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Sample records for accident management measures

  1. Management of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The definition and the multidimensionality aspects of accident management have been reviewed. The suggested elements in the development of a programme for severe accident management have been identified and discussed. The strategies concentrate on the two tiered approaches. Operative management utilizes the plant's equipment and operators capabilities. The recovery managment concevtrates on preserving the containment, or delaying its failure, inhibiting the release, and on strategies once there has been a release. The inspiration for this paper was an excellent overview report on perspectives on managing severe accidents in commercial nuclear power plants and extending plant operating procedures into the severe accident regime; and by the most recent publication of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) considering the question of risk reduction and source term reduction through accident prevention, management and mitigation. The latter document concludes that 'active development of accident management measures by plant personnel can lead to very large reductions in source terms and risk', and goes further in considering and formulating the key issue: 'The most fruitful path to follow in reducing risk even further is through the planning of accident management.' (author)

  2. Accident management information needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Measures against nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A select committee appointed by the Norwegian Ministry of Social Affairs put forward proposals concerning measures for the improvement of radiation protection preparedness in Norway. On the basis on an assessment of the potential radiation accident threat, the report examines the process of response, and identifies the organizational and management factors that influence that process

  4. Accident management measures. Demand for action as seen by the supervising authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various measures taken for accident management in the plant are to be classified into categories of nuclear law, as there are: prevention of hazards, prevention of risks, or non-preventive measures ( management of remaining risk). Screening the various measures for classification shows that most of them belong to the category of preventive action under the Atomic Energy Act. This means that these measures have to be addressed in KTA safety standards. (orig./HP)

  5. Framework for accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accident management is an essential element of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Integration Plan for the closure of severe accident issues. This element will consolidate the results from other key elements; such as the Individual Plant Examination (IPE), the Containment Performance Improvement, and the Severe Accident Research Programs, in a form that can be used to enhance the safety programs for nuclear power plants. The NRC is currently conducting an Accident Management Program that is intended to aid in defining the scope and attributes of an accident management program for nuclear power plants. The accident management plan will ensure that a plant specific program is developed and implemented to promote the most effective use of available utility resources (people and hardware) to prevent and mitigate severe accidents. Hardware changes or other plant modifications to reduce the frequency of severe accidents are not a central aim of this program. To accomplish the outlined objectives, the NRC has developed an accident management framework that is comprised of five elements: (1) accident management strategies, (2) training, (3) guidance and computational aids, (4) instrumentation, and (5) delineation of decision making responsibilities. A process for the development of an accident management program has been identified using these NRC framework elements

  6. Framework for accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program is being conducted to establish those attributes of a severe accident management plan which are necessary to assure effective response to all credible severe accidents and to develop guidance for their incorporation in a plant's Accident Management Plan. This program is one part of the Accident Management Research Program being conducted by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The approach used in establishing attributes and developing guidance includes three steps. In the first step the general attributes of an accident management plan were identified based on: (1) the objectives established for the NRC accident management program, (2) the elements of an accident management framework identified by the NRC, and (3) a review of the processes used in developing the currently used approach for classifying and analyzing accidents. For the second step, a process was defined that uses the general attributes identified from the first step to develop an accident management plan. The third step applied the process defined in the second step at a nuclear power plant to refine and develop it into a benchmark accident management plan. Step one is completed, step two is underway and step three has not yet begun

  7. Proceedings of the workshop on the implementation of severe accident management measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OECD/NEA Workshop on the Implementation of Severe Accident Management (SAM) Measures was hosted by the PSI (Paul Schemer Institut), by two Swiss Utilities (Kernkraftwerk Beznau and Kernkraftwerk Leibstadt), and by Electricite de France. Eighty specialists from fourteen OECD Member countries attended the meeting, as well as specialists from three non-Member economies and the European Commission. Thirty-three papers were presented in four sessions, preceded by a brief Introductory Session (two invited papers) and followed by a General Discussion. The objectives of the meeting were: 1) to exchange information on activities in the area of SAM implementation and on the rationale for such actions, 2) to monitor progress made, 3) to identify cases of agreement or disagreement, 4) to discuss future orientations of work, 5) to make recommendations to the CSNI. Session summaries prepared by the Chairpersons and discussed by the whole writing group are given in Annex. During the first session, 'SAM Programmes Implementation', papers from one regulator and several utilities and national research institutes were presented to outline the status of implementation of SAM programmes in countries like Switzerland, Russia, Spain, Finland, Belgium and Korea. Also, the contribution of SAM to the safety of Japanese plants (in terms of core damage frequency) was quantified in a paper. One paper gave an overview on the situation regarding SAM implementation in Europe. The second session, 'SAM Approach', provided background and bases for Severe Accident Management in countries like Sweden, Japan, Germany and Switzerland, as well as for hardware features in advanced light water reactor designs, such as the European Pressurised Reactor (EPR), regarding Severe Accident Management. The third session, 'SAM Mitigation Measures', was about hardware measures, in particular those oriented towards hydrogen mitigation where fundamentally different approaches have been taken in Scandinavian

  8. The management of accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Ward

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This author’s experiences in investigating well over a hundred accident occurrences has led to questioning how such events can be managed - - - while immediately recognising that the idea of managing accidents is an oxymoron, we don’t want to manage them, we don’t want not to manage them, what we desire is not to have to manage not-them, that is, manage matters so they don’t happen and then we don’t have to manage the consequences.Design/methodology/approach: The research will begin by defining some common classes of accidents in manufacturing industry, with examples taken from cases investigated, and by working backwards (too late, of course show how those involved could have managed these sample events so they didn’t happen, finishing with the question whether any of that can be applied to other situations.Findings: As shown that the management actions needed to prevent accidents are control of design and application of technology, and control and integration of people.Research limitations/implications: This paper has shown in some of the examples provided, management actions have been know to lead to accidents being committed by others, lower in the organization.Originality/value: Today’s management activities involve, generally, the use of technology in many forms, varying from simple tools (such as knives to the use of heavy equipment, electric power, and explosives. Against these we commit, in control of those items, the comparatively frail human mind and body, which, again generally, does succeed in controlling these resources, with (another generality by appropriate management. However, sometimes the control slips and an accident occurs.

  9. Accident and emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing potential for severe accidents as the industrial development tends towards large, centralised production units. In several industries this has led to the formation of large organisations which are prepared for accidents fighting and for emergency management. The functioning of these organisations critically depends upon efficient decision making and exchange of information. This project is aimed at securing and possibly improving the functionality and efficiency of the accident and emergency management by verifying, demonstrating, and validating the possible use of advanced information technology in the organisations mentioned above. With the nuclear industry in focus the project consists of five main activities: 1) The study and detailed analysis of accident and emergency scenarios based on records from incidents and rills in nuclear installations. 2) Development of a conceptual understanding of accident and emergency management with emphasis on distributed decision making, information flow, and control structure sthat are involved. 3) Development of a general experimental methodology for evaluating the effects of different kinds of decision aids and forms of organisation for emergency management systems with distributed decision making. 4) Development and test of a prototype system for a limited part of an accident and emergency organisation to demonstrate the potential use of computer and communication systems, data-base and knowledge base technology, and applications of expert systems and methods used in artificial intelligence. 5) Production of guidelines for the introduction of advanced information technology in the organisations based on evaluation and validation of the prototype system. (author)

  10. Workshop proceedings of ISAMM 2009: Implementation of severe accident management measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guentay, S. (ed.) [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department, Laboratory for Thermal Hydraulics, ViIligen (Switzerland)

    2010-10-15

    This comprehensive report published by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland reports on a conference and workshop held in Switzerland in October 2009 dealing with Severe Accidents Management (SAM) in nuclear power stations. The workshop provided an update on the status of severe accident management measures and their implications since the OECD/CSNI workshop held in 2001 at the PSI in Switzerland. Since the 2001 workshop, additional work has been performed to integrate emergency procedures and SAM measures into risk assessments in order to better reflect operator responses to recover a plant from a damaged state. The major focus of the workshop was to address SAM measures for both operational plants and new plant designs. Also, the integration of SAM measures into contemporary/future probabilistic risk assessments was discussed. 41 papers were presented in 8 sessions. The papers addressed the following areas: 1) Current status and insights of SAM (2 sessions); 2) Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) modelling issues; 3) code analysis for supporting Serious Accident Management Guidance (SAMG, 2 sessions); 4) decision making, tools, training, risk-targets and entrance to SAM; 5) design modifications for implementation of SAM; 6) physical phenomena. The last part of the workshop was devoted to the presentation of the most striking highlights of the papers in the above areas, followed by two panellists giving presentations on human and organisational aspects of SAM, their importance in relation to technical issues and the effectiveness of current SAMG implementation. The question of how consequence analyses can be used to improve the effectiveness of SAM is discussed. The contributions were presented by representatives from Austria, Germany, Japan, France, the USA, Korea, Switzerland, Finland, Hungary, Belgium, Canada, Sweden, the Czech republic, the United kingdom, the Netherlands, Spain, Slovenia and Russia. The authors state that the overall picture

  11. Workshop proceedings of ISAMM 2009: Implementation of severe accident management measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive report published by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland reports on a conference and workshop held in Switzerland in October 2009 dealing with Severe Accidents Management (SAM) in nuclear power stations. The workshop provided an update on the status of severe accident management measures and their implications since the OECD/CSNI workshop held in 2001 at the PSI in Switzerland. Since the 2001 workshop, additional work has been performed to integrate emergency procedures and SAM measures into risk assessments in order to better reflect operator responses to recover a plant from a damaged state. The major focus of the workshop was to address SAM measures for both operational plants and new plant designs. Also, the integration of SAM measures into contemporary/future probabilistic risk assessments was discussed. 41 papers were presented in 8 sessions. The papers addressed the following areas: 1) Current status and insights of SAM (2 sessions); 2) Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) modelling issues; 3) code analysis for supporting Serious Accident Management Guidance (SAMG, 2 sessions); 4) decision making, tools, training, risk-targets and entrance to SAM; 5) design modifications for implementation of SAM; 6) physical phenomena. The last part of the workshop was devoted to the presentation of the most striking highlights of the papers in the above areas, followed by two panellists giving presentations on human and organisational aspects of SAM, their importance in relation to technical issues and the effectiveness of current SAMG implementation. The question of how consequence analyses can be used to improve the effectiveness of SAM is discussed. The contributions were presented by representatives from Austria, Germany, Japan, France, the USA, Korea, Switzerland, Finland, Hungary, Belgium, Canada, Sweden, the Czech republic, the United kingdom, the Netherlands, Spain, Slovenia and Russia. The authors state that the overall picture

  12. Applicability of Phebus FP results to severe accident safety evaluations and management measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international Phebus FP (Fission Product) programme is the largest research programme in the world investigating core degradation and radioactive product release should a core meltdown accident occur in a light water reactor plant. Three integral experiments have already been performed. The experimental database obtained so far contains a wealth of information to validate the computer codes used for safety and accident management assessment

  13. Opportunities for international cooperation in nuclear accident preparedness and management: Procedural and organizational measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we address a difficult problem: How can we create and maintain preparedness for nuclear accidents? Our research has shown that this can be broken down into two questions: (1) How can we maintain the resources and expertise necessary to manage an accident once it occurs? and (2) How can we develop plans that will help in actually managing an accident once it occurs? It is apparently beyond the means of ordinary human organizations to maintain the capability to respond to a rare event. (A rare event is defined as something like an accident that only happens once every five years or so, somewhere in the world.) Other more immediate pressures tend to capture the resources that should, in a cost/benefit sense, be devoted to maintaining the capability. This paper demonstrates that some of the important factors behind that phenomenon can be mitigated by an international body that promotes and enforces preparedness. Therefore this problem provides a unique opportunity for international cooperation: an international organization promoting and enforcing preparedness could help save us from our own organizational failings. Developing useful accident management plans can be viewed as a human performance problem. It can be restated: how can we support and off-load the accident managers so that their tasks are more feasible? This question reveals the decision analytic perspective of this paper. That is, we look at the problem managing a nuclear accident by focusing on the decision makers, the accident managers: how do we create a decision frame for the accident managers to best help them manage? The decision frame is outlined and discussed. 9 refs

  14. Accident management insights after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, that took place on 11 March 2011, initiated a significant number of activities at the national and international levels to reassess the safety of existing NPPs, evaluate the sufficiency of technical means and administrative measures available for emergency response, and develop recommendations for increasing the robustness of NPPs to withstand extreme external events and beyond design basis accidents. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is working closely with its member and partner countries to examine the causes of the accident and to identify lessons learnt with a view to the appropriate follow-up actions to be taken by the nuclear safety community. Accident management is a priority area of work for the NEA to address lessons being learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP following the recommendations of Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), and Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH). Considering the importance of these issues, the CNRA authorised the formation of a task group on accident management (TGAM) in June 2012 to review the regulatory framework for accident management following the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The task group was requested to assess the NEA member countries needs and challenges in light of the accident from a regulatory point of view. The general objectives of the TGAM review were to consider: - enhancements of on-site accident management procedures and guidelines based on lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident; - decision-making and guiding principles in emergency situations; - guidance for instrumentation, equipment and supplies for addressing long-term aspects of accident management; - guidance and implementation when taking extreme measures for accident management. The report is built on the existing bases for capabilities to respond to design basis

  15. Assessment of accident management measures on early in-vessel station blackout sequence at VVER-1000 pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tusheva, P., E-mail: p.tusheva@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Resource Ecology, Reactor Safety Division, POB 51 01 19, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Schäfer, F., E-mail: f.schaefer@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Resource Ecology, Reactor Safety Division, POB 51 01 19, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Reinke, N., E-mail: nils.reinke@grs.de [Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Schwertnergasse 1, 50667 Cologne (Germany); Kamenov, Al., E-mail: alkamenov@npp.bg [Kozloduy NPP Plc., 3321 Kozloduy (Bulgaria); Mladenov, I., E-mail: ivanmladenov@abv.bg [Kozloduy NPP Plc., 3321 Kozloduy (Bulgaria); Kamenov, K., E-mail: k_kamenov@npp.bg [Kozloduy NPP Plc., 3321 Kozloduy (Bulgaria); Kliem, S., E-mail: s.kliem@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Resource Ecology, Reactor Safety Division, POB 51 01 19, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • Accident management procedures for a station blackout scenario are investigated. • Secondary and primary side countermeasures are compared. • In-depth analyses of the plant behaviour and estimation of time margins. • Insights into the physical phenomena which can influence the passive feeding. • Assessment of the effectiveness of the applied bleed and feed procedures. - Abstract: In the process of elaboration and evaluation of severe accident management guidelines, the assessment of the accident management measures and procedures plays an important role. This paper investigates the early in-vessel phase accident progression of a hypothetical station blackout scenario for a generic VVER-1000 pressurized water reactor. The study focuses on the following accident management measures: primary side depressurization with passive safety systems injection, secondary side depressurization with passive feeding from the feedwater system, and a combination of the both procedures. The analyses have been done with the mechanistic computer code ATHLET. The simulations give in-depth analyses of the reactor system behaviour, assessment of the time margins till heating up of the reactor core and insights into physical phenomena which can influence the passive feeding procedures for cooling of the reactor core. The simulation results show that such accident management measures can significantly prolong the time till core degradation. Maximum delay for core heat up can be achieved by sequentially realization of the secondary and primary side bleed and feed strategies. Due to reversed heat transfer in the steam generators or caused by the depressurization itself a part of the injected water is evaporated. Evaporation or flashing in the feedwater system can lead to an intermittent water injection, thus reducing the effectiveness of the feeding procedure.

  16. Radiation protection management in Fukushima Daiichi NPS and post-accident measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station was hit by the big earthquake and tsunami, which caused the station black out and subsequent loss of cooling functions for reactor and spent fuel pools (SFPs). Consequently the fuels were damaged, hydrogen explosion blew off top of the reactor buildings and radioactive materials were released to the atmosphere and the ocean. Tsunami and power loss caused many difficulties of monitoring, dose management, and radiation protection of workers. For example, the radiation management system was down and about 5,000 Alarm Pocket Dosimeters (APDs) and their battery chargers could not be used. Due to the insufficient number of APDs, one representative of each working team had a dosimeter under the limited conditions. Through the accident, we got following lessons learned; (1) Reinforcing monitoring posts, (2) Preparing more radiation protection equipment, (3) Establishing emergency access control centre, and (4) Education and training in radiation protection. (author)

  17. Accident management measures. Demand for action as seen by the supervising authority; Massnahmen des anlageninternen Notfallschutzes - Handlungsbedarf aus behoerdlicher Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolter, W. [Ministerium fuer Finanzen und Energie des Landes Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany)

    1994-07-01

    The various measures taken for accident management in the plant are to be classified into categories of nuclear law, as there are: prevention of hazards, prevention of risks, or non-preventive measures ( management of remaining risk). Screening the various measures for classification shows that most of them belong to the category of preventive action under the Atomic Energy Act. This means that these measures have to be addressed in KTA safety standards. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Die rechtliche Einordnung jeder einzelnen Massnahmen des anlageninternen Notfallschutzes in eine der atomrechtlichen Kategorien Gefahrenabwehr, Risikovorsorge oder Nichtvorsorge (Restrisikomassnahme) ist erforderlich. Eine ueberschlaegige Betrachtung fuehrt zu dem Ergebnis, dass zahlreiche technische Massnahmen des anlageninternen Notfallschutzes dem atomrechtlichen Vorsorgebegriff zuzuordnen sind (Risikovorsorge). Sofern Massnahmen des anlageninternen Notfallschutzes der atomrechtlichen Vorsorge zuzuordenen sind, sind sie zwingend auch im KTA-Regelwerk zu verankern. (orig./HP)

  18. Severe accident management concept for LWRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the advanced built-in engineered safety features and the highly trained personnel have led to extremely low probabilities of core melt accidents, there is a common understanding that even for such very unlikely accidents the plant operators must have the ability and means to mitigate the consequences of such events. This paper outlines a concept for the management of severe accidents based on 1) Computer simulations. 2) Various strategies based on core and containment damage states. 3) Calculational Aids. 4) Procedures. 5) Technical basis report. 6) Training. 7) Drills. The major benefit of this concept is the fact that there is no dedicated operating manual for severe accidents; rather the required mitigative strategies and measures are incorporated into existing accident management manuals leading to truly integrated accident management at the plant. At present this concept is going to be implemented in the NPP Geogen. Although this approach is primarily developed for existing PWRs it is also applicable to other LWRs including new NPP designs. Specific features of the plant can be taken into account by an adaptation of the concept. (authors)

  19. Severe accident management guidelines tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe Accident is addressed by means of a great number of documents such as guidelines, calculation aids and diagnostic trees. The response methodology often requires the use of several documents at the same time while Technical Support Centre members need to assess the appropriate set of equipment within the adequate mitigation strategies. In order to facilitate the response, TECNATOM has developed SAMG TOOL, initially named GGAS TOOL, which is an easy to use computer program that clearly improves and accelerates the severe accident management. The software is designed with powerful features that allow the users to focus on the decision-making process. Consequently, SAMG TOOL significantly improves the severe accident training, ensuring a better response under a real situation. The software is already installed in several Spanish Nuclear Power Plants and trainees claim that the methodology can be followed easier with it, especially because guidelines, calculation aids, equipment information and strategies availability can be accessed immediately (authors)

  20. The measurement of accident-proneness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the measurement of accident-proneness. Accidents seem easy to observe, however accident-proneness is difficult to measure. In this paper I first define the concept of accident-proneness, and I develop an instrument to measure it. The research is mainly executed within chemical

  1. A RISK MEASUREMENT AND MANAGEMENT MODEL FOR PREVENTING UNMANNED AIR VEHICLE ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüdayim BAŞAK

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to investigate operationally risky areas by analyzing dangers which can arise during the maintenance and flight activities of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs. For this purpose, a risk analysis methodology was introduced and then within the framework of the application, a sample of risk management model was developed. During the development of the model, personal experiences in the area of UAVs were benefited and a risk management technique consisting of five steps used by pioneering international aviation companies in fliht safety was utilized.

  2. Accident Management in VVER-1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D'Auria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the investigation study on accident management in VVER-1000 reactor type conducted in the framework of a European Commission funded project. The mentioned study involved both experimental and computational fields. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the main findings from the execution of a wide-range analysis focused on AM in VVER-1000 with main regard to the qualification of computational tools and the proposal for an optimal AM strategy for this kind of NPP.

  3. Development of TRAIN for accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe accident management can be defined as the use of existing and alternative resources, systems, and actions to prevent or mitigate a core-melt accident in nuclear power plants. TRAIN (Training pRogram for AMP In NPP), developed for training control room staff and the technical group, is introduced in this paper. The TRAIN composes of phenomenological knowledge base (KB), accident sequence KB and accident management procedures with AM strategy control diagrams and information needs. This TRAIN might contribute to training them by obtaining phenomenological knowledge of severe accidents, understanding plant vulnerabilities, and solving problems under high stress. (author)

  4. Containment severe accident management - selected strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) organized in June 1994, in collaboration with the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI), a Specialist Meeting on Selected Containment Severe Accident Management Strategies, to discuss their feasibility, effectiveness, benefits and drawbacks, and long-term impact. The meeting focused on water reactors, mainly on existing systems. The technical content covered topics such as general aspects of accident management strategies in OECD Member countries, hydrogen management techniques and other containment accident management strategies, surveillance and protection of the containment function. The main conclusions of the meeting are summarized in the paper. (author)

  5. Emergency monitoring strategy and radiation measurements document of the NKS project emergency management and radiation monitoring in nuclear and radiological accidents (EMARAD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, J. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) (Finland)

    2006-04-15

    This report is one of the deliverables of the NKS Project Emergency management and radiation monitoring in nuclear and radiological accidents (EMARAD) (20022005). The project and the overall results are briefly described in the NKS publication 'Emergency Management and Radiation Monitoring in Nuclear and Radiological Accidents. Summary Report on the NKS Project EMARAD' (NKS-137, April 2006). In a nuclear or radiological emergency, all radiation measurements must be performed efficiently and the results interpreted correctly in order to provide the decision-makers with adequate data needed in analysing the situation and carrying out countermeasures. Managing measurements in different situations in a proper way requires the existence of pre-prepared emergency monitoring strategies. Preparing a comprehensive yet versatile strategy is not an easy task to perform because there are lots of different factors that have to be taken into account. The primary objective of this study was to discuss the general problematics concerning emergency monitoring strategies and to describe a few important features of an efficient emergency monitoring system as well as factors affecting measurement activities in practise. Some information concerning the current situation in the Nordic countries has also been included. (au)

  6. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, B.; Groenberg, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs.

  7. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs

  8. Reconstruction of the Chernobyl emergency and accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1986 the most serious civil technological accident in the history of mankind occurred of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the former Soviet Union. As a direct result of the accident, the reactor was severely destroyed and large quantities of radionuclides were released. Some 800000 persons, also called 'liquidators' - including plant operators, fire-fighters, scientists, technicians, construction workers, emergency managers, volunteers, as well as medical and military personnel - were part of emergency measurements and accident management efforts. Activities included measures to prevent the escalation of the accident, mitigation actions, help for victims as well as activities in order to provide a basic infrastructure for this unprecedented and overwhelming task. The overall goal of the 'Project Chernobyl' of the Institute of Risk Research of the University of Vienna was to preserve for mankind the experience and knowledge of the experts among the 'liquidators' before it is lost forever. One method used to reconstruct the emergency measures of Chernobyl was the direct cooperation with liquidators. Simple questionnaires were distributed among liquidators and a database of leading accident managers, engineers, medical experts etc. was established. During an initial struggle with a number of difficulties, the response was sparse. However, after an official permit had been issued, the questionnaires delivered a wealth of data. Furthermore a documentary archive was established, which provided additional information. The multidimensional problem in connection with the severe accident of Chernobyl, the clarification of the causes of the accident, as well as failures and successes and lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl emergency measures and accident management are discussed. (authors)

  9. Severe accident management. Optimized guidelines and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The highest priority for mitigating the consequences of a severe accident with core melt lies in securing containment integrity, as this represents the last barrier against fission product release to the environment. Containment integrity is endangered by several physical phenomena, especially highly transient phenomena following high-pressure reactor pressure vessel failure (like direct containment heating or steam explosions which can lead to early containment failure), hydrogen combustion, quasi-static over-pressure, temperature failure of penetrations, and basemat penetration by core melt. Each of these challenges can be counteracted by dedicated severe accident mitigation hardware, like dedicated primary circuit depressurization valves, hydrogen recombiners or igniters, filtered containment venting, containment cooling systems, and core melt stabilization systems (if available). However, besides their main safety function these systems often have also secondary effects that need to be considered. Filtered containment venting causes (though limited) fission product release into the environment, primary circuit depressurization leads to loss of coolant, and an ex-vessel core melt stabilization system as well as hydrogen igniters can generate high pressure and temperature loads on the containment. To ensure that during a severe accident any available systems are used to their full beneficial extent while minimizing their potential negative impact, AREVA has implemented a severe accident management for German nuclear power plants. This concept makes use of extensive numerical simulations of the entire plant, quantifying the impact of system activations (operational systems, safety systems, as well as dedicated severe accident systems) on the accident progression for various scenarios. Based on the knowledge gained, a handbook has been developed, allowing the plant operators to understand the current state of the plant (supported by computational aids), to predict

  10. Development of severe accident management advisory and training simulator (SAMAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most operator support systems including the training simulator have been developed to assist the operator and they cover from normal operation to emergency operation. For the severe accident, the overall architecture for severe accident management is being developed in some developed countries according to the development of severe accident management guidelines which are the skeleton of severe accident management architecture. In Korea, the severe accident management guideline for KSNP was recently developed and it is expected to be a central axis of logical flow for severe accident management. There are a lot of uncertainties in the severe accident phenomena and scenarios and one of the major issues for developing a operator support system for a severe accident is the reduction of these uncertainties. In this paper, the severe accident management advisory system with training simulator, SAMAT, is developed as all available information for a severe accident are re-organized and provided to the management staff in order to reduce the uncertainties. The developed system includes the graphical display for plant and equipment status, the previous research results by knowledge-base technique, and the expected plant behavior using the severe accident training simulator. The plant model used in this paper is oriented to severe accident phenomena and thus can simulate the plant behavior for a severe accident. Therefore, the developed system may make a central role of the information source for decision-making for a severe accident management, and will be used as the training simulator for severe accident management

  11. Chernobyl reactor accident: medical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl reactor accident on 26th April, 1986 is by far the worst radiation accident in the history of the nuclear industry. Nearly 500 plant personnel and rescue workers received doses varying from 1-16 Gy. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) was seen only in the plant personnel. 499 individuals were screened for ARS symptoms like nausea, vomitting, diarrhoea and fever. Complete blood examination was done which showed initial granulocytosis followed by granulocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Cytogenetic examinations were confirmatory in classifying the patients on the basis of the doses received. Two hundred and thirty seven cases of ARS were hospitalised in the first 24-36 hrs. No member of general public suffered from ARS. There were two immediate deaths and subsequently 28 died in hospital and one of the cases died due to myocardial infarction, making a total of 31 deaths. The majority of fatal cases had whole body doses of about 6 Gy, besides extensive skin burns. Two cases of radiation burns had thermal burns also. Treatment of ARS consisted of isolation, barrier nursing, replacement therapy with fluid electrolytes, platelets and RBC transfusions and antibiotic therapy for bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Bone marrow transplantations were given to 13 cases out of which 11 died due to various causes. Radiation burns due to beta, gamma radiations were seen in 56 cases and treated with dressings, surgical excision, skin grafting and amputation. Oropharangeal syndrome, producing extensive mucous in the oropharynx, was first seen in Chernobyl. The patients were treated with saline wash of the mouth. The patients who had radioactive contamination due to radioactive iodine were given stable iodine, following wash with soap, water and monitored. Fourteen survivors died subsequently due to other causes. Late health effects seen so far include excess of thyroid cancer in the children and psychological disorders due to stress. No excess leukemia has been reported so

