WorldWideScience

Sample records for accident prevention

  1. Prevention of pedestrian accidents.

    OpenAIRE

    Kendrick, D.

    1993-01-01

    Child pedestrian accidents are the most common road traffic accident resulting in injury. Much of the existing work on road traffic accidents is based on analysing clusters of accidents despite evidence that child pedestrian accidents tend to be more dispersed than this. This paper analyses pedestrian accidents in 573 children aged 0-11 years by a locally derived deprivation score for the years 1988-90. The analysis shows a significantly higher accident rate in deprived areas and a dose respo...

  2. PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Jovanovic

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical services, physicians and nurses play an essential role in the plant safety program through primary treatment of injured workers and by helping to identify workplace hazards. The physician and nurse should participate in the worksite investigations to identify specific hazard or stresses potentially causing the occupational accidents and injuries and in planning the subsequent hazard control program. Physicians and nurses must work closely and cooperatively with supervisors to ensure the prompt reporting and treatment of all work related health and safety problems. Occupational accidents, work related injuries and fatalities result from multiple causes, affect different segments of the working population, and occur in a myriad of occupations and industrial settings. Multiple factors and risks contribute to traumatic injuries, such as hazardous exposures, workplace and process design, work organization and environment, economics, and other social factors. With such a diversity of theories, it will not be difficult to understand that there does not exist one single theory that is considered right or correct and is universally accepted. These theories are nonetheless necessary, but not sufficient, for developing a frame of reference for understanding accident occurrences. Prevention strategies are also varied, and multiple strategies may be applicable to many settings, including engineering controls, protective equipment and technologies, management commitment to and investment in safety, regulatory controls, and education and training. Research needs are thus broad, and the development and application of interventions involve many disciplines and organizations.

  3. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  4. PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Jovica Jovanovic

    2004-01-01

    Medical services, physicians and nurses play an essential role in the plant safety program through primary treatment of injured workers and by helping to identify workplace hazards. The physician and nurse should participate in the worksite investigations to identify specific hazard or stresses potentially causing the occupational accidents and injuries and in planning the subsequent hazard control program. Physicians and nurses must work closely and cooperatively with supervisors to ensure t...

  5. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the clause at FAR 52.236-13, Accident Prevention. ...

  6. New technology for accident prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byne, P. [Shiftwork Solutions, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This power point presentation examined the effects of fatigue in the workplace and presented 3 technologies designed to prevent or monitor fatigue. The relationship between mental fatigue, circadian rhythms and cognitive performance was explored. Details of vigilance related degradations in the workplace were presented, as well as data on fatigue-related accidents and a time-line of meter-reading errors. It was noted that the direct cause of the Exxon Valdez disaster was sleep deprivation. Fatigue related accidents during the Gulf War were reviewed. The effects of fatigue on workplace performance include impaired logical reasoning and decision-making; impaired vigilance and attention; slowed mental operations; loss of situational awareness; slowed reaction time; and short cuts and lapses in optional or self-paced behaviours. New technologies to prevent fatigue-related accidents include (1) the driver fatigue monitor, an infra-red camera and computer that tracks a driver's slow eye-lid closures to prevent fatigue related accidents; (2) a fatigue avoidance scheduling tool (FAST) which collects actigraphs of sleep activity; and (3) SAFTE, a sleep, activity, fatigue and effectiveness model. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13...

  8. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I. ...

  9. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36.513 Section 36.513 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, in...

  10. [Implementation of safety devices: biological accident prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán Gómez, M Teresa; Sol Vidiella, Josep; Castellà Castellà, Manel; Castells Bo, Carolina; Losada Pla, Nuria; Espuny, Javier Lluís

    2010-04-01

    Accidental exposures to blood and biological material were the most frequent and potentially serious accidents in healthcare workers, reported in the Prevention of Occupational Risks Unit within 2002. Evaluate the biological percutaneous accidents decrease after a progressive introduction of safety devices. Biological accidents produced between 2.002 and 2.006 were analyzed and reported by the injured healthcare workers to the Level 2b Hospital Prevention of Occupational Risk Unit with 238 beds and 750 employees. The key of the study was the safety devices (peripheral i.v. catheter, needleless i.v. access device and capillary blood collection lancet). Within 2002, 54 percutaneous biological accidents were registered and 19 in 2006, that represents a 64.8% decreased. There has been no safety devices accident reported involving these material. Accidents registered during the implantation period occurred because safety devices were not used at that time. Safety devices have proven to be effective in reducing needle stick percutaneous accidents, so that they are a good choice in the primary prevention of biological accidents contact.

  11. 48 CFR 852.236-87 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 852... Accident prevention. As prescribed in 836.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (SEP 1993....236-13, Accident Prevention. However, only the Contracting Officer may issue an order to stop all or...

  12. Accident prevention in a contextual approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang

    2003-01-01

    of such a contextual approach is shortly described and demonstrated in relation to a Danish case on accident prevention. It is concluded that the approach presently offers a post-ante, descriptive analytical understanding, and it is argued that it can be developed to a frame of reference for planning actions...

  13. The study of technological prevention method of road accident ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... may be associated with the occurrence of the accident was conducted. This paper also discussed about road accident prevention method based on the factors studied. The study of this paper can provide forceful data analysis support for the road traffic safety related research. Keywords: road accident; accident prevention; ...

  14. Accident prevention in competitive cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, J G; McLennan, J C; Ungersma, J

    1988-01-01

    A prospective study of risk factors and injury patterns of competitive cyclists in 10 races at altitudes over 1,500 meters was carried out over 4 years. In 1986, 1,500 licensed racers were compared to a similar group of over 3,900 racers in the 3 previous years to determine if the incidence and severity of injury could be lessened. Factors addressed were the use of helmets, binding-type pedals, equipment inspection, improved medical coverage, and the prevention of acute mountain sickness and exposure. The injury rate and injuries per 100 hours of racing competition were half of that seen in prior years. Severity of injury was lessened as over 80% of the injured racers returned to competition within 1 week in contrast to only 66% during the period from 1983 to 1985. A successful program for injury prevention and the lessening of the severity of injury at altitudes is proposed.

  15. 48 CFR 52.236-13 - Accident Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 52.236-13 Section 52.236-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....236-13 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 36.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention...

  16. [Prevention of accidents caused by construction work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabile, F; Bauleo, F A; Mancini, A; Gigli, M; Martinelli, D; Taglia, L

    1989-01-01

    Descriptive data on occupational accidents and diseases in the field of construction and particularly among builders are reported. They derive from publications of the National Insurance Institute for Occupational Accidents (INAIL) and refer to the Italian and Umbrian situation. Data show that the number and the severity of the accidents in this field are of great concern. The characteristics of the building work in our areas are too peculiar as the work is carried out in small building sites and lasts for a short period of time; subcontracting and piecework are widely diffused; health surveillance is nearly absent. One must take into account all of these characteristics when prevention programs are to be planned. Intervention priority must be given to a) information on occupational risks of contractors and workers; b) first level prevention; c) control and inspection activity. In this respect the A.A. report the results of the watch activity in 703 erecting yards by one to health unit's Department for the health security, safety and welfare of persons at work (period May 1985 - May 1988). The A.A. define a type of organization to achieve a continual intervention in the erecting yards.

  17. Prevention of "simple accidents at work" with major consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    of prevention or safety methodologies and procedures established for major accidents are applicable to simple accidents. The article goes back to basics about accidents causes, to review the nature of successful prevention techniques and to analyze what have been constraints to getting this knowledge used more...

  18. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    , insufficient attention was paid to evidence of large tsunamis inundating the region, i.e., AD 869 Jogan and 1677 Empo Boso-oki tsunamis, and the 1896 Sanriku tsunami maximum height in eastern Japan whose maximum runup was 38m. Two, the design safety conditions were different in Onagawa, Fukushima and Tokai NPPs. It is inconceivable to have had different earthquake scenarios for the NPPs at such close distance from each other. Three, studying the sub-standard TEPCO analysis performed only months before the accident shows that it is not the accuracy of numerical computations or the veracity of the computational model that doomed the NPP, but the lack of familiarity with the context of numerical predictions. Inundation projections, even if correct for one particular scenario, need to always be put in context of similar studies and events elsewhere. To put it in colloquial terms, following a recipe from a great cookbook and having great cookware does not always result in great food, if the cook is an amateur. The Fukushima accident was preventable. Had the plant's owner TEPCO and NISA followed international best practices and standards, they would had predicted the possibility of the plant being struck by the size of tsunami that materialized in 2011. If the EDGs had been relocated inland or higher, there would have been no loss of power. A clear chance to have reduced the impact of the tsunami at Fukushima was lost after the 2010 Chilean tsunami. Standards are not only needed for evaluating the vulnerability of NPPs against tsunami attack, but also for evaluating the competence of modelers and evaluators. Acknowledgment: This work is partially supported by the project ASTARTE (Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe) FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839 to the Technical University of Crete and the Middle East Technical University.

  19. Guidelines for accident prevention and emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Morris, S.C.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1993-05-01

    This report reviews recent developments in the guidelines on chemical accident prevention, risk assessment, and management of chemical emergencies, principally in the United States and Europe, and discusses aspects of their application to developing countries. Such guidelines are either in the form of laws or regulations promulgated by governments, or of recommendations from international, professional, or non governmental organizations. In many cases, these guidelines specify lists of materials of concern and methods for evaluating safe usage of these materials and recommend areas of responsibility for different organizations; procedures to be included in planning, evaluation, and response; and appropriate levels of training for different classes of workers. Guidelines frequently address the right of communities to be informed of potential hazards and address ways for them to participate in planning and decision making.

  20. 50 CFR 401.17 - Safety and accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety and accident prevention. 401.17 Section 401.17 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... FISHERIES CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.17 Safety and accident prevention. In the...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.200 - Accident prevention signs and tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accident prevention signs and tags. 1926.200 Section 1926... § 1926.200 Accident prevention signs and tags. (a) General. Signs and symbols required by this subpart... principal stroke of the letters shall be at least three-fourths inch in width. (e) Safety instruction signs...

  2. Accidents Preventive Practice for High-Rise Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Kai Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand of high-rise projects continues to grow due to the reducing of usable land area in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The rapidly development of high-rise projects has leaded to the rise of fatalities and accidents. An accident that happened in a construction site can cause serious physical injury. The accidents such as people falling from height and struck by falling object were the most frequent accidents happened in Malaysian construction industry. The continuous growth of high-rise buildings indicates that there is a need of an effective safety and health management. Hence, this research aims to identify the causes of accidents and the ways to prevent accidents that occur at high-rise building construction site. Qualitative method was employed in this research. Interview surveying with safety officers who are involved in highrise building project in Kuala Lumpur were conducted in this research. Accidents were caused by man-made factors, environment factors or machinery factors. The accidents prevention methods were provide sufficient Personal Protective Equipment (PPE, have a good housekeeping, execute safety inspection, provide safety training and execute accidents investigation. In the meanwhile, interviewees have suggested the new prevention methods that were develop a proper site layout planning and de-merit and merit system among sub-contractors, suppliers and even employees regarding safety at workplace matters. This research helps in explaining the causes of accidents and identifying area where prevention action should be implemented, so that workers and top management will increase awareness in preventing site accidents.

  3. New Technologies for Weather Accident Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, H. Paul, III; Watson, James F., Jr.; Daniels, Taumi S.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.; Jarrell, Michael A.; Bogue, Rodney K.

    2005-01-01

    Weather is a causal factor in thirty percent of all aviation accidents. Many of these accidents are due to a lack of weather situation awareness by pilots in flight. Improving the strategic and tactical weather information available and its presentation to pilots in flight can enhance weather situation awareness and enable avoidance of adverse conditions. This paper presents technologies for airborne detection, dissemination and display of weather information developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in partnership with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), industry and the research community. These technologies, currently in the initial stages of implementation by industry, will provide more precise and timely knowledge of the weather and enable pilots in flight to make decisions that result in safer and more efficient operations.

  4. Accident prevention in SME using ORM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Troen, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    Risk perception in SMEs is normally low, and this is closely related to the fact that the chance of a mall enterprise experiencing a serious accident is very small compared to companies that employ a large workforce. This is a fact even though the SMEs together have a higher accident frequency...... compared with large enterprises. To reach the SMEs we must find a way of supporting them, because they normally have neither the time nor the resources to acquire the knowledge and awareness necessary for working with their own safety. The Occupational Risk Model (ORM) developed by the Dutch Workgroup...... safety in SMEs, as the project also focuses on management factors that can motivate the SMEs to increase their risk awareness and own initiatives. The project is now half way through the project period....

  5. A community intervention to prevent traffic accidents among bicycle commuters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchieri, Giancarlo; Barros, Aluísio J D; Santos, Janaína V dos; Gonçalves, Helen; Gigante, Denise P

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate an educational intervention designed to prevent traffic accidents among workers that use the bicycle for commuting. A longitudinal intervention study with a stepped wedge implementation was carried out between January 2006 and May 2007. Five neighborhoods with distinct geographic characteristics were selected in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, and 42 census tracts were randomly selected from these neighborhoods. All households were screened for male bicycle commuters, resulting in a sample of 1,133 individuals. The outcomes analyzed were "traffic accidents" and "near accidents". The cyclists were interviewed monthly by phone to record traffic accidents and "near accidents". Every 15 days, from the second month of study, a group of about 60 cyclists was invited to attend the intervention meeting that included an educational component (a talk and a video presentation), distribution of a safety kit (reflective belt & sash, reflective tape and an educational booklet) and a bicycle breaks check-up (maintenance performed if necessary). Poisson regression adjusted for time effect was used to assess the intervention effect. Nearly 45% of the cyclists did not attend the intervention. During the study period, 9% of the study individuals reported a traffic accident and 88% reported a "near accident". In total there were 106 accidents and 1,091 near accidents. There was no effect observed from the intervention on either of the outcomes. The intervention tested was not capable of reducing traffic accidents among bicycle commuters. Lack of interest in safety by commuters and external factors, such as road design and motorist behavior, may have together influenced this result.

  6. Preventing Drowning Accidents Using Thermal Cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonderup, Søren; Olsson, Jonas Lundgaard; Bonderup, Morten Bojesen

    2016-01-01

    techniques an automatic surveillance system for predicting and detecting drowning accidents has been implemented. First a person detector has been implemented using simple human characteristics. The person is tracked using a Kalman Filter. Using the tracker as a prior, a fall prediction is determined. A fall...... detector is implemented using a virtual trip-wire in combination with an optical flow algorithm making the system able to detect 100% of all falls and only yielding a 0.08 false positive rate hourly. The entire system has been developed using 155 h of real life thermal video, hereof 56 h are manually...

  7. Injuries are not accidents: towards a culture of prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Injuries are the result of an acute exposure to exhort of energy or a consequence of a deficiency in a vital element that exceeds physiological thresholds resulting threatens life. They are classified as intentional or unintentional. Injuries are considered a global health issue because they cause more than 5 million deaths per year worldwide and they are an important contributor to the burden of disease, especially affecting people of low socioeconomic status in low- and middle-income countries. A common misconception exists where injuries are thought to be the same as accidents; however, accidents are largely used as chance events, without taken in consideration that all these are preventable. This review discusses injuries and accidents in the context of road traffic and emphasizes injuries as preventable events. An understanding of the essence of injuries enables the standardization of terminology in public use and facilitates the development of a culture of prevention among all of us.

  8. Prevention of accidents in SME’s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Troen, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    we developed a method to observe and document the activities and risks in small enterprises, on the basis of the Dutch study. The co-operation between the Dutch and Danish projects has resulted in a very useful web-based risk assessment tool, which towards June 2009 will be accessible in Dutch...... in a series of small enterprises covering observations of about 120 man-days. These observations demonstrated that maintaining barriers against accidents can only partly be managed by the employer. Especially in enterprises with employees normally working outside the establishment, the daily safety assessment....... The results of the Danish project is an application of the Dutch findings to describe what risks and safety barriers are most important for small enterprises in some industry sectors and jobs. Based on this knowledge, we can formulate requirements for, 1) what can and should the employer take care of; 2) what...

  9. Severe accident approach - final report. Evaluation of design measures for severe accident prevention and consequence mitigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tentner, A. M.; Parma, E.; Wei, T.; Wigeland, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division; SNL; INL

    2010-03-01

    An important goal of the US DOE reactor development program is to conceptualize advanced safety design features for a demonstration Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key safety issues in the design approach for advanced SFR systems. It is necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of the risk of severe accidents for the SFR so that appropriate risk management measures can be implemented early in the design process. This report presents the results of a review of the SFR features and phenomena that directly influence the sequence of events during a postulated severe accident. The report identifies the safety features used or proposed for various SFR designs in the US and worldwide for the prevention and/or mitigation of Core Disruptive Accidents (CDA). The report provides an overview of the current SFR safety approaches and the role of severe accidents. Mutual understanding of these design features and safety approaches is necessary for future collaborations between the US and its international partners as part of the GEN IV program. The report also reviews the basis for an integrated safety approach to severe accidents for the SFR that reflects the safety design knowledge gained in the US during the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) and Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) programs. This approach relies on inherent reactor and plant safety performance characteristics to provide additional safety margins. The goal of this approach is to prevent development of severe accident conditions, even in the event of initiators with safety system failures previously recognized to lead directly to reactor damage.

  10. Prevention of "simple accidents at work" with major consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    occupational accidents a year were notified leading to 4500 fatalities and 90,000 permanent disabilities each year. The article looks at the concept ‘‘accident’’ to find similarities and distinctions between major and simple accident characteristics. The purpose is to find to what extent the same kinds...... broadly. This review identifies gaps in the prevention of simple accidents, relating to safety barriers for risk control and the management processes that need to be in place to deliver those risk controls in a continuingly effective state. The article introduces the ‘‘INFO cards’’ as a tool...... for the systematic observation of hazard sources in order to ascertain whether safety barriers and management deliveries are present. Safety management and safety culture, together with the INFO cards are important factors in the prevention process. The conclusion is that we must look at safety as a part of being...

  11. Developing an external domino accident prevention framework : Hazwim

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Genserik L L; Dullaert, W.; Ale, B. J.M.; Soudan, K.

    Empirical research on major accident safety in the second largest chemical cluster worldwide, the Antwerp port area, supports the design of a meta-technical framework for optimizing external domino prevention. First, the majority of Seveso top tier companies have expressed a willingness to cooperate

  12. Major accident prevention through applying safety knowledge management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalatpour, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Many scattered resources of knowledge are available to use for chemical accident prevention purposes. The common approach to management process safety, including using databases and referring to the available knowledge has some drawbacks. The main goal of this article was to devise a new emerged knowledge base (KB) for the chemical accident prevention domain. The scattered sources of safety knowledge were identified and scanned. Then, the collected knowledge was formalized through a computerized program. The Protégé software was used to formalize and represent the stored safety knowledge. The domain knowledge retrieved as well as data and information. This optimized approach improved safety and health knowledge management (KM) process and resolved some typical problems in the KM process. Upgrading the traditional resources of safety databases into the KBs can improve the interaction between the users and knowledge repository.

  13. [Keys to preventing accidents in children in the school context].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabari Gambarte, M Inés; Sáenz Mendía, Raquel

    2016-11-02

    To learn about children's perception of the causes and prevention strategies involved in school accidents. The sample included 584 school children aged 8-9 years from Navarra. A mixed design was chosen by questionnaire with three open-response questions and one multiple-choice assessment. Analysis was performed in two phases: 1) qualitative development of categories and dimensions of the responses of narrative content, and 2) quantitative variables for recoding correlational analysis. 22 categories emerged, which make up three perceptual dimensions: 1) attribution of causality (5), 2) identification of mechanisms of avoidance (11), and 3) development of coping strategies (6). The correlation intra-variables portray varying degrees: on the one hand, moderate positive numbers (r>0.5) in allocating and identifying causality avoidance mechanisms and, on the other hand, high positive correlation values (r>0.7) referred to developing coping strategies. Children are able to identify accidents as a health problem. They question the multiplicity of elements involved and relate the origin and kind of accident to prevention and support mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Future Integrated Systems Concept for Preventing Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Jacobson, Steven r.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to aircraft fatal accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are highly complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. This paper presents future system concepts and research directions for preventing aircraft loss-of-control accidents.

  15. The role of safety analysis in accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suokas, J

    1988-02-01

    The need for safety analysis has grown in the fields of nuclear industry, civil and military aviation and space technology where the potential for accidents with far-reaching consequences for employees, the public and the environment is most apparent. Later the use of safety analysis has spread widely to other industrial branches. General systems theory, accident theories and scientific management represent domains that have influenced the development of safety analysis. These relations are shortly presented and the common methods employed in safety analysis are described and structured according to the aim of the search and to the search strategy. A framework for the evaluation of the coverage of the search procedures employed in different methods of safety analysis is presented. The framework is then used in an heuristic and in an empiric evaluation of hazard and operability study (HAZOP), work safety analysis (WSA), action error analysis (AEA) and management oversight and risk tree (MORT). Finally, some recommendations on the use of safety analysis for preventing accidents are presented.

  16. Industrial safety: working on gas pipelines, accident prevention, operations scheduling; Arbeitssicherheit: Arbeiten an Gasleitungen, Unfallverhuetung, Arbeitsvorbereitung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woborschil, H. [Berufsgenossenschaft der Gas-, Fernwaerme- und Wasserwirtschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2005-09-01

    The former accident prevention regulation GBV D2 'Arbeiten an Gasleitungen' was replaced by the regulation 'Arbeiten an Gasleitungen' of the Accident Prevention and Insurance Association, and the comments on No. 3.4 were updated. According to this, all work on gas pipelines must be carried out only using methods that are classified as having a low accident risk according to the current state of knowledge. (orig.)

  17. Ship Collisions with Bridges: The Nature of the Accidents, Their Prevention and Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    AD-A135 602 SHIP COLLISIONS WITH BRIDGES: THE NATURE OF THE I ACCIDENTS THEIR PREVENTION AND MITIGATION(U) NATIDNAL RESEARCH COUNCIL WASHINGTON DC...Nature of the Accidents , Their Prevention and Mitigation Committee on Ship-Bridge Collisions Marine Board Commission on Engineering and Technical...bridge accidents are rare, but the number and severity of those due to ship collisions far exceed those due to winds, waves, and earthquakes combined

  18. Biomass accident investigations – missed opportunities for learning and accident prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2017-01-01

    of bioenergy related accidents is growing faster than the energy production. This paper argues that biomass accidents, if properly investigated and lessons shared widely, provide ample opportunities for improving general hazard awareness and safety performance of the biomass industry. The paper examines......The past decade has seen a major increase in the production of energy from biomass. The growth has been mirrored in an increase of serious biomass related accidents involving fires, gas explosions, combustible dust explosions and the release of toxic gasses. There are indications that the number...... selected serious accidents involving biogas and wood pellets in Denmark and argues that such opportunities for learning were missed because accident investigations were superficial, follow-up incomplete and information sharing absent. In one particularly distressing case, a facility saw a repeat accident...

  19. The relationships between OHS prevention costs, safety performance, employee satisfaction and accident costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Metin; Ünğan, Mustafa C; Ardıç, Kadir

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about the costs of safety. A literature review conducted for this study indicates there is a lack of survey-based research dealing with the effects of occupational health and safety (OHS) prevention costs. To close this gap in the literature, this study investigates the interwoven relationships between OHS prevention costs, employee satisfaction, OHS performance and accident costs. Data were collected from 159 OHS management system 18001-certified firms operating in Turkey and analyzed through structural equation modeling. The findings indicate that OHS prevention costs have a significant positive effect on safety performance, employee satisfaction and accident costs savings; employee satisfaction has a significant positive effect on accident costs savings; and occupational safety performance has a significant positive effect on employee satisfaction and accident costs savings. Also, the results indicate that safety performance and employee satisfaction leverage the relationship between prevention costs and accident costs.

  20. Public transportation development and traffic accident prevention in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanto Soehodho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents have long been known as an iceberg for comprehending the discrepancies of traffic management and entire transportation systems. Figures detailing traffic accidents in Indonesia, as is the case in many other countries, show significantly high numbers and severity levels; these types of totals are also evident in Jakarta, the highest-populated city in the country. While the common consensus recognizes that traffic accidents are the results of three different factor types, namely, human factors, vehicle factors, and external factors (including road conditions, human factors have the strongest influence—and figures on a worldwide scale corroborate that assertion. We, however, try to pinpoint the issues of non-human factors in light of increasing traffic accidents in Indonesia, where motorbike accidents account for the majority of incidents. We then consider three important pillars of action: the development of public transportation, improvement of the road ratio, and traffic management measures.

  1. Accidents du travail et mesures de prevention - Annee 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Fassnacht, V

    2006-01-01

    Ce rapport présente les statistiques relatives aux accidents du travail pour l’année 2005 pour les membres du personnel CERN et du personnel entreprise. Il fournit les taux de fréquence et de gravité, la répartition des accidents par cause et par lésion. Ce rapport présente également une synthèse de l’analyse des accidents les plus graves et des recommandations associées.

  2. [Occupational physician's role in the prevention of the accidents in construction industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosconi, G; Riva, M M; Apostoli, P

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to discuss about the role of the occupational physician in the prevention of the accidents in construction industry. Using the experience of 12 years of surveillance of workers in Bergamo province, the authors analyse the "human factors" which may influence the risk to have an accident, and the role of the physicians not only for the early diagnosis of work-related diseases, but also for the formulation of correct fitness to work, which consider accidents' prevention. Health conditions, psychological elements, fatigue and life style are some of the most important "human factors" which can amplify the accident phenomenon in construction industry. Our experience demonstrates that the occupational physicians can operate in preventive way on these factors, formulating correct fitness to work, giving their collaboration in the risk evaluation and management, suggesting runs of rehabilitation and recovery for the workers who need it, promoting information meetings related to the correct life habits.

  3. Spinal injury resulting from car accident: Focus to prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakharian, Esmaeil; Mohammadzadeh, Mahdi; Saberi, Hamid Reza; Fazel, Mohammad Reza; Rejali, Mohsen; Akbari, Hossein; Mirzadeh, Azadeh Sadat; Mohammadzadeh, Javad

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To determine and compare the patterns of spinal injury in car occupants. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study enrolling all patients with spinal fracture after car accidents, who were admitted to hospital more than 24 h during 2004–2009. Results: The lumbosacral spine was the most commonly involved region (64.8). Six patients had spinal cord injury (6.6%). The majority of the victims were drivers of the vehicle (86.8%) and remaining were passengers. There was a significant difference in lumbar anatomic region (P = 0.05) and place of accident (P = 0.05) in car occupants’ position (P = 0.05). Car rollover was the most common mechanism of spinal fractures. There was a significant difference in lumbar anatomic region (P = 0.05), and two or more associated organ injuries (P ≤ 0.05) in car accident mechanism (P = 0.05). Conclusion: The chance of sustaining serious spine and associated multiple injuries in car accidents is quite high in our today's society. This may be due to the low level of standards for car manufacturing, absence or inadequacy of appropriate safety measures in cars, and poorly designed roads and problems in quality of driving to mention some reasons. Therefore, these victims are prone to significant morbidity and even mortality and need more specific prehospital supportive interventions. PMID:28484526

  4. The Most Effective Safety Codes on Occupational Accidents Prevention in Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirazeh Arghami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rapid pace of the construction projects have led to safety negligence on the part of the contractors causing higher numbers of accidents in construction industry. Thus, over 2200 legal provisions have been established for the prevention of accidents on construction sites. Not only contractors are unable to implement all provisions, but also it is hard for regulatory bodies to implement all rules, but they are also hard to remember and attend to by regulatory forces. Therefore, identifying the set of codes with the highest effect on reducing accidents would be most beneficial. The aim of this study was to determine the most effective legal provisions in reducing accidents on construction sites in Zanjan city. Methods: In this study, 378 work-related accidents in construction sites in Zanjan city, already registered in the Labor Inspection Authority, were investigated .Then the codes that had not been respected in the construction industry accidents were identified. Effective codes were determined based on their frequency on Pareto chart. Results: Results indicated that out of 2200 legal matters, only 164 were broken in the accidents. Conclusion: Application of Pareto chart could raise safety professionals' awareness of the specific broken codes in accidents, thus draw higher attention to the codes.

  5. Intervention in Multi-cultural Organizations -Prevention of Accidents as political change processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang; Kamp, Annette; Koch, Christian

    1999-01-01

    mainstream safety culture approaches is over rationalististic compared with day to day life of organisations. A simplistic model of mans behaviour, and too abbreviated understanding of the total set of goals and means in action in organisation and rather simple change management models flaws the safety....... It is shown how different sets of meaning assigned to accidents -cultures- is in conflict and that the accident analysis process leads to the domination of one of them; the "faulty human behaviour" perception. Hence an intervention method for prevention of accidents must built on first an understanding...

  6. Analysis of labour accidents in tunnel construction and introduction of prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkawa, Naotaka; Itoh, Kazuya; Hori, Tomohito; Toyosawa, Yasuo; Orense, Rolando P

    2015-01-01

    At present, almost all mountain tunnels in Japan are excavated and constructed utilizing the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM), which was advocated by Prof. Rabcewicz of Austria in 1964. In Japan, this method has been applied to tunnel construction since around 1978, after which there has been a subsequent decrease in the number of casualties during tunnel construction. However, there is still a relatively high incidence of labour accidents during tunnel construction when compared to incidence rates in the construction industry in general. During tunnel construction, rock fall events at the cutting face are a particularly characteristic of the type of accident that occurs. In this study, we analysed labour accidents that possess the characteristics of a rock fall event at a work site. We also introduced accident prevention measures against rock fall events.

  7. Preventing major offshore oil spill accidents in China : Lessons from the EU offshore safety directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Yuan

    With offshore oil and gas activities growing and moving to further and deeper water, offshore oil-spill prevention has become a significant component of marine environmental protection. To reduce the risk of major accidents and limit their consequences, the European Union issued the Offshore Safety

  8. Decision support systems for major accident prevention in the chemical process industry : A developers' survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Genserik L L; Ale, B. J.M.; Dullaert, W.; Foubert, B.

    2006-01-01

    Solid major accident prevention management is characterized by efficient and effective risk assessments. As a means of addressing the efficiency aspect, decision support analysis software is becoming increasingly available. This paper discusses the results of a survey of decision support tools for

  9. Preventing external domino accidents : A framework for enhancing cooperation in the Chemical Process Industry (CPI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, G.; Dullaert, W.; Soudan, K.

    2005-01-01

    Empirical research on major accident safety in the second largest chemical cluster worldwide, the Antwerp port area, supports the design of a meta-technical framework for optimizing external domino prevention. First, the majority of Seveso top tier companies have expressed a willingness to cooperate

  10. [Model of Analysis and Prevention of Accidents - MAPA: tool for operational health surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz; Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia; da Silva, Alessandro José Nunes; Beltran, Sandra Lorena

    2014-12-01

    The analysis of work-related accidents is important for accident surveillance and prevention. Current methods of analysis seek to overcome reductionist views that see these occurrences as simple events explained by operator error. The objective of this paper is to analyze the Model of Analysis and Prevention of Accidents (MAPA) and its use in monitoring interventions, duly highlighting aspects experienced in the use of the tool. The descriptive analytical method was used, introducing the steps of the model. To illustrate contributions and or difficulties, cases where the tool was used in the context of service were selected. MAPA integrates theoretical approaches that have already been tried in studies of accidents by providing useful conceptual support from the data collection stage until conclusion and intervention stages. Besides revealing weaknesses of the traditional approach, it helps identify organizational determinants, such as management failings, system design and safety management involved in the accident. The main challenges lie in the grasp of concepts by users, in exploring organizational aspects upstream in the chain of decisions or at higher levels of the hierarchy, as well as the intervention to change the determinants of these events.

  11. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005-2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc.

  12. ANTIPLATELET THERAPY IN THE PREVENTION OF CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Rodionova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently the problem of preventing cerebrovascular disorders, in which antiplatelet therapy takes one of the leading places, remains relevant. The efficiency of the therapy depends on a large number of modifiable and non-modifiable factors. There are many methods to assess the severity of the response to antiplatelet therapy, but there is no common approach to the assessment of the results and their prognostic significance. Further studies of this issue are essential with the aim of individualization of antiplatelet therapy thereby increasing its efficiency and safety.

  13. Prevention of the causes and consequences of a criticality accident - measures adopted in France; Prevention des causes et des consequences d'un accident de criticite - solutions adoptees en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchard, Y.; Lavie, J.M

    1966-07-01

    The question of safety in regard to criticality accident risks has two aspects: prevention of the cause and limitation of the consequences. These two aspects are closely connected. The effort devoted to prevention of the causes depends on the seriousness of the possible human psychologic and economic consequences of the accident. The criticality accidents which have occurred in the nuclear industry, though few in number, do reveal the imperfect nature of the techniques adopted to prevent the causes, and also constitute the only available realistic basis for evaluating the consequences and developing measures to limit them. The authors give a analysis of the known causes and consequences of past criticality accidents and on this basis make a number of comments concerning: the validity of traditional safety criteria, the probability of accidents for different types of operations, characteristic accidents which can serve as models, and the extent of possible radiological consequences. The measures adopted in France to limit the consequences of a possible criticality accident under the headings: location, design and lay-out of the installations, accident detection, and dosimetry for the exposed personnel, are briefly described after a short account of the criteria used in deciding on them. (author) [French] La surete relative aux risques d'accidents de criticite presente deux aspects: la prevention des causes et les parades aux consequences. Ces deux aspects sont tres lies. L'effort consenti a la prevention des causes decoule de l'importance des consequences humaines economiques et psychologiques possibles d'un eventuel accident. Les accidents de criticite survenus dans l'industrie nucleaire, malgre leur rarete, d'une part devoilent les imperfections des techniques de prevention des causes, d'autre part constituent la seule base realiste disponible d'evaluation des consequences et de mise au point des parades a ces consequences

  14. AN EFFECTIVE RISK-PREVENTIVE MODEL PROPOSAL FOR OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS AT SHIPYARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Acuner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the statistics of occupational accidents, it is observed that the number of accidents occurred in shipbuilding industry is high and the rate of deaths and serious injuries among these accidents is higher than in other industries. However, the number of the studies to prevent these accidents in both industrial and scientific practices is considerably low. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop an efficient risk preventive model in accordance with occupational health and safety regulations for industrial organizations. The approach proposed in this study differs from those described in the literature, because it is based on fuzzy set theory in order to cope with uncertainties on probability and severity definitions in terms of occupational health and safety. Furthermore, in this paper, risk severity is considered in terms of harm to worker, harm to environment, and harm to hardware, whereas in the literature, risk severity is generally considered solely in terms of only harm to worker. Then, risk magnitude is obtained by utilizing fuzzy inference system. The proposed approach is applied to a shipyard located in the Marmara Region in order to illustrate the applicability of the model.

  15. Research on the prevention of mine accident (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Jai; Kang, Chang Hee; Lee, Sang Kwon; Lee, Jong Lim; Kang, Sang Soo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    This Project is being underway to provide safety measures of the operating coal mines encouraged by the government. In the second project year, three objective coal mines, Jang Sung, Young Wol and Tae Baek, have been investigated. Jang Sung coal mine is encountering three major difficulties such as deep seam development scheme under the drainage level, appropriate control of vast ventilation networks, and hazard control from water inrush in the pocket type areas. Young Wol coal mine has various problems derived from the development of shallow depth such as problems along with the small scaled irregular mining system, penetration of surface water through the loose zone of overburden and unappropriated ventilation system and so on. In Tae Baek coal mine, the measures to prevent water inrush in thick seams, optimization of complicated ventilation and transportation system are the major problem to be tackled. This report analyzed the status of each mines in view of safety aspects and suggested the counter measures to solve the hazardous matters but, basically, it is requested to develop new technology to tackle the encountered difficulties. Besides the technical approaches, government base measures to encourage the operating coal mine is required. (author). 22 refs., tabs., figs.

  16. Acupuncture, Moxibustion and Chinese herbs in prevention of nosocomial infection in patients with acute cerebrovascular accident

    OpenAIRE

    Fiser, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Nosocomial infection is a current medical issue, particularly in patients with acute cerebrovascular accident. The present study purpose is toevaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture, Chinese herbs and moxibustion in prophylaxis of nosocomial infections in patients with acute cerebrovasculardisease. Material and methods: The study was carried out on a group of 100 patients. Valuing the efficiency of acupuncture, moxibustion and Chinese herbs inthe prevention of nosocomial inf...

  17. Can we use near-miss reports for accident prevention? A study in the oil and gas industry in Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasmussen, H.B.; Drupsteen, L.; Dyreborg, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The oil and gas industry in the Danish sector of the North Sea has always focused on reducing work-related accidents. Over the years, accident rates have been reduced, and near-miss reporting has gained in importance, because it allows the industry to learn from experience and prevent

  18. Design and implementation of an identification system in construction site safety for proactive accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huanjia; Chew, David A S; Wu, Weiwei; Zhou, Zhipeng; Li, Qiming

    2012-09-01

    Identifying accident precursors using real-time identity information has great potential to improve safety performance in construction industry, which is still suffering from day to day records of accident fatality and injury. Based on the requirements analysis for identifying precursor and the discussion of enabling technology solutions for acquiring and sharing real-time automatic identification information on construction site, this paper proposes an identification system design for proactive accident prevention to improve construction site safety. Firstly, a case study is conducted to analyze the automatic identification requirements for identifying accident precursors in construction site. Results show that it mainly consists of three aspects, namely access control, training and inspection information and operation authority. The system is then designed to fulfill these requirements based on ZigBee enabled wireless sensor network (WSN), radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and an integrated ZigBee RFID sensor network structure. At the same time, an information database is also designed and implemented, which includes 15 tables, 54 queries and several reports and forms. In the end, a demonstration system based on the proposed system design is developed as a proof of concept prototype. The contributions of this study include the requirement analysis and technical design of a real-time identity information tracking solution for proactive accident prevention on construction sites. The technical solution proposed in this paper has a significant importance in improving safety performance on construction sites. Moreover, this study can serve as a reference design for future system integrations where more functions, such as environment monitoring and location tracking, can be added. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Education Free Virtual Massfor the Prevention of Road Accidents in Ambato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Maximiliano Jordán Cordones

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents is a problem of a global nature, the World Health Organization in its 2009 report notes that are 1.2 million deaths a year from this cause, also indicates that the prevention of traffic accidents involves a wide range of measures where education is a fundamental pillar. In Ecuador the situation is the same, by 2014 more than 35000 traffic incidents were reported This project proposes a process of massive virtual training on issues related to traffic laws, signs and statistics in order to achieve an awareness among drivers, and based on this reduce accident rates. Is taken as a case study, driving schools Trade Union of Professional Drivers of Tungurahua, a population had to investigate comprising students of these training centers, this population is 1600 people, we worked with a sample that arrived 350 people. The study based on surveys, it was concluded that there are several factors to traffic accidents, but the most common are: speeding, driving inebriated, little caution and fatigue, it was also concluded that all people are willing to receive training processes in person or virtual. After the study, the MOOC was implemented located in the http://cursos.cedia.org.ec/ direction, around 500 people enrolled and trained them. The project was supplemented by various accesses to the platform and mobile applications, promotional posters with QR codes and more.

  20. Road Accident Prevention with Instant Emergency Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Gokulakrishnan

    Full Text Available A Road Accident Prevention (RAP scheme based on Vehicular Backbone Network (VBN structure is proposed in this paper for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET. The RAP scheme attempts to prevent vehicles from highway road traffic accidents and thereby reduces death and injury rates. Once the possibility of an emergency situation (i.e. an accident is predicted in advance, instantly RAP initiates a highway road traffic accident prevention scheme. The RAP scheme constitutes the following activities: (i the Road Side Unit (RSU constructs a Prediction Report (PR based on the status of the vehicles and traffic in the highway roads, (ii the RSU generates an Emergency Warning Message (EWM based on an abnormal PR, (iii the RSU forms a VBN structure and (iv the RSU disseminates the EWM to the vehicles that holds the high Risk Factor (RF and travels in High Risk Zone (HRZ. These vehicles might reside either within the RSU's coverage area or outside RSU's coverage area (reached using VBN structure. The RAP scheme improves the performance of EWM dissemination in terms of increase in notification and decrease in end-to-end delay. The RAP scheme also reduces infrastructure cost (number of RSUs by formulating and deploying the VBN structure. The RAP scheme with VBN structure improves notification by 19 percent and end-to-end delay by 14.38 percent for a vehicle density of 160 vehicles. It is also proved from the simulation experiment that the performance of RAP scheme is promising in 4-lane highway roads.

  1. Accident patterns and prevention measures for fatal occupational falls in the construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chia-Fen; Chang, Tin-Chang; Ting, Hsin-I

    2005-07-01

    Contributing factors to 621 occupational fatal falls have been identified with respect to the victim's individual factors, the fall site, company size, and cause of fall. Individual factors included age, gender, experience, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Accident scenarios were derived from accident reports. Significant linkages were found between causes for the falls and accident events. Falls from scaffold staging were associated with a lack of complying scaffolds and bodily action. Falls through existing floor openings were associated with unguarded openings, inappropriate protections, or the removal of protections. Falls from building girders or other structural steel were associated with bodily actions and improper use of PPE. Falls from roof edges were associated with bodily actions and being pulled down by a hoist, object or tool. Falls through roof surfaces were associated with lack of complying scaffolds. Falls from ladders were associated with overexertion and unusual control and the use of unsafe ladders and tools. Falls down stairs or steps were associated with unguarded openings. Falls while jumping to a lower floor and falls through existing roof openings were associated with poor work practices. Primary and secondary prevention measures can be used to prevent falls or to mitigate the consequences of falls and are suggested for each type of accident. Primary prevention measures would include fixed barriers, such as handrails, guardrails, surface opening protections (hole coverings), crawling boards/planks, and strong roofing materials. Secondary protection measures would include travel restraint systems (safety belt), fall arrest systems (safety harness), and fall containment systems (safety nets).

  2. Forum: social network for the surveillance and prevention of workplace accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, R A G; Almeida, I M; Nunes da Silva, A; Gomes, M H P; Prado, H; Buoso, E; Dias, M D; Cavalcante, S; Lacorte, L E

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, academic researchers and public service officials created a university extension studies platform based on online and on-site meetings denominated "Work-Related Accidents Forum: Analysis, Prevention, and Other Relevant Aspects. Its aim was to help public agents and social partners to propagate a systemic approach that would be helpful in the surveillance and prevention of work-related accidents. This article describes and analyses such a platform. Online access is free and structured to: support dissemination of updated concepts; support on-site meetings and capacity to build educational activities; and keep a permanent space for debate among the registered participants. The desired result is the propagation of a social-technical-systemic view of work-related accidents that replaces the current traditional view that emphasizes human error and results in blaming the victims. The Forum uses an educational approach known as permanent health education, which is based on the experience and needs of workers and encourages debate among participants. The forum adopts a problematizing pedagogy that starts from the requirements and experiences of the social actors and stimulates support and discussions among them in line with an ongoing health educational approach. The current challenge is to turn the platform into a social networking website in order to broaden its links with society.

  3. The development of an inherent safety approach to the prevention of domino accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzani, Valerio; Tugnoli, Alessandro; Salzano, Ernesto

    2009-11-01

    The severity of industrial accidents in which a domino effect takes place is well known in the chemical and process industry. The application of an inherent safety approach for the prevention of escalation events leading to domino accidents was explored in the present study. Reference primary scenarios were analyzed and escalation vectors were defined. Inherent safety distances were defined and proposed as a metric to express the intensity of the escalation vectors. Simple rules of thumb were presented for a preliminary screening of these distances. Swift reference indices for layout screening with respect to escalation hazard were also defined. Two case studies derived from existing layouts of oil refineries were selected to understand the potentialities coming from the application in the methodology. The results evidenced that the approach allows a first comparative assessment of the actual domino hazard in a layout, and the identification of critical primary units with respect to escalation events. The methodology developed also represents a useful screening tool to identify were to dedicate major efforts in the design of add-on measures, optimizing conventional passive and active measures for the prevention of severe domino accidents.

  4. ACTIVITY OF HEALTH EDUCATION AIMED AT PREVENTING WORK ACCIDENTS WITH NEEDLESTICK MATERIALS: EXPERIENCE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Vangeris Silva Fernandes de Lima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health services are composed of complex work environments. For this reason, they present several risks to the health of workers and also of people being treated at these places. Among these risks, one that is peculiar to health services is the risk of occupational accidents with biological material involving sharps. Objective: This study aimed to describe a health education activity conducted in a Health Center of the Federal District, Brazil. Methods: This is an experience report that discusses the final paper of the discipline “Administration Applied to Nursing and Internship”, offered by the Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Brasilia. A lecture was prepared, aimed at health workers and support staff, on general aspects of occupational accidents involving sharps, as well as preventive aspects. Results: In each clinical room of the Health Center were fixed two posters: the first discussing the proper disposal of sharps and the second, in turn, was a message of reflection. 31 professionals attended the lecture as listeners. Conclusion: We understand the validity of the lecture delivered, based on scientific studies that highlight the need and shortage of health education activities that address the prevention of occupational accidents involving sharps among Health Professionals. Additionally, it is important mentioning that such activity demand was estimated by the workers of the Health Center in study.

  5. Explosions of ammonium nitrate fertilizer in storage or transportation are preventable accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babrauskas, Vytenis, E-mail: vytob@doctorfire.com

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • First comprehensive review of a century of ammonium nitrate explosions in transport or storage. • Uncontrolled fires are found to be the cause of all such explosions. • Importance of studying common factors, not unique factors, in accidents presented. • Fire and explosion safety measures identified that would prevent recurrence of such disasters. • Shortcomings of existing regulations and guidelines are demonstrated. - Abstract: Ammonium nitrate (AN) is a detonable substance which has led to numerous disasters throughout the 20th century and until the present day, with the latest disaster occurring on 17 April 2013. Needed safety lesson have not been learned, since typically each accident was viewed as a great surprise and investigations focused on finding some unique reason for the accident, rather than examining what is common among the accidents. A review is made of accidents which involved AN for fertilizer purposes, and excluding incidents involving ANFO or additional explosives apart from AN. It is found that, for explosions in storage or transportation, 100% of these disasters had a single causative factor—an uncontrollable fire. Thus, such disasters can be eliminated by eliminating the potential for uncontrolled fire. Two actions are required to achieve this: (1) adoption of fertilizer formulations which reduce the potential for uncontrolled fire and for detonation; and (2) adoption of building safety measures which provide assurance against uncontrolled fires. Technical means are available for achieving both these required measures. These measures have been known for a long time and the only reason that disasters continue to occur is that these safety measures are not implemented. The problem can be solved unilaterally by product manufacturers or by government authorities, but preferably both should take necessary steps.

  6. Intervention in Multi-cultural Organizatioons - Prevention of accidents as political change processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang

    1999-01-01

    The point of departure for this contribution is a disappointing status of the Danish work environment regulation and accident prevention. The number of reported accidents at work is maintained at a high level. One explanation is the lack of common intervention methods appropriated to Danish...... workplaces and the contribution communicates ongoing work with such a method, including political, cultural and structural elements. A selective study of literature within safety culture, corporate culture and organisational theory has shown that the safety culture approach can benefit from...... the organisational culture approaches of Alvesson and Geertz and organisational theory dealing with political processes (Pettigrew, Knights). The implicit models of organisation and man within mainstream safety culture approaches seems to be too rationalistic compared with day to day life of organisations...

  7. Effectiveness of two interventions in preventing traffic accidents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porchia, B R; Baldasseroni, A; Dellisanti, C; Lorini, C; Bonaccorsi, G

    2014-01-01

    The prevention of road traffic accidents should be considered a serious public health concern, since they are the eighth leading cause of death globally and the main cause of death for young people aged 15-29. Evidences from many countries show that successes in preventing road traffic injuries can be achieved through concerted efforts at national level. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of two interventions to prevent road traffic accidents: the introduction of graduated driver licensing (GDL) and the interventions to improve pedestrian and cyclist visibility. Our search started with a scoping review on the interventions to prevent road traffic accidents to allow the development of a logical framework of traffic accidents. Specific and answerable questions formulated according to PICO scheme and combinations of keywords were used to perform a systematic search in the following databases: Pubmed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Health Evidence, Transport Research International Documentation (TRID) and Google. References of selected papers were searched. Only systematic reviews and meta-analyses were eligible. No temporal limits or linguistic filters were applied. 160 systematic reviews and meta-analyses were found for the question of the introduction of GDL program and 188 on the improvement of visibility in cyclists and pedestrians. After selection, four papers were included in qualitative synthesis for each question. All included studies underwent quality evaluation. GDL programs seem to be effective in reducing crash rates among young drivers, in particular in 16 year-old. Programs with more restrictions seem also to reduce fatal events. To improve visibility of pedestrians and cyclists, street lighting has been suggested as an intervention able to improve driver's visual capabilities and ability to detect roadway hazards and to prevent car crashes. Visibility aids (fluorescent

  8. Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation. [Comparison of aviation with other industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinestiver, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel.

