual framework was tested through a sensitivity analysis applied to different stop-line positions and traffic volume variations. The microsimulation, although at its early stages of development, has shown promise in its ability to model unintentional red light running behaviour and following further work through application to other junctions, potentially provides a tool for evaluation of alternative junction designs on proneness. In brief, this paper proposes and applies a novel approach to model red-light running using a microsimulation and demonstrates consistency with the observed and theoretical results.

  20. Hypnotic responsiveness: expectancy, attitudes, fantasy proneness, absorption, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joseph P; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effect of providing information linking participants' attitudes toward hypnosis with later hypnotic performance. Using total scale scores from McConkey's Opinions About Hypnosis scale, as well as subscale scores, the authors found a weak association between attitudes and performance among 460 student participants; however, the correlation was unaffected by prehypnotic information specifically connecting attitudes and performance. A brief, 3-item measure of hypnotic expectancies generated the strongest correlation with hypnotic responsiveness. The authors also found that the association between fantasy proneness and hypnotizability was unaffected by the order of scale administration. Finally, the study highlighted gender differences across measures of fantasy proneness, absorption, expectancy, and hypnotizability.

  1. A holistic perspective on corporate sustainability drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, Rodrigo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/36412380X

    2015-01-01

    Since company boards are increasingly discussing 'sustainability', it becomes necessary to examine the nature of sustainability drivers. Most approaches to corporate sustainability drivers have focused either on internal or external drivers. This paper is aimed at providing a more holistic

  2. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, B.; Groenberg, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs.

  3. Radioactive materials transport accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSweeney, T.I.; Maheras, S.J.; Ross, S.B. [Battelle Memorial Inst. (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Over the last 25 years, one of the major issues raised regarding radioactive material transportation has been the risk of severe accidents. While numerous studies have shown that traffic fatalities dominate the risk, modeling the risk of severe accidents has remained one of the most difficult analysis problems. This paper will show how models that were developed for nuclear spent fuel transport accident analysis can be adopted to obtain estimates of release fractions for other types of radioactive material such as vitrified highlevel radioactive waste. The paper will also show how some experimental results from fire experiments involving low level waste packaging can be used in modeling transport accident analysis with this waste form. The results of the analysis enable an analyst to clearly show the differences in the release fractions as a function of accident severity. The paper will also show that by placing the data in a database such as ACCESS trademark, it is possible to obtain risk measures for transporting the waste forms along proposed routes from the generator site to potential final disposal sites.

  4. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, C S

    1989-09-01

    Twenty-two nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast-pulse Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a total of 62 different organizations a forum for discussion of criticality accident dosimetry, an opportunity to test their neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry systems under a variety of simulated criticality accident conditions, and the experience of comparing results with reference dose values as well as with the measured results obtained by others making measurements under identical conditions. Sixty-nine nuclear accidents (27 with unmoderated neutron energy spectra and 42 with eight different shielded spectra) have been simulated in the studies. Neutron doses were in the 0.2-8.5 Gy range and gamma doses in the 0.1-2.0 Gy range. A total of 2,289 dose measurements (1,311 neutron, 978 gamma) were made during the intercomparisons. The primary methods of neutron dosimetry were activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and blood sodium activation. The main methods of gamma dose measurement were thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiophotoluminescent glass, and film. About 68% of the neutron measurements met the accuracy guidelines (+/- 25%) and about 52% of the gamma measurements met the accuracy criterion (+/- 20%) for accident dosimetry.

  5. 44 CFR 60.24 - Planning considerations for flood-related erosion-prone areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... flood-related erosion-prone areas. 60.24 Section 60.24 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL..., Mudslide (i.e., Mudflow)-Prone and Flood-Related Erosion-Prone Areas § 60.24 Planning considerations for flood-related erosion-prone areas. The planning process for communities identified under part 65 of this...

  6. 44 CFR 60.22 - Planning considerations for flood-prone areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Planning considerations for... CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Additional Considerations in Managing Flood-Prone, Mudslide (i.e., Mudflow)-Prone and Flood-Related Erosion-Prone Areas § 60.22 Planning considerations for flood-prone areas...

  7. DATA ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS AND THEIR CAUSES IN GOMEL FOR 2013 AND 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Azemsha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Measures undertaken for improvement of road traffic safety presuppose clampdown on violation of road traffic regulations but no attention is paid to the fact that there is no possibility to ensure road traffic safety due to inconformity of roads to the modern safety requirements. Therefore reduction in accident rate is connected with some changes in approaches to designing, construction and maintenance of roads. Nowadays when the number of automobiles is extremely large and their number is increasing with every passing year driver’s professionalism becomes the most significant factor. In these circumstances the professionalism is demonstrated not so much while driving in bad road conditions as it was previously but the professionalism is more revealed in the case when it is necessary to drive in conditions of large workloads and high manoeuvring rate when a special important role is given to the capability to forecast a situation, in other words the capability to read the road. Moral climate on the road is no less important as well and it practically fully depends on a driver.The paper contains an analysis of the Gomel traffic police data on quantitative distribution of road traffic accidents and their victims according to the time of day and month, lighting conditions, weather conditions, age and sex factors, types of violations. Situations of traffic behavior, motivations of drivers and road users, drivers training have been shown in terms of impact on the road traffic accident risk. The paper considers a human factor which rather often causes an accident. An evaluation has been given to such factor as road speed of transport facilities which exerts a significant influence on an accident risk and its severity.

  8. Amphetamine, cocaine and cannabinoids use among truck drivers on the roads in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyton, V; Sinagawa, D M; Oliveira, K C B G; Schmitz, W; Andreuccetti, G; De Martinis, B S; Yonamine, M; Munoz, D R

    2012-02-10

    Drugs are important risk factors for traffic accidents. In Brazil, truck drivers report using amphetamines to maintain their extensive work schedule and stay awake. These drugs can be obtained without prescription easily on Brazilian roads. The use of these stimulants can result in health problems and can be associated with traffic accidents. There are Brazilian studies that show that drivers use drugs. However, these studies are questionnaire-based and do not always reflect real-life situations. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the prevalence of drug use by truck drivers on the roads of Sao Paulo State, Brazil, during 2009. Drivers of large trucks were randomly stopped by police officers on the interstate roads during morning hours. After being informed of the goals of the study, the drivers gave written informed consent before providing a urine sample. In addition, a questionnaire concerning sociodemographic characteristics and health information was administered. Urine samples were screened for amphetamines, cocaine, and cannabinoids by immunoassay and the confirmation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Of the 488 drivers stopped, 456 (93.4%) provided urine samples, and 9.3% of them (n=42) tested positive for drugs. Amphetamines were the most commonly found (n=26) drug, representing 61.9% of the positive samples. Ten cases tested positive for cocaine (23.8%), and five for cannabinoids (11.9%). All drivers were male with a mean age of 40 ± 10.8 years, and 29.3% of them reported some health problem (diabetes, high blood pressure and/or stress). A high incidence of truck drivers who tested positive for drug use was found, among other reported health problems. Thus, there is an evident need to promote a healthier lifestyle among professional drivers and a need for preventive measures aimed at controlling the use of drugs by truck drivers in Brazil.

  9. Road Traffic Accidents - The Number One Killer in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmajid Ahmed Ali

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To The Editor: It is estimated that 1.26 million people worldwide died in 2000 from road traffic accidents, 90% of them in low and middle-income countries. In 2000, the road traffic injury mortality rate for the world was 20.8 per 100,000 populations (30.8 in males, 11.0 in females [1].The Arab population constitutes 3.6% of the world’s population and it owns 1% of the world’s vehicles. Its human losses as a result of road traffic accidents (RTA account for 4.8% of that of the world’s losses [2]. It is estimated that the annual cost of road crashes is about 1% of the Gross National Product (GNP in developing countries, 1.5 in transitional countries and 2% in highly motorised countries [3].In Libya the situation is worse. It is a sad fact that road traffic accidents are the number one killer in Libya. As a matter of fact I consider it to be an ‘epidemic’ in all sectors of the Libyan society. There is not a day that goes by in Libya without us hearing about families, young men, women and children getting killed in horrific car accidents.It is alarming that young children are knocked down on a daily basis by speeding young drivers, whose understanding of driving skills may have been acquired from "playstation games"! (You can watch some of the shameful video clips sent by some of these drivers on this link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=doWEDjiHlVoI feel it is our responsibility as physicians observing the situation to raise awareness about the scale of the problem, possible causes, and how to tackle it. POSSIBLE CAUSES:• A driving licence in Libya is not issued on the basis of how much you know. Therefore the majority of drivers know little or nothing about the law.• Wearing seat belts is not compulsory in most parts of Libya. In some places, especially in the Eastern part of Libya, you could be penalised for wearing one. I was stopped many years ago by the traffic police in the Eastern part of Libya because I was wearing sunglasses

  10. The child accident repeater: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J G

    1980-04-01

    The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.

  11. Hindsight Bias in Cause Analysis of Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atsuo Murata; Yasunari Matsushita

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that hindsight becomes an obstacle to the objective investigation of an accident, and that the proper countermeasures for the prevention of such an accident is impossible if we view the accident with hindsight. Therefore, it is important for organizational managers to prevent hindsight from occurring so that hindsight does not hinder objective and proper measures to be taken and this does not lead to a serious accident. In this study, a basic phenomenon potentially related to accidents, that is, hindsight was taken up, and an attempt was made to explore the phenomenon in order to get basically insights into the prevention of accidents caused by such a cognitive bias.

  12. Severe accident simulation at Olkiuoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirkkonen, H.; Saarenpaeae, T. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), Olkiluoto (Finland); Cliff Po, L.C. [Micro-Simulation Technology, Montville, NJ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A personal computer-based simulator was developed for the Olkiluoto nuclear plant in Finland for training in severe accident management. The generic software PCTRAN was expanded to model the plant-specific features of the ABB Atom designed BWR including its containment over-pressure protection and filtered vent systems. Scenarios including core heat-up, hydrogen generation, core melt and vessel penetration were developed in this work. Radiation leakage paths and dose rate distribution are presented graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an 486 DX2-66, PCTRAN-TVO achieves a speed about 15 times faster than real-time. A convenient and user-friendly graphic interface allows full interactive control. In this paper a review of the component models and verification runs are presented.

  13. Road characteristics and bicycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, P; Björnstig, U; Bygren, L O

    1996-12-01

    In Umeå, Sweden, defects in the physical road surface contributed to nearly half of the single bicycle accidents. The total social cost of these injuries to people amount to at least SEK 20 million (SEK 60,000 or about USD 8,500 per accident), which corresponds to the estimated loss of "eight life equivalents a year". Improved winter maintenance seems to have the greatest injury prevention potential and would probably reduce the number of injuries considerably, whereas improved road quality and modification of kerbs would reduce the most severe injuries. A local traffic safety program should try to prevent road accidents instead of handling the consequences of them. In accordance with Parliament decisions on traffic we would like to see increased investment in measures favoring bicycle traffic, where cycling is seen as a solution, not as a problem.

  14. Bathtub immersion accidents involving children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, J; Nixon, J

    1977-02-12

    A review of 19 consecutive serious bathtub immersion accidents (11 survivals, 8 fatalities) is presented. In all instances, consciousness was lost in the water. Unlike other childhood accidents which usually show a male predominance, the sexes are equally affected. The modal age is 11 months. Six separate causes of bath drownings and near-drownings have been identified, and in 14 of the 19 accidents, two or more causes were operating concurrently. Median estimated immersion time for survivals was four minutes, and five minutes for fatalities. The median depth of water was eight inches. An 'at risk' profile for home bathtub drownings is presented; this includes the youngest or second youngest child of a large family, a family of grade 4 to 7 sociooccupational status (congalton) and a family in which routine is temporarily broken.

  15. Internal Accident Report on EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Department

    2006-01-01

    The A2 Safety Code requires that, the Internal Accident Report form must be filled in by the person concerned or any witness to ensure that all the relevant services are informed. Please note that an electronic version of this form has been elaborated in collaboration with SC-IE, HR-OPS-OP and IT-AIS. Whenever possible, the electronic form shall be used. The relative icon is available on the EDH Desktop, Other tasks page, under the Safety heading, or directly here: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Accident/. If you have any questions, please contact the SC Secretariat, tel. 75097 Please notice that the Internal Accident Report is an integral part of the Safety Code A2 and does not replace the HS50.

  16. Fukushima accident study using MELCOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Randall O Gauntt

    2013-01-01

    The accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station stunned the world as the sequences played out over severals days and videos of hydrogen explosions were televised as they took place.The accidents all resulted in severe damage to the reactor cores and releases of radioactivity to the environment despite heroic measures had taken by the operating personnel.The following paper provides some background into the development of these accidents and their root causes,chief among them,the prolonged station blackout conditions that isolated the reactors from their ultimate heat sink — the ocean.The interpretations given in this paper are summarized from a recently completed report funded by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE).

  17. Exploring Challenges in Developing a Smart and Effective Assistive System for Improving the Experience of the Elderly Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sebin; Meng, Hong-Ying; Qin, Sheng-Feng

    2017-09-01

    As the overall population ages, driving-related accidents and injuries, associated with elderly drivers, have risen. Existing research about elderly drivers mainly focuses on factual data collection and analysis, indicating the elderly's growing fatal accident rates and their different behaviours compared to younger drivers. However, few research has focused on design-led practical solutions to mitigate the elderly's growing fatal accidents, by considering their usability and body conditions, afflicting the elderly, such as decreased vision, hearing, and reaction times. In this paper, first, current worldwide situations on growing fatal accident rates for elderly drivers is reviewed and the key impact factors are identified and discussed with regarding to usability and design trend in the automotive technology for elderly. Second, existing smart vehicle technology-based solutions to promote safe driving are explored and their pros and cons are discussed and analysed. Most of solutions are not created by people with driving difficulties, which are caused by health problems most commonly afflicting the elderly. Thirdly, diverse design-led research activities are taken, such as a survey, observation, and interviews to gain new understanding of what kinds of driving problems elderly drivers have and demonstrate how new system concepts could be developed for the elderly's benefits. Finally, it is found that the elderly's low vision and late reaction are main factors causing their driving difficulties. Based on this finding, usable vehicle system design ideas have been proposed, by utilising facial expression sensing technology as a solution. The proposed solutions would ensure reducing both the elderly's driving problems and high fatal accident rates and provide a more enjoyable driving environment for the elderly population.