  12. Occupational Radiation Protection in Severe Accident Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an early response to the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident, the Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) Bureau decided to focus on the following issues as an initial response of the joint program after having direct communications with the Japanese official participants in April 2011: - Management of high radiation area worker doses: It has been decided to make available the experience and information from the Chernobyl accident in terms of how emergency worker / responder doses were legally and practically managed, - Personal protective equipment for highly-contaminated areas: It was agreed to collect information about the types of personnel protective equipment and other equipment (e.g. air bottles, respirators, air-hoods or plastic suits, etc.), as well as high-radiation area worker dosimetry use (e.g. type, number and placement of dosimetry) for different types of emergency and high-radiation work situations. Detailed information was collected on dose criteria which are used for emergency workers /responders and their basis, dose management criteria for high dose/dose rate areas, protective equipment which is recommended for emergency workers / responders, recommended individual monitoring procedures, and any special requirement for assessment from the ISOE participating nuclear utilities and regulatory authorities and made available for Japanese utilities. With this positive response of the ISOE official participants and interest in the situation in Fukushima, the Expert Group on Occupational Radiation Protection in Severe Accident Management (EG-SAM) was established by the ISOE Management Board in May 2011. The overall objective of the EG-SAM is to contribute to occupational exposure management (providing a view on management of high radiation area worker doses) within the Fukushima plant boundary with the ISOE participants and to develop a state-of-the-art ISOE report on best radiation protection management practices for proper radiation

  13. Development of emergency response support system for accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific measures for the accident management (AM) are proposed to prevent the severe accident and to mitigate their effects in order to upgrade the safety of nuclear power plants even further. To ensure accident management effective, it is essential to grasp the plant status accurately. In consideration of the above mentioned background, the Emergency Response Support System (ERSS) was developed as a computer assisted prototype system by a joint study of Japanese BWR group. This system judges and predicts the plant status at the emergency condition in a nuclear power plant. This system displays the results of judgment and prediction. The effectiveness of the system was verified through the test and good prospects for applying the system to a plant was obtained. 7 refs., 10 figs

  14. PSA use in accident management studies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of NPPs in Japan is secured by stringent safety regulations based on the deterministic method, minimizing the possibility a severe accident to a technologically negligible level. PSA is not required in the current regulatory procedures. Accident management based on PSA is a 'knowledge-based' action dependent on utilities' technical knowledge aimed at further reduction of the risk which is kept small enough by existing measures. The paper discusses the following three kinds of PSAs that have been conducted practically and efficiently on NPPs to provide supplemental information about their safety characteristics in addition to the deterministic evaluation used in the regulatory safety review: PSAs on typical NPPs, PSAs on all NPPs to examine candidates for accident management, and PSAs as part of periodic safety review (PSR). 1 fig., 5 tabs

  15. Artificial intelligence applications in accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For nuclear power plant accident management, there are some addition concerns: linking AI systems to live data streams must be mastered; techniques for processing sensor inputs with varying data quality need to be provided; systems responsiveness to changing plant conditions and multiple user requests should, in general, be improved; there is a need for porting applications from specialized AI machines onto conventional computer hardware without incurring unacceptable performance penalties; human factors guidelines are required for new user interfaces in AI applications; methods for verification and validation of AI-based systems must be developed; and, finally, there is a need for proven methods to evaluate use effectiveness and firmly establish the benefits of AI-based accident management systems. (orig./GL)

  16. Severe accident approach - final report. Evaluation of design measures for severe accident prevention and consequence mitigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tentner, A. M.; Parma, E.; Wei, T.; Wigeland, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division; SNL; INL

    2010-03-01

    An important goal of the US DOE reactor development program is to conceptualize advanced safety design features for a demonstration Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key safety issues in the design approach for advanced SFR systems. It is necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of the risk of severe accidents for the SFR so that appropriate risk management measures can be implemented early in the design process. This report presents the results of a review of the SFR features and phenomena that directly influence the sequence of events during a postulated severe accident. The report identifies the safety features used or proposed for various SFR designs in the US and worldwide for the prevention and/or mitigation of Core Disruptive Accidents (CDA). The report provides an overview of the current SFR safety approaches and the role of severe accidents. Mutual understanding of these design features and safety approaches is necessary for future collaborations between the US and its international partners as part of the GEN IV program. The report also reviews the basis for an integrated safety approach to severe accidents for the SFR that reflects the safety design knowledge gained in the US during the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) and Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) programs. This approach relies on inherent reactor and plant safety performance characteristics to provide additional safety margins. The goal of this approach is to prevent development of severe accident conditions, even in the event of initiators with safety system failures previously recognized to lead directly to reactor damage.

  17. Severe accident research and management in Nordic Countries - A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the status of severe accident research and accident management development in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark. The emphasis is on severe accident phenomena and issues of special importance for the severe accident management strategies implemented in Sweden and in Finland. The main objective of the research has been to verify the protection provided by the accident mitigation measures and to reduce the uncertainties in risk dominant accident phenomena. Another objective has been to support validation and improvements of accident management strategies and procedures as well as to contribute to the development of level 2 PSA, computerised operator aids for accident management and certain aspects of emergency preparedness. Severe accident research addresses both the in-vessel and the ex-vessel accident progression phenomena and issues. Even though there are differences between Sweden and Finland as to the scope and content of the research programs, the focus of the research in both countries is on in-vessel coolability, integrity of the reactor vessel lower head and core melt behaviour in the containment, in particular the issues of core debris coolability and steam explosions. Notwithstanding that our understanding of these issues has significantly improved, and that experimental data base has been largely expanded, there are still important uncertainties which motivate continued research. Other important areas are thermal-hydraulic phenomena during reflooding of an overheated partially degraded core, fission product chemistry, in particular formation of organic iodine, and hydrogen transport and combustion phenomena. The development of severe accident management has embraced, among other things, improvements of accident mitigating procedures and strategies, further work at IFE Halden on Computerised Accident Management Support (CAMS) system, as well as plant modifications, including new instrumentation. Recent efforts in Sweden in this area

  18. Severe accident research and management in Nordic Countries - A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, W. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI (Sweden)] (ed.)

    2002-01-01

    The report describes the status of severe accident research and accident management development in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark. The emphasis is on severe accident phenomena and issues of special importance for the severe accident management strategies implemented in Sweden and in Finland. The main objective of the research has been to verify the protection provided by the accident mitigation measures and to reduce the uncertainties in risk dominant accident phenomena. Another objective has been to support validation and improvements of accident management strategies and procedures as well as to contribute to the development of level 2 PSA, computerised operator aids for accident management and certain aspects of emergency preparedness. Severe accident research addresses both the in-vessel and the ex-vessel accident progression phenomena and issues. Even though there are differences between Sweden and Finland as to the scope and content of the research programs, the focus of the research in both countries is on in-vessel coolability, integrity of the reactor vessel lower head and core melt behaviour in the containment, in particular the issues of core debris coolability and steam explosions. Notwithstanding that our understanding of these issues has significantly improved, and that experimental data base has been largely expanded, there are still important uncertainties which motivate continued research. Other important areas are thermal-hydraulic phenomena during reflooding of an overheated partially degraded core, fission product chemistry, in particular formation of organic iodine, and hydrogen transport and combustion phenomena. The development of severe accident management has embraced, among other things, improvements of accident mitigating procedures and strategies, further work at IFE Halden on Computerised Accident Management Support (CAMS) system, as well as plant modifications, including new instrumentation. Recent efforts in Sweden in this area

  19. Precept from the management for the accident of Fukushima daiichi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At 17 hours after the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, National Institute of Radiological Sciences sent the first REMAT (Radiation Emergency Medical Assistance Team) in the 20 km range from the Plant. The team members were confronted by two issues: (1) Medical activities under the infrastructures destructed by a multiple disaster caused by earthquake, tsunami and nuclear accident, which was not presumed. (2) Radiation protection management for dispatched staff. Measures for this situation worked out by activities on the site are presented. (K.Y.)

  20. The expert assistant in accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of a nuclear accident in proximity to an urban area, the consequences resulting from the complex processes of environmental transport of radioactivity would require complex countermeasures. Emphasis has been placed on either modelling the potential effects of such an event on the population, or on attempting to predict the geographical evolution of the release. Less emphasis has been placed on the development of accident management aids with a in-built data acquisition capability. Given the problems of predicting the evolution of an accidental release of activity, more emphasis should be placed on the development of small regional systems specifically engineered to acquire and display environmental data in the most efficaceous form possible. A wealth of information can be obtained from appropriately-sited outstations which can aid those responsible for countermeasures in their decision making processes. The substantial volume of data which would arrive within the duration and during the aftermath of an accident requires skilled interpretation under conditions of considerable stress. It is necessary that a management aid notonly presents these data in a rapidly assimilable form, but is capable of making intelligent decisions of its own, on such matters as information display priority and the polling frequency of outstations. The requirement is for an expert assistant. The XERSES accident management aid has been designed with the foregoing features in mind. Intended for covering regions up to approximately 100 kms square, it links with between 1 and 64 outstations supplying a variety of environmental data. Under quiescent conditions the system will operate unattended, raising alarms remotely only when detecting abnormal conditions. Under emergency conditions, the system automatically adjusts such operating parameters as data acquisition rate

  1. OSSA - An optimized approach to severe accident management: EPR application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a recognized need to provide nuclear power plant technical staff with structured guidance for response to a potential severe accident condition involving core damage and potential release of fission products to the environment. Over the past ten years, many plants worldwide have implemented such guidance for their emergency technical support center teams either by following one of the generic approaches, or by developing fully independent approaches. There are many lessons to be learned from the experience of the past decade, in developing, implementing, and validating severe accident management guidance. Also, though numerous basic approaches exist which share common principles, there are differences in the methodology and application of the guidelines. AREVA/Framatome-ANP is developing an optimized approach to severe accident management guidance in a project called OSSA ('Operating Strategies for Severe Accidents'). There are still numerous operating power plants which have yet to implement severe accident management programs. For these, the option to use an updated approach which makes full use of lessons learned and experience, is seen as a major advantage. Very few of the current approaches covers all operating plant states, including shutdown states with the primary system closed and open. Although it is not necessary to develop an entirely new approach in order to add this capability, the opportunity has been taken to develop revised full scope guidance covering all plant states in addition to the fuel in the fuel building. The EPR includes at the design phase systems and measures to minimize the risk of severe accident and to mitigate such potential scenarios. This presents a difference in comparison with existing plant, for which severe accidents where not considered in the design. Thought developed for all type of plants, OSSA will also be applied on the EPR, with adaptations designed to take into account its favourable situation in that field

  2. Study on severe accident mitigation measures for the development of PWR SAMG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In the development of the Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMG), it is very important to choose the main severe accident sequences and verify their mitigation measures. In this article, Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA), Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR), Station Blackout (SBO), and Anticipated Transients without Scram (ATWS) in PWR with 300 MWe are selected as the main severe accident sequences. The core damage progressions induced by the above-mentioned sequences are analyzed using SCDAP/RELAP5. To arrest the core damage progression and mitigate the consequences of severe accidents, the measures for the severe accident management (SAM) such as feed and bleed, and depressurizations are verified using the calculation. The results suggest that implementing feed and bleed and depressurization could be an effective way to arrest the severe accident sequences in PWR.

  3. Review of current Severe Accident Management (SAM) approaches for Nuclear Power Plants in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    HERMSMEYER Stephan; Iglesias, R.; Herranz, L; REER B.; SONNENKALB M; NOWACK H.; Stefanova, A.; Raimond, E.; CHATELARD P.; FOUCHER Laurent; BARNAK M.; MATEJOVIC P; PASCAL GHISLAIN; VELA GARCIA MONICA; SANGIORGI MARCO

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima accidents highlighted that both the in-depth understanding of such sequences and the development or improvement of adequate Severe Accident Management (SAM) measures are essential in order to further increase the safety of the nuclear power plants operated in Europe. To support this effort, the CESAM (Code for European Severe Accident Management) R&D project, coordinated by GRS, started in April 2013 for 4 years in the 7th EC Framework Programme of research and development of th...

  4. Current state of the technology measures of accident from contamination by the radioactive substance. 2. Overall management of radioactive material contaminated waste in the off-site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the disposal standards of the Act on Special Measures Concerning the Handling of Environmental Pollution by Radioactive Materials by the NPS Accident Associated with the Tohoku District - off the Pacific Ocean Earthquake that Occurred on March 11, 2011, which was promulgated on August 30, 2011 as a framework for the management of radioactively contaminated waste and removed soil. It stipulated that the byproducts of water/sewage treatment, major ash, and fly ash up to the radiation of 8,000 Bq/kg can be reclaimed in land. However, fly ash has a limit in landfill conditions, due to very high leaching rate of radioactive cesium. Later, incineration ash with between 8,000 Bq/kg and 100,000 Bq/kg became possible to be buried at disposal sites corresponding to leachate-controlled type. The specified waste with 100,000 Bq/kg or above is reclaimed in land with specified method at a site provided with outer peripheral partition facilities and cut off from the public water and groundwater. In Fukushima Prefecture, the specified waste with 100,000 Bq/kg or above is to be stored in provisional storage facilities, and later sent to final disposal sites outside the prefecture after the volume has been reduced. The decontaminated waste composed of vegetation is covered totally with a breathable waterproof sheet, and stored at a provisional yard. According to the characteristics of each provisional storage yard, there are needs for patrol and management. (A.O.)

  5. Health protection measures after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article describes the nutritional measures introduced to protect health after the Chernobyl accident, and the associated costs. The toal value of the reindeer meat, mutton, lamb and goat meat saved as a result of such measures in 1987 amounted to approx. NOK 250 million. The measures cost approx. NOK 60 million. The resulting reduction in the radiation dose level to which the population was exposed was 450 manSv. In 1988, mutton/lamb and goat meat valued at approx. NOK 310 million was saved from contamination by similar measures, which cost approx. NOK 50 million. The resulting dose level reduction was approx. 200 manSv. The relationship (cost/benefit ratio) between the overall cost of the measures taken to reduce radioactivity levels in food and the dose level reduction achieved was acceptable. 11 refs

  6. Assessment of light water reactor accident management programs and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to provide an assessment of the current light water reactor experience regarding accident management programs and associated technology developments. This assessment for light water reactor (LWR) designs is provided as a resource and reference for the development of accident management capabilities for the production reactors at the Savannah River Site. The specific objectives of this assessment are as follows: 1. Perform a review of the NRC, utility, and industry (NUMARC, EPRI) accident management programs and implementation experience. 2. Provide an assessment of the problems and opportunities in developing an accident management program in conjunction or following the Individual Plant Examination process. 3. Review current NRC, utility, and industry technological developments in the areas of computational tools, severe accident predictive tools, diagnostic aids, and severe accident training and simulation

  7. Assessment of light water reactor accident management programs and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammersley, R.J. [Fauske and Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (United States)

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this report is to provide an assessment of the current light water reactor experience regarding accident management programs and associated technology developments. This assessment for light water reactor (LWR) designs is provided as a resource and reference for the development of accident management capabilities for the production reactors at the Savannah River Site. The specific objectives of this assessment are as follows: 1. Perform a review of the NRC, utility, and industry (NUMARC, EPRI) accident management programs and implementation experience. 2. Provide an assessment of the problems and opportunities in developing an accident management program in conjunction or following the Individual Plant Examination process. 3. Review current NRC, utility, and industry technological developments in the areas of computational tools, severe accident predictive tools, diagnostic aids, and severe accident training and simulation.

  8. Market-oriented management method of coalmine accident hidden dangers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhao-xia; LI Xing-dong; LU Ying; REN Da-wei

    2007-01-01

    By analyzing the problems which exist currently in the accident hidden dangers management of the coal mine, this paper proposed a new kind of management method-"simulating the market", in which an operation pattern of simulating the market to transact hidden troubles was constructed. This method introduces "Market Mechanism"into safe management, and adopts measurable value to describe the hidden dangers such as" human behavior, technique, environment, equipments etc.". It regards the hidden dangers as "the goods produced by labor" which are found out by the safety managers and the security inspectors, then sells as "commodity". By the process of disposing, counterchecking, re-selling, and redisposing. It forms a set of market-oriented closed-form management pattern of coalmine accident hidden dangers. This kind of management method changes the past traditional methods in which the wageworkers treat safety management passively, but to encourage and restrict them to participate in the check-up and improvement of the hidden dangers.

  9. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  10. A framework for the assessment of severe accident management strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastenberg, W.E. [ed.; Apostolakis, G.; Dhir, V.K. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering] [and others

    1993-09-01

    Severe accident management can be defined as the use of existing and/or altemative resources, systems and actors to prevent or mitigate a core-melt accident. For each accident sequence and each combination of severe accident management strategies, there may be several options available to the operator, and each involves phenomenological and operational considerations regarding uncertainty. Operational uncertainties include operator, system and instrumentation behavior during an accident. A framework based on decision trees and influence diagrams has been developed which incorporates such criteria as feasibility, effectiveness, and adverse effects, for evaluating potential severe accident management strategies. The framework is also capable of propagating both data and model uncertainty. It is applied to several potential strategies including PWR cavity flooding, BWR drywell flooding, PWR depressurization and PWR feed and bleed.

  11. A framework for the assessment of severe accident management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe accident management can be defined as the use of existing and/or altemative resources, systems and actors to prevent or mitigate a core-melt accident. For each accident sequence and each combination of severe accident management strategies, there may be several options available to the operator, and each involves phenomenological and operational considerations regarding uncertainty. Operational uncertainties include operator, system and instrumentation behavior during an accident. A framework based on decision trees and influence diagrams has been developed which incorporates such criteria as feasibility, effectiveness, and adverse effects, for evaluating potential severe accident management strategies. The framework is also capable of propagating both data and model uncertainty. It is applied to several potential strategies including PWR cavity flooding, BWR drywell flooding, PWR depressurization and PWR feed and bleed

  12. Development of severe accident management and training support system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwang Sub; Kim, Ko Ryo; Jung, Won Dae; Ha, Jae Joo

    2001-04-01

    Recently, the overall severe accident management strategy is under development according to the logical flow of severe accident management guidelines in some foreign countries. In Korea, the basis of severe accident management strategy is established due to the development of Korean severe accident guideline. In the straining system, the professional information as well as the general information for severe accident should be provided to the related personnel and the function of prior simulation for plant behavior according to strategy execution should be required. Korean severe accident management guideline is chosen as the basis logic for development of support system for decision-support and training related with execution of severe accident strategy. The training simulator is developed for prior expectation of plant behavior and the severe accident computer code, MELCOR, is utilized as the engine, and it is possible to operate equipments necessary for execution of severe accident management guidelines. And also, the graphical interface is developed to provide the plant status and provide status change of major equipments dynamically.

  13. Emergency medical management of radiation accident. Lessons learned from the JCO criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A criticality accident occurred at the JCO nuclear fuel processing plant in Tokai-mura, Japan at 10:35 am on September 30, 1999. Three workers while working nearby were exposed to high doses of radiation, especially rich in neutron. They suffered from the acute radiation syndrome and two of them were still under medical treatment. This criticality accident taught us significant lessons of radiation protection for the personnels, e.g. physicians, nurses and firemen who are expected to rescue radiation-exposed patients in radiation accidents. In this article, medical management of radiation accident, e.g. treatment of patient, with high-dosed radiation-exposure and with internal contamination of radioactive nuclides and estimation of individual radiation dose, were briefly explained. The Japanese Association for Medical Management of Radiation Accident was founded on August 29, 1997, in order to promote the mutual communication of physicians who have to be engaged in treatment of radiation-exposed patients. (author)

  14. Strategy generator in computerized accident management support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increased interest for research in the field of accident management of nuclear power plants can be noted. Several international programmes have been started in order to be able to understand the basic physical and chemical phenomena in accident conditions. A feasibility study has shown that it would be possible to design and develop a computerized support system for plant staff in accident situations. To achieve this goal the Halden Project has initiated a research programme on Computerized Accident Management Support (CAMS project). The aim is to utilize the capabilities of computerized tools to support the plant staff during the various accident stages. The system will include identification of the accident state, assessment of the future development of the accident and planning of accident mitigation strategies. A prototype is developed to support operators and the Technical Support Centre in decision making during serious accidents in nuclear power plants. A rule based system has been built to take care of the strategy generation. This system assists plant personnel in planning control proposals and mitigation strategies from normal operation to severe accident conditions. The idea of a safety objective tree and knowledge from the emergency procedures have been used. Future prediction requires good state identification of the plant status and some knowledge about the history of some critical variables. The information needs to be validated as well. Accurate calculations in simulators and a large database including all important information from the plant will help the strategy planning. (orig.). (40 refs., 20 figs.)

  15. The management of individuals involved in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author defines the objectives and the coverage of two radiation accident courses presented in 1990 by the US Radiation Emergency Assistance Centre and Training Site of the Oak Ridge Associated Universities together with some Australian Medical institutions. It is estimated that the courses, directed towards physicians, radiotherapists and nurses gave plenty practical advices and details on how to go about radiation accident managements. A manual on handling radiation accidents is also to be prepared after the courses

  16. Unconventional sources of plant information for accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An essential element to accident management is having as clear a picture as is practical of the plant status and thus of the accident and its progress. Effective, appropriate decisions to control and mitigate an accident are dependent on making this assessment of the accident. The objective of this paper is to stimulate consideration of unconventional plant information sources through discussion of specific examples. A plant's condition during an accident can be characterized by plant parameters such as temperatures and pressures and by plant system operational status. For example, core damage is associated with increasing temperatures, pressures, and radiation levels in many different systems and plant areas. Reg. Guide 1.97 instrumentation exists to provide information to allow operators to take specified manual actions (Type A), to indicate whether plant safety functions are being accomplished (Type B), to indicate the potential for breach of barriers to fission product release (Type C), to indicate operability of individual safety systems (Type D), and to indicate the magnitude of radioactive material releases (Type E). Reg. Guide 1.97 instrument range requirements, with the exception of pressure instruments, address conditions up to design basis conditions. Pressure instrument range requirements exceed design basis conditions. During a severe accident, some instruments may not see conditions beyond their design basis. Effective accident management includes the ability to establish a consistent picture of the accident by accumulating information from as many sources as is practical. Operability of systems and components, and non-safety related temperature, radiation, pressure, and water-level indication can be used to directly indicate, measure, or infer plant parameters which confirm, augment or replace those otherwise available. Innovative uses of information sources thus serve to increase the diversity and flexibility of accident data available. Both the

  17. Systematic Review of Accident Management Programs - Principles, Experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although all plants have some form of accident management, there is not always a proper review of the accident management program neither of its products, i.e. the various procedures and guidelines. Moreover, such reviews are often limited to Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) and Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMG). More complex events, which include large damage on the site, require additional tools and procedures / guidelines. The present paper describes a new review method that covers this larger area and is capable to identify problems and shortcomings, and offers solutions for those. It basically exists of a three-tier approach: 1. interviews with the national regulator and/or the plant to evaluate the scope of the accident management as required by the national regulation and in comparison with international regulation; 2. interviews with the plant staff to discuss the technical basis of the accident management program and its implementation; and 3. observation of an exercise to test the capability of the plant staff to execute the accident management procedures and guidelines, as well as the value of the exercise for such test. The method is an extension of the IAEA 'Review of Accident Management Program which is limited to review of EOPs and SAMG. It is based on extensive experience with plant reviews. (authors)

  18. Essential severe accident mitigation measures for operating and future PWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    material in the containment atmosphere, on the conditions of the core and for effective accident management decisions. These new in-situ sampling technology was developed and implemented to avoid the strong deposition errors of iodine and aerosols in conventional pipe extraction systems. The venting system is introduced for operating plants and can also be used for future plants although it is not required for the EPR. The Sliding Pressure Venting System consists mainly of a venturi scrubber unit with integrated high efficient metal fiber filter followed by means for super sonic throttling and operation under the sliding containment pressure conditions. Due to this special design and operation the system dimensions could be kept small in spite of obtaining high retention rates for aerosols of >99.99% and that for molecular iodide is >99.5%. For the EPR additional measures for maintaining the containment integrity are foreseen: · use of highly reliable dedicated valves for depressurization which supplement normal bleed valves to eliminate high pressure RPV failure · use of a core melt retention device for melt stabilization by means of spreading of the melt within a large compartment adjacent to the reactor pit, followed by flooding, quenching and cooling of the melt from the top and via a bottom cooling structure; · use of a dedicated active two-train containment heat removal system which needs to operate not earlier than 12h after start of the accident

  19. Summary of a workshop on severe accident management for BWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastenberg, W.E. [ed.; Apostolakis, G.; Jae, M.; Milici, T.; Park, H.; Xing, L.; Dhir, V.K.; Lim, H.; Okrent, D.; Swider, J.; Yu, D. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering

    1991-11-01

    Severe accident management can be defined as the use of existing and/or alternative resources, systems and actions to prevent or mitigate a core-melt accident. For each accident sequence and each combination of strategies there may be several options available to the operator; and each involves phenomenological and operational considerations regarding uncertainty. Operational uncertainties include operator, system and instrument behavior during an accident. During the period September 26--28, 1990, a workshop was held at the University of California, Los Angeles, to address these uncertainties for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). This report contains a summary of the workshop proceedings.

  20. Summary of a workshop on severe accident management for BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe accident management can be defined as the use of existing and/or alternative resources, systems and actions to prevent or mitigate a core-melt accident. For each accident sequence and each combination of strategies there may be several options available to the operator; and each involves phenomenological and operational considerations regarding uncertainty. Operational uncertainties include operator, system and instrument behavior during an accident. During the period September 26--28, 1990, a workshop was held at the University of California, Los Angeles, to address these uncertainties for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). This report contains a summary of the workshop proceedings

  1. Applying Functional Modeling for Accident Management of Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigate applications of functional modeling for accident management in complex industrial plant with special reference to nuclear power production. Main applications for information sharing among decision makers and decision support are identified. An overview of Multilevel Flow...

  2. Applying Functional Modeling for Accident Management of Nucler Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates applications of functional modeling for accident management in complex industrial plant with special reference to nuclear power production. Main applications for information sharing among decision makers and decision support are identified. An overview of Multilevel Flow...

  3. Traffic Accident Prediction Model Implementation in Traffic Safety Management

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Keyao

    2009-01-01

    As one of the highest fatalities causes, traffic accidents and collisions always requires a large amounteffort to be reduced or prevented from occur. Traffic safety management routines therefore always needefficient and effective implementation due to the variations of traffic, especially from trafficengineering point of view apart from driver education.Traffic Accident Prediction Model, considered as one of the handy tool of traffic safety management,has become of well followed with interest...