  9. [Prevention of road accidents involving non-motorized traffic participants (pedestrians and cyclists) in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwipp, H; Ernstberger, A; Groschupf, V; Günther, K P; Haase, M; Haasper, C; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Juhra, C; Leser, H; Lob, G; Maier, R; Seeck, A; Winkler, R; Otte, D

    2012-06-01

    During a 1-day workshop organized by the German Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (DGOU) 15 German accident researchers used different approaches to improve the effectiveness of accident prevention for pedestrians and bicyclists on German roads. The main results of this analysis show: Fatal injuries of pedestrians have been significantly reduced by 82% between 1970 (n=6.056) and 2007 (n=695). Similarly, fatalities of bicyclists have been reduced during the same time period from 1,835 to 425 which amount to almost 80%. However, the total number of injured cyclists increased almost twice, i.e. from 40,531 (in 1979) to 78,579 (in 2007) a fact that needs to be analyzed in more detail. Although scientifically proven to provide protection against severe head injuries, helmets are worn less frequently by adolescents and women as compared to younger children and men. Fatalities of bicyclists might be reduced by using Dobli mirrors which allow the truck driver to see the bicyclist when turning right. Recently developed sensors are able to detect pedestrians walking closely (systems in cars like ESP (electronic stability program), BAS (brake assist system), special light systems for curves, and night vision utilities are most effective to prevent collision with pedestrians and bicyclists. TV spots for bicyclists could help to point out dangerous situations and the proven benefits of wearing a helmet in the same way as previous campaigns, e.g."The 7th Sense" for car drivers.

  10. Surgical videos for accident analysis, performance improvement, and complication prevention: time for a surgical black box?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambadauro, Pietro; Magos, Adam

    2012-03-01

    Conventional audit of surgical records through review of surgical results provides useful knowledge but hardly helps identify the technical reasons lying behind specific outcomes or complications. Surgical teams not only need to know that a complication might happen but also how and when it is most likely to happen. Functional awareness is therefore needed to prevent complications, know how to deal with them, and improve overall surgical performance. The authors wish to argue that the systematic recording and reviewing of surgical videos, a "surgical black box," might improve surgical care, help prevent complications, and allow accident analysis. A possible strategy to test this hypothesis is presented and discussed. Recording and reviewing surgical interventions, apart from helping us achieve functional awareness and increasing the safety profile of our performance, allows us also to effectively share our experience with colleagues. The authors believe that those potential implications make this hypothesis worth testing.

  11. Coordinability and consistency in accident causation and prevention: formal system theoretic concepts for safety in multilevel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowlagi, Raghvendra V; Saleh, Joseph H

    2013-03-01

    Although a "system approach" to accidents in sociotechnical systems has been frequently advocated, formal system theoretic concepts remain absent in the literature on accident analysis and system safety. To address this gap, we introduce the notions of coordinability and consistency from the hierarchical and multilevel systems theory literature. We then investigate the applicability and the importance of these concepts to accident causation and safety. Using illustrative examples, including the worst disaster in aviation history, and recent incidents in the United States of aircraft clipping each other on the tarmac, we propose that the lack of coordinability is a fundamental failure mechanism causing or contributing to accidents in multilevel systems. We make a similar case for the lack of consistency. Coordinability and consistency become ingredients for accident prevention, and their absence fundamental failure mechanisms that can lead to system accidents. Finally, using the concepts introduced in this work, we identify several venues for further research, including the development of a theory of coordination in multilevel systems, the investigation of potential synergies between coordinability, consistency, and the high reliability organizations paradigm, and the possibility of reframing the view that "sloppy management is the root cause of many industrial accidents" as one of lack of coordinability and/or consistency between management and operations. By introducing and expanding on the concepts of coordinability and consistency, we hope to contribute to the thinking about, and the to language of, accident causation, and prevention and to add to the intellectual toolkit of safety professionals and academics. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Information and communication technologies, a tool for risk prevention and accident management on sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Lépy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine ice melting topic is a repetitive phenomenon in alarmist speeches on climate change. The present positive evolution of air temperatures has in all probability many impacts on the environment and more or less directly on societies. Face to the temperature elevation, the ice pack is undergone to an important temporal variability of ice growth and melting. Human populations can be exposed to meteorological and ice hazards engendering a societal risk. The purpose of this paper is to better understand how ICT get integrated into the risk question through the example of the Bay of Bothnia in the northern extremity of the Baltic Sea. The study deals with the way that Finnish society, advanced in the ICT field, faces to new technology use in risk prevention and accident management on sea ice.

  13. Methods to prevent the source term of methyl lodide during a core melt accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karhu, A. [VTT Energy (Finland)

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to gather available information of the methods to prevent a source term of methyl iodide during a core melt accident. The most widely studied methods for nuclear power plants include the impregnated carbon filters and alkaline additives and sprays. It is indicated that some deficiencies of these methods may emerge. More reactive impregnants and additives could make a great improvement. As a new method in the field of nuclear applications, the potential of transition metals to decompose methyl iodide, is introduced in this review. This area would require an additional research, which could elucidate the remaining questions of the reactions. The ionization of the gaseous methyl iodide by corona-discharge reactors is also shortly described. (au)

  14. 'Fatalism', accident causation and prevention: issues for health promotion from an exploratory study in a Yoruba town, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixey, R A

    1999-04-01

    As countries experience the 'epidemiological transition' with a relative decline in infectious diseases, accident rates tend to increase, particularly road traffic accidents. The health promotion interventions intended to prevent or minimize the consequences of accidents have been developed in predominantly Western, industrialized countries. Although some of these solutions have been applied with success to less developed countries, there are also good reasons why such solutions are ineffective when tried in a different context. Health promotion as developed in the West has a particular ideological bias, being framed within a secular, individualist and rationalist culture. Different cosmologies exist outside this culture, often described as 'fatalist' by Western commentators and as obstructing change. Changing these cosmologies or worldviews may not fit with the ethic of paying due respect to the cultural traditions of the 'target group'. Health promotion is therefore faced with a dilemma. In addition to different worldviews, the different levels of development also mean that solutions formulated in richer countries do not suit poorer countries. This paper uses a small exploratory study in a Yoruba town in Nigeria to examine these points. Interviews with key informants were held in March 1994 in Igbo-Ora and data were extracted from hospital records. Levels of accidents from available records are noted and people's ideas about accident prevention are discussed. Recommendations as to the way forward are then proposed.

  15. Individuals' Interest in Preventing Everyday Accidents and Crises: A Swedish Explorative Study of the Importance of Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Wall

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This explorative study presents an empirical examination of the connection between motivation and the measures individuals take to prevent everyday accidents and prepare for crises. Positional factors (age and gender and situational factors (education, size of locality, and household composition are included because the literature highlights their importance. The study used data gathered in a 2010/2011 poll of randomly selected Swedish residents aged 16–75 (N = 2000; 44.8% response rate. A factor analysis reduced the theoretical model for situational motivation (Guay, Vallerand, & Blanchard, 2000 from four to two dimensions: motivation and amotivation. Subsequent regression analyses statistically confirmed the connection between motivation or amotivation and the extent to which individuals pursue preventative and preparedness measures, even when accounting for positional and situational factors. These findings underscore the need for continued studies of individuals’ incentives to prevent accidents and prepare for crises and for the study of the nuances of (situational motivation and preventive/preparedness measures.

  16. Landing Distance Minimization to Prevent Overrun Accidents Using Field Theory and Stabilizing Air Traffic - A Novel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Kumar, R.; Navaneeth, M.; Shachin Shibi, R.

    2017-09-01

    Airplane is considered to be the pinnacle of engineering as it has proven that it is possible for a manmade object to fly. Before its invention, flying was just a dream for mankind. In such an esteemed domain, landing is the most challenging part and it is where a large number of accidents occur, especially due to overrun. As the name suggests, overrun accidents occur due to insufficient runway length. In the present study, the concept of planar electromagnetic fields is incorporated to minimize the landing distance of an aircraft, thus preventing the overrun accidents. As a result, unexpected losses can be avoided. In addition to this, the stability of air traffic control can be perpetuated and the fuel consumed during loitering time can be diminished.

  17. Development of Human Factor Management Requirements and Human Error Classification for the Prevention of Railway Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Sang Log; Park, Chan Woo; Shin, Seung Ryoung [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    Railway accident analysis results show that accidents cased by human factors are not decreasing, whereas H/W related accidents are steadily decreasing. For the efficient management of human factors, many expertise on design, conditions, safety culture and staffing are required. But current safety management activities on safety critical works are focused on training, due to the limited resource and information. In order to improve railway safety, human factors management requirements for safety critical worker and human error classification is proposed in this report. For this accident analysis, status of safety measure on human factor, safety management system on safety critical worker, current safety planning is analysis.

  18. A review of the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident: radiation effects on the thyroid and strategies for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagataki, Shigenobu; Takamura, Noboru

    2014-10-01

    This is a summary of the nuclear accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Stations (FDNPS) on 11 March 2011 to be used as a review of the radiation effects to the thyroid and strategies of prevention. The amount of radioiodine released to the environment following the Fukushima accident was 120 Peta Becquerel, which is approximately one-tenth of that in the Chernobyl accident. Residents near the FDNPS were evacuated within a few days and foodstuffs were controlled within 1 or 2 weeks. Therefore, thyroid radiation doses were less than 100 mSv (intervention levels for stable iodine administration) in the majority of children, including less than 1 year olds, living in the evacuation areas. Because the incidence of childhood thyroid cancer increased in those residing near the site following the Chernobyl accident, thyroid screening of all children (0-18 years old) in the Fukushima Prefecture was started. To date, screening of more than 280 000 children has resulted in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer in 90 children (approximate incidence, 313 per million). Thus, although the dose of radiation was much lower, the incidence of thyroid cancer appears to be much higher than that following the Chernobyl accident. A comparison of the thyroidal consequences following the Fukushima and Chernobyl nuclear reactor accidents is discussed. We also summarize the recent increased incidence in thyroid cancer in the Fukushima area following the accident in relation to increased thyroid ultrasound screening and the use of advanced ultrasound techniques. http://links.lww.com/COE/A8.

  19. The preparation of tourists to the ski sports tours in a limited time in order to prevent injuries and accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Toporkov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: compare indicators of testing tourist skiers at different stages of the preparatory period to ski sports hike of third grade. Determine the effectiveness of training programs created to the tourists Categorical ski sports to prevent injuries and accidents in a limited time. Material: The study involved 13 people aged from 21 to 65 (4 women and 9 men with different experiences of hiking trails and various levels of total tourist preparedness. Results: The test results obtained before beginning the process of preparation are treated upon its completion, and immediately after passing categorical hike. In practice, the effectiveness of the proposed training programs of tourists to ski sports tours is proved. Conclusions : The created program can be recommended to tourist clubs, associations and organizations as the base in preparation for ski sports campaigns for the prevention of accidents and injuries.

  20. Hazard Prevention Regarding Occupational Accidents Involving Blue-Collar Foreign Workers: A Perspective of Taiwanese Manpower Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Cheng Chang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers’ agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this study is to establish the agencies’ role in the occupational accidents education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. This study uses a qualitative method—grounded theory—to collect, code, and analyze the data in order to understand the agencies’ role in occupational accident education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. The results show that the duty of agencies in occupational accident education and hazard prevention includes selecting appropriate blue-collar foreign workers, communicating between employees and blue-collar foreign workers, collecting occupational safety and health information, assisting in the training of occupational safety and health, and helping blue-collar foreign workers adapt to their lives in Taiwan. Finally, this study suggests seven important points and discusses the implementation process necessary to improve governmental policies. The government and employees should pay attention to the education/training of occupational safety and health for blue-collar foreign workers to eliminate unsafe behavior in order to protect the lives of blue-collar foreign workers.

  1. Hazard Prevention Regarding Occupational Accidents Involving Blue-Collar Foreign Workers: A Perspective of Taiwanese Manpower Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Huan-Cheng Chang; Mei-Chin Wang; Hung-Chang Liao; Shu-Fang Cheng; Ya-huei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers’ agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this stud...

  2. Hazard Prevention Regarding Occupational Accidents Involving Blue-Collar Foreign Workers: A Perspective of Taiwanese Manpower Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Huan-Cheng; Wang, Mei-Chin; Liao, Hung-Chang; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Wang, Ya-Huei

    2016-07-13

    Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers' agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this study is to establish the agencies' role in the occupational accidents education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. This study uses a qualitative method-grounded theory-to collect, code, and analyze the data in order to understand the agencies' role in occupational accident education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. The results show that the duty of agencies in occupational accident education and hazard prevention includes selecting appropriate blue-collar foreign workers, communicating between employees and blue-collar foreign workers, collecting occupational safety and health information, assisting in the training of occupational safety and health, and helping blue-collar foreign workers adapt to their lives in Taiwan. Finally, this study suggests seven important points and discusses the implementation process necessary to improve governmental policies. The government and employees should pay attention to the education/training of occupational safety and health for blue-collar foreign workers to eliminate unsafe behavior in order to protect the lives of blue-collar foreign workers.

  3. Development strategy to prevent mine accidents in surface coal mines in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Permana, Herry

    2014-01-01

    Most of mining operations in Indonesia use open pit mine methods, with truck and shovel system and a large amount of manpower. The mining industry plays an important role contributed to the national economy and development in Indonesia, otherwise the mine accidents become as sensitive issue or problem. The main cause of mine accidents is still dominant of the low safety awarenesses and accountabilities, and also improperly cost spent on the occupational health and safety (OSH) programs. This ...

  4. Neutronics aspects associated to the prevention and mitigation of severe accidents in sodium cooled reactor cores; Aspects de neutronique associes a la prevention et a la reduction des accidents graves dans les coeurs de reacteurs a caloporteur sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poumerouly, S.

    2010-12-15

    Among all the types of accidents to be considered for the safety licensing of a plant, some have a very low probability of occurrence but might have very important consequences: the severe accidents or Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accidents (HCDA). The studies on the scenario of these accidents are performed in parallel to the prevention studies. In this PhD report, two representative safety cases are studied: the Unprotected Loss Of Flow (ULOF) and the Total Instantaneous Blockage (TIB). The objectives are to understand what causes the reactivity increase during these accidents and to find means to reduce the energetic release of the scenario (ULOF) or to find ways to trigger the core prior to the propagation of the accident (TIB). At first, the accidents are studied in static calculations with the ERANOS code system. The accidents are divided into several steps and the reactivity insertions at each step are explained. This study shows the importance of the removal of the structures as well as of the radial leakage changes during the core slumping-down. The study also gives the amounts of fuel to be ejected or of absorber to be injected in both accidents. These values give tracks to the following more accurate studies, the transient studies. The transient studies were performed with the SIMMER code system, coupling thermo-hydraulics and neutronics. SIMMER data and algorithms have been improved so as to better predict ERANOS results (former discrepancies were up to 1.5$). The SIMMER reactivity calculation is improved by 0.8$ with variations of reactivity due to the motion of materials correctly predicted. A new algorithm for the {beta}-effective was implemented in SIMMER so as to be more accurate and easier to manage. SIMMER is then used to calculate the secondary phase of the ULOF, while the primary phase is calculated with ERANOS thanks to some assumptions. The assumptions are very much based on the fact that the movement of materials stops whenever the energy

  5. Conceptual Design of Portable Filtered Air Suction Systems For Prevention of Released Radioactive Gas under Severe Accidents of NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Beom W.; Choi, Su Y.; Yim, Man S.; Rim, Chun T. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    It becomes evident that severe accidents may occur by unexpected disasters such as tsunami, heavy flood, or terror. Once radioactive material is released from NPP through severe accidents, there are no ways to prevent the released radioactive gas spreading in the air. As a remedy for this problem, the idea on the portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for the prevention of released radioactive gas under severe accidents was proposed. In this paper, the conceptual design of a PoFASS focusing on the number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are proposed. In order to design a flexible robot suction nozzle, mathematical models for the gaps which represent the lifted heights of extensible covers for given convex shapes of pipes and for the covered areas are developed. In addition, the system requirements for the design of the robot arms of PoFASS are proposed, which determine the accessible range of leakage points of released radioactive gas. In this paper, the conceptual designs of the flexible robot suction nozzle and robot arm have been conducted. As a result, the minimum number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are defined to be four and three, respectively. For further works, extensible cover designs on the flexible robot suction nozzle and the application of the PoFASS to the inside of NPP should be studied because the radioactive gas may be released from connection pipes between the containment building and auxiliary buildings.

  6. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  7. Past and future in accident prevention and learning : Single case or big data?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, J.A.A.M.; Dechy, Nicolas; Dien, Yves; Tulonen, Tuuli

    2016-01-01

    The European Safety Reliability and Data Association (ESReDA) has since 1993 set up a series of Project Groups dealing with the different angles of ‘accident investigation’ and ‘learning from events’. With the 25th Anniversary of ESReDA now in 2016, the core of this group is still active, and has

  8. Job safety analysis and hazard identification for work accident prevention in para rubber wood sawmills in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepaksorn, Phayong; Thongjerm, Supawan; Incharoen, Salee; Siriwong, Wattasit; Harada, Kouji; Koizumi, Akio

    2017-11-25

    We utilized job safety analysis (JSA) and hazard identification for work accident prevention in Para rubber wood sawmills, which aimed to investigate occupational health risk exposures and assess the health hazards at sawmills in the Trang Province, located in southern Thailand. We conducted a cross-sectional study which included a walk-through survey, JSA, occupational risk assessment, and environmental samplings from March through September 2015 at four Para rubber wood sawmills. We identified potential occupational safety and health hazards associated with six main processes, including: 1) logging and cutting, 2) sawing the lumber into sheets, 3) planing and re-arranging, 4) vacuuming and wood preservation, 5) drying and planks re-arranging, and 6) grading, packing, and storing. Working in sawmills was associated with high risk of wood dust and noise exposure, occupational accidents injuring hands and feet, chemicals and fungicide exposure, and injury due to poor ergonomics or repetitive work. Several high-risk areas were identified from JSA and hazard identification of the working processes, especially high wood dust and noise exposure when sawing lumber into sheets and risk of occupational accidents of the hands and feet when struck by lumber. All workers were strongly recommended to use personal protective equipment in any working processes. Exposures should be controlled using local ventilation systems and reducing noise transmission. We recommend that the results from the risk assessment performed in this study be used to create an action plan for reducing occupational health hazards in Para rubber sawmills.

  9. Analysis of labour accidents in tunnel construction and introduction of prevention measures

    OpenAIRE

    Kikkawa, Naotaka; Itoh, Kazuya; Hori, Tomohito; TOYOSAWA, Yasuo; Orense, Rolando P.

    2015-01-01

    At present, almost all mountain tunnels in Japan are excavated and constructed utilizing the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM), which was advocated by Prof. Rabcewicz of Austria in 1964. In Japan, this method has been applied to tunnel construction since around 1978, after which there has been a subsequent decrease in the number of casualties during tunnel construction. However, there is still a relatively high incidence of labour accidents during tunnel construction when compared to incid...

  10. Development of the scenario-based training system to reduce hazards and prevent accidents during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Choi, Jong-Won; Moon, JeiKwon; Choi, ByungSeon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, IkJune; Kim, GeunHo; Kang, ShinYoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Decommissioning of nuclear facilities has to be accomplished by assuring the safety of workers. Decommissioning workers need familiarization with working environments because working environment is under high radioactivity and work difficulty during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. On-the-job training of decommissioning works could effectively train decommissioning workers but this training approach could consume much costs and poor modifications of scenarios. The efficiency of virtual training system could be much better than that of physical training system. This paper was intended to develop the training system to prevent accidents for decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The requirements for the training system were drawn. The data management modules for the training system were designed. The training system of decommissioning workers was developed on the basis of virtual reality which is flexibly modified. The visualization and measurement in the training system were real-time done according as changes of the decommissioning scenario. It can be concluded that this training system enables the subject to improve his familiarization about working environments and to prevent accidents during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. In the end, the safety during decommissioning of nuclear facilities will be guaranteed under the principle of ALARA.

  11. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Prevention: Switching Control of the GTM Aircraft with Elevator Jam Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bor-Chin; Kwatny, Harry G.; Belcastro, Christine; Belcastro, Celeste

    2008-01-01

    Switching control, servomechanism, and H2 control theory are used to provide a practical and easy-to-implement solution for the actuator jam problem. A jammed actuator not only causes a reduction of control authority, but also creates a persistent disturbance with uncertain amplitude. The longitudinal dynamics model of the NASA GTM UAV is employed to demonstrate that a single fixed reconfigured controller design based on the proposed approach is capable of accommodating an elevator jam failure with arbitrary jam position as long as the thrust control has enough control authority. This paper is a first step towards solving a more comprehensive in-flight loss-of-control accident prevention problem that involves multiple actuator failures, structure damages, unanticipated faults, and nonlinear upset regime recovery, etc.

  12. 78 FR 73756 - Process Safety Management and Prevention of Major Chemical Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... organization that sets standards for the identity, strength, quality, and purity of medicines, food ingredients..., August, 2013. \\19\\ Texas City, Texas, Disaster, April 16, 17, 1947. Fire Prevention and Engineering...

  13. Exploring Civil Drone Accidents and Incidents to Help Prevent Potential Air Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Wild

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A recent alleged “drone” collision with a British Airways Airbus A320 at Heathrow Airport highlighted the need to understand civil Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS accidents and incidents (events. This understanding will facilitate improvements in safety by ensuring efforts are focused to reduce the greatest risks. One hundred and fifty two RPAS events were analyzed. The data was collected from a 10-year period (2006 to 2015. Results show that, in contrast to commercial air transportation (CAT, RPAS events have a significantly different distribution when categorized by occurrence type, phase of flight, and safety issue. Specifically, it was found that RPAS operations are more likely to experience (1 loss of control in-flight, (2 events during takeoff and in cruise, and (3 equipment problems. It was shown that technology issues, not human factors, are the key contributor in RPAS events. This is a significant finding, as it is contrary to the industry view which has held for the past quarter of a century that human factors are the key contributor (which is still the case for CAT. Regulators should therefore look at technologies and not focus solely on operators.

  14. The 10 recommendations for prevention of radiation accidents in industrial gamma radiography; As 10 recomendacoes mais importantes para prevencao de acidentes radiologicos em gamagrafia industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luana Silva de

    2015-07-01

    The Industrial Gamma Radiography, as part of Industrial Radiography, stands out as the most widespread and plays an important role in the quality control of different materials and devices. However, IAEA classifies industrial gamma radiography in the Category 2 as very dangerous due to the radiological risk caused by the use of high activity radioactive sources. In March, 2012, a Brazilian Workshop on Prevention of Industrial Gamma Radiography Accident was performed by DIAPI/CNEN with the objective of disseminating knowledge about radiological accidents with radioactive sources in this application. During this Workshop, IRD/CNEN conducted a survey with 75 participants using a form with 22 recommendations to prevent radiological accidents, aiming to select the most voted. This present work aims to perform a detailed statistical study to define the Top 10 Recommendations for industrial gamma radiography operator avoids radiological accidents and to prepare a brochure with these top 10 recommendations to be distributed to all industrial gamma radiography radiation workers. Data analysis was performed using the statistical method 'Frequency Distribution', among the 75 participants categorized as General, RPO, and Other Workers of the area. The results were obtained for each category, accounting for the total of 22 recommendations in its percentage and number of votes, and the top 10 recommendations were defined to prevent radiological accidents. The first place and most important recommendation is 'Always use a personal alarm monitor throughout the work'. One of the conclusions is that the brochure with the Top 10 Recommendations shows to be understandable and useful for dissemination and training of radiation workers to avoid radiological accidents in industrial gamma radiography. (author)

  15. An analysis of mooring accidents on the Polish Ocean Lines ships in 1975-80. Preventive recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankiewicz-Sznajder, J

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the presented research was: 1. to analyse the causes and effects of accidents that occurred on the Polish Ocean Lines ships in 1975-1980 at mooring manoeuvres. 2. Issuing certain prophylactic recommendations. The material of the research was information contained in the 95 accident record cards and in other post-accident documents such as rulings of the Marine Chamber, situational sketches of the place of accident and determination of circumstances and causes of accidents. The obtained data showed, among others, that c. 81 per cent of the mooring accidents occurred at the bow manoeuvre station and 19 per cent--at the stern manoeuvre station. The most frequent cause of injures which appeared in mooring accidents (23.3 per cent) was hitting by the mooring line as result of "bouncing" on the mooring winch head. The most frequent injury was that of lower extremities (32.6 per cent) and upper extremities (30.5 per cent) and the most widespread injuries in those accidents were--contusion (43.16 per cent) and fracture (29.48 per cent of accidents. The analysis of the material allows to state that a smaller risk of accidents occurring at mooring may be achieved through the introduction of some prophylactic recommendations both in the sphere of organisation and technology.

  16. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  17. Youth and Traffic Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, H.M.; Mayhew, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of traffic accidents involving young adults: specifically, what is known about the causes of their accidents, and what preventive action seems warranted. In this context, we consider what role the family physician might play in dealing with this major public health problem.

  18. New innovative educational method to prevent accidents involving young road users (aged 15-24 – European Road Safety Tunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska-Karpa Dagmara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a new teaching method designed to improve road safety among young road users. Developed under “European Road Safety Tunes”, this international project was cofunded by EU DG MOVE. Its main aim is to improve road safety and minimize the number of road accidents, injuries and fatalities among road users who are 15-24 years old. The Safety Tunes method contains a series of workshops addressed to young vocational school students: cyclists, moped and motor riders and car drivers. The workshops incorporate peer and emotive education, and delivery of road safety related messages through different types of artistic forms. The topics tackled during class address awareness of possible risks and risk-behaviour, prevention of distraction and reduction in young fatalities and serious injuries on the road. All actions within the project are evaluated, both in terms of the impact of the workshops on students’ attitudes towards road safety problems and in terms of process assessment.

  19. Evaluating the Knowledge, Attitude and Safety Performance in the Prevention of Occupational Accidents among Workers in One of Iran Khodro's Piece Making Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi kangavari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Occupational accidents are one of important events in the world. Individual affecting factors on accidents are knowledge, attitude and perception of risk. So this study aimed to determine knowledge, attitude and safety performance in prevention of occupational accidents at one of Iran Khodro's piece making companies' workers. In this cross-sectional study, 212 workers from Mehrcam Pars Company selected by stratified random method at each working site in 2015. By simple random sampling, subjects were enrolled. Questionnaire was completed by workers through self-reporting. Questionnaire consisted of demographic and underlying information and questions about safety knowledge, attitude and performance in the workplace. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21 software. The average workers' age was 34.3 year with a standard deviation of 4.7%. 35.8% were not trained in terms of performing their job. 48.1% of participants had no history of injuries in site, but others reported suffers from mild to severe intensity. There was significant relationship between educational situation with attitude and safety performance. There was significant relationship between job experience with safety knowledge, attitude and performance. Age and workers' safety attitude was a predictive of safety performance. The results showed that there is significant relationship between safety knowledge, attitude and performance in the workplace with some variables. So in order to improve the overall situation of safety, some measures can be effective such as raising the knowledge of personnel, safety staff's participation management, balancing work and time. Keywords: Safety, Prevention, Occupational Accidents, Workers

  20. The researches of I.P.S.N. in criticality from the risk prevention to the accident study; Les recherches de l'IPSN en criticite de la prevention du risque a l'etude de l'accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The researches made by I.P.S.N. in the field of prevention of the criticality risk turn on: the development and the qualification of calculation tools; the expertise in technical help of the I.P.S.N. units in charge of safety evaluations of facilities and transport of fissile matter; studies of criticality to the demand of operators and facilities managers; researches in order to extend the knowledge in matter of criticality. The second part of this report concerns the study of criticality accidents themselves. The objectives of these studies is to bring elements and knowledge relative to the criticality excursions and their consequences on the personnel and environment. The knowledge of these accidents is necessary to deepen the evaluation of the installations safety, to optimize the detection and to prepare an intervention. A table gives the criticality accidents from 1945 to 1999 in the world with, the date, the exposure, the total number of fission, the accident historic, the characteristics of the fissile matter and a summary of the accident. The last part relates the Tokai MURA criticality accident. (N.C.)

  1. PREVENTING ACCIDENTS IN CHILDHOOD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KLASEN, HJ; ROGMANS, WHJ

    1993-01-01

    The Consumer Safety Institute, which I represent here as member of the Board, congratulates the Members of the Dutch Pediatric Association for its outstanding achievements in the past 100 years. We are confidently looking forward to its programming for the next era, and cordially support its

  2. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may...... accidents happened on deck. Conclusions: It was possible to clearly identify work situations and specific risk factors for accidents aboard merchant ships. Most accidents happened while performing daily routine duties. Preventive measures should focus on workplace instructions for all important functions...... be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...

  3. Motorcycle accident

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    demic proportions “-. Motorcycle accidents are the second most common cause of road traffic accidents in both developed and developing countries 3'5. The proportion of road traffic accident victims made up of motorcycle falls within 9% and 35% 3 '9. Both the case fatality and the injury rate are higher in motorcycle acci~.

  4. [Good practice in occupational health services--Certification of stroke as an accident at work. Need for secondary prevention in people returning to work after acute cerebrovascular events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    The classification of an acute vascular episode, both heart infarct and stroke, as an accident at work poses difficulties not only for post accidental teams, but also to occupational health professionals, experts and judges at labor and social insurance courts. This article presents the case of a 41-year-old office worker, whose job involved client services. While attending a very aggressive customer she developed solid stress that resulted in symptoms of the central nervous system (headache, speech disturbances). During her hospitalisation at the neurological unit ischemic stroke with transient mixed type aphasia was diagnosed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the head revealed subacute ischemia. After an analysis of the accident circumstances, the employer's post accidental team decided that ischemic stroke had been an accident at work, because it was a sudden incident due to an external cause inducing work-related traumatic stroke. As a primary cause tough stress and emotional strain due to the situation developed while attending the customer were acknowledged. During control medical check up after 5 months the patient was found to be fit for work, so she could return to work. However, it should be noted that such a check up examination of subjects returning to work after stroke must be holistic, including the evaluation of job predispositions and health education aimed at secondary prevention of heart and vascular diseases with special reference to their risk factors. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  5. Good practice in occupational health services – Certification of stroke as an accident at work. Need for secondary prevention in people returning to work after acute cerebrovascular events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Marcinkiewicz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The classification of an acute vascular episode, both heart infarct and stroke, as an accident at work poses difficulties not only for post accidental teams, but also to occupational health professionals, experts and judges at labor and social insurance courts. This article presents the case of a 41-year-old office worker, whose job involved client services. While attending a very aggressive customer she developed solid stress that resulted in symptoms of the central nervous system (headache, speech disturbances. During her hospitalisation at the neurological unit ischemic stroke with transient mixed type aphasia was diagnosed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan of the head revealed subacute ischemia. After an analysis of the accident circumstances, the employer’s post accidental team decided that ischemic stroke had been an accident at work, because it was a sudden incident due to an external cause inducing work-related traumatic stroke. As a primary cause tough stress and emotional strain due to the situation developed while attending the customer were acknowledged. During control medical check up after 5 months the patient was found to be fit for work, so she could return to work. However, it should be noted that such a check up examination of subjects returning to work after stroke must be holistic, including the evaluation of job predispositions and health education aimed at secondary prevention of heart and vascular diseases with special reference to their risk factors. Med Pr 2015;66(4:595–599

  6. Police recording of road accident in-patients : investigation into the completeness, representativity, and reliability of police records of hospitalized traffic victims. Article published in Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1984/06. 16(3) pp167-184.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.W. & Harris, S.

    1984-01-01

    Many road safety research projects make use of the official police road accident data. Their use is often restricted to the data of fatal accidents and fatalities because it is the only complete registration, and the extent of underreporting of injury accidents is unknown. The need to extend the use

  7. Historical evolution of process safety and major-accident hazards prevention in Spain. Contribution of the pioneer Joaquim Casal

    OpenAIRE

    Planas Cuchi, Eulàlia; Arnaldos Viger, Josep; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Muñoz, Miguel; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Vílchez Sánchez, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting the evolution of process safety in Spain from various points of view. In first place, a study of the accidents occurred in this country in the process industry and in the transportation of chemical substances is presented. After this, the starting point of the process safety research in Spain and its evolution during the years are explained. The importance of this topic has also been reflected in the chemical engineering studies in some Spanish universities. Ther...

  8. Preventing stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroke - prevention; CVA - prevention; Cerebral vascular accident - prevention; TIA - prevention; Transient ischemic attack - prevention ... something that increases your chance of having a stroke. You can't change some risk factors for ...

  9. The effectiveness of maritime safety policy instruments from the Finnish maritime experts’ point of view – case Gulf of Finland and prevention of an oil accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouni Lappalainen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea accidents are aimed to be prevented with an extensive amount of maritime safety regulation. The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of a questionnaire study that was targeted at Finnish maritime experts and addressed the question: how to prevent an oil accident in the Gulf of Finland. This study also includes a literature study about the problems of the current maritime safety regime. The findings of the questionnaire study are compared to the findings of the literature study. The questionnaire study showed that many kinds of policies have improved maritime safety, and they are needed to ensure maritime safety. For instance, ship construction, fairway maintenance, nautical charts and rules of the road at sea can be considered the cornerstones of maritime safety. However, the results ranked voluntary activities of companies as the most effective way to improve maritime safety in the future. Self-regulative approaches could solve some problems connected to more traditional policy-making.

  10. Internet usage and knowledge of radiation health effects and preventive behaviours among workers in Fukushima after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Kenzo; Sugaya, Nagisa; Mizushima, Shunsaku; Koyama, Kikuo

    2014-10-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident (FDNPPA) was the world's second largest nuclear power plant accident. At the time that it occurred, internet usage prevalence in Japan was as high as 80%. To compare health knowledge on radiation and preventive behaviour between internet users and non-users among adults employed in industries in Fukushima after the nuclear disaster. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire study among adults employed in industries in Fukushima 3-5 months after the FDNPPA. Targets were 1394 regular workers who took part in health seminars provided by the Fukushima Occupational Health Promotion Center. After applying the selection criteria, there were 1119 eligible participants. The questionnaire asked for personal characteristics and main sources of information about the FDNPPA, as well as health knowledge on radiation and preventive behaviours following the nuclear accident. We assessed the contribution of each variable using logistic regression analysis. Among the eligible respondents, 637 workers (56.9%) were internet users and 482 (43.1%) were non-users. Internet users had more health knowledge than non-users (average 4.6 radiation-related health conditions in internet users vs 3.6 conditions in non-users) and more preventive behaviours (average 2.6 behaviours in internet users vs 1.9 in non-users). According to logistic regression analyses, internet usage was positively associated with greater health knowledge on radiation (OR 1.13; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.20) and more preventive behaviours (OR 1.14; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.23). Internet usage was significantly and positively associated with greater health knowledge and more preventive behaviours. The internet is a useful method of distributing information to the general public in emergency situations such as a nuclear disaster. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. The life cycle of the policy for preventing road accidents: an empirical example of the policy for reducing drunk driving crashes in Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Li; Yeh, Chun-Chih

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the temporal variation of the effect of preventive policy on reducing traffic accidents. The life cycle theory was introduced to describe the safety effect of the intervening policy over time. Poisson regression models with dummy-based and time-based specifications were used to evaluate the effect of an intervening policy over an observation period following its implementation. The policy of "Criminal sanction for drunk driving (CSFDD)" in Taipei city was evaluated as an empirical example to determine whether the temporal variation of safety effect happened to the CSFDD policy. The study results showed that alcohol consumption, arresting the drunk driving offenders, and the implementation of the CSFDD were the significant factors affecting the rate of occurrence of fatal accidents involving drunk driving. The effect of the CSFDD policy appeared to be a rapid initial response followed by a lower rate of decay. The existence of the life cycle implies that employing different observation periods following the implementation of a specific policy to evaluate its performance may obtain different effects. The results of this study are crucial for policy evaluation. The effects of safety policy should be carefully interpreted in order to avoid misleading the relevant authorities in coming to the wrong conclusions and as such make the wrong decisions. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Use of PSA and severe accident assessment results for the accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, S. H.; Kim, H. G.; Jang, H. S.; Moon, S. K.; Park, J. U. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    The objectives for this study are to investigate the basic principle or methodology which is applicable to accident management, by using the results of PSA and severe accident research, and also facilitate the preparation of accidents management program in the future. This study was performed as follows: derivation of measures for core damage prevention, derivation of measures for accident mitigation, application of computerized tool to assess severe accident management.

  13. [The significance of the results of crash-tests with the use of the models of the pedestrians' lower extremities for the prevention of the traffic road accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirenin, S A; Fetisov, V A; Grigoryan, V G; Gusarov, A A; Kucheryavets, Yu O

    The disabling injuries inflicted during road traffic accidents (RTA) create a serious challenge for the public health services and are at the same time a major socio-economic problem in the majority of the countries throughout the world. The injuries to the lower extremities of the pedestrians make up the largest fraction of the total number of the non-lethal RTA injuries. Most of them are responsible for the considerable deterioration of the quality of life for the participants in the accidents during the subsequent period. The objective of the present study was to summarize the currently available results of experimental testing of the biomechanical models of the pedestrians' lower extremities in the framework of the program for the prevention of the road traffic accidents as proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2004). The European Enhanced Safety Vehicle Committee (EEVC) has developed a series of crash-tests with the use of the models of the pedestrians' lower extremities simulating the vehicle bumper-pedestrian impact. The models are intended for the assessment of the risk of the tibia fractures and the injuries to the knee joint ligaments. The experts of EEVC proposed the biomechanical criteria for the acceleration of the knee and talocrural parts of the lower limbs as well as for the shear displacement of the knee and knee-bending angle. The engineering solution of this problem is based on numerous innovation proposals being implemented in the machine-building industry with the purpose of reducing the stiffness of structural elements of the bumper and other front components of a modern vehicle designed to protect the pedestrians from severe injuries that can be inflicted in the road traffic accidents. The activities of the public health authorities (in the first place, bureaus of forensic medical expertise and analogous facilities) have a direct bearing on the solution of the problem of control of road traffic injuries because they are possessed of

  14. The child accident repeater: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J G

    1980-04-01

    The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.

  15. How to reduce the number of accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Among the safety objectives that the Director-General has established for CERN in 2012 is a reduction in the number of workplace accidents.   The best way to prevent workplace accidents is to learn from experience. This is why any accident, fire, instance of pollution, or even a near-miss, should be reported using the EDH form that can be found here. All accident reports are followed up. The departments investigate all accidents that result in sick leave, as well as all the more common categories of accidents at CERN, essentially falls (slipping, falling on stairs, etc.), regardless of whether or not they lead to sick leave. By studying the accident causes that come to light in this way, it is possible to take preventive action to avoid such accidents in the future. If you have any questions, the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. HSE Unit

  16. Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  17. Sports Accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    Kiebel

    1972-01-01

    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  18. Critical Steps in Learning From Incidents: Using Learning Potential in the Process From Reporting an Incident to Accident Prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drupsteen, L.; Groeneweg, J.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Many incidents have occurred because organisations have failed to learn from lessons of the past. This means that there is room for improvement in the way organisations analyse incidents, generate measures to remedy identified weaknesses and prevent reoccurrence: the learning from incidents process.

  19. The Analysis of the Cause-Effect Relation between Tractor Overturns and Traumatic Lesions Suffered by Drivers and Passengers: A Crucial Step in the Reconstruction of Accident Dynamics and the Improvement of Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Moreschi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the dynamics of accidents involving the overturning of farm tractors is difficult for both engineers and coroners. A clear reconstruction of the causes, vectorial forces, speed, acceleration, timing and direction of rear, front and side rollovers may be complicated by the complexity of the lesions, the absence of witnesses and the death of the operator, and sometimes also by multiple overturns. Careful analysis of the death scene, vehicle, traumatic lesions and their comparison with the mechanical structures of the vehicle and the morphology of the terrain, should help experts to reconstruct the dynamics of accidents and may help in the design of new preventive equipment and procedures.

  20. Risk and preventive factors for heat illness in radiation decontamination workers after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakamu, Takeyasu; Hidaka, Tomoo; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Jinnouchi, Takanobu; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Nakano, Shinichi; Koyama, Kikuo; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal factors related to heat illness in radiation decontamination workers and determine effective preventive measures. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to 1,505 radiation decontamination workers. The questionnaire included age, sex, duration of decontamination work, previous occupation, education provided by employers regarding heat illness, preventive action against heat illness, and subjective symptoms of heat illness during work. We included 528 men, who replied and answered all questions, in the statistical analysis. Subjective symptoms of heat illness were categorized as "no symptoms", "Grade I" and "Grade II" according to severity. A multiple linear regression model was used to determine the factors associated with the severity of heat illness. The mean age of the subjects was 47.6 years old (standard deviation: 13.4). Of the 528 workers, 316 (59.8%) experienced heat illness symptoms (213 at Grade I and 103 at Grade II). The results of the stepwise selection revealed that age, outdoor manual labor, adequate sleep, use of a cool vest, and salt intake were selected as preventive factors, whereas living in a company dormitory or temporary housing, wearing light clothing, and consuming breakfast were selected as risk factors for heat illness. Both working conditions and living environment are associated with heat illness in radiation decontamination workers. Type of housing and sleep are also strongly related to heat illness during work. Employers should consider not only the working conditions of the employee but also the employee's daily living conditions, in order to prevent heat illness.

  1. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases from...

  2. Social disorder, accidents, and municipal wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas S. Thomas; David T. Butry; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2012-01-01

    Societal safeguards, established by those who have shared perceptions of the importance of safety and taking preventative measures, reduce the incidence of accidents that harm people and damage property. These safeguards prevent or discourage community members from partaking in careless behaviors that often lead to accidents. Wildland urban interface communities that...

  3. [A cooperative program for the prevention of domestic accidents in children at the department of the Doubs. II. Educative aspects and evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudier, F; Marchais, M; Ferry, B; Bourderont, D; Pinochet, C; Blum, D

    1988-01-01

    Effective prevention of domestic accidents in children includes regimental and/or legislative action, information for parents and education of the children. The latter two strategies have been applied in the deparment of the Doubs in a cooperative health promotion program. Preschool and kindergarten structures were chosen and the pedagogical project involved acquainting the children with the idea of danger by use of a kit prepared by the "Comité Français d'Education pour la Santé" (French Committee for health education). This study was set up in two stages: "experimental" in 2 schools (1983-1984) and "operational" in 40 schools (1984-1985). In order to evaluate it, the population was divided into a control group and an experimental group. A total of 5,720 tests were carried out among 520 children. 494 parents and 82 teachers answered the questionnaires sent to them. The teachers were generally very positive about the effectiveness of education about dangers and the teaching activities which could be employed: discovery of environment, awareness of body, a.s.o. The changes in attitude were real and enduring among children. The parents changed their behavior significantly concerning the storing of poisonous products (medicines and household cleaning products), which allows to feel that this program can be effective in terms of risk reduction.

  4. The Flash Environmental Assessment Tool: worldwide first aid for chemical accidents response, pro action, prevention and preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posthuma, Leo; Wahlstrom, Emilia; Nijenhuis, René; Dijkens, Chris; de Zwart, Dick; van de Meent, Dik; Hollander, Anne; Brand, Ellen; den Hollander, Henri A; van Middelaar, Johan; van Dijk, Sander; Hall, E F; Hoffer, Sally

    2014-11-01

    The United Nations response mechanism to environmental emergencies requested a tool to support disaster assessment and coordination actions by United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC) teams. The tool should support on-site decision making when substantial chemical emissions affect human health directly or via the environment and should be suitable for prioritizing impact reduction management options under challenging conditions worldwide. To answer this need, the Flash Environmental Assessment Tool (FEAT) was developed and the scientific and practical underpinning and application of this tool are described in this paper. FEAT consists of a printed decision framework and lookup tables, generated by combining the scientific data on chemicals, exposure pathways and vulnerabilities with the pragmatic needs of emergency field teams. Application of the tool yields information that can help prioritize impact reduction measures. The first years of use illustrated the usefulness of the tool as well as suggesting additional uses and improvements. An additional use is application of the back-office tool (Hazard Identification Tool, HIT), the results of which aid decision-making by the authorities of affected countries and the preparation of field teams for on-site deployment. Another extra use is in disaster pro action and prevention. In this case, the application of the tool supports safe land-use planning and improved technical design of chemical facilities. UNDAC teams are trained to use the tool after large-scale sudden onset natural disasters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Actividades intersectoriales en la prevención de accidentes de tráfico Intersectorial activities for traffic accident prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Peiró

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describen las líneas de trabajo priorizadas y algunos resultados obtenidos en la implantación del programa de prevención y reducción de lesiones por accidentes de tráfico en un área de salud. A partir de 1999 el Centro de Salud Pública priorizó la identificación y búsqueda de aliados en otros sectores (Asociación de policías locales y educación, la construcción de la capacidad de trabajo conjunta y la formación de un grupo intersectorial. Se llevaron a cabo actividades docentes y jornadas. Se formó una red de personas en 17 de un total de 39 ayuntamientos que participan con actividades en el grupo intersectorial. Un total de 10 de estos ayuntamientos participaron con actividades educativas y siete, además, exigieron al cumplimiento de la legislación. El grupo intersectorial potenció la visibilidad de sus actividades a través de los medios de comunicación local. Estas actividades no están dirigidas a reducir las lesiones por tráfico, sino a crear un marco de trabajo para la movilización de los sectores implicados. Se pretende potenciar más el compromiso entre los niveles políticos, técnicos y civiles incidiendo en valores sociales de respeto para una vida más saludable.We describe priority issues and some of the results obtained from the implementation of the «Prevention and Reduction of Traffic Accident Injuries» program in a health area. Since 1999 the public health center has made a priority of identifying and recruiting partners from other sectors (the local police association and the local education authority, increasing its capacity for working together, and setting up an intersectorial working group. Teaching activities and meetings were held. A network of people was created from 17 of a total of 39 town halls that participate in activities supported by the intersectorial group. Ten are involved in educational activities and a further seven focus on ensuring compliance with the law. The intersectorial group

  6. Accident: Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

  7. The epidemiology of bicyclist's collision accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L. B.

    1994-01-01

    The number of bicyclists injured in the road traffic in collision accidents and treated at the emergency room at Odense University Hospital has increased 66% from 1980 to 1989. The aim of this study was to examine the epidemiology of bicyclist's collision accidents and identify risk groups...... of collision accidents with motor vehicles it is necessary to separate the bicyclists from the 'hard road traffic' especially at crossings. Preventive measures must also be directed at the bicyclists. Information must be given to warn the bicyclists against the risks, not only for collisions with motor...... injured in collision accidents, and 1502 bicyclists injured in single accidents was used as a reference group. The young bicyclists 10-19 years of age had the highest incidence of injuries caused by collision accidents. The collision accidents had different characteristics according to counterpart. One...

  8. ACCIDENT PREDICTION MODELS FOR UNSIGNALISED URBAN JUNCTIONS IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed SALIFU, MSc., PhD, MIHT, MGhIE

    2004-01-01

    The accident prediction models developed have a potentially wide area of application and their systematic use is likely to improve considerably the quality and delivery of the engineering aspects of accident mitigation and prevention in Ghana.

  9. Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants and Cancer Risk On This Page What ... ionizing radiation? What cancer risks are associated with nuclear power plant accidents? How have researchers learned about cancer ...

  10. Chemical Accident Prevention: Site Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chemical safety alert assists facilities that routinely handle extremely hazardous substances, along with SERCs, LEPCs, and emergency responders, in their efforts to reduce criminally caused releases and vulnerability to terrorist activity.

  11. Prevention of traffic accidents: the assessment of perceptual-motor alterations before obtaining a driving license. A longitudinal study of the first years of driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Fermina Sánchez; Estévez, M Angeles Quiroga

    2005-03-01

    A longitudinal study was designed with two objectives: first, to provide a wide cognitive, personality and social description of new drivers before they started to drive cars. Second, to examine the relationship between cognitive and other characteristics drivers had before obtaining their driving license and the number and type of accidents they were involved in during the first years as drivers. The longitudinal study started in 1997 and ended in 2002. The first assessment was made up of 241 individuals at the time they enrolled on the driving course. The follow-up evaluation in the year 2002 was carried out on 144 components of the initial sample after five years driving. Age, gender and education level were matched to represent the population of Spain. Participants were assessed with the Bender Test for visual-motor ability, the B101 Test for practical intelligence, the B19 Test for visual-motor bi-manual coordination, and the TKK-1108 for speed anticipation. Personality was also evaluated with the Rorschach test and the PSY (Psychological Assessment Questionnaire). Five years later, a new examination of all those variables was made as well as a structured interview with each participant in order to collect data relating to significant life events during that time, driving habits, opinions in relation to certain traffic rules and information on accidents, incidents and/or sanctions. Serious and/or minor accidents are concentrated on a few drivers. Accidentality is not related to gender or age, but educational level is related to serious accidents. The number of accidents (severe or minor ones) cannot be predicted if considered as a continuous variable, but it is possible if considered as a discrete variable. In this case two different cognitive profiles account for the number and type of accidents. The number and type of accidents during their first years of driving are related to the cognitive profiles of drivers assessed before they obtained their driving

  12. Self-reported accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2016-01-01

    The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....