  18. Estrategias de prevención y vigilancia sobre el uso de sustancias ilícitas y su impacto en los costos de accidentes en conductores de carga pesada en México Estratégia de prevenção e vigilância sobre o consumo de sustâncias ilícitas e os custos dos acidentes em motoristas de carga pesada, no México Prevention and monitoring strategies on the use of illicit substances and accidents and costs in heavy load drivers in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Puente-Rodríguez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Las colisiones de tránsito son uno de los grandes problemas de Salud Pública en el mundo, los impactos afectan áreas de la salud, económica y social. Los conductores de carga pesada fueron el objeto de este estudio. Se tuvo por objetivo identificar los costos de accidentes después de aplicar estrategias de control de consumo de sustancias lícitas e ilícitas en conductores de transporte de carga pesada. Se realizó un estudio correlacional retrospectivo de 2004 a 2006. La población a la que se aplicó el programa disminuyó el número de accidentes en 15%, y el costo por daños por colisión en 24%. Se concluye que estudios de esta naturaleza son importantes para implantación de programas orientados a modificar la conducta cuidado y seguimiento de la salud de los conductores profesionales.Os acidentes de trânsito constituem um dos maiores problemas de saúde pública no mundo, e seus impactos afetam as áreas de saúde, econômica e social. O motorista de carga pesada é o objeto do presente estudo. O objetivo foi identificar os custos de acidentes ao aplicar estratégias de controle, frente ao uso de drogas lícitas e ilícitas, em motoristas de carga pesada. Como metodologia deste estudo foi usada a pesquisa retrospectiva correlacional, conduzida de 2004 a 2006. Com base no censo, na população participante do programa houve diminuição do número de acidentes de 15% e dos custos por danos causados por colisão de 24%. Conclui-se que estudos dessa natureza são importantes para implantação de programas direcionados à modificação de comportamentos e monitorização do cuidado de saúde a motoristas profissionais.Road crashes are one of the largest public health problems in the world. Impacts affect Health, Economic and Social areas. This study focuses on heavy load drivers. The goal is to identify the costs of accidents to implement control strategies for licit and illicit substance consumption in heavy load drivers. Method: a

  19. Development drivers for waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David C

    2007-06-01

    This paper identifies six broad groups of drivers for development in waste management. Public health led to the emergence of formalized waste collection systems in the nineteenth century, and remains a key driver in developing countries. Environmental protection came to the forefront in the 1970s, with an initial focus on eliminating uncontrolled disposal, followed by the systematic increasing of technical standards. Today, developing countries seem still to be struggling with these first steps; while climate change is also emerging as a key driver. The resource value of waste, which allows people to make a living from discarded materials, was an important driver historically, and remains so in developing countries today. A current trend in developed countries is closing the loop, moving from the concept of 'end-of-pipe' waste management towards a more holistic resource management. Two underpinning groups of drivers are institutional and responsibility issues, and public awareness. There is no, one single driver for development in waste management: the balance between these six groups of drivers has varied over time, and will vary between countries depending on local circumstances, and between stakeholders depending on their perspective. The next appropriate steps towards developing a sustainable, integrated waste management system will also vary in each local situation.

  20. Study the epidemiological profile of taxi drivers in the background of occupational environment, stress and personality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, Mukesh Suresh; Srivastav, Manissha

    2013-09-01

    Work hazards have been a major cause of concern in driving industry especially in taxi drivers. This study integrates the various factors that influence physical and emotional well-being of taxi drivers into the theoretical model that shows that the work environment, stress and personality characteristics directly influence taxi drivers' health. The aim of the following study is to study the relative and combined influence of work environment, personality characteristics and stress on the health of taxi drivers. [corrected] The present study is cross-sectional (descriptive) study taxi drivers in Mumbai. They are selected using multistage random sampling method. Calculated sample size is 508. Data produced after the survey is analyzed using IBM SPSS 16.0 software. Nearly 65% of taxi drivers belonged to middle-age group of 21-40 years of age. Majority (59%) of taxi drivers belonged to the lower upper socio-economic class. 70% of taxi drivers worked for more than 8 h daily. 63% gave the history of one or more addictions. 52% taxi drivers had type B1 personality, only 6% had stress prone and aggressive type A1 personality. Traffic congestion (67.1%) was reported as the leading stressor followed by narrow bottle neck roads (43%), too many speed breakers (41%), rude gestures and behavior by other drivers (42%) and bad weather (36%). Nearly 86% taxi drivers had one or more symptoms of morbidities. Gastrointestinal symptoms predominated followed by musculoskeletal symptoms and depression. Socio-demographic attributes, work environment, stress and personality significantly influence physical and psychological morbidities in taxi drivers.

  1. Risk factors affecting the severity of traffic accidents at Shanghai river-crossing tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian John; Xing, Yingying; Wang, Chen; Cai, Xiaonan

    2016-01-01

    With increasing traffic volume and urban development, increasing numbers of underground tunnels have been constructed to relieve conflict between strained land and heavy traffic. However, as more long tunnels are constructed, tunnel traffic safety is becoming increasingly serious. Thus, it is necessary to acquire their implications and impacts. This study examined 4,539 traffic accidents that have occurred in 14 Shanghai river-crossing tunnels for the period 2011-2012 and analyze the correlation between potential factors and accident injury severity. An ordered logit model was developed to examine the correlation between potential factors and accident injury severity. Results show that increased injury severity is associated with male drivers, drivers aged 65 years or older, accident time from midnight to dawn, weekends, wet road surface, goods vehicles, 3 or more vehicles, 4 or more lanes, middle speed limits (50-79 km/h), zone 3, extra-long tunnels (over 3,000 m), and maximum longitudinal gradient. This article aims to provide useful information for engineers to develop interventions and countermeasures to improve tunnel safety in China.

  2. The effectiveness of antilock braking systems in reducing accidents in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Jeremy; Baughan, Chris

    2002-05-01

    Antilock braking systems (ABS) are fitted to many new cars with the aims of improving their ability to steer while braking heavily and of reducing stopping distances on some road surfaces. This paper presents the findings of a project that assessed the effectiveness of ABS in reducing accidents in Great Britain. A large postal survey was carried out of the owners of modern cars. asking for details of any accidents in which they had been involved during the previous year as well as factors that might influence their likelihood of being involved in an accident. Questions were also asked to test respondents' knowledge of ABS. ABS cars ditfered in several respects from non-ABS cars, as did the two groups of drivers. Consequently, a sophisticated statistical analysis was required to provide unbiased estimates of the effectiveness of ABS. Various results did not achieve statistical significance, but the overall stability of the results indicates that real effects have been measured. They confirm that ABS does have the potential to reduce the number of accidents, but show that this has not been fully achieved. One reason may be that many drivers have little or no knowledge of ABS.

  3. Education Free Virtual Massfor the Prevention of Road Accidents in Ambato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Maximiliano Jordán Cordone

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents is a problem of a global nature, the World Health Organization in its 2009 report notes that are 1.2 million deaths a year from this cause, also indicates that the prevention of traffic accidents involves a wide range of measures where education is a fundamental pillar. In Ecuador the situation is the same, by 2014 more than 35000 traffic incidents were reported This project proposes a process of massive virtual training on issues related to traffic laws, signs and statistics in order to achieve an awareness among drivers, and based on this reduce accident rates. Is taken as a case study, driving schools Trade Union of Professional Drivers of Tungurahua, a population had to investigate comprising students of these training centers, this population is 1600 people, we worked with a sample that arrived 350 people. The study based on surveys, it was concluded that there are several factors to traffic accidents, but the most common are: speeding, driving inebriated, little caution and fatigue, it was also concluded that all people are willing to receive training processes in person or virtual. After the study, the MOOC was implemented located in the http://cursos.cedia.org.ec/ direction, around 500 people enrolled and trained them. The project was supplemented by various accesses to the platform and mobile applications, promotional posters with QR codes and more.

  4. Mindfulness, emotional dysregulation, impulsivity, and stress proneness among hypersexual patients

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, RC; Bramen, JE; Anderson, A; Cohen, MS

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The current study explores relationships between mindfulness, emotional regulation, impulsivity, and stress proneness in a sample of participants recruited in a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder Fifth Edition Field Trial for Hypersexual Disorder and healthy controls to assess whether mindfulness attenuates symptoms of hypersexuality. Method: Hierarchal regression analysis was used to assess whether significant relationships between mindfulness and hypersexuality ...

  5. Absorption, fantasy proneness, and the false fame effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horselenberg, Robert; Merckelbach, Harald; Wessel, Ineke; Verhoeven, Charlotte; Zeles, Gwenny

    2006-01-01

    Participants tend to claim that nonfamous names refer to well-known people when they have previously been required to read these nonfamous names. This false fame effect originates from source monitoring errors. In two studies, we explored whether high levels of absorption or fantasy proneness are re

  6. Prone position in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setten, Mariano; Plotnikow, Gustavo Adrián; Accoce, Matías

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome occupies a great deal of attention in intensive care units. Despite ample knowledge of the physiopathology of this syndrome, the focus in intensive care units consists mostly of life-supporting treatment and avoidance of the side effects of invasive treatments. Although great advances in mechanical ventilation have occurred in the past 20 years, with a significant impact on mortality, the incidence continues to be high. Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, especially the most severe cases, often present with refractory hypoxemia due to shunt, which can require additional treatments beyond mechanical ventilation, among which is mechanical ventilation in the prone position. This method, first recommended to improve oxygenation in 1974, can be easily implemented in any intensive care unit with trained personnel. Prone position has extremely robust bibliographic support. Various randomized clinical studies have demonstrated the effect of prone decubitus on the oxygenation of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome measured in terms of the PaO2/FiO2 ratio, including its effects on increasing patient survival. The members of the Respiratory Therapists Committee of the Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva performed a narrative review with the objective of discovering the available evidence related to the implementation of prone position, changes produced in the respiratory system due to the application of this maneuver, and its impact on mortality. Finally, guidelines are suggested for decision-making. PMID:27925054

  7. The Social Antecedents of Anger Proneness in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. Jay; Russell, David; Glover, Regan; Hutto, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    Anger has been shown to be an important factor in occupational maladjustment, family conflict, physical and sexual assault, criminal behavior, and substance abuse. It has also been linked with such adverse health outcomes as hypertension, heart disease, and cancer. Focusing on anger proneness, conceptualized as a relatively enduring propensity to…

  8. Prone surgery and laryngeal mask airways: an overview of recent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-17

    Aug 17, 2013 ... muscular blocking drugs with their own risks and side- ... Clinicians tend to avoid the use of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in ... Patients are more haemodynamically stable if induced in the prone position .... be more pertinent in male patients.4 ... average body mass index (BMI) was 30.6 kg/m2 for females.

  9. Analyzing the Change-Proneness of APIs and web APIs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, D.

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing the Change-Proneness of APIs and web APIs APIs and web APIs are used to expose existing business logic and, hence, to ease the reuse of functionalities across multiple software systems. Software systems can use the business logic of legacy systems by binding their APIs and web APIs. With t

  10. Man, road and vehicle: risk factors associated with the severity of traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Rosa Lívia Freitas de; Bezerra Filho, José Gomes; Braga, José Ueleres; Magalhães, Francismeire Brasileiro; Macedo, Marinila Calderaro Munguba; Silva, Kellyanne Abreu

    2013-08-01

    To describe the main characteristics of victims, roads and vehicles involved in traffic accidents and the risk factors involved in accidents resulting in death. METHODS A non-concurrent cohort study of traffic accidents in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, in the period from January 2004 to December 2008. Data from the Fortaleza Traffic Accidents Information System, the Mortality Information System, the Hospital Information System and the State Traffic Department Driving Licenses and Vehicle database. Deterministic and probabilistic relationship techniques were used to integrate the databases. First, descriptive analysis of data relating to people, roads, vehicles and weather was carried out. In the investigation of risk factors for death by traffic accident, generalized linear models were used. The fit of the model was verified by likelihood ratio and ROC analysis. RESULTS There were 118,830 accidents recorded in the period. The most common types of accidents were crashes/collisions (78.1%), running over pedestrians (11.9%), colliding with a fixed obstacle (3.9%), and with motorcycles (18.1%). Deaths occurred in 1.4% of accidents. The factors that were independently associated with death by traffic accident in the final model were bicycles (OR = 21.2, 95%CI 16.1;27.8), running over pedestrians OR = 5.9 (95%CI 3.7;9.2), collision with a fixed obstacle (OR = 5.7, 95%CI 3.1;10.5) and accidents involving motorcyclists (OR = 3.5, 95%CI 2.6;4.6). The main contributing factors were a single person being involved (OR = 6.6, 95%CI 4.1;10.73), presence of unskilled drivers (OR = 4.1, 95%CI 2.9;5.5) a single vehicle (OR = 3.9, 95%CI 2,3;6,4), male (OR = 2.5, 95%CI 1.9;3.3), traffic on roads under federal jurisdiction (OR = 2.4, 95%CI 1.8;3.7), early morning hours (OR = 2.4, 95%CI 1.8;3.0), and Sundays (OR = 1.7, 95%CI 1.3;2.2), adjusted according to the log-binomial model. CONCLUSIONS Activities promoting the prevention of traffic accidents should primarily focus on

  11. Traffic Safety of Older Drivers in Various Types of Road Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Tollazzi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In industrialized countries people over 50 years of age represent a rapidly growing part of population. Their lifestyle is also becoming more active, which means that the percentage of older drivers in the population of all drivers is also increasing. Many different studies have shown that elderly drivers are more frequently involved in specific types of accidents, especially at intersections. In the past 15 years there was a trend of increasing popularity of roundabouts in Slovenia. Their introduction was generally supported by the arguments of increased traffic-flow capacity and traffic safety as well. The studies on which these arguments are based were performed with an “ideal” type of driver in mind; the one that fully understands new rules and reacts correctly in all situations that may occur at such intersections, where there are no light signals to guide them. An elderly person does not necessarily conform to that ideal and if the percentage of elderly drivers became significant, the premises of the above mentioned studies may not be correct anymore which in turn implies that their results could also be questioned. The present study concentrated on the evaluation of traffic safety of elderly drivers, at various types of intersection, from their own perspective. Various statistical analyses of obtained data were performed. The most important finding was that we may claim, with high degree of probability, that the average person of the age of over 60 feels more unsafe at double-lane roundabouts than they would feel had the same intersection been equipped with traffic lights. Elderly traffic participants will always cause more accidents or participate in them due to hazardous factors. Challenge, arising from many different studies and researches, is in studying what measures and solutions can reduce the risk for elderly participants. KEYWORDS: traffic safety, road intersections, roundabouts, elderly people, older drivers

  12. A case-control study estimating accident risk for alcohol, medicines and illegal drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Paula Colette Kuypers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to assess the risk of having a traffic accident after using alcohol, single drugs, or a combination, and to determine the concentrations at which this risk is significantly increased. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was carried out, collecting whole blood samples of both cases and controls, in which a number of drugs were detected. The risk of having an accident when under the influence of drugs was estimated using logistic regression adjusting for gender, age and time period of accident (cases/sampling (controls. The main outcome measures were odds ratio (OR for accident risk associated with single and multiple drug use. In total, 337 cases (negative: 176; positive: 161 and 2726 controls (negative: 2425; positive: 301 were included in the study. RESULTS: Main findings were that 1 alcohol in general (all the concentrations together caused an elevated crash risk; 2 cannabis in general also caused an increase in accident risk; at a cut-off of 2 ng/mL THC the risk of having an accident was four times the risk associated with the lowest THC concentrations; 3 when ranking the adjusted OR from lowest to highest risk, alcohol alone or in combination with other drugs was related to a very elevated crash risk, with the highest risk for stimulants combined with sedatives. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated a concentration-dependent crash risk for THC positive drivers. Alcohol and alcohol-drug combinations are by far the most prevalent substances in drivers and subsequently pose the largest risk in traffic, both in terms of risk and scope.