  4. Aerosol measurements and nuclear accidents: a reconsideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within its radioactivity environmental monitoring programme, the Commission of the European Communities and in particular its Joint Research Centre wants to encourage the qualitative improvement of radioactivity monitoring. On 3 and 4 December 1987 an experts' meeting has been organized by the Ispra Joint Research Centre in collaboration with the Gesellschaft fuer Aerosolforschung, in order to discuss measuring techniques for radioactive aerosols in the environment in case of a nuclear accident. During the workshop, current practices in routine monitoring programmes in the near and far field of nuclear power plants were confronted with the latest developments in the metrology of aerosols and radioactivity. The need and feasibility of implementing advanced aerosol and radioactivity techniques in routine monitoring networks have been discussed. This publication gives the full text of 12 presentations and a report of the roundtable discussion being held afterwards. It does not intend to give a complete picture of all activities going on in the field of radioactive aerosol metrology; it rather collects a number of common statements of people who approach the problem from quite different directions

  5. Severe Accident Management Strategy for EU-APR1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In EU-APR1400, the dedicated instrumentation and mitigation features for SAM are being developed to keep the integrity of containment and to prevent the uncontrolled release of fission products. In this paper, SAM strategy for EU-APR1400 was introduced in stages. It is still under development and finally the Severe Accident Management Guidance will be completed based on this SAM Strategy. Severe accidents in a nuclear power plant are defined as certain unlikely event sequences involving significant core damage with the potential to lead to significant releases according to EUR 2.1.4.4. Even though the probability of severe accidents is extremely low, the radiation release may cause serious effect on people as well as environment. Severe Accident Management (SAM) encompasses those actions which could be considered in recovering from a severe accident and preventing or mitigating the release of fission products to the environment. Whether those actions are successful or not, depending on a progression status of a severe accident to mitigate the consequences of severe accident phenomena to limit the release of radioactive materials keeping the leak tightness of the Primary Containment, and finally to restore transient severe accident progression into a controlled and safe states

  6. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  7. Regulatory perspective on accident management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective response to reactor accidents requires a combination of emergency operations, technical support and emergency response. The NRC and industry have actively pursued programs to assure the adequacy of emergency operations and emergency response. These programs will continue to receive high priority. By contrast, the technical support function has received relatively little attention from NRC and the industry. The results from numerous PRA studies and the severe accident programs of NRC and the industry have yielded a wealth of insights on prevention and mitigation of severe accidents. The NRC intends to work with the industry to make these insights available to the technical support staffs through a combination of guidance, training and periodic drills

  8. Passive depressurization accident management strategy for boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We proposed two passive depressurization systems for BWR severe accident management. • Sensitivity analysis of the passive depressurization systems with different leakage area. • Passive depressurization strategies can prevent direct containment heating. - Abstract: According to the current severe accident management guidance, operators are required to depressurize the reactor coolant system to prevent or mitigate the effects of direct containment heating using the safety/relief valves. During the course of a severe accident, the pressure boundary might fail prematurely, resulting in a rapid depressurization of the reactor cooling system before the startup of SRV operation. In this study, we demonstrated that a passive depressurization system could be used as a severe accident management tool under the severe accident conditions to depressurize the reactor coolant system and to prevent an additional devastating sequence of events and direct containment heating. The sensitivity analysis performed with SAMPSON code also demonstrated that the passive depressurization system with an optimized leakage area and failure condition is more efficient in managing a severe accident

  9. The computer aided education and training system for accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under severe accident conditions of a nuclear power plant, plant operators and technical support center (TSC) staffs will be under a amount of stress. Therefore, those individuals responsible for managing the plant should promote their understanding about the accident management and operations. Moreover, it is also important to train in ordinary times, so that they can carry out accident management operations effectively on severe accidents. Therefore, the education and training system which works on personal computers was developed by Japanese BWR group (Tokyo Electric Power Co.,Inc., Tohoku Electric Power Co. ,Inc., Chubu Electric Power Co. ,Inc., Hokuriku Electric Power Co.,Inc., Chugoku Electric Power Co.,Inc., Japan Atomic Power Co.,Inc.), and Hitachi, Ltd. The education and training system is composed of two systems. One is computer aided instruction (CAI) education system and the other is education and training system with a computer simulation. Both systems are designed to execute on MS-Windows(R) platform of personal computers. These systems provide plant operators and technical support center staffs with an effective education and training tool for accident management. TEPCO used the simulation system for the emergency exercise assuming the occurrence of hypothetical severe accident, and have performed an effective exercise in March, 2000. (author)

  10. Regulatory requirements on accident management and emergency preparedness - concept of nuclear and radiation safety during beyond-design-basis accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actual practice the and proposals for further activities in the field of Accident Management (AM) in the member countries of the Co-operation Forum of WWER regulators and in Western countries have been assessed. Further the results of the last working group on AM , the overview of interactions of severe accident research and the regulatory positions in various countries, IAEA reports, practice in Switzerland and Finland, were taken into consideration. From this information, the working group derived recommendations on Accident Management. The general proposals correspond to the present state of the art on AM. They do not describe the whole spectra of recommendations on AM for NPPs with WWER reactors. A basis for the implementation of an AM program is given, which could be extended in a follow-up working group. The developments and research concerning AM have to be continued. The positions of various countries with regard to the 'Interactions of severe accident research and the regulatory positions' are given. On the basis of the working group proposals, the WWER regulators could set regulatory requirements and support further developments of AM strategies, making use of the benefits of common features of NPPs with WWER reactors. Concerted actions in the field of AM between the WWER regulators would bundle the development of a unified concept of recommendations and speed up the implementation of AM measures in order to minimise the risks involved in nuclear power generation

  11. Proceedings of the workshop on operator training for severe accident management and instrumentation capabilities during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Workshop was organised in collaboration with Electricite de France (Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires). There were 34 participants, representing thirteen OECD Member countries, the Russian Federation and the OECD/NEA. Almost half the participants represented utilities. The second largest group was regulatory authorities and their technical support organisations. Basically, the Workshop was a follow-up to the 1997 Second Specialist Meeting on Operator Aids for Severe Accident Management (SAMOA-2) [Reports NEA/CSNI/R(97)10 and 27] and to the 1992 Specialist Meeting on Instrumentation to Manage Severe Accidents [Reports NEA/CSNI/R(92)11 and (93)3]. It was aimed at sharing and comparing progress made and experience gained from these two meetings, emphasizing practical lessons learnt during training or incidents as well as feedback from instrumentation capability assessment. The objectives of the Workshop were therefore: - to exchange information on recent and current activities in the area of operator training for SAM, and lessons learnt during the management of real incidents ('operator' is defined hear as all personnel involved in SAM); - to compare capabilities and use of instrumentation available during severe accidents; - to monitor progress made; - to identify and discuss differences between approaches relevant to reactor safety; - and to make recommendations to the Working Group on the Analysis and Management of Accidents and the CSNI (GAMA). The meeting confirmed that only limited information is needed for making required decisions for SAM. In most cases existing instrumentation should be able to provide usable information. Additional instrumentation requirements may arise from particular accident management measures implemented in some plants. In any case, depending on the time frame where the instrumentation should be relied upon, it should be assessed whether it is likely to survive the harsh environmental conditions it will be exposed

  12. Marine Accidents in Northern Nigeria: Causes, Prevention and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Lawal Bello Dogarawa

    2012-01-01

    Boat mishaps tend to be increasing in Nigeria in spite of all regulatory measures which have been taken to prevent and control marine accidents. Boat mishaps could occur anywhere water transportation takes place. However, there is a general impression that water transportation takes place only in the riverine areas located in Southern Nigeria but, this paper reports about marine accident cases in Northern Nigeria. It evaluates the safety measures put in place by operators and other institutio...

  13. Recent Developments in Level 2 PSA and Severe Accident Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997, CSNI WGRISK produced a report on the state of the art in Level 2 PSA and severe accident management - NEA/CSNI/R(1997)11. Since then, there have been significant developments in that more Level 2 PSAs have been carried out worldwide for a variety of nuclear power plant designs including some that were not addressed in the original report. In addition, there is now a better understanding of the severe accident phenomena that can occur following core damage and the way that they should be modelled in the PSA. As requested by CSNI in December 2005, the objective of this study was to produce a report that updates the original report and gives an account of the developments that have taken place since 1997. The aim has been to capture the most significant new developments that have occurred rather than to provide a full update of the original report, most of which is still valid. This report is organised using the same structure as the original report as follows: Chapter 2: Summary on state of application, results and insights from recent Level 2 PSAs. Chapter 3: Discussion on key severe accident phenomena and modelling issues, identification of severe accident issues that should be treated in Level 2 PSAs for accident management applications, review of severe accident computer codes and the use of these codes in Level 2 PSAs. Chapter 4: Review of approaches and practices for accident management and SAM, evaluation of actions in Level 2 PSAs. Chapter 5: Review of available Level 2 PSA methodologies, including accident progression event tree / containment event tree development. Chapter 6: Aspects important to quantification, including the use of expert judgement and treatment of uncertainties. Chapter 7: Examples of the use of the results and insights from the Level 2 PSA in the context of an integrated (risk informed) decision making process

  14. Development of Parameter Network for Accident Management Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, Sukyoung; Ahemd, Rizwan; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Taek; Park, Soo Yong; Ahn, Kwang Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    When a severe accident happens, it is hard to obtain the necessary information to understand of internal status because of the failure or damage of instrumentation and control systems. We learned the lessons from Fukushima accident that internal instrumentation system should be secured and must have ability to react in serious conditions. While there might be a number of methods to reinforce the integrity of instrumentation systems, we focused on the use of redundant behavior of plant parameters without additional hardware installation. Specifically, the objective of this study is to estimate the replaced value which is able to identify internal status by using set of available signals when it is impossible to use instrumentation information in a severe accident, which is the continuation of the paper which was submitted at the last KNS meeting. The concept of the VPN was suggested to improve the quality of parameters particularly to be logged during severe accidents in NPPs using a software based approach, and quantize the importance of each parameter for further maintenance. In the future, we will continue to perform the same analysis to other accident scenarios and extend the spectrum of initial conditions so that we are able to get more sets of VPNs and ANN models to predict the behavior of accident scenarios. The suggested method has the uncertainty underlain in the analysis code for severe accidents. However, In case of failure to the safety critical instrumentation, the information from the VPN would be available to carry out safety management operation.

  15. CATHARE Assessment of PACTEL LOCA Experiments with Accident Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luben Sabotinov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the analysis results of three PACTEL experiments, carried out with the advanced thermal-hydraulic system computer CATHARE 2 code as a part of the second work package WP2 (analytical work of the EC project “Improved Accident Management of VVER nuclear power plants” (IMPAM-VVER. The three LOCA experiments, conducted on the Finnish test facility PACTEL (VVER-440 model, represent 7.4% cold leg breaks with combination of secondary bleed and primary bleed and feed and different actuation modes of the passive safety injection. The code was used for both defining and analyzing the experiments, and to assess its capabilities in predicting the associated complex VVER-related phenomena. The code results are in reasonable agreement with the measurements, and the important physical phenomena are well predicted, although still further improvement and validation might be necessary.

  16. A framework for assessing severe accident management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accident management can be defined as the innovative use of existing and or alternative resources, systems and actions to prevent or mitigate a severe accident. Together with risk management (changes in plant operation and/or addition of equipment) and emergency planning (off-site actions), accident management provides an extension of the defense-in-depth safety philosophy for severe accidents. A significant number of probabilistic safety assessments (PSA) have been completed which yield the principal plant vulnerabilities. For each sequence/threat and each combination of strategy there may be several options available to the operator. Each strategy/option involves phenomenological and operational considerations regarding uncertainty. These considerations include uncertainty in key phenomena, uncertainty in operator behavior, uncertainty in system availability and behavior, and uncertainty in available information (i.e., instrumentation). The objective of this project is to develop a methodology for assessing severe accident management strategies given the key uncertainties mentioned above. Based on Decision Trees and Influence Diagrams, the methodology is currently being applied to two case studies: cavity flooding in a PWR to prevent vessel penetration or failure, and drywell flooding in a BWR to prevent containment failure

  17. Applying Functional Modeling for Accident Management of Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang Xinxin [Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China)

    2014-08-15

    The paper investigate applications of functional modeling for accident management in complex industrial plant with special reference to nuclear power production. Main applications for information sharing among decision makers and decision support are identified. An overview of Multilevel Flow Modeling is given and a detailed presentation of the foundational means-end concepts is presented and the conditions for proper use in modelling accidents are identified. It is shown that Multilevel Flow Modeling can be used for modelling and reasoning about design basis accidents. Its possible role for information sharing and decision support in accidents beyond design basis is also indicated. A modelling example demonstrating the application of Multilevel Flow Modelling and reasoning for a PWR LOCA is presented.

  18. Main post-accident management stakes: IRSN's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Off site management of a radiological crisis covers two phases which need to be clearly distinguished even if there are links between them: emergency phase and recovery phase (also called late or post-accident phase). The presentation will deal with the latter, rather neglected up until recently, but conveying special attention from now on in France and at the international level. It is clear now that the long term management of a radiological or nuclear crisis cannot be reduced to merely site decontamination. Actually, environmental decontamination considerations would be only one amongst other essential economical, social, health, psychological, cultural, and symbolical concerns. This is why off site management of a radiological crisis requires innovative governance, in order to challenge such a complexity. This need for challenge led IRSN to have on the go technical developments and new governance modes reflection. 1) Technical developments: they deal with implementing an organisation, a set of methods, a platform of technical tools which would allow the stakeholders to carry out efficiently their mission during the recovery phase. For example, countermeasures for agricultural and urban rehabilitation are developed within the framework of the 6. PCRDT EURANOS programme. Teams from several countries are involved in common elaboration of rehabilitation strategies based on the best available knowledge. Besides this, simple operational decision aiding tools for the stakeholders (local administration, elected representatives, professional agricultural groups, etc.) are currently developed by IRSN within the framework of the nuclear post-accident exercises. IRSN is also involved in doctrinal reflections about the respective roles of radioactive measurements in the environment and radiological consequences calculation during emergency and recovery phases. Criteria for emergency countermeasures withdrawal are also currently under

  19. Populations protection and territories management in nuclear emergency and post-accident situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during these conference days. Twenty seven presentations out of 29 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - radiological and dosimetric consequences in nuclear accident situation: impact on the safety approach and protection stakes (E. Cogez); 2 - organisation of public authorities in case of emergency and in post-event situation (in case of nuclear accident or radiological terror attack in France and abroad), (O. Kayser); 3 - ORSEC plan and 'nuclear' particular intervention plan (PPI), (C. Guenon); 4 - thyroid protection by stable iodine ingestion: European perspective (J.R. Jourdain); 5 - preventive distribution of stable iodine: presentation of the 2009/2010 public information campaign (E. Bouchot); 6 - 2009/2010 iodine campaign: presentation and status (O. Godino); 7 - populations protection in emergency and post-accident situation in Switzerland (C. Murith); 8 - CIPR's recommendations on the management of emergency and post-accident situations (J. Lochard); 9 - nuclear exercises in France - status and perspectives (B. Verhaeghe); 10 - the accidental rejection of uranium at the Socatri plant: lessons learnt from crisis management (D. Champion); 11 - IRE's radiological accident of August 22, 2008 (C. Vandecasteele); 12 - presentation of the CEA's crisis national organisation: coordination centre in case of crisis, technical teams, intervention means (X. Pectorin); 13 - coordination and realisation of environmental radioactivity measurement programs, exploitation and presentation of results: status of IRSN's actions and perspectives (P. Dubiau); 14 - M2IRAGE - measurements management in the framework of geographically-assisted radiological interventions in the environment (O. Gerphagnon and H. Roche); 15 - post-accident management of a nuclear accident - the CODIRPA works (I. Mehl-Auget); 16 - nuclear post-accident: new challenges of crisis expertise (D. Champion); 17 - aid guidebooks

  20. The evolution of computerized displays in accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key regulations implemented by the NRC in 1982, which included requirements such as upgraded emergency operating procedures, detailed control room design reviews, the addition of a safety parameter display system, and the inclusion of a degreed shift technical advisor as part of the operating staff, have enabled the use of computerized displays to evolve as an integral part of accident management within each of the four main vendor groups. Problems, however, remain to be resolved in the area of technical content, information reliability, and rules for use in order to achieve the goal of more reliable accident management in nuclear power plants

  1. The computer aided education and training system for accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The education and training system for Accident Management was developed by the Japanese BWR group and Hitachi Ltd. The education and training system is composed of two systems. One is computer aided instruction (CAI) education system and the education and training system with computer simulations. Both systems are designed to be executed on personal computers. The outlines of the CAI education system and the education and training system with simulator are reported below. These systems provides plant operators and technical support center staff with the effective education and training for accident management. (author)

  2. A systematic process for developing and assessing accident management plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes a four-phase approach for developing criteria recommended for use in assessing the adequacy of nuclear power plant accident management plans. Two phases of the approach have been completed and provide a prototype process that could be used to develop an accident management plan. Based on this process, a preliminary set of assessment criteria are derived. These preliminary criteria will be refined and improved when the remaining steps of the approach are completed, that is, after the prototype process is validated through application. 9 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Proceedings of the specialist meeting on selected containment severe accident management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty papers were presented at the first specialist meeting on Selected Containment Severe Accident management Strategies, held in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1994, half of them dealing with accident management strategies implementation status, half of them with research aspects. The four sessions were: general aspects of containment accident management strategies, hydrogen management techniques, other containment accident management strategies (spray cooling, core catcher...), surveillance and protection of containment function

  4. Development of Integrated Evaluation System for Severe Accident Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, K. R.; Park, S. H.; Park, S. Y.; Park, J. H.; Song, Y. M.; Ahn, K. I.; Choi, Y

    2007-06-15

    The objective of the project is twofold. One is to develop a severe accident database (DB) for the Korean Standard Nuclear Power plant (OPR-1000) and a DB management system, and the other to develop a localized computer code, MIDAS (Multi-purpose IntegrateD Assessment code for Severe accidents). The MELCOR DB has been constructed for the typical representative sequences to support the previous MAAP DB in the previous phase. The MAAP DB has been updated using the recent version of MAAP 4.0.6. The DB management system, SARD, has been upgraded to manage the MELCOR DB in addition to the MAAP DB and the network environment has been constructed for many users to access the SARD simultaneously. The integrated MIDAS 1.0 has been validated after completion of package-wise validation. As the current version of MIDAS cannot simulate the anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) sequence, point-kinetics model has been implemented. Also the gap cooling phenomena after corium relocation into the RPV can be modeled by the user as an input parameter. In addition, the subsystems of the severe accident graphic simulator are complemented for the efficient severe accident management and the engine of the graphic simulator was replaced by the MIDAS instead of the MELCOR code. For the user's convenience, MIDAS input and output processors are upgraded by enhancing the interfacial programs.

  5. Severe accident analysis to verify the effectiveness of severe accident management guidelines for large pressurized heavy water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokhale, O.S., E-mail: onkarsg@barc.gov.in; Mukhopadhyay, D., E-mail: dmukho@barc.gov.in; Lele, H.G., E-mail: hglele@barc.gov.in; Singh, R.K., E-mail: rksingh@barc.gov.in

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The progression of severe accident initiated from high pressure scenario of station black out has been analyzed using RELAP5/SCDAP. • The effectiveness of SAMG actions prescribed has been established through analysis. • The time margin available to invoke the SAMG action has been specified. - Abstract: The pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) contains both inherent and engineered safety features that help the reactor become resistant to severe accident and its consequences. However in case of a low frequency severe accident, despite the safety features, procedural action should be in place to mitigate the accident progression. Severe accident analysis of such low frequency event provides insight into the accident progression and basis to develop the severe accident management guidelines (SAMG). Since the order of uncertainty in the progression path of severe accident is very high, it is necessary to study the consequences of the SAMG actions prescribed. The paper discusses severe accident analysis for large PHWRs for multiple failure transients involving a high pressure scenario (initiation event like SBO with loss of emergency core cooling system and loss of moderator cooling). SAMG actions prescribed for such a scenario include water injection into steam generator, calandria vessel or calandria vault at different stages of accident. The effectiveness of SAMG actions prescribed has been investigated. It is found that there is sufficient time margin available to the operator to execute these SAMG actions and the progression of severe accident is arrested in all the three cases.

  6. Decision-making guide for management of agriculture in the case of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For several years, agricultural and nuclear professionals in France have been working on how to manage the agricultural situation in the event of a nuclear accident. This work resulted in measures at both the national (Aube nuclear safety exercises in 2003, INEX3 in 2005) and international levels (EURATOM Programmes). Following on from the European FARMING (FP5) and EURANOS (FP6) works, ACTA', IRSN and six agricultural technical institutes which are specialized in agricultural production and processing network (arable crop [especially cereals, maize, pulses, potatoes and forage crops], fruits and vegetables, vine and wine, livestock farming [cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry]), created a resource adapted to the French context: the Decision-aiding Tool for the Management of Agriculture in case of a Nuclear Accident. Devised for the Ministry of Agriculture services supporting state officials in a radiation emergency, this manual focuses on the early phase following the accident when the state of emergency would make discussion on countermeasures with a large stakeholder panel impossible. Supported by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries and the French Nuclear Safety Authority, this project increased knowledge of post-accident management strategies and made an important contribution to the national think tank set up within the framework of the French Steering Committee for managing the post-event phase of a nuclear accident (CODIRPA). This article describes how the manual evolved throughout the project and the development of new resources

  7. Decision-making guide for management of agriculture in the case of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For several years, agricultural and nuclear professionals in France have been working on how to manage the agricultural situation in the event of a nuclear accident. This work resulted in measures at both the national (Aube nuclear safety exercises in 2003, INEX3 in 2005) and international levels (EURATOM Programmes). Following on from the European FARMING (FP5) and EURANOS (FP6) works, ACTA', IRSN and six agricultural technical institutes which are specialized in agricultural production and processing network (arable crop [especially cereals, maize, pulses, potatoes and forage crops], fruits and vegetables, vine and wine, livestock farming [cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry]), created a resource adapted to the French context: the Decision-aiding Tool for the Management of Agriculture in case of a Nuclear Accident. Devised for the Ministry of Agriculture services supporting state officials in a radiation emergency, this manual focuses on the early phase following the accident when the state of emergency would make discussion on countermeasures with a large stakeholder panel impossible. Supported by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries and the French Nuclear Safety Authority, this project increased knowledge of post-accident management strategies and made an important contribution to the national think tank set up within the framework of the French Steering Committee for managing the post-event phase of a nuclear accident (CODIRPA). This article describes how the manual evolved throughout the project and the development of new resources. (authors)

  8. Use of decision trees for evaluating severe accident management strategies in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jae, Moosung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclerar Engineering; Lee, Yongjin; Jerng, Dong Wook [Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). School of Energy Systems Engineering

    2016-07-15

    Accident management strategies are defined to innovative actions taken by plant operators to prevent core damage or to maintain the sound containment integrity. Such actions minimize the chance of offsite radioactive substance leaks that lead to and intensify core damage under power plant accident conditions. Accident management extends the concept of Defense in Depth against core meltdown accidents. In pressurized water reactors, emergency operating procedures are performed to extend the core cooling time. The effectiveness of Severe Accident Management Guidance (SAMG) became an important issue. Severe accident management strategies are evaluated with a methodology utilizing the decision tree technique.

  9. Proceedings of the first OECD (NEA) CSNI-Specialist Meeting on Instrumentation to Manage Severe Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OECD member countries have adopted various accident management measures and procedures. To initiate these measures and control their effectiveness, information on the status of the plant and on accident symptoms is necessary. This information includes physical data (pressure, temperatures, hydrogen concentrations, etc.) but also data on the condition of components such as pumps, valves, power supplies, etc. In response to proposals made by the CSNI - PWG 4 Task Group on Containment Aspects of Severe Accident Management (CAM) and endorsed by PWG 4, CSNI has decided to sponsor a Specialist Meeting on Instrumentation to Manage Severe Accidents. The knowledge-basis for the Specialist Meeting was the paper on 'Instrumentation for Accident Management in Containment'. This technical document (NEA/CSNI/R(92)4) was prepared by the CSNI - Principle Working Group Number 4 of experts on January 1992. The Specialist Meeting was structured in the following sessions: I. Information Needs for Managing Severe Accidents, II. Capabilities and Limitations of Existing Instrumentation, III. Unconventional Use and Further Development of Instrumentation, IV. Operational Aids and Artificial Intelligence. The Specialist Meeting concentrated on existing instrumentation and its possible use under severe accident conditions; it also examined developments underway and planed. Desirable new instrumentation was discussed briefly. The interactions and discussions during the sessions were helpful to bring different perspectives to bear, thus sharpening the thinking of all. Questions were raised concerning the long-term viability of current (or added) instrumentation. It must be realized that the subject of instrumentation to manage severe accidents is very new, and that no international meeting on this topic was held previously. One of the objectives was to bring this important issue to the attention of both safety authorities and experts. It could be seen from several of the presentations and from

  10. Role of accident analysis in development of severe accident management guidance for multi-unit CANDU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the role of accident analysis in support of the development of Severe Accident Management Guidance for domestic CANDU reactors. In general, analysis can identify what types of challenges can be expected during accident progression but it cannot specify when and to what degree accident phenomena will occur. SAMG overcomes these limitations by monitoring the actual values of key plant indicators that can be used directly or indirectly to infer the condition of the plant and by establishing setpoints beyond which corrective action is required. Analysis can provide a means to correlate observed post-accident plant behavior against predicted behaviour to improve the confidence in and quality of accident mitigation decisions. (author)

  11. Accident management advisor system (AMAS): A Decision Aid for Interpreting Instrument Information and Managing Accident Conditions in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accident management can be characterized as the optimized use of all available plant resources to stop or mitigate the progression of a nuclear power plant accident sequence which may otherwise result i n reactor vessel and containment failure. It becomes important under conditions that have low probability of occurring. However, given that these conditions may lead to extremely severe financial consequences and public health effects, it is now recognized that it is important for the plant owners to develop realistic strategies and guidelines. Recent studies have classified accident management strategies as: - the use of alternative resources (i.e., air, water, power), - the use of alternative equipment (i.e., pumps, water lines, generators), the use of alternative actions (i.e., manual depressurization and injection, 'feed and bleed', etc.) The matching of these alternative actions and resources to an actual plant condition represents a decision process affected by a high degree of uncertainty in several of its fundamental inputs. This uncertainty includes the expected accident progression phenomenology (e.g., the issue of high pressure core ejection from the vessel in a PWR plant with possible 'direct containment heating'), as well as the expected availability and behavior of plant systems and of plant instrumentation. To support the accident management decision process with computer-based decision aids, one needs to develop accident progression models that can be stored in a computer knowledge based and retrieved at will for comparison with actual plant conditions, so that these conditions can be recognized and dealt with accordingly. Recent Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs) [1] show the progression of a severe accident through and beyond the core melt stages via multi-branch accident progression trees. Although these 'accident tree models' were originally intended for accident probability assessment purposes, they do provide a basis of initial information

  12. Measuring patients' experiences in the Accident and Emergency department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, N.