  13. Key Characteristics of Combined Accident including TLOFW accident for PSA Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-05-15

    The conventional PSA techniques cannot adequately evaluate all events. The conventional PSA models usually focus on single internal events such as DBAs, the external hazards such as fire, seismic. However, the Fukushima accident of Japan in 2011 reveals that very rare event is necessary to be considered in the PSA model to prevent the radioactive release to environment caused by poor treatment based on lack of the information, and to improve the emergency operation procedure. Especially, the results from PSA can be used to decision making for regulators. Moreover, designers can consider the weakness of plant safety based on the quantified results and understand accident sequence based on human actions and system availability. This study is for PSA modeling of combined accidents including total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident. The TLOFW accident is a representative accident involving the failure of cooling through secondary side. If the amount of heat transfer is not enough due to the failure of secondary side, the heat will be accumulated to the primary side by continuous core decay heat. Transients with loss of feedwater include total loss of feedwater accident, loss of condenser vacuum accident, and closure of all MSIVs. When residual heat removal by the secondary side is terminated, the safety injection into the RCS with direct primary depressurization would provide alternative heat removal. This operation is called feed and bleed (F and B) operation. Combined accidents including TLOFW accident are very rare event and partially considered in conventional PSA model. Since the necessity of F and B operation is related to plant conditions, the PSA modeling for combined accidents including TLOFW accident is necessary to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities.The PSA is significant to assess the risk of NPPs, and to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities. Even though the combined accident is very rare event, the consequence of combined

  14. [Traffic accidents associated with emotional stress after divorce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li-Juan; Yi, Xu-Fu; Chen, Xiao-Gang

    2009-04-01

    In recent years, the traffic accidents increased gradually, especially those caused by the drivers daily emotional abnormality and in which the drivers were liable. This article reviewed the traffic accidents caused by divorced driver's emotional abnormality, illustrated the features of those accidents from the gender, age, occupation and mileage of drivers. It was considered that the major cause of those accidents was excessive drinking due to drivers' emotional stress. Suggestions about preventing the traffic accidents caused by emotional abnormality were put forward so as to make the corresponding rules and finally decrease the emotional abnormality traffic accidents.

  15. 36 CFR 9.46 - Accidents and fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accidents and fires. 9.46... MINERALS MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.46 Accidents and fires. The operator shall take technologically feasible precautions to prevent accidents and fires, shall notify the Superintendent within 24...

  16. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident history...

  17. Epidemiology of Deaths from Road Traffic Accidents in Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to examine the epidemiology of deaths from Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) in Nigeria using Lagos State as a baseline study and to suggest preventive and corrective safety measures towards reducing the traffic accidents in the study area. The reported number of deaths from road traffic accidents ...

  18. Good practice in occupational health services – Certification of stroke as an accident at work. Need for secondary prevention in people returning to work after acute cerebrovascular events

    OpenAIRE

    Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    The classification of an acute vascular episode, both heart infarct and stroke, as an accident at work poses difficulties not only for post accidental teams, but also to occupational health professionals, experts and judges at labor and social insurance courts. This article presents the case of a 41-year-old office worker, whose job involved client services. While attending a very aggressive customer she developed solid stress that resulted in symptoms of the central nervous system (headache,...

  19. Regulation Plans on Severe Accidents developed by KINS Severe Accident Regulation Preparation TFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyun Tae; Chung, Ku Young; Na, Han Bee [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Some nuclear power plants in Fukushima Daiichi site had lost their emergency reactor cooling function for long-time so the fuels inside the reactors were molten, and the integrity of containment was damaged. Therefore, large amount of radioactive material was released to environment. Because the social and economic effects of severe accidents are enormous, Korean Government already issued 'Severe Accident Policy' in 2001 which requires nuclear power plant operators to set up 'Quantitative Safety Goal', to do 'Probabilistic Safety Analysis', to install 'Severe Accident Countermeasures' and to make 'Severe Accident Management Plan'. After the Fukushima disaster, a Special Safety Inspection was performed for all operating nuclear power plants of Korea. The inspection team from industry, academia, and research institutes assessed Korean NPPs capabilities to cope with or respond to severe accidents and emergency situation caused by natural disasters such as a large earthquake or tsunami. As a result of the special inspection, about 50 action items were identified to increase the capability to cope with natural disaster and severe accidents. Nuclear Safety Act has been amended to require NPP operators to submit Accident Management Plant as part of operating license application. The KINS Severe Accident Regulation Preparation TFT had first investigated oversea severe accident regulation trend before and after the Fukushima accident. Then, the TFT has developed regulation draft for severe accidents such as Severe accident Management Plans, the required design features for new NPPs to prevent severe accident against multiple failures and beyond-design external events, countermeasures to mitigate severe accident and to keep the integrity of containment, and assessment methodology on safety assessment plan and probabilistic safety assessment.

  20. Analysis of surface powered haulage accidents, January 1990--July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesak, G.M.; Breland, R.M.; Spadaro, J. [Dept. of Labor, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This report addresses surface haulage accidents that occurred between January 1990 and July 1996 involving haulage trucks (including over-the-road trucks), front-end-loaders, scrapers, utility trucks, water trucks, and other mobile haulage equipment. The study includes quarries, open pits and surface coal mines utilizing self-propelled mobile equipment to transport personnel, supplies, rock, overburden material, ore, mine waste, or coal for processing. A total of 4,397 accidents were considered. This report summarizes the major factors that led to the accidents and recommends accident prevention methods to reduce the frequency of these accidents.

  1. The importance of the treatment of the unsafe acts for the prevention of accidents in petrochemical industry; A importancia do tratamento dos atos inseguros para a prevencao de acidentes na industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneguetti, Alexander A.; Santos, Helio R.F.; Alevato, Hilda; Lima, Luciana S. [Dupont do Brasil S.A., Paulinia, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Due to the fact that, the workers' behavior is characterized by its complexity and diversity, this issue has been seen as a great 'black box' in discussions regarding the Management Systems of SHE. Associated with this issue other arises: How conscious people? How to engage them with the process? How to improve the risk control? How to motivate the prevention? Most of these responses are discussed in the Social and Human Sciences for many years. However, it is necessary to closer the technical-operational knowledge and the human aspects, applying in the organizations' daily work, to make the working environment more safe. The purpose of this study, therefore, is examining the possibility of reducing accidents through the identification and treatment of deviations (unsafe acts and unsafe conditions), cause the whole accident, be it serious or not, begins with a small deviation. It was used as a reference tool, the Behavior audit and it is based on field's observations, applied into a production unit of a large petrochemical industry in northern Brazil, during the years 2006 and 2007. (author)

  2. Fault Analysis and Solution on Bucket Dropping Accident in Hoisting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Overwinding was the main accident in lifting systems of coal mine and bucket dropping accident was the most serious overwinding accident. According to the cause and mechanism of the bucket dropping accident in main shaft hoisting systems, the conclusion that overloading promotion was the main cause of bucket crash accident was obtained with the fault tree analysis method. One theoretical analysis model was established in order to prevent the occurrence of overloaded bucket dropping accident. The model provided scientific basis and steps in theory for qualitative and quantitative analysis on the cause of falling bucket accident and for the study on accident prediction and prevention. This article proposed several feasible technical measures to prevent the bucket crash accident, which had important guiding significance in practical application.

  3. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Procedural Accidents and Errors during Root Canal Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mozayeni, Mohammad Ali; Asnaashari, Mohammad; Modaresi, Seyed Jalil

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Root canal therapy (RCT)_like other dental practices_ can be accompanied with some accidents or unpredictable conditions that are called "procedural accidents". Having the knowledge about these accidents and their etiology is essential to have RCT completion and to prevent the repeat of these accidents. This study was designed to evaluate accidents occurring during RCT in patients referred to endodontic department of Shaheed Beheshti dental school during 2002. MATERIALS AND METH...

  4. Developing techniques for cause-responsibility analysis of occupational accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Mousa; Ghorbani, Roghayeh

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to specify the causes of occupational accidents, determine social responsibility and the role of groups involved in work-related accidents. This study develops occupational accidents causes tree, occupational accidents responsibility tree, and occupational accidents component-responsibility analysis worksheet; based on these methods, it develops cause-responsibility analysis (CRA) techniques, and for testing them, analyzes 100 fatal/disabling occupational accidents in the construction setting that were randomly selected from all the work-related accidents in Tehran, Iran, over a 5-year period (2010-2014). The main result of this study involves two techniques for CRA: occupational accidents tree analysis (OATA) and occupational accidents components analysis (OACA), used in parallel for determination of responsible groups and responsibilities rate. From the results, we find that the management group of construction projects has 74.65% responsibility of work-related accidents. The developed techniques are purposeful for occupational accidents investigation/analysis, especially for the determination of detailed list of tasks, responsibilities, and their rates. Therefore, it is useful for preventing work-related accidents by focusing on the responsible group's duties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Comparison of some selected methods for accident investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklet, Snorre

    2004-07-26

    Even if the focus on risk management is increasing in our society, major accidents resulting in several fatalities seem to be unavoidable in some industries. Since the consequences of such major accidents are unacceptable, a thorough investigation of the accidents should be performed in order to learn from what has happened, and prevent future accidents. During the last decades, a number of methods for accident investigation have been developed. Each of these methods has different areas of application and different qualities and deficiencies. A combination of several methods ought to be used in a comprehensive investigation of a complex accident. This paper gives a brief description of a selection of some important, recognised, and commonly used methods for investigation of accidents. Further, the selected methods are compared according to important characteristics.

  7. Learning lessons from Natech accidents - the eNATECH accident database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausmann, Elisabeth; Girgin, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    When natural hazards impact industrial facilities that house or process hazardous materials, fires, explosions and toxic releases can occur. This type of accident is commonly referred to as Natech accident. In order to prevent the recurrence of accidents or to better mitigate their consequences, lessons-learned type studies using available accident data are usually carried out. Through post-accident analysis, conclusions can be drawn on the most common damage and failure modes and hazmat release paths, particularly vulnerable storage and process equipment, and the hazardous materials most commonly involved in these types of accidents. These analyses also lend themselves to identifying technical and organisational risk-reduction measures that require improvement or are missing. Industrial accident databases are commonly used for retrieving sets of Natech accident case histories for further analysis. These databases contain accident data from the open literature, government authorities or in-company sources. The quality of reported information is not uniform and exhibits different levels of detail and accuracy. This is due to the difficulty of finding qualified information sources, especially in situations where accident reporting by the industry or by authorities is not compulsory, e.g. when spill quantities are below the reporting threshold. Data collection has then to rely on voluntary record keeping often by non-experts. The level of detail is particularly non-uniform for Natech accident data depending on whether the consequences of the Natech event were major or minor, and whether comprehensive information was available for reporting. In addition to the reporting bias towards high-consequence events, industrial accident databases frequently lack information on the severity of the triggering natural hazard, as well as on failure modes that led to the hazmat release. This makes it difficult to reconstruct the dynamics of the accident and renders the development of

  8. Driving risk and Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Sagaspe, P; Philip, P.

    2007-01-01

    For many years fatigue has been associated with an increased risk of accidents, but the causes were unclear. Work or driving that is extensive or conducted during the night-time hours is associated with accidents but few reports have differentiated fatigue, which is usually seen as owing to driving time, from sleepiness, which is owing to reduced sleep extended time awake or being awake at the circadian trough, or drugs. Epidemiological studies from the1990s showed that sleep-related accident...

  9. Accident investigation and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kampen, J. van; Drupsteen, L.

    2013-01-01

    Many organisations and companies take extensive proactive measures to identify, evaluate and reduce occupational risks. However, despite these efforts things still go wrong and unintended events occur. After a major incident or accident, conducting an accident investigation is generally the next step. A thorough accident or incident investigation may uncover a wealth of knowledge about safety management practices in the organisation. Previously overlooked weaknesses of safety management or sa...

  10. Risk of road traffic accidents in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Goniewicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries resulting from road accidents are the most common cause of death among children, more common even than cancer and birth defects. There were 135,438 accidents involving children aged 0–14 years in the years 2000–2014 in Poland. A total of 4334 children died and 141,009 were injured. Most fatalities were recorded among children between the ages of 7 and 14 years. The research presents the main problems of road safety and the nature of the causes and consequences of accidents among children in Poland. Injuries to children are one of the biggest problems in modern medicine, which requires vigorous and preventive actions. Children of all ages should be intensively covered by educational activities related to road safety. Raising awareness of the risks associated with participation of children in traffic, with parents and carers, can greatly reduce the number of accidents.

  11. Accidents (FARS) (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Accident - (1975-current): This data file (NTAD) contains information about crash characteristics and environmental conditions at the time of the crash. There is one...

  12. Accidents of surface effect ships and hydrofoil craft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korotkin, I.M.

    1981-01-01

    The work describes 200 accidents and disasters of hovercraft and hydrofoil craft of the United States, Great Britain, France, and other fleets which occurred in the 1960s and 1970s as a result of capsizing, storm damage, collisions, fires, explosions, etc. The causes of the accidents, the functioning of various craft systems, and the actions of the crews are examined. Recommendations on the prevention of such accidents are discussed.

  13. Environmental audit and environmental liabilities. A manual for risk minimization, accident prevention and product quality assurance in operational practice. Umwelt-Audit und Umwelthaftung. Anleitung zur Risikominderung, Vorsorge und Produktqualitaetssicherung in der Betriebspraxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sietz, M.; Sondermann, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    Current legislatory activities and the rapidly increasing number of disputes have led to a great deal of attention focussing on the problems connected with 'environmental liabilities for installations and products'. The volume treats the questions of interest in this connection in a concentrated and clearly arranged presentation, taking both the regulations stipulated under the new German Environmental Liability Law and the relevant regulations of European environmental policy into consideration. Environmental liability regulations (for example: Article 22 of the German Water Supply Law) require that operators exercise provisory care for the minimization of possible risks. To this end, the by now well-introduced instrument of environmental auditing is presented as a management aid for in-plant accident prevention and environmentally sound product quality assurance. The procedures and implementation of environmental auditing are described, and complemented with application-oriented checklists and charts. The environmental audit is a management instrument for in-plant risk prevention, presenting on a technical level - similar to a balance - a picture of the environmental conditions in the plant at a given point in time. This procedure allows a critical comparison of operational conditions with the requirements of environmental law. One of its principal elements is the acquisition, processing and utilization of in-plant data. Here, too, this highly topical book offers numerous valuable references. (orig./HSCH).

  14. Some reflections on pre- and post- accident analysis for water transport: A case study of the Eastern Star accident

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yang; Zio, Enrico; Fu, Shanshan; Zhang, Di; Yan, Xinping

    2016-01-01

    International audience; n the literature, research on pre-accident and post-accident analysis has been reported extensively. The former falls into the category of risk analysis to identify the potential hazards and the consequences, so that decisions can be made to take appropriate preventive and mitigation measures. The latter amounts to accident investigation for learning lessons and finding solutions. This paper uses the catastrophe of Cruiser Eastern Star in 2015 as a case study to analyz...

  15. Short sleep duration and long spells of driving are associated with the occurrence of Japanese drivers' rear-end collisions and single-car accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takashi; Komada, Yoko; Nishida, Yasushi; Hayashida, Kenichi; Inoue, Yuichi

    2010-06-01

    Sleepiness and fatigue are important risk factors for traffic accidents. However, the relation between the accident type and lack of sleep as well as spells of driving has not been examined sufficiently. This study aimed to clarify that short sleep duration and long spells of driving are more associated with rear-end collisions and single-car accidents as compared with accidents of other types in cases of people who cause accidents. After removing drunken driving as a cause of accidents, 1772 parties involved in accidents were questioned. The quantities of rear-end collisions and single-car accidents were, respectively, 240 and 293. Logistic regression analysis showed that short nocturnal sleep (car accidents as compared with accidents of other types. Furthermore, younger age (car accidents as compared with accidents of other types. To prevent such accidents, countermeasures must be considered in light of the characteristics of drivers involved in each type of accident described above.

  16. Bicycle accidents among teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    The report shows that knowledge of traffic rules does not contribute to reduce the accident risk, or injury risk of young cyclists. Running red lights and cycling in the wrong direction in one-way traffic increase accident and injury risk. Using cycl...

  17. Accident investigation and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, J. van; Drupsteen, L.

    2013-01-01

    Many organisations and companies take extensive proactive measures to identify, evaluate and reduce occupational risks. However, despite these efforts things still go wrong and unintended events occur. After a major incident or accident, conducting an accident investigation is generally the next

  18. Fukushima Daiichi Accident and Its Radiological Impact on the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelacqua, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident is a topic of current media and public interest. It provides a means to motivate students to understand the fission process and the barriers that have been designed to prevent the release of fission products to the environment following a major nuclear power reactor accident. The Fukushima Daiichi accident…

  19. Mapping patterns of pedestrian fatal accidents in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    This study intends to provide insight into pedestrian accidents by uncovering their patterns in order to design preventive measures and to allocate resources for identifiable problems. Kohonen neural networks are applied to a database of pedestrian fatal accidents occurred during the four...

  20. Mapping patterns of pedestrian fatal accidents in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    This study intends to provide insight into pedestrian accidents by uncovering their patterns in order to design preventive measures and to allocate resources for identified problems. Kohonen neural networks are applied to a database of pedestrian fatal accidents occurred during the four-year period...

  1. Analysis of Workplace Accidents in Automotive Repair Workshops in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio López-Arquillos

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Health and safety strategies and accident prevention measures should be individualized and adapted to the type of worker most likely to be injured in each type of accident. Occupational health and safety training courses designed according to worker profile, and improving the participation of the workers in small firms creating regional or roving safety representatives would improve working conditions.

  2. Median Light Rail Crossing: Accident Causation And Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Coifman, Benjamin; Bertini, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on accident causation and countermeasures at arterial median light rail grade crossings. It synthesizes accident causation and prevention literature from several fields, including traffic engineering, human factors and cognitive psychology, as it relates to the complex LRT grade crossing.

  3. Accident tolerant composite nuclear fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpunar Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigated accident tolerant nuclear fuels are fuels with enhanced thermal conductivity, which can withstand the loss of coolant for a longer time by allowing faster dissipation of heat, thus lowering the centerline temperature and preventing the melting of the fuel. Traditional nuclear fuels have a very low thermal conductivity and can be significantly enhanced if transformed into a composite with a very high thermal conductivity components. In this study, we analyze the thermal properties of various composites of mixed oxides and thoria fuels to improve thermal conductivity for the next generation safer nuclear reactors.

  4. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry Britton; Barbara Illman; Gary Man

    2010-01-01

    Prevention is considered the most cost-effective element of the Forest Service Invasive Species Strategy (USDA Forest Service 2004). What makes prevention difficult is the desire to maximize free trade and the resulting benefits to society while, at the same time, protecting natural resources. The role of science is to first identify which commodities pose an...

  5. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  6. The development of severe accident analysis technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heuy Dong; Cho, Sung Won; Kim, Sang Baek; Park, Jong Hwa; Lee, Kyu Jung; Park, Lae Joon; Hu, Hoh; Hong, Sung Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the development of severe accident analysis technology is to understand the severe accident phenomena such as core melt progression and to provide a reliable analytical tool to assess severe accidents in a nuclear power plant. Furthermore, establishment of the accident management strategies for the prevention/mitigation of severe accidents is also the purpose of this research. The study may be categorized into three areas. For the first area, two specific issues were reviewed to identify the further research direction, that is the natural circulation in the reactor coolant system and the fuel-coolant interaction as an in-vessel and an ex-vessel phenomenological study. For the second area, the MELCOR and the CONTAIN codes have been upgraded, and a validation calculation of the MELCOR has been performed for the PHEBUS-B9+ experiment. Finally, the experimental program has been established for the in-vessel and the ex-vessel severe accident phenomena with the in-pile test loop in KMRR and the integral containment test facilities, respectively. (Author).

  7. Sleep related vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, J A; Reyner, L A

    1995-03-04

    To assess the incidence, time of day, and driver morbidity associated with vehicle accidents where the most likely cause was the driver falling asleep at the wheel. Two surveys were undertaken, in southwest England and the midlands, by using police databases or on the spot interviews. Drivers involved in 679 sleep related vehicle accidents. Of all vehicle accidents to which the police were summoned, sleep related vehicle accidents comprised 16% on major roads in southwest England, and over 20% on midland motorways. During the 24 hour period there were three major peaks: at around 0200, 0600, and 1600. About half these drivers were men under 30 years; few such accidents involved women. Sleep related vehicle accidents are largely dependent on the time of day and account for a considerable proportion of vehicle accidents, especially those on motorways and other monotonous roads. As there are no norms for the United Kingdom on road use by age and sex for time of day with which to compare these data, we cannot determine what the hourly exposure v risk factors are for these subgroups. The findings are in close agreement with those from other countries.

  8. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  9. A framework for the assessment of severe accident management strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastenberg, W.E. [ed.; Apostolakis, G.; Dhir, V.K. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering] [and others

    1993-09-01

    Severe accident management can be defined as the use of existing and/or altemative resources, systems and actors to prevent or mitigate a core-melt accident. For each accident sequence and each combination of severe accident management strategies, there may be several options available to the operator, and each involves phenomenological and operational considerations regarding uncertainty. Operational uncertainties include operator, system and instrumentation behavior during an accident. A framework based on decision trees and influence diagrams has been developed which incorporates such criteria as feasibility, effectiveness, and adverse effects, for evaluating potential severe accident management strategies. The framework is also capable of propagating both data and model uncertainty. It is applied to several potential strategies including PWR cavity flooding, BWR drywell flooding, PWR depressurization and PWR feed and bleed.

  10. Traffic accident mapping in Bangkok metropolis: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuthya, R S; Böhning, D

    Results from an analysis of traffic accidents from a study of the police records of four police stations in the Bangkok metropolis are presented. The main emphasis in this study was put on the development of a measure for traffic accident density. The traffic flow was estimated at the various study locations by trained experts. By relating the frequency of traffic accidents found in the police records to the independently estimated traffic flow, a measure for traffic accident occurrence, the traffic accident density, was constructed and estimated for the 47 areas in four study locations. The spatial risk structure was estimated and three risk groups were identified. Each area was classified into its associated risk group, and traffic accident maps for the four study locations in the Bangkok metropolis are provided here. The implication for prevention strategies is discussed.

  11. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Latest Research Getting More Help Related Topics Cancer COPD Dementia Depression Diabetes Drug and Substance Abuse Falls Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  12. Social impact of accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Isao [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    There is the quite big difference between technological risk and social risk feeling. Various biases of social and sensational factors on accidents must be considered to recognize this difference. `How safe is safe enough` is the perpetual thema concerning with not only technology but also sociology. The safety goal in aircraft design and how making effort to improve the present safety status in civil jet aircrafts is discussed as an example of social risk allowance. INSAG under IAEA started to discuss the safety culture after Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident on 1986. Safety culture and risk communication are the most important procedures to relieve the social impact for accidents. (author)

  13. Cerebrovascular accidents in patients with a ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukui, Hiroyuki; Abla, Adib; Teuteberg, Jeffrey J; McNamara, Dennis M; Mathier, Michael A; Cadaret, Linda M; Kormos, Robert L

    2007-07-01

    A cerebrovascular accident is a devastating adverse event in a patient with a ventricular assist device. The goal was to clarify the risk factors for cerebrovascular accident. Prospectively collected data, including medical history, ventricular assist device type, white blood cell count, thrombelastogram, and infection, were reviewed retrospectively in 124 patients. Thirty-one patients (25%) had 48 cerebrovascular accidents. The mean ventricular assist device support period was 228 and 89 days in patients with and without cerebrovascular accidents, respectively (P cerebrovascular accidents occurred within 4 months after implantation. Actuarial freedom from cerebrovascular accident at 6 months was 75%, 64%, 63%, and 33% with the HeartMate device (Thoratec Corp, Pleasanton, Calif), Thoratec biventricular ventricular assist device (Thoratec Corp), Thoratec left ventricular assist device (Thoratec), and Novacor device (WorldHeart, Oakland, Calif), respectively. Twenty cerebrovascular accidents (42%) occurred in patients with infections. The mean white blood cell count at the cerebrovascular accident was greater than the normal range in patients with infection (12,900/mm3) and without infection (9500/mm3). The mean maximum amplitude of the thrombelastogram in the presence of infection (63.6 mm) was higher than that in the absence of infection (60.7 mm) (P = .0309). The risk of cerebrovascular accident increases with a longer ventricular assist device support period. Infection may activate platelet function and predispose the patient to a cerebrovascular accident. An elevation of the white blood cell count may also exacerbate the risk of cerebrovascular accident even in patients without infection. Selection of device type, prevention of infection, and meticulous control of anticoagulation are key to preventing cerebrovascular accident.

  14. A Public Health Perspective of Road Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gopalakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accidents (RTAs have emerged as an important public health issue which needs to be tackled by a multi-disciplinary approach. The trend in RTA injuries and death is becoming alarming in countries like India. The number of fatal and disabling road accident happening is increasing day by day and is a real public health challenge for all the concerned agencies to prevent it. The approach to implement the rules and regulations available to prevent road accidents is often ineffective and half-hearted. Awareness creation, strict implementation of traffic rules, and scientific engineering measures are the need of the hour to prevent this public health catastrophe. This article is intended to create awareness among the health professionals about the various modalities available to prevent road accidents and also to inculcate a sense of responsibility toward spreading the message of road safety as a good citizen of our country.

  15. The dominance of accidents caused by banalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    Most prevention analysis is focused on high risks, such as explosion, fire, lack of containment for chemicals, crashes in transportation systems, lack of oxygen, or chemical poisoning. In the industrial world, these kinds of risk still lead to incidents with huge consequences, albeit very seldom...... as an example of how much information such systems can offer in general for the work of accident prevention in more traditional and common enterprises....

  16. Analysis of National Major Work Safety Accidents in China, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yunfeng; Zhang, Siheng; Rao, Jiaming; Wang, Haiqing; Li, Yang; Wang, Shengyong; Dong, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a national profile of major work safety accidents in China, which cause more than 10 fatalities per accident, intended to provide scientific basis for prevention measures and strategies to reduce major work safety accidents and deaths. Data from 2003-2012 Census of major work safety accidents were collected from State Administration of Work Safety System (SAWS). Published literature and statistical yearbook were also included to implement information. We analyzed the frequency of accidents and deaths, trend, geographic distribution and injury types. Additionally, we discussed the severity and urgency of emergency rescue by types of accidents. A total of 877 major work safety accidents were reported, resulting in 16,795 deaths and 9,183 injuries. The numbers of accidents and deaths, mortality rate and incidence of major accidents have declined in recent years. The mortality rate and incidence was 0.71 and 1.20 per 10(6) populations in 2012, respectively. Transportation and mining contributed to the highest number of major accidents and deaths. Major aviation and railway accidents caused more casualties per incident, while collapse, machinery, electrical shock accidents and tailing dam accidents were the most severe situation that resulted in bigger proportion of death. Ten years' major work safety accident data indicate that the frequency of accidents and number of eaths was declined and several safety concerns persist in some segments.

  17. [Evaluation of a program for changing attitudes in pre-drivers to prevent road accidents related to drink-driving in Catalonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnau Sabatés, Laura; Filella Guiu, Gemma; Jariot Garcia, Mercè; Montané Capdevila, Josep

    2011-01-01

    This study appraises the results of an intervention to prevent drink-driving in a cohort of pre-drivers in the region of Catalonia (Spain). The program applied, based on attitude change, sets out to reduce significantly the risk of being involved in drink-driving. A classic quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design with control group was used, and two questionnaires were applied: a general one measuring several risk factors, and another one specifically addressing the question of alcohol. The study was carried out with three groups: a) experimental 1, which received the entire program, b) experimental 2, which received a part of the program, and c) control, which did not receive the benefits of the program. Results from the factor analysis (PCA) and the repeated-measures ANOVA suggest that young pre-drivers who received the program obtained better results in road safety and showed less risk of drink-driving than those who did not receive the program or received only part of it. Significant differences were also found between men and women. The results confirm the effectiveness of the attitude-change program and the possibility of reducing alcohol use among young pre-drivers.

  18. Vulnerability assessment of chemical industry facilities in South Korea based on the chemical accident history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, S.; Lee, W. K.; Jong-Ryeul, S.; Kim, M. I.

    2016-12-01

    The use of chemical compounds are keep increasing because of their use in manufacturing industry. Chemical accident is growing as the consequence of the chemical use increment. Devastating damages from chemical accidents are far enough to aware people's cautious about the risk of the chemical accident. In South Korea, Gumi Hydrofluoric acid leaking accident triggered the importance of risk management and emphasized the preventing the accident over the damage reducing process after the accident occurs. Gumi accident encouraged the government data base construction relate to the chemical accident. As the result of this effort Chemical Safety-Clearing-house (CSC) have started to record the chemical accident information and damages according to the Harmful Chemical Substance Control Act (HCSC). CSC provide details information about the chemical accidents from 2002 to present. The detail informations are including title of company, address, business type, accident dates, accident types, accident chemical compounds, human damages inside of the chemical industry facilities, human damage outside of the chemical industry facilities, financial damages inside of the chemical industry facilities, and financial damages outside of the chemical industry facilities, environmental damages and response to the chemical accident. Collected the chemical accident history of South Korea from 2002 to 2015 and provide the spatial information to the each accident records based on their address. With the spatial information, compute the data on ArcGIS for the spatial-temporal analysis. The spatial-temporal information of chemical accident is organized by the chemical accident types, damages, and damages on environment and conduct the spatial proximity with local community and environmental receptors. Find the chemical accident vulnerable area of South Korea from 2002 to 2015 and add the vulnerable area of total period to examine the historically vulnerable area from the chemical accident in

  19. Age and airline accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, D P

    1988-01-01

    The issuance of a commercial pilot's license is contingent upon the fulfillment of stated minimum flight time. These requirements imply that total flight time and aircraft flight time can be equated with safety. For this reason, aircraft accidents involving licensed, professional pilots become difficult to explain. This study examined the relationship of pilot experience to accidents by comparing pilots' age and experience in 188 accidents involving corporate/executive pilots. The more severe accidents were expected to involve younger, less experienced pilots. The data in this study, however, refute this expectation. The age, aircraft time, or total time difference between groups was not significant. More research, both in the field and under controlled conditions, may bring in the psychological concept of cognitive dissonance.

  20. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  1. Boating Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  2. Da vigilância para prevenção de acidentes de trabalho: contribuição da ergonomia da atividade From surveillance to work-related accident prevention: the contribution of the ergonomics of the activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia Vilela

    2012-10-01

    seen that accidents were caused by a vicious cycle involving intense work, technical inadequacy, absenteeism and high turnover (84% that led the company to recruit inexperienced workers. This scenario was aggravated by authoritarian management practices. The ergonomics of the activity contributed to the understanding of organizational causes -thus superseding the normative aspects of traditional surveillance - which revealed the importance of ensuring that surveillance actions for prevention are more effective.

  3. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Equipment (PPE) Sequence for Putting on Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) [PDF – 2.85MB] Select Your PPE Equipment Combination Guidance ... PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word ... last updated: May 11, 2015 Content Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center ...

  4. Internal Accident Report: fill it out!

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    It is important to report all accidents, near-misses and dangerous situations so that they can be avoided in the future.   Reporting these events allows the relevant services to take appropriate action and implement corrective and preventive measures. It should be noted that the routing of the internal accident report was recently changed to make sure that the people who need to know are informed. Without information, corrective action is not possible. Without corrective action, there is a risk that the events will recur. As soon as you experience or see something amiss, fill out an internal accident report! If you have any questions the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. The HSE Unit

  5. Deaths due to forklift truck accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifschultz, B D; Donoghue, E R

    1994-03-25

    Forklift truck accidents are a common cause of occupational injury and death. The authors review deaths resulting from forklift accidents cases in the years 1984-1992 in Cook County, Illinois (which contains the large city of Chicago). The fatal injuries, the characteristics of the victims, and the circumstances of the deaths are examined. A forklift striking a pedestrian or crushing the operator when tipping over or falling off a dock or truck were the most common causes of death in this study. The authors compare their findings with those found in the literature on the characteristics and prevention of forklift accidents. Also, they comment on the role of the medical examiner's or coroner's office in the investigation of these work-related deaths.

  6. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  7. The survey of occupational accidents in Yazd gas agency (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Khoshakhlagh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Existence of coordinated and professional safety system to prevent occurrence of accidents and potential hazards seem to be essential in installing networks of gas distribution projects. Objective: To survey work-related accidents and safety performance indices in project implementation unit of Yazd gas agency. Methods: This analytical study was conducted on 197 of workforce in Yazd gas agency in 2013 that were selected by census and they were male. Demographic and accident information were gathered using a self-made questionnaire and face- to- face interview, and required information obtained from dossier to determine the safety performance indicators. Safety performance indicators were calculated in separately of 13 types occupations in project implementation unit of gas agency and data were analyzed using T-test. Findings: The highest accident frequency and severity rate were related to digging occupation and then metal line welding. Consequences of accidents were cuts (%56.7 and soreness (%14.9. The causes of accidents were related to uselessness of personal protective equipment (%25.2 and lack of precision in the task (%19.3. The highest rate of accident was observed among the age group 20-29 years with work experience of 4-6 years. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study and the risk of gas processes, it seems to be necessary the implementation of integrated management systems and training of workers about safety rules to improve the safety culture and prevent accidents.

  8. Occupational Accidents among Clinical Staff of Tabriz University Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Sahebi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and Objectives : Occupational health and safety is one of the most important issues in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to explore the one –year prevalence of occupational accidents in Tabriz University hospitals. Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 patients of seven university hospitals using researcher made questionnaire. The hospitals were selected based on their specialty of the service. Then, one hospital was selected from each specialty using random selection method. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were employed. The SPSS version 19 was used for data analysis. Results : The one-year prevalence of workplace accident was %21. Women were encountered in workplace accidents more than men (%31.1 vs. % 26.8. The youngest age group (20-30 years experienced the most workplace accidents (%41.5. Carelessness was the main cause of the workplace accidents (%49.3. Reporting rate of the occupational accidents was% 48.3 and the most common cause for not reporting was the fear of being recognized as a less competent individual. Sick leaves due to the severity of the accident was reported %23 (median: 5 days. Over %90 of the accident victims had experienced severe stress and job pressure within the previous year. In multiple regression models, the young staff (20-30 years with severe stress, job pressure and verbal violence victim had more chance of workplace accident.   Conclusion : In addition to the high prevalence of workplace accidents, intensity and consequences of workplace accidents should be considered as well. Providing appropriate methods including prevention of accidents and education of safety along with the assistance of technical staff, managers and attendants would be helpful.

  9. School accidents in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalamon, Johannes; Eberl, Robert; Ainoedhofer, Herwig; Singer, Georg; Spitzer, Peter; Mayr, Johannes; Schober, Peter H; Hoellwarth, Michael E

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain information about the mechanisms and types of injuries in school in Austria. Children between 0 and 18 years of age presenting with injuries at the trauma outpatient in the Department of Pediatric Surgery in Graz and six participating hospitals in Austria were evaluated over a 2-year prospective survey. A total of 28,983 pediatric trauma cases were registered. Personal data, site of the accident, circumstances and mechanisms of accident and the related diagnosis were evaluated. At the Department of Pediatric Surgery in Graz 21,582 questionnaires were completed, out of which 2,148 children had school accidents (10%). The remaining 7,401 questionnaires from peripheral hospitals included 890 school accidents (12%). The male/female ratio was 3:2. In general, sport injuries were a predominant cause of severe trauma (42% severe injuries), compared with other activities in and outside of the school building (26% severe injuries). Injuries during ball-sports contributed to 44% of severe injuries. The upper extremity was most frequently injured (34%), followed by lower extremity (32%), head and neck area (26%) and injuries to thorax and abdomen (8%). Half of all school related injuries occur in children between 10 and 13 years of age. There are typical gender related mechanisms of accident: Boys get frequently injured during soccer, violence, and collisions in and outside of the school building and during craft work. Girls have the highest risk of injuries at ball sports other than soccer.

  10. Investigation of controlled flight into terrain : aircraft accidents involving turbine-powered aircraft with six or more passenger seats flying under FAR part 91 flight rules and the potential for their prevention by ground proximity warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This two-volume study documents an investigation of controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) aircraft accidents involving turbine-powered aircraft with six or more passenger seats flying under Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Part 91 flight rules, and...

  11. APR1400 severe accident mitigation design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jae Young, Lim; Jae Youb, Byun [Shin-Kori 3 and 4 NPP Project, Korea Power Engineering Company, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    APR1400, a Korean evolutionary advanced LWR, has been developed to meet the quantitative safety goals of mean core damage frequency to be less than one in one hundred thousand reactor years (10{sup -5}/y) and the expected overall mean frequency of occurrence of offsite doses in excess of 0.01 Sv within 24 hours at the site boundary to be less than one per million reactor years (10{sup -6}/y). In order to meet these quantitative goals, defense in depth, a long standing fundamental principle of reactor safety, was applied to ensure plant safety and to provide the balanced design between prevention and mitigation. And various advanced design features were reviewed to improve plant safety in the viewpoint of prevention and mitigation of design basis accident and severe accident. In this paper, 5 issues concerning severe accident mitigation features of the APR1400 are reviewed: 1) hydrogen control, 2) high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, 3) steam explosion, 4) molten corium concrete interaction, and 5) equipment survivability. It is shown that the APR1400 has been designed to withstand severe accidents.

  12. Accidents due to falls from roof slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Alves Rudelli

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Falls from the roof slabs of houses are accidents of high potential severity that occur in large Brazilian cities and often affect children and adolescents. The aims of this study were to characterize the factors that predispose towards this type of fall involving children and adolescents, quantify the severity of associated lesions and suggest preventive measures. DESIGN AND SETTING Descriptive observational prospective longitudinal study in two hospitals in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. METHODS Data were collected from 29 cases of falls from roof slabs involving children and adolescents between October 2008 and October 2009. RESULTS Cases involving males were more prevalent, accounting for 84%. The predominant age group was schoolchildren (7 to 12 years old; 44%. Leisure activities were most frequently being practiced on the roof slab at the time of the fall (86%, and flying a kite was the most prevalent game (37.9%. In 72% of the cases, the children were unaccompanied by an adult responsible for them. Severe conditions such as multiple trauma and traumatic brain injuries resulted from 79% of the accidents. CONCLUSION Falls from roof slabs are accidents of high potential severity, and preventive measures aimed towards informing parents and guardians about the dangers and risk factors associated with this type of accident are needed, along with physical protective measures, such as low walls around the slab and gates with locks to restrict free access to these places.

  13. The Fukushima radiation accident: consequences for radiation accident medical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meineke, Viktor; Dörr, Harald

    2012-08-01

    The March 2011 radiation accident in Fukushima, Japan, is a textbook example of a radiation accident of global significance. In view of the global dimensions of the accident, it is important to consider the lessons learned. In this context, emphasis must be placed on consequences for planning appropriate medical management for radiation accidents including, for example, estimates of necessary human and material resources. The specific characteristics of the radiation accident in Fukushima are thematically divided into five groups: the exceptional environmental influences on the Fukushima radiation accident, particular circumstances of the accident, differences in risk perception, changed psychosocial factors in the age of the Internet and globalization, and the ignorance of the effects of ionizing radiation both among the general public and health care professionals. Conclusions like the need for reviewing international communication, interfacing, and interface definitions will be drawn from the Fukushima radiation accident.

  14. Alcohol and accidents in Switzerland--a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenkrug, H; Klingemann, H K

    1993-07-01

    The analysis of alcohol-related traffic accidents points to a negative relationship between the average amount of alcohol consumed and the percentage of alcohol-related accidents. The data show that the officially registered problem-rates among drivers under the influence of alcohol depend primarily neither on consumption trends nor on general preventive factors, but, rather on the capacity for accident detection, the recording practices of the authorities and a less tolerant public opinion. Regional differences in the willingness to enforce control measures are related to varying cultural drinking contexts. The under-reporting of occupational accidents reflects an undue emphasis in insurance statistics which are based on a guilt/moral concept which is used to justify sanctions, such as cuts in insurance benefits. It is clear from the empirical evidence, that the broad press coverage on 'alcohol-related' ski accidents proves to be a typical case of problem amplification.

  15. Dominant accident sequences in Oconee-1 pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dearing, J F; Henninger, R J; Nassersharif, B

    1985-04-01

    A set of dominant accident sequences in the Oconee-1 pressurized water reactor was selected using probabilistic risk analysis methods. Because some accident scenarios were similar, a subset of four accident sequences was selected to be analyzed with the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) to further our insights into similar types of accidents. The sequences selected were loss-of-feedwater, small-small break loss-of-coolant, loss-of-feedwater-initiated transient without scram, and interfacing systems loss-of-coolant accidents. The normal plant response and the impact of equipment availability and potential operator actions were also examined. Strategies were developed for operator actions not covered in existing emergency operator guidelines and were tested using TRAC simulations to evaluate their effectiveness in preventing core uncovery and maintaining core cooling.

  16. Accident prevention in SME using ORM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Troen, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    The Occupational Risk Model (ORM) developed by the Dutch Workgroup Occupational Risk Model WORM has been transferred to a Danish context, with the aim of creating a more simple system particularly for SMEs. The ORM identifies the activities in a person’s daily work that contribute most to the per......The Occupational Risk Model (ORM) developed by the Dutch Workgroup Occupational Risk Model WORM has been transferred to a Danish context, with the aim of creating a more simple system particularly for SMEs. The ORM identifies the activities in a person’s daily work that contribute most...

  17. Pattern Recognition and Classification of Fatal Traffic Accidents in Israel A Neural Network Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a broad picture of fatal traffic accidents in Israel to answer an increasing need of addressing compelling problems, designing preventive measures, and targeting specific population groups with the objective of reducing the number of traffic fatalities. The analysis focuses...... on 1,793 fatal traffic accidents occurred during the period between 2003 and 2006 and applies Kohonen and feed-forward back-propagation neural networks with the objective of extracting from the data typical patterns and relevant factors. Kohonen neural networks reveal five compelling accident patterns......: (1) single-vehicle accidents of young drivers, (2) multiple-vehicle accidents between young drivers, (3) accidents involving motorcyclists or cyclists, (4) accidents where elderly pedestrians crossed in urban areas, and (5) accidents where children and teenagers cross major roads in small urban areas...

  18. Application of forensic image analysis in accident investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verolme, Ellen; Mieremet, Arjan

    2017-09-01

    Forensic investigations are primarily meant to obtain objective answers that can be used for criminal prosecution. Accident analyses are usually performed to learn from incidents and to prevent similar events from occurring in the future. Although the primary goal may be different, the steps in which information is gathered, interpreted and weighed are similar in both types of investigations, implying that forensic techniques can be of use in accident investigations as well. The use in accident investigations usually means that more information can be obtained from the available information than when used in criminal investigations, since the latter require a higher evidence level. In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability of forensic techniques for accident investigations by presenting a number of cases from one specific field of expertise: image analysis. With the rapid spread of digital devices and new media, a wealth of image material and other digital information has become available for accident investigators. We show that much information can be distilled from footage by using forensic image analysis techniques. These applications show that image analysis provides information that is crucial for obtaining the sequence of events and the two- and three-dimensional geometry of an accident. Since accident investigation focuses primarily on learning from accidents and prevention of future accidents, and less on the blame that is crucial for criminal investigations, the field of application of these forensic tools may be broader than would be the case in purely legal sense. This is an important notion for future accident investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cannabis, alcohol and fatal road accidents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Martin

    Full Text Available This research aims to estimate the relative risks of responsibility for a fatal accident linked to driving under the influence of cannabis or alcohol, the prevalence of these influences among drivers and the corresponding attributable risk ratios. A secondary goal is to estimate the same items for three other groups of illicit drugs (amphetamines, cocaine and opiates, and to compare the results to a similar study carried out in France between 2001 and 2003.Police procedures for fatal accidents in Metropolitan France during 2011 were analyzed and 300 characteristics encoded to provide a database of 4,059 drivers. Information on alcohol and four groups of illicit drugs derived from tests for positivity and potential confirmation through blood analysis. The study compares drivers responsible for causing the accident, that is to say having directly contributed to its occurrence, to drivers involved in an accident for which they were not responsible, and who can be assimilated to drivers in general.The proportion of persons driving under the influence of alcohol is estimated at 2.1% (95% CI: 1.4-2.8 and under the influence of cannabis at 3.4% (2.9%-3.9%. Drivers under the influence of alcohol are 17.8 times (12.1-26.1 more likely to be responsible for a fatal accident, and the proportion of fatal accidents which would be prevented if no drivers ever exceeded the legal limit for alcohol is estimated at 27.7% (26.0%-29.4%. Drivers under the influence of cannabis multiply their risk of being responsible for causing a fatal accident by 1.65 (1.16-2.34, and the proportion of fatal accidents which would be prevented if no drivers ever drove under the influence of cannabis is estimated at 4.2% (3.7%-4.8%. An increased risk linked to opiate use has also been found to be significant, but with low prevalence, requiring caution in interpreting this finding. Other groups of narcotics have even lower prevalence, and the associated extra risks cannot be assessed

  20. Cannabis, alcohol and fatal road accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jean-Louis; Gadegbeku, Blandine; Wu, Dan; Viallon, Vivian; Laumon, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to estimate the relative risks of responsibility for a fatal accident linked to driving under the influence of cannabis or alcohol, the prevalence of these influences among drivers and the corresponding attributable risk ratios. A secondary goal is to estimate the same items for three other groups of illicit drugs (amphetamines, cocaine and opiates), and to compare the results to a similar study carried out in France between 2001 and 2003. Police procedures for fatal accidents in Metropolitan France during 2011 were analyzed and 300 characteristics encoded to provide a database of 4,059 drivers. Information on alcohol and four groups of illicit drugs derived from tests for positivity and potential confirmation through blood analysis. The study compares drivers responsible for causing the accident, that is to say having directly contributed to its occurrence, to drivers involved in an accident for which they were not responsible, and who can be assimilated to drivers in general. The proportion of persons driving under the influence of alcohol is estimated at 2.1% (95% CI: 1.4-2.8) and under the influence of cannabis at 3.4% (2.9%-3.9%). Drivers under the influence of alcohol are 17.8 times (12.1-26.1) more likely to be responsible for a fatal accident, and the proportion of fatal accidents which would be prevented if no drivers ever exceeded the legal limit for alcohol is estimated at 27.7% (26.0%-29.4%). Drivers under the influence of cannabis multiply their risk of being responsible for causing a fatal accident by 1.65 (1.16-2.34), and the proportion of fatal accidents which would be prevented if no drivers ever drove under the influence of cannabis is estimated at 4.2% (3.7%-4.8%). An increased risk linked to opiate use has also been found to be significant, but with low prevalence, requiring caution in interpreting this finding. Other groups of narcotics have even lower prevalence, and the associated extra risks cannot be assessed. Almost a

  1. Are anesthetic accidents unavoidable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Walle, J

    1978-01-01

    Fatal anesthetic accidents still occur frequently. Origins and causes are being reviewed especially in the light of lawsuits against anesthetists. The importance of utmost continuous supervision and care for both the vital functions: respiration and circulation, is stressed. General recommendations for security during anesthesia are advanced.

  2. [Traffic accidents: a health problem in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanquer, J J; Rapa, M; Melchor, A; Jiménez, T; Adam, A; Mulet, M J

    1993-09-15

    To discover the prevalence and most relevant epidemiological characteristics of the victims of traffic accidents which occur in our health area. Hospital Casualty department (HC), Health area 19, Alcoy. This was an observational, crossover study, based on the collection of data from all those patients who had been brought into the HC for attention because of a traffic accident and who were attended between October 1, 1990 and September 31, 1991. During the study period a total of 1,111 traffic accident victims were attended. Their average age was 26.62 (SD +/- 15.95), with 69.6% being men and 30.2% women. 60.7% of the victims were attended on non-working days or the eve of a non-working day. 44.5% of those involved in accidents were in four-wheeled vehicles; 40% on two-wheeled vehicles and 11.1% of the victims were pedestrians. Injuries were light in 73.3% of cases; moderate in 15.9% and in the other 8.8% serious, grave or critical. 43.7% of the total had the accident in an urban area and 40.9% on the open road. The high prevalence of victims of accidents (8.3 per 1000 inhabitants) observed in our health area can be explained by the type of study. It is vital to obtain valid information of the real importance of this health problem. The primary care doctor must take preventive action concerning traffic accidents: a) through full studies of traffic accident levels among primary care centre users; b) primary preventive action, through the spreading of information on norms of safety; and c) secondary and tertiary prevention, by means of effective and efficacious outpatient emergency measures, as well as a thorough rehabilitation of accident victims.