  13. Epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases in Greater Noida: Hospital Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali Roy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road accidents are associated with numerous problems each of which needs to be addressed separately [1]. Accidents, therefore, can be studied in terms of agent, host and environmental factors and epidemiologically classified into time, place and person distribution [2]. Objectives: 1.To assess the prevalence of RTAs coming to hospital and 2.To know the epidemiological factors related to RTAs and associated prevalence in hospital based study. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at SMSR, Gr Noida, in 2012. The study group consisted of all the RTA victims reporting to casualty in the last one year. The victims of the accidents were interviewed on a pretested semi structured performa. Results: In that one year period total number of reported accident cases was 144. The age groups of the study subjects were between 13-65 years. Out of total study subjects, only 16 were female. Again out of the total accident cases 45% were attended by police and of all injured, 45.8% were driver by occupation (7% without driving license. Among these drivers, 11% were not attentive during driving because of various reasons. Ambulance services had reached in 46.5% cases. Fracture was the most common type (60% of injury among all types of injuries. Among the applicable population only 33% wore helmet or seat belts. Conclusions: Only half of the total accident cases were attended by police and again only half of them received ambulance services. One third injuries were because of not wearing seat belt and helmets.

  14. The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire in Arab Gulf countries: Qatar and United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Ozkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo

    2008-07-01

    Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) is one of the most widely used instruments for measuring self-reported driving style and investigating the relationship between driving behaviour and accident involvement. In spite of the fact that Arab Gulf countries have a higher road accident fatality rate compared to European countries and USA, the DBQ has not been used in Arab countries so far. The aim of the present study was to investigate the factor structure of the DBQ, then to examine the relationships between the factors of the DBQ and accident involvement, and finally to compare DBQ scores between the two gulf countries: Qatar and United Arab Emirates (UAE). In this study, 1110 Qatari (263 females and 847 males) and 1286 UAE drivers (294 females and 992 males) filled a survey questionnaire including the DBQ and background information. The results showed that UAE drivers scored higher on almost all DBQ items than Qatari drivers. Surprisingly, only very small differences between men and women on the DBQ item scores were found in UAE. Factor analysis resulted in four factors, which were named as errors, pushing-speeding violations, lapses, and aggression-speeding violations. However, there were a number of differences in the factor structure of the DBQ in UAE and Qatar when compared to the theoretical four-factor structure of the DBQ. Reliabilities of some subscales were also questionably lower than in the original British data. Logistic regression analyses showed that errors, lapses, and aggression-speeding violations predicted accident involvement in Qatar but not in UAE after controlling the effect of the demographic variables (age, sex, and annual mileage).

  15. Perioperative visual loss following prone spinal surgery: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Postoperative visual loss (POVL) following prone spine surgery occurs in from 0.013% to 1% of cases and is variously attributed to ischemic optic neuropathy (ION: anterior ION or posterior ION [reported in 1.9/10,000 cases: constitutes 89% of all POVL cases], central retinal artery occlusion [CRAO], central retinal vein occlusion [CRVO], cortical blindness [CB], direct compression [horseshoe, prone pillows, and eye protectors Dupaco Opti-Gard]), and acute angle closure glaucoma (AACG). Methods: Risk factors for ION include prolonged operative times, long-segment spinal instrumentation, anemia, intraoperative hypotension, diabetes, obesity, male sex, using the Wilson frame, microvascular pathology, decreased the percent of colloid administration, and extensive intraoperative blood loss. Risk factors for CRAO more typically include improper positioning during the surgery (e.g., cervical rotation), while those for CB included prone positioning and obesity. Results: POVL may be avoided by greater utilization of crystalloids versus colloids, administration of α-2 agonists (e.g., decreases intraocular pressure), avoidance of catecholamines (e.g., avoid vasoconstrictors), avoiding intraoperative hypotension, and averting anemia. Patients with glaucoma or glaucoma suspects may undergo preoperative evaluation by ophthalmologists to determine whether they require prophylactic treatment prior to prone spinal surgery and whether and if prophylactic treatment is warranted. Conclusions: The best way to avoid POVL is to recognize its multiple etiologies and limit the various risk factors that contribute to this devastating complication of prone spinal surgery. Furthermore, routinely utilizing a 3-pin head holder will completely avoid ophthalmic compression, while maintaining the neck in a neutral posture, largely avoiding the risk of jugular vein and/or carotid artery compromise and thus avoiding increasing IOP. PMID:27274409

  16. Rosalind Driver studentships

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    The School of Education at King's College London can now offer funded studentships to those wishing to undertake research in science education. These studentships, which are funded through the generous benefaction of the late Rosalind Driver, can be for a full-time student (over a maximum of three years) or several part-time students (a maximum of six years). Applications from anyone working in science education are welcome but preference will be given to those originating from practising science teachers. Applicants will be expected to register for the award of a MPhil/PhD or EdD and are normally expected to have a first degree. Preliminary ideas about a topic for investigation would also be helpful. Further details and application forms are obtainable from Chiz Dube, School of Education, King's College London, Franklin - Wilkins Building, Waterloo Road, London SE1 8WA (tel: 020-7848-3089, e-mail: chiz.dube@kcl.ac.uk). The deadline for the first round of applications was the middle of October, but preliminary informal enquiries may be made to Dr Jonathan Osborne at the School of Education (tel: 020-7848-3094, e-mail: jonathan.osborne@kcl.ac.uk).

  17. How reinforcement sensitivity and perceived risk influence young drivers' reported engagement in risky driving behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbeck, Emma L; Glendon, A Ian

    2013-05-01

    Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST), implementing Carver and White's behavior inhibition system (BIS) and behavior approach system (BAS) scales, was used to predict reported engagement in 10 risky driving behaviors: speeding (2 levels), driving under the influence of alcohol, racing other vehicles, cell phone use (hand-held and hands free), tailgating, unsafe overtaking, driving while fatigued, and not wearing a seatbelt. Participants were 165 young male and female (n=101) drivers aged 17-25 years who held a valid Australian driver's license. Effects of the explanatory variables and specific risk perceptions upon engagement in the reported risky driving behaviors were examined using SEM analyses. Also of interest was whether perceived risk mediated the relationship between the personality variables and reported engagement in risky driving behaviors. RST variables, negative reactivity, reward responsiveness and fun seeking, accounted for unique variance in young drivers' perceived risk. Reward responsiveness and perceived risk accounted for unique variance in young drivers' reported engagement in risky driving behaviors. Negative reactivity was completely mediated by perceived risk in its negative relationship with reported engagement. To better understand driving related risk decision making, future research could usefully incorporate drivers' motivation systems. This has the potential to lead to more tailored approaches to identifying risk-prone drivers and provide information for the development and implementation of media campaigns and educational programs.

  18. Accidents by electrical contact of heavy vehicles with the power distribution network overhead lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourkas, P.D.; Tsarabaris, P.T.; Katsanis, J.S.; Polykrati, A.D. [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Koufakis, E.I. [Public Power Corp., Crete (Greece)

    2009-07-01

    This paper examined an electrical accident that occurred when a heavy vehicle came into contact with a distribution overhead primary circuit transmission line protected by an oil circuit breaker. The back part of a concrete pump truck made contact with a bare conductor on the medium voltage line located in a city. The driver sustained an electrical shock when he tried to descend from his truck and touched the metallic part of the driver's cabin at the same time his feet touched the ground. The accident occurred as a result of the conductive path created between the conductor and the earth through the body of the driver. The thermal, electromechanical, thermochemical and partial discharge breakdowns of the truck's solid insulation tires were studied. The oil circuit breaker was also investigated. Experiments demonstrated that reductions in the dielectric strength of the tires were caused by the wire mesh materials used to reinforce mechanical strength. The old tires avoided static electricity as a result of their increased friction and ohmic resistance value. Thermal breakdown of the wheel rubber occurred when the vehicle came into contact with the medium voltage conductor. It was concluded that drivers must jump away from vehicles that come into contact with transmission lines. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  19. New psychoactive substance α-PVP in a traffic accident case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojek, Sebastian; Kula, Karol; Maciów-Głąb, Martyna; Kłys, Małgorzata

    The problems of new psychoactive substances (NPSs), especially related to drivers, constitute an open research area. In this case report, we present a traffic accident case, in which two passengers of five individuals died instantly, while the other three persons survived the accident with minor injuries only. From the blood samples of the driver and the passengers, α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP), an NPS belonging to the category of cathinone derivatives, was disclosed. Therefore, we established a detailed procedure for analysis of α-PVP in blood samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. After careful validation tests of this method, α-PVP concentration in blood samples from the surviving driver and passengers, and from the two deceased, were measured. The concentrations varied from 20 to 650 ng/mL. Access to detailed information originating from the court files and from explanations provided by the driver and eye witnesses revealed extremely valuable illustrative details addressing the symptoms and pharmacological effects of α-PVP on the human organism, thus contributing to enriching the body of knowledge of α-PVP abuse.

  20. How to reduce the number of accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Among the safety objectives that the Director-General has established for CERN in 2012 is a reduction in the number of workplace accidents.   The best way to prevent workplace accidents is to learn from experience. This is why any accident, fire, instance of pollution, or even a near-miss, should be reported using the EDH form that can be found here. All accident reports are followed up. The departments investigate all accidents that result in sick leave, as well as all the more common categories of accidents at CERN, essentially falls (slipping, falling on stairs, etc.), regardless of whether or not they lead to sick leave. By studying the accident causes that come to light in this way, it is possible to take preventive action to avoid such accidents in the future. If you have any questions, the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. HSE Unit

  1. PREVALENCE OF ORTHOPAEDIC INJURIES DUE TO ROAD SIDE ACCIDENTS IN EAST MADHYA PRADESH REGION OF CENTRAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM This study carried out in Department of Orthopaedics, S.S. Medical College and Sanjay Gandhi Memorial Hospital, Rewa, MP to study the orthopaedic injury caused by road traffic accidents and factors responsible for these injuries. BACKGROUND Road traffic accidents are one of the major causes of death in developed as well as developing countries. India accounts for about 10% of road accident fatalities worldwide and more deaths are recorded due to traffic crashes than due to cardiovascular diseases or neoplasms. METHODS The present study was carried out on the patients injured due to road traffic injuries admitted in orthopaedic ward of Shyam Shah Medical College and associated Sanjay Gandhi Memorial Hospital, Rewa (MP, during the one-year period from 1st October 2014 to 30th September 2015. The collected data was classified and coded as per the guidelines laid down under the WHO/CDC Injury Surveillance System and ICECI. RESULTS This study showed that the majority of crash victims were males in the age group 20-44 years accounting for huge economic losses for their families and the country at large. Motorized two-wheeler accounted for 46.78% of the accidents. Out of total accident victims, 45% were drivers and riders; 49.47% of accidents occurred between 4 pm to 12 pm. Most drivers/riders mentioned had not taken safety measure (Helmet/seat belt during accident. Fractures (87.97% were the most common nature of injuries and lower limb was more commonly involved than the upper limb. CONCLUSION Road traffic accidents are preventable. Strict traffic laws and penalties have to be imposed to curb this ever growing menace.

  2. Trismus: An unusual presentation following road accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Jagdeep

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Trismus due to trauma usually follows road accidents leading to massive faciomaxillary injury. In the literature there is no report of a foreign body causing trismus following a road accident, this rare case is an exception. We present a case of isolated presentation of trismus following a road accident. This case report stresses on the thorough evaluation of patients presenting with trismus following a road accident.

  3. The Physics of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Shows how physics can be used to analyze and prevent traffic accidents by determining critical speeds on curves, the behavior of motor cycles and stability of articulated vehicles, and the visibility that is needed to make a minor road junction safe. (MLH)

  4. Work Accidents and Professional Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Hauptmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The major accident is defined as “any event occurred, like an emission of dangerous materials or agents, which emerges from uncontrolled evolutions along the exploitation of any objective that leads to the immediate or delayed occurrence of serious dangers with impact over human health or over the environment, inside or outside the objective in which are involved one or more than one dangerous materials”.The dangerous phenomenon is a potential source of harms. In the ambit of industrial risks of accidental origins, this expression more frequently refers to physical phenomena like conflagrations, explosions, toxic gases dispersion, etc.Any accident scenario relates itself to the potential effects at the level of environmental “targets”. In the case of major accidents, we can distinguish the following categories of “targets”: human (employees of the objective, working or resident people in the nearby of the emplacement; the installation or equipments that may stay at the origin of the accidents (dangerous equipments; certain all-important equipments to ensure the safety level of the installation (critical security equipments: control rooms, civil fire brigade headquarters, etc; goods and structures situated in the installation’ environment (ground water, rivers, soil, flora, fauna.

  5. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.

    2004-01-01

    The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...