    2013-01-01

    Two questionnaires were used to measure patients’ experiences in the Accident and Emergency department (A&E). First, the English A&E department questionnaire used in the English National Survey Programme, and after translation in Dutch used in the Netherlands. The second questionnaire concerned the

  13. Irradiation Accidents in Radiotherapy Analyze, Manage, Prevent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Why do errors occur? How to minimize them? In a context of widely publicized major incidents, of accelerated technological advances in radiotherapy planning and delivery, and of global communication and information resources, this critical issue had to be addressed by the professionals of the field, and so did most national and international organizations. The ISMP, aware of its responsibility, decided as well to put an emphasis on the topic at the occasion of its annual meeting. In this frame, potential errors in terms of scenarios, pathways of occurrence, and dosimetry, will first be examined. The goal being to prioritize error prevention according to likelihood of events and their dosimetric impact. Then, case study of three incidents will be detailed: Epinal, Glasgow and Detroit. For each one, a description of the incident and the way it was reported, its investigation, and the lessons that can be learnt will be presented. Finally, the implementation of practical measures at different levels, intra- and inter institutions, like teaching, QA procedures enforcement or voluntary incident reporting, will be discussed

  14. Severe accident management (SAM), operator training and instrumentation capabilities - Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    for SAM. In most cases existing instrumentation should be able to provide usable information. Additional instrumentation requirements may arise from particular accident management measures implemented in some plants. In any case, depending on the time frame where the instrumentation should be relied upon, it should be assessed whether it is likely to survive the harsh environmental conditions it will be exposed to. Though uncertainties still remain in the understanding of some severe accident phenomena, this should not be considered as a de-facto impediment against using simplified models both as operator aids in the course of an accident and as an option of a simulator severe accident mathematical model. These tools, however, should be based on state-of-the-art physics and calibrated using more sophisticated codes. Having the capability for periodic assessment of trends and predictions against real plant parameter evolution, and subsequent correction, is also advised for such tools. Being prepared for the unexpected is the major objective pursued in training, especially when capabilities extend into severe accident situations. When training for severe accidents is contemplated, skill-oriented sessions should be emphasized as they allow evaluating operator reactions in highly perturbed situations. However, it is also advised to increase operator awareness in case of severe accident situations through tailored sessions stressing knowledge of basic phenomena involved in degraded situations. Though computer-based training could well prevail in the long run, table-top exercises as currently implemented by many utilities also bring extremely valuable results

  15. Westinghouse severe accident management guidance overview and current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Westinghouse Owners Group has completed a major development program in Severe Accident Management. This program draws on all presently available sources of information in the field, including in the field, including NRC, NUMARC and EPRI programs, plant specific Individual Plant Examinations and Probabilistic Safety Assessments, and other international activities. The program has developed a full set of Severe Accident Management Guidance (SAMG) applicable to Westinghouse and Westinghouse licensee PWR plant. The SAMG enhances the capabilities of the plant emergency response team for accident sequences that progress to fuel damage, and therefore beyond the range of applicability of present guidance in the form of Emergency Operating Procedures. Since the first draft of SAMG was transmitted officially to the WOG members and the NRC in July 1993, many activities have been carried out by the different organizations involved, and although no significant changes to the SAMG structure have resulted from these activities, several enhancement have been included, mainly from the comments recorded during the generic SAMG validation exercise at the Point Beach plant. With the issue in June 1994 of the revision 0 SAMG, some plants in the U.S. and abroad are already implementing plant specific guidelines. This paper provides an overview of the SAMG package, and also describe the most important comments and feedback from the validation and review efforts. (author)

  16. Proceedings of the specialist meeting on severe accident management implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Niantic Specialist meeting was structured around three main themes, one for each session. During the first session, papers from regulators, research groups, designers/owners groups and some utilities discussed the critical decisions in Severe Accident Management (SAM), how these decisions were addressed and implemented in generic SAM guidelines, what equipment and instrumentation was used, what are the differences in national approaches, etc. During the second session, papers were presented by utility specialists that described approaches chosen to specific implementation of the generic guidelines, the difficulties encountered in the implementation process and the perceived likelihood of success of their SAM program in dealing with severe accidents. The third session was dedicated to discussing what are the remaining uncertainties and open questions in SAM. Experts from several OECD countries presented significant perspectives on remaining open issues

  17. Consideration of Command and Control Performance during Accident Management Process at the Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Nisrene M. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sok Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants shifted the nuclear safety paradigm from risk management to on-site management capability during a severe accident. The kernel of on-site management capability during an accident at a nuclear power plant is situation awareness and agility of command and control. However, little consideration has been given to accident management. After the events of September 11, 2001 and the catastrophic Fukushima nuclear disaster, agility of command and control has emerged as a significant element for effective and efficient accident management, with many studies emphasizing accident management strategies, particularly man-machine interface, which is considered a key role in ensuring nuclear power plant safety during severe accident conditions. This paper proposes a conceptual model for evaluating command and control performance during the accident management process at a nuclear power plant. Communication and information processing while responding to an accident is one of the key issues needed to mitigate the accident. This model will give guidelines for accurate and fast communication response during accident conditions.

  18. Improvement of Severe Accident Analysis Computer Code and Development of Accident Management Guidance for Heavy Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Yong; Kim, Ko Ryu; Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, See Darl; Song, Yong Mann; Choi, Young; Jin, Young Ho

    2005-03-15

    The objective of the project is to develop a generic severe accident management guidance(SAMG) applicable to Korean PHWR and the objective of this 3 year continued phase is to construct a base of the generic SAMG. Another objective is to improve a domestic computer code, ISAAC (Integrated Severe Accident Analysis code for CANDU), which still has many deficiencies to be improved in order to apply for the SAMG development. The scope and contents performed in this Phase-2 are as follows: The characteristics of major design and operation for the domestic Wolsong NPP are analyzed from the severe accident aspects. On the basis, preliminary strategies for SAM of PHWR are selected. The information needed for SAM and the methods to get that information are analyzed. Both the individual strategies applicable for accident mitigation under PHWR severe accident conditions and the technical background for those strategies are developed. A new version of ISAAC 2.0 has been developed after analyzing and modifying the existing models of ISAAC 1.0. The general SAMG applicable for PHWRs confirms severe accident management techniques for emergencies, provides the base technique to develop the plant specific SAMG by utility company and finally contributes to the public safety enhancement as a NPP safety assuring step. The ISAAC code will be used inevitably for the PSA, living PSA, severe accident analysis, SAM program development and operator training in PHWR.

  19. Utilization technique of 'radiation management manual in medical field (2012).' What should be learnt from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the abstract of contents of the 'Radiation management manual in medical field (2012),' the utilization technique of the manual is introduced. Introduced items are as follows: (1) Exposure management; exposure management for radiation medical workers, patients, and citizens in the medical field, and exposure management for radiation workers and citizens involved in the emergency work related to the Fukushima nuclear accident, (2) Health management; health management for radiation medical workers, (3) Radiation education: Education/training for radiation medical workers, and radiation education for health care workers, (4) Accident and emergency measures; emergency actions involved in the radiation accidents and radiation medicine at medical facilities

  20. Specialist meeting on selected containment severe accident management strategies. Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CSNI Specialist Meeting on Selected Containment Severe Accident Management Strategies held in Stockholm, Sweden in June 1994 was organised by the Task Group on Containment Aspects of Severe Accident Management (CAM) of CSNI's Principal Working Group on the Confinement of Accidental Radioactive Releases (PWG4) in collaboration with the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI). Conclusions and recommendations are given for each of the sessions of the workshops: Containment accident management strategies (general aspects); hydrogen management techniques and other containment accident management techniques; surveillance and protection of containment function

  1. Campfire-2000: Comprehensive Accident Management Program Featuring Innovative Research and Engineering for the Year 2000 and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CAMPFIRE-2000 accident management program is being developed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute symphonizing the proven state-of-the-art technologies and newly proposed innovative research and engineering. The ultimate goal of the program is to resolve the plant-specific accident management issues utilizing a coherent, consistent, pragmatic, methodical approach. The program focuses on the preventive measures to maintain reactor core geometry and the mitigative measures to secure containment integrity, should a severe accident take place in a nuclear power plant. CAMPFIRE-2000 consists of strategy assessment methods, guidance and procedures, instrumentation and information, calculational aids and tools, human and organization factors, handbook of accident management, and technical expert system. In particular, the one most immediate issue involves the simulation of the rather rapid cooling of the core debris and the reactor vessel lower head of be Three Mile Island Unit 2 nuclear plant as has recently been identified from post-accident metallurgical testing of the sample specimens. As a top-notch companion experiment for CAMPFIRE-2000, a large-scale, real-material, high pressure system test SONATA-IV is proposed as a multi-lateral, multi-disciplinary project calling for international collaboration to investigate the potentially inherent, naturally-occurring in-vessel cooling mechanism from the very relevant severe accident management perspective

  2. WWER Technical Support Center and Training of its Staff for Severe Accident Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Russian Utility organization Concern Rosenergoatom (REA) has well developed multi-level system of prevention and liquidation of emergency situations at nuclear power plants. This system covers all aspects related to beyond design accidents - from the technical support of the plant personnel to the measures for protection of the population and environment. In case a radiation dangerous situation or accident at a NPP occurred, the urgent help is being performed by the OPAS group, which coordinates the activities of forces and means participating in localization and liquidation of accident. Technical and information needs of the OPAS group is assured by Crisis center of REA (CC) with its Expert group. The task of CC is the development of the technical recommendations for the plant personnel on the accident management measures aimed to prevent the severe accident or to restrict its consequences. This task is being solved by Expert group (EG) of Crisis center in interaction with the Technical support centers (TSC) established in different design and scientific organizations (NSSS General designer, NPP General designer, Scientific leader of NPP design, institutes of Academy of Sciences, etc). Each TSC is being considered as a constituent of Rosenergoatom CC. Such Technical support center for WWER nuclear power plants (WWER TCS) has been established in OKB Gidropress some years ago. Three modes of WWER TSC operation (and, accordingly, its interaction with REA CC) are defined: normal operation, increased readiness and emergency situation. In case of beyond design accident on a plant, WWER TSC under request of REA CC will develop the recommendations for CC Expert group aimed to prevent the accident progression to the severe phase or to restrict the severe accident consequences, if it nevertheless has occurred. In chapter 2 of the present paper, place and role of WWER TSC in general system of emergency response of Rosenergoatom is highlighted. TSC structure, functions of

  3. Identification and evaluation of PWR in-vessel severe accident management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reports documents work performed the NRC/RES Accident Management Guidance Program to evaluate possible strategies for mitigating the consequences of PWR severe accidents. The selection and evaluation of strategies was limited to the in-vessel phase of the severe accident, i.e., after the initiation of core degradation and prior to RPV failure. A parallel project at BNL has been considering strategies applicable to the ex-vessel phase of PWR severe accidents

  4. Construction safety: Can management prevent all accidents or are workers responsible for their own actions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction industry has struggled for many years with the answer to the question posed in the title: Can Management Prevent All Accidents or Are Workers Responsible for Their Own Actions? In the litigious society that we live, it has become more important to find someone open-quotes at faultclose quotes for an accident than it is to find out how we can prevent it from ever happening again. Most successful companies subscribe to the theme that open-quotes all accidents can be prevented.close quotes They institute training and qualification programs, safe performance incentives, and culture-change-driven directorates such as the Voluntary Protection Program (VPP); yet we still see construction accidents that result in lost time, and occasionally death, which is extremely costly in the shortsighted measure of money and, in real terms, impact to the worker''s family. Workers need to be properly trained in safety and health protection before they are assigned to a job that may expose them to safety and health hazards. A management committed to improving worker safety and health will bring about significant results in terms of financial savings, improved employee morale, enhanced communities, and increased production. But how can this happen, you say? Reduction in injury and lost workdays are the rewards. A decline in reduction of injuries and lost workdays results in lower workers'' compensation premiums and insurance rates. In 1991, United States workplace injuries and illnesses cost public and private sector employers an estimated $62 billion in workers'' compensation expenditures

  5. Developement of integrated evaluation system for severe accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, H. D.; Park, S. Y.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S. H.; Choi, Y.; Song, Y. M.; Ahn, K. I.; Park, J. H

    2005-04-01

    The scope of the project includes four activities such as construction of DB, development of data base management tool, development of severe accident analysis code system and FP studies. In the construction of DB, level-1,2 PSA results and plant damage states event trees were mainly used to select the following target initiators based on frequencies: LLOCA, MLOCA, SLOCA, station black out, LOOP, LOFW and SGTR. These scenarios occupy more than 95% of the total frequencies of the core damage sequences at KSNP. In the development of data base management tool, SARD 2.0 was developed under the PC microsoft windows environment using the visual basic 6.0 language. In the development of severe accident analysis code system, MIDAS 1.0 was developed with new features of FORTRAN-90 which makes it possible to allocate the storage dynamically and to use the user-defined data type, leading to an efficient memory treatment and an easy understanding. Also for user's convenience, the input (IEDIT) and output (IPLOT) processors were developed and implemented into the MIDAS code. For the model development of MIDAS concerning the FP behavior, the one dimensional thermophoresis model was developed and it gave much improvement to predict the amount of FP deposited on the SG U-tube. Also the source term analysis methodology was set up and applied to the KSNP and APR1400.

  6. Development of the severe accident risk information database management system SARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Kwang Il; Kim, Dong Ha

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of this report is to introduce essential features and functions of a severe accident risk information management system, SARD (Severe Accident Risk Database Management System) version 1.0, which has been developed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, and database management and data retrieval procedures through the system. The present database management system has powerful capabilities that can store automatically and manage systematically the plant-specific severe accident analysis results for core damage sequences leading to severe accidents, and search intelligently the related severe accident risk information. For that purpose, the present database system mainly takes into account the plant-specific severe accident sequences obtained from the Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs), base case analysis results for various severe accident sequences (such as code responses and summary for key-event timings), and related sensitivity analysis results for key input parameters/models employed in the severe accident codes. Accordingly, the present database system can be effectively applied in supporting the Level 2 PSA of similar plants, for fast prediction and intelligent retrieval of the required severe accident risk information for the specific plant whose information was previously stored in the database system, and development of plant-specific severe accident management strategies.

  7. Development of the severe accident risk information database management system SARD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this report is to introduce essential features and functions of a severe accident risk information management system, SARD (Severe Accident Risk Database Management System) version 1.0, which has been developed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, and database management and data retrieval procedures through the system. The present database management system has powerful capabilities that can store automatically and manage systematically the plant-specific severe accident analysis results for core damage sequences leading to severe accidents, and search intelligently the related severe accident risk information. For that purpose, the present database system mainly takes into account the plant-specific severe accident sequences obtained from the Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs), base case analysis results for various severe accident sequences (such as code responses and summary for key-event timings), and related sensitivity analysis results for key input parameters/models employed in the severe accident codes. Accordingly, the present database system can be effectively applied in supporting the Level 2 PSA of similar plants, for fast prediction and intelligent retrieval of the required severe accident risk information for the specific plant whose information was previously stored in the database system, and development of plant-specific severe accident management strategies

  8. Accident evolution and barrier function and accident evolution management modeling of nuclear power plant incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every analysis of an accident or an incident is founded on a more or less explicit model of what an accident is. On a general level, the current approach models an incident or accident in a nuclear power plant as a failure to maintain a stable state with all variables within their ranges of stability. There are two main sets of subsystems in continuous interaction making up the analyzed system, namely the human-organizational and the technical subsystems. Several different but related approaches can be chosen to model an accident. However, two important difficulties accompany such modeling: the high level of system complexity and the very infrequent occurrence of accidents. The current approach acknowledges these problems and focuses on modeling reported incidents/accidents or scenarios selected in probabilistic risk assessment analyses to be of critical importance for the safety of a plant

  9. Summary and conclusions of the specialist meeting on severe accident management programme development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CSNI Specialist meeting on severe accident management programme development was held in Rome and about seventy experts from thirteen countries attended the meeting. A total of 27 papers were presented in four sessions, covering specific aspects of accident management programme development. It purposely focused on the programmatic aspects of accident management rather than on some of the more complex technical issues associated with accident management strategies. Some of the major observations and conclusions from the meeting are that severe accident management is the ultimate part of the defense in depth concept within the plant. It is function and success oriented, not event oriented, as the aim is to prevent or minimize consequences of severe accidents. There is no guarantee it will always be successful but experts agree that it can reduce the risks significantly. It has to be exercised and the importance of emergency drills has been underlined. The basic structure and major elements of accident management programmes appear to be similar among OECD member countries. Dealing with significant phenomenological uncertainties in establishing accident management programmes continues to be an important issue, especially in confirming the appropriateness of specific accident management strategies

  10. Development Process of Plant-specific Severe Accident Management Guidelines for Wolsong Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A severe accident, which occurred at the TMI in 1979 and Chernobyl in 1986, is an accident that exceeds design basis accidents and leads to significant core damage. The severe accident is the low possibility of occurrence but the high severity. To mitigate the consequences of the severe accidents, Korean Nuclear Safety Committee declared the Severe Accident Policy in 2001, which requested the development of Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMGs) for operating plants. SAMG is a symptom-based guidance that takes a set of actions to alleviate the outcomes of severe accidents and to get into the safe stable plant condition. The purpose of this paper is to presents the strategic development process of the PHWR SAMG. The guidelines consist of 5 categories: an emergency guide for the main control room (MCR) operators, a strategy implementing guide for the technical support center (TSC), six mitigation guides, a monitoring guide, and a termination guide

  11. Role of the man-machine interface in accident management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, this paper gives a short general review on important safety issues in the field of man-machine interaction as expressed by important nuclear safety organisations. Then follows a summary discussion on what constitutes a modern Man-Machine Interface (MMI) and what is normally meant with accident management and accident management strategies. Furthermore, the paper focuses on three major issues in the context of accident management. First, the need for reliable information in accidents and how this can be obtained by additional computer technology. Second, the use of procedures is discussed, and basic MMI aspects of computer support for procedure presentation are identified followed by a presentation of a new approach on how to computerise procedures. Third, typical information needs for characteristic end-users in accidents, such as the control room operators, technical support staff and plant emergency teams, is discussed. Some ideas on how to apply virtual reality technology in accident management is also presented

  12. Radiation accidents and their management: emphasis on the role of nuclear medicine professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Bomanji, Jamshed B.; NOVRUZOV, Fuad; Vinjamuri, Sobhan

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale radiation accidents are few in number, but those that have occurred have subsequently led to strict regulation in most countries. Here, different accident scenarios involving exposure to radiation have been reviewed. A triage of injured persons has been summarized and guidance on management has been provided in accordance with the early symptoms. Types of casualty to be expected in atomic blasts have been discussed. Management at the scene of an accident has been described, with e...

  13. Design measures for prevention and mitigation of severe accidents at advanced water cooled reactors. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 8500 reactor-years of operating experience have been accumulated with the current nuclear energy systems. New generations of nuclear power plants are being developed, building upon this background of experience. During the last decade, requirements for equipment specifically intended to minimize releases of radioactive material to the environment in the event of a core melt accident have been introduced, and designs for new plants include measures for preventing and mitigating a range of severe accident scenarios. The IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Impact of Severe Accidents on Plant Design and Layout of Advanced Water Cooled Reactors was jointly organized by the Department of Nuclear Energy and the Department of Nuclear Safety to review measures which are being incorporated into advanced water cooled reactor designs for preventing and mitigating severe accidents, the status of experimental and analytical investigations of severe accident phenomena and challenges which support design decisions and accident management procedures, and to understand the impact of explicitly addressing severe accidents on the cost of nuclear power plants. This publication is intended to provide an objective source of information on this topic. It includes 14 papers presented at the Technical Committee meeting held in Vienna between 21-25 October 1996. It also includes a Summary and Findings of the Working Groups. The papers were grouped in three sections. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper

  14. A database system for the management of severe accident risk information, SARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, K. I.; Kim, D. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce main features and functions of a PC Windows-based database management system, SARD, which has been developed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute for automatic management and search of the severe accident risk information. Main functions of the present database system are implemented by three closely related, but distinctive modules: (1) fixing of an initial environment for data storage and retrieval, (2) automatic loading and management of accident information, and (3) automatic search and retrieval of accident information. For this, the present database system manipulates various form of the plant-specific severe accident risk information, such as dominant severe accident sequences identified from the plant-specific Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and accident sequence-specific information obtained from the representative severe accident codes (e.g., base case and sensitivity analysis results, and summary for key plant responses). The present database system makes it possible to implement fast prediction and intelligent retrieval of the required severe accident risk information for various accident sequences, and in turn it can be used for the support of the Level 2 PSA of similar plants and for the development of plant-specific severe accident management strategies.

  15. Comprehensive Health Risk Management after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, S

    2016-04-01

    Five years have passed since the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on 11 March 2011. Countermeasures aimed at human protection during the emergency period, including evacuation, sheltering and control of the food chain were implemented in a timely manner by the Japanese Government. However, there is an apparent need for improvement, especially in the areas of nuclear safety and protection, and also in the management of radiation health risk during and even after the accident. Continuous monitoring and characterisation of the levels of radioactivity in the environment and foods in Fukushima are now essential for obtaining informed consent to the decisions on living in the radio-contaminated areas and also on returning back to the evacuated areas once re-entry is allowed; it is also important to carry out a realistic assessment of the radiation doses on the basis of measurements. Until now, various types of radiation health risk management projects and research have been implemented in Fukushima, among which the Fukushima Health Management Survey is the largest health monitoring project. It includes the Basic Survey for the estimation of external radiation doses received during the first 4 months after the accident and four detailed surveys: thyroid ultrasound examination, comprehensive health check-up, mental health and lifestyle survey, and survey on pregnant women and nursing mothers, with the aim to prospectively take care of the health of all the residents of Fukushima Prefecture for a long time. In particular, among evacuees of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident, concern about radiation risk is associated with psychological stresses. Here, ongoing health risk management will be reviewed, focusing on the difficult challenge of post-disaster recovery and resilience in Fukushima.

  16. Comprehensive Health Risk Management after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, S

    2016-04-01

    Five years have passed since the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on 11 March 2011. Countermeasures aimed at human protection during the emergency period, including evacuation, sheltering and control of the food chain were implemented in a timely manner by the Japanese Government. However, there is an apparent need for improvement, especially in the areas of nuclear safety and protection, and also in the management of radiation health risk during and even after the accident. Continuous monitoring and characterisation of the levels of radioactivity in the environment and foods in Fukushima are now essential for obtaining informed consent to the decisions on living in the radio-contaminated areas and also on returning back to the evacuated areas once re-entry is allowed; it is also important to carry out a realistic assessment of the radiation doses on the basis of measurements. Until now, various types of radiation health risk management projects and research have been implemented in Fukushima, among which the Fukushima Health Management Survey is the largest health monitoring project. It includes the Basic Survey for the estimation of external radiation doses received during the first 4 months after the accident and four detailed surveys: thyroid ultrasound examination, comprehensive health check-up, mental health and lifestyle survey, and survey on pregnant women and nursing mothers, with the aim to prospectively take care of the health of all the residents of Fukushima Prefecture for a long time. In particular, among evacuees of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident, concern about radiation risk is associated with psychological stresses. Here, ongoing health risk management will be reviewed, focusing on the difficult challenge of post-disaster recovery and resilience in Fukushima. PMID:26817782

  17. A preliminary study for the implementation of general accident management strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Soo Hyung; Kim, Soo Hyung; Jeong, Young Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    To enhance the safety of nuclear power plants, implementation of accident management has been suggested as one of most important programs. Specially, accident management strategies are suggested as one of key elements considered in development of the accident management program. In this study, generally applicable accident management strategies to domestic nuclear power plants are identified through reviewing several accident management programs for the other countries and considering domestic conditions. Identified strategies are as follows; 1) Injection into the Reactor Coolant System, 2) Depressurize the Reactor Coolant System, 3) Depressurize the Steam Generator, 4) Injection into the Steam Generator, 5) Injection into the Containment, 6) Spray into the Containment, 7) Control Hydrogen in the Containment. In addition, the systems and instrumentation necessary for the implementation of each strategy are also investigated. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  18. Policy elements for post-accident management in the event of nuclear accident. Document drawn up by the Steering Committee for the Management of the Post-Accident Phase of a Nuclear Accident (CODIRPA). Final version - 5 October 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pursuant to the Inter-ministerial Directive on the Action of the Public Authorities, dated 7 April 2005, in the face of an event triggering a radiological emergency, the National directorate on nuclear safety and radiation protection (DGSNR), which became the Nuclear safety authority (ASN) in 2006, was tasked with working the relevant Ministerial offices in order to set out the framework and outline, prepare and implement the provisions needed to address post-accident situations arising from a nuclear accident. In June 2005, the ASN set up a Steering committee for the management of the post-accident phase in the event of nuclear accident or a radiological emergency situation (CODIRPA), put in charge of drafting the related policy elements. To carry out its work, CODIRPA set up a number of thematic working groups from 2005 on, involving in total several hundred experts from different backgrounds (local information commissions, associations, elected officials, health agencies, expertise agencies, authorities, etc.). The working groups reports have been published by the ASN. Experiments on the policy elements under construction were carried out at the local level in 2010 across three nuclear sites and several of the neighbouring municipalities, as well as during national crisis drills conducted since 2008. These works gave rise to two international conferences organised by ASN in 2007 and 2011. The policy elements prepared by CODIRPA were drafted in regard to nuclear accidents of medium scale causing short-term radioactive release (less than 24 hours) that might occur at French nuclear facilities equipped with a special intervention plan (PPI). They also apply to actions to be carried out in the event of accidents during the transport of radioactive materials. Following definitions of each stage of a nuclear accident, this document lists the principles selected by CODIRPA to support management efforts subsequent to a nuclear accident. Then, it presents the main

  19. Proceedings of the Specialist Meeting on Severe Accident Management Programme Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective Accident Management planning can produce both a reduction in the frequency of severe accidents at nuclear power plants as well as the ability to mitigate a severe accident. The purpose of an accident management programme is to provide to the responsible plant staff the capability to cope with the complete range of credible severe accidents. This requires that appropriate instrumentation and equipment are available within the plant to enable plant staff to diagnose the faults and to implement appropriate strategies. The programme must also provide the necessary guidance, procedures, and training to assure that appropriate corrective actions will be implemented. One of the key issues to be discussed is the transition from control room operations and the associated emergency operating procedures to a technical support team approach (and the associated severe accident management strategies). Following a proposal made by the Senior Group of Experts on Severe Accident Management (SESAM), the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations decided to sponsor a Specialist Meeting on Severe Accident Management Programme Development. The general objectives of the Specialist Meeting were to exchange experience, views, and information among the participants and to discuss the status of severe accident management programmes. The meeting brought together utilities, accident management programme developers, personnel training programme developers, regulators, and researchers. In general, the tone of the Specialist Meeting - designed to promote progress, as contrasted with conferences or symposia where the state-of-the-art is presented - was to be rather practical, and focus on accident management programme development, applications, results, difficulties and improvements. As shown by the conclusions of the meeting, there is no doubt that this objective was widely attained

  20. Waste management facility accident analysis (WASTE ACC) system: software for analysis of waste management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the Waste Management Facility Accident Analysis (WASTEunderscoreACC) software, which was developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to support the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Waste Management (WM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). WASTEunderscoreACC is a decision support and database system that is compatible with Microsoft reg-sign Windows trademark. It assesses potential atmospheric releases from accidents at waste management facilities. The software provides the user with an easy-to-use tool to determine the risk-dominant accident sequences for the many possible combinations of process technologies, waste and facility types, and alternative cases described in the WM PEIS. In addition, its structure will allow additional alternative cases and assumptions to be tested as part of the future DOE programmatic decision-making process. The WASTEunderscoreACC system demonstrates one approach to performing a generic, systemwide evaluation of accident risks at waste management facilities. The advantages of WASTEunderscoreACC are threefold. First, the software gets waste volume and radiological profile data that were used to perform other WM PEIS-related analyses directly from the WASTEunderscoreMGMT system. Second, the system allows for a consistent analysis across all sites and waste streams, which enables decision makers to understand more fully the trade-offs among various policy options and scenarios. Third, the system is easy to operate; even complex scenario runs are completed within minutes