  3. The impact of vessel speed reduction on port accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Young-Tae; Park, Hyosoo

    2016-03-19

    Reduced-speed zones (RSZs) have been designated across the world to control emissions from ships and prevent mammal strikes. While some studies have examined the effectiveness of speed reduction on emissions and mammal preservation, few have analyzed the effects of reduced ship speed on vessel safety. Those few studies have not yet measured the relationship between vessel speed and accidents by using real accident data. To fill this gap in the literature, this study estimates the impact of vessel speed reduction on vessel damages, casualties and frequency of vessel accidents. Accidents in RSZ ports were compared to non-RSZ ports by using U.S. Coast Guard data to capture the speed reduction effects. The results show that speed reduction influenced accident frequency as a result of two factors, the fuel price and the RSZ designation. Every $10 increase in the fuel price led to a 10.3% decrease in the number of accidents, and the RSZ designation reduced vessel accidents by 47.9%. However, the results do not clarify the exact impact of speed reduction on accident casualty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Increase the Safety of Road Traffic Accidents by Applying Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kos Goran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of continual increase of number of traffic accidents and alarming trend of increasing number of traffic accidents with catastrophic consequences for human life and health, it is necessary to actively research and develop methods to combat these trends. One of the measures is the implementation of advanced information systems in existing traffic environment. Accidents clusters, as databases of traffic accidents, introduce a new dimension in traffic systems in the form of experience, providing information on current accidents and the ones that have previously occurred in a given period. This paper proposes a new approach to predictive management of traffic processes, based on the collection of data in real time and is based on accidents clusters. The modern traffic information services collects road traffic status data from a wide variety of traffic sensing systems using modern ICT technologies, creating the most accurate road traffic situation awareness achieved so far. Road traffic situation awareness enhanced by accident clusters' data can be visualized and distributed in various ways (including the forms of dynamic heat maps and on various information platforms, suiting the requirements of the end-users. Accent is placed on their significant features that are based on additional knowledge about existing traffic processes and distribution of important traffic information in order to prevent and reduce traffic accidents.

  5. Identifying traffic accident black spots with Poisson-Tweedie models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debrabant, Birgit; Halekoh, Ulrich; Bonat, Wagner Hugo

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims at the identification of black spots for traffic accidents, i.e. locations with accident counts beyond what is usual for similar locations, using spatially and temporally aggregated hospital records from Funen, Denmark. Specifically, we apply an autoregressive Poisson-Tweedie model...... considered calendar years and calculated by simulations a probability of p=0.03 for these to be chance findings. Altogether, our results recommend these sites for further investigation and suggest that our simple approach could play a role in future area based traffic accident prevention planning....

  6. Estimating the causes of traffic accidents using logistic regression and discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacasu, Murat; Ergül, Barış; Altin Yavuz, Arzu

    2014-01-01

    Factors that affect traffic accidents have been analysed in various ways. In this study, we use the methods of logistic regression and discriminant analysis to determine the damages due to injury and non-injury accidents in the Eskisehir Province. Data were obtained from the accident reports of the General Directorate of Security in Eskisehir; 2552 traffic accidents between January and December 2009 were investigated regarding whether they resulted in injury. According to the results, the effects of traffic accidents were reflected in the variables. These results provide a wealth of information that may aid future measures toward the prevention of undesired results.

  7. The effects of aircraft certification rules on general aviation accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carolina Lenz

    -Square test indicated that there was no significant difference in the number of accidents among the different certification categories when either Controlled Flight into Terrain or Structural Failure was listed as cause. However, there was a significant difference in the frequency of accidents with regard to Loss of Control and Engine Failure accidents. The results of the ANCOVA test indicated that there was no significant difference in the accident rate with regard to Loss of Control, Controlled Flight into Terrain, or Structural Failure accidents. There was, however, a significant difference in Engine Failure accidents between Experimental-Amateur Built and the other categories.The text mining analysis of the narrative causes of Loss of Control accidents indicated that only the Civil Air Regulations 3 category airplanes had clusters of words associated with visual flight into instrument meteorological conditions. Civil Air Regulations 3 airplanes were designed and manufactured prior to the 1960s and in most cases have not been retrofitted to take advantage of newer technologies that could help prevent Loss of Control accidents. The study indicated that General Aviation aircraft certification rules do not have a statistically significant effect on aircraft accidents except for Loss of Control and Engine Failure. According to the literature, government oversight could have become an obstacle in the implementation of safety enhancing equipment that could reduce Loss of Control accidents. Oversight should focus on ensuring that Experimental-Amateur Built aircraft owners perform a functional test that could prevent some of the Engine Failure accidents.

  8. Dementia and Traffic Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jindong Ding; Siersma, Volkert; Nielsen, Connie Thurøe

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic......-related accidents for people aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of dementia in Denmark. METHODS: We will conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study consisting of Danish people aged 65 or older living in Denmark as of January 1, 2008. The cohort is followed for 7 years (2008-2014). Individual's personal...... data are available in Danish registers and can be linked using a unique personal identification number. A person is identified with dementia if the person meets at least one of the following criteria: (1) a diagnosis of the disease in the Danish National Patient Register or in the Danish Psychiatric...

  9. ECONOMIC COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH MOTORBIKE ACCIDENTS IN KATHMANDU, NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diksha Sapkota

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic accidents, considered as global tragedies, are in increasing trend however, the safety situation is very severe in developing countries incurring substantial amount of human, economic and social costs. Motorcycle crashes, the commonest form, occur mostly on economically active population. However, there is limited coverage of studies on economic burden of motorcycle crashes. This study aims to estimate the total cost and DALYs lost due to motorbike accidents among victims of Kathmandu Valley.Materials and Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among the patients having history of motorbike accidents within past twelve months and at least 3 months from the date of data collection. Interview was conducted using proforma among 100 victims of accidents and their care giver in case of death from November 15, 2014 to May 15, 2015. Cost estimation of motorbike accident was done based on human capital approach. Data collection tool was pretested and collected data were analyzed by SPSS and Microsoft excel. Results: Males (79% belonging to the economically productive age group shared the highest proportion among total accidents victims. Most common reason for accidents was reported to be poor road condition (41%. Indirect cost was found to be significantly higher than direct costs highlighting its negative impact on economy of family and nation due to productivity loss. Total Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs lost per person was found to be 490 years and national estimation showed large burden of motorbike accidents due to huge DALY loss.Conclusions: For low resource countries like Nepal, high economic costs of motorbike accidents can pose additional burden to the fragile health system. These accidents can be prevented, and their consequences can be alleviated. There is an urgent need for reinforcement of appropriate interventions and legislation to decrease the magnitude of it and its associated grave

  10. Analysis of Occupational Accident Fatalities and Injuries Among Male Group in Iran Between 2008 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Seyed Shamseddin; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Sepehri, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because of occupational accidents, permanent disabilities and deaths occur and economic and workday losses emerge. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the factors responsible for occupational accidents occurred in Iran. Patients and Methods: The current study analyzed 1464 occupational accidents recorded by the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs’ offices in Iran during 2008 - 2012. At first, general understanding of accidents was obtained using descriptive statistics. Afterwards, the chi-square test and Cramer’s V statistic (Vc) were used to determine the association between factors influencing the type of injury as occupational accident outcomes. Results: There was no significant association between marital status and time of day with the type of injury. However, activity sector, cause of accident, victim’s education, age of victim and victim’s experience were significantly associated with the type of injury. Conclusions: Successful accident prevention relies largely on knowledge about the causes of accidents. In any accident control activity, particularly in occupational accidents, correctly identifying high-risk groups and factors influencing accidents is the key to successful interventions. Results of this study can cause to increase accident awareness and enable workplace’s management to select and prioritize problem areas and safety system weakness in workplaces. PMID:26568848

  11. Factors associated with the severity of construction accidents: The case of South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantanee Dumrak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While the causes of accidents in the construction industry have been extensively studied, severity remains an understudied area. In order to provide more evidence for the currently limited number of empirical investigations on severity, this study analysed 24,764 construction accidents reported during 2002-11 in South Australia. A conceptual model developed through literature uses personal characteristics such as age, experience, gender and language. It also employs work-related factors such as size of organization, project size and location, mechanism of accident and body location of the injury. These were shown to discriminate why some accidents result in only a minor severity while others are fatal. Factors such as time of accident, day of the week and season were not strongly associated with accident severity. When the factors affecting severity of an accident are well understood, preventive measures could be developed specifically to those factors that are at high risk.

  12. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power.

  13. Glider accidents: an analysis of 143 cases, 2001-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Robert R A; de Voogt, Alexander J

    2007-01-01

    The majority of aviation crashes and casualties take place in general and sport aviation. Although gliding has gained popularity in recent decades, we could find no systematic analysis of glider accidents. This study determined factors associated with both non-fatal and fatal glider accidents to document their position within sport and general aviation accidents, and to suggest preventive measures and improvements. We performed a retrospective review of glider accidents for the period 2001-2005 in the database maintained by the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). A total of 117 non-fatal and 26 fatal glider accidents were reported for the 5-yr period. Adverse weather was the cause in 20% of all non-fatal accidents, 60% of which occurred in the cruise phase. Logistic regression revealed that fatal accidents were predicted by pilot error, flight phase, and home-built aircraft. Factors contributing to glider crashes are specific to this type of sport aviation. Owners of home-built gliders should pay particular attention to the aircraft's specifications and design limits.

  14. Severity of electrical accidents in the construction industry in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Cebador, Manuel; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; López-Arquillos, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    This paper analyzes the severity of workplace accidents involving electricity in the Spanish construction sector comprising 2,776 accidents from 2003 to 2008. The investigation considered the impact of 13 variables, classified into 5 categories: Personal, Business, Temporal, Material, and Spatial. The findings showed that electrical accidents are almost five times more likely to have serious consequences than the average accident in the sector and it also showed how the variables of age, occupation, company size, length of service, preventive measures, time of day, days of absence, physical activity, material agent, type of injury, body part injured, accident location, and type of location are related to the severity of the electrical accidents under consideration. The present situation makes it clear that greater effort needs to be made in training, monitoring, and signage to guarantee a safe working environment in relation to electrical hazards. This research enables safety technicians, companies, and government officials to identify priorities and to design training strategies to minimize the serious consequences of electrical accidents for construction workers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  15. Construction accidents: identification of the main associations between causes, mechanisms and stages of the construction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Castrillo, Jesús A; Trillo-Cabello, Antonio F; Rubio-Romero, Juan C

    2017-06-01

    To identify the most frequent causes of accidents in the construction sector in order to help safety practitioners in the task of prioritizing preventive actions depending on the stage of construction. Official accident investigation reports are analysed. A causation pattern is identified with the proportion of causes in each of the different possible groups of causes. Significant associations of the types of causes with accident mechanisms and construction stages have been identified. Significant differences have been found in accident causation depending on the mechanism of the accident and the construction stage ongoing. These results should be used to prioritize preventive actions to combat the most likely causes for each accident mechanism and construction stage.

  16. Are Marine Accident Really Accident? Fallacy of Random Marine Accidents in Dry Cargo Fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Bulut

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the relation between marine casualty and dry bulk cargo freight rate according to the existence of spurious accident phenomenon in the dry cargo vessel accidents. According to the conventional expectation, the volume of marine accidents is a random process since it is accidently occurred and not a man-made outcome. Under this circumstance, it is expected that the volume of marine accidents should be statistically uncorrelated with the freight market rates and positively correlated with the fleet size. However, the existence statistics on dry cargo marine accidents indicate high level of negative correlation with freight markets (-0.95 for no. of vessels and -0.79 for the volume of accidents in dwt and also high level of negative correlation with the fleet size (-0.81 for the volume of accidents in dwt. The asymmetric interaction between the widely accepted facts and the statistical foundations is the main concern of this paper which is named the “Fallacy of Random Marine Accidents (FRMA”. The possible reasons of the FRMA phenomenon are considered to be based on the man-made marine accidents because of the financial collapse or as the well known term the credit default risk.

  17. Fatal occupational accidents in Danish fishing vessels 1989-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lise Hedegaard; Hansen, Henrik L; Jensen, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    /capsizing due to stability changes in rough weather and collisions; 39 fatal occupational accidents mainly occurred on the larger inspection obligated trawlers during fishing. In the remaining 14 other fatal accidents, the main causal factors were difficult embarking/disembarking conditions by darkness......The purpose of the study was to study the circumstances and incidence rates of fatal accidents in inspection obligated and non-inspection obligated Danish fishing vessels to identify areas for prevention. Information about the fatalities came from maritime authority reports, including vessel...... in foreign ports and alcohol intoxication. In the period 1995-2005, the overall incidence rate was 10 per 10,000 fishermen per year with no down-going trend during that period. The fatal accident rates are still too high, despite the efforts to reduce the risk. Increased focus on regular and repeated safety...

  18. [Smoking and nonfatal traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buñuel Granados, J M; Córdoba García, R; Castillo Pardo Md, M del; Alvarez Pardo, J L; Monreal Hijar, A; Pablo Cerezuela, F

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the possible associations between smoking and nonfatal traffic accidents, and to evaluate the possible influence of other factors on traffic accidents. Cross-sectional study of associations.Setting. Eight health centers in the city of Zaragoza. 1214 drivers between 25 and 65 years of age, who visited the health center during the months of July to September 2001, and who drove on at least 2 days of the week. MAIN MEASURES. We recorded data on sex, age, marital status, level of education, profession, diseases, use of prescription and nonprescription drugs, drinking, smoking, illegal drug use, accidents and traffic infractions. We found accidents to be most common among unmarried men between 25 and 29 years of age. There were no significant differences in accident rates between drinkers and nondrinkers. The accident rate was 50% higher in smokers than in nonsmokers (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.49%-3.09%), and there were no significant differences between smokers who smoked while driving and those who refrained from smoking while driving. CONCLUSIONS. The prevalence of accidents is highest in unmarried men younger than 45 years of age. In statistical terms, smokers have twice as many accidents as nonsmokers. The absence of significant differences between smokers who do and do not smoke while driving suggests that smoking increases the risk of being involved in traffic accidents regardless of whether drivers refrain from smoking at the wheel.

  19. The principles of accident investigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ...; interviewing; isolating the key contributory factors; and determining corrective action. Learning why and how accidents occur is fundamental to making improvements in both working conditions and operational methods...

  20. Occupational Accidents Aboard Merchant Ships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    H. L. Hansen; D. Nielsen; M. Frydenberg

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational...

  1. Nuclear safety in light water reactors severe accident phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Sehgal, Bal Raj

    2011-01-01

    This vital reference is the only one-stop resource on how to assess, prevent, and manage severe nuclear accidents in the light water reactors (LWRs) that pose the most risk to the public. LWRs are the predominant nuclear reactor in use around the world today, and they will continue to be the most frequently utilized in the near future. Therefore, accurate determination of the safety issues associated with such reactors is central to a consideration of the risks and benefits of nuclear power. This book emphasizes the prevention and management of severe accidents to teach nuclear professionals

  2. Snowmobile, motorcycle and moose-car accidents : aspects on injury control

    OpenAIRE

    Björnstig, Ulf

    1985-01-01

    Injuries related to snowmobiles, motorcycles and moose-car collisions have increased. The aim of the present thesis was to analyse mechanisms and consequences in fatal and non-fatal accidents of these types, and to penetrate possible preventive measures. Snowmobiles The median age of the injured was 30 and of the killed 32, males pre­dominating. A majority of the accidents occurred during weekends, and especially the fatal accidents occurred after dark. The extremities were the most commonly ...

  3. Automobile Accidents Attended by Mobile Emergency Care Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Virgínia Gomes Barros

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Automobile accidents are increasing every day and are becoming a serious public health problem due to the high morbidity and mortality rate. The goal of the current study was to characterise the traffic accidents attended by the Mobile Emergency Care Service (MECS in Ibiara, PB. Methods: This exploratory, descriptive, documentary study adopted a quantitative approach and analysis of data. The population consisted of all victims of traffic accidents attended by MECS in the city of Ibiara, PB, from June 2015 to June 2016. The following variables were studied: age, gender, time and day of the week the accident occurred, nature of the incident, substance ingested by the victim, wearing personal protective equipment (PPE or not, the anatomical lesions on the victim and the body regions hit during the accident. Results: The sample consisted of 49 accident victims, and the majority (81.6% were male, predominately 30 to 59 years. Events occurring at night (63.3% and during the week (65.3% predominated. The most frequent type of accident was motorcycle fall (71.4%, with almost half having consumed alcohol (46.9% and most not wearing PPE (77.6%. The regions of the body most affected were the lower limbs (67.3% and upper limbs (53.1%. Conclusion: The main factor/cause of these accidents was due to imprudence and violation of traffic laws, highlighting the need to invest in traffic education policies, to direct campaigns for the prevention of traffic accidents, as well as expand the surveillance of traffic laws by authorities.

  4. Children's accidents, accident causation, and remedy : examples from OECD countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.B.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper children's accident data are presented. These data were drawn from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) International Road Traffic and Accident Database (IRTAD), completed with data on separate countries drawn from other sources. Gender differences in

  5. Analysis of recreational off-road vehicle accidents resulting in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, F M; Krasnick, R

    1988-01-01

    Twelve cases of spinal cord injury (SCI) resulting from recreational off-road vehicle (ORV) accidents seen during a three-year period at a spinal cord injury center were analyzed using structured interviews and record reviews. Seven accidents involved three-wheel all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), one involved a four-wheel ATV, and four involved two-wheel trailbikes. The analysis of accident victim characteristics showed that all age groups are at risk, and that most victims were young adult men vehicle drivers with experience and wearing helmets. Spinal injury levels were cervical, three; thoracic, three; and thoracolumbar, six. Categorized accident hazard patterns were loss of control, six; tipover, four; and hidden obstacle, two. Contributing causative factors to the accident occurrence were poor driver judgment, seven, and vehicle instability, eight. Speeding was the most frequent primary cause of ORV accidents. We discuss vehicle and driver performance characteristics as they relate to risk of accident occurrence. The frequency of ORV accidents as an etiology of traumatic SCI at our center was 8%, compared to 8% for diving accidents and 11% for motorcycle accidents. We recommend, in view of the high risk of severe injury, widespread public education about ORV accident prevention.

  6. 1976 Hanford americium accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heid, K R; Breitenstein, B D; Palmer, H E; McMurray, B J; Wald, N

    1979-01-01

    This report presents the 2.5-year medical course of a 64-year-old Hanford nuclear chemical operator who was involved in an accident in an americium recovery facility in August 1976. He was heavily externally contaminated with americium, sustained a substantial internal deposition of this isotope, and was burned with concentrated nitric acid and injured by flying debris about the face and neck. The medical care given the patient, including the decontamination efforts and clinical laboratory studies, are discussed. In-vivo measurements were used to estimate the dose rates and the accumulated doses to body organs. Urinary and fecal excreta were collected and analyzed for americium content. Interpretation of these data was complicated by the fact that the intake resulted both from inhalation and from solubilization of the americium embedded in facial tissues. A total of 1100 ..mu..Ci was excreted in urine and feces during the first 2 years following the accident. The long-term use of diethylenetriaminepentate (DTPA), used principally as the zinc salt, is discussed including the method, route of administration, and effectiveness. To date, the patient has apparently experienced no complications attributable to this extensive course of therapy, even though he has been given approximately 560 grams of DTPA. 4 figures, 1 table.

  7. [Drugs and traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mravcík, V; Zabranský, T; Vorel, F

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to map the prevalence of alcohol and other psychotropic substances in deceased participants of traffic accidents in the Czech Republic. The studied sample included persons autopsied in the departments of forensic medicine and forensic toxicology that died during traffic accidents and were toxicologically tested in 2003. Case definition involved alcohol cases with blood alcohol concentration (BAC) 0,2 g/kg and higher, with cannabis, detections of active THC metabolites only were taken into account; in cases where volatile substances (solvents) were detected we included into the definition only cases with substances not produced post mortem or in some physiological or pathological statuses. We identified 554 cases of whom 440 (79.4%) were males and 114 (20.6%) were females. 35.5% were in the age group 20 - 34 years. The sample has been classified into 4 categories (average age, % of males): pedestrians (45.4, 76.2), bicyclists (51.1, 82.0), drivers (36.3, 91.2) and others (36.1, 66.2). Alcohol was tested in 548 cases, 214 (39.1%) of those were found positive. 380 cases were tested for other psychotropic substances than alcohol; samples taken from 25 bodies (6.6%) were found positive for at least for one of these substances. 8 cases were positive both for alcohol and some other psychotropic substance - i.e. 3.7% out of 214 cases positive for alcohol were positive for other substance and 32.0% out of 25 cases positive at least for any other psychotropic substance were alcohol-positive. When focusing our analysis at the active participants of road traffic accidents only - pedestrians, bicyclists and drivers (altogether 397 cases) - we have found alcohol to be tested in 394 cases, out of which 158 (39.1%) were positive; as for other psychotropic substances, 314 cases were tested and 23 (7.3%) were positive at least for one of them. 7 cases were found positive for alcohol and other psychotropic substance simultaneously; this represents 4.4% out of

  8. Aspects Concerning The Rules And The Investigation Of Traffic Accidents As Work Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnu, Lucian Ioan

    2015-07-01

    When Romania joined the European Union, it was imposed that the Romanian legislation in the field of the security and health at work be in line with the European one. The concept of health as it is defined by the International Body of Health, refers to a good physical, mental and social condition. The improvement of the activity of preventing the traffic accidents as work accidents must have as basis the correct and accurate evaluation of risks of getting injured. The goal of the activity of prevention and protection is to ensure the best working conditions, the prevention of accidents and occupational diseases and the adjustment to the scientific and technological progress. In the road transport sector, as in any other sector, it is very important to pay attention to working conditions to ensure a workforce motivated and well qualified. Some features make it a more difficult sector risk management than other sectors. However, if one takes into account how it works in practice this sector and the characteristics of drivers and how they work routinely, risks, dangers and threats can be managed efficiently and with great success.

  9. A Computer Knowledge Database of accidents at work in the construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoła, B.; Szóstak, M.

    2017-10-01

    At least 60,000 fatal accidents at work occur on building sites all over the world each year, which means that on average, every 10 minutes an employee dies during the execution of work. In 2015 on Polish building sites, 5,776 accidents at work happened, of which 69 resulted in the death of an employee. Accidents are an enormous social and economic burden for companies, communities and countries. The vast majority of accidents at work can be prevented by appropriate and effective preventive measures. Therefore, the Computer Knowledge Database (CKD) was formulated for this purpose and it enables data and information on accidents at work in the construction industry to be collected and processed in order to obtain necessary knowledge. This gained knowledge will be the basis to form conclusions of a preventive nature

  10. German aircraft accident statistics, 1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzmann, Ludwig

    1932-01-01

    The investigation of all serious accidents, involving technical defects in the airplane or engine, is undertaken by the D.V.L. in conjunction with the imperial traffic minister and other interested parties. All accidents not clearly explained in the reports are subsequently cleared up.

  11. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  12. Fatal motorcycle accidents and alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M

    1987-01-01

    A series of fatal motorcycle accidents from a 7-year period (1977-1983) has been analyzed. Of the fatalities 30 were operators of the motorcycle, 11 pillion passengers and 8 counterparts. Of 41 operators 37% were sober at the time of accident, 66% had measurable blood alcohol concentration (BAC...

  13. Learning from incidents and accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drupsteen, L.; Kampen, J. van

    2014-01-01

    There are many different definitions for what constitutes an incident or an accident, however the focus is always on unintended and often unforeseen events that cause unintended consequences. This article is focused on the process of learning from incidents and accidents. The focus is on making sure

  14. 1 Motorcycle Accidents: Morbidity and Associated Factors in a city of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revista Brasileira de Odontologia. 68(2):220-224. Clarke DD, Ward P, Bartle C, Truman W. (2007) The role of motorcyclist and other driver behavior in two types of serious accident in the UK. Accident Analysis & Prevention 39(5):974-981. Coben JH, Steiner CA, Owens P. (2004) Motorcycle-related hospitalizations in the ...

  15. Hospital admissions following childhood accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attias, D; Tal, Y; Winter, S T; Jaffe, M

    1982-09-01

    This study comprises 260 children aged less than or equal to 13 yr hospitalized following accidents during a 9-mo period for a total of 923 hospital days. The ratio of boys to girls was 1.8:1. There were 21 road accidents and 104 accidents in the home; 75.4% of the accidents took place after school hours. Half of the admissions were for head trauma; 96 injuries were serious; and 78 patients required general anesthesia. In 67 families, there had been at least one previous childhood accident requiring hospitalization of the cohort child or sibling; factors in this group may have been the child's temperament or tension in the home.

  16. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...... of accidents in normally Danish winter seasons are remarkable alike the amount of salt used in praxis in the winter 2011/2012. • 2.7 ton NaCl/km when using brine spread with nozzles • 5 ton NaCl/km when using pre wetted salt. • 5.7 ton NaCl/km when using kombi spreaders The explanation is that spreading...

  17. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.

    2004-01-01

    The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...... occupational costs of companies for use by occupational health and safety professionals. The method was tested in nine Danish companies within three different industry sectors and the costs of 27 selected occupational accidents in these companies were calculated. One of the main conclusions is that the SACA...... method could be used in all of the companies without revisions. The evaluation of accident cost showed that 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in the Danish corporate accounting systems reviewed while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents...

  18. A Tool for Safety Officers Investigating " simple" Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    Most workplace accidents that happen in enterprises are simple and seldom result in serious injuries. Very often these kinds of workplace accidents are not investigated, and if they are, then the investigation is very brief, with comments such as that it was the victim’s own fault or just...... an unfortunate situation which could not be helped. Most prevention analysis and investigation methods focus on high risks, such as explosion, fire, lack of containment for chemicals, etc. In the industrial world, such risks do give rise to disasters, albeit very seldom. Nevertheless, the fact is that simpler...... on the investigation methods applied in major accidents, but comprises a simpler and more user-friendly presentation. The tool involves three steps: Mapping the facts, analysing the events, and developing preventive solutions. Practical application of the tool has shown that it affords managers and workers...

  19. Homocysteine and cerebrovascular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Saikat; Pal, Salil K; Mazumdar, Hirak; Bhandari, Biswanath; Bhattacherjee, Sharmistha; Pandit, Sudipta

    2009-06-01

    Hyperhomocysteinaemia is rapidly emerging as an important risk factor for coronary artery disease, possibly because of its propensity to accelerate atherosclerosis. Whether it is also a risk factor for cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) is a matter of debate till now, as there are conflicting results of the various prospective studies. The present study was performed to correlate the levels of plasma homocysteine levels with that of ischaemic and haemorrhagic CVA. Forty-two cases of CVA were randomly selected over a period of one year, and their risk factors were assessed. It was observed that serum homocysteine levels were significantly raised in those with intracerebral infarcts when compared to those with intracerebral haemorrhage, although homocysteine levels didn't prove to be prognostically significant.

  20. Construction accident narrative classification: An evaluation of text mining techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yang Miang; Ubeynarayana, C U

    2017-11-01

    Learning from past accidents is fundamental to accident prevention. Thus, accident and near miss reporting are encouraged by organizations and regulators. However, for organizations managing large safety databases, the time taken to accurately classify accident and near miss narratives will be very significant. This study aims to evaluate the utility of various text mining classification techniques in classifying 1000 publicly available construction accident narratives obtained from the US OSHA website. The study evaluated six machine learning algorithms, including support vector machine (SVM), linear regression (LR), random forest (RF), k-nearest neighbor (KNN), decision tree (DT) and Naive Bayes (NB), and found that SVM produced the best performance in classifying the test set of 251 cases. Further experimentation with tokenization of the processed text and non-linear SVM were also conducted. In addition, a grid search was conducted on the hyperparameters of the SVM models. It was found that the best performing classifiers were linear SVM with unigram tokenization and radial basis function (RBF) SVM with uni-gram tokenization. In view of its relative simplicity, the linear SVM is recommended. Across the 11 labels of accident causes or types, the precision of the linear SVM ranged from 0.5 to 1, recall ranged from 0.36 to 0.9 and F1 score was between 0.45 and 0.92. The reasons for misclassification were discussed and suggestions on ways to improve the performance were provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reconstruction of the Chernobyl emergency and accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinner, F.; Andreev, I.; Andreeva, I.; Fritsche, F.; Hofer, P.; Lettner, E.; Seidelberger, E.; Kromp-Kolb, H.; Kromp, W. [Vienna Univ., Institute of Risk Research, IRR (Austria)

    1998-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1986 the most serious civil technological accident in the history of mankind occurred of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the former Soviet Union. As a direct result of the accident, the reactor was severely destroyed and large quantities of radionuclides were released. Some 800000 persons, also called 'liquidators' - including plant operators, fire-fighters, scientists, technicians, construction workers, emergency managers, volunteers, as well as medical and military personnel - were part of emergency measurements and accident management efforts. Activities included measures to prevent the escalation of the accident, mitigation actions, help for victims as well as activities in order to provide a basic infrastructure for this unprecedented and overwhelming task. The overall goal of the 'Project Chernobyl' of the Institute of Risk Research of the University of Vienna was to preserve for mankind the experience and knowledge of the experts among the 'liquidators' before it is lost forever. One method used to reconstruct the emergency measures of Chernobyl was the direct cooperation with liquidators. Simple questionnaires were distributed among liquidators and a database of leading accident managers, engineers, medical experts etc. was established. During an initial struggle with a number of difficulties, the response was sparse. However, after an official permit had been issued, the questionnaires delivered a wealth of data. Furthermore a documentary archive was established, which provided additional information. The multidimensional problem in connection with the severe accident of Chernobyl, the clarification of the causes of the accident, as well as failures and successes and lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl emergency measures and accident management are discussed. (authors)

  2. [Peranaesthetic iterative allergic accident; apropos of a case involving oxytocin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradines, B; Rakotonarivo, J; Bergis, A; Jaulin, L

    1989-05-01

    Observation of an allergic peranaesthetic accident which occurred twice in the same patient for two successive cesarean sections. Because we could not avoid the renewal of this dangerous situation, we try to criticize our own attitude. This case is compared with others which have been published previously to attempt a strategy in order to prevent this woman from a third hypersensitivity reaction.

  3. Pattern And Outcome Of Road Traffic Accidents In A Suburban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The epidemiology of cases of road traffic accident in this community reveals several areas of prevention. There is the need for health education for the road users to keep to the rules that will ensure road safety. There is also the need to health educate our patients against the common practice of discharge ...

  4. Foreign body in scrotum following a boat engine blast accident ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Male genital injuries, demand prompt management to prevent long-term sexual and psychological damage. Injuries to the scrotum and contents may produce impaired fertility.We report our experience in diagnosing and managing a case of a foreign body in the scrotum following a boat engine blast accident. This case ...

  5. Maxillofacial trauma due to road traffic accidents in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The incidence and causes of road traffic accidents (RTAs) vary with geographical location. The economic and social costs of RTAs are enormous. The knowledge of aetiologic factors and associated injury patterns may be important in planning for prevention and treatment. The aim of this study was to document ...

  6. Registration of blood exposure accidents in The Netherlands by a nationally operating call center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, Peter M; Meiberg, Annemarie E; Warmelts, Janet; Leenders, Sander C A P; van Wijk, Paul T L

    2012-10-01

    Healthcare providers and other employees, especially those who do not work in a hospital, may not easily find help after the occurrence of a blood exposure accident. In 2006, a national call center was established in The Netherlands to fill this gap. All occupational blood exposure accidents reported to the 24-hours-per-day, 7-days-per-week call center from 2007, 2008, and 2009 were analyzed retrospectively for incidence rates, risk assessment, handling, and preventive measures taken. A total of 2,927 accidents were reported. The highest incidence rates were reported for private clinics and hospitals (68.5 and 54.3 accidents per 1,000 person-years, respectively). Dental practices started reporting incidents frequently after the arrangement of a collective financial agreement with the call center. Employees of ambulance services, midwife practices, and private clinics reported mostly high-risk accidents, whereas penitentiaries frequently reported low-risk accidents. Employees in mental healthcare facilities, private clinics, and midwife practices reported accidents relatively late. The extent of hepatitis B vaccination in mental healthcare facilities, penitentiaries, occupational health services, and cleaning services was low (exposure accidents. The risk of blood exposure accidents could be estimated on the basis of this information for several occupational branches. Targeted preventive measures for healthcare providers and other employees at risk can next be developed.

  7. Modeling and Analysis of Train Rear-End Collision Accidents Based on Stochastic Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a model of the train rear-end collision accidents based on stochastic Petri nets (SPN theory. By isomorphic Markov chain model of the proposed accident model, we provide the quantitative analysis of the train rear-end collision accidents. Fuzzy random method is also applied to analyze the performance of the proposed model. In addition, according to the data extracted from a large amount of historical data of the accident statistics, we present a case analysis and discussion. It showed that the results of the proposed train rear-end accident model based on SPN are reasonable in practical applications and can be used to effectively analyze the accidents and prevent loss, and the results may be a reference to the department of railway safety management.

  8. Prediction of hydrogen concentration in containment during severe accidents using fuzzy neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Yeong; Kim, Ju Hyun; Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Na, Man Gyun [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Recently, severe accidents in nuclear power plants (NPPs) have become a global concern. The aim of this paper is to predict the hydrogen buildup within containment resulting from severe accidents. The prediction was based on NPPs of an optimized power reactor 1,000. The increase in the hydrogen concentration in severe accidents is one of the major factors that threaten the integrity of the containment. A method using a fuzzy neural network (FNN) was applied to predict the hydrogen concentration in the containment. The FNN model was developed and verified based on simulation data acquired by simulating MAAP4 code for optimized power reactor 1,000. The FNN model is expected to assist operators to prevent a hydrogen explosion in severe accident situations and manage the accident properly because they are able to predict the changes in the trend of hydrogen concentration at the beginning of real accidents by using the developed FNN model.

  9. Best practices to reduce the accident rate hotel

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Revilla, M. R.; Kahale Carrillo, D. T.

    2014-10-01

    Examining the available databases and existing tourism organizations can conclude that appear studies on accidents and their relationship with other variables. But in our case we want to assess this relationship in the performance of the hotel in relation to lower the accident rate. The Industrial Safety studies analyzing this accident causes (why they happen), their sources (committed activities), their agents (participants work means), its type (how the events occur or develop), all in order to develop prevention. In our case, as accidents happen because people commit wrongful acts or because the equipment, tools, machinery or workplaces are not in proper conditions, the preventive point of view we analyze through the incidence of workplace accidents hotel subsector. The crash occurs because there is a risk, so that adequate control of it would avoid despite individual factors. Absenteeism or absence from work was taken into account first by Dubois in 1977, as he realized the time lost in the nineteenth century due to the long working hours, which included the holidays. Motivation and job satisfaction were the elements that have been most important in the phenomenon of social psychology.

  10. Factors Associated with Fatal Traffic Accidents in Tirana, Albania: Cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qirjako, Gentiana; Burazeri, Genc; Hysa, Bajram; Roshi, Enver

    2008-01-01

    Aim To assess the prevalence of fatal road traffic accidents in Tirana, Albania, and describe their determinants. Methods This cross-sectional study included all road traffic accidents recorded by the Traffic Police Department of Tirana district for the period 2000-2005. A structured questionnaire included information about the type of traffic accident (fatal vs non-fatal event), year of event, age and sex of the responsible party, reason of accident, location and time of event, and the type of vehicle involved. Multivariable-adjusted binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess the predictors of fatal road traffic accidents. Results Overall, there were 1578 recorded road traffic accidents in Tirana district during 2000-2005. Of these, 272 (17%) were fatal. Multivariable-adjusted models showed that younger age (OR, 3.97; 95% CI, 2.28-6.91), high speed (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.62-3.98), and especially alcohol consumption (OR, 6.15; 95% CI, 3.54-10.66) were strong and significant predictors of fatal accidents. Fatal accidents were more prevalent on intercity roads (OR, 4.25; 95% CI, 3.11-5.82) and involved especially vans and trucks (OR, 4.12; 95% CI, 2.34-7.24). Conclusion Young age, high speed, and alcohol are predictors of fatal road traffic accidents in Tirana district. These findings can serve as a basis for health care professionals and policymakers to create preventive measures for traffic accidents. PMID:19090597

  11. Quality evaluation of official accident reports conducted by labour authorities in Andalusia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salguero-Caparros, Francisco; Suarez-Cebador, Manuel; Carrillo-Castrillo, Jesús A; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos

    2018-01-19

    A public accident investigation is carried out when the consequences of the incident are significant or the accident has occurred in unusual circumstances. We evaluated the quality of the official accident investigations being conducted by Safety Specialists of the Labour Authorities in Andalusia. To achieve this objective, we analysed 98 occupational accident investigations conducted by the Labour Authorities in Andalusia in the last quarter of 2014. Various phases in the accident investigation process were examined, such as the use of the Eurostat variables within European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW), detection of causes, determination of preventive measures, cost analysis of the accidents, identification of noncompliance with legal requirements or the investigation method used. The results of this study show that 77% of the official occupational accident investigation reports analysed were conducted in accordance with all the quality criteria recommended in the literature. To enhance glogal learning, and optimize allocation of resources, we propose the development of a harmonized European model for the public investigation of occupational accidents. Further it would be advisable to create a common classification and coding system for the causes of accidents for all European Union Member States.

  12. Accident Analysis and Highway Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Noorliyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, Federal Route FT050 (Jalan Batu Pahat-Kluang has undergone many changes, including the improvement of geometric features (i.e., construction of median, dedicated U-turns and additional lanes and upgrading the quality of the road surface. Unfortunately, even with these enhancements, accidents continue to occur along this route. This study covered both accident analysis and blackspot study. Accident point weightage was used to identify blackspot locations. The results reveal hazardous road locations and blackspot ranking along the route.

  13. Incident warning systems : accident review. DRIVE II Project V2002 Horizontal Project for the Evaluation of Safety HOPES, Deliverable 17, Workpackage 31, Activity 31.2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S. Lindeijer, J.E. & Barjonet, P.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this accident review is to check what proportion of accidents recorded in the past could in principle have been prevented by using an incident warning system (IWS). The accident review was carried out for all three IWS test sites that are part of the HOPES evaluation study. These

  14. Radionuclides release possibility analysis of MSR at various accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choong Wie; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    There are some accidents which go beyond our expectation such as Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster and amounts of radionuclides release to environment, so more effort and research are conducted to prevent it. MSR (Molten Salt Reactor) is one of GEN-IV reactor types, and its coolant and fuel are mixtures of molten salt. MSR has a schematic like figure 1 and it has different features with the solid fuel reactor, but most important and interesting feature of MSR is its many safety systems. For example, MSR has a large negative void coefficient. Even though power increases, the reactor slows down soon. Radionuclides release possibility of MSR was analyzed at various accident conditions including Chernobyl and Fukushima ones. The MSR was understood to prevent the severe accident by the negative reactivity coefficient and the absence of explosive material such as water at the Chernobyl disaster condition. It was expected to contain fuel salts in the reactor building and not to release radionuclides into environment even if the primary system could be ruptured or broken and fuel salts would be leaked at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster condition of earthquake and tsunami. The MSR, which would not lead to the severe accident and therefore prevents the fuel release to the environment at many expected scenarios, was thought to have priority in the aspect of accidents. A quantitative analysis and a further research are needed to evaluate the possibility of radionuclide release to the environment at the various accident conditions based on the simple comparison of the safety feature between MSR and solid fuel reactor.

  15. Impacto de un programa de detección de conductores bajo los efectos del alcohol en la prevención de accidentes de tráfico: provincia de Villa Clara [Cuba] Impact of a drink-driving detection program to prevent traffic accidents: Villa Clara Province, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Guanche Garcell

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la efectividad de una metodología dirigida a la reducción de los accidentes de tráfico y sus consecuencias en la provincia de Villa Clara (Cuba. Diseño: Durante el período de mayo-octubre del año 2003, se realizó vigilancia activa sobre la ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas por parte de los conductores. Se utilizaron técnicas de análisis de series cronológicas. Resultados: Se detectaron 805 (12,46% conductores bajo los efectos del alcohol. Se constató un descenso de los accidentes (29,9%, las defunciones (70,8% y los lesionados (58,7% en comparación con un período similar del año 2002. La reducción de los accidentes fue inferior al límite histórico en mayo, junio, julio, septiembre y octubre, mientras que las defunciones fueron menores en mayo, agosto y septiembre. Los lesionados disminuyeron por debajo del límite histórico en el mes de julio. Conclusión: La intervención realizada es una medida útil para la prevención de accidentes de tráfico y sus consecuencias.Objective: To determine the effectiveness of a method to reduce road traffic accidents and their consequences in the province of Villa Clara (Cuba. Design: From May to October 2003, active surveillance of drink-driving was carried out. Analysis of chronological series was used. Results: A total of 805 (12.46% drivers were found to be under the effect of alcohol. Traffic accidents, deaths, and injuries decreased by 29.9%, 70.8% and 58.7%, respectively, in comparison with a similar period in 2002. The number of accidents in May, June, July, September and October fell below the historical low. The number of deaths was lowest in May, August and September. The number of injuries in July fell below the historical low. Conclusion: The interventions carried out proved useful in preventing traffic accidents and their consequences.

  16. Work Accidents and Professional Diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doru Hauptmann

    2009-01-01

    The major accident is defined as “any event occurred, like an emission of dangerous materials or agents, which emerges from uncontrolled evolutions along the exploitation of any objective that leads to the immediate or delayed...

  17. HANARO thermal hydraulic accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chul; Kim, Heon Il; Lee, Bo Yook; Lee, Sang Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    For the safety assessment of HANARO, accident analyses for the anticipated operational transients, accident scenarios and limiting accident scenarios were conducted. To do this, the commercial nuclear reactor system code. RELAP5/MOD2 was modified to RELAP5/KMRR; the thermal hydraulic correlations and the heat exchanger model was changed to incorporate HANARO characteristics. This report summarizes the RELAP/KMRR calculation results and the subchannel analyses results based on the RELAP/KMRR results. During the calculation, major concern was placed on the integrity of the fuel. For all the scenarios, the important accident analysis parameters, i.e., fuel centerline temperatures and the minimum critical heat flux ratio(MCHFR), satisfied safe design limits. It was verified, therefore, that the HANARO was safely designed. 21 tabs., 89 figs., 39 refs. (Author) .new.

  18. [Early management of cerebrovascular accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libot, Jérômie; Guillon, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    A cerebrovascular accident requires urgent diagnosis and treatment.The management of a stroke must be early and adapted in order to improve the overall clinical outcome and lower the risk of mortality.

  19. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  20. 32 CFR 644.532 - Reporting accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reporting accidents. 644.532 Section 644.532... and Improvements § 644.532 Reporting accidents. Immediately upon receipt of information of an accident... that an accident has occurred, the former using command should be requested to send qualified explosive...

  1. 49 CFR 195.50 - Reporting accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting accidents. 195.50 Section 195.50 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.50 Reporting accidents. An accident...

  2. 22 CFR 102.8 - Reporting accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting accidents. 102.8 Section 102.8... Accidents Abroad § 102.8 Reporting accidents. (a) To airline and Civil Aeronautics Administration... probably be the first to be informed of the accident, in which event he will be expected to report the...

  3. 28 CFR 301.106 - Repetitious accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Repetitious accidents. 301.106 Section 301.106 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ACCIDENT COMPENSATION General § 301.106 Repetitious accidents. If an inmate worker is involved in successive accidents...

  4. Accurate Accident Reconstruction in VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Kopylova, Yuliya; Farkas, Csilla; Xu, Wenyuan

    2011-01-01

    Part 9: Short Papers; International audience; We propose a forensic VANET application to aid an accurate accident reconstruction. Our application provides a new source of objective real-time data impossible to collect using existing methods. By leveraging inter-vehicle communications, we compile digital evidence describing events before, during, and after an accident in its entirety. In addition to sensors data and major components’ status, we provide relative positions of all vehicles involv...

  5. Masculinity and Lifting Accidents among Danish Ambulance Personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D.; Nielsen, Kent J

    Background Work injuries related to lifting are the most prevalent among ambulance personnel (AP) despite the introduction of ‘assistive technologies’ (AT) that help reduce situations of manual lifting. One third of the AP report using AT only ‘sometimes’ and 10% report having lifted a patient...... measuring traditional male role norms (MRNI), safety attitudes and safety behavior will be linked to company register information on work injuries categorized as lifting accidents. Logistic regression is used to analyse associations between masculinity, lifting behavior, and lifting accidents. Results...... prevention strategies for AP’s and other male-dominated occupations....

  6. Application of the Severe Accident Code ATHLET-CD. Coolant injection to primary circuit of a PWR by mobile pump system in case of SBLOCA severe accident scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobst, Matthias; Wilhelm, Polina; Kliem, Soeren; Kozmenkov, Yaroslav [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Reactor Safety

    2017-06-01

    The improvement of the safety of nuclear power plants is a continuously on-going process. The analysis of transients and accidents is an important research topic, which significantly contributes to safety enhancements of existing power plants. In case of an accident with multiple failures of safety systems, core uncovery and heat-up can occur. In order to prevent the accident to turn into a severe one or to mitigate the consequences of severe accidents, different accident management measures can be applied. By means of numerical analyses performed with the compute code ATHLET-CD, the effectiveness of coolant injection with a mobile pump system into the primary circuit of a PWR was studied. According to the analyses, such a system can stop the melt progression if it is activated prior to 10 % of total core is molten.

  7. In-hospital paediatric accidents: an integrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rin Della Mora, R; Bagnasco, A; Sasso, L

    2012-12-01

    Paediatric hospitals can be perceived by children, parents, health professionals as 'safe' places, but accidents do occur. To review publications relating to in-hospital paediatric accidents and highlight the state-of-the-science concerning this issue especially in relation to falls, and the evolution of research addressing this issue. Integrative review of papers published before March 2011 on accidents and falls occurred in hospitalized children. Electronic databases (PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and Cochrane Library databases) and further hand searching through references were searched. The inclusion criteria were articles involving observational, quasi-experimental or experimental studies in English or Italian. Exclusion criteria were articles addressing the outcomes of falls caused by suspect violence on children. Thirteen studies in English were included. Of the 13 studies conducted between 1963 and 2010, 10 had been conducted in the last 5 years; 10 in the USA. The studies were divided into two categories: contextualization and prevention of the 'accident' or 'fall' phenomenon (10 studies), and fall risk assessment (three studies). The most frequent type of design was observational explorative/descriptive. Several areas of investigation were explored (hazardous environment, children's characteristics correlated to accidents/falls, characteristics of the accidents/falls and their outcomes, paediatric fall risk factors and risk assessment tools, fall risk prevention programmes, parents' perceptions of accident/fall risks, etc.). No comparable methods were used to investigate the contextualization and prevention of the 'accident' and 'fall' phenomena; proposed fall risk assessment tools were not evaluated for their reliability and validity. Consensus would be needed around the approach to accidents in terms of: the definition of 'accident' and 'fall'; 'fall-related injury' and respective classifications; the frequency and

  8. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayer, J E; Clark, A T; Loysen, P; Ballinger, M Y; Mishima, J; Owczarski, P C; Gregory, W S; Nichols, B D

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH.

  9. The vver severe accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmolov, V. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The basic approach to the VVER safety management is based on the defence-in-depth principle the main idea of which is the multiplicity of physical barriers on the way of dangerous propagation on the one hand and the diversity of measures to protect each of them on the other hand. The main events of severe accident with loss of core cooling at NPP with WWER can be represented as a sequence of NPP states, in which each subsequent state is more severe than the previous one. The following sequence of states of the accident progression is supposed to be realistic and the most probable: -) loss of efficient core cooling; -) core melting, relocation of the molten core to the lower head and molten pool formation, -) reactor vessel damage, and -) containment damage and fission products release. The objectives of accident management at the design basis stage, the determining factors and appropriate determining parameters of processes are formulated in this paper. The same approach is used for the estimation of processes parameters at beyond design basis accident progression. The accident management goals and the determining factors and parameters are also listed in that case which is characterized by the loss of integrity of the fuel cladding. The accident management goal at the stage of core melt relocation implies the need for an efficient core-catcher.