  6. Crime, accidents and social control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junger, Marianne; Terlouw, Gert-Jan; van der Heijden, Peter G.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses to questions. (1) Is there a demonstrable relation between accidents and crime, does this relation hold for each type of crime and each means of transport, and does it subsist after controlling for age and gender? (2) Can social control theory explain involvements in both

  7. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures

  8. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures

  9. [The prone position in ARDS. A successful therapeutic strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörmann, C; Benzer, H; Baum, M; Wicke, K; Putensen, C; Putz, G; Hartlieb, S

    1994-07-01

    As early as 1974, Brian advocated the prone position for ventilated patients. He suggested that this position might enhance ventilation of the dorsal parts of the lungs, thereby improving oxygenation. These considerations have been confirmed by several experimental and clinical studies. Better secretion removal, decreased intrapulmonary shunting, and an increased FRC are thought to be responsible for the observed improvement of oxygenation. However, the prone position never became very popular in the clinical treatment of the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Routine performance of thoracic CT scans in ARDS patients demonstrated preferential distribution of pathological densities in the dependent lung areas. The prone position therefore could possibly benefit these patients, as shown by two recent studies. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of repeatedly turning the patient to the prone position on gas exchange and thoracic CT findings in multiple-trauma patients. METHODS. Seven ventilated intensive care patients with severe ARDS (Murray Score > 2.5, Quotient > 0.7, mean airway pressure > 18 cm H2O, thoracic CT scan showing dorsal atelectases) were included in the study. Patients were turned from the supine to the prone position at 12-h intervals using an air-cushion bed (Mediscus, Austria). Redistribution of dystelectatic or atelectatic dependent lung areas was verified by means of repeated thoracic CT scans (Figs. 1, 8). RESULTS. The patients were intermittently turned for 6.5 +/- 1.1 days. The course of gas exchange is shown in Figs. 2 and 3. Initially, improvement of the respiratory quotient could only be achieved during prone positioning, from the 2nd day in the supine position as well. Intrapulmonary shunting showed a similar trend (Figs. 4 and 5). No significant changes in cardiovascular parameters could be observed. Control thoracic CT scans showed uniform reduction of atelectases in dependent lung areas (Figs. 1 and 8). The

  10. Traffic accident injuries in a referral Orthopedic Hospital in North West of Iran during summer 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohammad Navali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road traffic injuries are a major public health problem, requiring huge efforts for effective and sustainable prevention. Because of the high occurrence of traffic accidents in Iran, basic data acquisition is highly needed to implement prevention plans. The present research is conducted as an epidemiological study of the traffic accident victims referred to a referral orthopedic center in North West of Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during a 3 months period from June to September 2009 in Tabriz, Iran. A total of 16681 patients were admitted to the emergency ward, and 3246 patients (19.5% were hospitalized during this period because of traffic related injuries. After randomization, 630 cases were selected to be enrolled in the study. The location of an accident, position of road users, type of crashed vehicle, cause of accident, type of injury, time interval from accident to hospitalization and treatment outcome were recorded. Statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS software. Results: The mean age of the patients was 31 years (range, 6 months to 98 years and 77.0% of patients (468 cases were men. A total of 193 (36.6% patients sustained traffic accident in open roads and 335 (63.4% in urban corridors. In 67 (12.9% of accidents, there was only a single occupant in the vehicle. The time interval between the accident and admission was 6.6 ± 3.2 hours. Of the 608 cases, 45.7% were drivers, 30.3% passengers, and 24.0% pedestrians. Most cases of the car accident happened in urban areas, and the male victims were largely in the driver group. The most frequent type of injury was knee, leg and head trauma. Conclusion: The large number of traffic-related injuries admitted to our emergency ward that comprise mostly young adults should be considered as an alarming signal to policy makers and health providers in our province. Strict control on drivers’ behavior should be taken into account if increasing human

  11. Studying the Epidemiology of Fatal Traffic Accidents in the Khuzestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaei Behbahani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Traffic accidents with about 1.24 million deaths and 20 to 50 million cases of injury or disability per year are one of the most important public health challenges around the world. In Iran, traffic accidents, with an annual incidence of 32 cases per 100 thousand people, are considered as the second leading cause of death and the most common cause of injury. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiological pattern and mortality rate caused by traffic accidents during year 2012 in the Khuzestan province and its cities. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, all data related to fatal traffic accident referrals to legal medicine center of Khuzestan province during year 2012 were obtained and analyzed. Road traffic accidents mortality rate during this year was calculated for the province and its cities. The data were analyzed using Stata 11 statistical software. Results In 2012, one thousand and twenty deaths related to traffic accidents occurred in Khuzestan province. The incidence of deaths due to accidents in Khuzestan province was 22.5 and the standardized age of incidence was 24.3 per 100 thousand people. Regarding gender, 78.24% of the dead individuals were male and 21.76% were female. The most common final causes of death were head trauma (76.27% cases and bleeding (12.55% cases. The most deceased people were drivers (42.55%, passengers (34.90%, and pedestrians (21.27%. The highest traffic accidents mortality rate in Khuzestan province was observed in Hoveizeh (55.43 per one hundred thousand, Omidiye (55.30 per one hundred thousand and Ramhormuz (53.12 per one hundred thousand, and the lowest incidence rates belonged to Lali (5.35 per one hundred thousand and Shadegan (9.78 per one hundred thousand. Conclusions This study showed that drivers, passengers and pedestrians were the most vulnerable road users. Regarding the fact that most of them were illiterate or had primary education and were self-employed or

  12. Intersection layout, traffic volumes and accidents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the accident research carried out as a part of a large project started in 1983. For this accident research an inventory was made of a large number of intersections.Recorded were layout features, accident data and estimates of traffic volumes. Attention will be given to the

  13. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the clause at FAR 52.236-13, Accident Prevention....

  14. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I....

  15. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause...

  16. Barriers to learning from incidents and accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dechy, N.; Dien, Y.; Drupsteen, L.; Felicio, A.; Cunha, C.; Roed-Larsen, S.; Marsden, E.; Tulonen, T.; Stoop, J.; Strucic, M.; Vetere Arellano, A.L.; Vorm, J.K.J. van der; Benner, L.

    2015-01-01

    This document provides an overview of knowledge concerning barriers to learning from incidents and accidents. It focuses on learning from accident investigations, public inquiries and operational experience feedback, in industrial sectors that are exposed to major accident hazards. The document disc

  17. Analysing truck position data to study roundabout accident risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kamla, Jwan Jameel Shekh Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce accident risk, highway authorities prioritise maintenance budgets partly based upon previous accident history. However, as accident rates have continued to fall in most contexts, this approach has become problematic as accident ‘black spots’ have been treated and the number of accidents at any individual site has fallen. Another way of identifying sites of higher accident risk might be to identify near-miss accidents (where an accident nearly happened, but was avoided), whi...

  18. Investigating the self-reported behavior of drivers and their attitudes to traffic violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardaki, Sophia; Yannis, George

    2013-09-01

    Driving behavior theoretical models consider attitudes as an important determinant of driver behavior. Moreover, the association between the self-reported tendency to commit violations and accident involvement is widely recognized. This research investigates drivers' self-reported behavior and attitudes to risky behaviors related to the traffic violations of speeding, drink-driving, and cell phone use using cluster analysis. A sample of 601 Greek drivers participating at the SARTRE 4 pan-European survey is utilized. The analysis identified three clusters of drivers. Drivers in Cluster 1 commit traffic violations more often; drivers in Cluster 2 favor traffic violation countermeasures while having moderate views toward compliance with traffic rules; and drivers in Cluster 3 strongly support traffic violation countermeasures and also have strong views toward compliance with traffic rules. Risky behaviors and related attitudes that differentiate the three distinct groups of drivers (clusters) were determined. The findings indicate that differences in attitudes and behaviors may be attributed to factors such as age, gender, and area of residence. The research findings also provided some insight about the current level of drivers' attitudes to traffic violations, especially those that negatively affect traffic safety. The pattern of their views on violations may form the basis of risk behavior-related interventions tailored to the identified groups, aiming at informing, educating, and raising the awareness of the public. Agencies focused on safety interventions could exploit this information in designing and implementing education campaigns, enforcement programs and in defining relevant priorities. Copyright © 2013 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Neglected Health Concern among Commercial Motor Vehicle Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Naseri Esfahani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder that may develop following a trauma. Iranian commercial motor vehicle drivers experience many road traffic accidents during their working life; this may increase the probability for developing PTSD, which in turn may lead to increased human errors as well as decreased work efficiency.Objective: To examine the prevalence of PTSD and its associated factors among a group of Iranian commercial motor vehicle drivers.Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 424 drivers who referred to participate in an annually training program were selected using a simple random sampling technique. They were requested to complete the Persian version of PCL-C and a data collection sheet about their occupational and demographic features.Results: 385 (90.8% of 424 studied drivers completed the study. 265 (68.8% of the drivers had first-grade driving license. The mean±SD on-the-job daily driving was 10.2±2.8 h. 74 of 385 (19.2%; 95% CI: 15.3%–23.2% met the PTSD criteria. Higher age and job experience as a professional driver, and having past history or past familial history of psychiatric disorders, were independent predictors of developing PTSD. The disease was more prevalent among drivers with first-grade driving license.Conclusion: The prevalence of PTSD among Iranian commercial motor vehicle drivers is higher than the figures reported elsewhere. Measures to diagnose of such drivers and to ensure optimum follow-up of victims before return to professional driving should be considered.

  20. Elderly patients attended in emergency health services in Brazil: a study for victims of falls and traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gonçalves de Freitas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to describe the profile of elderly victims of falls and traffic accidents from the data of the Surveillance Survey of Violence and Accidents (VIVA. The VIVA Survey was conducted in the emergency health-services of the Unified Health System in the capitals of Brazil in 2011. The sample of elderly by type of accident was subjected to the two-step cluster procedure. Of the 2463 elderly persons in question, 79.8% suffered falls and 20.2% were the victims of traffic accidents. The 1812 elderly who fell were grouped together into 4 clusters: Cluster 1, in which all had disabilities; Cluster 2, all were non-white and falls took place in the home; Cluster 3, younger and active seniors; and Cluster 4, with a higher proportion of seniors 80 years old or above who were white. Among cases of traffic accidents, 446 seniors were grouped into two clusters: Cluster 1 of younger elderly, drivers or passengers; Cluster 2, with higher age seniors, mostly pedestrians. The main victims of falls were women with low schooling and unemployed; traffic accident victims were mostly younger and male. Complications were similar in victims of falls and traffic accidents. Clusters allow adoption of targeted measures of care, prevention and health promotion.

  1. Safety culture and accident analysis--a socio-management approach based on organizational safety social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Suman

    2007-04-11

    One of the biggest challenges for organizations in today's competitive business environment is to create and preserve a self-sustaining safety culture. Typically, the key drivers of safety culture in many organizations are regulation, audits, safety training, various types of employee exhortations to comply with safety norms, etc. However, less evident factors like networking relationships and social trust amongst employees, as also extended networking relationships and social trust of organizations with external stakeholders like government, suppliers, regulators, etc., which constitute the safety social capital in the Organization--seem to also influence the sustenance of organizational safety culture. Can erosion in safety social capital cause deterioration in safety culture and contribute to accidents? If so, how does it contribute? As existing accident analysis models do not provide answers to these questions, CAMSoC (Curtailing Accidents by Managing Social Capital), an accident analysis model, is proposed. As an illustration, five accidents: Bhopal (India), Hyatt Regency (USA), Tenerife (Canary Islands), Westray (Canada) and Exxon Valdez (USA) have been analyzed using CAMSoC. This limited cross-industry analysis provides two key socio-management insights: the biggest source of motivation that causes deviant behavior leading to accidents is 'Faulty Value Systems'. The second biggest source is 'Enforceable Trust'. From a management control perspective, deterioration in safety culture and resultant accidents is more due to the 'action controls' rather than explicit 'cultural controls'. Future research directions to enhance the model's utility through layering are addressed briefly.

  2. Elderly patients attended in emergency health services in Brazil: a study for victims of falls and traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Mariana Gonçalves; Bonolo, Palmira de Fátima; de Moraes, Edgar Nunes; Machado, Carla Jorge

    2015-03-01

    The article aims to describe the profile of elderly victims of falls and traffic accidents from the data of the Surveillance Survey of Violence and Accidents (VIVA). The VIVA Survey was conducted in the emergency health-services of the Unified Health System in the capitals of Brazil in 2011. The sample of elderly by type of accident was subjected to the two-step cluster procedure. Of the 2463 elderly persons in question, 79.8% suffered falls and 20.2% were the victims of traffic accidents. The 1812 elderly who fell were grouped together into 4 clusters: Cluster 1, in which all had disabilities; Cluster 2, all were non-white and falls took place in the home; Cluster 3, younger and active seniors; and Cluster 4, with a higher proportion of seniors 80 years old or above who were white. Among cases of traffic accidents, 446 seniors were grouped into two clusters: Cluster 1 of younger elderly, drivers or passengers; Cluster 2, with higher age seniors, mostly pedestrians. The main victims of falls were women with low schooling and unemployed; traffic accident victims were mostly younger and male. Complications were similar in victims of falls and traffic accidents. Clusters allow adoption of targeted measures of care, prevention and health promotion.

  3. Study the epidemiological profile of taxi drivers in the background of occupational environment, stress and personality characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Suresh Bawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Work hazards have been a major cause of concern in driving industry especially in taxi drivers. This study integrates the various factors that influence physical and emotional well-being of taxi drivers into the theoretical model that shows that the work environment, stress and personality characteristics directly influence taxi drivers′ health. Objective: The aim of the following study is to study the relative and combined influence of work environment, personality characteristics and stress on the health of taxi drivers. Meterials and Methods: The present study is cross-sectional (descriptive study taxi drivers in Mumbai. They are selected using multistage random sampling method. Calculated sample size is 508. Data produced after the survey is analyzed using IBM SPSS 16.0 software. Results: Nearly 65% of taxi drivers belonged to middle-age group of 21-40 years of age. Majority (59% of taxi drivers belonged to the lower upper socio-economic class. 70% of taxi drivers worked for more than 8 h daily. 63% gave the history of one or more addictions. 52% taxi drivers had type B1 personality, only 6% had stress prone and aggressive type A1 personality. Traffic congestion (67.1% was reported as the leading stressor followed by narrow bottle neck roads (43%, too many speed breakers (41%, rude gestures and behavior by other drivers (42% and bad weather (36%. Nearly 86% taxi drivers had one or more symptoms of morbidities. Gastrointestinal symptoms predominated followed by musculoskeletal symptoms and depression. Conclusion: Socio-demographic attributes, work environment, stress and personality significantly influence physical and psychological morbidities in taxi drivers.