  1. Chernobyl post-accident management: the ETHOS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, G H; Lochard, J; Girard, P; Guyonnet, J F; Le Cardinal, G; Lepicard, S; Livolsi, P; Monroy, M; Ollagnon, H; Pena-Vega, A; Pupin, V; Rigby, J; Rolevitch, I; Schneider, T

    1999-10-01

    ETHOS is a pilot research project supported by the radiation protection research program of the European Commission (DG XII). The project provides an alternative approach to the rehabilitation of living conditions in the contaminated territories of the CIS in the post-accident context of Chernobyl. Initiated at the beginning of 1996, this 3-y project is currently being implemented in the Republic of Belarus. The ETHOS project involves an interdisciplinary team of European researchers from the following institutions: the Centre d'etude sur l'Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire CEPN (radiological protection, economics), the Institute National d'Agronomie de Paris-Grignon INAPG (agronomy, nature & life management), the Compiegne University of Technology (technological and industrial safety, social trust), and the Mutadis Research Group (sociology, social risk management), which is in charge of the scientific co-ordination of the project. The Belarussian partners in the ETHOS project include the Ministry of Emergencies of Belarus as well as the various local authorities involved with the implementation site. The ETHOS project relies on a strong involvement of the local population in the rehabilitation process. Its main goal is to create conditions for the inhabitants of the contaminated territories to reconstruct their overall quality of life. This reconstruction deals with all the day-to-day aspects that have been affected or threatened by the contamination. The project aims at creating a dynamic process whereby acceptable living conditions can be rebuilt. Radiological security is developed in the ETHOS project as part of a general improvement in the quality of life. The approach does not dissociate the social and the technical dimensions of post-accident management. This is so as to avoid radiological risk assessment and management being reduced purely to a problem for scientific experts, from which local people are excluded, and to take into

  2. Best practice guide for radioactivity measurement laboratories in a post-accident situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published for laboratories likely to be asked to perform radioactivity measurements at the time of or after a radiological or nuclear accident in France or abroad, this guide aims at defining the best practices in terms of laboratory organisation (sample flow management, personnel radioprotection, sample identification and recording, sample cross-contamination risks, result transmission, archiving of data, results and samples, waste dismissal), and in terms of metrology (adaptation to needs in terms of detection limit and measurement uncertainty, preferred use of gamma spectrometry, analysis strategies)

  3. Development of the Severe Accident Analysis DB for the Severe Accident Management Expert System (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Yong; Ahn, Kwang Il [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    This report contains analysis methodologies and calculation results of 5 initiating events of the severe accident analysis database system. The Ulchin 3,4 NPP has been selected as reference plants. Based on the probabilistic safety analysis of the corresponding plant, 54 accident scenarios, which was predicted to have more than 10-10 /ry occurrence frequency, have been analyzed as base cases for the Large loss of Coolant sequence database. The functions of the severe accident analysis database system will be to make a diagnosis of the accident by some input information from the plant symptoms, to search a corresponding scenario, and finally to provide the user phenomenological information based on the pre-analyzed results. The MAAP 4.06 calculation results in this report will be utilized as input data to develop the database system

  4. EFFICIENCY OF REPEATED AND UNSCHEDULED TRAINING AS THE MEASURES TO PREVENT ACCIDENTS AT SUPPLY DEPOTS AND WAREHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocharova Irina Nikolaevna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the analysis of the state of occupational safety at supply depots and warehouses. It is revealed that most accidents involve the employees who have less than one year’s service. Experience has proven that the preventive activities to avoid occupational traumatism are efficient when a complex of workplace safety measures is implemented. The experts consider the repeated and unscheduled training to be very important events. This is supported by the fact that among the employees of the commercial establishments who underwent repeated and unscheduled training, the number of individuals who suffered an accident is small. The efficient functioning of the occupational safety training system is infeasible without ensuring the motivation for assimilating the knowledge and forming the complete foundation for safe labor. In order to reduce the number of accidents, one should proceed from the principle of responding to accidents to the system for professional risk management.

  5. Knowledge data base for severe accident management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the reinforcement of the safety of NPPs, the continuous efforts are very important to take in the up-to-date scientific and technical knowledge positively and to reflect them into the safety regulation. The purpose of this present study is to gather effectively the scientific and technical knowledge about the severe accident (SA) phenomena and the accident management (AM) for prevention and mitigation of severe accident, and to take in the experimental data by participating in the international cooperative experiments regarding the important SA phenomena and the effectiveness of accident management. Based on those data and knowledge, JNES is developing and improving severe accident analysis models to maintain the severe accident analysis codes and the accident management knowledge base for assessment of the NPPs in Japan. The activities in fiscal year 2010 are as follows; Experimental study on OECD/NEA projects such as MCCI, SERENA, SFP and international cooperative PSI-ARTIST project, and analytical study on accident management review of new plant and making regulation for severe accident. (author)

  6. Knowledge data base for severe accident management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the reinforcement of the safety of NPPs, the continuous efforts are very important to take in the up-to-date scientific and technical knowledge positively and to reflect them into the safety regulation. The purpose of this present study is to gather effectively the scientific and technical knowledge about the severe accident (SA) phenomena and the accident management (AM) for prevention and mitigation of severe accident, and to take in the experimental data by participating in the international cooperative experiments regarding the important SA phenomena and the effectiveness of accident management. Based on those data and knowledge, JNES is developing and improving severe accident analysis models to maintain the severe accident analysis codes and the accident management knowledge base for assessment of the NPPs in Japan. The activities in fiscal year 2011 are as follows; Experimental study on OECD/NEA projects such as MCCI, SERENA, SFP and international cooperative PSI-ARTIST project, and analytical study on accident management review of new plant and making regulation for severe accident. (author)

  7. Marine Accidents in Northern Nigeria: Causes, Prevention and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawal Bello Dogarawa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Boat mishaps tend to be increasing in Nigeria in spite of all regulatory measures which have been taken to prevent and control marine accidents. Boat mishaps could occur anywhere water transportation takes place. However, there is a general impression that water transportation takes place only in the riverine areas located in Southern Nigeria but, this paper reports about marine accident cases in Northern Nigeria. It evaluates the safety measures put in place by operators and other institutional bodies in the areas and assesses the level of infrastructure in terms of quantity, quality and accessibility to boat operators, boat users and institutional staff. Questionnaires were administered through individual and group interviews with boat owners, boat drivers, boat users, boat builders, boat engine mechanics, local government officials, maritime workers union, the marine police, traditional regulators and staff of the federal government agencies for maritime affairs. The paper found that marine transportation is neglected in Northern Nigeria with dilapidated jetties, ill-equipped marine police, non-functional ferries and boast meant to be used by federal officials and wrecks in water channels without removal. Maritime safety is therefore compromised with cases of overloading carrying people, animals, grains and petroleum products in one boat without fire extinguisher and no lifejackets. The paper concludes that there are considerable water transportation activities in Northern Nigeria without a corresponding government attention. It is therefore recommend that government should intervene by providing lifejackets, fire extinguishers, training of surveyors, refurbishing ferries for enforcement as well as creating safety awareness in the region.

  8. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Alternate Entry Condition into the Severe Accident Management Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyung Seok; Lee, Su Won [FNC Technology Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Min, Shin Jung [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd. Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, the effectiveness of the CA as an alternate means is evaluated quantitatively by utilizing the Modular Accident Analysis Program (MAAP) 5 computer code including the MAAP5-DOSE module, which can analyze the radiation level inside the containment. The effectiveness of the CA has been investigated by utilizing the MAAP5 code including the MAAP5- DOSE. The onset of core damage is considered to be a core (fuel rod cladding) condition at the time when the core exit temperature reaches the value prescribed for transition to Severe Accident Management Guidance (SAMG), which is 1200 .deg. F. However, during a shutdown state, the core exit thermocouples measurements are unavailable after lifting reactor vessel head. Thus, an alternate means to detect the onset of core damage is necessary to cover all plant operating states. In order for that, a Computational Aid (CA), 'Radiation Level as a Functional of Time after Shutdown,' has been developed. The upper containment radiation instrumentation is a gross gamma monitor, and has a reliable instrumentation range during severe accidents. It can be used for detecting onset of core damage. Thus, the radiation level can be used as alternative means of the entry condition into the SAMG. It has been shown that the SAMG entry timings determined by using the core exit thermocouple measurements and by the radiation monitoring with the CA would not be differentiated. The time difference estimates entering SAMG would be less 15 min which would not influence the operator action significantly.

  9. 基于事故发展与控制的隐患分级方法%Risk Classification Method for Accident Potential Based on Development and Control Measures of Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东风; 申玉琪; 赵志强; 张佑明; 孟亦飞

    2012-01-01

    For the purpose of making the management of accident potential more scientific, the relationship between accident potential and accident was discussed and studied. The fundamental property of accident potential was brought forward that it can make the accident happen or develop. The mechanism whereby accident potential functions in the accident was revealed clearly, by predicting the impelling and inhibiting factors in the accident process. The accident potential was classified into two types (the first type of accident potential and the second type of accident potential) according to the different time they work. In the risk assessment, the problem of specific accident potential grading was resolved. By introducing the assessment indexes of accident potential exposure frequency, possibility of other factors, corrective actions, the initial value of the consequences of the accident, the correction factor of personnel protection, the correction factor of personnel exposure, the correction factor of emergency measures, the correction factor of property loss, an assessment index system was established. By calculating the risk of accident potential-causing accident, the real risk of accident potential was assessed.%为使隐患管理工作更加科学,对隐患与事故的关系进行研讨,提出隐患的根本属性是能够促使事故发生或发展.通过预估促使和控制(阻碍)事故发展的因素,来揭示隐患在事故过程中的作用机制.根据发生作用的时间将隐患分为第1类隐患和第2类隐患.在风险评估过程中,解决了具体隐患风险分级的问题,提出隐患暴露频率、其他条件的可能性、隐患纠正系数、事故后果初始分值、人员防护修正系数、人员暴露修正系数、应急处理与事故控制修正系数和财产损失修正系数等评价指标.通过隐患致因事故风险的计算,评估隐患的最终风险.

  10. 我国事故管理研究现状%Research review on unexpected accident management in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王臣; 高俊山

    2012-01-01

    security methods aiming to combat such accidents may include: (1) The research and improvement of the regression prediction method, the time prediction method, Markov chain prediction method, the gray prediction method, the Bayesian network prediction method and the neural network prediction method and the ways of how to bring the above methods into prediction practice; (2) Ways to enhance the major hazards management and quantitative risk assessment of prevention and combating against such disastrous accidents; (3) The ways on how to do the Fault Tree Analysis, the Analytic Hierarchy Process and other methods in actual disastrous accidents analysis; (4) the theories, models and methods for emergency response, evacuation and rescue approaches, supplies distribution and the accidents aftermath treatment. It can be thus concluded that the research focuses in the future in the accident management field are still likely to be put on the quantified risk assessment, accident prevention, more practical emergency rescue measures and evacuation strategies.

  11. A Study on Reinforcement of the Accident Management System in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to present the status of post-Fukushima actions with respect to accident management and also provides the current status of developing EDMGs and applicability of a FLEX strategy in Korea. As part of the post-Fukushima actions in Korea, SAMGs will be revised to improve the effectiveness of accident management. For this purpose, it is recommended to revise the EOPs and SAMGs and establish the EDMGs with consideration of prolonged SBO, spent fuel pool cooling, using mobile equipment for accident control, feedback of the implementation of the action items of the special safety inspection, multiple severe accidents for all reactors at a site. It is considered that the FLEX strategy may be useful to mitigate the accidents like Fukushima. Therefore, it is recommended to adopt this strategy including provision of the equipment with protection from external events. The Fukushima accident revealed that EOPs and SAMGs were not effectively coping with and mitigating the severe accident caused by extreme natural hazards such as earthquake and tsunami. The accident indicated needs for strengthening the existing accident management procedures such as emergency operating procedures (EOPs) and severe accident management guidelines (SAMGs). In particular, these procedures should address the possibility of extreme natural hazards causing a prolonged SBO condition, which affects multiple-units and Spent Fuel Pools (SFPs) (NTTF Recommendation 9). In addition, in order to prevent and mitigate the potential damage in an extensive scale at a multi-unit site due to external events, fire, various kinds of countermeasures are required by the Regulatory Body. These are the follow-up actions to the special safety inspection carried out just after the Fukushima accident and the stress tests for old plants. Especially, the Extensive Damage Mitigation Guidelines (EDMGs) are being provided by the utility in conjunction with adoption of the FLEX strategy (diverse and

  12. EC Research Contribution to Decision-making Processes Relevant to Severe Accident Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the two well-known civil nuclear accidents and of the consequent increase in safety requirements, the need to properly assess severe accident (SA) scenarios for present and future nuclear power plants (going beyond the traditional three-level defence-in-depth strategy) became evident. In this line, various research activities were launched and are performed within the Euratom Framework Programmes, in particular the completed Fourth one (F P-4, 1994-1998) and the present Fifth one (FP-5, 1998-2002). The initial orientation of the EC research activities was mainly focused on improving the understanding of the phenomena and mechanisms involved in such accidents, in order to contribute to prevent possible final radioactivity releases. A consensus on how to model those SA phenomena in accident safety analyses by means of specific tools (SA codes developed, verified and validated through experimental results provided) is reasonably advanced. Currently, the EC research activities related to severe accidents are balanced between a twofold approach aimed at assessing the risks related with severe accident scenarios and to support the development of severe accident management (SAM) strategies, together with the optimisation of backfitting measures for existing reactors or specific designs for future nuclear power plants. This new orientation is confronting difficulties, inherent to the phenomenological character of several research activities, which make a direct application of the results into SAM measures premature in some cases. In this regard, this paper presents a series of ten selected FP-5 projects with emphasis placed on the applicability of research results towards SAM strategies to be used by decision-makers amongst utilities, the nuclear industry in particular designers, and regulators. The majority of them also contain -further to the SAM approach- supporting elements focused on risk assessment. The revised programme of the key action 'Nuclear

  13. The philosophy of severe accident management in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US NRC has put forth the initial steps in what is viewed as the resolution of the severe accident issue. Underlying this process is a fundamental philosophy that if followed will likely lead to an order of magnitude reduction in the risk of severe accidents. Thus far, this philosophy has proven cost effective through improved performance. This paper briefly examines this philosophy and the next step in closure of the severe accident issue, the IPE. An example of the authors experience with determinist. (author)

  14. Measuring the Impacts of Nuclear Accidents on Energy Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Zsuzsanna Csereklyei

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the history of nuclear energy, safety developments of reactors and nuclear energy policy from the 1950s on. I investigate the effects of nuclear accidents on energy policy with the help of a panel dataset of 31 countries from 1965-2009, using annual data about the capacity of reactors under construction, primary energy consumption, as well as three nuclear accidents scaled INES five or higher by the International Atomic Energy Agency. After determining the extent of the ac...

  15. Marine Offshore Accidents in Nigeria, Causes and Necessary Preventive Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yinkepreye L. Bebeteidoh ,Robert Poku

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the ground-breaking developments in the maritime industry and the implementation of safety-related regulations and the institution of International Safety Codes and Protocols, marine offshore accidents in Nigeria are still a serious concern for global maritime organizations as the rate of offshore accidents has not reduced to the expected level. Ensuring the consistency of offshore accident investigation reports is recognized as a significant goal in order to plainly ascertain the core causes of offshore accidents. This research work though limited due to poor response on the part of the respondents as regards to releasing some data that would have been helpful, the researchers were still able to investigate the core causes of marine offshore accidents in Nigeria’s maritime industry. With emphasis on the scope of work essentially, data was collected through the administration of a well-structured questionnaire to selected seafarers connected with the offshore oil and gas industry in Nigeria, which included Captains, engineers, deckhands, oilers and Quartermasters. The data’s collected through the administration of a self-constructed questionnaire was analyzed using the concept of the statistical tool, Chi-Square, which was considered appropriate for testing the validity and reliability of each hypothesis established in this research. The aim of this research was to determine the causes of marine offshore accidents in Nigeria, which identified that human, environmental/natural, design, and technical factors comprises the major causes of marine offshore accidents. With the findings gotten, recommendations were made which if implemented by governments and maritime organizations and adhered to by maritime operators will go a long way to reduce marine offshore accidents.

  16. Accident risk and safety measures in the transport sector in Norway; Ulykkesrisiko og sikkerhetstiltak i transportsektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The scope of the work described in this report was (1) to evaluate methods for risk mapping considering all of the different means of transport, (2) to evaluate the extent to which measures should be taken against various types of accidents, (3) to evaluate cost-benefit assessments of accident-reducing measures irrespective of the different means of transport, (4) to evaluate the preferences of measures/cost effectiveness of different measures within different sectors, and (4) to evaluate the possibility of improving the efficiency of possible measures. It also considers the risk situation for ferry service. In addition to the purely human aspect, traffic accidents constitute an expensive social problem. Yet it would be too costly to meet a potential requirement that traffic accidents should disappear. The resources used by society to combat accidents have to be seen in the light of (1) the profit that can be achieved compared to alternative use of the resources, and (2) the possible negative consequences of different safety measures on, for instance, travel time and the extent of the transport. It is pointed out that when accident risk is compared from one transport means to another, different relative positions are found depending on how risk is quantified. Thus, for instance, on average, per year 5 times as many people die in accidents involving private cars as in motor cycle accidents, while for the number of deaths per billion person kilometers the ratio is almost the opposite,1:6.5. 34 refs., 12 figs., 13 tabs.

  17. Initial medical management of criticality accident victim; Conduite a tenir aux victimes d'un accident de criticite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miele, A.; Bebaron-Jacobs, L

    2005-07-01

    The extremely severe criticality accidents known to this day, and the subsequent deaths recorded (Sarov 1997 and Tokai Mura 1999), demonstrate the need for sustained surveillance and constant adapted training for the teams in charge of irradiated and/or contaminated victims. The aim of this work group, composed of occupational health services and associated medical biology laboratories, is to present, in leaflet format, the essential data on the documentation and the conduct to be held when facing the victims of a criticality accident. The studies of this work group confirm the difficulties involved in managing this type of accident, both from the dosimetric evaluation point of view and from the therapeutic management point of view. That is why several research themes and perspectives are developed. During the different phases of victim triage, the recommendations given on these leaflets describe the operational conducts to be held. This work will have to be updated according to the evolution in knowledge and means: short and long term effects of exposure to neutrons, multi-competence hospital cooperation, expertise networks related to dosimetric reconstitution. (authors)

  18. Measuring and Managing Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Housel, Thomas; Bell, Arthur H.

    2001-01-01

    Managing and measuring knowledge teaches through the case method, with extended discussion and investigation of high-interest business scenarios from areas of health management, investment, the Internet, telecommunications, computer technologies, food industry management, heavy industry, and a variety of service industries. In each case, readers learn how new tools of knowledge management can positively impact bottom-line profits and overall business strategy. Readers conclude the businesse...

  19. Measuring Risk Aversion for Nuclear Power Plant Accident: Results of Contingent Valuation Survey in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the evaluation of the external cost of nuclear energy, the estimation of the external cost of nuclear power plant (NPP) severe accident is one of the major topics to be addressed. For the evaluation of the external cost of NPP severe accident, the effect of public risk averse behavior against the group accidents, such as NPP accident, dam failure, must be addressed. Although the equivalent fatalities from a single group accident are not common and its risk is very small compared to other accidents, people perceive the group accident more seriously. In other words, people are more concerned about low probability/high consequence events than about high probability/low consequence events having the same mean damage. One of the representative method to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of severe nuclear reactor accidents was developed by Eeckoudt et al., and he used the risk aversion coefficient, mainly based on the analysis of financial risks in the stock markets to evaluate the external cost of nuclear severe accident. However, the use of financial risk aversion coefficient to nuclear severe accidents is not appropriate, because financial risk and nuclear severe accident risk are entirely different. In this paper, the individual-level survey was conducted to measure the risk aversion coefficient and estimate the multiplication factor to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of NPP severe accident. This study propose an integrated framework on estimation of the external cost associated with severe accidents of NPP considering public risk aversion behavior. The theoretical framework to estimate the risk aversion coefficient/multiplication factor and to assess economic damages from a hypothetical NPP accident was constructed. Based on the theoretical framework, the risk aversion coefficient can be analyzed by conducting public survey with a carefully designed lottery questions. Compared to the previous studies on estimation of the

  20. Measuring Risk Aversion for Nuclear Power Plant Accident: Results of Contingent Valuation Survey in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Within the evaluation of the external cost of nuclear energy, the estimation of the external cost of nuclear power plant (NPP) severe accident is one of the major topics to be addressed. For the evaluation of the external cost of NPP severe accident, the effect of public risk averse behavior against the group accidents, such as NPP accident, dam failure, must be addressed. Although the equivalent fatalities from a single group accident are not common and its risk is very small compared to other accidents, people perceive the group accident more seriously. In other words, people are more concerned about low probability/high consequence events than about high probability/low consequence events having the same mean damage. One of the representative method to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of severe nuclear reactor accidents was developed by Eeckoudt et al., and he used the risk aversion coefficient, mainly based on the analysis of financial risks in the stock markets to evaluate the external cost of nuclear severe accident. However, the use of financial risk aversion coefficient to nuclear severe accidents is not appropriate, because financial risk and nuclear severe accident risk are entirely different. In this paper, the individual-level survey was conducted to measure the risk aversion coefficient and estimate the multiplication factor to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of NPP severe accident. This study propose an integrated framework on estimation of the external cost associated with severe accidents of NPP considering public risk aversion behavior. The theoretical framework to estimate the risk aversion coefficient/multiplication factor and to assess economic damages from a hypothetical NPP accident was constructed. Based on the theoretical framework, the risk aversion coefficient can be analyzed by conducting public survey with a carefully designed lottery questions. Compared to the previous studies on estimation of the

  1. Risk assessment and national measure plan for oil and HNS spill accidents near Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonjin; Jung, Jung-Yeul

    2013-08-15

    Many oil and HNS spill accidents occur in the waters surrounding the Korean Peninsula because Korea is one of the biggest trading partners in the world. In this study, we analyzed the oil and HNS spill accidents that occurred between 1994 and 2005 and created risk matrices to assess these accidents. The worst scenarios of future oil and HNS spill accidents were established, and the maximum spill amounts were estimated using historic accident data and a correlation from IPIECA. The maximum spill amounts are estimated to be between 77,000 and 10,000 tons of oil and HNS, respectively. One third of the spill materials should be removed using recovery equipment within three days of the spill event, according to the national measure plan. The capability of recovery equipment to remove spill materials can be estimated, and the equipment should then be prepared to mitigate the harmful effects of future oil and HNS accidents on humans and marine ecosystems.

  2. Direction Committee for the management of the post-accident phase of a nuclear accident or of a radiological event (CODIRPA). Work group nr 3: 'Assessment of radiological and dose consequences in a post-accident situation'. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report first describes how radioactive contamination occurs after a nuclear accident, whether it concerns plants, animals, people, and buildings, how people can be exposed, and how a post-accidental zoning is implemented either to protect population or to control territories. It describes principles and methods for the assessment of the contamination of the environment (radiological values, characterization of radioactive deposits, of agriculture products, and of wastes, materials and manufactured products). It describes how to organise radioactivity measurements in the environment (principles and objectives of measurement programmes, sampling organisation and management, laboratory radioactivity measurements, identification and preparation of radioactivity measurement operators, results management). It describes how to assess doses received by exposed people (measurement techniques, retrospective assessment, proposition of a dose assessment strategy for exposed population)

  3. Accident analysis for transuranic waste management alternatives in the U.S. Department of Energy waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary accident analyses and radiological source term evaluations have been conducted for transuranic waste (TRUW) as part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) effort to manage storage, treatment, and disposal of radioactive wastes at its various sites. The approach to assessing radiological releases from facility accidents was developed in support of the Office of Environmental Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EM PEIS). The methodology developed in this work is in accordance with the latest DOE guidelines, which consider the spectrum of possible accident scenarios in the implementation of various actions evaluated in an EIS. The radiological releases from potential risk-dominant accidents in storage and treatment facilities considered in the EM PEIS TRUW alternatives are described in this paper. The results show that significant releases can be predicted for only the most severe and extremely improbable accidents sequences

  4. Help guides for post-accident consequence management: farm activities and exiting the emergency phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having recalled the main actions foreseen in the PPIs (plans particuliers d'intervention, intervention specific plans) in case of radionuclide release in the environment after a nuclear accident, i.e. sheltering and ingestion of steady iodine, and also indicated the different phases of consequence management (preparation, emergency and post-accident phases), this report describes and comments the contents of two guides published by the IRSN (the French Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Institute) and dealing with the management of post-accident consequences. The first one is a guide to aid to decision-making for the management of the agricultural sector in case of nuclear accident, and the second one is a guide for the preparation of the end of the emergency phase in which actions to be performed during the first week after the end of accidental releases are described

  5. Objective provision tree application to the effectiveness evaluation of accident management guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Fukushima accident in 2011, various lessons and safety enhancement action items were announced by national regulatory bodies. Among those items, the enforcement of procedural efficiency verification for accidents management guidelines including emergency operating procedures (EOPs), severe accident management guides (SAMGs) and extensive damage mitigating guidelines (EDMG) if applicable, was raised. The Objective Provision Tree (OPT) method is a top down approach which starts from the level of Defense in Depth (DiD), objectives and barriers, safety functions, challenges, mechanisms and finally ends with provisions. The benefit of OPT application to safety concerns includes that the OPT enables the comprehensive review for the verification of consistency and integrity of safety requirements for a specific safety issue. In this study, the preliminary framework for the application of OPT to the effectiveness evaluation of accident management guideline was introduced

  6. Research on the management of the wastes from plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant released large amount of radio-nuclides and contaminated wide areas within and out of the site. The decontamination, storage, treatment and disposal of generated wastes are now under planning. Though the regulations for radioactive wastes discharged from normal operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities have been prepared, it is necessary to make amendments of those regulations to deal with wastes from the severe accidents which may have much different features on nuclides contents, or possibility to accompany hazardous chemical materials. Characteristics, treatment and disposal of wastes from accidents were surveyed by literature and the radionuclide migration from the assumed temporally storage yards of the disaster debris was analyzed for consideration of future regulation. (author)

  7. Investigation of the management of the wastes from plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant discharged large amount of radio-nuclides and contaminated wide areas in and out of the site. The decontamination, storage, treatment and disposal of generated wastes are now under planning. Though regulations for the radioactive wastes arisen from normal operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities have been prepared, it is necessary to make amendment of those regulations to deal with wastes from the severe accident which may have much different features on nuclides contents, or possible accompanying hazardous chemical materials. Characteristics of wastes from accidents in foreign nuclear installations, and the treatment and the disposal of those wastes were surveyed by literature and radionuclide migration from the assumed temporally storage yards of the disaster debris was analyzed for consideration of future regulation. (author)

  8. Decision making process and emergency management in different phases of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EVATECH, Information Requirements and Countermeasure Evaluation Techniques in Nuclear Emergency Management, was a research project in the key action 'Nuclear Fission' of the fifth EURATOM Framework Programme (FP5). The overall objective of the project was to enhance the quality and coherence of response to nuclear emergencies in Europe by improving the decision support methods, models and processes in ways that take into account the expectations and concern of the many different parties involved - stake holders both in managing the emergency response and those who are affected by the consequences of nuclear emergencies. The project had ten partners from seven European countries. The development of the real-time online decision support system RODOS has been one of the major items in the area of radiation protection within the European Commission's Framework Programmes. The main objectives of the RODOS project have been to develop a comprehensive and integrated decision support system that is generally applicable across Europe and to provide a common framework for incorporating the best features of existing decision support systems and future developments. Furthermore the objective has been to provide greater transparency in the decision process to: improve public understanding and acceptance of off-site emergency measures, to facilitate improved communication between countries of monitoring data, predictions of consequences, etc., in the event of any future accident, and to promote, through the development and use of the system, a more coherent, consistent and harmonised response to any future accident that may affect Europe. (authors)

  9. Bibliography for nuclear criticality accident experience, alarm systems, and emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics, detection, and emergency management of nuclear criticality accidents outside reactors has been an important component of criticality safety for as long as the need for this specialized safety discipline has been recognized. The general interest and importance of such topics receives special emphasis because of the potentially lethal, albeit highly localized, effects of criticality accidents and because of heightened public and regulatory concerns for any undesirable event in nuclear and radiological fields. This bibliography lists references which are potentially applicable to or interesting for criticality alarm, detection, and warning systems; criticality accident emergency management; and their associated programs. The lists are annotated to assist bibliography users in identifying applicable: industry and regulatory guidance and requirements, with historical development information and comments; criticality accident characteristics, consequences, experiences, and responses; hazard-, risk-, or safety-analysis criteria; CAS design and qualification criteria; CAS calibration, maintenance, repair, and testing criteria; experiences of CAS designers and maintainers; criticality accident emergency management (planning, preparedness, response, and recovery) requirements and guidance; criticality accident emergency management experience, plans, and techniques; methods and tools for analysis; and additional bibliographies

  10. Bibliography for nuclear criticality accident experience, alarm systems, and emergency management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putman, V.L.