  10. Accident Tolerant Fuel Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Smith; Heather Chichester; Jesse Johns; Melissa Teague; Michael Tonks; Robert Youngblood

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional “accident-tolerant” (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  11. Historical analysis of US pipeline accidents triggered by natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgin, Serkan; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, or lightning, can initiate accidents in oil and gas pipelines with potentially major consequences on the population or the environment due to toxic releases, fires and explosions. Accidents of this type are also referred to as Natech events. Many major accidents highlight the risk associated with natural-hazard impact on pipelines transporting dangerous substances. For instance, in the USA in 1994, flooding of the San Jacinto River caused the rupture of 8 and the undermining of 29 pipelines by the floodwaters. About 5.5 million litres of petroleum and related products were spilled into the river and ignited. As a results, 547 people were injured and significant environmental damage occurred. Post-incident analysis is a valuable tool for better understanding the causes, dynamics and impacts of pipeline Natech accidents in support of future accident prevention and mitigation. Therefore, data on onshore hazardous-liquid pipeline accidents collected by the US Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) was analysed. For this purpose, a database-driven incident data analysis system was developed to aid the rapid review and categorization of PHMSA incident reports. Using an automated data-mining process followed by a peer review of the incident records and supported by natural hazard databases and external information sources, the pipeline Natechs were identified. As a by-product of the data-collection process, the database now includes over 800,000 incidents from all causes in industrial and transportation activities, which are automatically classified in the same way as the PHMSA record. This presentation describes the data collection and reviewing steps conducted during the study, provides information on the developed database and data analysis tools, and reports the findings of a statistical analysis of the identified hazardous liquid pipeline incidents in terms of accident dynamics and

  12. [Oxygen therapy in diving accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepho, T; Ehrmann, U; Werner, C; Muth, C M

    2007-01-01

    Diving accidents represent a departure from the routine practice of emergency physicians. The incidence of non-fatal diving accidents is reported as 1-2 per 10,000 dives. Apart from adequate intravenous hydration, oxygen is the only medication with a proven effect in the treatment of diving accidents. After a typical diving accident, administration of oxygen at an inspired concentration (F(I)O(2) 1.0) as high as possible is recommended. Many divers bring along their own oxygen administration systems to the diving sites and these are often better suited for the treatment of diving accidents than the oxygen systems of many emergency responders. Pressure regulators supplying low constant flow oxygen, nasal prongs and inhalation masks are inappropriate. When using artificial ventilation bags with face masks, an oxygen flow of at least 15 l/min should be used. Demand regulators are simple to use and able to deliver a F(I)O2 of 1.0. Their ease of use has earned them high marks in the emergency management of diving accidents and their similarity to standard diving equipment has also aided relatively widespread acceptance. Circulation breathing systems are more technologically complex oxygen delivery systems which permit CO2 absorption and re-breathing at low oxygen flow. In contrast to the demand modules, the likelihood of mistakes during their usage is higher. In diving accidents, the administration of normobaric oxygen, already begun in the field, is the most important therapy and should not be interrupted. Presented with an inadequate supplemental oxygen supply, the inspired oxygen concentration should not be decreased, rather the duration of the oxygen administration should be reduced. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy should be the mainstay of further treatment.

  13. Description of Various Factors Contributing to Traffic Accidents in Youth and Measures Proposed to Alleviate Recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Gicquel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents are the leading cause of hospitalization in adolescence, with the 18–24-year-old age group accounting for 23% of deaths by traffic accidents. Recurrence rate is also high. One in four teenagers will have a relapse within the year following the first accident. Cognitive impairments known in adolescence could cause risky behaviors, defined as repetitive engagement in dangerous situations such as road accidents. Two categories of factors seem to be associated with traffic accidents: (1 factors specific to the traffic environment and (2 “human” factors, which seem to be the most influential. Moreover, the establishment of a stronger relation to high speed driving increases traffic accident risks and can also be intensified by sensation seeking. Other factors such as substance use (alcohol, drugs, and “binge drinking” are also identified as risk factors. Furthermore, cell phone use while driving and attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity also seem to be important risk factors for car accidents. The family environment strongly influences a young person’s driving behavior. Some interventional driving strategies and preventive measures have reduced the risk of traffic accidents among young people, such as the graduated driver licensing program and advertising campaigns. So far, few therapeutic approaches have been implemented. Reason why, we decided to set up an innovative strategy consisting of a therapeutic postaccident group intervention, entitled the ECARR2 protocol, to prevent recurrence among adolescents and young adults identified at risk, taking into account the multiple risk factors.

  14. Description of Various Factors Contributing to Traffic Accidents in Youth and Measures Proposed to Alleviate Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquel, Ludovic; Ordonneau, Pauline; Blot, Emilie; Toillon, Charlotte; Ingrand, Pierre; Romo, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Traffic accidents are the leading cause of hospitalization in adolescence, with the 18–24-year-old age group accounting for 23% of deaths by traffic accidents. Recurrence rate is also high. One in four teenagers will have a relapse within the year following the first accident. Cognitive impairments known in adolescence could cause risky behaviors, defined as repetitive engagement in dangerous situations such as road accidents. Two categories of factors seem to be associated with traffic accidents: (1) factors specific to the traffic environment and (2) “human” factors, which seem to be the most influential. Moreover, the establishment of a stronger relation to high speed driving increases traffic accident risks and can also be intensified by sensation seeking. Other factors such as substance use (alcohol, drugs, and “binge drinking”) are also identified as risk factors. Furthermore, cell phone use while driving and attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity also seem to be important risk factors for car accidents. The family environment strongly influences a young person’s driving behavior. Some interventional driving strategies and preventive measures have reduced the risk of traffic accidents among young people, such as the graduated driver licensing program and advertising campaigns. So far, few therapeutic approaches have been implemented. Reason why, we decided to set up an innovative strategy consisting of a therapeutic postaccident group intervention, entitled the ECARR2 protocol, to prevent recurrence among adolescents and young adults identified at risk, taking into account the multiple risk factors. PMID:28620324

  15. Description of Various Factors Contributing to Traffic Accidents in Youth and Measures Proposed to Alleviate Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquel, Ludovic; Ordonneau, Pauline; Blot, Emilie; Toillon, Charlotte; Ingrand, Pierre; Romo, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Traffic accidents are the leading cause of hospitalization in adolescence, with the 18-24-year-old age group accounting for 23% of deaths by traffic accidents. Recurrence rate is also high. One in four teenagers will have a relapse within the year following the first accident. Cognitive impairments known in adolescence could cause risky behaviors, defined as repetitive engagement in dangerous situations such as road accidents. Two categories of factors seem to be associated with traffic accidents: (1) factors specific to the traffic environment and (2) "human" factors, which seem to be the most influential. Moreover, the establishment of a stronger relation to high speed driving increases traffic accident risks and can also be intensified by sensation seeking. Other factors such as substance use (alcohol, drugs, and "binge drinking") are also identified as risk factors. Furthermore, cell phone use while driving and attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity also seem to be important risk factors for car accidents. The family environment strongly influences a young person's driving behavior. Some interventional driving strategies and preventive measures have reduced the risk of traffic accidents among young people, such as the graduated driver licensing program and advertising campaigns. So far, few therapeutic approaches have been implemented. Reason why, we decided to set up an innovative strategy consisting of a therapeutic postaccident group intervention, entitled the ECARR2 protocol, to prevent recurrence among adolescents and young adults identified at risk, taking into account the multiple risk factors.

  16. Woodworking injuries: a comparative study of work-related and hobby-related accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, F; Bonin, S; Jeunet, L; Pauchot, J; Tropet, Y; Obert, L

    2014-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to describe the injury characteristics and demographics of patients injured during woodworking activities, upon their arrival to the emergency department in a regional of France where this industry is prevalent. The secondary objective was to compare patient and injury characteristics for work-related and hobby-related accidents. A cohort of 87 patients who had suffered a woodworking accident over a two-year period was evaluated; 79 were available for follow-up. The context and circumstances of the accident, nature and location of the injuries and patient demographics were recorded. Hobby-related accidents accounted for two-thirds of the accidents (51/79). Most of the injured workers were either loggers (35%) or carpenters (46%). The hand was injured in 53 cases (67%). Work-related accidents resulted in significantly more serious consequences in terms of hospital stay, work stoppage, resumption of work or retraining than hobby-related accidents. For the workplace accidents, 86% occurred on new machines; more than 25% of the machines involved in accidents at home were over 15 years. Sixty-eight per cent of workers were wearing their safety gear, while only 31% of those injured during recreational woodworking wore the appropriate gear. Several elements of prevention should be improved: information about the need to maintain the equipment, protect the worker with suitable clothing, and learn which maneuvers are considered hazardous. Safety gear should be regularly inspected in the workplace. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  17. Comparison of Management Oversight and Risk Tree and Tripod-Beta in Excavation Accident Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadfam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Accident investigation programs are a necessary part in identification of risks and management of the business process. Objectives One of the most important features of such programs is the analysis technique for identifying the root causes of accidents in order to prevent their recurrences. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP was used to compare management oversight and risk tree (MORT with Tripod-Beta in order to determine the superior technique for analysis of fatal excavation accidents in construction industries. Materials and Methods MORT and Tripod-Beta techniques were used for analyzing two major accidents with three main steps. First, these techniques were applied to find out the causal factors of the accidents. Second, a number of criteria were developed for the comparison of the techniques and third, using AHP, the techniques were prioritized in terms of the criteria for choosing the superior one. Results The Tripod-Beta investigation showed 41 preconditions and 81 latent causes involved in the accidents. Additionally, 27 root causes of accidents were identified by the MORT analysis. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP investigation revealed that MORT had higher priorities only in two criteria than Tripod-Beta. Conclusions Our findings indicate that Tripod-Beta with a total priority of 0.664 is superior to MORT with the total priority of 0.33. It is recommended for future research to compare the available accident analysis techniques based on proper criteria to select the best for accident analysis.

  18. An integrated graphic–taxonomic–associative approach to analyze human factors in aviation accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Lei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human factors are critical causes of modern aviation accidents. However, existing accident analysis methods encounter limitations in addressing aviation human factors, especially in complex accident scenarios. The existing graphic approaches are effective for describing accident mechanisms within various categories of human factors, but cannot simultaneously describe inadequate human–aircraft–environment interactions and organizational deficiencies effectively, and highly depend on analysts’ skills and experiences. Moreover, the existing methods do not emphasize latent unsafe factors outside accidents. This paper focuses on the above three limitations and proposes an integrated graphic–taxonomic–associative approach. A new graphic model named accident tree (AcciTree, with a two-mode structure and a reaction-based concept, is developed for accident modeling and safety defense identification. The AcciTree model is then integrated with the well-established human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS to enhance both reliability of the graphic part and logicality of the taxonomic part for improving completeness of analysis. An associative hazard analysis technique is further put forward to extend analysis to factors outside accidents, to form extended safety requirements for proactive accident prevention. Two crash examples, a research flight demonstrator by our team and an industrial unmanned aircraft, illustrate that the integrated approach is effective for identifying more unsafe factors and safety requirements.

  19. Substance use among Iranian drivers involved in fatal road accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin eAssari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the problem of substance use among drivers is not limited to a special part of the world, most published epidemiological reports on this topic is from industrial world.Aim: To determine drug use among Iranian adults who were imprisoned for vehicle accidents with fatality. Methods: This study enrolled 51 Iranian adults who were imprisoned for vehicle accidents with fatality. This sample came from a national survey of prisoners. Data was collected at entry to prisons during the last 4 months of 2008 in 7 prisons in different parts of the country. Self reported drug use was registered. Commercial substance use screening tests were also done. Results: Drug test was positive for opioids, cannabis and both in 37.3%, 2.0% and 13.7%, respectively. 29.4% tested positive for benzodiazepines. Using test introduced 23.5% of our sample as drug users, who had declined to report any drug use. Conclusion: Opioids are the most used illicit drug in the case of vehicle accidents with fatality, however, 20% of users do not declare their use. This high rate of drug use in vehicle accidents with fatality reflects the importance of drug use control as a part of injury prevention in Iran. There might be a need for drug screening after severe car accidents.

  20. Death due to Occupational Accident a Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celal Bütün

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Today's rapid technological developments increase, also the risks to worker's health and work safety. Occupational accidents occurred with reasons such as necessary safety measures in work environment, incorrect behavior, inability on personal skills, technical failures result in bodily injury, loss of labor, disability or death. In this study; two male death cases aged 27 and 39 occured as a result of work accident in the area at the chrome mines were discussed. On the cases, physical examination, forensic autopsy and post-mortem examinations were performed. Event-related findings are similar; the cases were evaluated, together. It was determined that, respectively, cyanotic appearance on facial area and the front of the neck, the hyperemia on the sclera during external body examinations; in places punctuated hemorrhages under the skin and on the visceral organs' surfaces during the autopsies; hemorrhage in subarachoidal area of the brain, hemorrhage on pleural areas of the lungs, sub-mucosal bleeding and congestion in the stomach during the post-mortem histopathology. Finally, the death cause of cases was due to lack of oxygen. In this study; also taking into account of work accident related injuries and deaths seen hight rates in our country, the determination of personal, socio-economic and enviromental factors and, the importance of taking the necessary measures for prevention of occupational accident were emphasized. Also, it aimed to be discussed forensic medical approach to occupational injuriy cases in the literature. Key Word: Forensic medicine, Work accident, Asphyxia, Death, Autopsy.

  1. Ações e possibilidades de prevenção de acidentes com crianças em creches de Fortaleza, Ceará Actions and possibilities of accidents prevention with children in daycare at Fortaleza, Ceará State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza Vieira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreve o cotidiano de professoras da educação infantil, em creches de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil, bem como as ações desenvolvidas e as possibilidades de prevenção de acidentes com crianças, nesse espaço educativo e de cuidado à saúde. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, com abordagem qualitativa, realizado com 17 professoras de Educação Infantil, que trabalhavam em creches da Secretaria Executiva Regional VI, em Fortaleza, Ceará, em 2004. A entrevista semi-estruturada conduziu à coleta de dados e esses foram analisados à luz do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo (DSC. Os resultados evidenciaram que as professoras concebem esse tipo de acidente como passível de prevenção mediante a orientação à família, alterações físicas no espaço domiciliar e elaboração e cumprimento de leis específicas. Reconhecem que a agilidade e curiosidade da criança favorecem a ocorrência dos acidentes. Em suas práticas, relatam e propõem vigilância, mudanças na estrutura física das creches e educação por meio de orientações às crianças, professores, pais ou responsáveis, estendendo-se à comunidade. Portanto, é preciso que os profissionais de saúde compartilhem sua prática de cuidado com os profissionais do setor da educação, não só prevenindo acidentes e outros agravos à saúde humana, mas, sobretudo, ampliando conceitos que contribuam com a Promoção da Saúde.This paper describes the daily of infantile education teachers in day-cares in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil as well as the developed actions and the possibilities of prevention accidents' with children, in this educative space of health care. It is a descriptive study, using a qualitative approach that involved 17 day care teachers working at the 6th Regional Executive Office (Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil in the year of 2004. A semi-structured interview was used to collect the data, which was analysed using the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD

  2. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, B.; Groenberg, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs.

  3. Ações de prevenção dos acidentes e violências em crianças e adolescentes, desenvolvidas pelo setor público de saúde de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil Measures developed by the public health system to prevent accidents and violence in children and adolescents in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augediva Maria Jucá Pordeus

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata das ações de prevenção de acidentes e violências, desenvolvidas pelo setor público de saúde de Fortaleza, Estado do Ceará, Brasil. Originou-se da necessidade sentida pelas autoras diante das estatísticas de mortalidade por estas causas na infância e adolescência, que parecia não haver por parte do setor público de saúde ações de prevenção. Realizamos um levantamento junto aos gerentes das Coordenadorias de Saúde das seis Secretarias Executivas Regionais (SER, setores geográficos onde está organizada a rede de saúde de Fortaleza, por meio da aplicação de questionário. O levantamento mostrou que as ações desenvolvidas são pontuais, não existindo como política de saúde, visto que ocorrem na forma de campanhas, têm como foco principal a educação em saúde voltada para a prevenção do uso de álcool e outras drogas ilícitas, violência e acidentes domésticos e delinqüência juvenil. Apenas na SER-I existia parceria com outros setores nas atividades desenvolvidas. Concluímos que o setor público de saúde de Fortaleza, necessita incorporar em sua agenda a prevenção de acidentes e violências na infância e adolescência, utilizando a intersetorialidade e somando esforços para que o conhecimento até agora adquirido sobre a prevenção destes agravos se transforme em realidade.This article deals with measures developed by the public health system to prevent accidents and violence in children in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil. The program resulted from the need perceived by the authors in light of statistics on mortality from external causes in childhood and adolescence and the fact that there was apparently no preventive action being taken by the public health system. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey of health administrators in the six Regional Executive Secretariats (SERs corresponding to the geographic districts in which the health system is divided in Fortaleza. According to the

  4. Accident investigation practices in Europe--main responses from a recent study of accidents in industry and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roed-Larsen, Sverre; Valvisto, T; Harms-Ringdahl, L; Kirchsteiger, C

    2004-07-26

    Europe has during recent years been shocked by disasters from natural events and technical breakdowns. The consequences have been comprehensive, measured by lost lives, injuries, and material and environmental damage. ESReDA wanted in 2000--by setting up a special expert group on accident investigation--to clarify the state of art of accident investigation practices and to map the use of thoroughly accident investigation in order to learn lessons from past disasters and prevent new ones. The scope was to cover three sectors in the society: transport, production processes and storage of hazardous materials, and energy production. The main method used was a questionnaire, which was sent in 2001 to about 150 organisations. About 50 replies were analysed. The replies showed great variations but also similarities, among others in definition of accident and incident, the objectives of the investigation team, criteria used to start an investigation, the status of the investigation organisation, the flow of information, the composition of the investigation team, and the use of internal or international procedures or rules. Several methods (in total 14 different methods were mentioned) were used for carrying out accident /incident investigations. Most of the respondents were willing to co-operate in one or another way with ESReDA. Although there are important biases in the material, the results from questionnaire are important inputs to the future work of ESReDA Expert group in this field. 3 safety approaches have been identified.

  5. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, W.; Højerup, C.F.; Lindholm, I.

    2001-01-01

    Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies...... three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto I plant in Finland...... with all three codes. The core initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality-both super-prompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power...

  6. Organisational accidents investigation methodology and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dien, Yves; Llory, Michel; Montmayeul, René

    2004-07-26

    The purpose of this paper is to reflect on accident analysis methods. As the understanding of industrial accidents and incidents has evolved, they are no longer considered as the sole product of human and/or technical failures but also as originating in an unfavourable organisational context. After presenting some theoretical developments which are responsible for this evolution, we will propose two examples of organisational accidents and incidents. We will then present some properties of organisational accidents, and we will focus on some "accident-generating" organisational factors. The definition of these factors comes from an empirical approach to event analysis. Finally, we will briefly present their implications for accident and incident analysis.

  7. Head impact in a snowboarding accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, N; Llari, M; Donnadieu, T; Masson, C; Arnoux, P J

    2017-09-01

    To effectively prevent sport traumatic brain injury (TBI), means of protection need to be designed and tested in relation to the reality of head impact. This study quantifies head impacts during a typical snowboarding accident to evaluate helmet standards. A snowboarder numerical model was proposed, validated against experimental data, and used to quantify the influence of accident conditions (speed, snow stiffness, morphology, and position) on head impacts (locations, velocities, and accelerations) and injury risk during snowboarding backward falls. Three hundred twenty-four scenarios were simulated: 70% presented a high risk of mild TBI (head peak acceleration >80 g) and 15% presented a high risk of severe TBI (head injury criterion >1000). Snow stiffness, speed, and snowboarder morphology were the main factors influencing head impact metrics. Mean normal head impact speed (28 ± 6 km/h) was higher than equivalent impact speed used in American standard helmet test (ASTM F2040), and mean tangential impact speed, not included in standard tests, was 13.8 (±7 km/h). In 97% of simulated impacts, the peak head acceleration was below 300 g, which is the pass/fail criteria used in standard tests. Results suggest that initial speed, impacted surface, and pass/fail criteria used in helmet standard performance tests do not fully reflect magnitude and variability of snowboarding backward-fall impacts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Aircraft accident construction set: performance engineering applied to accident reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, James W.

    1992-06-01

    For some time aircraft accident investigation has been a reverse engineering procedure. Failure analysis has taken a strict engineering approach, disregarding many of the alternatives relating to cause. As aircraft become automated, many relating factors will need to be considered in order to build an accurate reconstruction of an accident. The Aircraft Accident Construction Set will provide the investigator with the opportunity to investigate 'What if?' questions relating to causal factors. The system addressed both the vehicle and the human elements of performance. Significant integration of engineering principles and human factors probability data enhance the outcomes assessment. The pictorial display provides a near real- time image of the vehicle as supported by the engineering data, rather than the more traditional approach of line graphs and interpolative tables. This enables the investigator to consider far more data at a given time than in the past. Interaction between the workstation and the investigator is through a menu system derived from data tables and displayed as ICON symbology. Relational database operations and a user toolbox round out the system. Presentation of this system will provide a fundamental understanding of the capabilities of the system, and an actual air carrier accident will be examined briefly.

  9. [Factors associated with work-related accidents in the informal commercial sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Marcela Andrade; Nery, Adriana Alves; Rios, Polianna Alves Andrade; Casotti, Cezar Augusto; Cardoso, Jefferson Paixão

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to estimate the incidence of non-fatal work-related accidents in the informal commercial sector and analyze associated socio-demographic, occupational, workplace, and health factors, in a cross-sectional survey of 434 workers in the business district of Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2013. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with accidents. Incidence of accidents in the previous 12 months was estimated at 32.3%, and multivariate analysis showed higher odds of accidents in male sex workers (OR = 1.61), young individuals (OR = 4.62), meat or poultry workers (OR = 9.55), and workers performing heavy physical work (OR = 1.71). The results show the need for public policies to prevent accidents in the informal commercial sector.

  10. Attributable fraction of work accidents related to occupational noise exposure in a Southeastern city of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Adriano; Cordeiro, Ricardo

    2007-07-01

    Noise is the most frequent type of occupational exposure and can lead to both auditory and extra-auditory dysfunction as well as increasing the risk of work accidents. The purpose of this study was to estimate the attributable fraction of work accidents related to occupational noise exposure in a medium-sized city in Southeast Brazil. In this hospital-based case-control study, including 600 cases and 822 controls, the odds ratio of work accidents (controlled for several covariables) was obtained classifying occupational noise exposure into four levels and determining the prevalence at each level. Based on these data, the calculated attributable fraction was 0.3041 (95%CI: 0.2341-0.3676), i.e., 30% of work accidents in the study area were statistically associated with occupational noise exposure. The authors discuss the causes of this association and the implications for the prevention of work accidents.

  11. Traffic Accidents And Destiny Relation -In Contex Prayers, Cha-rity And Resignation-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman ORAL

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There are established rules to avoid traffic Chaos. Failure to do so may result in traffic accidents which are sad events. God tied everything in this world to some reasons. Even though the humans fulfill these reasons, God creates them in accordance with the free will of the person. This is a divine law, that is, fate. Are traffic accidents fate? How much do our will and precautions affect this? With prayer and charity, can we prevent accidents that could happen to us? Do people die in traffic accidents because their life-spans expired? Such questions in people's minds may be a problem. This article will offer solutions to the discussions concerning traffic accidents and fate, within the fra-mework of Islamic theology and creed.

  12. Analysis of factors associated with traffic accidents of cyclists attended in Brazilian state capitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Carlos Augusto Moreira de; Bahia, Camila Alves; Constantino, Patrícia

    2016-12-01

    Brazil has the sixth largest bicycles fleet in the world and bicycle is the most used individual transport vehicle in the country. Few studies address the issue of cyclists' accidents and factors that contribute to or prevent this event. VIVA is a cross-sectional survey and is part of the Violence and Accidents Surveillance System, Brazilian Ministry of Health. We used complex sampling and subsequent data review through multivariate logistic regression and calculation of the respective odds ratios. Odds ratios showed greater likelihood of cyclists' accidents in males, people with less schooling and living in urban and periurban areas. People who were not using the bike to go to work were more likely to suffer an accident. The profile found in this study corroborates findings of other studies. They claim that the coexistence of cyclists and other means of transportation in the same urban space increases the likelihood of accidents. The construction of bicycle-exclusive spaces and educational campaigns are required.

  13. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation and cerebrovascular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stortecky, Stefan; Wenaweser, Peter; Windecker, Stephan

    2012-09-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an evidence-based treatment alternative for selected high-risk patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis as acknowledged in the most recent edition of the ESC Guidelines on Valvular Heart Disease 2012. However, periprocedural complications and in particular cerebrovascular accidents remain a matter of concern. While transcatheter heart valve technology continuously improves and the development of novel and even less invasive implantation techniques is on-going, cerebrovascular events complicating TAVI may abrogate the usual improvement in terms of prognosis and quality of life. This article describes the incidence of cerebrovascular events after cardiovascular procedures, provides an overview of the pathophysiological mechanisms as well as the impact on outcomes and provides some insights into preventive strategies as well as the acute management of these events.

  14. Trucks involved in fatal accidents factbook 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This document presents aggregate statistics on trucks involved in traffic accidents in 2008. The : statistics are derived from the Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Instit...

  15. Trucks involved in fatal accidents factbook 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This document presents aggregate statistics on trucks involved in traffic accidents in 2007. The : statistics are derived from the Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Instit...

  16. Intervenção comunitária para prevenção de acidentes de trânsito entre trabalhadores ciclistas Intervención comunitaria para la prevención de accidentes de tránsito entre trabajadores ciclistas A community intervention to prevent traffic accidents among bicycle commuters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Bacchieri

    2010-10-01

    resultado.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an educational intervention designed to prevent traffic accidents among workers that use the bicycle for commuting. METHODS: A longitudinal intervention study with a stepped wedge implementation was carried out between January 2006 and May 2007. Five neighborhoods with distinct geographic characteristics were selected in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, and 42 census tracts were randomly selected from these neighborhoods. All households were screened for male bicycle commuters, resulting in a sample of 1,133 individuals. The outcomes analyzed were "traffic accidents" and "near accidents". The cyclists were interviewed monthly by phone to record traffic accidents and "near accidents". Every 15 days, from the second month of study, a group of about 60 cyclists was invited to attend the intervention meeting that included an educational component (a talk and a video presentation, distribution of a safety kit (reflective belt & sash, reflective tape and an educational booklet and a bicycle breaks check-up (maintenance performed if necessary. Poisson regression adjusted for time effect was used to assess the intervention effect. RESULTS: Nearly 45% of the cyclists did not attend the intervention. During the study period, 9% of the study individuals reported a traffic accident and 88% reported a "near accident". In total there were 106 accidents and 1,091 near accidents. There was no effect observed from the intervention on either of the outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention tested was not capable of reducing traffic accidents among bicycle commuters. Lack of interest in safety by commuters and external factors, such as road design and motorist behavior, may have together influenced this result.

  17. ACCIDENT WITH NEEDLESTICK: KNOWLEDGE AND USE OF SAFETY DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Souza da Silva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Health workers engaged in labour activities in environments surrounded the occupational hazards. Identify knowledge and use of safety devide for preventing accidents with sharp objects between nurses and nurse technicians, workers of the Intensive Care Unit, Emergency and Surgical Block, during the month of may 2015. Exploratory study, quantitative, developed in a teaching hospital in in Recife-PE. The data collection was conducted using a questionnaire prepared by the research authors. The results were submitted to descriptive statistical analysis, being evidenced that, although data indicate high rate of respondents know and use products with referencing safety devices to prevent accidents, cite gloves and masks as representatives of those materials, which requires clarification in discussion of the study. It is necessary to guide and clarify as to such mechanisms, through the permanent education, and training among workers.

  18. Trismus: An unusual presentation following road accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Jagdeep

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Trismus due to trauma usually follows road accidents leading to massive faciomaxillary injury. In the literature there is no report of a foreign body causing trismus following a road accident, this rare case is an exception. We present a case of isolated presentation of trismus following a road accident. This case report stresses on the thorough evaluation of patients presenting with trismus following a road accident.

  19. Oranges and Peaches: Understanding Communication Accidents in the Reference Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewdney, Patricia; Michell, Gillian

    1996-01-01

    Librarians often have communication "accidents" with reference questions as initially presented. This article presents linguistic analysis of query categories, including: simple failures of hearing, accidents involving pronunciation or homophones, accidents where users repeat earlier misinterpretations to librarians, and accidents where…

  20. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures

  1. Analysis of Two Electrocution Accidents in Greece that Occurred due to Unexpected Re-energization of Power Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini D. Baka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigation and analysis of accidents are critical elements of safety management. The over-riding purpose of an organization in carrying out an accident investigation is to prevent similar accidents, as well as seek a general improvement in the management of health and safety. Hundreds of workers have suffered injuries while installing, maintaining, or servicing machinery and equipment due to sudden re-energization of power lines. This study presents and analyzes two electrical accidents (1 fatal injury and 1 serious injury that occurred because the power supply was reconnected inadvertently or by mistake.

  2. Trends in severe accident research in Europe: SARNET network from Euratom to NUGENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Dorsselaere Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available SARNET (Severe Accident Research Network was set up under the aegis of the Framework Programmes of the European Commission from 2004 to 2013 and coordinated by IRSN to perform R&D on severe accidents in water-cooled nuclear power plants. The network self-sustainability was achieved through integration mid-2013 in the NUGENIA European association devoted to R&D on fission technology of Generation II and III. The SARNET activities continue in the technical area “Severe accidents” through technical workshops, ranking of R&D priorities, improvements of severe accident codes, ERMSAR international conferences, and education and training courses. Six technical domains are addressed in this technical area: in-vessel corium/debris coolability, ex-vessel corium interactions and coolability, containment behaviour including hydrogen risk, source term released to the environment, impact of severe accidents on the environment and emergency management, and severe accident scenarios. The ranking of research priorities in the NUGENIA R&D roadmap that was published in 2015 underlined the need to focus efforts in the next years on the improvement of prevention of severe accidents and on the mitigation of their consequences, as highlighted by the Fukushima Dai-ichi accidents. Several current projects on mitigation of severe accident consequences in Euratom or NUGENIA frame are shortly described in this paper.

  3. [Motorcycle accidents in the municipality of Rio Branco in the State of Acre: characterization and trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Greiciane da Silva; Schor, Néia

    2013-03-01

    The scope of this paper is to assess traffic accidents involving motorcycles, the victims involved and the increase in the fleet compared with other vehicles in Rio Branco, State of Acre. It is an epidemiological, descriptive and transversal study of accidents between 2005 and 2008 recorded by the Acre State Highway Department. There were 3,582 motorcycle accidents and 3,768 victims in the period. The motorcycle fleet increased by 72.8%, with involvement in accidents increasing by 42.2%, while accidents involving other vehicles only increased by 9.2%. As regards victims, there is a predominance of men, with rates of 561.1, with the age groups of between 20 and 29 and 30 and 39 being the highest, with 755.4 and 542.2, respectively. With reference to accident characteristics, the highest number of accidents - 32.4% - occurred in the afternoon, followed by the morning with 29.2% and the evening with 28.9%. 18.3% occurred on Saturdays and 15.7% on Sundays. Collisions were the commonest kind of accident, with 3,036 (84.8%) occurrences. The conclusion drawn is that it is essential to stage ongoing preventive programs and ensure greater integration among the institutions involved, with planning and campaigns to reverse the current situation.

  4. Causative Chain Difference for each Type of Accidents in Japanese Maritime Traffic Systems (MTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanginingastuti Mutmainnah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Causative chain (CC is a failure chain that cause accident as an outcome product of the second step of MOP model, namely line relation analysis (LRA. This CC is a connection of several causative factors (CF, an outcome product of first step of MOP model, namely corner analysis (CA. MOP Model is an abbreviation from 4M Overturned Pyramid, created by authors by combining 2 accident analysis models. There are two steps in this model, namely CA and LRA. Utilizing this model can know what is CF that happen dominantly to the accidents and what is a danger CC that characterize accidents in a certain place and certain period. By knowing the characteristics, the preventive action can be decided to decrease the number of accident in the next period. The aim of this paper is providing the development of MOP Model that has been upgraded and understanding the characteristics of each type accident. The data that is analyzed in this paper is Japanese accidents from 2008 until 2013, which is available on Japan Transportation Safety Board (JTSB’s website. The analysis shows that every type of accidents has a unique characteristic, shown by their CFs and CCs. However, Man Factor is still playing role to the system dominantly.

  5. Design of a High Power Robotic Manipulator for Emergency Response to the Nuclear Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jongwon; Bae, Yeong-Geol; Kim, Myoung Ho; Choi, Young Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    An accident in a nuclear facility causes a great social cost. To prevent an unexpected nuclear accident from spreading to the catastrophic disaster, emergency response action in early stage is required. However, high radiation environment has been proved as a challenging obstacle for human workers to access to the accident site and take an action in previous accident cases. Therefore, emergency response robotic technology to be used in a nuclear accident site instead of human workers are actively conducted in domestically and internationally. Robots in an accident situation are required to carry out a variety of tasks depend on the types and patterns of accidents. An emergency response usually includes removing of debris, make an access road to a certain place and handling valves. These tasks normally involve high payload handling. A small sized high power robotic manipulator can be an appropriate candidate to deal with a wide spectrum of tasks in an emergency situation. In this paper, we discuss about the design of a high power robotic manipulator, which is capable of handling high payloads for an initial response action to the nuclear facility accident. In this paper, we presented a small sized high power robotic manipulator design. Actuator types of manipulator was selected and mechanical structure was discussed. In the future, the servo valve and hydraulic pump systems will be determined. Furthermore, control algorithms and test bed experiments will be also conducted.

  6. [A spatially explicit analysis of traffic accidents involving pedestrians and cyclists in Berlin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Tobia

    2017-12-01

    In many German cities and counties, sustainable mobility concepts that strengthen pedestrian and cyclist traffic are promoted. From the perspectives of urban development, traffic planning and public healthcare, a spatially differentiated analysis of traffic accident data is decisive. 1) The identification of spatial and temporal patterns of the distribution of accidents involving cyclists and pedestrians, 2) the identification of hotspots and exploration of possible underlying causes and 3) the critical discussion of benefits and challenges of the results and the derivation of conclusions. Spatio-temporal distributions of data from accident statistics in Berlin involving pedestrians and cyclists from 2011 to 2015 were analysed with geographic information systems (GIS). While the total number of accidents remains relatively stable for pedestrian and cyclist accidents, the spatial distribution analysis shows, however, that there are significant spatial clusters (hotspots) of traffic accidents with a strong concentration in the inner city area. In a critical discussion, the benefits of geographic concepts are identified, such as spatially explicit health data (in this case traffic accident data), the importance of the integration of other data sources for the evaluation of the health impact of areas (traffic accident statistics of the police), and the possibilities and limitations of spatial-temporal data analysis (spatial point-density analyses) for the derivation of decision-supported recommendations and for the evaluation of policy measures of health prevention and of health-relevant urban development.

  7. Causes of road traffic accidents in Juba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-02

    May 2, 2017 ... Introduction: Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are a major cause of death and disability in South Sudan. The purpose ... Most accidents were caused by male .... Accidents statistics, Nairobi: Ministry for Public works,. Government of Kenya, 1983 – 1990, 1992. 5. Filani and Gbadamosi. Identification of cycles and.

  8. Some Aspects of Car Pedestrian Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Varga

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of road accidents involving injuries and related mortality is a rather unfortunate but inevitable concomitant consequence of motorized traffic. Besides admitting this fact, among others, we have to endeavour to reveal the causes of car accidents at the same time, and also to introduce active and passive defensive methods suitable to decrease accident morbidity and mortality.

  9. Intersection layout, traffic volumes and accidents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the accident research carried out as a part of a large project started in 1983. For this accident research an inventory was made of a large number of intersections.Recorded were layout features, accident data and estimates of traffic volumes. Attention will be given to the

  10. Classifiying Accident Risks in High-rise Building Consruction

    OpenAIRE

    M. Asad, Abdurrahman

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the physical environment by doing various types of construction work at the same location creating a potential hazard with various levels of risk. Approaches to prevent accidents can only be carried out if risk assessment process has been finished. This process should provide a systematic and objective approach to assess hazards and risks posed which will provide an objective measurement for hazard identification. By applying Fine method as risk calculator on the information ob...

  11. Analysis of Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China: Characteristics and Lessons for Risk Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Zhang, Tongzhu; Liu, Bo; Lu, Feng; Fang, Shurong; You, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Understanding historical accidents is important for accident prevention and risk mitigation; however, there are no public databases of pollution accidents in China, and no detailed information regarding such incidents is readily available. Thus, 653 representative cases of surface water pollution accidents in China were identified and described as a function of time, location, materials involved, origin, and causes. The severity and other features of the accidents, frequency and quantities of chemicals involved, frequency and number of people poisoned, frequency and number of people affected, frequency and time for which pollution lasted, and frequency and length of pollution zone were effectively used to value and estimate the accumulated probabilities. The probabilities of occurrences of various types based on origin and causes were also summarized based on these observations. The following conclusions can be drawn from these analyses: (1) There was a high proportion of accidents involving multi-district boundary regions and drinking water crises, indicating that more attention should be paid to environmental risk prevention and the mitigation of such incidents. (2) A high proportion of accidents originated from small-sized chemical plants, indicating that these types of enterprises should be considered during policy making. (3) The most common cause (49.8% of the total) was intentional acts (illegal discharge); accordingly, efforts to increase environmental consciousness in China should be enhanced.

  12. Root causes and impacts of severe accidents at large nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högberg, Lars

    2013-04-01

    The root causes and impacts of three severe accidents at large civilian nuclear power plants are reviewed: the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, the Chernobyl accident in 1986, and the Fukushima Daiichi accident in 2011. Impacts include health effects, evacuation of contaminated areas as well as cost estimates and impacts on energy policies and nuclear safety work in various countries. It is concluded that essential objectives for reactor safety work must be: (1) to prevent accidents from developing into severe core damage, even if they are initiated by very unlikely natural or man-made events, and, recognizing that accidents with severe core damage may nevertheless occur; (2) to prevent large-scale and long-lived ground contamination by limiting releases of radioactive nuclides such as cesium to less than about 100 TBq. To achieve these objectives the importance of maintaining high global standards of safety management and safety culture cannot be emphasized enough. All three severe accidents discussed in this paper had their root causes in system deficiencies indicative of poor safety management and poor safety culture in both the nuclear industry and government authorities.

  13. Investigating of the effect of Biorhythm on work-related Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Arab

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Findings of this research showed that bad and critical days of individuals’ biorhythms cycle influence the occurrence of accidents. Therefore, by training and increasing the knowledge of workers regarding biological cycle and its effects on mental, emotional and physical status, each person effects can make some changes to theire work plans during days that they do not feel well, physically or mentally, in order to prevent the likely accidents.

  14. [Case report: fatal diving-accident. Or: accident while diving?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, F; Jüttner, B; Krause, A; Rocha, M; Koppert, W

    2012-02-01

    This example of a fatal diving accident shows how challenging such cases can be in pre-hospital and clinical care. There is no common mechanism in diving fatalities and more than one group of disorders coming along with decompression sickness. Diving medicine is not an element of medical education, which results in insecurity and hampers adequate therapy of diving incidents. This is aggravated by an insufficient availability of hyperbaric chambers in Germany.

  15. Preliminary Modeling of Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts under Accident Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, Kyle A.; Hales, Jason D.

    2016-12-01

    The catastrophic events that occurred at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011 have led to widespread interest in research of alternative fuels and claddings that are proposed to be accident tolerant. Thus, the United States Department of Energy through its NEAMS (Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation) program has funded an Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) High Impact Problem (HIP). The ATF HIP is funded for a three-year period. The purpose of the HIP is to perform research into two potential accident tolerant concepts and provide an in-depth report to the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) describing the behavior of the concepts, both of which are being considered for inclusion in a lead test assembly scheduled for placement into a commercial reactor in 2022. The initial focus of the HIP is on uranium silicide fuel and iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloy cladding. Utilizing the expertise of three national laboratory participants (INL, LANL, and ANL) a comprehensive mulitscale approach to modeling is being used including atomistic modeling, molecular dynamics, rate theory, phase-field, and fuel performance simulations. In this paper, we present simulations of two proposed accident tolerant fuel systems: U3Si2 fuel with Zircaloy-4 cladding, and UO2 fuel with FeCrAl cladding. The simulations investigate the fuel performance response of the proposed ATF systems under Loss of Coolant and Station Blackout conditions using the BISON code. Sensitivity analyses are completed using Sandia National Laboratories’ DAKOTA software to determine which input parameters (e.g., fuel specific heat) have the greatest influence on the output metrics of interest (e.g., fuel centerline temperature). Early results indicate that each concept has significant advantages as well as areas of concern. Further work is required prior to formulating the proposition report for the Advanced Fuels Campaign.

  16. Urban road accidents in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Ishtiaque, A.; Ahmed, B

    2013-01-01

    Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, is the most vulnerable city both in terms of total number of accidents and accident rates. A total number of 2,720 accidents occurred during 2007-2011. This has caused a total of 1,481 numbers of pedestrian fatal accidents with 1,562 pedestrian fatal casualties. The primary objective of the paper is to study the characteristics of the road traffic accidents in Dhaka. The study area for this study is Dhaka Metropolitan Area. The paper focused on a few sel...

  17. Bicycling-related accidents and factors contributing to injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Perez, L.M.; Wideberg, J.; Gonzalez Perez-Somarriba, B.

    2016-07-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to find the epidemiological characteristics of bicycling-related maxillofacial fractures in a defined population, and identify factors contributing to injury. Methodology: A prospective study was carried out involving patients presenting with maxillofacial fractures sustained in bicycling-related accidents. Results: Between 908 of all cycling accidents attending for medical treatment, 122 patients (13% of all cycling accidents) were admitted with facial fractures between 2007 and 2014. Male and female ratio was 2.6:1, and the mean age was 29.4 years (standard deviation: 12.8, range: 12-79 years). Causes of injury included collisions (63%) and accidental falls (37%). The fracture patterns seen were mandibular (49%), zygomatic (32%), orbital (13%), nasal (7%), maxillary (2%), and frontal (2%). Condylar fractures were the most common of the mandibular fractures (63%). The most frequently observed concomitant lesions were orthopedic injuries. Conclusions: Bicycling-related maxillofacial injuries are common and therefore important to identify in order to design a sustainable transport system and for units that provide assistance to traffic accident victims. Missed diagnosis or delayed treatment can lead to facial deformities and functional problems. Wearing protective helmets and the improvement of the helmets design is one aspect that would be of interest for the prevention of injuries. Keywords: Cycling; bicycle-related trauma; maxillofacial fractures; risk factors; helmets. (Author)

  18. ANALYSIS OF WORK ACCIDENT AND OCCUPATIONAL DISEASE RATES IN THE COLOMBIAN LABOR RISK SYSTEM: REFLECTIONS FROM THE ACADEMY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diana Elizabeth Cuervo Díaz; Marisol Moreno Angarita

    2017-01-01

    .... It focusses on the occupational diseases and work accident, shown in data reported by insurance sector, and their respective analysis from the perspective of the work disability prevention and management...

  19. A new approach to modeling aviation accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Arjun Harsha

    General Aviation (GA) is a catchall term for all aircraft operations in the US that are not categorized as commercial operations or military flights. GA aircraft account for almost 97% of the US civil aviation fleet. Unfortunately, GA flights have a much higher fatal accident rate than commercial operations. Recent estimates by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) showed that the GA fatal accident rate has remained relatively unchanged between 2010 and 2015, with 1566 fatal accidents accounting for 2650 fatalities. Several research efforts have been directed towards betters understanding the causes of GA accidents. Many of these efforts use National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident reports and data. Unfortunately, while these studies easily identify the top types of accidents (e.g., inflight loss of control (LOC)), they usually cannot identify why these accidents are happening. Most NTSB narrative reports for GA accidents are very short (many are only one paragraph long), and do not contain much information on the causes (likely because the causes were not fully identified). NTSB investigators also code each accident using an event-based coding system, which should facilitate identification of patterns and trends in causation, given the high number of GA accidents each year. However, this system is susceptible to investigator interpretation and error, meaning that two investigators may code the same accident differently, or omit applicable codes. To facilitate a potentially better understanding of GA accident causation, this research develops a state-based approach to check for logical gaps or omissions in NTSB accident records, and potentially fills-in the omissions. The state-based approach offers more flexibility as it moves away from the conventional event-based representation of accidents, which classifies events in accidents into several categories such as causes, contributing factors, findings, occurrences, and phase of flight. The method

  20. Accident Locations, MDTA Accidents, Accidents on MDTA locations, Accidents on I 95, US 50, I 695, Accident on John F Kennedy Highway, Nice Bridge, Bay Bridge locations, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Maryland Transportation Authority.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Accident Locations dataset current as of 2011. MDTA Accidents, Accidents on MDTA locations, Accidents on I 95, US 50, I 695, Accident on John F Kennedy Highway, Nice...

  1. Modelling Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, Jason Dean [Idaho National Laboratory; Gamble, Kyle Allan Lawrence [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-05-01

    The catastrophic events that occurred at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011 have led to widespread interest in research of alternative fuels and claddings that are proposed to be accident tolerant. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) through its Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program has funded an Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) High Impact Problem (HIP). The ATF HIP is a three-year project to perform research on two accident tolerant concepts. The final outcome of the ATF HIP will be an in-depth report to the DOE Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) giving a recommendation on whether either of the two concepts should be included in their lead test assembly scheduled for placement into a commercial reactor in 2022. The two ATF concepts under investigation in the HIP are uranium silicide fuel and iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloy cladding. Utilizing the expertise of three national laboratory participants (Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Argonne National Laboratory), a comprehensive multiscale approach to modeling is being used that includes atomistic modeling, molecular dynamics, rate theory, phase-field, and fuel performance simulations. Model development and fuel performance analysis are critical since a full suite of experimental studies will not be complete before AFC must prioritize concepts for focused development. In this paper, we present simulations of the two proposed accident tolerance fuel systems: U3Si2 fuel with Zircaloy-4 cladding, and UO2 fuel with FeCrAl cladding. Sensitivity analyses are completed using Sandia National Laboratories’ Dakota software to determine which input parameters (e.g., fuel specific heat) have the greatest influence on the output metrics of interest (e.g., fuel centerline temperature). We also outline the multiscale modelling approach being employed. Considerable additional work is required prior to preparing the recommendation report for the Advanced

  2. Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galstyan I.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS, developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

  3. The consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Chioșilă

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available These days marks 30 years since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, followed by massive radioactive contamination of the environment and human in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, and resulted in many deaths among people who intervened to decrease the effects of the nuclear disaster. The 26 April 1986 nuclear accident contaminated all European countries, but at a much lower level, without highlighted consequences on human health. In special laboratories, the main radionuclides (I-131, Cs-137, Cs-134 and Sr-90 were also analyzed in Romania from environmental samples, food, even human subjects. These radionuclides caused the population to receive a low dose of about 1 mSv in 1986 that is half of the dose of the natural background radiation (2.4 mSv per year. As in all European countries (excluding Ukraine, Belarus and Russia this dose of about 1 mSv fell rapidly by 1990, reaching levels close to ones before the accident at the nuclear tests.

  4. Sequence Tree Modeling for Combined Accident and Feed-and-Bleed Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-05-15

    In order to address this issue, this study suggests the sequence tree model to analyze accident sequence systematically. Using the sequence tree model, all possible scenarios which need a specific safety action to prevent the core damage can be identified and success conditions of safety action under complicated situation such as combined accident will be also identified. Sequence tree is branch model to divide plant condition considering the plant dynamics. Since sequence tree model can reflect the plant dynamics, arising from interaction of different accident timing and plant condition and from the interaction between the operator action, mitigation system, and the indicators for operation, sequence tree model can be used to develop the dynamic event tree model easily. Target safety action for this study is a feed-and-bleed (F and B) operation. A F and B operation directly cools down the reactor cooling system (RCS) using the primary cooling system when residual heat removal by the secondary cooling system is not available. In this study, a TLOFW accident and a TLOFW accident with LOCA were the target accidents. Based on the conventional PSA model and indicators, the sequence tree model for a TLOFW accident was developed. If sampling analysis is performed, practical accident sequences can be identified based on the sequence analysis. If a realistic distribution for the variables can be obtained for sampling analysis, much more realistic accident sequences can be described. Moreover, if the initiating event frequency under a combined accident can be quantified, the sequence tree model can translate into a dynamic event tree model based on the sampling analysis results.

  5. [Characterization of severe acute occupational poisoning accidents in China between 1989 and 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Li, Tao; Wang, Huan-Qiang; Wang, Hong-Fei; Chen, Shu-Yang; Du, Xie-Yi; Zhang, Shuang; Qin, Jian

    2006-12-01

    To analyze severe acute occupational poisoning accidents reported in China between 1989 and 2003, and to study the characteristics of severe acute occupational poisoning accidents and provide scientific evidences for prevention and control strategies. The data from the national occupational poisoning case reporting system were analyzed with descriptive methods. (1) There were 506 acute severe occupational poisoning accidents for 15 years with 4 657 workers poisoned. The total poisoning rate was 54.8%, and the total mortality was 16.5%. The average poisoning age was (31.9 +/- 9.8) years old and the average death age was (33.7 +/- 10.3) years old. The poisoning accidents occurred more in men than in women. (2) There were more than 112 chemicals which caused these poisoning accidents. Most of the accidents caused by hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, benzene and homologs, metal and metalloid and carbon dioxide, and the types of chemicals varied in different types of industries. (3) The accidents mainly occurred in chemical industry, manufacture, water disposal industry, mining and construction industry, and the risk was higher in some jobs than others, such as cleanout, machine maintenance and repair, production, mine and digging. The accidents occurred more frequently from April to August each year. (1) The control over the severe acute occupational poisoning is urgent. (2) The trend of the characteristics of severe acute occupational poisoning accidents is centralized in the high risk industries, poisons and jobs. (3) The characteristics of the accidents varied in different types of industries. (4) It is the key point to strengthen the supervision on poisoning.