  4. Locomotor diseases among male long-haul truck drivers and other professional drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Kaerlev, Linda; Tüchsen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    -249) and for other truck drivers (SHR: 130, 95% CI: 108-156) compared to bus drivers (SHR: 110, 95% CI: 79-149). All drivers had high SHR for lesions of the ulnar nerve (SHR: 159, 95% CI: 119-207), especially bus drivers (SHR: 197, 95% CI: 116-311). Long-haul truck drivers had high SHRs for synovitis and bursitis...

  5. Locomotor diseases among male long-haul truck drivers and other professional drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Kaerlev, Linda; Tüchsen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    -249) and for other truck drivers (SHR: 130, 95% CI: 108-156) compared to bus drivers (SHR: 110, 95% CI: 79-149). All drivers had high SHR for lesions of the ulnar nerve (SHR: 159, 95% CI: 119-207), especially bus drivers (SHR: 197, 95% CI: 116-311). Long-haul truck drivers had high SHRs for synovitis and bursitis...

  6. Prevalence of risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in interstate bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carlos Alberto de Assis; de Oliveira, Haroldo Willuweit

    2006-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in interstate bus drivers. This study involved 262 professional interstate bus drivers employed by a Brazilian company headquartered in the Federal District. The drivers were evaluated using a questionnaire designed to assess respiratory sleep disorders, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, test of sustained attention, test of divided attention and anthropometric measurements. Body weight was found to be above the ideal in 68% of the drivers evaluated, 34% of which had a neck circumference = 42 cm. During the study period, the drivers reported using tobacco (27%), cola-based soft drinks (55%), alcohol (65%) and coffee (88%). The Epworth Sleepiness Scale score was = 10 points in 28%. Snoring was reported by 36%, sleep apnea by 5%, a sensation of suffocation during sleep by 12%, restless sleep by 29% and drowsiness while driving by 48%. There were 42% who had been involved in transit accidents, 7.6% of which were attributed to hypersomnolence. Those scoring higher than 10 of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale presented lower levels of sustained attention. In addition, a reduction in divided attention was found to correlate with greater daytime sleepiness and larger neck circumference. The rate of stimulant use found in the group of drivers evaluated is alarming. The high prevalence of daytime sleepiness indicates that attentiveness is reduced in this population.

  7. Attitudinal segmentaion of drivers in Pakistan: The potential for effective road safety campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Zahara; Carsten, Oliver

    2017-06-06

    Deviant driving behaviors are considered as the main cause of Road Traffic Accidents in Pakistan. This research is founded on the premise that driving behaviors are mediated by attitudinal and motivational factors. It advocates that rather than simply aggregating drivers' responses or a-priori classification of them based on their personal characteristics, adoption of segmentation technique is more useful to look at multiple factors provoking aberrant driving behavior in combination and not just in isolation. For this, the study generated an Attitudinal Questionnaire, inspired by the Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB: Ajzen, 1991), and extended violation-scale of modified Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ: Lawton et al., 1997). Attitudinal and behavioral items are first factor analyzed. Then, cluster analysis is performed on extracted attitudinal factors which classified sample driving population into four relatively homogenous and distinct groups of drivers. The results demonstrated the explanatory utility of the market segmentation approach to systematically relate the interaction between attitudes, behaviors and socio-demographic characteristics of drivers. It is concluded that the approach is successful in distinguishing safe drivers from unsafe driver and therefore, can legitimately form the basis of road safety interventions. Finally, the findings are used to recommend targeted information-based road safety solutions with a focus on the diverse characteristics of each of the identified segments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Attitudes of Greek Drivers with Focus on Mobile Phone Use While Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Theofilatos, Athanasios; Marinou, Paraskevi

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the attitudes and behavior of Greek drivers with specific focus on mobile phone use while driving. The research is based on the data of the pan-European SARTRE 4 survey, which was conducted on a representative sample of Greek drivers in 2011. Analysis of the drivers' behavior was carried out by the statistical methods of factor and cluster analysis. According to the results of factor analysis, Greek drivers' responses in the selected questions were summarized into 4 factors, describing road behavior and accident involvement probability as well as their views on issues concerning other drivers' road behaviors, fatigued driving, enforcement of road safety, and mobile phone use while driving. The results of cluster analysis indicated 5 different groups of Greek drivers--the moderate, the optimistic, the conservative, the risky, and the reasonably cautious--and the characteristics of each group where identified. These results may be useful for the appropriate design of targeted road safety campaigns and other countermeasures.

  9. A brief peripheral motion contrast threshold test predicts older drivers' hazardous behaviors in simulated driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Steven; Woods-Fry, Heather; Collin, Charles A; Gagnon, Sylvain; Voloaca, Misha; Grant, John; Rosenthal, Ted; Allen, Wade

    2015-05-01

    Our research group has previously demonstrated that the peripheral motion contrast threshold (PMCT) test predicts older drivers' self-report accident risk, as well as simulated driving performance. However, the PMCT is too lengthy to be a part of a battery of tests to assess fitness to drive. Therefore, we have developed a new version of this test, which takes under two minutes to administer. We assessed the motion contrast thresholds of 24 younger drivers (19-32) and 25 older drivers (65-83) with both the PMCT-10min and the PMCT-2min test and investigated if thresholds were associated with measures of simulated driving performance. Younger participants had significantly lower motion contrast thresholds than older participants and there were no significant correlations between younger participants' thresholds and any measures of driving performance. The PMCT-10min and the PMCT-2min thresholds of older drivers' predicted simulated crash risk, as well as the minimum distance of approach to all hazards. This suggests that our tests of motion processing can help predict the risk of collision or near collision in older drivers. Thresholds were also correlated with the total lane deviation time, suggesting a deficiency in processing of peripheral flow and delayed detection of adjacent cars. The PMCT-2min is an improved version of a previously validated test, and it has the potential to help assess older drivers' fitness to drive.

  10. Peer influence on speeding behaviour among male drivers aged 18 and 28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2014-03-01

    Despite extensive research, preventive efforts and general improvements in road safety levels, the accident risk of young male drivers remains increased. Based on a standardized survey of a random sample of 2018 male drivers at the age of 18 and 28, this study looked into attitudes and behaviours related to traffic violations of male drivers. More specifically, the role of peer influence on speeding was examined in both age groups. In regression analyses it could be shown that the descriptive subjective norm, i.e., the perception of friends' speeding, was the most important predictor of speeding in both age groups. Other significant factors were: negative attitude towards speed limits, injunctive subjective norm, and the perceived risk of having an accident when speeding. In the older age group it was more common to drive faster than allowed and their speeding was largely in line with the perceived level of their friends' speeding. In the younger age group a higher discrepancy between own and friends' speeding was found indicating that young male drivers are socialized into increased speeding behaviour based on peer pressure. By contrast for the 28-year-olds peer pressure mainly seems to maintain or justify individual speeding behaviour. It is suggested that preventive measures should take these different influences of peer pressure into account by using a peer-based approach for the 18-year-olds and a more individual approach for the 28-year-olds.

  11. Enhancing disaster management by mapping disaster proneness and preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vishal; Fuloria, Sanjay; Bisht, Shailendra Singh

    2012-07-01

    The focus of most disaster management programmes is to deploy resources-physical and human-from outside the disaster zone. This activity can produce a delay in disaster mitigation and recovery efforts, and a consequent loss of human lives and economic resources. It may be possible to expedite recovery and prevent loss of life by mapping out disaster proneness and the availability of resources in advance. This study proposes the development of two indices to do so. The Indian census data of 2001 is used to develop a methodology for creating one index on disaster proneness and one on resourcefulness for administrative units (tehsils). Findings reveal that tehsil residents face an elevated risk of disaster and that they are also grossly under-prepared for such events. The proposed indices can be used to map regional service provision facilities and to assist authorities in evaluating immediate, intermediate, and long-term disaster recovery needs and resource requirements.

  12. Atypical diabetes in children: ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaibhav, Atul; Mathai, Mathew; Gorman, Shaun

    2013-01-08

    Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes mellitus also known as atypical or flatbush diabetes is being increasingly recognised worldwide. These patients are typically obese, middle-aged men with a strong family history of type 2 diabetes. The aetiology and pathophysiological mechanism is still unclear but some initial research suggests that patients with ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes have a unique predisposition to glucose desensitisation. These patients have negative autoantibodies typically associated with type 1 diabetes but have shown to have human leucocyte antigen (HLA) positivity. At initial presentation, there is an impairment of both insulin secretion and action. β Cell function and insulin sensitivity can be markedly improved by initiating aggressive diabetes management to allow for discontinuation of insulin therapy within a few months of treatment. These patients can be maintained on oral hypoglycaemic agents and insulin therapy can be safely discontinued after few months depending on their β cell function.

  13. A retrospective study on the unseen epidemic of road traffic injuries and deaths due to accidents in Mwanza City - Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngallaba, S E; Majinge, C; Gilyoma, J; Makerere, D J; Charles, E

    2013-06-01

    Sixty percent of the global deaths and injuries occur in the developing world and mostly are due to Road traffic accidents (RTAs. looking at the etiological related factors which include, carelessness of the driver, condition of the vehicle or motorcycle, poor condition of roads, risky behavior of the driver, most of these factors can be prevented to some extent. This study therefore, determined the pattern of cases and deaths due to traffic road accidents in Mwanza City Tanzania. In this retrospective study, records, registers and case notes In the surgical ward and causality, medical records and central police station from 2008 to 2011 were used. The study focused on the two referral hospitals (Sekouture regional hospital and Bugando Medical Center). There were 3450 cases due to accidents reported at both centers (Sekouture regional hospital and Bugando Medical Center of which 3224 (93.4%) had complete information for analysis.2225 (69%) were male and 999 (31%) were female, and the most affected group were male. Among the RTAs2809 cases (87%) were due to motor cycle accidents which were the leading cause of RTAs with case fatality rate of 5% while motor vehicle has case fatality rate of 24% which is 5 times that of motor cycle. Among all RTAs the leading cause of injuries is Motor cycle traffic accidents followed by motor vehicle. RTAs are on increase particularly the motor cycle traffic accidents and has claimed a good number of innocent people's lives however most of them are preventable, therefore driving course to be introduced to motor cycle drivers with emphasize on the road posters signal, rules and regular checkup of their motor cycles especially commercial motor cycle.

  14. Powered two-wheelers road accidents and their risk perception in dense urban areas: case of Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestracci, Marion; Prochasson, François; Geffroy, Aurélie; Peccoud, Florian

    2012-11-01

    For a few years, the use of powered two-wheelers has taken off in Paris. It then became critical for the City of Paris to understand both the mechanisms leading to traffic accidents involving at least one powered two-wheelers user and the perception of their risk when riding in dense urban areas. In so doing, two studies were carried out along similar lines so that their results could be compared. The first study focused on the perception of situations where accidents are most likely to occur. The second one was an analysis of police reports of accidents involving at least one powered two-wheelers and the drawing-up of prototypical accident scenarios. Comparing the results of the two studies revealed a gap between perceived and objective risks of these users. In fact, they rather fear the situations during which a car driver is changing lanes, while accidents involving them occur more often when a car driver turns (right, left or U). Knowledge of this dissonance in terms of awareness of road risks for powered two-wheelers and equally, other road users, will give the City of Paris food for thought. The promising results of this study have encouraged the City of Paris to extend it to other types of users, such as cyclists or elderly pedestrians.

  15. [Hanggliding accidents. Distribution of injuries and accident analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmer, F T; Jakob, R P

    1989-12-01

    Paragliding--a relatively new sport to Switzerland--brought 23 patients with 48 injuries (38% lower limb and 29% spinal) within a period of 8 months to the Inselspital University hospital in Berne. The aim of the study in characterizing these injuries is to formulate some guidelines towards prevention. With over 90% of accidents occurring at either take off or landing, emphasis on better training for the beginner is proposed with strict guidelines for the more experienced pilot flying in unfavourable conditions.

  16. Preliminary Modeling of Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts under Accident Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, Kyle A.; Hales, Jason D.

    2016-12-01

    The catastrophic events that occurred at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011 have led to widespread interest in research of alternative fuels and claddings that are proposed to be accident tolerant. Thus, the United States Department of Energy through its NEAMS (Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation) program has funded an Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) High Impact Problem (HIP). The ATF HIP is funded for a three-year period. The purpose of the HIP is to perform research into two potential accident tolerant concepts and provide an in-depth report to the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) describing the behavior of the concepts, both of which are being considered for inclusion in a lead test assembly scheduled for placement into a commercial reactor in 2022. The initial focus of the HIP is on uranium silicide fuel and iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloy cladding. Utilizing the expertise of three national laboratory participants (INL, LANL, and ANL) a comprehensive mulitscale approach to modeling is being used including atomistic modeling, molecular dynamics, rate theory, phase-field, and fuel performance simulations. In this paper, we present simulations of two proposed accident tolerant fuel systems: U3Si2 fuel with Zircaloy-4 cladding, and UO2 fuel with FeCrAl cladding. The simulations investigate the fuel performance response of the proposed ATF systems under Loss of Coolant and Station Blackout conditions using the BISON code. Sensitivity analyses are completed using Sandia National Laboratories’ DAKOTA software to determine which input parameters (e.g., fuel specific heat) have the greatest influence on the output metrics of interest (e.g., fuel centerline temperature). Early results indicate that each concept has significant advantages as well as areas of concern. Further work is required prior to formulating the proposition report for the Advanced Fuels Campaign.

  17. Perioperative visual loss following prone spinal surgery: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E Epstein

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The best way to avoid POVL is to recognize its multiple etiologies and limit the various risk factors that contribute to this devastating complication of prone spinal surgery. Furthermore, routinely utilizing a 3-pin head holder will completely avoid ophthalmic compression, while maintaining the neck in a neutral posture, largely avoiding the risk of jugular vein and/or carotid artery compromise and thus avoiding increasing IOP.