    1995-09-01

    The characteristics, detection, and emergency management of nuclear criticality accidents outside reactors has been an important component of criticality safety for as long as the need for this specialized safety discipline has been recognized. The general interest and importance of such topics receives special emphasis because of the potentially lethal, albeit highly localized, effects of criticality accidents and because of heightened public and regulatory concerns for any undesirable event in nuclear and radiological fields. This bibliography lists references which are potentially applicable to or interesting for criticality alarm, detection, and warning systems; criticality accident emergency management; and their associated programs. The lists are annotated to assist bibliography users in identifying applicable: industry and regulatory guidance and requirements, with historical development information and comments; criticality accident characteristics, consequences, experiences, and responses; hazard-, risk-, or safety-analysis criteria; CAS design and qualification criteria; CAS calibration, maintenance, repair, and testing criteria; experiences of CAS designers and maintainers; criticality accident emergency management (planning, preparedness, response, and recovery) requirements and guidance; criticality accident emergency management experience, plans, and techniques; methods and tools for analysis; and additional bibliographies.

  11. Study on virtual redundancy among process parameters for accident management applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Rizwan; Pak, Sukyoung; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jungtaek; Park, Soo Yong; Ahn, Kwangil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The research at this point can be divided into three streams, focused on the development of self powered sensors and instrumentation, developing intelligent systems that can diagnose and accident type and developing indirect ways that is, methods to assess the safety critical parameters from other statistically related parameters. This first approach is quite expensive, second approach suffers from the limitation that infinite number of accident scenarios cannot be simulated. However, the only way to access the parameters during severe accidents is through simulation codes. Even-though, the process parameters data contain uncertainty, this is the only thing to start with severe accident management. International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (Inert) project has started research to address various aspects of safety management during severe accidents. As a part of Inert team, we are investigating correlations among process parameters in such a way that safety critical information could be secured by means of other non-safety or virtual parameters during a severe accident. This is known as virtual redundancy of information. This will improve the availability of information in case one channel for information is lost. In this paper, we will discuss methodology, preliminary results and directions for further study. We found that several process parameters exhibit distinct variation pattern for a particular accident and several other parameters can also have the similar trends which strengthens the possibility of having virtual redundancy of information.

  12. Requirement analysis of computerized procedures of AP1000 severe accident management guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computerized procedures are drawing increased interest for application in nuclear power plants to enhance operator performance, especially in the accident conditions. AP1000 Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMG) are established to protect the containment fission product boundaries and to mitigate the accident consequences. This paper introduces the AP1000 SAMG, and according to the functional requirements of the Computerized Procedure System (CPS), some requirements are analyzed. These requirements are special to the Computerized AP1000 SAMG, which need to be especially noticed in the design process. (author)

  13. Hydrogen management and the metamorphosis of NRC policy on severe nuclear accident risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the early days of light water reactor developments, it was understood that, following a loss-of-coolant accident, hydrogen could accumulate inside the primary reactor containment as a result of: (1) metal-water reaction involving the fuel element cladding; (2) the radiolytic decomposition of the water in the reactor core and the containment sump; (3) the corrosion of certain construction materials by some spray solutions; and (4) possible synergistic effects of chemical, thermal and radiolytic by-products of accidents on containment protective coatings and electric cable insulation. The NRC's policy decisions regarding hydrogen management prior to and in light of the TMI-2 loss of coolant accident are discussed

  14. Essential Safety Measures for Accident and Injury Reduction in the Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Ulinfun, Charles

    2002-01-01

    One of the problems in organizations, especially in hospitals, is that injury rates are increasing because most safety programs lack the essential safety measures for accident reduction in the workplace. The study examined the safety measures that played a role in accident and injury reduction in the workplace. Specifically, the old and new safety programs of an anonymous company was investigated to identify the safety measures that distinguished both programs, their impact on injury rates,...

  15. Challenge Identification for the Objective Provision Tree Application to the Effectiveness Evaluation for the Accident Management Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Huichang [TUEV Rheinland Korea Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hanchul; Lee, Sunghan [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    As a part of the OPT application for the effectiveness evaluation of the accident management guidelines, challenges which could threaten the safety functions required to maintain the safety, were identified. The identification of detailed provisions in terms of the accident management guidelines is being performed and the visualizing the identified elements of OPT is also under performance. With this logical structure of OPT, the provision of useful tool to evaluate the effectiveness of accident management guideline framework, is expected. The OPT method is a highly logical and top-down approach to identify the vulnerable aspect of the framework which includes the accident management guidelines, such as Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs), Severe Accident Management Guides (SAMGs) and even Extensive Damage Mitigating Guidelines and FLEX guides. In virtue of this logical tool, the evaluation for the framework of the accident management guidelines was tried in this study.

  16. The Role Of Industrial Safety Measures In Combating Occupational Hazards And Accidents In India

    OpenAIRE

    Sharmistha Bhattacharjee

    2012-01-01

    The presence of occupational hazards and industrial accidents de-motivates the worker to contribute their best to the organization. The participation of workers in the workplace which promises safety and security fosters teamwork, quality of product high productivity and a good communication between management and the industrial workers. For combating occupational hazards and accidents in an industrial site, safety is necessary and a challenging issue in an industrial environment. S...

  17. Causal Factors and Adverse Events of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.

    2011-01-01

    Causal factors in aviation accidents and incidents related to system/component failure/malfunction (SCFM) were examined for Federal Aviation Regulation Parts 121 and 135 operations to establish future requirements for the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. Data analyzed includes National Transportation Safety Board (NSTB) accident data (1988 to 2003), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident data (1988 to 2003), and Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident data (1993 to 2008). Failure modes and effects analyses were examined to identify possible modes of SCFM. A table of potential adverse conditions was developed to help evaluate IVHM research technologies. Tables present details of specific SCFM for the incidents and accidents. Of the 370 NTSB accidents affected by SCFM, 48 percent involved the engine or fuel system, and 31 percent involved landing gear or hydraulic failure and malfunctions. A total of 35 percent of all SCFM accidents were caused by improper maintenance. Of the 7732 FAA database incidents affected by SCFM, 33 percent involved landing gear or hydraulics, and 33 percent involved the engine and fuel system. The most frequent SCFM found in ASRS were turbine engine, pressurization system, hydraulic main system, flight management system/flight management computer, and engine. Because the IVHM Project does not address maintenance issues, and landing gear and hydraulic systems accidents are usually not fatal, the focus of research should be those SCFMs that occur in the engine/fuel and flight control/structures systems as well as power systems.

  18. WASTE-ACC: A computer model for analysis of waste management accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabelssi, B.K.; Folga, S.; Kohout, E.J.; Mueller, C.J.; Roglans-Ribas, J.

    1996-12-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Argonne National Laboratory has developed WASTE-ACC, a computational framework and integrated PC-based database system, to assess atmospheric releases from facility accidents. WASTE-ACC facilitates the many calculations for the accident analyses necessitated by the numerous combinations of waste types, waste management process technologies, facility locations, and site consolidation strategies in the waste management alternatives across the DOE complex. WASTE-ACC is a comprehensive tool that can effectively test future DOE waste management alternatives and assumptions. The computational framework can access several relational databases to calculate atmospheric releases. The databases contain throughput volumes, waste profiles, treatment process parameters, and accident data such as frequencies of initiators, conditional probabilities of subsequent events, and source term release parameters of the various waste forms under accident stresses. This report describes the computational framework and supporting databases used to conduct accident analyses and to develop source terms to assess potential health impacts that may affect on-site workers and off-site members of the public under various DOE waste management alternatives.

  19. Support calculations for management of PRISE leakage accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matejovic, P.; Vranka, L. [Nuclear Power Plants Research Inst. Vuje, Trnava (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    Accidents involving primary-to-secondary leakage (PRISE) caused by rupture of one or a few tubes are well known design basis events in both, western and VVER NPPs. Operating experience and in-service inspections of VVER-440 units have demonstrated also the potential for large PRISE leaks in the case of the steam generator (SG) primary collector cover lift-up (Rovno NPP). Without performing any countermeasure for limitation of SG collector cover lift-up, a full opening results in PRISE leak with an equivalent diameter 107 mm. Although this accident was not considered in the original design, this event is usually analysed as DBA too. Different means are available for detection and mitigation of PRISE leakage in NPPs currently in operation (J.Bohunice V-1 and V-2) or under construction (Mochovce) in Slovakia. 8 refs.

  20. Application of the integral code MELCOR for German NPPs and use within accident management and PSA projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarizes the application of MELCOR to German NPPS with PWR and BWR. A development of different code systems like ATHLET/ATHLET-CD, COCOSYS and ASTEC is done as well at GRS but it is not discussed in this paper. GRS has been using MELCOR since 1990 for real plant calculations. The results of MELCOR analyses are used mainly in PSA level 2 studies and in Accident Management projects for both types of NPPs. MELCOR has been a very useful and robust tool for these analyses. The calculations performed within the PSA level 2 studies for both types of German NPPs have shown that typical severe accident scenarios are characterized by several phases and that the consideration of plant specifics are important not only for realistic source term calculations. An overview of typically severe accident phases together with main accident management measures installed in German NPPs is presented in the paper. Several severe accident sequences have been calculated for both reactor types and some detailed nodalisation studies and code to code comparisons have been prepared in the past, to prove the developed core, reactor circuit and containment/building nodalisation schemes. Together with the compilation of the MELCOR data set, the qualification of the nodalisation schemes has been pursued with comparative calculations with detailed GRS codes for selected phases of severe accidents. The results of these comparative analyses showed in most of the areas a good agreement of essential parameters and of the general description of the plant behaviour during the accident progression. The in general detail of the German plant nodalisation schemes developed for MELCOR contributes significantly to this good agreement between integral and detailed code results. The implementation of MELCOR into the GRS simulator ATLAS was very important for the assessment of the results, not only due to the great detail of the nodalisation schemes used. It is used for training of severe accident

  1. Review of current status for designing severe accident management support system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwang Sub

    2000-05-01

    The development of operator support system (OSS) is ongoing in many other countries due to the complexity both in design and in operation for nuclear power plant. The computerized operator support system includes monitoring of some critical parameters, early detection of plant transient, monitoring of component status, plant maintenance, and safety parameter display, and the operator support system for these areas are developed and are being used in some plants. Up to now, the most operator support system covers the normal operation, abnormal operation, and emergency operation. Recently, however, the operator support system for severe accident is to be developed in some countries. The study for the phenomena of severe accident is not performed sufficiently, but, based on the result up to now, the operator support system even for severe accident will be developed in this study. To do this, at first, the current status of the operator support system for normal/abnormal/emergency operation is reviewed, and the positive aspects and negative aspects of systems are analyzed by their characteristics. And also, the major items that should be considered in designing the severe accident operator support system are derived from the review. With the survey of domestic and foreign operator support systems, they are reviewed in terms of the safety parameter display system, decision-making support system, and procedure-tracking system. For the severe accident, the severe accident management guideline (SAMG) which is developed by Westinghouse is reviewed; the characteristics, structure, and logical flow of SAMG are studied. In addition, the critical parameters for severe accident, which are the basis for operators decision-making in severe accident management and are supplied to the operators and the technical support center, are reviewed, too.

  2. Communicating worst-case scenarios: neighbors' views of industrial accident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Branden B; Chess, Caron

    2003-08-01

    The prospect of industrial accidents motivated the U.S. Congress to require in the Clean Air Act of 1990 that manufacturing facilities develop Risk Management Plans (RMP) to submit to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) by July 1999. Industry worried that the requirement to communicate to the public a "worst-case scenario" would arouse unnecessary and counterproductive fears among industry neighbors. We report here the results of focus groups and surveys with such neighbors, focusing particularly upon their reactions to messages about a hypothetical worst-case scenario and management of these risks by industry, government, and other parties. Our findings confirmed our hypotheses that citizens would be skeptical of the competence and trustworthiness of these managers and that this stance would color their views of industrial-facility accident risks. People with job ties to industry or who saw industrial benefits to the community as exceeding its risks had more positive views of industrial risks, but still expressed great concern about the risk and doubt about accident management. Notwithstanding these reactions, overall respondents welcomed this and other related information, which they wanted their local industries to supply. Respondents were not more reassured by additional text describing management of accidents by government and industry. However, respondents did react very positively to the concept of community oversight to review plant safety. Claims about the firm's moral obligation or financial self-interest in preventing accidents were also received positively. Further research on innovative communication and management of accident risks is warranted by these results, even before recent terrorist attacks made this topic more salient. PMID:12926575

  3. Triage and medical management of criticality accident victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The criticality accident is the result of an uncontrolled chain fission reaction initiated when the quantities of nuclear materials (uranium or plutonium)present accidentally exceed a given limit called the critical mass. As soon as the critical state is exceeded, the chain reaction increases exponentially. The result is a fast increase in the number of fission events which occur within the fissile medium. This phenomenon results in a release of energy mainly in the form of heat, accompanied by the intense emission of neutron and gamma radiation and the release of fission gases (Barby, 1983)

  4. Mental health effects from radiological accidents and their social management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mental health effects resulting from exposure to radiation have been identified principally in the context of large radiological accidents. They cover an extended scope of manifestations in relation with the notion of stress: increase of some hormones, modifications in mental concentration, symptoms of anxiety and depression, psycho-somatic diseases, deviation behaviours, and, on the long term, a possible post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The main results come from the Three Mile Island, Goiania, and Chernobyl accidents and several modifying factors have been identified. Considering those facts, diverse social responses can be brought to reduce the detriment to affected individuals and communities. Medical treatments are necessary for persons who suffer from pathological diseases. In most cases, a structured public health follow-up is required to establish the seriousness of the health problems, to forecast the extent of medical and psychological assistance, and to inform people who express fears and worries. Social assistance is always valuable under various forms: financial compensations, preferential medical care, and particular advantages concerning working and living conditions. If this social assistance is necessary and helpful, it also induces a loss in personal adjustment capability and initiative capacity. To overcome those negative impacts, some guidelines to authorities' action can be set up. But the best approach, not excluding the previous ones, remains problem solving at the local level through community responsibilization; some instructive examples come from the Chernobyl experience. (author)

  5. Mental health effects from radiological accidents and their social management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenot, J.; Charron, S.; Verger, P. [Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France)

    2000-05-01

    Mental health effects resulting from exposure to radiation have been identified principally in the context of large radiological accidents. They cover an extended scope of manifestations in relation with the notion of stress: increase of some hormones, modifications in mental concentration, symptoms of anxiety and depression, psycho-somatic diseases, deviation behaviours, and, on the long term, a possible post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The main results come from the Three Mile Island, Goiania, and Chernobyl accidents and several modifying factors have been identified. Considering those facts, diverse social responses can be brought to reduce the detriment to affected individuals and communities. Medical treatments are necessary for persons who suffer from pathological diseases. In most cases, a structured public health follow-up is required to establish the seriousness of the health problems, to forecast the extent of medical and psychological assistance, and to inform people who express fears and worries. Social assistance is always valuable under various forms: financial compensations, preferential medical care, and particular advantages concerning working and living conditions. If this social assistance is necessary and helpful, it also induces a loss in personal adjustment capability and initiative capacity. To overcome those negative impacts, some guidelines to authorities' action can be set up. But the best approach, not excluding the previous ones, remains problem solving at the local level through community responsibilization; some instructive examples come from the Chernobyl experience. (author)

  6. Fuel performance under transients, and accident management using Geno-Fuzzy concept for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulation of Pressurized Water Reactor Power Plant (PWR) has been investigated by simulating all components installed in the power plant namely: the reactor core, steam generator, pressurizer, reactor coolant pumps, and turbine. All plant components have been introduced. This simulator is useful for transient analysis studies, engineering designs, safety analysis, and accident management. Accidents in Pressurized Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plant (PWR NPP) may be occurred either due to component failures or human error during maintenance or operation. The main target of accident management is to mitigate accidents if it occurs. The Geno-Fuzzy concept is the way to select some important plant state variables as a gene for the overall plant state chromosome. The selected genes are: reactor power, primary coolant pressure, steam generator water level, and onset boiling on clad surface which has direct impact on fuel behavior. Each of these genes has associated fuzzy level. The main objective of Geno-Fuzzy is turning the plant gene from abnormal states to the normal state by associated control variable using the inference wise fuzzy technique. The Pressurized Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plant simulator has been tested for a typical PWR, for normal transients, Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS), and using the proposed Geno-Fuzzy concept for accident management, which gives very good results in reactor accident mitigation. Some of these tested accidents are; reactor control rod ejection, change in turbine steam load, and loss of coolant flow, which have direct effects on fuel safety and performance. The parameters affecting the behavior of the reactor fuel integrity are analyzed to be considered in future reactor designs. (author)

  7. Measures for speed management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Measures for speed management are essential for limiting the negative effects of driving too fast and at inappropriate speeds. To begin with, safe and credible speed limits need to be determined. Dynamic and variable speed limits that take into account the current circumstances, such as weather cond

  8. Is the current management system at Statoil sufficient to prevent potential major accidents from happening at the Snorre A platform?

    OpenAIRE

    Mork, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Only small margins prevented the gas-blow out at one of Statoil's platforms, Snorre A, to develop into a major accident in 2004. The underlying reasons of the accident showed extensive improvement areas, including Statoil's management system. The purpose is to find out whether the current management system at Statoil is sufficient to prevent potential major accidents from happening at the Snorre A platform again. As a guidance, four questions have been deduced. These include if...

  9. Implementation of the severe accident management in Slovenske Elektrarne, subsidiary of ENEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementation of the Severe Accident Management (SAM) in Slovenske Elektrarne, subsidiary of ENEL, is a process initiated well before the Fukushima Daiichi accident. The main goal was to cover, comprehensively, level 4 of the Defense in Depth (DiD). The process included development of plant specific severe accident management guidelines (SAMGs) and installation of hardware modifications dedicated to mitigation of severe accidents as an upgrade the original VVER-440/V213. The SAM modifications have been developed with the aim to address all main generic vulnerabilities of VVER-440/V213 containments identified during initial analysis supporting the development of plant specific SAMGs. SAM modifications, in addition to their original purpose, improved plant response also at the level 3 of DiD. SAM modifications installed on VVER-440/V213 units in operation or under construction in Slovakia can be considered as an independent and diverse provision for the main safety functions: core subcriticality, core heat removal and confinement integrity. Basic set of SAM modifications includes independent diesel generator (DG), independent external source of borated water and containment vacuum breaker. Major contribution to safety from SAM modifications has been proved to be the implementation of in-vessel retention, hydrogen management in the containment and reliable depressurization of RCS. The complete set of SAM modifications installed incorporates dedicated SAM I and C to allow for determination and monitoring of plant status via dedicated instrumentation and control of SAM equipment installed at plants during a severe accident. SAM project including updating of SAMGs has been successfully completed on both units of Bohunice NPP and respective activities are continuing on operating units no. 1 and 2 in Mochovce with expected deadline in 2015. The basic design of Mochovce units no. 3 and 4 that are under construction has been modified to incorporate hardware changes

  10. Occupational Radiation Protection in Severe Accident Management. EG-SAM Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an early response to the Fukushima NPP accident, the ISOE Bureau decided to focus on the following issues as an initial response of the joint program after having direct communications with the Japanese official participants in April 2011; - Management of high radiation area worker doses: It has been decided to make available the experience and information from the Chernobyl accident in terms of how emergency worker / responder doses were legally and practically managed, - Personal protective equipment for highly-contaminated areas: It was agreed to collect information about the types of personnel protective equipment and other equipment (e.g. air bottles, respirators, air-hoods or plastic suits, etc.), as well as high-radiation area worker dosimetry use (e.g. type, number and placement of dosimetry) for different types of emergency and high-radiation work situations. Detailed information was collected on dose criteria which are used for emergency workers/responders and their basis, dose management criteria for high dose/dose rate areas, protective equipment which is recommended for emergency workers / responders, recommended individual monitoring procedures, and any special requirement for assessment from the ISOE participating nuclear utilities and regulatory authorities and made available for Japanese utilities. With this positive response of the ISOE actors and interest in the situation in Fukushima, the Expert Group on Occupational Radiation Protection in Severe Accident Management (EG-SAM) was established by the ISOE Management Board in May 2011. The overall objective of the EG-SAM is to contribute to occupational exposure management (providing a view on management of high radiation area worker doses) within the Fukushima plant boundary with the ISOE participants and to develop a state-of-the- art ISOE report on best radiation protection management practices for proper radiation protection job coverage during severe accident initial response and recovery

  11. [Initial medical management in radiological accidents and nuclear disaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigawa, Koichi

    2012-03-01

    Major radiological emergencies include criticality in nuclear power plants or terrorist attacks using dirty bombs or nuclear device detonation. Because irradiation itself does not cause any immediate death of the victims, and there is a minimum risk of secondary irradiation to medical personnel during decontamination procedures, lifesaving treatments should be prioritized. When a major radiological accident occurs, information is scarce and/or becomes intricate. We might face with significant difficulties in determining the exact culprits of the event, i.e., radiological or chemical or others. Therefore, it is strongly recommended for the national and local governments, related organizations and hospitals to develop comprehensive systems to cope with all hazards(chemical, biological, radiation, nuclear, and explosion) under the common incident command system.

  12. 福岛第一核电厂严重事故管理研究%Research on severe accident management in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凯; 王炜

    2013-01-01

    The accident of Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant led to a severe accident of core meltdown, and its process of emergency management exposed various defects which raised great concern about severe accident management in nuclear power plants. In this paper, the specifications of severe accident management that issued by IAEA and Japan were overviewed. Based on Japan specifications, the analysis of sequences and management strategies were presented on severe accident in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Following identification of defects on severe accident management, possible corrective measures for current and future plants were discussed. Finally , an approach and a frame model for severe accident management were presented, which may improve nuclear safety in current and future plants.%日本福岛核事故造成了堆芯熔毁的严重事故,应急处置过程暴露出严重事故管理的种种不足,引起对核电厂严重事故管理的关注.简述了国际原子能机构和日本关于核电厂严重事故管理的规范要求,分析了福岛第一核电厂事故序列和严重事故管理策略,讨论了严重事故管理存在的问题及其可能的改进措施,最后提出了改进核电厂严重事故管理的框架模型和方法.

  13. [Methodological aspects of measuring injuries from traffic accidents at the site of occurrence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Híjar-Medina, M C; López-López, M V; Flores-Aldana, M; Anaya, R

    1997-02-01

    Traffic accidents are a well-known public health problem worldwide. In Mexico research into risk factors for motor involving vehicles accidents and their consequences has recently been taken into account. The relevant literature does not normally describe the methodological aspects involved in the collection of primary data, since most studies have used secondary data the good quality and validity of which are assumed. The paper presented seeks to discuss and share with researchers in this field, some of the methodological aspects to be considered in the attempt to recreate the scene of the accident and obtain information approximating to reality. The measurements in situ of, such traffic accident variables as injury, use of seat belt, speed and alcohol intake are discussed. PMID:9430931

  14. Hindsight Bias in Cause Analysis of Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atsuo Murata; Yasunari Matsushita

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that hindsight becomes an obstacle to the objective investigation of an accident, and that the proper countermeasures for the prevention of such an accident is impossible if we view the accident with hindsight. Therefore, it is important for organizational managers to prevent hindsight from occurring so that hindsight does not hinder objective and proper measures to be taken and this does not lead to a serious accident. In this study, a basic phenomenon potentially related to accidents, that is, hindsight was taken up, and an attempt was made to explore the phenomenon in order to get basically insights into the prevention of accidents caused by such a cognitive bias.

  15. Development and application of a radioactivity evaluation technique the to obtain radiation exposure dose of radioactivity evaluation technique when a severe accident occurs in the a power station of a severe accident. Accident management guidelines of knowledge-based maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a One of the lessons learned from the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company, the was the need for improvement of accident management guidelines is required. In this report study, we developed and applied a dose evaluation technique to evaluated the radiation dose in a nuclear power plant assuming three conditions: employees were evacuation evacuated at the time of a severe accident occurrence; operators carried out the accident management operation; of the operators, and the repair work was carried out for of the trouble damaged apparatuses in a the nuclear power plant using a dose evaluation system. The following knowledge findings were obtained and should to be reflected to in the knowledge base of the guidelines was obtained. (1) By making clearly identifying an areas beforehand becoming the that would receive high radiation doses at the time of a severe accident definitely beforehand, we can employees can be moved to the evacuation places through an areas having of low dose rate and it is also known it how much we long employees can safely stay in the evacuation places. (2) When they circulate CV containment vessel recirculation sump water is recirculated by for the accident management operation and the restoration of safety in the facilities, because the plumbing piping and the apparatuses become radioactive radioactivity sources, the dose evaluation of the shortest access route and detour access routes with should be made for effective the accident management operation is effective. Because the area where a dose rate rises changes which as safety apparatuses are restored, in consideration of a plant state, it is necessary to judge the rightness or wrongness of the work continuation from the spot radioactive dose of the actual apparatus area, with based on precedence of the need to restore with precedence, and to choose a system to be used for accident management. (author)

  16. Post-Chernobyl accident radioactivity measurements in the Comunidad Autonoma de Valencia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, J; Ballesteros, L; Serradell, V

    1992-03-01

    Increased atmospheric radioactivity after the accident in Chernobyl was first detected on air filters. Measurements were begun in Valencia on May 2, 1986, with the maximum activity being observed around May 3-4, 1986. As a consequence of this accident, annual campaigns of measurements on migrating birds (several species of aquatic birds and song-thrushes) were started. The data corresponding to the campaign immediately after the accident (1986/87) show a generalized contamination (approximately 50% of the measured specimens). Significant levels of 134Cs, 137Cs and 110Agm were found. It is important to note that 110Agm is only present in Aythya ferina. In the successive campaigns in 1988/89 and 1989/91 few samples were found to be contaminated and only 137Cs was identified. Strontium-90 was measured and identified in some specimens, mainly in their bones.