  6. Work-Related Accidents and Sharp Injuries in Paramedics—Illustrated with an Example of a Multi-Specialist Hospital, Located in Central Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatko, Franciszek; Ulrichs, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    (1) Background: An analysis of work-related accidents in paramedics in Poland by presenting the model and trend of accidents, accident rates and by identifying causes and results of accidents; (2) Methods: A retrospective analysis of medical documentation regarding work-related accidents in a multi-specialist hospital, located in central Poland, in the period 2005–2015. The study group included paramedics who had an accident while being on duty; (3) Results: According to hospital records, 88 paramedics were involved in 390 accidents and 265 injuries caused by sharp instruments. The annual accident rate was 5.34/100 employed paramedics. Most of the accidents occurred at night. The most common reason for the accident was careless behaviour of the paramedic, which resulted in joint sprains and dislocations. Injuries accounted for a huge portion of the total number of events. As many as 45% of injuries were not officially recorded; (4) Conclusion: High rates of work-related accidents and injuries caused by sharp instruments in paramedics are a serious public health problem. Further studies should be conducted in order to identify risk factors of accidents, particularly injuries, and to implement preventative programmes, aiming to minimise rates of occupational hazards for paramedics. PMID:28796193

  7. Work-Related Accidents and Sharp Injuries in Paramedics—Illustrated with an Example of a Multi-Specialist Hospital, Located in Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Garus-Pakowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: An analysis of work-related accidents in paramedics in Poland by presenting the model and trend of accidents, accident rates and by identifying causes and results of accidents; (2 Methods: A retrospective analysis of medical documentation regarding work-related accidents in a multi-specialist hospital, located in central Poland, in the period 2005–2015. The study group included paramedics who had an accident while being on duty; (3 Results: According to hospital records, 88 paramedics were involved in 390 accidents and 265 injuries caused by sharp instruments. The annual accident rate was 5.34/100 employed paramedics. Most of the accidents occurred at night. The most common reason for the accident was careless behaviour of the paramedic, which resulted in joint sprains and dislocations. Injuries accounted for a huge portion of the total number of events. As many as 45% of injuries were not officially recorded; (4 Conclusion: High rates of work-related accidents and injuries caused by sharp instruments in paramedics are a serious public health problem. Further studies should be conducted in order to identify risk factors of accidents, particularly injuries, and to implement preventative programmes, aiming to minimise rates of occupational hazards for paramedics.

  8. Severe Accident Recriticality Analyses (SARA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, W. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Hoejerup, F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Puska, E.K. [VTT Energy, Helsinki (Finland); Nilsson, Lars [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Sjoevall, H. [Teoliisuuden Voima Oy (Finland)

    1999-11-01

    Recriticality in a BWR has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In a BWR, the B{sub 4}C control rods would melt and relocate from the core before the fuel during core uncovery and heat-up. If electric power returns during this time-window unborated water from ECCS systems will start to reflood the partly control rod free core. Recriticality might take place for which the only mitigating mechanisms are the Doppler effect and void formation. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management measures, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: 1. the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst, 2. the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst and 3. containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core state initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality - both superprompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation - for the studied range of parameters, i. e. with core uncovery and heat-up to maximum core temperatures around 1800 K and water flow rates of 45 kg/s to 2000 kg/s injected into the downcomer. Since the recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core the power densities are high which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal/g, was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding

  9. Prevenção de acidentes: o reconhecimento das estratégias operatórias dos motociclistas profissionais como base para a negociação de acordo coletivo Accident prevention: recognition of motorcycle couriers’ work strategies as the basis for collective bargaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio Paceli Hatem Diniz

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar como o estudo das estratégias operatórias contribui para elaborar medidas de prevenção dos acidentes sofridos pelos motociclistas profissionais, conhecidos popularmente como "motoboys". Os autores apresentam uma crítica à concepção do erro humano, hegemônica dentre os especialistas em segurança do trabalho. Os resultados apresentados foram obtidos de um estudo ergonômico iniciado por demanda do sindicato dos motociclistas profissionais de Minas Gerais. No total, 85 motociclistas profissionais foram observados e entrevistados. Os procedimentos adotados foram: registro da atividade por meio de filmagens nas ruas e avenidas da cidade; autoconfrontação das cenas do filme e das rotas elaboradas em mapas, e de certos aspectos das atividades de trabalho observadas na expedição das duas empresas selecionadas. Ao final, os autores discutem os limites das normas de segurança prescritas que não consideram o saber desenvolvido pelos próprios trabalhadores. As medidas de transformação das situações geradoras de acidentes elaboradas com apoio no estudo detalhado das estratégias implementadas pelos sujeitos estudados serviram para a elaboração da convenção coletiva de trabalho.The aim of this study is to present, as operational strategies, the contribuition to elaborate some prevention measures to protect the professional motorcyclists, popularly known as "motoboys", against accidents. The authors present a critic to the human error conception that is hegemonic to the experts at work security. The results come from an Ergonomics study that started over an Union demand of the professional motorcyclists in Minas Gerais. The total come to 85 professional motorciclists who were interviewed and observed. The procedures were: report the activity filmed in the city streets and avenues; selfconfrontation of the scenes and of the map rutes, and of some aspects obeserved in the two selected companies

  10. The work in Bahia: assessment for reporting accidents at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Souza de Jesus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between work and health are interconnected to a variety of situations, characterized by different stages of technological incorporation, multiple forms of organization and management, and a precarious employment relation, reflected on morbidity and mortality of workers. Thus, this study aimed to identify the profile of work accidents from the chips of communication of occupational accidents notified in the regional occupational health center in Jequié/BA. A cross-sectional study was conducted for year 2006. Data analysis was performed with SPSS software 11.0. Were analyzed 141 records of communication of occupational accidents, of which 57.9% were issued by the employer, there was a male predominance (68.1%, unmarried individuals (52.5% living in urban area (90.8%, with emphasis on the affections of the upper limbs (55.3%. Regarding for occupational aspects, 63.8% of diagnoses were for neuromuscular disorders. Removals to treatment 85.8% of workers, as well as 48.2% of reports were from the sector of manufacturing industry. Statistically significant association was found between sex and body part affected with the type of accident (p <0.05.Therefore, the composition of the accidents, according to its severity and its various types of classification, have shown that these do not constitute a single and isolated event, being unevenly distributed. It becomes essential the valorization of employee as integral and fundamental part to the economic development process of the country. Public policies to encourage prevention and health promotion in workplaces should be implemented, aiming at a possible change in the scenario of health workers in the interior of Bahia.

  11. Analysis on Dangerous Source of Large Safety Accident in Storage Tank Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Li, Ying; Xie, Tiansheng; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Xueyuan

    2018-01-01

    The difference between a large safety accident and a general accident is that the consequences of a large safety accident are particularly serious. To study the tank area which factors directly or indirectly lead to the occurrence of large-sized safety accidents. According to the three kinds of hazard source theory and the consequence cause analysis of the super safety accident, this paper analyzes the dangerous source of the super safety accident in the tank area from four aspects, such as energy source, large-sized safety accident reason, management missing, environmental impact Based on the analysis of three kinds of hazard sources and environmental analysis to derive the main risk factors and the AHP evaluation model is established, and after rigorous and scientific calculation, the weights of the related factors in four kinds of risk factors and each type of risk factors are obtained. The result of analytic hierarchy process shows that management reasons is the most important one, and then the environmental factors and the direct cause and Energy source. It should be noted that although the direct cause is relatively low overall importance, the direct cause of Failure of emergency measures and Failure of prevention and control facilities in greater weight.

  12. Impacts of chain accidents in petroleum refineries; Impactos de acidentes em cadeia em refinarias de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alencar, Joao Rui Barbosa de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)]|[Laboratorio Farmaceutico do Estado de Pernambuco S/A - LAFEPE, PE (Brazil); Barbosa, Ricardo Augusto P. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)]|[IESA - Internacional de Engenharia S.A. , Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza Junior, Mauricio Bezerra de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)]|[IESA Projetos, Equipamentos e Montagens S.A. , Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The term domino effect denotes a chain of accidents, or situations in which a fire/explosion load generated by an accident in one unit in an industry causes secondary and higher order accidents in other units. Such chains of accidents have a greater propensity to cause damage than stand-alone accidents. This work illustrates the application of models to evaluate the impacts of events with fire and explosion in LPG tanks on other similar units in the park and the possibility of occurrence of a domino effect. The criteria for occurrence of accidents with domino effect adopted in this work, were 37,5 kW/m2 in case of fire radiation and an overpressure of 0,7 atm in explosion cases in a receptor body. The spacing between LPG tanks was evaluated. The results show that such spacing is minimal and doesn't represent, as it should, a parameter indicating a safe distance able to prevent the propagation of an accident with domino effect. (author)

  13. Supplemental national crash severity study accident reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, D. J.; McGrath, M. T.; Balasubramanian, N.

    1980-09-01

    Accident data was collected that allows determination of the relationships between occupant injury and accident severity. The measure of severity most commonly used to characterize an accident is the velocity change experienced by the passenger compartment during the collision. In some 52 percent of the accidents contained in the pre-April 1978 National Crash Severity Study (NCSS) data file, these velocity changes were established with the CRASH computer program. A substantial number of the remaining cases were reconstructable with other methods. Procedures were developed to estimate velocity changes in two car accidents in which the damage to 484 additional accidents from the pre-April 1978 NCSS file were reconstructed to the point of having velocity change estimates for the vehicles involved.

  14. Computer Based Road Accident Reconstruction Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Batista

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Since road accident analyses and reconstructions are increasinglybased on specific computer software for simulationof vehicle d1iving dynamics and collision dynamics, and forsimulation of a set of trial runs from which the model that bestdescribes a real event can be selected, the paper presents anoverview of some computer software and methods available toaccident reconstruction experts. Besides being time-saving,when properly used such computer software can provide moreauthentic and more trustworthy accident reconstruction, thereforepractical experiences while using computer software toolsfor road accident reconstruction obtained in the TransportSafety Laboratory at the Faculty for Maritime Studies andTransport of the University of Ljubljana are presented and discussed.This paper addresses also software technology for extractingmaximum information from the accident photo-documentationto support accident reconstruction based on the simulationsoftware, as well as the field work of reconstruction expertsor police on the road accident scene defined by this technology.

  15. Factors influencing the occurrence and severity of farm accidents: comparing work-related and nonwork-related events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, T A; Hartley, J

    2002-02-01

    Economic incentives are emerging as useful preventive approaches to motivating farmers to adopt safer farming and managerial practices. The effectiveness of these programs and incentives will be enhanced by focusing resources on factors that play a critical role in contributing to farm accidents and the injury severity. A primary objective is to identify and assess the relative impact of factors that jointly influence the probability of work-related farm accidents relative to nonwork-related accidents and the severity of farm accidents. The model uses survey data on producer characteristics, farm organization, and work routines from the Georgia Healthy Farmers Project (GHFP). A probit model describing the factors that influence the probability of a work-related accident is estimated jointly with an ordered probit model for farm accident severity. The probit model indicates that older farmers and hired farm workers have higher probabilities of experiencing work-related accidents relative to nonwork-related events. Significant variables that influence the severity of farm accidents are more difficult to identify from the ordered probit models for both work-related and nonwork-related farm accidents.

  16. Assessment of accident rate at lithuanian railways level crossings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionginas Liudvinavichius

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The most pressing problem facing the rail traffic safety experts is an accident rate at the railway level crossings. The purpose is to investigate the circumstances, which affect traffic safety at the level crossings, and to offer effective tools for experts to improve the safety the problems of these dangerous spaces of railway infrastructure. Methodology. This paper observes the logistic regression as a method to estimate the accident rate at level crossings in Lithuania. The authors have studied and evaluated the key factors affecting the safety of railway crossings. These factors are the intensity of trains and road transport means through the railway level crossing, the visibility of the approaching train from both sides of the traffic, the maximum permissible speed of the trains, the number of tracks (single track, double track, and multi-track, the level of installed alarm and automatic equipment, a density of population in this area, etc. Finally, only the factors, which might be described by mathematical expressions (numbers, were identified. Findings. By using logistic regression method, it was found that the most determinant factors at level crossings are the maximum speed of trains, poor visibility crossing (less than 1,000 m, intensity of the road traffic at crossings, and inappropriate implementation of roads crossing the rails. Based on the study results, the conclusions and recommendations were formulated which primary measures to prevent accidents at level crossing and on what level crossing should be taken urgently. Originality.Revealed trends and major causes of accidents at railway crossings of Lithuania for 2004-2011 year. The necessity of implementation of progressive technical measures for the prevention accidents on railway level crossing is proved. Practical value. About 50% of Lithuanian railway crossings do not meet the requirements of the level crossing legislation. This parameter is one of the key risk

  17. Alcool as the main responsible for recurrent road accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fabbri

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of risk factors for recurrent road accidents is the basis for prevention, but very few studies have been published on predictors of recurrence. Our objective was to determine the main variables predicting recurrent crashes in subjects attending an Emergency Department for injuries after road accidents. Over a 5-year follow-up period, we studied 2354 consecutive adult subjects, treated in the Emergency Department following a road accident in 1998. The variables of the original event were tested for predicting recurrence in a Cox proportional hazard model. During follow-up 390/2,325 (16,8% survivors were treated for injury after a new crash. The overall event rate was 34 per 1000 subject-years. Four variables (age ≤ 32 years, male sex, nighttime crash and blood alcohol concentration > 50 mg/dl were identified as independent predictors of recurrent crash. After adjustment for sex, age and night-time, alcohol was the leading predictor (relative risk 3,73; 95% confidence interval 3,00-4,64. In the presence of the four variables, the recurrence rate was as high as 145 (117-175 events per 1000 subject-years, and alcohol per se accounted for over 75% of events. In the absence of the four variables, the rate was as low as 11 (7-17 events per 1000 subject-years. Alcohol was the most powerful behavioural factor predicting recurrent events in subjects treated in an Emergency Department for injury after road accidents, along with young age, male gender and night-time. There is a call to action for preventing alcohol on the roads.

  18. Sleep Deprivation Is Associated with Bicycle Accidents and Slip and Fall Injuries in Korean Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Kim

    Full Text Available This study sought to evaluate associations between sleep time and bicycle accidents, falls under various circumstances, and dental injuries in adolescents.A total of 61,696 participants ranging from 12 to 18 years of age who completed the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS in 2013 were enrolled in this study. Bicycle riding accidents were analyzed for 17,232 bicycle-riding participants. Data were collected regarding the weekday sleep duration for the most recent 7 days, which was categorized as the 5.5-6.5 h group > the 6.5-7.5 h group. There was no significant relationship between sleep deprivation and dental injury.This study demonstrated that sleep deprivation among Korean adolescents was associated with bicycle accidents and falls at home and school. Thus, adequate sleep may be needed to prevent accidents and falls.

  19. Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control (HIRARC Accidents at Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Asmalia Che

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Power plant had a reputation of being one of the most hazardous workplace environments. Workers in the power plant face many safety risks due to the nature of the job. Although power plants are safer nowadays since the industry has urged the employer to improve their employees’ safety, the employees still stumble upon many hazards thus accidents at workplace. The aim of the present study is to investigate work related accidents at power plants based on HIRARC (Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control process. The data were collected at two coal-fired power plant located in Malaysia. The finding of the study identified hazards and assess risk relate to accidents occurred at the power plants. The finding of the study suggested the possible control measures and corrective actions to reduce or eliminate the risk that can be used by power plant in preventing accidents from occurred

  20. [Accidents with cutting and piercing materials among nursing professionals at a university hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Talita Rodrigues; Rocha, Suelen Alves; Ayres, Jairo Aparecido; Juliani, Carmen Maria Casquel Monti

    2010-12-01

    The occupational hazards to which nursing professionals are subject while performing their duties are considerable. This study aims to analyze accidents with cutting and piercing instruments involving the nursing team of a university hospital that occurred between 2002 and 2006 in order to understand the context in which they happened. The use of such information can be a prevention tool. This is a descriptive, retrospective, quantitative and qualitative study. Descriptive statistics were used for quantitative analysis and collective subject discourse was used for qualitative observation. By using report forms from the hospital's Epidemiological Surveillance Center, it was possible to identify a typology of accidents occurred in the studied period. Interviews were targeted at accident victims who had patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B and C as source patients. The findings show that a significant lack of knowledge and banalization of accidents still persist among health care professionals.

  1. OVERVIEW OF MODULAR HTGR SAFETY CHARACTERIZATION AND POSTULATED ACCIDENT BEHAVIOR LICENSING STRATEGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Sydney J [ORNL

    2014-06-01

    This report provides an update on modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) accident analyses and risk assessments. One objective of this report is to improve the characterization of the safety case to better meet current regulatory practice, which is commonly geared to address features of today s light water reactors (LWRs). The approach makes use of surrogates for accident prevention and mitigation to make comparisons with LWRs. The safety related design features of modular HTGRs are described, along with the means for rigorously characterizing accident selection and progression methodologies. Approaches commonly used in the United States and elsewhere are described, along with detailed descriptions and comments on design basis (and beyond) postulated accident sequences.

  2. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the subsurface leak remaining subsurface accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-12

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Subsurface Leak Remaining Subsurface. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  3. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the subsurface leak remaining subsurface accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-19

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Subsurface Leak Remaining Subsurface. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  4. Methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions. An accident modification function is a mathematical function describing systematic variation in the effects of road safety measures. The paper describes ten guidelines. An example is given of how to use...... limitations in developing accident modification functions are the small number of good evaluation studies and the often huge variation in estimates of effect. It is therefore still not possible to develop accident modification functions for very many road safety measures. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...

  5. Aerospace Accident - Injury Autopsy Data System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Aerospace Accident Injury Autopsy Database System will provide the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) Aerospace Medical Research Team (AMRT) the ability to...

  6. Organizations in context: proposal for a new theoretical approach in prescriptive accident research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang; Jensen, Per Langå

    2004-01-01

    Lately, requests have been made for including the contexts of enterprises in models to prevent accidents at work. This paper/article presents different contextual theories in order to prove/analyze whether this type of theories could be a way to introduce the context. A differentiation is made...... between understanding the processes in the enterprises and understanding the contextual relations. Decision-making theories are used to explain the internal processes. And regulatory approaches are used to describe the role of the state in regard to accident prevention in enterprises. Eventually...

  7. Risky driving and the perception of motorcycle accident causes among Chinese motorcyclists in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Andy S K; Ng, Terry C K

    2012-09-01

    The primary purposes of this study were to explore the relationship between risk-taking acts while driving motorcycles and perceived causes of motorcycle accidents, as well as their contribution to active involvement in traffic accidents among Chinese motorcyclists in Hong Kong. Active involvement means the riders was likely at fault for the crash. A total of 774 motorcyclists were recruited, of whom 292 had been involved in active motorcycle accident in the previous 3 years. All were asked to fill in a questionnaire, which was developed to assess their risk-taking acts while driving a motorcycle and perception of motorcycle accident causes. The results of the study revealed 3 dimensions of accident causes, namely, driving-related, environment-related, and belief-related causes. These motorcycle accident causes were correlated with risk-taking acts while driving a motorcycle. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that risk-taking acts while driving motorcycles (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.036, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.020-1.052), perception of driving-related cause (adjusted OR: 0.941, 95% CI: 0.916-0.967), and belief-related cause (adjusted OR: 1.134, 95% CI: 1.088-1.182) were significant factors contributing to involvement in active traffic accidents by motorcycle riders after controlling for concurrent demographic variables. The study highlights that perceived causes of motorcycle accidents are multidimensional, including those areas related to driving, the environment, and beliefs. It substantiates previous studies that a higher degree of driving-related risk perception is related to a lower degree of risk-taking acts while driving. Further research is needed to understand why belief-related causes, sometimes called superstitions, lead riders to believe that it is beyond their ability to affect accident causation and prevention.

  8. Off-road truck-related accidents in U.S. mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindarloo, Saeid R.; Pollard, Jonisha P.; Siami-Irdemoosa, Elnaz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Off-road trucks are one of the major sources of equipment-related accidents in the U.S. mining industries. A systematic analysis of all off-road truck-related accidents, injuries, and illnesses, which are reported and published by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), is expected to provide practical insights for identifying the accident patterns and trends in the available raw database. Therefore, appropriate safety management measures can be administered and implemented based on these accident patterns/trends. Methods A hybrid clustering-classification methodology using K-means clustering and gene expression programming (GEP) is proposed for the analysis of severe and non-severe off-road truck-related injuries at U.S. mines. Using the GEP sub-model, a small subset of the 36 recorded attributes was found to be correlated to the severity level. Results Given the set of specified attributes, the clustering sub-model was able to cluster the accident records into 5 distinct groups. For instance, the first cluster contained accidents related to minerals processing mills and coal preparation plants (91%). More than two-thirds of the victims in this cluster had less than 5 years of job experience. This cluster was associated with the highest percentage of severe injuries (22 severe accidents, 3.4%). Almost 50% of all accidents in this cluster occurred at stone operations. Similarly, the other four clusters were characterized to highlight important patterns that can be used to determine areas of focus for safety initiatives. Conclusions The identified clusters of accidents may play a vital role in the prevention of severe injuries in mining. Further research into the cluster attributes and identified patterns will be necessary to determine how these factors can be mitigated to reduce the risk of severe injuries. Practical application Analyzing injury data using data mining techniques provides some insight into attributes that are associated with

  9. Correspondence model of occupational accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Conte

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a new generalized model for the diagnosis and prediction of accidents among the Spanish workforce. Based on observational data of the accident rate in all Spanish companies over eleven years (7,519,732 accidents, we classified them in a new risk-injury contingency table (19×19. Through correspondence analysis, we obtained a structure composed of three axes whose combination identifies three separate risk and injury groups, which we used as a general Spanish pattern. The most likely or frequent relationships between the risk and injuries identified in the pattern facilitated the decision-making process in companies at an early stage of risk assessment. Each risk-injury group has its own characteristics, which are understandable within the phenomenological framework of the accident. The main advantages of this model are its potential application to any other country and the feasibility of contrasting different country results. One limiting factor, however, is the need to set a common classification framework for risks and injuries to enhance comparison, a framework that does not exist today. The model aims to manage work-related accidents automatically at any level.Apresentamos aqui um modelo generalizado para o diagnóstico e predição de acidentes na classe de trabalhadores da Espanha. Baseados em dados sobre a frequência de acidentes em todas as companhias da Espanha em 11 anos (7.519.732 acidentes, nós os classificamos em uma nova tabela de contingência risco-injúria (19×19. Através de uma análise por correspondência obtivemos uma estrutura composta por 3 eixos cuja combinação identifica 3 grupos separados de risco e injúria, que nós usamos como um perfil geral na Espanha. As mais prováveis ou frequentes relações entre risco e injúrias identificadas nesse perfil facilitaram o processo de decisão nas companhias em um estágio inicial de apreciação do risco. Cada grupo de risco-injúria tem suas próprias caracter

  10. iROCS: Integrated accident management framework for coping with beyond-design-basis external events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaewhan; Park, Soo-Yong; Ahn, Kwang-Il, E-mail: kiahn@kaeri.re.kr; Yang, Joon-Eon

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • An integrated mitigating strategy to cope with extreme external events, iROCS, is proposed. • The strategy aims to preserve the integrity of the reactor vessel as well as core cooling. • A case study for an extreme damage state is performed to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of candidate mitigation strategies under an extreme event. - Abstract: The Fukushima Daiichi accident induced by the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011, poses a new challenge to the nuclear society, especially from an accident management viewpoint. This paper presents a new accident management framework called an integrated, RObust Coping Strategy (iROCS) to cope with beyond-design-basis external events (BDBEEs). The iROCS approach is characterized by classification of various plant damage conditions (PDCs) that might be impacted by BDBEEs and corresponding integrated coping strategies for each of PDCs, aiming to maintain and restore core cooling (i.e., to prevent core damage) and to maintain the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel if it is judged that core damage may not be preventable in view of plant conditions. From a case study for an extreme damage condition, it showed that candidate accident management strategies should be evaluated from the viewpoint of effectiveness and feasibility against accident scenarios and extreme damage conditions of the site, especially when employing mobile or portable equipment under BDBEEs within the limited time available to achieve desired goals such as prevention of core damage as well as a reactor vessel failure.

  11. [Accident with biological material at the prehospital mobile care: reality for health and non-healthcare workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga; Silva, Elisangelo Aparecido Costa; Teles, Sheila Araújo; Mendonça, Katiane Martins; Souza, Adenícia Custódia Silva E; Melo, Dulcelene Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Analytical transversal study that was conducted with the objectives of identifying the prevalence and characterizing the accidents with biological material among professionals in pre-hospital service (PHS) and comparing the risk behaviors adopted by healthcare and non-healthcare groups that can affect the occurrence and seriousness of such accidents. Data were obtained by questionnaire applied to all PHS workers in Goiânia-GO. The study revealed a high prevalence of accidents involving biological material which, although higher for the healthcare group, also affected the non-healthcare group. There were significant (p accidents in both groups: not using gloves, masks or eye protectors; inappropriate disposal of sharps; inadequate dress; re-capping of needles; and a lack of immunization against hepatitis B. The results underscore the importance of both groups in adhering to preventive measures, and further point to the need to structure and implement vigilance and control system for this type of accident.

  12. GIS based analysis of Intercity Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, A; Zare, M; Darparesh, M; Mohseni, S; Soleimani-Ahmadi, M

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic accidents including intercity car traffic accidents (ICTAs) are among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality due to the growing number of vehicles, risky behaviors, and changes in lifestyle of the general population. A sound knowledge of the geographical distribution of car traffic accidents can be considered as an approach towards the accident causation and it can be used as an administrative tool in allocating the sources for traffic accidents prevention. This study was conducted to investigate the geographical distribution and the time trend of fatal intercity car traffic accidents in Iran. To conduct this descriptive study, all Iranian intercity road traffic mortality data were obtained from the Police reports in the Statistical Yearbook of the Governor's Budget and Planning. The obtained data were for 17 complete Iranian calendar years from March 1997 to March 2012. The incidence rate (IR) of fatal ICTAs for each year was calculated as the total number of fatal ICTAs in every 100000 population in specified time intervals. Figures and maps indicating the trends and geographical distribution of fatal ICTAs were prepared while using Microsoft Excel and ArcGis9.2 software. The number of fatal car accidents showed a general increasing trend from 3000 in 1996 to 13500 in 2012. The incidence of fatal intercity car accidents has changed from six in 100000 population in 1996 to 18 in 100000 population in 2012. GIS based data showed that the incidence rate of ICTAs in different provinces of Iran was very divergent. The highest incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Semnan province (IR= 35.2), followed by North Khorasan (IR=22.7), and South Khorasan (IR=22). The least incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Tehran province (IR=2.4) followed by Khozestan (IR=6.5), and Eastern Azarbayejan (IR=6.6). The compensation cost of fatal ICTAs also showed an increasing trend during the studied period. Since an increasing amount of money was being paid yearly for the car

  13. GIS based analysis of Intercity Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, A; Zare, M; Darparesh, M; Mohseni, S; Soleimani-Ahmadi, M

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic accidents including intercity car traffic accidents (ICTAs) are among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality due to the growing number of vehicles, risky behaviors, and changes in lifestyle of the general population. A sound knowledge of the geographical distribution of car traffic accidents can be considered as an approach towards the accident causation and it can be used as an administrative tool in allocating the sources for traffic accidents prevention. This study was conducted to investigate the geographical distribution and the time trend of fatal intercity car traffic accidents in Iran. To conduct this descriptive study, all Iranian intercity road traffic mortality data were obtained from the Police reports in the Statistical Yearbook of the Governor’s Budget and Planning. The obtained data were for 17 complete Iranian calendar years from March 1997 to March 2012. The incidence rate (IR) of fatal ICTAs for each year was calculated as the total number of fatal ICTAs in every 100000 population in specified time intervals. Figures and maps indicating the trends and geographical distribution of fatal ICTAs were prepared while using Microsoft Excel and ArcGis9.2 software. The number of fatal car accidents showed a general increasing trend from 3000 in 1996 to 13500 in 2012. The incidence of fatal intercity car accidents has changed from six in 100000 population in 1996 to 18 in 100000 population in 2012. GIS based data showed that the incidence rate of ICTAs in different provinces of Iran was very divergent. The highest incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Semnan province (IR= 35.2), followed by North Khorasan (IR=22.7), and South Khorasan (IR=22). The least incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Tehran province (IR=2.4) followed by Khozestan (IR=6.5), and Eastern Azarbayejan (IR=6.6). The compensation cost of fatal ICTAs also showed an increasing trend during the studied period. Since an increasing amount of money was being paid yearly for the

  14. Radiological accidents balance in medicine; Bilan des accidents radiologiques en medecine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenot, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    This work deals with the radiological accidents in medicine. In medicine, the radiation accidents on medical personnel and patients can be the result of over dosage and bad focusing of radiotherapy sealed sources. Sometimes, the accidents, if they are unknown during a time enough for the source to be spread and to expose a lot of persons (in the case of source dismantling for instance) can take considerable dimensions. Others accidents can come from bad handling of linear accelerators and from radionuclide kinetics in some therapies. Some examples of accidents are given. (O.L.). 11 refs.

  15. Squeal Those Tires! Automobile-Accident Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caples, Linda Griffin

    1992-01-01

    Methods use to reconstruct traffic accidents provide settings for real life applications for students in precalculus, mathematical analysis, or trigonometry. Described is the investigation of an accident in conjunction with the local Highway Patrol Academy integrating physics, vector, and trigonometry. Class findings were compared with those of…

  16. Anomalies hematologiques au cours des accidents vasculaires ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anomalies hematologiques au cours des accidents vasculaires cerebraux a Abidjan des (Cote d'Ivoire) ... Introduction: En Côte d'Ivoire, les accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC) sont de plus en ... The objective of the study was to report the hematological abnormalities in the stroke among black African patients in Abidjan.

  17. Fatal traffic accidents and forensic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Kibayashi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a traffic accident fatality, the death is reported as an “unusual death,” an inquest is conducted, and, if necessary, a forensic autopsy is performed to prove any causal relationship between the accident and the death, identify the vehicle at fault, and determine the cause of the accident. A forensic autopsy of a traffic accident fatality needs to both determine the cause of death and identify the mechanism of injury, an analytical task that requires observation of three major traffic accident factors: the body, the vehicles involved, and the scene of the accident. Also crucial to determining the cause of death is the process of looking into whether the people involved in the accident had any diseases that might affect their driving performance or were under the influence of alcohol or drugs. In order to reduce the number of people killed in traffic accidents, it will be important to promote joint research uniting forensic medicine, clinical medicine, automotive engineering, and road engineering, take measures to limit the impact of inebriated pedestrians and pedestrians suffering from dementia, and ensure proper screening of alcohol and illegal drug consumption in drivers.

  18. Self-Control, Accidents, and Crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junger, Marianne; Tremblay, Richard E.

    1999-01-01

    According to self-control theory, crime and accident involvement are positively related. Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990) argued that this relation is spurious and results from the fact that both accidents and crime are the result of a lack of self-control. In particular, they argued that a positive

  19. Light-water reactor accident classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washburn, B.W.

    1980-02-01

    The evolution of existing classifications and definitions of light-water reactor accidents is considered. Licensing practice and licensing trends are examined with respect to terms of art such as Class 8 and Class 9 accidents. Interim definitions, consistent with current licensing practice and the regulations, are proposed for these terms of art.

  20. Sample Accident Report for AEE Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Experiential Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Gathers comprehensive information about accidents and near misses occurring in outdoor programs. Includes checklists for types of injury/illness, program activity, and contributing factors. Asks for analysis and recommendations, comments by the program director, and a narrative description of how the accident happened, treatment given, and…

  1. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  2. Investigation Effect of Biorhythm on Work-Related Accidents in The Metal Industry (A Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanollah Habibi

    2016-07-01

    and increasing the knowledge of workers regarding biological cycle and its effects on mental, emotional and physical status, each person effects can make some changes to their work plans during days that they do not feel well, physically or mentally, in order to prevent the likely accidents.

  3. Man, road and vehicle: risk factors associated with the severity of traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Rosa Lívia Freitas de; Bezerra Filho, José Gomes; Braga, José Ueleres; Magalhães, Francismeire Brasileiro; Macedo, Marinila Calderaro Munguba; Silva, Kellyanne Abreu

    2013-08-01

    To describe the main characteristics of victims, roads and vehicles involved in traffic accidents and the risk factors involved in accidents resulting in death. METHODS A non-concurrent cohort study of traffic accidents in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, in the period from January 2004 to December 2008. Data from the Fortaleza Traffic Accidents Information System, the Mortality Information System, the Hospital Information System and the State Traffic Department Driving Licenses and Vehicle database. Deterministic and probabilistic relationship techniques were used to integrate the databases. First, descriptive analysis of data relating to people, roads, vehicles and weather was carried out. In the investigation of risk factors for death by traffic accident, generalized linear models were used. The fit of the model was verified by likelihood ratio and ROC analysis. RESULTS There were 118,830 accidents recorded in the period. The most common types of accidents were crashes/collisions (78.1%), running over pedestrians (11.9%), colliding with a fixed obstacle (3.9%), and with motorcycles (18.1%). Deaths occurred in 1.4% of accidents. The factors that were independently associated with death by traffic accident in the final model were bicycles (OR = 21.2, 95%CI 16.1;27.8), running over pedestrians OR = 5.9 (95%CI 3.7;9.2), collision with a fixed obstacle (OR = 5.7, 95%CI 3.1;10.5) and accidents involving motorcyclists (OR = 3.5, 95%CI 2.6;4.6). The main contributing factors were a single person being involved (OR = 6.6, 95%CI 4.1;10.73), presence of unskilled drivers (OR = 4.1, 95%CI 2.9;5.5) a single vehicle (OR = 3.9, 95%CI 2,3;6,4), male (OR = 2.5, 95%CI 1.9;3.3), traffic on roads under federal jurisdiction (OR = 2.4, 95%CI 1.8;3.7), early morning hours (OR = 2.4, 95%CI 1.8;3.0), and Sundays (OR = 1.7, 95%CI 1.3;2.2), adjusted according to the log-binomial model. CONCLUSIONS Activities promoting the prevention of traffic accidents should primarily focus on

  4. The importance of commitment, communication, culture and learning for the implementation of the Zero Accident Vision in 27 companies in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Kines, P.; Ruotsala, R.; Drupsteen, L.; Merivirta, M.L.; Bezemer, R.A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the findings are presented of a multinational study involving 27 companies that have adopted a ‘Zero Accident Vision’ (ZAV). ZAV is the ambition that all accidents are preventable, and this paper focuses on how companies implement ZAV through ZAV commitment, safety communication,

  5. Fietsongevallen bij kinderen in Nederland in 1990/1991: tijd voor fietshelmen [Bicycle accidents of children in the Netherlands in 1990/1991; time for cycle helmets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirasing, R.A.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Kampen, L.T.B. van

    1994-01-01

    Objective. To assess the possibility of preventing consequences of bicycle accidents. Design. Retrospective study. Setting. The Netherlands. Material and method. The data on mortality and hospital admissions of children aged 0-14 years were analysed. The data on traffic accident fatalities were

  6. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident Study Information Portal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawn St. Germain; Curtis Smith; David Schwieder; Cherie Phelan

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents a description of The Fukushima Daiichi Accident Study Information Portal. The Information Portal was created by the Idaho National Laboratory as part of joint NRC and DOE project to assess the severe accident modeling capability of the MELCOR analysis code. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident Study Information Portal was created to collect, store, retrieve and validate information and data for use in reconstructing the Fukushima Daiichi accident. In addition to supporting the MELCOR simulations, the Portal will be the main DOE repository for all data, studies and reports related to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station. The data is stored in a secured (password protected and encrypted) repository that is searchable and accessible to researchers at diverse locations.

  7. 'It was a freak accident': an analysis of the labelling of injury events in the US press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine C; Girasek, Deborah C; Baker, Susan P; Manganello, Jennifer A; Bowman, Stephen M; Samuels, Alicia; Gielen, Andrea C

    2012-02-01

    Given that the news media shape our understanding of health issues, a study was undertaken to examine the use by the US media of the expression 'freak accident' in relation to injury events. This analysis is intended to contribute to the ongoing consideration of lay conceptualisation of injuries as 'accidents'. LexisNexis Academic was used to search three purposively selected US news sources (Associated Press, New York Times and Philadelphia Inquirer) for the expression 'freak accident' over 5 years (2005-9). Textual analysis included both structured and open coding. Coding included measures for who used the expression within the story, the nature of the injury event and the injured person(s) being reported upon, incorporation of prevention information within the story and finally a phenomenological consideration of the uses and meanings of the expression within the story context. Results The search yielded a dataset of 250 human injury stories incorporating the term 'freak accident'. Injuries sustained by professional athletes dominated coverage (61%). Fewer than 10% of stories provided a clear and explicit injury prevention message. Stories in which journalists employed the expression 'freak accident' were less likely to include prevention information than stories in which the expression was used by people quoted in the story. Journalists who frame injury events as freak accidents may be an appropriate focus for advocacy efforts. Effective prevention messages should be developed and disseminated to accompany injury reporting in order to educate and protect the public.

  8. Cold Vacuum Drying facility design basis accident analysis documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CROWE, R.D.

    2000-08-08

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR. The calculations in this document address the design basis accidents (DBAs) selected for analysis in HNF-3553, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report'', Annex B, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' The objective is to determine the quantity of radioactive particulate available for release at any point during processing at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and to use that quantity to determine the amount of radioactive material released during the DBAs. The radioactive material released is used to determine dose consequences to receptors at four locations, and the dose consequences are compared with the appropriate evaluation guidelines and release limits to ascertain the need for preventive and mitigative controls.

  9. [Accidents and injuries in the EU. Results of the EuroSafe Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, R; Steiner, M; Kisser, R; Macey, S M; Thayer, D

    2014-06-01

    Accidents and injuries are a relevant although largely preventable public health problem. Information on the causes of accidents is the basis for accident prevention and product safety. The current report "Injuries in the European Union", edited by EuroSafe, the European Association for Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion, is a summary of key statistics on accidents and injuries at the EU level. In addition to international data on cause of death, the data of the European Injury Data Base (IDB) in particular are presented. The IDB is a unique data source for the EU based on an internationally standardized dataset of external causes and circumstances of injuries, which is collected in the emergency department of hospitals. Thus, the IDB covers the entire spectrum of accidents and injuries in sufficient detail as is necessary for the derivation of preventive measures and the knowledge of involved products. The currently available IDB data are collected by the participating Member States (2012: Austria, Cyprus, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Malta, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia, and Sweden) in self-interest (i.e., without legal obligation) with the support of the EU health programs. The central database for the IDB is run by the European Commission and provides public access to the aggregated data of the participating countries. Currently, over 100 IDB hospitals in the EU upload around 300,000 cases per year into the EU database. The IDB contains information on all accident sectors (transport, workplace, school etc.) with a focus on leisure and sports accidents. Depending on the accident sector, up to 25 variables (activities, products involved, means of transport etc.) and often also short narratives are recorded for each case. The report shows that 40 million people are treated in a hospital annually in the EU after accidents and violence, and that about 233,000 people die as a consequence of injury. There are large differences between countries

  10. Analysis of traffic accidents in Romania, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Călinoiu, Geovana; Minca, Dana Galieta; Furtunescu, Florentina Ligia

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to underline the main consequences of traffic accidents in Romania 2009 and their associated causes or circumstances. We identified some problematic geographic areas, some critical months or moments of the day and also the most frequent causes; all these should become targets for the future planning. The current analysis provides some priority criteria for public health interventions. So, the future national road safety strategy should be in line with the EU objectives, but also with the national priorities. Romania is far away from the average EU target for 2010 of halving the death by traffic accidents registered in 2001. To describe the circumstances and the consequences related to traffic accidents registered in Romania, for the year 2009. An ecological study was conducted. The traffic accidents circumstances were analyzed in terms of magnitude, geographic space, time and cause. The consequences were analyzed as affected people and damaged cars. A total of 28,627 traffic accidents were registered in Romania during the year 2009. 2,796 people were killed and 27,968 were hospitalized and 42,443 cars were damaged. 3 of 4 accidents were caused by violations on behalf of the car drivers. Most common violations in car drivers were excess of speed and priority violations (52.4%). Among the pedestrians, 7 of 10 accidents were caused by illegal crossing. A higher number of accidents occurred during the summer months and during the evening hours (from 5.00 pm till 8.00 pm). The traffic accidents represent a real public health problem in Romania and a serious burden for the health system. The gap between Romania and the other EU member states needs to be diminished in the next decade. In this purpose, the future national road safety strategy should be in line with the EU objectives, but also with the national priorities. Research is needed to understand the causes and the socio-economical impact of traffic accidents and to define appropriate national

  11. ACCIDENTS IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE: PREVENTIVE NURSING CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Conceição Leite Funchal Camacho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar acidentes em idosos com Doença de Alzheimer (DA. Método: É uma pesquisa de natureza quantitativa cujo cenário deste estudo foi o Centro de DA de acordo com a Resolução 196/96 aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética e Pesquisa do Instituto de Psiquiatria da UFRJ com protocolo nº0026.0.249.000-08. Os sujeitos foram 20 pacientes e a coleta de dados ocorreu de Abril a Agosto de 2009. A análise do conteúdo foi organizado em categorias temáticas. Resultados: As categorias apontaram os seguintes problemas com os pacientes: quedas (35%; biossegurança (60%; deambulação (15%; cozinhar e controle de medicações (100%. Conclusão: Com a progressão dos déficits de memória e orientação percebemos que os déficits de cuidados nas atividades de vida diária tiveram uma tendência progressiva de piora.

  12. 48 CFR 652.236-70 - Accident Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... noise levels. (b) Records. The contractor shall maintain an accurate record of exposure data on all... contractor shall provide and maintain work environments and procedures which will safeguard the public and... requirements regarding safety if the work involves: (i) Scaffolding; (ii) Work at heights above two (2) meters...

  13. GROUND ICING OF AIRCRAFT: MEASURES TO PREVENT ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Storozhuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the pre-conditions for aircraft ground icing, the dynamics of traffic increase in the Russian avia-tion, the urgency of the problem and the ways and methods of it is solution and improvement of aircraft anti-icing protec-tion.

  14. Preventing drowsiness accidents by an alertness maintenance device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, W.B.; Zaidel, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    The reported experiment investigated in an advanced driving simulator whether drivers' alertness can be maintained in drowsiness-inducing conditions by a special game-like system, a `gamebox'. Drowsiness was assessed by self-rating and eye-closures. Mental effort was assessed by a subjective

  15. Foreign body in scrotum following a boat engine blast accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mante, S D; Yeboah, E D; Adusei, B; Edusa, S

    2013-03-01

    Male genital injuries, demand prompt management to prevent long-term sexual and psychological damage. Injuries to the scrotum and contents may produce impaired fertility.We report our experience in diagnosing and managing a case of a foreign body in the scrotum following a boat engine blast accident. This case report highlights the need for a good history and thorough general examination to establish the mechanism of injury in order to distinguish between an embedded penetrating projectile injury and an injury with an exit wound. Prompt surgical exploration with hematoma evacuation limits complications.

  16. Countermeasures to the problem of accidents to intoxicated pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, T P; Kloeden, C N; Lindsay, V L

    2010-04-01

    A substantial part of the pedestrian accident problem arises from intoxicated pedestrians. Possible countermeasures are reviewed, organised into: (a) prevention of high levels of intoxication in pedestrians, (b) minimising pedestrian activity in the intoxicated, and (c) minimising risk of injury among intoxicated pedestrians. It is concluded that improved safety of intoxicated pedestrians is most likely to come about by making the environment safer for all pedestrians, drunk or sober. The measure that would be expected to have the greatest effect quickest is a reduced speed limit, especially in locations where traffic is busy and there are many pedestrians.

  17. Road traffic accidents in children: the 'what', 'how' and 'why'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yue Yen; Fang, Eric; Weng, Yanyi; Ganapathy, Sashikumar

    2017-12-07

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) in Singapore involving children were evaluated, with particular focus on the epidemiology, surrounding circumstances and outcomes of these accidents. Key factors associated with worse prognosis were identified. We proposed some measures that may be implemented to reduce the frequency and severity of such accidents. This was a retrospective study of RTAs involving children aged 0-16 years who presented to the Children's Emergency at KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore, from January 2011 to June 2014. Data was obtained from the National Trauma Registry and analysed in tiers based on the Injury Severity Score (ISS). 1,243 accidents were reviewed. RTA victims included motor vehicle passengers (60.4%), pedestrians (28.5%), cyclists (9.9%) and motorbike pillion riders (1.2%). Disposition of emergency department (ED) patients was consistent with RTA severity. For serious RTAs, pedestrians accounted for 63.6% and 57.7% of tier 1 (ISS > 15) and tier 2 (ISS 9-15) presentations, respectively. Overall use of restraints was worryingly low (36.7%). Not restraining increased the risk of serious RTAs by 8.4 times. Young age, high ISS and low Glasgow Coma Scale score predicted a longer duration of intensive care unit stay. The importance of restraints for motor vehicle passengers or helmets for motorcyclist pillion riders and cyclists in reducing morbidity cannot be emphasised enough. Suggestions for future prevention and intervention include road safety education, regulation of protective restraints, use of speed enforcement devices and creation of transport policies that minimise kerbside parking.

  18. FUKUSHIMA DAI-ICHI ACCIDENT: LESSONS LEARNED AND FUTURE ACTIONS FROM THE RISK PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOON-EON YANG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima Dai-Ichi accident in 2011 has affected various aspects of the nuclear society worldwide. The accident revealed some problems in the conventional approaches used to ensure the safety of nuclear installations. To prevent such disastrous accidents in the future, we have to learn from them and improve the conventional approaches in a more systematic manner. In this paper, we will cover three issues. The first is to identify the key issues that affected the progress of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi accident greatly. We examine the accident from a defense-in-depth point of view to identify such issues. The second is to develop a more systematic approach to enhance the safety of nuclear installations. We reexamine nuclear safety from a risk point of view. We use the concepts of residual and unknown risks in classifying the risk space. All possible accident scenarios types are reviewed to clarify the characteristics of the identified issues. An approach is proposed to improve our conventional approaches used to ensure nuclear safety including the design of safety features and the safety assessments from a risk point of view. Finally, we address some issues to be improved in the conventional risk assessment and management framework and/or practices to enhance nuclear safety.

  19. Sleep Deprivation Is Associated with Bicycle Accidents and Slip and Fall Injuries in Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Kim, Sung-Gyun; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate associations between sleep time and bicycle accidents, falls under various circumstances, and dental injuries in adolescents. A total of 61,696 participants ranging from 12 to 18 years of age who completed the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) in 2013 were enrolled in this study. Bicycle riding accidents were analyzed for 17,232 bicycle-riding participants. Data were collected regarding the weekday sleep duration for the most recent 7 days, which was categorized as sleep groups for bicycle accidents, slips and falls, and dental injuries using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Bicycle riding accidents and slips and falls in classrooms, corridors, the ground, toilets, stairs, and other unspecified situations showed positive correlations with sleep deprivation. Comparisons of groups with ≥ 7.5 h sleep, sleep, and 6.5-7.5 h sleep revealed increased associations with slips and falls under various circumstances. In particular, the aORs were higher in the groups with less sleep (aOR of the 5.5 h group > the 5.5-6.5 h group > the 6.5-7.5 h group). There was no significant relationship between sleep deprivation and dental injury. This study demonstrated that sleep deprivation among Korean adolescents was associated with bicycle accidents and falls at home and school. Thus, adequate sleep may be needed to prevent accidents and falls.

  20. The report of the criticality accident in a uranium conversion test plant in Tokai-mura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Hajime (ed.) [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy; Akashi, Makoto (ed.) [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine

    2002-03-01

    The criticality accident in the title occurred at around 10:35, on Sep. 30, 1999, cost the lives of two workers and caused many residents concern on their health. Moreover, rumors had both social and economic consequences. This report is a detailed account of the roles that many individuals and groups in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) performed in a range of the areas, and is published to discharge NIRS responsibilities in regards to the accident. The report involves chapters of detailed outline of the accident; acceptance of the victims and communications until the identification of the ''criticality'' accident; initial treatment; dose estimation (medical, hematological, physical and biological ones and that by dental metals activated by the neutron); decision making for therapeutic strategies; cooperation with the Network Council for Radiation Emergency Medicine and other medical facilities; emergency importation of medical supplies; treatment and progress (nursing system and radiation injuries); protection from radiation in medical facilities; response to nearby residents of the Plant; international response; press release; Uranium Processing Plant Criticality Accident Investigation Committee and the Health Management Committee organized by the Nuclear Safety Commission; handling of information; and radiation emergency medical preparedness at the NIRS (future issues and prospect). The report is hoped to be useful in preventing the occurrence of future accidents. (K.H.)