  18. Mismatch-mediated error prone repair at the immunoglobulin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahwan, Richard; Edelmann, Winfried; Scharff, Matthew D; Roa, Sergio

    2011-12-01

    The generation of effective antibodies depends upon somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) of antibody genes by activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and the subsequent recruitment of error prone base excision and mismatch repair. While AID initiates and is required for SHM, more than half of the base changes that accumulate in V regions are not due to the direct deamination of dC to dU by AID, but rather arise through the recruitment of the mismatch repair complex (MMR) to the U:G mismatch created by AID and the subsequent perversion of mismatch repair from a high fidelity process to one that is very error prone. In addition, the generation of double-strand breaks (DSBs) is essential during CSR, and the resolution of AID-generated mismatches by MMR to promote such DSBs is critical for the efficiency of the process. While a great deal has been learned about how AID and MMR cause hypermutations and DSBs, it is still unclear how the error prone aspect of these processes is largely restricted to antibody genes. The use of knockout models and mice expressing mismatch repair proteins with separation-of-function point mutations have been decisive in gaining a better understanding of the roles of each of the major MMR proteins and providing further insight into how mutation and repair are coordinated. Here, we review the cascade of MMR factors and repair signals that are diverted from their canonical error free role and hijacked by B cells to promote genetic diversification of the Ig locus. This error prone process involves AID as the inducer of enzymatically-mediated DNA mismatches, and a plethora of downstream MMR factors acting as sensors, adaptors and effectors of a complex and tightly regulated process from much of which is not yet well understood.

  19. Extent and variations in mobile phone use among drivers of heavy vehicles in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troglauer, Thomas; Hels, Tove; Christens, P.

    2006-01-01

    A substantial body of research has shown that use of mobile phones while driving can impair driving performance and increase the risk of being involved in accidents. Similarly, mobile phone use seems to be an increasing activity thus representing a relevant traffic safety issue. This paper...... investigates the extent and variations in mobile phone use among drivers of heavy vehicles in Denmark. The data was collected through written questionnaires and had a response rate of 58%. It was found that more than 99% of the drivers used mobile phones while driving. Despite a prohibition of hand-held mobile...... phone use while driving 31% of the drivers reported to do so. Analysis of the variations in usage found a positive significant relationship between driving hours and phone use. A negative linear effect was found between age and phone use. Similarly, a positive significant association was found between...

  20. Detection of illicit drugs in impaired driver saliva by a field-usable SERS analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Chetan; Huang, Hermes; Farquharson, Stuart

    2014-05-01

    One of the greatest dangers of drug use is in combination with driving. According to the most recent National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) studies, more than 11% of drivers tested positive for illicit drugs, while 18% of drivers killed in accidents tested positive for illicit, prescription or over-the-counter drugs. Consequently, there is a need for a rapid, noninvasive, roadside drug testing device, similar to the breathalyzers used by law enforcement officials to estimate blood alcohol levels of impaired drivers. In an effort to satisfy this need we have been developing a sampling kit that allows extraction of drugs from 1 mL of saliva and detection by surfaceenhanced Raman spectroscopy using a portable Raman analyzer. Here we describe the development of the sampling kit and present measurements of diazepam at sub μg/mL concentrations measured in ~15 minutes.

  1. Too individualistic for safety culture? Non-traffic related work safety among heavy goods vehicle drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grytnes, Regine; Shibuya, Hitomi; Dyreborg, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This article reports on a study of non-traffic related work safety among drivers of heavy goods vehicles in Denmark. In the heavy goods vehicle transport (HGV) sector only 6.4% of workplace accidents involving drivers are traffic related. HGV work is characterised by solitary work...... values and attitudes as well as organisational and technical aspects in relation to how individualist or collectivist understandings of risk and safety influence the working environment in HGVs. Method The study applied a mixed methods approach and in this article the qualitative interviews conducted...... their understandings and attitudes towards hazards and safety practices. The analysis points to risk-taking and unsafe practices as prevalent among HGV drivers, who often refer to risk as trivial and the management of such risks as one's own responsibility. Knowledge of how to manage risks in everyday practice...

  2. Prediction of accidents at full green and green arrow traffic lights in Switzerland with the aid of configuration-specific features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubacher, Markus; Allenbach, Roland

    2004-09-01

    In this study it was endeavored to predict full green and green arrow accidents at traffic lights, using configuration-specific features. This was done using the statistical method known as Poisson regression. A total of 45 sets of traffic lights (criteria: in an urban area, with four approach roads) with 178 approach roads were investigated (the data from two approach roads was unable to be used). Configuration-specific features were surveyed on all approach roads (characteristics of traffic lanes, road signs, traffic lights, etc.), traffic monitored and accidents (full green and green arrow) recorded over a period of 5 consecutive years. It was demonstrated that only between 23 and 34% of variance could be explained with the models predicting both types of accidents. In green arrow accidents, the approach road topography was found to be the major contributory factor to an accident: if the approach road slopes downwards, the risk of a green arrow accident is approximately five and a half times greater (relative risk, RR = 5.56) than on a level or upward sloping approach road. With full green accidents, obstructed vision plays the major role: where vision can be obstructed by vehicles turning off, the accident risk is eight times greater (RR = 8.08) than where no comparable obstructed vision is possible. From the study it emerges that technical features of traffic lights are not able to control a driver's actions in such a way as to eradicate error. Other factors, in particular the personal characteristics of the driver (age, sex, etc.) and accident circumstances (lighting, road conditions, etc.), are likely to make an important contribution to explaining how an accident occurs.

  3. Fatal motorcycle accidents in Fars Province, Iran:a community-based survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Taghi Heydari; Payam Peymani; Seyed Mehdi Ahmadi; Maryam Dehghankhalili; Hassan Joulaei; Kamran B. Lankarani; Najmeh Maharlouei; Ali Foroutan; Yaser Sarikhani; Fariborz Ghaffarpasand; Arya Hedjazi; Mohammad Zarenezhad; Ghasem Moafian; Mohammad Reza Aghabeigi

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To identify the main characteristics of victims of motorcycle accidents in Fars Province,Iran.Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fars Province which has the fourth largest population of all 31 provinces in lran from March 2009 to June 2010.We included data from all 542 recorded cases of fatalities due to motor vehicle accidents.Data were recorded from the forensic medicine registry consisting of demographic and accident-related information.Demographic information consisted of name,age,sex,status of fatal victim (motorcycle driver vs passenger) and educational level.Results:Of the 2 345 autopsy records from the forensic medicine archives,542 (23.1%) gave the cause of death as motor vehicle accidents.Mean age of these victims was (31.4± 16.5) years,and the male to female ratio was 28.Head injury was the most common cause of death in these victims,and overall they tended to have a low level of education.Motorcycle accidents frequently involved younger age groups (15-35 years),and head trauma related with non-use of a helmet was the most common cause of death.Conclusions:Head injury is frequent among victims in the province we studied.This situation may be related to the victims' low socioeconomic status and little education regarding traffic laws leading to speeding and disregard of these laws along with their weak enforcement.

  4. Motorcycle accidents in forensic pathology. Human factors, and injury and crash tipologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Lanino

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the association between the main human factors, related to motorcycle accidents, and the accident configuration and the lesive pattern. The present study considers the 200 two-wheel crashes occurred in Italy in the Province of Pavia between 1999 and 2001. For all cases a revision of the injured people’s interviews and their clinical records has been made. All the accidents of the survey have been examined considering the traumatic lesion abscribed to the accident to assess a direct causal link between human factors and the crash tipology and the injury pattern. Chi-square test was used to evaluate the relationship between the variables and a logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association of injury severity with some variables supposed to be predictive factors. Frontal-lateral impact collisions are about 6 times more likely to be caused by a traffic scan error of the other vehicle driver (no rider than other types of crashes (OR= 5,8; p < 0,0001; IC 95%: 2,875-11,736. Contusions-abrasions show the highest percentages in motorcyclists with no coverage worn (p < 0,001 and riders with no clothing have a higher risk to be severely injured than riders with coverage, but it is not statistically significant. Instead, there is not a statistical significant association between: rider’s gender, rider’s age, riding experience and accident configuration; damaged region of the helmet and cranium injury severity.

  5. Fatal motorcycle accidents in Fars Province, Iran: a com-munity-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydari Seyed Taghi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To identify the main character-istics of victims of motorcycle accidents in Fars Province, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fars Province which has the fourth largest population of all 31 provinces in Iran from March 2009 to June 2010. We included data from all 542 recorded cases of fatalities due to motor vehicle accidents. Data were recorded from the foren-sic medicine registry consisting of demographic and acci-dent-related information. Demographic information con-sisted of name, age, sex, status of fatal victim (motorcycle driver vs passenger and educational level. Results: Of the 2 345 autopsy records from the foren-sic medicine archives, 542 (23.1% gave the cause of death as motor vehicle accidents. Mean age of these victims was (31.4±16.5 years, and the male to female ratio was 28. Head injury was the most common cause of death in these victims, and overall they tended to have a low level of education. Motorcycle accidents frequently involved younger age groups (15-35 years, and head trauma related with non-use of a helmet was the most common cause of death. Conclusions: Head injury is frequent among victims in the province we studied. This situation may be related to the victims’ low socioeconomic status and little education regarding traffic laws leading to speeding and disregard of these laws along with their weak enforcement. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Motorcycles; Iran

  6. Epidemiology of deaths due to traffic accidents in Kermanshah province (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Malekifar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing trend of traffic accidents is one of the most serious problems of public health. The aim of this paper was to investigate the fatal traffic accidents in Kermanshah province. Method: All research data required were obtained from Legal Medicine Organization and analyzed by Stata-11 software. Traffic statistics available on the Road Maintenance and Transportation Organization website were used to study the death rate per month and day according to traffic level on suburban highways. Results: The incidence rate of age-standardized deaths due to road traffic accidents was 26.1per 100,000 people, and the mean age of the dead was 39.98±21.60 years. The mortality rate was higher in men, those more than 40 years old, married, illiterate and self-employed. Considering the traffic rate on suburban roads, the highest death rate occurred in the warmest months of the year during the day. Furthermore, most deaths were due to collisions and the highest frequency of death was reported for the car occupants. In most cases, head injuries and head traumas were the final cause of death. A significant correlation was reported between the type of vehicle and the cause of death and how the accident occurred (P<0.05. Conclusion: The mortality rate due to traffic accidents in Kermanshah province is high. Surveillance over the suburban roads in hot seasons and male drivers is of particular importance.

  7. Simulation study of car accidents at the intersection of two roads in the mixed traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzoug, R.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2015-05-01

    Using cellular automata (CA) Nagel-Schreckenberg (NaSch) model, we numerically study the probability Pac of the occurrence of car accidents at nonsignalized intersection when drivers do not respect the priority rules. We also investigated the impact of mixture lengths and velocities of vehicles on this probability. It is found that in the first case, where vehicles distinguished only by their lengths, the car accidents start to occur above a critical density ρc. Furthermore, the increase of the fraction of long vehicles (FL) delays the occurrence of car accidents (increasing ρc) and increases the risk of collisions when ρ > ρc. In other side, the mixture of maximum velocities (with same length for all vehicles) leads to the appearance of accidents at the intersection even in the free flow regime. Moreover, the increase of the fraction of fast vehicles (Ff) reduces the accident probability (Pac). The influence of roads length is also studied. We found that the decrease of the roads length enhance the risk of collision.

  8. Anger proneness, gender, and the risk of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska-Newton, Anna M; Williams, Janice E; Chang, Patricia P; Stearns, Sally C; Sueta, Carla A; Blecker, Saul B; Mosley, Thomas H

    2014-12-01

    Evidence regarding the association of anger proneness with incidence of heart failure is lacking. Anger proneness was ascertained among 13,171 black and white participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study cohort with the use of the Spielberger Trait Anger Scale. Incident heart failure events, defined as occurrence of ICD-9-CM code 428.x, were ascertained from participants' medical records during follow-up in the years 1990-2010. Relative hazard of heart failure across categories of trait anger was estimated with the use of Cox proportional hazard models. Study participants (mean age 56.9 [SD 5.7] years) experienced 1,985 incident HF events during 18.5 (SD 4.9) years of follow-up. Incidence of HF was greater among those with high, as compared to those with low or moderate trait anger, with higher incidence observed for men than for women. The relative hazard of incident HF was modestly high among those with high trait anger, compared with those with low or moderate trait anger (age-adjusted hazard ratio for men: 1.44 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-1.69). Adjustment for comorbidities and depressive symptoms attenuated the estimated age-adjusted relative hazard in men to 1.26 (95% CI 1.00-1.60). Assessment of anger proneness may be necessary in successful prevention and clinical management of heart failure, especially in men. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Livelihood Analysis in Merapi Prone Area After 2010 Eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susy Nofrita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As stated in Regent Regulation No. 20 Year 2011 about Merapi Volcano Disaster-Prone Area, Merapi eruption in 2010 affected larger area than before included Kalitengah Lor, Kalitengah Kidul and Srunen hamlet which was now categorized as prone area zone III or the most dangerous area related to Merapi volcano hazard and was forbidden to live at. But its local people agreed to oppose the regulation and this area had been 100% reoccupied. This research examined about the existing livelihood condition in Kalitengah Lor, Kalitengah Kidul and Srunen that had been changed and degraded after 2010 great eruption. The grounded based information found that 80% of households sample were at the middle level of welfare status, meanwhile the high and low were at 13% and 7% respectively. Each status represented different livelihood strategy in facing the life in prone area with no one considered the Merapi hazard, but more economic motivation and assets preservation. The diversity in strategy was found in diversification of livelihood resources which were dominated by sand mining, farming and dairy farming.

  10. Aggression proneness: Transdiagnostic processes involving negative valence and cognitive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Bresin, Konrad

    2015-11-01

    Aggressive behavior is observed in persons with various mental health problems and has been studied from the perspectives of neuroscience and psychophysiology. The present research reviews some of the extant experimental literature to help clarify the interplay between domains of functioning implicated in aggression proneness. We then convey a process-oriented model that elucidates how the interplay of the Negative Valence and Cognitive System domains of NIMH's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) helps explain aggression proneness, particularly reactive aggression. Finally, we report on a study involving event-related potential (ERP) indices of emotional and inhibitory control processing during an emotional-linguistic go/no-go task among 67 individuals with histories of violence and criminal offending (30% female, 44% African-American) who reported on their aggressive tendencies using the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Results provide evidence that tendencies toward angry and aggressive behavior relate to reduced inhibitory control processing (no-go P3) specifically during relevant threat-word blocks, suggesting deterioration of cognitive control by acute or sustained threat sensitivity. These findings highlight the value of ERP methodologies for clarifying the interplay of Negative Valence and Cognitive System processes in aggression proneness.