  17. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005-2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc.

  18. Motor vehicle accidents: How should cirrhotic patients be managed?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takumi Kawaguchi; Eitaro Taniguchi; Michio Sata

    2012-01-01

    Motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) are serious social issues worldwide and driver illness is an important cause of MVAs.Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is a complex cognitive dysfunction with attention deficit,which frequently occurs in cirrhotic patients independent of severity of liver disease.Although MHE is known as a risk factor for MVAs,the impact of diagnosis and treatment of MHE on MVA-related societal costs is largely unknown.Recently,Bajaj et al demonstrated valuable findings that the diagnosis of MHE by rapid screening using the inhibitory control test (ICT),and subsequent treatment with lactulose could substantially reduce the societal costs by preventing MVAs,Besides the ICT and lactulose,there are various diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies for MHE.In this commentary,we discussed a current issue of diagnostic tools for MHE,including neuropsychological tests.We also discussed the advantages of the other therapeutic strategies for MHE,such as intake of a regular breakfast and coffee,and supplementation with zinc and branched chain amino acids,on the MVA-related societal costs.

  19. An examination of the accident and emergency management of deliberate self harm.

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, M; BEACH, M; Evans, P A; Winston, A.; Friedman, T.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the adequacy of assessment and management of deliberate self harm (DSH) undertaken by accident and emergency (A&E) medical staff. METHODS: The records for attendances to the Leicester Royal Infirmary A&E department with a diagnosis of "self inflicted" injury for the 12 month period April 1994 to March 1995 were scrutinised. If the episode was identified as DSH, then assessment and management were examined, using an instrument based on the Royal College of Psychiatrists' ...

  20. TL detectors for gamma ray dose measurements in criticality accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljanić, Saveta; Zorko, Benjamin; Gregori, Beatriz; Knezević, Zeljka

    2007-01-01

    Determination of gamma ray dose in mixed neutron+gamma ray fields is still a demanding task. Dosemeters used for gamma ray dosimetry are usually in some extent sensitive to neutrons and their response variations depend on neutron energy i.e., on neutron spectra. Besides, it is necessary to take into account the energy dependence of dosemeter responses to gamma rays. In this work, several types of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) placed in different holders used for gamma ray dose determination in the mixed fields were examined. Dosemeters were from three different institutions: Ruder Bosković Institute (RBI), Croatia, JoZef Stefan Institute (JSI), Slovenia and Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Argentina. All dosemeters were irradiated during the International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE Reactor, Valduc, June 2002. Three accidental scenarios were reproduced and in each irradiation the dosemeters were exposed placed on the front of phantom and 'free in air'. Following types of TLDs were used: 7LiF (TLD-700), CaF2:Mn and Al2O3:Mg,Y-all from RBI; CaF2:Mn from JSI and 7LiF (TLD-700) from ARN. Reported doses were compared with the reference values as well as with the values obtained from the results of all participants. The results show satisfactory agreement with other dosimetry systems used in the Intercomparison. The influence of different types of holders and applied corrections of dosemeters' readings are discussed. PMID:17369267

  1. Evaluation of BDB accident management in PSA for recent German 1300 MW PWRs (Konvoi)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Siemens AG/KWU has been performing the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for the nuclear power plants (NPPs) for more than 25 years for purposes of design optimization, safety research and special licensing issues. Focus of the PSA application nowadays is towards development of advanced NPPs such as EPR and 1,000 MW BWR, periodic safety review of operating plants, development and implementation of BDB (beyond design basis)-AM (accident management) measure, and so on. Here were discussed on the last two topics. As a results, PSA gave underline of high safety level on basic design in a plant expressed by the already low hazard states frequency and the balanced design, and it was recognized that efficiency of the BDB emergency measures and procedures expressed reduction of frequency required for plant damage states, importance of the emergency procedures for mitigating damage potential of reactor coolant pressure boundary failure under pressed conditions, and representation of backfitted BDB AM measures for an additional level in multi-level safety concept of the plants. (G.K.)

  2. Use of a fuzzy decision-making method in evaluating severe accident management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In developing severe accident management strategies, an engineering decision would be made based on the available data and information that are vague, imprecise and uncertain by nature. These sorts of vagueness and uncertainty are due to lack of knowledge for the severe accident sequences of interest. The fuzzy set theory offers a possibility of handling these sorts of data and information. In this paper, the possibility to apply the decision-making method based on fuzzy set theory to the evaluation of the accident management strategies at a nuclear power plant is scrutinized. The fuzzy decision-making method uses linguistic variables and fuzzy numbers to represent the decision-maker's subjective assessments for the decision alternatives according to the decision criteria. The fuzzy mean operator is used to aggregate the decision-maker's subjective assessments, while the total integral value method is used to rank the decision alternatives. As a case study, the proposed method is applied to evaluating the accident management strategies at a nuclear power plant

  3. Proceedings of the second OECD specialist meeting on operator aids for severe accident management - SAMOA-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second OECD Specialist Meeting on Operator Aids for Severe Accident Management (SAMOA-2) was organized in Lyon, France from 8 to 10 September 1997 in collaboration with the Thermal and Nuclear Studies and Project Department (SEPTEN) of Electricite de France. It was attended by 33 specialists representing ten OECD Member countries, the OECD Halden Reactor Project, the Commission of the European Communities, and the Russian Federation. The scope of SAMOA-2 was limited to operator aids for accident management which were in operation or could be soon. The meeting concentrated on the management of accidents beyond the design basis, including tools which might be extended from the design basis range into the severe accident area. Relevant simulation tools for operator training were also part of the scope of the meeting. Twenty papers were presented during the meeting, grouped into three sessions. Session 1: operator aids for control rooms; Session 2: operator aids for technical support centres; session 3: simulation tools for operator training. There were two demonstrations of computerized systems: the ATLAS analysis simulator developed by GRS, and EDF's 'Simulateurs Post Accidentels' (SIPA). There was also a video demonstration of the Full Scope Simulator developed by a joint Russian-U.S. team for the Leningrad nuclear power

  4. Regulatory Research of the PWR Severe Accident. Information Needs and Instrumentation for Hydrogen Control and Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gun Chul; Suh, Kune Y.; Lee, Jin Yong; Lee, Seung Dong [Seoul Nat' l Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    The current research is concerned with generation of basic engineering data needed in the process of developing hydrogen control guidelines as part of accident management strategies for domestic nuclear power plants and formulating pertinent regulatory requirements. Major focus is placed on identification of information needs and instrumentation methods for hydrogen control and management in the primary system and in the containment, development of decision-making trees for hydrogen management and their quantification, the instrument availability under severe accident conditions, critical review of relevant hydrogen generation model and phenomena In relation to hydrogen behavior, we analyzed the severe accident related hydrogen generation in the UCN 3{center_dot}4 PWR with modified hydrogen generation model. On the basis of the hydrogen mixing experiment and related GASFLOW calculation, the necessity of 3-dimensional analysis of the hydrogen mixing was investigated. We examined the hydrogen control models related to the PAR(Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner) and performed MAAP4 calculation in relation to the decision tree to estimate the capability and the role of the PAR during a severe accident.

  5. PCTRAN-3: The third generation of personal computer-based plant analyzer for severe accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PCTRAN is a plant analyzer that uses a personal computer to simulate plant response. The plant model is recently expanded to accommodate beyond design-basis severe accidents. In the event of multiple failures of the plant safety systems, the core may experience heatup and extensive failure. Using a high-powered personal computer (PC), PCTRAN-3 is designed to operate at a speed significantly faster than real-time. A convenient, interactive and user-friendly graphics interface allows full control by the operator. The plant analyzer is intended for use in severe accident management. In this paper the code's component models and sample runs ranging from normal operational transients to severe accidents are reviewed. (author)

  6. Knowledge data base for severe accident management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the safety enhancement of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), continuous efforts are very important to take in the up-to-date scientific and technical knowledge positively and to reflect them into the safety regulation. The purpose of the present study is to gather effectively the scientific and technical knowledge about the severe accident (SA) phenomena and the accident management (AM) for prevention and mitigation of SA, and to take in the experimental data by participating in the international cooperative experiments regarding the important SA phenomena and the effectiveness of AM. Based on those data and knowledge, JNES is developing and improving severe accident analysis models to maintain the SA analysis codes and the AM knowledge base for assessment of the NPPs in Japan. The activities in fiscal year 2012 are as follows; Analytical study on OECD/NEA projects such as MCCI, SERENA and SFP projects, and support in making regulation for SA. (author)

  7. Developing a Minimum Data Set for an Information Management System to Study Traffic Accidents in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Ahmadi, Maryam; Gharagozlu, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Each year, around 1.2 million people die in the road traffic incidents. Reducing traffic accidents requires an exact understanding of the risk factors associated with traffic patterns and behaviors. Properly analyzing these factors calls for a comprehensive system for collecting and processing accident data. Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop a minimum data set (MDS) for an information management system to study traffic accidents in Iran. Materials and Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed in 2014. Data were collected from the traffic police, trauma centers, medical emergency centers, and via the internet. The investigated resources for this study were forms, databases, and documents retrieved from the internet. Forms and databases were identical, and one sample of each was evaluated. The related internet-sourced data were evaluated in their entirety. Data were collected using three checklists. In order to arrive at a consensus about the data elements, the decision Delphi technique was applied using questionnaires. The content validity and reliability of the questionnaires were assessed by experts’ opinions and the test-retest method, respectively. Results: An (MDS) of a traffic accident information management system was assigned to three sections: a minimum data set for traffic police with six classes, including 118 data elements; a trauma center with five data classes, including 57 data elements; and a medical emergency center, with 11 classes, including 64 data elements. Conclusions: Planning for the prevention of traffic accidents requires standardized data. As the foundation for crash prevention efforts, existing standard data infrastructures present policymakers and government officials with a great opportunity to strengthen and integrate existing accident information systems to better track road traffic injuries and fatalities. PMID:27247791

  8. Radiation protection measures in the case of incidents and radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measures to be taken in the case of radiation accidents connected with an unusually high radiation exposure to persons, the amounts of which exceed the limiting values, with depend on whether there has been an external or an internal exposure. In order to give further treatment in the case of whole-body or partial-body irradiation, it is necessary to estimate the exposure dose. In nuclear medicine the accident doses are generally low, i.e. acute radiation damage does not occur here, and immediate measures are not necessary. Therapeutic measures in the case of incorporation accidents are only necessary when the maximum amounts for the nuclide in question recommended by the ICRP has been reached or exceeded in the organism. However, decorporation measures ought to be carried out only by qualified radiation protection physicians. The type of radiation accident which occurs most frequently in nuclear medicine is radiation exposure as a result of contamination. If in the case of contamination of a person the measurement exceeds the radioactivity limit, the decontamination measures are necessary. In the present contribution, these measures for cases without injuries are described in detail. (orig./HP)

  9. Procedural and Organizational Measures to Assist Operations During an Accident in a Nuclear Power Plant in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, D.; Lathrop, J.W.; Linnerooth, J.; Sinclair, C

    1980-01-01

    This paper is concerned with aspects of organization and procedure in nuclear accident management. Because all accidents can be argued to have common characteristics, a comparative approach is taken here for the discussion of emergency planning for nuclear accidents. This approach reveals several deficiencies in selected European emergency plans, the most important concerning formal and informal communication channels. The most important principle which emerges from this discussion, and which...

  10. The water role in a nuclear accident - Measures to be taken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In case of nuclear accidents or natural disasters, the contaminated water plays a large part in the environment contamination. This is illustrated by two examples: Agadir earthquake and Chernobyl accident. In Agadir earthquake, the contamination of the water was caused by the mutiple breaking down of the water pipes, and in Chernobyl accident it was derived from: -The reactor cooling water; -The radioactive fallout; -The radioactive clouds. The water concentrates incessantly the radioactivity proceeding by the hydrological cycle: Evaporation, precipitation, flowing. The radio-activity concentration by the water and the atmosphere contamination are explained in this paper. In USSR, the radioactive contamination has affected several Ukranian rivers and the artificial lake of Kiev. The measures that have been taken in USSR and in the next countries to prevent the radioactive contamination propagation by water have been discussed. The reparation of chernobyl accident damages is estimated to three milliard $. Theoretically, every nation, using nuclear energy, has a protection system for the accidental situations but none of them has a second protection system for the accidental situations occuring in the distance. The measures to be taken for the latter situations, particularly in Morocco, have been cited. The lessons learnt from the chernobyl accident have served to broaden the inter-national cooperation fields. 15 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  11. Instrumentation Capabilities. Their Influence on Severe Accident Management and How Operator Training can be contemplated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No currently operating nuclear unit has been explicitly designed to withstand the loads resulting from accident sequences resulting in melting of a very significant portion of the core. As a consequence, instrumentation needs were defined based on what was deemed necessary to control the unit during normal operation and contemplated accident sequences. Detailed requirements for instrumentation were then established based on environmental conditions anticipated during accident sequences addressed in the design, estimation of additional conservatism deemed reasonable for assessing sensor robustness and information reliability, and a realistic understanding of the influence of aging. Though instrument failures could not be excluded, consequences were necessarily limited as adequate redundancy was provided by design for all information needed to adequately control the unit and bring it back to safe shutdown in case of accident could be assumed available. Training programs largely built on this very robust approach and operators were challenged to control situations whose main attributes were: - all systems needed to fulfill essential safety functions are available and have the minimal capability for allowing compliance with otherwise stated acceptance criteria, - information needed to make decisions is available and reliable, - plant evolution, if not easily understandable in all cases, is not confusing to operators as all involved physical phenomena are unambiguous on one side, and can be reasonably well monitored. However, though current plant designs are generally very robust, one cannot exclude that accident sequences involving significant melting of the core can happen. First estimates through risk studies reported in WASH-1400 showed that the risk of core-melt could not be ignored, and the TMI-2 accident in a first step, then Chernobyl confirmed this conclusion. These events gave impetus to the development of Severe Accident Management (SAM) programs, and

  12. Radioactivity measurements of the HMI after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report explains the methods applied and the data measured by the HMI campaign. The material is presented so as to be of interest also to readers who in general are not concerned with aspects of radiation protection. The data measured refer to the local dose rate and to radioactivity in the environment (air, rain, surface waters, soil, food, mother's milk. Also, results of measurements of samples from Eastern Europe are given. (orig./HP)

  13. Radiation management at the occurrence of accident and restoration works. Fire and explosion of asphalt solidification processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyabe, Kenjiro; Jin, K.; Namiki, A.; Mizutani, K.; Horiuchi, N.; Saruta, J. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Health and Safety Division, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ninomiya, Kazushige [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan). Monju Construction Office

    1998-06-01

    Fire and explosion accident in the cell of Asphalt Solidification Processing Facility(ASP) in PNC took placed at March 11 in 1997. Following to the alarm of many radiation monitoring system in the facility, some of workers inhale radioactive materials in their bodies. Indication values of an exhaust monitor installed in the first auxiliary exhaust stack increased suddenly. A large number of windows, doors, and shutters in the facility were raptured by the explosion. A lot of radioactive materials blew up and were released to the outside of the facility. Reinforcement of radiation surveillance function, nose smearing test for the workers and confirmation of contamination situation were implemented on the fire. Investigation of radiation situation, radiation management on the site, exposure management for the workers, surveillance of exhaustion, and restoration works of the damaged radiation management monitoring system were carried out after the explosion. The detailed data of radiation management measures taken during three months after the accident are described in the paper. (M. Suetake)

  14. Generalities on nuclear accidents and their short-dated and middle-dated management; Generalites sur les accidents nucleaires et leur gestion a court terme et a long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    All the nuclear activities present a radiation risk. The radiation exposure of the employees or the public, may occur during normal activity or during an accident. The IRSN realized a document on this radiation risk and the actions of protection. The sanitary and medical aspects of a radiation accident are detailed. The actions of the population protection during an accident and the post accident management are also discussed. (A.L.B.)

  15. Measured transfer factors in milk and meat after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl the radioactivity in the environment in Aachen was measured in detail at the Lehrgebiet Strahlenschutz in der Kerntechnik. The change of the different radionuclides in the eco-system made it possible to obtain radioecological parameters especially for iodine and caesium. The knowledge about the transport of iodine into cow's milk could be very much improved

  16. Regulations concerning protective measures against radiation in case of accidents connected with gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pursuant to the 1938 Act on X-rays and radium, etc and the 1976 regulations on supervision and use of installations and apparatus which release radiation representing a hazard to health, the State Institute of Radiation Health issued these regulations laying down a series of protective measures in case of accidents when using gamma radiography. They entered into force on 1 July 1981

  17. Effectiveness of core exit thermocouple (CET) indication in accident management of light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The working group on Analysis and Management of Accidents (WGAMA) of the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) of OECD-NEA had a task on the effectiveness of CET indication in accident management (AM) of light water reactors (LWR). The task collected and reviewed the design basis of CET application for AM procedures through a survey of the CET use in the NEA member countries, and reviewed pertinent experimental results from such test facilities as LOFT, ROSA/LSTF, PKL and PSB-VVER focusing on the time delay in CET from core temperature rise. Scaling issues were discussed considering extrapolation of experimental results to LWR. This paper summarizes major outcomes of the task and indicates possible future work. (author)

  18. Risk management and role of schools of the Tokai-village radiation accident in 1999. Safety education and risk management before and during the radiation accident from the standpoint of school nurse teachers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate safety education and risk management in the neighborhood schools before and during the radiation accident in the Tokai-village in 1999 from the standpoint of school nurse teachers. Eighty-six school nurse teachers from 44 elementary, 25 junior-high, 14 high and 3 handicapped children's schools were surveyed within neighboring towns and villages. The main results were as follows: There had been few risk management systems against the potential radiation accidents including safety education, radiological monitoring and protection in all of the neighboring schools. There were no significant difference in risk management systems among the schools before the accident, though the anxiety rates of school children were significantly higher in the schools nearest to the accident site. Some radiation risk management systems must be established in neighboring schools including safety education, radiological monitoring and protection. (author)

  19. Status report on severe accident material property measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of selected material properties of molten reactor core material (corium) were made. The corium used was a mixture of UO2, ZrO2 and Zr, with oxygen content being a parameter to reflect different stages of zirconium oxidation. The mixtures used were representative of typical in-vessel melt sequences. For most measurements, the UO2/ZrO2 mass ratio was 1.51, representative of VVER/440 melt compositions and melt compositions of most US BWRs. Measurements were made of the solidus/liquidus temperatures of corium compositions using a Differential Thermal Analysis technique. Observation of the solubility of unoxidized Zr in the oxide phase was made by metallographic analysis of solidus/liquidus melt samples. The results of laminar flow corium spreading tests in one dimension were used to estimate the viscosity of corium compositions. Measured solidus and liquidus temperatures for compositions representative of Zr oxidation of 30, 50 and 70% were compared with those obtained form a phase diagram provided by Kurchatov Institute. It was found that experimental measurements agreed well with the phase diagram values at 70% oxidation, but the measured solidus temperatures were higher than those on the phase diagram and the measured liquidus temperatures were lower than those on the phase diagram at 30 and 50% oxidation. From a microstructure examination it was determined that there was no global segregation into distinct metal and oxide phases during the cooldown of a sample in which there was initially 70% Zr oxidation. Therefore it is concluded that Zr metal is soluble in the oxide phase under molten conditions. Viscosity estimates were made for compositions representative of Zr oxidation of 30, 50 and 70% by fitting the results of spreading tests to Huppert's equation. It was found that, at a temperature of 2500 C, the viscosity varied by three orders of magnitude over this range of compositions. 10 refs., 39 figs., 16 tabs

  20. Medical and psychological aspects of crisis management during a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisis handling in most kinds of disasters is affected by e.g. the information situation, prior experience and preparedness, availability of resources, efficiency of leadership and coordination, and type of disaster. A nuclear accident creates a situation which differs from many 'normal' disasters and natural catastrophes, for example with respects to the invisible nature of radiation and radioactive contamination and thus the dependence on access to specific technical equipment and expertise, and to information about the radiation situation. The scope of the accident, and the existing levels of radiation, define subsequent actions; information policies and existing channels of communication lay the foundation for public reactions. The present paper explores some examples of public reactions, and crisis handling of some previous radiation accidents on the basis of two dimensions, i.e. degree of information availability and degree of impact or 'environmental damage'. The examples include the radiation accidents in the Chelyabinsk region in the southern Urals, at Three Mile Island, USA, at Chernobyl in the Ukraine, and in Goiania, Brazil. It is concluded that public reactions differ as a function of existing expectations, and the crisis handling is more affected by the existing organizational and social structures than by needs and reactions of potential victims. Another conclusion is that pre-disaster preparedness regarding public information, and organization of countermeasures, are crucial to the outcome of a successful crisis handling and for enhancing public trust in crisis management. 39 refs, 2 figs

  1. Medical and psychological aspects of crisis management during a nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M.

    1993-06-01

    Crisis handling in most kinds of disasters is affected by e.g. the information situation, prior experience and preparedness, availability of resources, efficiency of leadership and coordination, and type of disaster. A nuclear accident creates a situation which differs from many `normal` disasters and natural catastrophes, for example with respects to the invisible nature of radiation and radioactive contamination and thus the dependence on access to specific technical equipment and expertise, and to information about the radiation situation. The scope of the accident, and the existing levels of radiation, define subsequent actions; information policies and existing channels of communication lay the foundation for public reactions. The present paper explores some examples of public reactions, and crisis handling of some previous radiation accidents on the basis of two dimensions, i.e. degree of information availability and degree of impact or `environmental damage`. The examples include the radiation accidents in the Chelyabinsk region in the southern Urals, at Three Mile Island, USA, at Chernobyl in the Ukraine, and in Goiania, Brazil. It is concluded that public reactions differ as a function of existing expectations, and the crisis handling is more affected by the existing organizational and social structures than by needs and reactions of potential victims. Another conclusion is that pre-disaster preparedness regarding public information, and organization of countermeasures, are crucial to the outcome of a successful crisis handling and for enhancing public trust in crisis management. 39 refs, 2 figs.

  2. Combining Neural Methods and Knowledge-Based Methods in Accident Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Sirola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accident management became a popular research issue in the early 1990s. Computerized decision support was studied from many points of view. Early fault detection and information visualization are important key issues in accident management also today. In this paper we make a brief review on this research history mostly from the last two decades including the severe accident management. The author’s studies are reflected to the state of the art. The self-organizing map method is combined with other more or less traditional methods. Neural methods used together with knowledge-based methods constitute a methodological base for the presented decision support prototypes. Two application examples with modern decision support visualizations are introduced more in detail. A case example of detecting a pressure drift on the boiling water reactor by multivariate methods including innovative visualizations is studied in detail. Promising results in early fault detection are achieved. The operators are provided by added information value to be able to detect anomalies in an early stage already. We provide the plant staff with a methodological tool set, which can be combined in various ways depending on the special needs in each case.

  3. Nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

  4. Accident analysis for high-level waste management alternatives in the US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative generic accident analysis was performed for the programmatic alternatives for high-level waste (HLW) management in the US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EM PEIS). The key facilities and operations of the five major HLW management phases were considered: current storage, retrieval, pretreatment, treatment, and interim canister storage. A spectrum of accidents covering the risk-dominant accidents was analyzed. Preliminary results are presented for HLW management at the Hanford site. A comparison of these results with those previously advanced shows fair agreement

  5. Examination of offsite radiological emergency measures for nuclear reactor accidents involving core melt. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, D.C.; McGrath, P.E.; Rasmussen, N.C.

    1978-06-01

    Evacuation, sheltering followed by population relocation, and iodine prophylaxis are evaluated as offsite public protective measures in response to nuclear reactor accidents involving core-melt. Evaluations were conducted using a modified version of the Reactor Safety Study consequence model. Models representing each measure were developed and are discussed. Potential PWR core-melt radioactive material releases are separated into two categories, ''Melt-through'' and ''Atmospheric,'' based upon the mode of containment failure. Protective measures are examined and compared for each category in terms of projected doses to the whole body and thyroid. Measures for ''Atmospheric'' accidents are also examined in terms of their influence on the occurrence of public health effects.

  6. Doctrinal elements for the post-accidental management of a nuclear accident - Final version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines and defines the objectives, principles and main actions for the post-accidental management of a nuclear accident. It defines the emergency phase and the post-accidental phase, three basic objectives (to protect the population against the hazards of ionizing radiations, to support populations affected by the accident consequences, to restore affected territories), management principles, key issues for post-accidental management. It defines actions to be undertaken: post-accidental zoning, monitoring of deposited radioactivity, early actions for the protection and taking charge of population, information. It addresses the different aspects of post-accidental management planning in a period of transition: reception of population, reduction of population exposure to deposited radioactivity, treatment of public health problems, improvement of the knowledge on the radiological situation of the environment, improvement of the radiological quality of the different environments, dealing with wastes, empowerment of stakeholders through an adequate governance, support and redeployment of economic activity, help and compensation, information. Appendices more deeply discuss actions to be undertaken just after the emergency phase, for the management of the transition period, and for the management of the long-term period

  7. Radiodosimetry and preventive measures in the event of a nuclear accident. Proceedings of an international symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international symposium on Radiodosimetry and Preventive Measures in the Event of a Nuclear Accident was held in Cracow, Poland, from 26 to 28 May 1994. The symposium was organized by the Polish Society for Nuclear Medicine, and co-sponsored by the IAEA. Over 40 experts from Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Germany, Poland, the Russian Federation, Sweden and Switzerland participated. The aim of the Symposium was to review models of iodine kinetics used in the calculation of internal radiation doses to the thyroid after the Chernobyl accident, to discuss internal and external radiation dose to the thyroid in terms or risk of thyroid cancer, and to present data on the incidence rate of thyroid cancer in the selected iodine deficient area in Poland. A part of the symposium was dedicated to the physiological basis of iodine prophylaxis and emergency planning for a nuclear accident. Recommendations of the IAEA on preventive measures in the event of a nuclear accident were also addressed. These proceedings contain the full text of the eight invited papers presented at the symposium. Refs, figs, tabs

  8. Radioactivity measurements in Europe after the Chernobyl accident. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data base presented is being set up primarily for scientific studies such as the validation of long range transport models, physico-chemical behaviour of radionuclides in air, etc. The data were extracted from the REM Data Bank at the Joint Research Centre of the Commission of the European Communities at Ispra. The data where originally obtained from written reports or were copied directly from tapes or diskettes into the REM Data Bank. In the latter case, verification with written material was persued. The original sources are given in the references. In preparing this report, only those data were retained which were fully specified as far as time, location and measuring techniques are concerned, i.e.: beginning and end of sampling, geographical coordinates and types of filters are known

  9. Accident Management ampersand Risk-Based Compliance With 40 CFR 68 for Chemical Process Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A risk-based logic model is suggested as an appropriate basis for better predicting accident progression and ensuing source terms to the environment from process upset conditions in complex chemical process facilities. Under emergency conditions, decision-makers may use the Accident Progression Event Tree approach to identify the best countermeasure for minimizing deleterious consequences to receptor groups before the atmospheric release has initiated. It is concluded that the chemical process industry may use this methodology as a supplemental information provider to better comply with the Environmental Protection Agency's proposed 40 CFR 68 Risk Management Program rule. An illustration using a benzene-nitric acid potential interaction demonstrates the value of the logic process. The identification of worst-case releases and planning for emergency response are improved through these methods, at minimum. It also provides a systematic basis for prioritizing facility modifications to correct vulnerabilities

  10. Overview of plant specific severe accident management strategies for Kozloduy nuclear power plant, WWER-1000/320

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreeva, M. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Tzarigradsko Shaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria)], E-mail: m_andreeva@inrne.bas.bg; Pavlova, M.P. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Tzarigradsko Shaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria)], E-mail: pavlova@inrne.bas.bg; Groudev, P.P. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Tzarigradsko Shaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria)], E-mail: pavlinpg@inrne.bas.bg

    2008-04-15

    This paper focuses on the fourth level of the defence in depth concept in nuclear safety, including the transitions from the third level and into the fifth level. The use of the severe accident management guideline (SAMG) is required when an accident situation is not handled adequately through the use of emergency operating procedures (EOP), thus leading to a partial or a total core melt. In the EOPs, the priority is to save the fuel, whereas, in the SAMG, the priority is to save the containment. Actions recommended in the SAMG aim at limiting the risk of radiologically significant radioactive releases in the short- and mid-term (a few hours to a few days). The paper describes basic severe accident management requirements related to nuclear power plant (NPP), specified by the IAEA and in Republic of Bulgaria Nuclear Legislation. It also surveys plant specific severe accident management (SAM) strategies for the Kozloduy NPP, equipped with WWER-1000 type reactors.