  1. Assessment of work-related accidents associated with waste handling in Belo Horizonte (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Marcos Pg; Pereira, Amanda F; Greco, Dirceu B; Cairncross, Sandy; Heller, Leo

    2017-10-01

    As more urban solid waste is generated, managing it becomes ever more challenging and the potential impacts on the environment and human health also become greater. Handling waste - including collection, treatment and final disposal - entails risks of work accidents. This article assesses the perception of waste management workers regarding work-related accidents in domestic and health service contexts in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. These perceptions are compared with national data from the Ministry of Social Security on accidents involving workers in solid waste management. A high proportion of accidents involves cuts and puncture injuries; 53.9% among workers exposed to domestic waste and 75% among those exposed to health service waste. Muscular lesions and fractures accounted for 25.7% and 12.5% of accidents, respectively. Data from the Ministry of Social Security diverge from the local survey results, presumably owing to under-reporting, which is frequent in this sector. Greater commitment is needed from managers and supervisory entities to ensure that effective measures are taken to protect workers' health and quality of life. Moreover, workers should defend their right to demand an accurate registry of accidents to complement monitoring performed by health professionals trained in risk identification. This would contribute to the improved recovery of injured workers and would require managers in waste management to prepare effective preventive action.

  2. Occupational accidents with exposure to biological material: Description of cases in Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Técia Maria Santos Carneiro e Cordeiro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: This study is included in the field of public health in Brazil, in particular occupational health, by the occupational accidents with exposure to biological material consists of a preventable injury. Thus, the objective was to describe risk factors the of occupational accidents with exposure to biological material and the conduct postexposure adopted notified of cases in Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN in the State of Bahia in 2012. Methods: This is a descriptive epidemiological study realized with data from the injuries of notifications SINAN in February 2013, the analysis was realized using descriptive statistics in absolute frequencies and relative. Results: The results indicate a higher occurrence of occupational accidents involving exposure to biological materials in Bahia in the female population (78.1% and aged between 30-49 years (51.5%; the blood was fluid larger contact in accidents 75.2% by percutaneous (71.5%; post-exposure procedures were adopted in accordance recommended by the Ministry of Health; divers information were not fulfilled in the notifications and only 23.8% of Occupational Accidents Comunication (CAT were issued. Conclusion: It is considered necessary to draw up strategies on occupational health and safety, consciousness of workers about the relevance of the measures adopted after occupational accidents with exposure to biological material and the training of professionals for case notification and research to fill all the fields of the notification form and also the issuance of CAT.

  3. Prediction of hydrogen concentration in nuclear power plant containment under severe accidents using cascaded fuzzy neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Geon Pil; Kim, Dong Yeong; Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Na, Man Gyun, E-mail: magyna@chosun.ac.kr

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • We present a hydrogen-concentration prediction method in an NPP containment. • The cascaded fuzzy neural network (CFNN) is used in this prediction model. • The CFNN model is much better than the existing FNN model. • This prediction can help prevent severe accidents in NPP due to hydrogen explosion. - Abstract: Recently, severe accidents in nuclear power plants (NPPs) have attracted worldwide interest since the Fukushima accident. If the hydrogen concentration in an NPP containment is increased above 4% in atmospheric pressure, hydrogen combustion will likely occur. Therefore, the hydrogen concentration must be kept below 4%. This study presents the prediction of hydrogen concentration using cascaded fuzzy neural network (CFNN). The CFNN model repeatedly applies FNN modules that are serially connected. The CFNN model was developed using data on severe accidents in NPPs. The data were obtained by numerically simulating the accident scenarios using the MAAP4 code for optimized power reactor 1000 (OPR1000) because real severe accident data cannot be obtained from actual NPP accidents. The root-mean-square error level predicted by the CFNN model is below approximately 5%. It was confirmed that the CFNN model could accurately predict the hydrogen concentration in the containment. If NPP operators can predict the hydrogen concentration in the containment using the CFNN model, this prediction can assist them in preventing a hydrogen explosion.

  4. [Morphological verification problems of Chernobyl factor influence on the testis of coal miners of Donbas-liquidators of Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2013-01-01

    Problem of a diagnostic of Chernobyl factor influences on different organs and systems of Chernobyl accident liquidators are remain actually until now. Though morbidly background which development at unfavorable work conditions in underground coalminers prevents from objective identification features of Chernobyl factor influences. The qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical law of morphogenesis changes in testis of Donbas's coalminer - non-liquidators Chernobyl accident in comparison with the group of Donbas's coalminers-liquidators Chernobyl accident, which we were stationed non determined problem. This reason stipulates to development and practical use of mathematical model of morphogenesis of a testis changes.

  5. [Morphological verification problems of Chernobyl factor influence on the prostate of coalminers of Donbas--liquidators of Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2013-12-01

    Problem of a diagnostic of Chernobyl factor influences on different organs and systems of Chernobyl accident liquidators are remain actually until now. Though morbidly background which development at unfavorable work conditions in underground coalminers prevents from objective identification features of Chernobyl factor influences. The qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical law of morphogenesis changes in prostate of Donbas's coalminer-non-liquidators Chernobyl accident in comparison with the group of Donbas's coalminers-liquidators Chernobyl accident which we were stationed non determined problem. This reason stipulates to development and practical use of mathematical model of morphogenesis of a prostatic gland changes.

  6. Occupational accidents in artisanal mining in Katanga, D.R.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Elenge

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study focuses on accidents in artisanal mining, to support policies improving miners' employability. Materials and Methods: Based on a questionnaire administered in November 2009 to a sample of 180 miners from the artisanal mining of LUPOTO, in the Province of Katanga, we explored significant trends between the accidents and their consequences and behavioral or sociological variables. Results: During the 12 months preceding the study, 392 accidents occurred, affecting 72.2% of miners. Tools handling represents 51.5%, of the accidents' causes, followed by handling heavy loads (32.9%. Factors such as age, seniority or apprenticeship did not generate significant differences. Contusions were the most common injuries (50.2%, followed by wounds (44.4%. These injuries were located in upper limbs (50.5% and in lower limbs (29.3%. 80.5% of miners were cared for by their colleagues and 50% of them could not work for more than 3 days. Physical sequelae were reported by 19% of the injured miners. Discussion: Many surveys related to accidents in the area of artisanal mining report such high frequency. The unsuitability of tools to jobs to be done is usually raised as one of the major causes of accidents. The lack of differentiation of the tasks carried out in relation to age is another factor explaining the lack of protective effect of seniority as it minimizes the contribution of experience in the worker's safety. The apprenticeship reported is inadequate; it is rather a learning by doing than anything else. That is why it lacks protective effect. Low income combined with precariousness of artisanal mining are likely to explain the low level of work stoppages. Conclusion: Tools improvement associated with adequate training seem to be the basis of accident prevention. Availability of suitable medical care should improve artisanal miners' recovery after accidents.

  7. Comparison of fatal motor vehicle accidents at passive and active railway level crossings in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirkku Laapotti

    2016-07-01

    Active warning devices are effective in preventing accidents due to road user errors. Equipping the most dangerous passive level crossings with warning devices – low cost or conventional – would increase safety. Alternatively, some level crossings could be removed altogether. A minimum requirement is that the environmental factors at passive level crossings support safe crossing.

  8. Medico-Legal Deaths From Road Traffic Accidents In Sagamu, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Road Traffic Accidents (RTA's) are a leading cause of death worldwide. Deaths that occur after the first hour of trauma are regarded as preventable deaths. Objectives: To evaluate the pattern and causes of death in the first 24hrs after RTA's. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Olabisi Onabanjo University ...

  9. Road accidents and business cycles in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An analysis of aircraft accidents involving fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucha, G. V.; Robertson, M. A.; Schooley, F. A.

    1975-01-01

    All U. S. Air Carrier accidents between 1963 and 1974 were studied to assess the extent of total personnel and aircraft damage which occurred in accidents and in accidents involving fire. Published accident reports and NTSB investigators' factual backup files were the primary sources of data. Although it was frequently not possible to assess the relative extent of fire-caused damage versus impact damage using the available data, the study established upper and lower bounds for deaths and damage due specifically to fire. In 12 years there were 122 accidents which involved airframe fires. Eighty-seven percent of the fires occurred after impact, and fuel leakage from ruptured tanks or severed lines was the most frequently cited cause. A cost analysis was performed for 300 serious accidents, including 92 serious accidents which involved fire. Personal injury costs were outside the scope of the cost analysis, but data on personnel injury judgements as well as settlements received from the CAB are included for reference.

  11. Investigation of Qom Rural Area Water Network Accident in 2010 and Minimization Approaches of Accident Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study : Accidents in water networks can lead to increase the uncounted water, costs of repair, maintenance, restoration and enter water contaminants to water network. The aim of this study is to survey the accidents of Qom rural water network and choose the right approaches to reduce the number of accidents. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, four sector of Qom province (Markazi, Dastjerd, Kahak and Qahan, were assessed over a period of 8 months (July – January 2010. This study was conducted through questionnaire of Ministry of Energy. Results: The total number of accidents was 763. The highest number of accidents in the four sectors was related to Markazi sector with 228 accidents. According to the time of the accident, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to September (19.7% and November (6.8%, respectively. According to the location of the accident on network, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to distribution network (64% and connections (17.5% and transmission pipe (18.34%, respectively. According to the type of the accident, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to breaking (47.8% and gasket failure (1.2%, respectively. Considering with the pipes’ material, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to polyethylene pipes (93% and steel and cast iron pipes (0.5%, 0.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Due to the high break rate of Polyethylene pipes, it is recommended to be placed in priority of leak detection and rehabilitation.   .

  12. Analysis of the road accidents among children in Poland and worldwide, based on a World Health Organization Report

    OpenAIRE

    Goniewicz,Mariusz; Witt, Magdalena; Chemperek, Ewa; Goniewicz, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    All kinds of injuries resulted by road accidents are the most common cause of death among children, more common than cancer and birth defects. The research presents the main problems of road safety and the nature of the causes and consequences of accidents among children based on World Health Organization Rapport. Children injuries are one of the biggest problems in modern medicine that requires vigorous and preventive actions. Children of all ages should be intensively covered by the educati...

  13. Helping HSE Team in Learning from Accident by Using the Management Oversight and Risk Tree Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Mohammadfam

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The analysis using MORT method helped the organization with learning lessons from the accident especially at the management level. In order to prevent the similar and dissimilar accidents, the inappropriate informational network within the organization, inappropriate operational readiness, lack of proper implementation of work permit, the inappropriate and lack of updated technical information systems regarding equipments and working process, and the inappropriate barriers should be considered in a special way.

  14. Research and Application of Auxiliary Optimization Technology of Power Grid Accident Processing Based on the Mode of Regulation and Control Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Houzhen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accident processing is the most important link of the scheduling of daily monitoring. The improvement of intelligent level is of great significance for improving the efficiency of accident processing scheduling, shortening the time of accident processing and preventing further deterioration of accidents. According to features of accident processing scheduling, this paper puts forward an integrated framework of aid decision-making of online accident processing based on large power grid, and carries out a study from five aspects, namely integrated information support platform, risk perception in advance, online fault diagnosis, aid decision-making afterwards and visual display, so as to conduct real-time tracking on operating state of power grid, eliminate potential safety hazards of power grid and upgrade power grid from “manual analysis” scheduling to “intelligent analysis” scheduling.

  15. Methodology of an Aircraft Accident Response System Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Željko Županič

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the ability to learn from an aircraft accident as the opportunities for learning diminish with the decline in the accident rate. A safety compromising case is studied as the processes of aircraft accident intervention and recovery can degrade the ability of an aircraft accident investigation process to enhance aviation safety by revealing accident causation. In the case study an assessment of the Slovenian aircraft accident response system was made. For the purpose of evaluating the successfulness of aircraft accident intervention and effectiveness of recovery, a model of aircraft accident response system requirements has been developed. Based on non-conformances identified by the model of requirements, remedial measures are proposed for the enhancement of the aircraft accident response system operation. Criteria for the definition of the transition from accident intervention to recovery are derived from the assessment findings in a manner not to impede the aircraft accident investigation effectiveness and efficiency.

  16. Accident analysis of large-scale technological disasters applied to an anaesthetic complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, C J; Davies, J M; Reason, J

    1992-02-01

    The occurrence of serious accidents in complex industrial systems such as at Three Mile Island and Bhopal has prompted development of new models of causation and investigation of disasters. These analytical models have potential relevance in anaesthesia. We therefore applied one of the previously described systems to the investigation of an anaesthetic accident. The model chosen describes two kinds of failures, both of which must be sought. The first group, active failures, consists of mistakes made by practitioners in the provision of care. The second group, latent failures, represents flaws in the administrative and productive system. The model emphasizes the search for latent failures and shows that prevention of active failures alone is insufficient to avoid further accidents if latent failures persist unchanged. These key features and the utility of this model are illustrated by application to a case of aspiration of gastric contents. While four active failures were recognized, an equal number of latent failures also became apparent. The identification of both types of failures permitted the formulation of recommendations to avoid further occurrences. Thus this model of accident causation can provide a useful mechanism to investigate and possibly prevent anaesthetic accidents.

  17. Emergency operating procedures improvement based on the lesson learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wen-Hsiung, E-mail: whwu1127@aec.gov.tw [Atomic Energy Council, 2F., No. 80, Sec.1, Chenggong Rd., Yonghe Dist., New Taipei City 234, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Sec. 2, Guangfu Rd., Hsinchu City 300, Taiwan (China); Liao, Lih-Yih, E-mail: lyliao@iner.gov.tw [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, No. 1000, Wenhua Rd., Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 325, Taiwan (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Discuss the problem of EOPs at the time of Fukushima accident to deal with the prolonged SBO. • Elaborate the potential risk accompanied with the emergency depressurization in the SBO. • Describe a special guideline to cope with Fukushima-like accidents and provide its technical basis. • Point out that Fukushima accident might have been prevented if improved EOPs had been used. • Propose key points and suggestions for improving the EOPs. - Abstract: One of the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident is the emergency operating procedures (EOPs) have to be improved. The BWR Owners’ Group revised the emergency procedure guidelines and addressed the lesson learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident in revision 3 in order to avoid loss of turbine-driven makeup water systems during reactor depressurization. However, the improvement deserves much more attention. The existing EOPs at the time of the accident may not be adequate enough for the prolonged station blackout condition, because resources required for performing the EOPs are vastly unavailable or gradually exhausted. The improved EOPs must not only permit early reactor pressure vessel depressurization, but also address the risk accompanied with the emergency depressurization. For this reason, Taiwan Power Company proposed the Ultimate Response Guideline (URG) to cope with Fukushima-like accidents. The main content of the URG is a two-stage depressurization strategy, namely the controlled depressurization and the emergency depressurization. The technical basis of the two-stage depressurization strategy was discussed in this paper. The effectiveness of the URG was verified by using TRAC/RELAP Advanced Computational Engine (TRACE). Besides, the emergency responses performed by Fukushima Daini nuclear power plant (Fukushima Daini NPP) were found to be very similar to the URG. The consequences of Fukushima Daini NPP somehow demonstrate that the URG is effective for Fukushima

  18. Estimating the Influence of Accident Related Factors on Motorcycle Fatal Accidents using Logistic Regression (Case Study: Denpasar-Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedagama D.M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Denpasar the capital of Bali Province, motorcycle accident contributes to about 80% of total road accidents. Out of those motorcycle accidents, 32% are fatal accidents. This study investigates the influence of accident related factors on motorcycle fatal accidents in the city of Denpasar during period 2006-2008 using a logistic regression model. The study found that the fatality of collision with pedestrians and right angle accidents were respectively about 0.44 and 0.40 times lower than collision with other vehicles and accidents due to other factors. In contrast, the odds that a motorcycle accident will be fatal due to collision with heavy and light vehicles were 1.67 times more likely than with other motorcycles. Collision with pedestrians, right angle accidents, and heavy and light vehicles were respectively accounted for 31%, 29%, and 63% of motorcycle fatal accidents.

  19. Determinants of injuries and Road Traffic Accidents amongst service personnel in a large Defence station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, Anand; Kotwal, Brig Atul; Ilankumaran, Mookkiah

    2017-07-01

    Injuries are assuming epidemic proportions globally; and in India. Also, previous decade witnessed carnage on Indian roads, with nearly 12 lakh people killed and 55 lakhs disabled in road crashes. The trend in Armed Forces is reflective of the aforesaid patterns. Behaviour and socio-demographic background of the victims are significant determinants of injuries and road accidents. Community-based epidemiological information on these aspects is envisaged to contribute in their preventive strategy. Towards this direction, the present study was conducted with aim to generate socio-behavioural profile of injuries and Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) amongst service personnel in a large defence station; and to evaluate their determinants. A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among 796 Naval personnel onboard warships in large Naval station. Data on socio-behavioural aspects and determinants of injuries and road accidents was collected using a pre-validated questionnaire; and by scrutiny of relevant records. Data was analysed using MSExcel, Epi-info and SPSS 17. Young and middle-aged persons were predominantly involved in injuries and road accidents. Two-wheeler users sustained maximum road accidents. Human factor was a significant determinant in RTAs and injuries. A majority of victims admitted that human factors were the predominant cause of road accidents; and opined that the events were preventable. Age-specific Behavioural Change Communication strategies aimed at refining user outlook are imperative; tailored to sociodemographic milieu of user/victim. Incorporation of a dynamic feedback/reporting mechanism, creation of 'armed forces-specific road safety and injury prevention policy' and safety audits on injuries and road crashes are measures in this direction.

  20. The Chernobyl accident consequences; Consequences de l'accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  1. Agricultural implications of the Fukushima nuclear accident

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nakanishi, Tomoko M; Tanoi, Keitaro

    2013-01-01

    Following the Fukushima nuclear accident, a large volume of monitoring data has been collected about the soil, air, dust, and seawater, along with data about an immense number of foods supplied to the market...

  2. Human factors in general aviation accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-07-01

    During the twelve months ending October 31, 1965, there were 122 fatal general aviation accidents in the Western Region in which the Regional Flight Surgeon's office was notified and the wreckage was located within one week. Autopsies were obtained i...

  3. FastStats: Accidents or Unintentional Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Communities Screenings Mammography Pap Tests Disability and Risk Factors Alcohol Use Illegal Drug Use Body Measurements Diet/Nutrition Disability and Functioning Exercise or Physical Activity Obesity and Overweight Smoking Injuries Accidents or Unintentional Injuries All Injuries ...

  4. Serum homocysteine levels in cerebrovascular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongte, Zolianthanga; Shaini, L; Debbarma, Asis; Singh, Th Bhimo; Devi, S Bilasini; Singh, W Gyaneshwar

    2008-04-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia has been considered an independent risk factor in the development of stroke. The present study was undertaken to evaluate serum homocysteine levels in patients with cerebrovascular accidents among the Manipuri population and to compare with the normal cases. Ninety-three cerebrovascular accident cases admitted in the hospital were enrolled for the study and twenty-seven age and sex matched individuals free from cerebrovascular diseases were taken as control group. Serum homocysteine levels were estimated by ELISA method using Axis homocysteine EIA kit manufactured by Ranbaxy Diagnostic Ltd. India. The finding suggests that hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with cerebrovascular accident with male preponderance, which increases with advancing age. However, whether hyperhomocysteinemia is the cause or the result of cerebrovascular accidents needs further investigations.

  5. Bilateral cerebrovascular accidents in incontinentia pigmenti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorillo, Loretta; Sinclair, D Barry; O'Byrne, Mary L; Krol, Alfons L

    2003-07-01

    Incontinentia Pigmenti is an X-linked dominant neurocutaneous disorder with central nervous system manifestations in 30% of cases, including seizures and mental retardation. Ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accidents have been reported rarely in incontinentia pigmenti. Chart review and literature search was performed following identification of the index case. We describe a patient with incontinentia pigmenti who developed bilateral cerebrovascular accidents in the neonatal period, with resultant severe neurologic sequelae. This is the second reported case of bilateral cerebrovascular accidents in a patient with incontinentia pigmenti. This finding may be secondary to cerebrovascular anomalies, similar to those observed in the retina. Recognition of cerebrovascular accidents as a complication of incontinentia pigmenti will hopefully lead to earlier recognition and treatment.

  6. Safety analysis of surface haulage accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolph, R.F.; Boldt, C.M.K.

    1996-12-31

    Research on improving haulage truck safety, started by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, is being continued by its successors. This paper reports the orientation of the renewed research efforts, beginning with an update on accident data analysis, the role of multiple causes in these accidents, and the search for practical methods for addressing the most important causes. Fatal haulage accidents most often involve loss of control or collisions caused by a variety of factors. Lost-time injuries most often involve sprains or strains to the back or multiple body areas, which can often be attributed to rough roads and the shocks of loading and unloading. Research to reduce these accidents includes improved warning systems, shock isolation for drivers, encouraging seatbelt usage, and general improvements to system and task design.

  7. The determinants of fishing vessel accident severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Di

    2014-05-01

    The study examines the determinants of fishing vessel accident severity in the Northeastern United States using vessel accident data from the U.S. Coast Guard for 2001-2008. Vessel damage and crew injury severity equations were estimated separately utilizing the ordered probit model. The results suggest that fishing vessel accident severity is significantly affected by several types of accidents. Vessel damage severity is positively associated with loss of stability, sinking, daytime wind speed, vessel age, and distance to shore. Vessel damage severity is negatively associated with vessel size and daytime sea level pressure. Crew injury severity is also positively related to the loss of vessel stability and sinking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Avancée dans la prévention des « chutes de plain-pied » au travail Progress in the prevention of occupational “falls on the same level”. Proposed operational definition of a new category: “Motion perturbation accidents (MPAs” Avances en la prevención de « caídas al mismo nivel » en el trabajo. Propuesta de la definición operacional de una nueva categoría : « los Accidentes con Perturbación del Movimiento (APM »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Leclercq

    2010-11-01

    causes injury due to its properties and subsequently called a “circumstantial hazard”. Finally, the reasoning behind the MPA classification is explained. In particular, it appears that prevention that focuses on the immediate causes of the injury is difficult, even impossible, in MPA cases, essentially because of requirements inherent in the work and the constraints on the enterprise to implement this prevention. Prevention implemented at the source of the risk therefore seems to be the only feasible solution. From commonplace accidents, MPAs reveal dysfunctions within the production system.Las caídas al mismo nivel continúan siendo un accidente laboral frecuente y grave. La terminología usada para describir estos accidentes es variada, relativamente imprecisa y no integra la diversidad de accidentes encontrados bajo diferentes apelaciones. En un inicio, el interés de considerar una categoría de accidentes con una perturbación del movimiento (APM es puesto en evidencia a partir de diversos extractos de relatos de accidentes laborales. A continuación, un modelo es propuesto para los APM, mostrando que en estos accidentes la lesión resulta a menudo de una asociación fortuita entre la energía del movimiento perturbado de la víctima y un elemento material, convertido en agresor por sus propiedades y subsecuentemente llamado un « peligro circunstancial ». Finalmente, el razonamiento detrás de la clasificación de estos accidentes es explicado. En particular, parece ser que la prevención enfocada en las causas inmediatas de la lesión es difícil, incluso imposible en los casos de APM, debido esencialmente a las exigencias inherentes al trabajo y a las dificultades que pesarían en la empresa para la implantación de esta prevención. La prevención realizada en la fuente del riesgo tiende entonces a convertirse en la única posibilidad. Así pues, los APM pasan de ser accidentes banales a ser reveladores de las disfunciones dentro de un sistema de

  9. Assessment of accident risks in the CRBRP. Volume 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-03-01

    Appendices to Volume I include core-related accident-sequence definition, CRBRP risk-assessment sequence-probability determinations, failure-probability data, accident scenario evaluation, radioactive material release analysis, ex-core accident analysis, safety philosophy and design features, calculation of reactor accident consequences, sensitivity study, and risk from fires.

  10. 50 CFR 25.72 - Reporting of accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of accidents. 25.72 Section 25... Reporting of accidents. Accidents involving damage to property, injury to the public or injury to wildlife..., but in no event later than 24 hours after the accident, by the persons involved, to the refuge manager...

  11. 10 CFR 76.85 - Assessment of accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment of accidents. 76.85 Section 76.85 Energy... Assessment of accidents. The Corporation shall perform an analysis of potential accidents and consequences to... postulated accidents which include internal and external events and natural phenomena in order to ensure...

  12. 29 CFR 1960.70 - Reporting of serious accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting of serious accidents. 1960.70 Section 1960.70... accidents. Agencies must provide the Office of Federal Agency Programs with a summary report of each fatal and catastrophic accident investigation. The summaries shall address the date/time of accident, agency...

  13. Violence in the accident and emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimond, B

    1994-07-01

    It is not surprising that the increased level of violence in society has had its effect upon safety within the Accident and Emergency (A & E) department. At a time when every health professional including General Practitioners (GPs) report incidents of assault during their work, it is inevitable that such incidents should also occur within hospitals. Many A & E departments now employ security firms to guard the premises and to be on call should trouble arise. Most departments would have a system of closed circuit television which may be useful in identifying and controlling trouble at an early stage and in assisting in the recognition of offenders subsequently. Unfortunately such measures are not entirely successful in preventing violence in the departments, and the nurse may be confronted by such situations as: An injured person coming in with his drunken friends on a Friday night or after a football match, bringing havoc and uproar to the department An injured spouse/cohabitee following a violent quarrel at home, with the uninjured party trailing behind fiercely defensive of his innocence and yet aggressive to others around Tramps, bewildered and terrified, denying the need for help and resisting the assistance of the staff. What is the legal position of the nurse in such situations? If the nurse fears for safety would the right exist to evict such persons from the department even though there may be severe injuries? Is the nurse permitted to take any action in self-defence? What duty exists upon the nurse's employer to secure health and safety?(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Maxillofacial Trauma Following Road Accidents and Falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einy, Shmuel; Abdel Rahman, Nura; Siman-Tov, Maya; Aizenbud, Dror; Peleg, Kobi

    2016-06-01

    Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) and falls are major causes of maxillofacial injuries posing real challenges for the medical staff. To describe the demographic and injury characteristics, as well as the treatment procedures of casualties diagnosed with maxillofacial injuries. The investigators implemented a multicenter retrospective study composed of hospitalized maxillofacial trauma patients recorded in the Israel Trauma Registry for 2000 to 2011. The predictor variable was mechanism of injury and the outcome variable was type of injury, severity, and hospital resources utilization. Descriptive and bivariate statistics with P values was set at 0.05. The study included 11,592 reported hospitalized maxillofacial trauma patients (39.4% of them were MVA, 33.5% were falls), with a male predominance of a 3:1 ratio. The high-risk age groups were the first 3 decades of life in both etiologies, while age groups above 75 years were also frequent in falls. Severity of maxillofacial injuries, multiple injuries, admission to intensive care units, hospitalization for more than 15 days, inpatient mortality, and rehabilitation after discharge was significantly higher in MVA compared with falls. Conversely, maxillofacial surgeries were performed slightly more among patients injured in falls (34.1% and 31.1% respectively), as tongue and mouth are more prone targets in falls, compared with zygoma, maxilla, mandible, and teeth in MVA. The results of this study suggest that the etiologies present an entire separate pattern of trauma. A better understanding and proper identification of their high-risk groups should lead to appropriate prevention programs and treatment protocols.

  15. Nuclear Weapon Accident Response Procedures (NARP) Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    an Nevada. N -S] assets may he included as a part of the effect into Canada or Mexico . Activities at the scene 1)o- ARti. of the accident include...OF POSSIBLE OR ACTUAL EXPOSURE TO RADIATION/CONTAMINATION AM[ or PM[ day/ vino /yr time (14) DURATION OF EXPOSURE HOURS - - MINUTES __.._-_ (15...to a nuclear weapon accident, at Kirtland AFB, New Mexico , offers a variety of courses commanders of designated response forces should ensure

  16. Serum homocysteine levels in cerebrovascular accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Zongte, Zolianthanga; Shaini, L.; Debbarma, Asis; Singh, Th Bhimo; Devi, S. Bilasini; Singh, W. Gyaneshwar

    2008-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia has been considered an independent risk factor in the development of stroke. The present study was undertaken to evaluate serum homocysteine levels in patients with cerebrovascular accidents among the Manipuri population and to compare with the normal cases. Ninety-three cerebrovascular accident cases admitted in the hospital were enrolled for the study and twenty-seven age and sex matched individuals free from cerebrovascular diseases were taken as control group. Serum h...

  17. APRI-6. Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garis, Ninos; Ljung, J (eds.) (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)); Agrenius, Lennart (ed.) (Agrenius Ingenjoersbyraa AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    Since the early 1980s, nuclear power utilities in Sweden and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) collaborate on the research in severe reactor accidents. In the beginning focus was mostly on strengthening protection against environmental impacts after a severe reactor accident, for example by develop systems for the filtered relief of the reactor containment. Since the early 90s, this focus has shifted to the phenomenological issues of risk-dominant significance. During the years 2006-2008, the partnership continued in the research project APRI-6. The aim was to show whether the solutions adopted in the Swedish strategy for incident management provides adequate protection for the environment. This is done by studying important phenomena in the core melt estimating the amount of radioactivity that can be released to the atmosphere in a severe accident. To achieve these objectives the research has included monitoring of international research on severe accidents and evaluation of results and continued support for research of severe accidents at the Royal Inst. of Technology (KTH) and Chalmers University. The follow-up of international research has promoted the exchange of knowledge and experience and has given access to a wealth of information on various phenomena relevant to events in severe accidents. The continued support to KTH has provided increased knowledge about the possibility of cooling the molten core in the reactor tank and the processes associated with coolability in the confinement and about steam explosions. Support for Chalmers has increased knowledge of the accident chemistry, mainly the behavior of iodine and ruthenium in the containment after an accident.

  18. [Sociological effects of cerebrovascular accidents. What does the clinician expect from the epidemiologist?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, J C; Awada, A

    1983-12-29

    Epidemiological research has developed along two principal paths: determination of the prevalence and incidence of cerebrovascular accidents. In this respect, there is already a useful collection of data, though inadequate and, from a specifically French standpoint, new studies are required; research into risk factors, and in this area, also, available facts are sufficient to determine primary and secondary prevention strategies, though remain inadequate. The Authors suggest widening areas of epidemiological enquiry, in particular involving short, middle and long-term hospital stays, and family or community life following the accident. Mention is made of the value of developing socio-economic studies by methods of human capital and personal preferences.

  19. Accident simulation with two commercial vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, F.A.

    1985-11-01

    Simulations of real accidents help to provide deeper insight into the dynamics of traffic accidents. Whereas collisions between passenger cars and ones between passenger cars and motorcycles have been simulated and analyzed often, hardly any such experiments involving commerical vehicles have been carried out until now. Under the sponsorship of the Deutscher Verband Fluessiggas e.V., the Accident Reasearch Department of the German Motor Vehicle Inspection Association e.V. (DEKRA) performed an experiment crashing a rubbish truck against the right side of a parked liquified-gas tanker at a speed of about 40 km/h. Analysis of the experiment provided both new knowledge for the experts on liquified gas and more general findings on the dynamics of collisions between commercial vehicles relevant to the reconstruction of traffic accidents. This article is a report on how the experiment was carried out and described results of the analysis with reference to accident reconstruction concentrating on kinematic sequences-especially those during the impulse-exchange phase. The author concludes with initial findings on the accuracy of accident reconstruction when conventional simple models are used. In this case, it was possible to calculate the rubbish truck's collision speed with an acceptable degree of deviation from its actual collision speed assuming that the impact was at 90, on the level and that it hit an absorbent object centrally. (orig.).

  20. [Causation, prevention and treatment of dust explosion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Maolong; Jia, Wenbin; Wang, Hongtao; Han, Fei; Li, Xiao-Qiang; Hu, Dahai

    2014-10-01

    With the development of industrial technology, dust explosion accidents have increased, causing serious losses of people's lives and property. With the development of economy, we should lay further emphasis on causation, prevention, and treatment of dust explosion. This article summarizes the background, mechanism, prevention, and treatment of dust explosion, which may provide some professional knowledge and reference for the treatment of dust explosion.

  1. Commuting by bike in Belgium, the costs of minor accidents.

    OpenAIRE

    Aertsens, Joris

    2010-01-01

    Minor bicycle accidents are defined as "bicycle accidents not involving death or heavily injured persons, implying that possible hospital visits last less than 24 hours". Statistics about these accidents and related injuries are very poor, because they are mostly not reported to police, hospitals or insurance companies. Yet, they form a major share of all bicycle accidents. Official registrations underestimate the number of minor accidents and do not provide cost data, nor the distance cycled...

  2. Commuting by bike in Belgium, the costs of minor accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Aertsens, Joris; de Geus, Bas; Vandenbulcke, Gregory; Degraeuwe, Bart; Broekx, Steven; DE NOCKER, Leo; Liekens, Inge; Mayeres, Inge; Meeusen, Romain; Thomas, Isabelle; Torfs, Rudi; Willems, Hanny; Int Panis, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Minor bicycle accidents are defined as "bicycle accidents not involving death or heavily injured persons, implying that possible hospital visits last less than 24 hours". Statistics about these accidents and related injuries are very poor, because they are mostly not reported to police, hospitals or insurance companies. Yet, they form a major share of all bicycle accidents. Official registrations underestimate the number of minor accidents and do not provide cost data, nor the distance cycled...

  3. Natural factors of technological accidents: the case of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Petrova, E. G.

    2011-01-01

    The data base of technological accidents and disasters that have occurred in Russia has been created. More than 13 000 information units have been collected and analyzed. The proportion of accidents triggered by natural events (natural-technological accidents or NTA) in the total number of technological accidents as well as a part of every NTA type in the total number of NTA was estimated. About 10 percent of all accidents registered in the data base were caused by natural e...

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF YOUNG AND MALE MOTORISTS ACCIDENT

    OpenAIRE

    WEDAGAMA, D.M. Priyantha

    2009-01-01

    Motorcycles are frequently used as the mode of transportation in Indonesia including the Province of Bali. Motorcycle accidents, however, were reported as 70% of the total road accidents in Bali. with reference to State Police of Bali Province accident data, young (under 26 years) and male motorists at fault significantly contributed to the occurrence of motorcycle accidents. This study investigated the influence of young and male motorist accident factors on motorcycle injuries in Bali using...

  5. Construção da participação comunitária para a prevenção de acidentes domésticos infantis Construcción de la participación comunitaria para prevenir accidentes domesticos infantiles Constructing community involvement for the prevention of home accidents in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina Inês Brunetto Verruck Acker

    2009-02-01

    ámica ¿Qué es eso?, y la dinámica Casa Simulada. CONSIDERACIONES: Se evidencia que con creatividad y congruencia el grupo de salud ha desencadenado el proceso de movilización de la comunidad para prevenir accidentes domésticos infantiles.INTRODUCTION: This paper reports part of a study whose aim was to mobilise a team for the Family Health Program to enable the citizen community involvement aiming at preventing domestic accidents for children under age five, through the theoretical framework of the Seven Theses by Roberto Briceño-Léon. METHODOLOGY: the Convergent Care Research was used with a Team for the Family Health Programme in a town in the country in Rio Grande do Sul. Educational workshops were first performed with the team and then educational activities were done with the families in the community. Data were collected through the observation, interview and content analysis. RESULTS: Creation of four educational tools: the song 'A Lição do Sapeca', dramatisation of the song, the practice called 'O que é isto?' and the practice called 'Casa Simulada'. CONSIDERATIONS: It is showed that through creativity and congruence the health team unleashed a process of the citizen community involvement for preventing child domestic accidents.

  6. Traffic accident injuries in a referral Orthopedic Hospital in North West of Iran during summer 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohammad Navali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road traffic injuries are a major public health problem, requiring huge efforts for effective and sustainable prevention. Because of the high occurrence of traffic accidents in Iran, basic data acquisition is highly needed to implement prevention plans. The present research is conducted as an epidemiological study of the traffic accident victims referred to a referral orthopedic center in North West of Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during a 3 months period from June to September 2009 in Tabriz, Iran. A total of 16681 patients were admitted to the emergency ward, and 3246 patients (19.5% were hospitalized during this period because of traffic related injuries. After randomization, 630 cases were selected to be enrolled in the study. The location of an accident, position of road users, type of crashed vehicle, cause of accident, type of injury, time interval from accident to hospitalization and treatment outcome were recorded. Statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS software. Results: The mean age of the patients was 31 years (range, 6 months to 98 years and 77.0% of patients (468 cases were men. A total of 193 (36.6% patients sustained traffic accident in open roads and 335 (63.4% in urban corridors. In 67 (12.9% of accidents, there was only a single occupant in the vehicle. The time interval between the accident and admission was 6.6 ± 3.2 hours. Of the 608 cases, 45.7% were drivers, 30.3% passengers, and 24.0% pedestrians. Most cases of the car accident happened in urban areas, and the male victims were largely in the driver group. The most frequent type of injury was knee, leg and head trauma. Conclusion: The large number of traffic-related injuries admitted to our emergency ward that comprise mostly young adults should be considered as an alarming signal to policy makers and health providers in our province. Strict control on drivers’ behavior should be taken into account if increasing human

  7. [The risk of road traffic accidents among primary school children in Kuala Terengganu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah, M; Osman, A; Masyarakat, J K; Perubatan, F

    1997-12-01

    A case control study was conducted in 1996 among primary school student in Terengganu. The objective of the study is to determine the relationship between road traffic accidents and factors such as socio-economic status, distance from school, number of siblings, behavioural problems, knowledge and attitudes of pupil and their parents towards road safety and parents' educational status. A total of 140 cases was obtained from 3 urban schools and 3 from rural schools. Cases were matched with control according to age sex and locality of residence. There were significant associations between road traffic accidents and pupils' knowledge regarding road crossing (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.19-0.85), parental supervision (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.19, 0.64) and parents having driving licences (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.856-0.999). Road safety education for pupils and parental supervision are key measures in preventing road traffic accidents among primary school children.

  8. Methodological approaches to comparing information about bicycle accidents internationally: a case study involving Canada and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhra, Christian; Wieskötter, Britta; Bellwood, Paule; von Below, Ariane; Fyfe, Murray; Salkeld, Sonia; Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre

    2013-01-01

    The use of bicycles as a mean of healthy and eco-friendly transportation is currently actively promoted in many industrialized countries. However, the number of severe bicycle accidents rose significantly in Germany and Canada in 2011. In order to identify risk factors for bicycle accidents and possible means of prevention, a study was initiated that analyses bicycle accidents from selected regions in both countries. Due to different healthcare systems and regulations, the data must be selected in different ways in each country before it can be analyzed. Data is collected by means of questionnaires in Germany and using hybrid electronic-paper records in Canada. Using this method, all relevant data can be collected in both countries.

  9. Elderly patients attended in emergency health services in Brazil: a study for victims of falls and traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gonçalves de Freitas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to describe the profile of elderly victims of falls and traffic accidents from the data of the Surveillance Survey of Violence and Accidents (VIVA. The VIVA Survey was conducted in the emergency health-services of the Unified Health System in the capitals of Brazil in 2011. The sample of elderly by type of accident was subjected to the two-step cluster procedure. Of the 2463 elderly persons in question, 79.8% suffered falls and 20.2% were the victims of traffic accidents. The 1812 elderly who fell were grouped together into 4 clusters: Cluster 1, in which all had disabilities; Cluster 2, all were non-white and falls took place in the home; Cluster 3, younger and active seniors; and Cluster 4, with a higher proportion of seniors 80 years old or above who were white. Among cases of traffic accidents, 446 seniors were grouped into two clusters: Cluster 1 of younger elderly, drivers or passengers; Cluster 2, with higher age seniors, mostly pedestrians. The main victims of falls were women with low schooling and unemployed; traffic accident victims were mostly younger and male. Complications were similar in victims of falls and traffic accidents. Clusters allow adoption of targeted measures of care, prevention and health promotion.

  10. TRAFFIC ACCIDENT-RELATED OPEN GLOBE INJURIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yoshifumi; Morikawa, Shohei; Okamoto, Fumiki; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Ueda, Tetsuo; Sakamoto, Taiji; Sugitani, Kazuhiko; Sawada, Osamu; Mori, Junya; Takamura, Yoshihiro; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate the clinical characteristics and visual outcomes of patients with traffic accident-related open globe injuries, and to examine preoperative factors influencing the visual prognosis after pars plana vitrectomy, as compared with common open globe injuries. Patients with open globe injuries, who underwent pars plana vitrectomy, were identified. Patients' demographic and clinical data were entered into a computerized database for review and analysis; data included age, sex, initial visual acuity, duration between onset of injury and surgery, information about the type and cause of injury, wound location and length, presence of ocular complications, and final visual acuity. Of the 355 open globe injuries, 14 were sustained during a traffic-related accident; the average age was 50.4 years (range: 20-85) and most (78.6%) were men. Of these 14 patients, 9 (64.3%) presented with rupture and 5 (35.7%) with laceration. Injuries were caused while driving (6 eyes; 42.9%), riding a bicycle (5 eyes; 35.7%), involved in car accident while walking (2 eyes; 14.3%), and riding a motorbike (1 eye; 7.1%). Initial visual acuity was significantly related to final visual acuity (P = 0.003, R = 0.80). The final visual acuity in patients with traffic accident-related open globe injuries was significantly better than that of the total group (P = 0.01). Traffic accident-related open globe injuries had better visual outcomes than common open globe injuries. Visual outcomes in patients with traffic accident-related open globe injuries were related to the initial visual acuity. No eyes developed endophthalmitis in patients with traffic accident-related open globe injuries.

  11. SEVERE ACCIDENT ISSUES RAISED BY THE FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT AND IMPROVEMENTS SUGGESTED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIN HO SONG

    2014-04-01

    Adequacy of current safety goals are also discussed in view of the socio-economic impact of the Fukushima accident. As a conclusion, it is suggested that an investigation on a coherent integrated safety principle for the severe accident and development of innovative mitigation features is necessary for robust and resilient nuclear power system.

  12. Administering of steady iodine in the case of a nuclear accident; La prise d'iode stable en cas d'accident nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    In the case of serious accidents, some nuclear installations, especially the nuclear power plants, can release in atmosphere radioactive elements such radioactive iodine. this radioisotope, will contribute to the populations irradiation and can lead to a thyroid cancer. Consequently tablets of steady iodine are distributed in prevention to the populations living in the vicinity of nuclear power plant. In the case of an alert of radioactive release, the Prefect will order to take these tablets. (N.C.)

  13. Daily impaired detachment and short-term effects of impaired sleep quality on next-day commuting near-accidents - an ambulatory diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Diana; Bucher, Sarah; Elfering, Achim

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the short-term effects of daily recovery, that is, impaired psychological detachment from work and various actigraphical indicators of sleep quality, on near-accidents when commuting to work the next morning. Furthermore, the mediating effect of actigraphically assessed sleep quality on the relationship between impaired psychological detachment from work and near-accidents when commuting to work was analysed. Fifty-six full-time employees of a Swiss assurance company participated in the one-week study. Multilevel analyses revealed that impaired detachment was highly related to a decrease in sleep duration. Furthermore, impaired daily recovery processes, such as impaired psychological detachment from work and disturbed sleep quality, were related to commuting near-accidents. Impaired sleep quality mediated the effect of impaired psychological detachment from work on these near-accidents. Our results show that occupational safety interventions should address both impaired psychological detachment from work and sleep quality in order to prevent near accidents when commuting to work. Practitioner Summary: Commuting accidents occur frequently and have detrimental effects on employees, organisations and society. This study shows that daily lack of recovery, that is, impaired psychological detachment and impaired sleep quality, is related to near-accidents when commuting to work the next morning. Primary prevention of commuting accidents should therefore address daily lack of recovery.

  14. Developing a Minimum Data Set for an Information Management System to Study Traffic Accidents in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Ahmadi, Maryam; Gharagozlu, Alireza

    2016-03-01

    Each year, around 1.2 million people die in the road traffic incidents. Reducing traffic accidents requires an exact understanding of the risk factors associated with traffic patterns and behaviors. Properly analyzing these factors calls for a comprehensive system for collecting and processing accident data. The aim of this study was to develop a minimum data set (MDS) for an information management system to study traffic accidents in Iran. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed in 2014. Data were collected from the traffic police, trauma centers, medical emergency centers, and via the internet. The investigated resources for this study were forms, databases, and documents retrieved from the internet. Forms and databases were identical, and one sample of each was evaluated. The related internet-sourced data were evaluated in their entirety. Data were collected using three checklists. In order to arrive at a consensus about the data elements, the decision Delphi technique was applied using questionnaires. The content validity and reliability of the questionnaires were assessed by experts' opinions and the test-retest method, respectively. An (MDS) of a traffic accident information management system was assigned to three sections: a minimum data set for traffic police with six classes, including 118 data elements; a trauma center with five data classes, including 57 data elements; and a medical emergency center, with 11 classes, including 64 data elements. Planning for the prevention of traffic accidents requires standardized data. As the foundation for crash prevention efforts, existing standard data infrastructures present policymakers and government officials with a great opportunity to strengthen and integrate existing accident information systems to better track road traffic injuries and fatalities.

  15. The Impact of Heat Waves on Occurrence and Severity of Construction Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameezdeen, Rameez; Elmualim, Abbas

    2017-01-11

    The impact of heat stress on human health has been extensively studied. Similarly, researchers have investigated the impact of heat stress on workers' health and safety. However, very little work has been done on the impact of heat stress on occupational accidents and their severity, particularly in South Australian construction. Construction workers are at high risk of injury due to heat stress as they often work outdoors, undertake hard manual work, and are often project based and sub-contracted. Little is known on how heat waves could impact on construction accidents and their severity. In order to provide more evidence for the currently limited number of empirical investigations on the impact of heat stress on accidents, this study analysed 29,438 compensation claims reported during 2002-2013 within the construction industry of South Australia. Claims reported during 29 heat waves in Adelaide were compared with control periods to elicit differences in the number of accidents reported and their severity. The results revealed that worker characteristics, type of work, work environment, and agency of accident mainly govern the severity. It is recommended that the implementation of adequate preventative measures in small-sized companies and civil engineering sites, targeting mainly old age workers could be a priority for Work, Health and Safety (WHS) policies.

  16. Predicting and analyzing the trend of traffic accidents deaths in Iran in 2014 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmandar, Mohammadreza; Soori, Hamid; Mehrabi, Yadolah

    2016-01-01

    Predicting the trend in traffic accidents deaths and its analysis can be a useful tool for planning and policy-making, conducting interventions appropriate with death trend, and taking the necessary actions required for controlling and preventing future occurrences. Predicting and analyzing the trend of traffic accidents deaths in Iran in 2014 and 2015. It was a cross-sectional study. All the information related to fatal traffic accidents available in the database of Iran Legal Medicine Organization from 2004 to the end of 2013 were used to determine the change points (multi-variable time series analysis). Using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, traffic accidents death rates were predicted for 2014 and 2015, and a comparison was made between this rate and the predicted value in order to determine the efficiency of the model. From the results, the actual death rate in 2014 was almost similar to that recorded for this year, while in 2015 there was a decrease compared with the previous year (2014) for all the months. A maximum value of 41% was also predicted for the months of January and February, 2015. From the prediction and analysis of the death trends, proper application and continuous use of the intervention conducted in the previous years for road safety improvement, motor vehicle safety improvement, particularly training and culture-fostering interventions, as well as approval and execution of deterrent regulations for changing the organizational behaviors, can significantly decrease the loss caused by traffic accidents.

  17. Evaluation of major polluting accidents in China-Results and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou Yu, E-mail: houyu@dufe.edu.cn [Dongbei University of Finance and Economics, 116025 Dalian, Liaoning (China); Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing (China); Zhang Tianzhu [Dongbei University of Finance and Economics, 116025 Dalian, Liaoning (China); Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing (China)

    2009-09-15

    Lessons learnt from accidents are essential sources for updating state-of-the-art requirements in pollution accident prevention. To improve this input in the People's Republic of China in a systematic way, a database for collecting and evaluating major pollution accidents is being established. This is being done in co-operation with Chinese Society for Environment Sciences and other national Institutions. At the time of writing over 80 major events from 2002-2006 have been collected. In this paper, a summary evaluation on the major polluting events in China from 2002 to 2006 is presented and some basic lessons drawn shown. There is no a systematic pollution accident notification system currently in China. The results from root cause analysis underline the importance of emergency measures, maintenance, human factor issues and the role of safety organization. Chronic pollution, especially water pollution and air pollution should be paid the same attention as the sudden pollution. It is important to keep in mind that collecting information from major accidents represents a small percentage of the actual number of events taking place.

  18. The Impact of Heat Waves on Occurrence and Severity of Construction Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameez Rameezdeen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of heat stress on human health has been extensively studied. Similarly, researchers have investigated the impact of heat stress on workers’ health and safety. However, very little work has been done on the impact of heat stress on occupational accidents and their severity, particularly in South Australian construction. Construction workers are at high risk of injury due to heat stress as they often work outdoors, undertake hard manual work, and are often project based and sub-contracted. Little is known on how heat waves could impact on construction accidents and their severity. In order to provide more evidence for the currently limited number of empirical investigations on the impact of heat stress on accidents, this study analysed 29,438 compensation claims reported during 2002–2013 within the construction industry of South Australia. Claims reported during 29 heat waves in Adelaide were compared with control periods to elicit differences in the number of accidents reported and their severity. The results revealed that worker characteristics, type of work, work environment, and agency of accident mainly govern the severity. It is recommended that the implementation of adequate preventative measures in small-sized companies and civil engineering sites, targeting mainly old age workers could be a priority for Work, Health and Safety (WHS policies.