  11. Brain size in birds is related to traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Erritzøe, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Estimates suggest that perhaps a quarter of a billion birds are killed by traffic annually across the world. This is surprising because birds have been shown to learn speed limits. Birds have also been shown to adapt to the direction of traffic and lane use, and this apparently results in reduced risks of fatal traffic accidents. Such behavioural differences suggest that individual birds that are not killed in traffic should have larger brains for their body size. We analysed the link between being killed by traffic and relative brain mass in 3521 birds belonging to 251 species brought to a taxidermist. Birds that were killed in traffic indeed had relatively smaller brains, while there was no similar difference for liver mass, heart mass or lung mass. These findings suggest that birds learn the behaviour of car drivers, and that they use their brains to adjust behaviour in an attempt to avoid mortality caused by rapidly and predictably moving objects.

  12. Brain size in birds is related to traffic accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erritzøe, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Estimates suggest that perhaps a quarter of a billion birds are killed by traffic annually across the world. This is surprising because birds have been shown to learn speed limits. Birds have also been shown to adapt to the direction of traffic and lane use, and this apparently results in reduced risks of fatal traffic accidents. Such behavioural differences suggest that individual birds that are not killed in traffic should have larger brains for their body size. We analysed the link between being killed by traffic and relative brain mass in 3521 birds belonging to 251 species brought to a taxidermist. Birds that were killed in traffic indeed had relatively smaller brains, while there was no similar difference for liver mass, heart mass or lung mass. These findings suggest that birds learn the behaviour of car drivers, and that they use their brains to adjust behaviour in an attempt to avoid mortality caused by rapidly and predictably moving objects.

  13. Epidemiological analysis of traffic accident trauma in Gansu province in 1996

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张向东; 代荫梅

    1999-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemiologic data of traffic trauma in Gansu province in 1996 and try to find effective ways to reduce the injury.Methods The data were gathered from the General Team o the Traffic Police of Gansu Province and analyzed together with other related data.Results Although the traffic accidents in Gansu province were reduced in last two years as a result of traffic safety education,the number of casuatlties has not been evidently reduced.The number of deaths caused by traffic accidents was 983 in 1996.The main causes of these deaths were the negligence of the drivers,carelessness of the pedestrians and the bike riders,the sudden breakdown of the machine parts of the vehicles,and non-licensed driving.Among the number of deaths 69 percent was caused by violation of traffic regulations by drivers.Most of the death accidents happened at straight roads and road-crosses.The percentage was 64% and 11%,respectively.The most of deaths,about 81%,took place in sunny days.The main reason was due to the careless and exceeding-speed-limit driving.The young and middle aged were about 77% of the dead,most likely because they are the dominant group in daily work and life.Conclusions To strengthen the propaganda of traffic regulations,improve driver's moral qualities and raise the management level are very important for reducing traffic accidents.Correct and timely first aid before being hospitalized can also greatly reduce the mortality.

  14. Exploratory analysis of Spanish energetic mining accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Freijo, Modesto; Rossell, Josep M

    2012-01-01

    Using data on work accidents and annual mining statistics, the paper studies work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining sector in 1999-2008. The following 3 parameters are considered: age, experience and size of the mine (in number of workers) where the accident took place. The main objective of this paper is to show the relationship between different accident indicators: risk index (as an expression of the incidence), average duration index for the age and size of the mine variables (as a measure of the seriousness of an accident), and the gravity index for the various sizes of mines (which measures the seriousness of an accident, too). The conclusions of this study could be useful to develop suitable prevention policies that would contribute towards a decrease in work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining industry.

  15. The dominance of accidents caused by banalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    . Nevertheless, the fact is that the simpler accidents normally caused by what might be regarded as banalities occur at a much higher frequencies and with many more fatalities and invalidities than any of what are usually regarded as the most dangerous kinds of accidents. In depth analysis of national statistics...... on accidents could reveal the kind of accidents we are talking about, where they happen, to whom, how, and what can be done about them. This would require a special registration system of the events leading up to the accident. The main results for the four most frequent types of accident will be described...... as an example of how much information such systems can offer in general for the work of accident prevention in more traditional and common enterprises....

  16. Job stress, mental health, and accidents among offshore workers in the oil and gas extraction industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C L; Sutherland, V J

    1987-02-01

    Psychosocial and occupational stressors among 194 male employees on drilling rig and production platform installations in the United Kingdom and Dutch sectors of the North Sea were studied. Mental well-being and job satisfaction were also assessed, with attention to the incidence of accidents offshore. This occupational group were found to be much less satisfied with their jobs than their onshore counterparts. Although overall mental well-being compared favorably with that of the general population, levels of anxiety were significantly higher. Multivariate analysis showed "relationships at work and at home" to be a strong predictor of both job dissatisfaction and mental ill-health. Type A coronary-prone behavior was also found to be a significant predictor of reduced mental well-being and increased accident rates offshore.

  17. Non-seatbelt use and associated factors among Thai drivers during Songkran festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siviroj Penprapa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Road traffic accidents are the second largest cause of burden of disease in Thailand, largely attributable to behavioural risk factors including drinking and driving, speeding, substance abuse and failure to use seatbelts. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of non-seatbelt use among drivers during Songkran festival in Thailand. Methods A cross-sectional survey has been performed to determine the prevalence of seatbelt use among Thai drivers (N=13722 during four days of the Songkran festival. For this sample the population of drivers was consecutively selected from 12 petrol stations in four provinces from each of the four main geographical regions of Thailand. The study was conducted at petrol stations at roads in town, outside town and highway at different time intervals when trained field staff administered a structured questionnaire and performed an observation checklist on seat belt use. Results An overall prevalence of 28.4% of non-seatbelt use among drivers was found. In multivariable analysis demographics (being male, younger age, coming from the Northern or Southern region in Thailand, environmental factors (earlier during the Songkran festival, in the morning and late evening and on main roads in town, seatbelt use experiences and attitudes (having been in an accident before, never having used a seatbelt, no intention to use a seatbelt, lack of awareness of danger of non-seatbelt use and lower perceived risk of being caught with non-seatbelt use and lower exposure to road safety awareness (RSA campaign (less frequent exposure to RSA campaign, less frequent following of RTI statistics and not talking with others about the RSA campaign were associated with non-seatbelt use. Conclusion Rates of non-seatbelt use by Thai drivers during Songkran festival was 28.4%. Lower exposure to the RSA campaign was found to be associated with non-seatbelt use among drivers during the Songkran

  18. Psychoactive substance use by truck drivers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Edmarlon; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Birolim, Marcela Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to summarise the scientific evidence on the prevalence of psychoactive substance use and on the factors associated with their intake among truck drivers. A systematic review was performed in the databases PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, and Cochrane and 36 cross-sectional studies were identified with quantitative results about the use of psychoactive substances by truck drivers. Out of these, 28 were carried out in countries with large land areas and 23 obtained their information through self-reporting. The most frequently studied substances were alcohol (n=25), amphetamines (n=17), marijuana (n=16) and cocaine (n=13). The prevalence of the use of these substances greatly varied: alcohol (0.1-91.0%); amphetamines (0.2-82.5%), marijuana (0.2-29.9%), cocaine (0.1-8.3%). The frequency of substance use was lower in studies that investigated the presence of these substances in biological samples than in those based on self-reported use. In 12 studies that evaluated factors associated with the intake of psychoactive substances, the following stood out: younger age, higher income, longer trips, alcohol consumption, driving in the night shift, travelling interstate routes, long or short sleep, fewer hours of rest, little experience of the driver, connection with small and medium sized companies, income below levels determined by labour agreements, productivity-based earnings and prior involvement in accidents. The frequency of psychoactive substance use by truck drivers seems to be high, although that greatly varies according to the type of substance and the method of collecting the information. The use of these substances was mainly associated with indicators of poor working conditions.

  19. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, Yusof bin [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang 26300 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Taha, Zahari bin [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Malaysia Pahang, 26600 Pekan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger’s injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  20. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Yusof bin; Taha, Zahari bin

    2015-02-01

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger's injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  1. Lumbar Lordosis of Spinal Stenosis Patients during Intraoperative Prone Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Keon; Song, Kyung-Sub; Park, Byung-Moon; Lim, Sang-Youn; Jang, Geun; Lee, Beom-Seok; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Lee, Hwan-Mo

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effect of spondylolisthesis on lumbar lordosis on the OSI (Jackson; Orthopaedic Systems Inc.) frame. Restoration of lumbar lordosis is important for maintaining sagittal balance. Physiologic lumbar lordosis has to be gained by intraoperative prone positioning with a hip extension and posterior instrumentation technique. There are some debates about changing lumbar lordosis on the OSI frame after an intraoperative prone position. We evaluated the effect of spondylolisthesis on lumbar lordosis after an intraoperative prone position. Methods Sixty-seven patients, who underwent spinal fusion at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery of Gwangmyeong Sungae Hospital between May 2007 and February 2012, were included in this study. The study compared lumbar lordosis on preoperative upright, intraoperative prone and postoperative upright lateral X-rays between the simple stenosis (SS) group and spondylolisthesis group. The average age of patients was 67.86 years old. The average preoperative lordosis was 43.5° (± 14.9°), average intraoperative lordosis was 48.8° (± 13.2°), average postoperative lordosis was 46.5° (± 16.1°) and the average change on the frame was 5.3° (± 10.6°). Results Among all patients, 24 patients were diagnosed with simple spinal stenosis, 43 patients with spondylolisthesis (29 degenerative spondylolisthesis and 14 isthmic spondylolisthesis). Between the SS group and spondylolisthesis group, preoperative lordosis, intraoperative lordosis and postoperative lordosis were significantly larger in the spondylolisthesis group. The ratio of patients with increased lordosis on the OSI frame compared to preoperative lordosis was significantly higher in the spondylolisthesis group. The risk of increased lordosis on frame was significantly higher in the spondylolisthesis group (odds ratio, 3.325; 95% confidence interval, 1.101 to 10.039; p = 0.033). Conclusions Intraoperative lumbar lordosis on the OSI frame with a prone

  2. Incidence and related factors of traffic accidents among the older population in a rapidly aging society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kimyong; Lee, Kyoung-Mu; Jang, Soong-nang

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the incidence of traffic accidents and find related factors among the older population. We used the cross-sectional data from the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS), which was conducted between 2008 and 2010 and completed by 680,202 adults aged 19 years or more. And we used individuals aged 60 years or above (n=210,914). The incidence of traffic accidents was estimated as number of traffic accidents experienced per thousand per year by a number of factors including age, sex, residential area, education, employment status, and diagnosis with chronic diseases. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each potential risk factor adjusted for the others. Incidence of traffic accidents was estimated as 11.74/1,000 per year for men, and 7.65/1,000 per year for women. It tended to decline as age increased among women; compared to the youngest old age group (60-64), the older old groups (70-74 and 80+) were at lower risk for traffic accidents. Depressive symptom was the strongest predictor for both men (OR=1.83, 95% CI=1.28-2.61) and women (1.70, 1.23-2.35). Risk of traffic accident was greater in employed men (1.76, 1.40-2.22) and women diagnosis with arthritis (1.36, 1.06-1.75). Given that the incidence of and factors associated with traffic accidents differ between men and women, preventive strategies, such as driver education and traffic safety counseling for older adults, should be modified in accordance with these differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome as a cause of road traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, M; Valença, J; Felizardo, M; Caeiro, F; Moreira, S; Staats, R; Bugalho de Almeida, A A

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) patients have a higher rate of road traffic accidents. Our study aimed to analyse any differences in OSAS patients between those who reported having had road traffic accidents and/or near misses and those who did not. We studied 163 patients with OSAS (apnoea- hypopnoea index (AHI)>10/h) diagnosed using nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG), all drivers, 18.4% of whom drove for a living. Patients were asked at their first clinical interview to self-report road traffic accidents and/or near misses over the past 3 years which had been caused by abnormal daytime drowsiness. This allowed patients to be divided into two groups, those who had had road traffic accidents and/or near misses and those who had not. Both were compared as to age, body mass index (BMI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), daytime PaO2 and PaCO2, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ) test and NPSG data. This latter was total sleep time (TTS), sleep efficiency, sleep stages, arousal index (ARI), AHI, minimal and average SaO2, % of time with SaO2 TDAH) (T test). Group I (no road traffic accidents) No=89 patients; group II (road traffic accidents) No=74 patients. Age (years) was 57.6+/-11.8 vs. 54.7+/-10.9 (ns); male gender, 75% vs. 78.4%; ESS, 12.3+/-5.4 vs. 17.6+/-4.3 (pTDAH (minutes), 98.5+/-63.7 vs. 133.3+/-83.2 (p=0,005). In our experience patients who had road traffic accidents and/or near misses had a more severe OSAS, with higher AHI, excessive daytime sleepiness and lower quality of life.

  4. Practical approaches in accident analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, M.

    An accident analysis technique based on successive application of structural response, explosion dynamics, gas cloud formation, and plant operation failure mode models is proposed. The method takes into account the nonideal explosion characteristic of a deflagration in the unconfined cloud. The resulting pressure wave differs significantly from a shock wave and the response of structures like lamp posts and walls can differ correspondingly. This gives a more realistic insight into explosion courses than a simple TNT-equivalent approach.

  5. Keep on cruising: Changes in lifestyle and driving style among male drivers between the age of 18 and 23

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent improvements in general road safety levels, young male drivers in most western countries continue to be overrepresented in road traffic accidents. Lifestyle related motivational factors are a key element in the young male driver problem. Based on 379 posted questionnaires completed...... by the same male drivers at the age of 18 and again at the age of 23, this study examined changes in the relationship between lifestyle and driving style over a 5 year period. A number of changes in car use, driving style and engagement in different leisure time activities were found. Cruising was related...... to an extrovert social life as well as problem behaviours such as drink driving. At the age of 18 cruising was a part of the normal social life of the majority of the participants. However, while most drivers reduced their level of cruising as well as related problem behaviour over time, a smaller group still...