  19. Causes and Severity of Fatal Injuries in Autopsies of Victims of Fatal Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Panahi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this retrospective study, we decided to determine the death causes and severity of injuries in traffic accidents according to reports of the forensic medical center of Yazd. Methods: A total of 251 fatalities due to traffic accidents that had undergone autopsy examinations at the Yazd forensic medicine center from2006 till 2008 were included in the study by census method. Data regarding gender, road user type, type of vehicle (car, motorcycle, autobus or minibus, consciousness level, and intensive care unit (ICU admission was gathered. For evaluation of injury severity, we used Injury Severity Score (ISS. Results: The population under study consisted of 202 men (80.5% and 49 women (19.5% with an average age of 34.1 years (range: 1-89 years. Motorcycle-pedestrian accidents were the most common type of injury (100, 39.8%. Head (220, 87.6% and face (169, 67.3% were the two most common sites of injuries. Mean (±SD of ISS was 23.2 (±10.4. According to autopsy records, the main cause of death was head trauma (146, 58.1%. Conclusion: Public awareness in terms of primary prevention of road accidents should be considered important. Also, regarding the high prevalence of brain injuries and complications associated with skull fractures, accessibility to neurosurgeons and availability of imaging devices have an important role in decreasing the mortality rate of traffic accidents.

  20. Burden of road traffic accidents in Nepal by calculating disability-adjusted life years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To calculate the burden of road traffic accidents in Kathmandu Valley and then extrapolate this to the national level. Methods: A prospective study was performed to compute the burden of road traffic accidents by quantification of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs using the Global Burden of Disease Study method on the basis of 1-year data from nine hospitals in Nepal and the Department of Forensic Medicine and cross-checked with the Nepal Traffic Directorate. Multiple methods were applied to the extrapolated population metrics of the burden of road traffic accidents in Nepal. Results: The total number of years of life lived in disability, years of life lost, and DALYs in Nepal were 38,848±194, 119,935±1464, and 158,783±1658 (95% confidence interval respectively. The number of years lost because of morbidity and death was similar in Kathmandu Valley. Most (75% of the DALYs resulted from years of life lost in Nepal. Males accounted for 73% of DALYs. Almost half (44% of the DALYs were contributed by the group aged 15–29 years. Conclusion: This study is the first to calculate the burden of road traffic accidents in Nepal using Nepal’s own data. Nepal needs to develop and enhance its own system to identify significant public health issues so as to set national priorities for prevention of road traffic accidents.

  1. Accidents can happen to any of us, whether we are on foot, cycling or driving

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Excessive speeding, STOP signs not respected, a cyclist on the wrong side of the road, a pedestrian not paying attention, someone on a mobile phone while driving - are you familiar with any of these situations? The HSE Unit would like to express its opinion in light of the road accident statistics involving personnel at CERN.   In 2011, the HSE Unit's Accident/Incident Prevention and Follow-up Service recorded 28 motoring accidents involving personnel either on the CERN site or on journeys to and from work - double the 2010 statistics! These include accidents that could have been avoided by reducing speed or not using a mobile phone while driving. At CERN, the majority of accidents linked to journeys continues to affect cyclists, with the number of cases now close to 30 each year. In order to ensure the safety of personnel, the HSE Unit would like to remind cyclists that wearing a protective helmet is highly recommended and that it is essential to ensure that you can be seen (bicycle lig...

  2. Reactor Safety Gap Evaluation of Accident Tolerant Components and Severe Accident Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Mitchell T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bunt, R. [Southern Nuclear, Atlanta, GA (United States); Corradini, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ellison, Paul B. [GE Power and Water, Duluth, GA (United States); Francis, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gabor, John D. [Erin Engineering, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Gauntt, R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Henry, C. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Linthicum, R. [Exelon Corp., Chicago, IL (United States); Luangdilok, W. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Lutz, R. [PWR Owners Group (PWROG); Paik, C. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Plys, M. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rempe, J. [Rempe and Associates LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Robb, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wachowiak, R. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States)

    2015-01-31

    The overall objective of this study was to conduct a technology gap evaluation on accident tolerant components and severe accident analysis methodologies with the goal of identifying any data and/or knowledge gaps that may exist, given the current state of light water reactor (LWR) severe accident research, and additionally augmented by insights obtained from the Fukushima accident. The ultimate benefit of this activity is that the results can be used to refine the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Reactor Safety Technology (RST) research and development (R&D) program plan to address key knowledge gaps in severe accident phenomena and analyses that affect reactor safety and that are not currently being addressed by the industry or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  3. Automations influence on nuclear power plants: a look at three accidents and how automation played a role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power is one of the ways that we can design an efficient sustainable future. Automation is the primary system used to assist operators in the task of monitoring and controlling nuclear power plants (NPP). Automation performs tasks such as assessing the status of the plant's operations as well as making real time life critical situational specific decisions. While the advantages and disadvantages of automation are well studied in variety of domains, accidents remind us that there is still vulnerability to unknown variables. This paper will look at the effects of automation within three NPP accidents and incidents and will consider why automation failed in preventing these accidents from occurring. It will also review the accidents at the Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima Daiichi NPP's in order to determine where better use of automation could have resulted in a more desirable outcome.

  4. Iodine behaviour in severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, L.M.C.; Grindon, E.; Handy, B.J.; Sutherland, L. [NNC Ltd., Knutsford (United Kingdom); Bruns, W.G.; Sims, H.E. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Dickinson, S. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Hueber, C.; Jacquemain, D. [IPSN/CEA, Cadarache, Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    1996-12-01

    A description is given of analyses which identify which aspects of the modelling and data are most important in evaluating the release of radioactive iodine to the environment following a potential severe accident at a PWR and which identify the major uncertainties which affect that release. Three iodine codes are used namely INSPECT, IODE and IMPAIR, and their predictions are compared with those of the PSA code MAAP. INSPECT is a mechanistic code which models iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, spray water and sump water, and the partitioning of volatile species between the aqueous phases and containment gas space. Organic iodine is not modelled. IODE and IMPAIR are semi-empirical codes which do not model iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, but model organic iodine. The fault sequences addressed are based on analyses for the Sizewell `B` design. Two types of sequence have been analysed.: (a) those in which a major release of fission products from the primary circuit to the containment occur, e.g. a large LOCAS, (b) those where the release by-passes the containment, e.g. a leak into the auxiliary building. In the analysis of the LOCA sequences where the pH of the sump is controlled to be a value of 8 or greater, all three codes predict that the oxidation of iodine to produce gas phase species does not make a significant contribution to the source term due to leakage from the reactor building and that the latter is dominated by iodide in the aerosol. In the case where the pH of the sump is not controlled, it is found that the proportion of gas phase iodine increases significantly, although the cumulative leakage predicted by all three codes is not significantly different from that predicted by MAAP. The radiolytic production of nitric acid could be a major factor in determining the pH, and if the pH were reduced, the codes predict an increase in gas phase iodine species leaked from the containment. (author) 4 figs., 7 tabs., 13 refs.

  5. Assessing accident phobia in mild traumatic brain injury: The Accident Fear Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Jessica; Middleton, Jason; Ornstein, Tisha J; Lawson, Kerry; Vickers, Kristin

    2016-08-01

    Despite a documented prevalence of accident phobia in almost 40% of motor vehicle accident (MVA) survivors, the onset of accident phobia after traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains poorly understood. There is currently a body of knowledge about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with TBI, but less is known about accident phobia following TBI, particularly in cases of mild TBI (mTBI). Accident phobia can impede safe return to driving or motor vehicle travel, inhibiting return to daily functioning. In addition, pain complaints have been found to correlate positively with postinjury anxiety disorders. The present study sought to determine the reliability and validity of the Accident Fear Questionnaire (AFQ), a measure used to assess accident phobia, in 72 patients with mTBI using secondary data analysis and the subsequent development of accident phobia postinjury. Furthermore, we sought to examine the impact of pain, anxiety, and depression complaints on the AFQ. Results reveal convergent validity and reliability in mTBI populations. Additionally, pain, anxiety, and depression measures were significantly correlated with scores on the AFQ. Psychometrically, the phobia avoidance subscale of the AFQ is a reliable measure for use with mTBI populations, although some limitations were found. In particular, the accident profile (AP) subscale was not found to be reliable or valid and could be eliminated from the AFQ. Collectively, the present study contributes to the small body of published literature evaluating accident phobia in patients with mTBI and the impact of pain on the development of postinjury anxiety disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. NASA Medical Response to Human Spacecraft Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlach, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's role in the response to spacecraft accidents that involve human fatalities or injuries. Particular attention is given to the work of the Mishap Investigation Team (MIT), the first response to the accidents and the interface to the accident investigation board. The MIT does not investigate the accident, but the objective of the MIT is to gather, guard, preserve and document the evidence. The primary medical objectives of the MIT is to receive, analyze, identify, and transport human remains, provide assistance in the recovery effort, and to provide family Casualty Coordinators with latest recovery information. The MIT while it does not determine the cause of the accident, it acts as the fact gathering arm of the Mishap Investigation Board (MIB), which when it is activated may chose to continue to use the MIT as its field investigation resource. The MIT membership and the specific responsibilities and tasks of the flight surgeon is reviewed. The current law establishing the process is also reviewed.

  7. Fatal accidents among Danes with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Koch-Henriksen, Nils

    2006-01-01

    We compared the rate of fatal accidents among Danes with multiple sclerosis (MS) with that of the general population. The study was based on linkage of the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry to the Cause of Death Registry and covered all 10174 persons in whom MS was diagnosed during the period 1953......-1996. The end of follow-up was 1 January 1999. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for various types of fatal accidents. A total of 76 persons (48 men and 28 women) died from accidents, whereas the expected number of fatalities from such causes was 55.7 (31.4 men and 24.3 women). Thus, the risk...... for death from accidents among persons with MS was 37% higher than that of the general population (SMR = 1.37). We found no significant excess risk for fatal road accidents (SMR = 0.80). The risk for falls was elevated (SMR = 1.29) but not statistically significantly so. The risks were particularly high...

  8. Méthodologie pour l’analyse et la prévention du risque d’accidents technologiques induits par l’inondation (Natech) d’un site industriel

    OpenAIRE

    El Hajj, Carine

    2013-01-01

    A Natech accident is the impact of a NAtural event on an industrial plant (such as an ICPE- Classified Installation for the Environmental Protection). The impact can trigger a TECHnological accident, damaging the vicinity of the industrial facility (inhabitants, their properties and the environment). The final objective of this work is to develop a risk analysis methodology for the prevention of technological accidents triggered by flooding of industrial facilities. Therefore, the work begins...

  9. Introduction of the Amendment of IAEA Safety Requirements Reflected Lessons Learned from Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang-Kyu; Ahn, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Sun-Hae; Cheong, Jae-Hak [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The following five Safety Requirements publications were amended: Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety (GSR Part 1, 2010), Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations (NS-R-3, 2003), Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design (SSR-2/1, 2012), Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation (SSR-2/2, 2011), and Safety Assessment for Facilities and Activities (GSR Part 4, 2009). Figure 1 shows IAEA Safety Standards Categories Major amendments of five Safety Requirements publications were introduced and analyzed in this study. The five IAEA safety requirements publications which are GSR Part 1 and 4, NS-R-3 and SSR-2/1 and 2, were amended to reflect the lesson learned from the Fukushima accident and other operating experiences. Specially, 36 provisions were modified and the new 29 provision with 1 requirement (No. 67: Emergency response facilities on the site) of the SSR-2/1 were established. Since the Fukushima accident happened, a new word, design extension conditions (DECs) which cover substantially the beyond design basis accidents (BDBA), including severe accident conditions, was created and more elaborated by the world nuclear experts. Design extension conditions could include conditions in events without significant fuel degradation and conditions with core melting. Figure 2 shows the range of the DECs. The amendment of the five IAEA safety requirements publications are focused at the prevention of initiating events, which would lead to the DECs, and mitigation of the consequences of DECs by the enhanced defense in depth principle. The following examples of the IAEA requirements to prevent the initiating events are: margins for withstanding external events; margins for avoiding cliff edge effects; safety assessment for multiple facilities or activities at a single site; safety assessment in cases where resources at a facility are shared; consideration of the potential occurrence of events in combination; establishing levels of hazard

  10. The program of international intercomparison of accident dosimetry; Le programme d'intercomparaison internationale de dosimetrie d'accident 10-12 juin 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    The French institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN) has carried out in June 2002 an international intercomparison program for the testing of the physical and biological accident dosimetry techniques. The intercomparison is jointly organized by the IRSN and the OECD-NEA with the sustain of the European commission and the collaboration of the CEA centre of Valduc (France). About 30 countries have participated to this program. Each country has supplied its own dosimeters and biological samples which have been irradiated using the Silene reactor of CEA-Valduc or a {sup 60}Co source. These experiments allow to test the new dosimetric techniques that have been developed since the previous intercomparison program (1993) and to confirm or improve the performances of older techniques. Aside from the intercomparison exercise, this report makes a status of the known radiological accidents and of the effects of high doses of ionizing radiations on human health (symptoms, therapeutics). It explains the phenomenology of criticality accidents, the prevention means, and the history of such accidents up to the Tokai-Mura one in 1999. Finally, the dosimetry of criticality is presented with its physical and biological techniques. (J.S.)

  11. Assessment of CRBR core disruptive accident energetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Bell, C.R.

    1984-03-01

    The results of an independent assessment of core disruptive accident energetics for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor are presented in this document. This assessment was performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission under the direction of the CRBR Program Office within the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. It considered in detail the accident behavior for three accident initiators that are representative of three different classes of events; unprotected loss of flow, unprotected reactivity insertion, and protected loss of heat sink. The primary system's energetics accommodation capability was realistically, yet conservatively, determined in terms of core events. This accommodation capability was found to be equivalent to an isentropic work potential for expansion to one atmosphere of 2550 MJ or a ramp rate of about 200 $/s applied to a classical two-phase disassembly.

  12. Enhanced Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels: Metrics Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Lori Braase; Rose Montgomery; Chris Stanek; Robert Montgomery; Lance Snead; Larry Ott; Mike Billone

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is conducting research and development on enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) for light water reactors (LWRs). This mission emphasizes the development of novel fuel and cladding concepts to replace the current zirconium alloy-uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel system. The overall mission of the ATF research is to develop advanced fuels/cladding with improved performance, reliability and safety characteristics during normal operations and accident conditions, while minimizing waste generation. The initial effort will focus on implementation in operating reactors or reactors with design certifications. To initiate the development of quantitative metrics for ATR, a LWR Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels Metrics Development Workshop was held in October 2012 in Germantown, MD. This paper summarizes the outcome of that workshop and the current status of metrics development for LWR ATF.

  13. Nuclear fuel in a reactor accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Peter C; Ewing, Rodney C; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2012-03-09

    Nuclear accidents that lead to melting of a reactor core create heterogeneous materials containing hundreds of radionuclides, many with short half-lives. The long-lived fission products and transuranium elements within damaged fuel remain a concern for millennia. Currently, accurate fundamental models for the prediction of release rates of radionuclides from fuel, especially in contact with water, after an accident remain limited. Relatively little is known about fuel corrosion and radionuclide release under the extreme chemical, radiation, and thermal conditions during and subsequent to a nuclear accident. We review the current understanding of nuclear fuel interactions with the environment, including studies over the relatively narrow range of geochemical, hydrological, and radiation environments relevant to geological repository performance, and discuss priorities for research needed to develop future predictive models.

  14. A Review of Criticality Accidents 2000 Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas P. McLaughlin; Shean P. Monahan; Norman L. Pruvost; Vladimir V. Frolov; Boris G. Ryazanov; Victor I. Sviridov

    2000-05-01

    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Sixty accidental power excursions are reviewed. Sufficient detail is provided to enable the reader to understand the physical situation, the chemistry and material flow, and when available the administrative setting leading up to the time of the accident. Information on the power history, energy release, consequences, and causes are also included when available. For those accidents that occurred in process plants, two new sections have been included in this revision. The first is an analysis and summary of the physical and neutronic features of the chain reacting systems. The second is a compilation of observations and lessons learned. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this report.

  15. Reconfigurable mobile manipulation for accident response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDERSON,ROBERT J.; MORSE,WILLIAM D.; SHIREY,DAVID L.; CDEBACA,DANIEL M.; HOFFMAN JR.,JOHN P.; LUCY,WILLIAM E.

    2000-06-06

    The need for a telerobotic vehicle with hazard sensing and integral manipulation capabilities has been identified for use in transportation accidents where nuclear weapons are involved. The Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) platform has been developed to provide remote dexterous manipulation and hazard sensing for the Accident Response Group (ARG) at Sandia National Laboratories. The ARMMS' mobility platform is a military HMMWV [High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle] that is teleoperated over RF or Fiber Optic communication channels. ARMMS is equipped with two high strength Schilling Titan II manipulators and a suite of hazardous gas and radiation sensors. Recently, a modular telerobotic control architecture call SMART (Sandia Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) has been applied to ARMMS. SMART enables input devices and many system behaviors to be rapidly configured in the field for specific mission needs. This paper summarizes current SMART developments applied to ARMMS.

  16. Rede de Prevenção de Acidentes de Trabalho: uma estratégia de ensino a distância Red de Prevención de Accidentes deTrabajo: una estrategia para enseñanza a la distancia Network Prevention of Accidents at Work: a strategy for distance education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Marziale

    2010-04-01

    trabajo.Quasi-experimental study that aimed at evaluating the proposed interactive training, as a strategy for change in the behavior of workers, seeking the appropriate use of gloves in the administration of intravenous drugs. The interactive training was structured in the Model of Health Promotion of Pender, conducted through access to the web site of the Network Prevention of Accidents at Work (REPAT available from: http://repat.eerp.usp.br/estrategia/index.php and applied in 60 workers nursing from two hospitals in the state of Sao Paulo. On the week before the training 58.3% of the workers were wearing gloves to administrate intravenous drugs and 83.3% of the workers informed the intention of wearing gloves after the training. Conclusion: the use of interactive tool facilitated the implementation of educational strategy in work and showed that training can help in changing behavior.

  17. The effect of a yellow bicycle jacket on cyclist accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •A randomised controlled trial with 6793 cyclists shows a reduced accident risk due to a yellow bicycle jacket. •The test group had 47% fewer multiparty accidents with personal injury. •The test group had 55% fewer multiparty accidents against motorised vehicles.......Highlights •A randomised controlled trial with 6793 cyclists shows a reduced accident risk due to a yellow bicycle jacket. •The test group had 47% fewer multiparty accidents with personal injury. •The test group had 55% fewer multiparty accidents against motorised vehicles....

  18. Use of artificial intelligence in severe accident diagnosis for PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zheng; Okrent, D. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kastenberg, W.E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A combination approach of an expert system and neural networks is used to implement a prototype severe accident diagnostic system which would monitor the progression of the severe accident and provide necessary plant status information to assist the plant staff in accident management during the accident. The station blackout accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) is used as the study case. The current phase of research focus is on distinguishing different primary system failure modes and following the accident transient before and up to vessel breach.

  19. Analysis of Traffic Accidents Leading to Death Using Tripod Beta Method in Yazd, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Ebrahemzadih

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study tried to find the original causes of road accidents to prevent their occurrence. This was a descriptive-analytic retrospective study which assessed 1,000 cases of road accidents leading to death during 2003-2013 using the Tripod Beta method. The latent problems, the contributing preconditions, and corrective strategies for the prevention of occurrence of these accidents were determined. The findings of this study revealed that violation of traffic safety rules, especially deliberate violations and risk-takings decreased with increasing age. In comparative status of the superficial problems, illegal and impermissible speed of drivers accounted for 19.10%, in comparative status of preconditions, violation of safety rules accounted for 32.6% and finally, in comparative status of the latent problems, the presence of financial constraints and time pressure in designing and manufacturing of the cars, and quality of city streets, roads, accounted for 20.1%, of the leading causes of occurrence of accidents in this study.

  20. Occupational accidents in professional dance with focus on gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, Eileen M; Arendt, Michael; Mill, Helmgard; Groneberg, David A

    2013-12-17

    Classical dance comprises gender specific movement tasks. There is a lack of studies which investigate work related traumatic injuries in terms of gender specific differences in detail. To define gender related differences of occupational accidents. Basis for the evaluation were occupational injuries of professional dancers from three (n = 785; f: n = 358, m: n = 427) state theatres. The incidence rate (0.36 per year) was higher in males (m: 0.45, f: 0.29). There were gender specific differences as to the localizations of injuries, particularly the spine region (m: 17.3%, f: 9.8%, p = 0.05) and ankle joint (m: 23.7%, f: 35.5%, p = 0.003). Compared to male dancers, females sustained more injuries resulting from extrinsic factors. Significant differences could specifically be observed with dance floors (m: 8.8%, f: 15.1%, p = 0.02). There were also significant gender differences observed with movement vocabulary. The clearly defined gender specific movement activities in classical dance are reflected in occupational accidents sustained. Organisational structures as well as work environment represent a burden likewise to male and female dancers. The presented differences support the development of gender specific injury prevention measures.

  1. Centrifugal Filtration System for Severe Accident Source Term Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shu Chang; Yim, Man Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this paper is to present the conceptual design of a filtration system that can be used to process airborne severe accident source term. Reactor containment may lose its structural integrity due to over-pressurization during a severe accident. This can lead to uncontrolled radioactive releases to the environment. For preventing the dispersion of these uncontrolled radioactive releases to the environment, several ways to capture or mitigate these radioactive source term releases are under investigation at KAIST. Such technologies are based on concepts like a vortex-like air curtain, a chemical spray, and a suction arm. Treatment of the radioactive material captured by these systems would be required, before releasing to environment. For current filtration systems in the nuclear industry, IAEA lists sand, multi-venturi scrubber, high efficiency particulate arresting (HEPA), charcoal and combinations of the above in NS-G-1-10, 4.143. Most if not all of the requirements of the scenario for applying this technology near the containment of an NPP site and the environmental constraints were analyzed for use in the design of the centrifuge filtration system.

  2. MDCT findings in sports and recreational accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensch, Frank V; Koivikko, Mika P; Koskinen, Seppo K (Dept. of Radiology, Toeoeloe Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)), email: frank.bensch@hus.fi

    2011-12-15

    Background. Sports and recreational accidents involving critical areas of the body occur commonly in the general population. Reports on their demographics and recommendations for screening procedures are, however, few. Purpose. To assess injuries of the craniofacial area, spine, and torso resulting from sports and recreational accidents with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as primary imaging method in a Level I trauma center. Material and Methods. All emergency room CT requests over a time span of 105 months were reviewed retrospectively for trauma mechanism and injury. Patients were identified using an electronic picture archiving and communications system (PACS), and MDCT studies interpreted by two radiologists independently. Results. Of a total of 5898 patients, 492 patients (301 boys/men, 191 girls/women, age range 2-76 years, mean 33.5 years, median 29.5 years) with sports or recreational accidents emerged. A total of 102 traumatic findings were diagnosed, thereof 72 (71%) serious. The three most commonly encountered serious injuries were intracranial injury, fractures of facial bones, and vertebral injuries. The three most common injury mechanisms were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. Patients from recreational activities were on average significantly younger (29.2 years) than those from sports accidents (36.9 years; P < 0.001). Only age groups <21 years and 41-50 years differed in injury severity from the other age groups (P = 0.004 and P = 0.063, respectively). Of all trauma mechanisms, only bicycling had a significantly increased risk of injury (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Injuries in sports and recreational accidents presented with an overall incidence of 21%, of which 71% are serious. The most common mechanisms of injury were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. The largest incidence of serious injury involved bicycling. Because of the high probability of a serious injury and the high energies that are often involved

  3. The Chernobyl accident and its consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenko, V; Ivanov, V; Tsyb, A; Bogdanova, T; Tronko, M; Demidchik, Yu; Yamashita, S

    2011-05-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the worst industrial accident of the last century that involved radiation. The unprecedented release of multiple different radioisotopes led to radioactive contamination of large areas surrounding the accident site. The exposure of the residents of these areas was varied and therefore the consequences for health and radioecology could not be reliably estimated quickly. Even though some studies have now been ongoing for 25 years and have provided a better understanding of the situation, these are yet neither complete nor comprehensive enough to determine the long-term risk. A true assessment can only be provided after following the observed population for their natural lifespan. Here we review the technical aspects of the accident and provide relevant information on radioactive releases that resulted in exposure of this large population to radiation. A number of different groups of people were exposed to radiation: workers involved in the initial clean-up response, and members of the general population who were either evacuated from the settlements in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant vicinity shortly after the accident, or continued to live in the affected territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Through domestic efforts and extensive international co-operation, essential information on radiation dose and health status for this population has been collected. This has permitted the identification of high-risk groups and the use of more specialised means of collecting information, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Because radiation-associated thyroid cancer is one of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, a particular emphasis is placed on this malignancy. The initial epidemiological studies are reviewed, as are the most significant studies and/or aid programmes in the three affected countries. Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  4. Accident progression event tree analysis for postulated severe accidents at N Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyss, G.D.; Camp, A.L.; Miller, L.A.; Dingman, S.E.; Kunsman, D.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Medford, G.T. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-06-01

    A Level II/III probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been performed for N Reactor, a Department of Energy (DOE) production reactor located on the Hanford reservation in Washington. The accident progression analysis documented in this report determines how core damage accidents identified in the Level I PRA progress from fuel damage to confinement response and potential releases the environment. The objectives of the study are to generate accident progression data for the Level II/III PRA source term model and to identify changes that could improve plant response under accident conditions. The scope of the analysis is comprehensive, excluding only sabotage and operator errors of commission. State-of-the-art methodology is employed based largely on the methods developed by Sandia for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in support of the NUREG-1150 study. The accident progression model allows complex interactions and dependencies between systems to be explicitly considered. Latin Hypecube sampling was used to assess the phenomenological and systemic uncertainties associated with the primary and confinement system responses to the core damage accident. The results of the analysis show that the N Reactor confinement concept provides significant radiological protection for most of the accident progression pathways studied.

  5. Sodium hypochlorite accident in a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Ulrich; Kleier, Donald J

    2013-01-01

    A sodium hypochlorite accident is a rare event in adults, but even more so in children. The purposes of this paper were to: report the case of a one-year, 10-month-old toddler who was treated under general anesthesia for early childhood caries, incurred a sodium hypochlorite accident following attempted pulpectomy in his primary maxillary central incisors, but made a full recovery without any sequelae after a typical four to six weeks course of disease; review the pertinent literature; and give recommendations on how to minimize the potential occurrence of such incidents.

  6. World health day - 7th april, 2004 "road safety is no accident"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Saxena

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1948, the First World Health Assembly called for the creation of a "World Health Day". Since 1950, World Health Day has been celebrated on the 7th of April of each year. The objective of World Health Day is to raise global awareness of a specific health theme to highlight a priority area of concern for the World Health Organization (WHO. The Day serves as a launch for a long-term advocacy program for which activities will be undertaken and resources provided well beyond 7th April.To Celebrate the theme of this year "Road Safety is No accident", on 7th April 2004 around the globle, hundreds of organizations hosted events to help raise awareness about road traffic injuries, their grave consequences and enormous casts to society. They alsocontributed to spreading the message that such injuries can be prevented.In 1948, the First World Health Assembly called for the creation of a "World Health Day". Since 1950, World Health Day has been celebrated on the 7th of April of each year. The objective of World Health Day is to raise global awareness of a specific health theme to highlight a priority area of concern for the World Health Organization (WHO. The Day serves as a launch for a long-term advocacy program for which activities will be undertaken and resources provided well beyond 7th April.To Celebrate the theme of this year "Road Safety is No accident", on 7th April 2004 around the globle, hundreds of organizations hosted events to help raise awareness about road traffic injuries, their grave consequences and enormous casts to society. They alsocontributed to spreading the message that such injuries can be prevented.t '            ■The accident is defined as unexpected, unplanned event envolving injury, disability or death. The accidents occur in almost all countries. The most alarming fact is that accidents kill more young trained adults between 15-24 years of age group of males, mainly among two wheelers. All sorts of accidents

  7. 40 CFR 68.170 - Prevention program/Program 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention program/Program 2. 68.170 Section 68.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.170 Prevention program/Program...

  8. 40 CFR 68.175 - Prevention program/Program 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention program/Program 3. 68.175 Section 68.175 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.175 Prevention program/Program...

  9. First international workshop on severe accidents and their consequences. [Chernobyl Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    An international workshop on past severe nuclear accidents and their consequences was held in Dagomys region of Sochi, USSR on October 30--November 3, 1989. The plan of this meeting was approved by the USSR Academy of Sciences and by the USSR State Committee of the Utilization of Atomic Energy. The meeting was held under the umbrella of the ANS-SNS agreement of cooperation. Topics covered include analysis of the Chernobyl accident, safety measures for RBMK type reactors and consequences of the Chernobyl accident including analysis of the ecological, genetic and psycho-social factors. Separate reports are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  10. Frequency of work zone accidents on construction projects : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    The overall objective of this research was to study work zone accidents in New York State, with particular attention to the : occurrence and mitigation of rear-end vehicle accidents. The specific objectives were to: : - Recommend changes to the NYSDO...

  11. Occupation, Personality, and Accidents: An Exploratory Study of Aggregate Associations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vickers, Jr., Ross R; Hervig, Linda K

    2005-01-01

    Accident rates vary widely across U.S. Navy enlisted occupations. Incumbents' characteristics may affect rates, but the infrequency of accidents makes it hard to test this hypothesis by studying individuals...

  12. Cross-analysis of hazmat road accidents using multiple databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trépanier, Martin; Leroux, Marie-Hélène; de Marcellis-Warin, Nathalie

    2009-11-01

    Road selection for hazardous materials transportation relies heavily on risk analysis. With risk being generally expressed as a product of the probability of occurrence and the expected consequence, one will understand that risk analysis is data intensive. However, various authors have noticed the lack of statistical reliability of hazmat accident databases due to the systematic underreporting of such events. Also, official accident databases alone are not always providing all the information required (economical impact, road conditions, etc.). In this paper, we attempt to integrate many data sources to analyze hazmat accidents in the province of Quebec, Canada. Databases on dangerous goods accidents, road accidents and work accidents were cross-analyzed. Results show that accidents can hardly be matched and that these databases suffer from underreporting. Police records seem to have better coverage than official records maintained by hazmat authorities. Serious accidents are missing from government's official databases (some involving deaths or major spills) even though their declaration is mandatory.

  13. The accident site portable integrated video system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D. P.; Shirey, D. L.; Amai, W. A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a high bandwidth fiber-optic communication system intended for post accident recovery of weapons. The system provides bi-directional multichannel, and multi-media communications. Two smaller systems that were developed as direct spin-offs of the larger system are also briefly discussed.

  14. Analysis of Credible Accidents for Argonaut Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, S. C.; Kathern, R. L.; Robkin, M. A.

    1981-04-01

    Five areas of potential accidents have been evaluated for the Argonaut-UTR reactors. They are: • insertion of excess reactivity • catastrophic rearrangement of the core • explosive chemical reaction • graphite fire • fuel-handling accident. A nuclear excursion resulting from the rapid insertion of the maximum available excess reactivity would produce only 12 MWs which is insufficient to cause fuel melting even with conservative assumptions. Although precise structural rearrangement of the core would create a potential hazard, it is simply not credible to assume that such an arrangement would result from the forces of an earthquake or other catastrophic event. Even damage to the fuel from falling debris or other objects is unlikely given the normal reactor structure. An explosion from a metal-water reaction could not occur because there is no credible source of sufficient energy to initiate the reaction. A graphite fire could conceivably create some damage to the reactor but not enough to melt any fuel or initiate a metal-water reaction. The only credible accident involving offsite doses was determined to be a fuel-handling accident which, given highly conservative assumptions, would produce a whole-body dose equivalent of 2 rem from noble gas immersion and a lifetime dose equivalent commitment to the thyroid of 43 rem from radioiodines.

  15. The accident site portable integrated video system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.P.; Shirey, D.L.; Amai, W.A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a high bandwidth fiber-optic communication system intended for post accident recovery of weapons. The system provides bi-directional multichannel, and multi-media communications. Two smaller systems that were developed as direct spin-offs of the larger system are also briefly discussed.

  16. Severe Accident Test Station Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL

    2015-06-01

    Enhancing safety margins in light water reactor (LWR) severe accidents is currently the focus of a number of international R&D programs. The current UO2/Zr-based alloy fuel system is particularly susceptible since the Zr-based cladding experiences rapid oxidation kinetics in steam at elevated temperatures. Therefore, alternative cladding materials that offer slower oxidation kinetics and a smaller enthalpy of oxidation can significantly reduce the rate of heat and hydrogen generation in the core during a coolant-limited severe accident. In the U.S. program, the high temperature steam oxidation performance of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding solutions has been evaluated in the Severe Accident Test Station (SATS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 2012. This report summarizes the capabilities of the SATS and provides an overview of the oxidation kinetics of several candidate cladding materials. A suggested baseline for evaluating ATF candidates is a two order of magnitude reduction in the steam oxidation resistance above 1000ºC compared to Zr-based alloys. The ATF candidates are categorized based on the protective external oxide or scale that forms during exposure to steam at high temperature: chromia, alumina, and silica. Comparisons are made to literature and SATS data for Zr-based alloys and other less-protective materials.

  17. Accidents Vasculaires Cerebraux (AVC) au Centre Hospitalier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mots clés: accident vasculaire cérébral, AVC ischémique, AVC hémorragique, CHU Kara, Togo, zone semi-rurale. English Title: Stroke in the Kara Teaching Hospital in a semi rural area in Togo: epidemiological and outcome aspects. English Abstract. Purpose: To describe the epidemiology and outcome of stroke in Kara ...

  18. Updating and maintaining the accident database.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jaku, EP

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A database was developed in 1990 to store and allow analysis of information on rockfall and rockburst fatal accidents that have occurred in the South African gold mining industry. The information populating the database is extracted from the inquiry...

  19. Factors responsible for accidents in instructional mechanic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Study investigated the factors responsible for accidents in instructional mechanic workshops in Rivers State. Four technical colleges were selected for the study. Properly validated questionnaire were developed and used for the study. In addition, two research questions were posed for the study. Data gathered were ...

  20. Road design, human behaviour and road accidents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1996-01-01

    On this basis of recent decades' research this paper presents the problems a road designer meets when he, among other goals, tries to optimise safety. The author argues that road design is only one of the factors affecting accident risk and that road users' possibilities and limitations must play a

  1. Occupational Accident Declaration Form (HS50)

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    https://cern.ch/service-procedures/AdminMan/Forms/HS50E.doc •\tIt must be completed within 10 working days of the date on which the accident occurred (§ 29.2.1), unless the person concerned is materially unable to meet this deadline. • The completed formula must be accompanied by a medical certificate giving details of any bodily injuries resulting from the accident (Annex 1, § 5). The medical certificate must be obtained from the doctor who has been consulted for that purpose. Benefits resulting from illnesses and accidents Medical treatment will cease to be reimbursed under the occupational scheme in the event of cure (defined in § 15 as the certified end to the impairment of the patient’s state of health caused by the illness or accident), or consolidation (defined in § 14 as certification that no further improvement in the patient’s state of health can be expected from appropriate medical treatment). The right to such reimbursement shall resume only in the...

  2. Epidemiology o.f· Traffic Accidents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    almost reached the opposite pavement but had miscalcu- lated the speed of oncoming traffic in relation to his own speed. Of the 521 fatal traffic accidents analysed (Table Ill),. 11,7% were due to persons falling from moving vehides- some were due to passengers attempting to alight from moving buses, while others fell from ...

  3. Terrain Classification of Norwegian Slab Avalanche Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallandvik, Linda; Aadland, Eivind; Vikene, Odd Lennart

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to rely on snow conditions, weather, and human factors when making judgments about avalanche risk because these variables are dynamic and complex; terrain, however, is more easily observed and interpreted. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate (1) the type of terrain in which historical fatal snow avalanche accidents in Norway…

  4. The cyanide accident in Barskoon (Kyrgyzstan)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleven RFMJ; Bruggen M van; LAC

    2000-01-01

    On May 20, 1998, a truck with 20 tons of sodium cyanide crashed and fell into the Barskoon River (Kyrgyzstan). This small stream, used by the local population for irrigation and drinking water purposes, flows into Lake Issyk-Kul, a major tourist resort. As a result of the accident, some 1700 - 1800

  5. Coal Canyon Fire: Serious Accident Investigation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles L. Myers; Randy Draeger; Antoine Dixon; Cliff Dahl; Jim Saveland; Brad Mayhew; Gary Brown; Tony Petrilli; Ben Murphy; Erin Newman; Karen Mora; Tim Foley

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the facts proximal to the accident and share the Team's analysis in a way that enhances the reliability and resilience of Federal, State, and Local wildland fire organizations. The intent is to spur discussion and learning for those in the fire and safety community at all levels.

  6. ANS severe accident program overview & planning document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1995-09-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) severe accident document was developed to provide a concise and coherent mechanism for presenting the ANS SAP goals, a strategy satisfying these goals, a succinct summary of the work done to date, and what needs to be done in the future to ensure timely licensability. Guidance was received from various bodies [viz., panel members of the ANS severe accident workshop and safety review committee, Department of Energy (DOE) orders, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements for ALWRs and advanced reactors, ACRS comments, world-wide trends] were utilized to set up the ANS-relevant SAS goals and strategy. An in-containment worker protection goal was also set up to account for the routine experimenters and other workers within containment. The strategy for achieving the goals is centered upon closing the severe accident issues that have the potential for becoming certification issues when assessed against realistic bounding events. Realistic bounding events are defined as events with an occurrency frequency greater than 10{sup {minus}6}/y. Currently, based upon the level-1 probabilistic risk assessment studies, the realistic bounding events for application for issue closure are flow blockage of fuel element coolant channels, and rapid depressurization-related accidents.

  7. Diamond Fire: Serious Accident Investigation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Waconda; Ivan Pupulidy; Leonard Diaz; Robin Broyles; Roberta Junge; James Saveland

    2012-01-01

    This incident is effectively two studies. The first study, and the reason the Serious Accident Investigation Team was assembled, was due to a fatality, which the autopsy later determined to have been caused by a heart attack. The team was not aware of the cause of death for over 4 weeks after the incident occurred. However, the observed and reported cases of heat...

  8. Vehicle accidents related to sleep: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, J; Reyner, L

    1999-05-01

    Falling asleep while driving accounts for a considerable proportion of vehicle accidents under monotonous driving conditions. Many of these accidents are related to work--for example, drivers of lorries, goods vehicles, and company cars. Time of day (circadian) effects are profound, with sleepiness being particularly evident during night shift work, and driving home afterwards. Circadian factors are as important in determining driver sleepiness as is the duration of the drive, but only duration of the drive is built into legislation protecting professional drivers. Older drivers are also vulnerable to sleepiness in the mid-afternoon. Possible pathological causes of driver sleepiness are discussed, but there is little evidence that this factor contributes greatly to the accident statistics. Sleep does not occur spontaneously without warning. Drivers falling asleep are unlikely to recollect having done so, but will be aware of the precursory state of increasing sleepiness; probably reaching a state of fighting off sleep before an accident. Self awareness of sleepiness is a better method for alerting the driver than automatic sleepiness detectors in the vehicle. None of these have been proved to be reliable and most have shortcomings. Putative counter measures to sleepiness, adopted during continued driving (cold air, use of car radio) are only effective for a short time. The only safe counter measure to driver sleepiness, particularly when the driver reaches the stage of fighting sleep, is to stop driving, and--for example, take a 30 minute break encompassing a short (driving while sleepy, and driving at vulnerable times of the day.

  9. Trucks involved in fatal accidents codebook 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents : (TIFA), 2008, including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2008 : TIFA file is a census of all medium and heavy trucks invo...

  10. [Current situation of accidents in the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Zinser, José Valente

    2010-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of traffic accidents is of concern. About 1.2 million people die every year on the roadways and about 20 to 50 million suffer from non-lethal trauma. Countries with low or medium incomes have higher rates of lethality by traffic accidents (21.5 and 19.5 per 100,000 habitants, respectively) than countries with higher incomes (10.3 per 100,000). It is estimated that the cost of traffic accidents in countries that are members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), escalate to rates that are between 2-5% of the gross domestic product (GDP). According to data from the health sector in Mexico, these rates are equivalent to 1.3 of GDR The WHO foresees that traffic accident traumas will rise to be the third cause of mortality in 2030. Because of the high complexity of the transport sector, it is necessary that the Transport and Communication Ministry works in a multidisciplinary and intersectorial fashion to ensure that the land transportation systems operate effectively in accordance with national economic development and the quality of life of the Mexican people.

  11. CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS IN NIGERIANS: A STUDY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is one of the major causes of sudden death. In addition it has a high morbidity being responsible for many patients with incapacitating neurological deficit. Until recently there was scanty information on CVA in Africans, and some held that cerebrovascular disease (CVD) like coronary.

  12. Accidents with biological material in workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleonice Andréa Alves Cavalcante

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to describe the accidents with biological material occurred among workers of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, between 2007 and 2009. Secondary data were collected in the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System by exporting data to Excel using Tabwin. Among the types of occupational accidents reported in the state, the biological accidents (no. = 1,170 accounted for 58.3% with a predominance of cases among nurses (48.6%. The percutaneous exposure was the most frequent occurrence and the circumstances of the accidents were related to the handling of sharps and the most common organic material was blood (63.5%. More than 50% of the workers were vaccinated against hepatitis B, but without information regarding the evaluation of vaccine response. The study revealed the need of improvement in the quality of the information, once the sub-entries and inconsistencies make the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System less trustworthy in the characterization of the affected workers.

  13. Inventory of socioeconomic costs of work accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mossink, J.; Greef, M. de

    2002-01-01

    The European Commission has prioritised the need to develop knowledge of the economic and social costs arising from occupational accidents and illnesses in their communication about a new Community strategy on safety and health at work for 2002-06. This report from the Agency aims to contribute to

  14. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Procedural Accidents and Errors during Root Canal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozayeni, Mohammad Ali; Asnaashari, Mohammad; Modaresi, Seyed Jalil

    2006-01-01

    Root canal therapy (RCT)_like other dental practices_ can be accompanied with some accidents or unpredictable conditions that are called "procedural accidents". Having the knowledge about these accidents and their etiology is essential to have RCT completion and to prevent the repeat of these accidents. This study was designed to evaluate accidents occurring during RCT in patients referred to endodontic department of Shaheed Beheshti dental school during 2002. This study was conducted via descriptive method. Data were collected from observation, clinical examination and oral radiographs, and were recorded in questionnaires, 150 cases from the patients referred to endodontic department were selected randomly and different observed RCT errors were analyzed by SPSS software. The Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used for analysis. The study showed that 101 patients (67.3%) had one type of RCT errors, and remaining (32.7%) were error free. From the errors studied the most prevalent were "void" which was observed in 41 patients (27.3%), and "ledge" in 39 patients (26%) respectively. The prevalence of other accidents were underfilling in 35 patients (23.3%), poor shaping in 30 patients (20%), overfilling in 23 patients (15.3%), transportation in 13 patients (8.7%), zipping in 3 patients (2%), gouging in 1 patients (0.7%), and strip perforation in 1 patients (0.7%), while no case of broken instruments, vertical fracture, furcation and cervical perforation was observed. The most prevalent errors were found in instrumentation and obturation steps, therefore more care and attention must be paid to instructor observation and the education of these stages.

  15. Epidemiology of accidents with poisonous animals registered in Nova Xavantina – MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Tallita Pinheiro Santana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Accidents with poisonous animals are a public health problem in Brazil, especially in countryside cities. Updated regional information is important for the development of epidemiological surveillance activities. Through this research, we determined the epidemiological aspects of the cases registered in Nova Xavantina, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, from January 2007 to May 2013. Methods: This is a cross-sectional and descriptive epidemiological study. Results: In this period, 68 accidents occurred, of which 44 were caused by snakes, 19 by scorpions, and four by spiders. Most accidents with snakes were caused by the genera Bothrops (79.5%, Crotalus (11.5%, and Micrurus (2.3%. As for the victims, there was a prevalence of males (76.5%, aged between 30 and 49 years (41.2% of mixed race (72.1%, with basic education (55.9% involved in field activities, such as agriculture and livestock (41.2%.There was a predominance of accidents of moderate severity (48.5% and all serious cases were caused by snakes. In most injuries (75%, the relationship between the accidents and occupational activities was not recorded. The most affected body regions were the feet (39.7%, legs (20.6%, and hands (11.8%. The predominant local manifestations were pain, swelling, and bruising. The predominant systemic manifestations were hemorrhage, nausea and vomiting. Conclusion: The study period was characterized by the predominance of accidents involving snakes and male individuals in field activities and of moderate severity. Thus, educational campaigns and the adoption of preventive measures are essential to reduce the occurrence of these diseases in this city. KEYWORDS: Poisoning; snake bites; Scorpion Stings.

  16. Understanding spatial concentrations of road accidents using frequent item sets

    OpenAIRE

    GEURTS, Karolien; I Thomas; Wets, Geert

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at understanding why road accidents tend to cluster in specific road segments. More particularly, it aims at analyzing which are the characteristics of the accidents occurring in "black" zones compared to those scattered all over the road. A technique of frequent item sets (data mining) is applied for automatically identifying accident circumstances that frequently occur together, for accidents located in and outside "black" zones. A Belgian periurban region is used as case st...

  17. Some characteristics of drivers having caused traffic accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Đurić Predrag; Miladinov-Mikov Marica

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Traffic accidents are caused by road, vehicle and human factors, the latter one causing, either by itself or associated with other factors, more than 90% of car accidents. There are three types of human errors: errors in perception, attention and memory. Material and Methods. The study included thirty healthy drivers, aged 28-40, with 500 km driven per a week, who had caused at least one traffic accident, but not being intoxicated by alcohol or drugs during the accident. The sam...

  18. Exploring Environmental Effects of Accidents During Marine Transport of Dangerous Goods by Use of Accident Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, Hans Gottberg; Haastrup, P.; Petersen, H J Styhr

    1996-01-01

    On the basis of 1776 descriptions of water transport accidents involving dangerous goods, environmental problems in connection with releases of this kind are described and discussed. It was found that most detailed descriptions of environmental consequences concerned oil accidents, although most...... information on consequences to living organisms, and only 10% contained any information on consequences to ecosystems. A relationship was found between the minimum kilometers of shore polluted and the tonnes released in the case of shore pollution from oil accidents. Oil slicks were shown to be five times...... of the consequences were described as reversible changes. It was shown that crude oil releases, on average, are approximately five times larger than releases of oil products and that oil product releases are approximately five times larger than other chemicals. Only 2% of the 1776 accidents described contained...

  19. Exploring environmental effects of accidents during marine transport of dangerous goods by use of accident descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rømer, Hans; Haastrup, Palle; Petersen, H. J. Styhr

    1996-09-01

    On the basis of 1776 descriptions of water transport accidents involving dangerous goods, environmental problems in connection with releases of this kind are described and discussed. It was found that most detailed descriptions of environmental consequences concerned oil accidents, although most of the consequences were described as reversible changes. It was shown that crude oil releases, on average, are approximately five times larger than releases of oil products and that oil product releases are approximately five times larger than other chemicals. Only 2% of the 1776 accidents described contained information on consequences to living organisms, and only 10% contained any information on consequences to ecosystems. A relationship was found between the minimum kilometers of shore polluted and the tonnes released in the case of shore pollution from oil accidents. Oil slicks were shown to be five times longer than broad. Gravity scales used to describe and evaluate environmental consequences were discussed.

  20. Explaining the road accident risk: weather effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergel-Hayat, Ruth; Debbarh, Mohammed; Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George

    2013-11-01

    This research aims to highlight the link between weather conditions and road accident risk at an aggregate level and on a monthly basis, in order to improve road safety monitoring at a national level. It is based on some case studies carried out in Work Package 7 on "Data analysis and synthesis" of the EU-FP6 project "SafetyNet-Building the European Road Safety Observatory", which illustrate the use of weather variables for analysing changes in the number of road injury accidents. Time series analysis models with explanatory variables that measure the weather quantitatively were used and applied to aggregate datasets of injury accidents for France, the Netherlands and the Athens region, over periods of more than 20 years. The main results reveal significant correlations on a monthly basis between weather variables and the aggregate number of injury accidents, but the magnitude and even the sign of these correlations vary according to the type of road (motorways, rural roads or urban roads). Moreover, in the case of the interurban network in France, it appears that the rainfall effect is mainly direct on motorways--exposure being unchanged, and partly indirect on main roads--as a result of changes in exposure. Additional results obtained on a daily basis for the Athens region indicate that capturing the within-the-month variability of the weather variables and including it in a monthly model highlights the effects of extreme weather. Such findings are consistent with previous results obtained for France using a similar approach, with the exception of the negative correlation between precipitation and the number of injury accidents found for the Athens region, which is further investigated. The outlook for the approach and its added value are discussed in the conclusion. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.