  6. Differences in male and female injury severities in sport-utility vehicle, minivan, pickup and passenger car accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F; Mannering, Fred L

    2004-03-01

    This research explores differences in injury severity between male and female drivers in single and two-vehicle accidents involving passenger cars, pickups, sport-utility vehicles (SUVs), and minivans. Separate multivariate multinomial logit models of injury severity are estimated for male and female drivers. The models predict the probability of four injury severity outcomes: no injury (property damage only), possible injury, evident injury, and fatal/disabling injury. The models are conditioned on driver gender and the number and type of vehicles involved in the accident. The conditional structure avoids bias caused by men and women's different reporting rates, choices of vehicle type, and their different rates of participation as drivers, which would affect a joint model of all crashes. We found variables that have opposite effects for the genders, such as striking a barrier or a guardrail, and crashing while starting a vehicle. The results suggest there are important behavioral and physiological differences between male and female drivers that must be explored further and addressed in vehicle and roadway design.

  7. The consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Chioșilă

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available These days marks 30 years since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, followed by massive radioactive contamination of the environment and human in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, and resulted in many deaths among people who intervened to decrease the effects of the nuclear disaster. The 26 April 1986 nuclear accident contaminated all European countries, but at a much lower level, without highlighted consequences on human health. In special laboratories, the main radionuclides (I-131, Cs-137, Cs-134 and Sr-90 were also analyzed in Romania from environmental samples, food, even human subjects. These radionuclides caused the population to receive a low dose of about 1 mSv in 1986 that is half of the dose of the natural background radiation (2.4 mSv per year. As in all European countries (excluding Ukraine, Belarus and Russia this dose of about 1 mSv fell rapidly by 1990, reaching levels close to ones before the accident at the nuclear tests.

  8. [Multicenter paragliding accident study 1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, S; Karli, U; Matter, P

    1992-01-01

    During the period from 1.1.90 until 31.12.90, 86 injuries associated with paragliding were analyzed in a prospective study in 12 different Swiss hospitals with reference to causes, patterns, and frequencies. The injuries showed a mean score of over 2 and were classified as severe. Most frequent spine injuries (36%) and lesions of the lower extremity (35%) with a high risk of the ankles were diagnosed. One accident was fatal. 60% of the accidents happened during landing, 26% during launching and 14% during flight. Half of the pilots were affected during their primary training course. Most accidents were caused by inflight error of judgement--especially incorrect estimation of wind conditions--and further the choice of unfavourable landing sites. In contrast to previous injury-reports, only one equipment failure could be noted, but often the equipment was not corresponding with the experience and the weight of the pilot. To reduce the frequency of paragliding-injuries an accurate choice of equipment and an increased attention to environmental factors is mandatory. Furthermore an education-program regarding the attitude and intelligence of the pilot should be included in training courses.

  9. Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galstyan I.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS, developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

  10. Epidemiological characteristics of fatal traffic accidents in Fars province, Iran: a community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, S T; Hoseinzadeh, A; Ghaffarpasand, F; Hedjazi, A; Zarenezhad, M; Moafian, G; Aghabeigi, M R; Foroutan, A; Sarikhani, Y; Peymani, P; Ahmadi, S M; Joulaei, H; Dehghankhalili, M; Lankarani, K B

    2013-08-01

    To determine the epidemiological characteristics of fatal traffic accidents in Fars province, Iran. This cross-sectional study included 3642 traffic accident deaths in Fars province, Iran between November 2009 and November 2011. The data source was the Fars Forensic Medicine Registry, which covers the entire province. According to Iranian law, all deaths resulting from injuries or accidents must be investigated to determine the exact cause of death by autopsy. All such deaths are referred to forensic medicine centres in each city, and all data are sent to the main centre in Shiraz, the capital city of Fars province. Males accounted for 78.3% of the decedents (sex ratio of almost 3.6:1), and the mean ± standard deviation age of all decedents was 32.2 ± 20.3 years. Autopsy reports indicated that head trauma was the most common cause of death. Most collisions were vehicle-vehicle crashes (52.3%), with cars and motorcycles being the most prevalent modes of transport (39.6% and 24.6%, respectively). Fatal accidents were most common during the summer. Most fatal injuries (61.4%) occurred on outer-city roads and 27.4% occurred on inner-city roads. Significant associations were found between decedent's status (car driver, motorcycle driver or passenger, pedestrian or passenger) and interval between injury and death, light conditions at the scene of the accident, place of death, site of injury and cause of death. Although the clinical management of trauma patients has improved in Iran, coordination between trauma system organizations is required to decrease the burden of injuries. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Autopsy investigation and Bayesian approach to coronary artery disease in victims of motor-vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Antonio; Flores, Jose; Merigioli, Sara; LeDuc, Louis; Benito, Begoña; Partemi, Sara; Arzamendi, Dabit; Campuzano, Oscar; Leung, Tack Li; Iglesias, Anna; Talajic, Mario; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Brugada, Ramon

    2011-09-01

    Each year, 1.2 million people die worldwide as a result of motor-vehicle accidents (MVA), representing a tremendous burden to healthcare. The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of coronary disease and its possible role in motor-vehicle accidents. We examined consecutive cases of non-hospital sudden death autopsies in the area of West Quebec during the period of 2002-2006, and we focused on those victims of MVA. Severe coronary artery disease (CAD) was defined as a narrowing of ≥ 75% of a cross-sectional area or the presence of acute plaque events in major epicardial coronary arteries. From a total cohort of 1260 autopsies, MVA were responsible for 123 deaths, 100 of whom were men and 23 were women. Significant CAD was documented in approximately 37% of these cases. In individuals older than 60 years, the prevalence of significant CAD and ischemia were 86.2% and 19.8%, respectively. A percentage of 40% of the coronary patients showed erratic driving before the accident, as observed by witnesses. Statistical analysis showed that an individual affected by CAD has 9% probability of suffering a motor-vehicle accident. The prevalence of severe CAD and acute myocardial ischemia is very high among individuals who have suffered a MVA. Our data suggest the hypothesis that acute CAD could be the cause of accidents in a large group of the drivers affected by coronary disease. For these reasons CAD could be investigated in drivers above 50 years old, as a possible preventive measure and determinant of individual risk stratification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Retrospective self-reports of childhood accidents causing unconsciousness in phallometrically diagnosed pedophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray; Christensen, Bruce K; Strong, Scott M; Cantor, James M; Kuban, Michael E; Klassen, Philip; Dickey, Robert; Blak, Thomas

    2002-12-01

    The present study investigated whetherhead injuries in childhood might increase the risk of pedophilia in males. The subjects were 1206 patients referred to a clinical sexology service for assessment of their erotic preferences. These were classified, on the basis of phallometric test results, as pedophilic (n = 413) or nonpedophilic (n = 793). Information regarding early head injuries, other signs of possible neurodevelopmental problems, and parental histories of psychiatric treatment were collected with self-administered questionnaires. The results showed that childhood accidents that resulted in unconsciousness were associated with pedophilia and with lower levels of intelligence and education. These associations were statistically significant for accidents that occurred before the age of 6, but not for accidents that occurred between the ages of 6 and 12. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental perturbations in early childhood may increase the risk of pedophilia. They are also, however, compatible with the alternative explanation that prior neurodevelopmental problems lead to accident-proneness and head injury, on the one hand, and to pedophilia, on the other, and that head injury has no causal influence on pedophilia. A secondary finding was that the pedophiles were more likely to report that their mothers had undergone psychiatric treatment. This finding suggests that pedophilia may be influenced by genetic factors, which are manifested in women as an increased risk of psychiatric problems, and in their sons, as an increased risk of erotic interest in children.

  13. Identification and Prioritization of “Black Spots” without Using Accident Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoudreza Keymanesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is attempted to identify and prioritize the accident prone points (black spots in “Iraanshahr-Sarbaaz-Chabahar” road located in Baluchistan, Iran, without no use of accident data but rather using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, which is the enhanced procedure of road safety audit technique. First, by surveying the whole route, all factors that could influence accidents in this road were specified; then the route was divided into eight sections; this division was performed based on the uniformity and homogeny of each section in terms of geometric design and regional conditions. In each section, potentially hazardous locations were identified and some questionnaires were prepared, which were filled by 5 road traffic experts familiar with the route; then the collected data were analyzed by Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP using Expert Choice Software and the black spots were identified and prioritized. Finally, these black spots were compared with the black spots that had been obtained by traffic police based on accident data.

  14. Key drivers of airline loyalty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty. PMID:27064618

  15. Key drivers of airline loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty.

  16. Complaints of Poor Sleep and Risk of Traffic Accidents: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Philip

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the sleepiness-related factors associated with road traffic accidents.A population based case-control study was conducted in 2 French agglomerations. 272 road accident cases hospitalized in emergency units and 272 control drivers matched by time of day and randomly stopped by police forces were included in the study. Odds ratios were calculated for the risk of road traffic accidents.As expected, the main predictive factor for road traffic accidents was having a sleep episode at the wheel just before the accident (OR 9.97, CI 95%: 1.57-63.50, p<0.05. The increased risk of traffic accidents was 3.35 times higher in subjects who reported very poor quality sleep during the last 3 months (CI 95%: 1.30-8.63, p<0.05, 1.69 times higher in subjects reporting sleeping 6 hours or fewer per night during the last 3 months (CI 95%: 1.00-2.85, p<0.05, 2.02 times higher in subjects reporting symptoms of anxiety or nervousness in the previous day (CI 95%: 1.03-3.97, p<0.05, and 3.29 times higher in subjects reporting taking more than 2 medications in the last 24 h (CI 95%: 1.14-9.44, p<0.05. Chronic daytime sleepiness measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, expressed heavy snoring and nocturnal leg movements did not explain traffic accidents.Physicians should be attentive to complaints of poor sleep quality and quantity, symptoms of anxiety-nervousness and/or drug consumption in regular car drivers.

  17. Serum Antibody Response to Five Streptococcus pneumoniae Proteins during Acute Otitis Media in Otitis Prone and Non-Otitis Prone Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ravinder; Casey, Janet R.; Pichichero, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) is one of the common bacteria responsible for episodic acute otitis media (AOM; non-otitis prone), recurrent AOM (otitis-prone) and AOM treatment failure (AOMTF) in children. Objective From a population of 268 children we sought to compare the serum IgG antibody titers to five different Spn proteins (PhtD, LytB, PcpA, PhtE and Ply) that are vaccine candidates in children with episodic AOM (n=34), who were otitis prone (n=35), and who had AOMTF (n=25) caused by Spn. Methods Antibody was quantitated by ELISA. Results At their acute AOM visit, anti-PhtD, -LytB, -PhtE and −Ply IgG antibody titers in otitis-prone children were significantly lower compared to non-otitis prone children (p otitis-prone, AOMTF and non-otitis prone children had no significant change in geometric mean IgG antibody titers against the five proteins (except for PhtE in children with AOMTF), but detailed analysis showed that about one-third of the children in each cohort had a 2-fold rise in antibody to the studied antigens. While non-otitis prone children had significant increases (p otitis-prone children either failed to show rises or the rises were significantly less than the non-otitis prone children. Conclusion Otitis-prone and AOMTF children mount less of an IgG serum antibody response than non-otitis prone children to Spn proteins following AOM and nasopharyngeal colonization. PMID:21487325

  18. Crash risk and aberrant driving behaviors among bus drivers: the role of personality and attitudes towards traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, Luca; Lazuras, Lambros; Violani, Cristiano; Lucidi, Fabio

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown that personality traits and attitudes toward traffic safety predict aberrant driving behaviors and crash involvement. However, this process has not been adequately investigated in professional drivers, such as bus drivers. The present study used a personality-attitudes model to assess whether personality traits predicted aberrant self-reported driving behaviors (driving violations, lapses, and errors) both directly and indirectly, through the effects of attitudes towards traffic safety in a large sample of bus drivers. Additionally, the relationship between aberrant self-reported driving behaviors and crash risk was also assessed. Three hundred and one bus drivers (mean age=39.1, SD=10.7 years) completed a structured and anonymous questionnaire measuring personality traits, attitudes toward traffic safety, self-reported aberrant driving behaviors (i.e., errors, lapses, and traffic violations), and accident risk in the last 12 months. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that personality traits were associated to aberrant driving behaviors both directly and indirectly. In particular altruism, excitement seeking, and normlessness directly predicted bus drivers' attitudes toward traffic safety which, in turn, were negatively associated with the three types of self-reported aberrant driving behaviors. Personality traits relevant to emotionality directly predicted bus drivers' aberrant driving behaviors, without any mediation of attitudes. Finally, only self-reported violations were related to bus drivers' accident risk. The present findings suggest that the hypothesized personality-attitudes model accounts for aberrant driving behaviors in bus drivers, and provide the empirical basis for evidence-based road safety interventions in the context of public transport.

  19. Temporal Statistic of Traffic Accidents in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, S.; Yalcin, M.; Yilmaz, M.; Korkmaz Takim, A.

    2015-10-01

    Traffic accidents form clusters in terms of geographic space and over time which themselves exhibit distinct spatial and temporal patterns. There is an imperative need to understand how, where and when traffic accidents occur in order to develop appropriate accident reduction strategies. An improved understanding of the location, time and reasons for traffic accidents makes a significant contribution to preventing them. Traffic accident occurrences have been extensively studied from different spatial and temporal points of view using a variety of methodological approaches. In literature, less research has been dedicated to the temporal patterns of traffic accidents. In this paper, the numbers of traffic accidents are normalized according to the traffic volume and the distribution and fluctuation of these accidents is examined in terms of Islamic time intervals. The daily activities and worship of Muslims are arranged according to these time intervals that are spaced fairly throughout the day according to the position of the sun. The Islamic time intervals are never been used before to identify the critical hour for traffic accidents in the world. The results show that the sunrise is the critical time that acts as a threshold in the rate of traffic accidents throughout Turkey in Islamic time intervals.

  20. [Accidents in travellers - the hidden epidemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Alexander; Hatz, Christoph

    2013-06-01

    The risk of malaria and other communicable diseases is well addressed in pre-travel advice. Accidents are usually less discussed. Thus, we aimed at assessing accident figures for the Swiss population, based on data of the register from 2004 to 2008 of the largest Swiss accident insurance organization (SUVA). More than 139'000 accidents over 5 years showed that 65 % of the accidents overseas are injuries, and 24 % are caused by poisoning or harm by cold, heat or air pressure. Most accidents happened during leisure activities or sports. More than one third of the non-lethal and more than 50 % of the fatal accidents happened in Asia. More than three-quarters of non-lethal accidents take place in people between 25 and 54 years. One out of 74 insured persons has an accident abroad per year. Despite of many analysis short-comings of the data set with regard to overseas travel, the figures document the underestimated burden of disease caused by accidents abroad and should affect the given pre-health advice.