  11. Radiological accidents potentially important to human health risk in the U.S. Department of Energy waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human health risks as a consequence of potential radiological releases resulting from plausible accident scenarios constitute an important consideration in the US Department of Energy (DOE) national program to manage the treatment, storage, and disposal of wastes. As part of this program, the Office of Environmental Management (EM) is currently preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) that evaluates the risks that could result from managing five different waste types. This paper (1) briefly reviews the overall approach used to assess process and facility accidents for the EM PEIS; (2) summarizes the key inventory, storage, and treatment characteristics of the various DOE waste types important to the selection of accidents; (3) discusses in detail the key assumptions in modeling risk-dominant accidents; and (4) relates comparative source term results and sensitivities

  12. Safety culture and accident analysis-A socio-management approach based on organizational safety social capital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the biggest challenges for organizations in today's competitive business environment is to create and preserve a self-sustaining safety culture. Typically, Key drivers of safety culture in many organizations are regulation, audits, safety training, various types of employee exhortations to comply with safety norms, etc. However, less evident factors like networking relationships and social trust amongst employees, as also extended networking relationships and social trust of organizations with external stakeholders like government, suppliers, regulators, etc., which constitute the safety social capital in the Organization-seem to also influence the sustenance of organizational safety culture. Can erosion in safety social capital cause deterioration in safety culture and contribute to accidents? If so, how does it contribute? As existing accident analysis models do not provide answers to these questions, CAMSoC (Curtailing Accidents by Managing Social Capital), an accident analysis model, is proposed. As an illustration, five accidents: Bhopal (India), Hyatt Regency (USA), Tenerife (Canary Islands), Westray (Canada) and Exxon Valdez (USA) have been analyzed using CAMSoC. This limited cross-industry analysis provides two key socio-management insights: the biggest source of motivation that causes deviant behavior leading to accidents is 'Faulty Value Systems'. The second biggest source is 'Enforceable Trust'. From a management control perspective, deterioration in safety culture and resultant accidents is more due to the 'action controls' rather than explicit 'cultural controls'. Future research directions to enhance the model's utility through layering are addressed briefly

  13. Safety culture and accident analysis--a socio-management approach based on organizational safety social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Suman

    2007-04-11

    One of the biggest challenges for organizations in today's competitive business environment is to create and preserve a self-sustaining safety culture. Typically, the key drivers of safety culture in many organizations are regulation, audits, safety training, various types of employee exhortations to comply with safety norms, etc. However, less evident factors like networking relationships and social trust amongst employees, as also extended networking relationships and social trust of organizations with external stakeholders like government, suppliers, regulators, etc., which constitute the safety social capital in the Organization--seem to also influence the sustenance of organizational safety culture. Can erosion in safety social capital cause deterioration in safety culture and contribute to accidents? If so, how does it contribute? As existing accident analysis models do not provide answers to these questions, CAMSoC (Curtailing Accidents by Managing Social Capital), an accident analysis model, is proposed. As an illustration, five accidents: Bhopal (India), Hyatt Regency (USA), Tenerife (Canary Islands), Westray (Canada) and Exxon Valdez (USA) have been analyzed using CAMSoC. This limited cross-industry analysis provides two key socio-management insights: the biggest source of motivation that causes deviant behavior leading to accidents is 'Faulty Value Systems'. The second biggest source is 'Enforceable Trust'. From a management control perspective, deterioration in safety culture and resultant accidents is more due to the 'action controls' rather than explicit 'cultural controls'. Future research directions to enhance the model's utility through layering are addressed briefly.

  14. Measures introduced in Norway after the Chernobyl accident. A cost benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper, the measures introduced in Norway to alleviate the adverse effects of the Chernobyl accident, and their economic consequences, are discussed. During the three years after the accident almost 20-30% of the sheep and 30-40% of the reindeer each year had activity levels above the action limits. Activity levels above the action limits were also found in goats, cattle and wild freshwater fish. Three main approaches were used in Norway in order to reduce the potential health risk after the Chernobyl accident: decreasing uptake from soil to vegetation and from fodder to animals, lowering unacceptable activity levels in animals by special feeding programmes, and reducing human intake by food condemnation and dietary advice. The total value of mutton, lamb and goat meat saved as a result of such measures in 1987 amounted to approximately 230 million Norwegian kroner (NOK) (US $33 million). The cost of the measures was approximately NOK 40 million ($5.7 million). In 1987, the total reduction in the radiation dose level to which the population was exposed was 450 man.Sv. In 1988, mutton, lamb and goat meat valued at approximately NOK 290 million ($41 million) was saved from condemnation by similar measures, which cost approximately NOK 60 million ($8,5 million). The resulting dose level reduction was approximately 200 man.Sv. The degree to which resources were used during 1987 and 1988 would appear to be justified in light of the reduction in radiation dose achieved. (author). 13 refs, 1 tab

  15. Updated action plan for the implementation of measures as a consequence of the Fukushima reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The action plan of the German government concerning the measures following the Fukushima reactor accident include the decision on the future of nuclear power in Germany, safety analyses, investigations and measures for nuclear power plants in a national frame, investigations in an international frame, planning for the implementation of CNS (Convention on nuclear safety) topics 1-3, i.e. measures to increase the robustness in German nuclear power plants, and the planning of implementation of further measures (CNS topics 4-6).

  16. 32P measurement and dose conversion factor evaluation of activated human hair by criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to conduct dose assessment of victims in criticality accidents, a method of fast neutron capture-activated 32P measurement of hair in which samples are treated by a chemical and analytical procedure that takes 9 h and measurement is conducted by liquid scintillation counting is presented. To validate this measurement method, hair samples spiked with a 32P reference source were measured and the results analysed and the optimal sample mass and detection efficiency were determined. To verify the correlation between 32P-specific activity and absorbed dose for spectra with two neutron mean energies, samples collected from three normal individuals were irradiated at various neutron energies and irradiation times using the MC50 Cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The 32P-specific activity trend of the irradiated hair agreed well with the absorbed doses. Based on the results, dose conversion factors, which were 0.67±0.15 and 0.59±0.06 Gy (Bq g-1)-1 at neutron mean energies of 2.33 and 5.36 MeV, respectively, were calculated as a guide for medical treatment of criticality accident victims. In this study, a method for measuring 32P changes activated by the neutron irradiation of hair samples of criticality accident victims was developed and tested. In addition, a dose conversion factor for two neutron mean energy spectra based on these measurement results was developed. These results agree well with measured absorbed doses from exposure to fast neutron fields. The advantage of the proposed activated hair analysis method based on liquid scintillation counting is that it enables the acquisition of dose information from victims in a short time and with relatively high detection efficiency. In addition, sampling of hair is simpler than it is for other biological samples, and, finally, the conversion factor the authors developed using hair analysis data will be useful for dose assessment in real cases. However, the relation between

  17. Environmental radioactivity measurements at BNL during the year following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident which destroyed Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station on 26 April 1986 provided the world's scientists with an opportunity, unique in recent years, to study many of the processes which follow the release of large quantities of radioactivity into the atmosphere. BNL undertook a wide ranging programme of environmental measurements after the accident, the immediate aim being to supply HM Government with data to help assess the radiological consequences to the UK population. As it became clear that the UK dose commitment was relatively low, the thrust of the measurements began to be concentrated on airborne radioactivity and the movement of nuclides in the grass-soil system. The aim of these studies was to assess dispersion and diffusion of radioactivity in these particular compartments of the environment. The measurements have continued over the twelve month period since the Chernobyl accident. This report aims to disseminate the year's data and to offer some initial interpretations of the trends. (U.K.)

  18. Analysis of the containment spray effect for severe accident management during Molten Core-Concrete Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massive combustible gases generated by MCCI during a severe accident in NPP causes a problem of when we should spray the containment. The increase of hydrogen concentration due to the steam condensation caused by spraying might lead to a hydrogen burning and thus intimidate the containment integrity. In case the containment is designed to be robust enough to sustain the AICC (Adiabatic Isochoric Complete Combustion) load and to prevent DDT (Deflagration to Detonation Transition), it might be effective to spray and thus burn the hydrogen at early phase of MCCI to keep the containment integrity. Spraying the containment at late phase of MCCI might cause the containment to fail because of the increased combustible gases generation. MELCOR analysis for APR1400 shows that spraying the containment at early phase can delay the time to reach containment failure pressure by steam inerting and oxygen depletion. This kind of analysis helps us to better establish a spray actuation time for an accident management procedure against a postulated severe accident

  19. Depressurization as an accident management strategy to minimize the consequences of direct containment heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) have identified severe accidents for nuclear power plants that have the potential to cause failure of the containment through direct containment heating (DCH). Prevention of DCH or mitigation of its effects may be possible using accident management strategies that intentionally depressurize the reactor coolant system (RCS). The effectiveness of intentional depressurization during a station blackout TMLB' sequence was evaluated considering the phenomenological behavior, hardware performance, and operational performance. Phenomenological behavior was calculated using the SCDAP/RELAP5 severe accident analysis code. Two strategies to mitigate DCH by depressurization of the RCS were considered. One strategy, called early depressurization, assumed that the reactor head vent and pressurizer power-operated relief valves (PORVs) were latched open at steam generator dryout. The second strategy, called late depression, assumed that the head vent and PORVs were latched open at a core exit temperature of ∼922 K (1200 degree F). Depressurization of the RCS to a low value that may mitigate DCH was predicted prior to reactor pressure vessel breach for both early and late depressurization. The strategy of late depressurization is preferred over early depressurization because there are greater opportunities to recover plant functions prior to core damage and because failure uncertainties are lessened. 22 refs., 38 figs., 6 tabs

  20. Accident patterns and prevention measures for fatal occupational falls in the construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chia-Fen; Chang, Tin-Chang; Ting, Hsin-I

    2005-07-01

    Contributing factors to 621 occupational fatal falls have been identified with respect to the victim's individual factors, the fall site, company size, and cause of fall. Individual factors included age, gender, experience, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Accident scenarios were derived from accident reports. Significant linkages were found between causes for the falls and accident events. Falls from scaffold staging were associated with a lack of complying scaffolds and bodily action. Falls through existing floor openings were associated with unguarded openings, inappropriate protections, or the removal of protections. Falls from building girders or other structural steel were associated with bodily actions and improper use of PPE. Falls from roof edges were associated with bodily actions and being pulled down by a hoist, object or tool. Falls through roof surfaces were associated with lack of complying scaffolds. Falls from ladders were associated with overexertion and unusual control and the use of unsafe ladders and tools. Falls down stairs or steps were associated with unguarded openings. Falls while jumping to a lower floor and falls through existing roof openings were associated with poor work practices. Primary and secondary prevention measures can be used to prevent falls or to mitigate the consequences of falls and are suggested for each type of accident. Primary prevention measures would include fixed barriers, such as handrails, guardrails, surface opening protections (hole coverings), crawling boards/planks, and strong roofing materials. Secondary protection measures would include travel restraint systems (safety belt), fall arrest systems (safety harness), and fall containment systems (safety nets).

  1. Accident patterns and prevention measures for fatal occupational falls in the construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chia-Fen; Chang, Tin-Chang; Ting, Hsin-I

    2005-07-01

    Contributing factors to 621 occupational fatal falls have been identified with respect to the victim's individual factors, the fall site, company size, and cause of fall. Individual factors included age, gender, experience, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Accident scenarios were derived from accident reports. Significant linkages were found between causes for the falls and accident events. Falls from scaffold staging were associated with a lack of complying scaffolds and bodily action. Falls through existing floor openings were associated with unguarded openings, inappropriate protections, or the removal of protections. Falls from building girders or other structural steel were associated with bodily actions and improper use of PPE. Falls from roof edges were associated with bodily actions and being pulled down by a hoist, object or tool. Falls through roof surfaces were associated with lack of complying scaffolds. Falls from ladders were associated with overexertion and unusual control and the use of unsafe ladders and tools. Falls down stairs or steps were associated with unguarded openings. Falls while jumping to a lower floor and falls through existing roof openings were associated with poor work practices. Primary and secondary prevention measures can be used to prevent falls or to mitigate the consequences of falls and are suggested for each type of accident. Primary prevention measures would include fixed barriers, such as handrails, guardrails, surface opening protections (hole coverings), crawling boards/planks, and strong roofing materials. Secondary protection measures would include travel restraint systems (safety belt), fall arrest systems (safety harness), and fall containment systems (safety nets). PMID:15892934

  2. Optimization of the Severe Accident Management Strategy for Domestic Plants and Validation Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. B.; Kim, H. D.; Koo, K. M.; Park, R. J.; Hong, S. H.; Cho, Y. R.; Kim, J. T.; Ha, K. S.; Kang, K. H

    2007-04-15

    nuclear power plants, a technical basis report and computational aid tools were developed in parallel with the experimental and analytical works for the resolution of the uncertain safety issues. ELIAS experiments were carried out to quantify the boiling heat removal rate at the upper surface of a metallic layer for precise evaluations on the effect of a late in-vessel coolant injection. T-HERMES experiments were performed to examine the two-phase natural circulation phenomena through the gap between the reactor vessel and the insulator in the APR1400. Detailed analyses on the hydrogen control in the APR1400 containment were performed focused on the effect of spray system actuation on the hydrogen burning and the evaluation of the hydrogen behavior in the IRWST. To develop the technical basis report for the severe accident management, analyses using SCDAP/RELAP5 code were performed for the accident sequences of the OPR1000. Based on the experimental and analytical results performed in this study, the computational aids for the evaluations of hydrogen flammability in the containment, criteria of the in-vessel corium cooling, criteria of the external reactor vessel cooling were developed. An ASSA code was developed to validate the signal from the instrumentations during the severe accidents and to process the abnormal signal. Since ASSA can perform the signal processing from the direct input of the nuclear power plant during the severe accident, it can be platform of the computational aids. In this study, the ASSA was linked with the computaional aids for the hydrogen flammability.

  3. Quantification of a decision-making failure probability of the accident management using cognitive analysis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the nuclear power plant, much knowledge is acquired through probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of a severe accident, and accident management (AM) is prepared. It is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of AM using the decision-making failure probability of an emergency organization, operation failure probability of operators, success criteria of AM and reliability of AM equipments in PSA. However, there has been no suitable qualification method for PSA so far to obtain the decision-making failure probability, because the decision-making failure of an emergency organization treats the knowledge based error. In this work, we developed a new method for quantification of the decision-making failure probability of an emergency organization using cognitive analysis model, which decided an AM strategy, in a nuclear power plant at the severe accident, and tried to apply it to a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant. As a result: (1) It could quantify the decision-making failure probability adjusted to PSA for general analysts, who do not necessarily possess professional human factors knowledge, by choosing the suitable value of a basic failure probability and an error-factor. (2) The decision-making failure probabilities of six AMs were in the range of 0.23 to 0.41 using the screening evaluation method and in the range of 0.10 to 0.19 using the detailed evaluation method as the result of trial evaluation based on severe accident analysis of a typical PWR plant, and a result of sensitivity analysis of the conservative assumption, failure probability decreased about 50%. (3) The failure probability using the screening evaluation method exceeded that using detailed evaluation method by 99% of probability theoretically, and the failure probability of AM in this study exceeded 100%. From this result, it was shown that the decision-making failure probability was more conservative than the detailed evaluation method, and the screening evaluation method satisfied

  4. Report from the results of measurements of radioactive contaminations after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of measurements of radioactive contamination carried out in Cracow during the first days after Chernobyl accident are presented. The particular radioisotopes were determined by gamma spectroscopy. In the period from April 28th to morning hours of May 1st 1986 radiation measurements concerned above all air. After rains considerable contamination of earth's surface was detected and measurements were concentrated on soil contamination. There were also examined water and food samples. The concentration of strontium radioisotopes was determined too. (M. F. W.)

  5. Evolution of accident management strategies from the present to the next generation nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The knowledge gained in Accident Management (A.M.) by means of studies and experiments performed for the current NPPs can be largely implemented in the advanced, passive safety NPPs, for which A.M. is still an application step of the defence in depth principle. Obviously, such implementation will take into account the safety philosophy peculiarities of the concerned plants, and the role assigned to their operators, which is largely determined by the objective of drastically reducing human errors and their potential effects on the plant safety. Indeed, in comparison with the current NPPs, the operators of the considered advanced plants are not strictly required to perform safety actions early in accidents progression, but are entrusted to follow-up and support automatic interventions of active and passive systems, and to manage the post accident plant conditions. A preliminary analysis shows that the A.M. implementation in advanced, passive safety plants could undergo as from now recognizable problems, mainly regarding: supervision needs and equipment requirements; utilization strategies for A.M. supporting equipment; staffing and training of operators; technical bases and procedures to cope with severe accidents. The related safety issues should be solved by appropriate analyses, strictly interacting with the design development. Operator's role and needs for (modes of) human intervention should be taken into account in every development stage of the concerned plants designs and should be carefully evaluated in assessing the plant response to the considered events, with deterministic and probabilistic methods. Also, specific studies and experiments should be performed, to support the development of A.M. bases and procedures, and to determine the equipment effectiveness as well. In summary: The knowledge in A.M. gained by studies and experiments performed for the current NPPs must be transferred to the advanced, passive safety NPPs, for which A. M. is still a step of

  6. Development of heat insulation device to protect pressure measuring instruments from high temperature under the severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Jaehyun; Shin, Sung Min; Kang, Hyun Gook [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Micro Control Unit (MCU), communication module, and power supply system are also needed to be protected for the pressure transmitter. The harsh condition in containment which is created by the severe accident are composed of five elements: high temperature, high pressure, high humidity, high radiation, and physical threats by shrapnel generated during the process of the severe accident. Among these five elements, high temperature should be focused because other elements can be solved even with the thin shield. In this study, a detailed design of the heat insulation device which will be installed in the containment based on the Min Yoo's study and a verification test are done. Development of heat insulation device which enables operator to get in-containment data for the proper mitigation process under the severe accident was done in this study. With researches for severe accident management systems which proceeding actively since the Fukushima accident, researches for reliable instrumentations of in-containment data which is necessary to operate severe accident management systems properly in harsh condition during accident also should be progressed.

  7. Performance Measurement in Property Management

    OpenAIRE

    Aho, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the performance measurement of processes in property management and maintenance context. The purpose was to first, develop a framework which divides processes into modes of operation that share managerial similarities. Second, apply this framework in property management performance measurement. Constructive approach was used as the scientific research approach. An extensive literature review was first conducted after which the framework was dev...

  8. Decision support system for emergency management of oil spill accidents in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubartseva, Svitlana; Coppini, Giovanni; Pinardi, Nadia; De Dominicis, Michela; Lecci, Rita; Turrisi, Giuseppe; Cretì, Sergio; Martinelli, Sara; Agostini, Paola; Marra, Palmalisa; Palermo, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an innovative web-based decision support system to facilitate emergency management in the case of oil spill accidents, called WITOIL (Where Is The Oil). The system can be applied to create a forecast of oil spill events, evaluate uncertainty of the predictions, and calculate hazards based on historical meteo-oceanographic datasets. To compute the oil transport and transformation, WITOIL uses the MEDSLIK-II oil spill model forced by operational meteo-oceanographic services. Results of the modeling are visualized through Google Maps. A special application for Android is designed to provide mobile access for competent authorities, technical and scientific institutions, and citizens.

  9. Fitness for accident management through NPP personnel training, simulators and technical support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contributions within the context of accident management of the Siemens A G-Power Generation Group Crisis Centre and the Siemens A G Training Centre are described. The Crisis Centre provides direct technical consulting to NPPs from experts in design and engineering. Training of NPP personnel is here outlined with particular emphasis on the use of simulators in getting practice of emergency handling and on development of documentation and operating procedures. It is pointed to projects to the introduction of these services in Eastern NPPs and training facilities

  10. Computational Aid of CANDU Reactor Severe Accident Management Strategies for Containment Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young; Kim, D. H.; Kim, S. D.; Park, S. Y.; Jin, Y. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Six computational aids (CA) have developed for the severe accident management strategies, plant specific features and behaviors must be studied by detailed analysis works. These computational aids (CA) are one of the tools that can be used to assess the hydrogen generation and challenges that may occur. This paper shows hydrogen related CA. The purpose of this CA is to define whether the hydrogen in the reactor building atmosphere is flammable, and to estimate the hydrogen concentration in the reactor building atmosphere based on an estimated oxidation percentage

  11. Regional management of accidents risk level: strategy based on effective feedbacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today the accidents prevention and environmental protection activity in Bashkortostan Republic is regulated by Governmental Programme including risk management as one of the main parts. The authors of the present paper accumulated some experience in risk management system creation because they took part in the investigations according to the mentioned Programme. Their proposal concerns this closed-loop system general structure which is planned to be based on three kinds of feedbacks: internal feedback (it utilizes the special Russian institutions for the plants state observation and limitation such 'Gosgortechnodzor', 'Gossanepidnadzor', etc...; all the noted institutions must be informed of the current situation and fulfill the actions oriented towards risk indices reduction); intermediate feedback (it is represented by the insurance system functioning with respect to insurance agencies investments into the plants operational security); external feedback (it includes the subsystem of HP security declarations analysis mechanism, special HP regional register and the expert commission whose decisions become the foundations for governmental responses). The authors consider all the feedbacks interaction in order to provide the stability of region development. The resulting strategy for accidents risk level management has been confirmed now by some normative documents in Bashkortostan Republic. (authors)

  12. Radioactive Waste Management In The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone - 25 Years Since The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  13. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  14. A strategy to the development of a human error analysis method for accident management in nuclear power plants using industrial accident dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical report describes the early progress of he establishment of a human error analysis method as a part of a human reliability analysis(HRA) method for the assessment of the human error potential in a given accident management strategy. At first, we review the shortages and limitations of the existing HRA methods through an example application. In order to enhance the bias to the quantitative aspect of the HRA method, we focused to the qualitative aspect, i.e., human error analysis(HEA), during the proposition of a strategy to the new method. For the establishment of a new HEA method, we discuss the basic theories and approaches to the human error in industry, and propose three basic requirements that should be maintained as pre-requisites for HEA method in practice. Finally, we test IAD(Industrial Accident Dynamics) which has been widely utilized in industrial fields, in order to know whether IAD can be so easily modified and extended to the nuclear power plant applications. We try to apply IAD to the same example case and develop new taxonomy of the performance shaping factors in accident management and their influence matrix, which could enhance the IAD method as an HEA method. (author). 33 refs., 17 tabs., 20 figs

  15. Analytical evaluation of dose measurement of critical accident at SILENE (Contract research)

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, T; Tonoike, K

    2003-01-01

    Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) jointly organized SILENE Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison Exercise to intercompare the dose measurement systems of participating countries. Each participating country carried out dose measurements in the same irradiation field, and the measurement results were mutually compared. The participated in the exercise to measure the doses of gamma rays and neutron from SILENE by using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD's) and an alanine dosimeter. In this examination, the derived evaluation formulae for obtaining a tissue-absorbed dose from measured value (ambient dose equivalent) of TLD for neutron. We reported the tissue-absorbed dose computed using this evaluation formula to OECD/NEA. TLD's for neutron were irradiated in the TRACY facility to verify the evaluation formulae. The results of TLD's were compared with the calculations of MCNP and measurements with alanine dose meter. We found that the ratio of the dose b...

  16. The prediction of the LWR plant accident based on the measured plant data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In case of accident affecting a nuclear reactor, it is essential to anticipate the possible development of the situation to efficiently succeed in emergency response actions, i.e. firstly to be early warned, to get sufficient information on the plant: and as far as possible. The ASTRID (Assessment of Source Term for Emergency Response based on Installation Data) project consists in developing a methodology: of expertise to; structure the work of technical teams and to facilitate cross competence communications among EP players and a qualified computer tool that could be commonly used by the European countries to reliably predict source term in case of an accident in a light water reactor, using the information available on the plant. In many accident conditions the team of analysts may be located far away from the plant experiencing the accident and their decision making is based on the on-line plant data transmitted into the crisis centre in an interval of 30 - 600 seconds. The plant condition has to be diagnosed based on this information, In the ASTRID project the plant status diagnostics has been studied for the European reactor types including BWR, PWR and VVER plants. The directly measured plant data may be used for estimations of the break size from the primary system and its locations. The break size prediction may be based on the pressurizer level, reactor vessel level, primary pressure and steam generator level in the case of the steam generator tube rupture. In the ASTRID project the break predictions concept was developed and its validity for different plant types and is presented in the paper, when the plant data has been created with the plant specific thermohydraulic simulation model. The tracking simulator attempts to follow the plant behavior on-line based on the measured plant data for the main process parameters and most important boundary conditions. When the plant state tracking fails, the plant may be experiencing an accident, and the tracking

  17. Level-2 PSA for the prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU applied to the accident management review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accident management guideline (AMG) of the prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU has been presented to Nuclear and Industry Safety Agency (NISA) of METI by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) with an evaluation result of an effectiveness of the AMG by employing Level-1 and Level-2 PSAs. Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) evaluated the three events - PLOHS, LORL and ATWS events - and scrutinized the results of the Level-2 PSA carried out by JAEA from the view point of an accident management (AM) review. Regarding ATWS events, we have carried out a qualitative evaluation of the results of JAEA's evaluation and carried out a quantitative evaluation of the containment failure frequency (CFF) in relation to Protected-Loss-of-Heat-Sink (PLOHS) and Loss-of-Reactor-Level (LORL) events. Evaluation of the containment failure probability CFF has been conducted based on the results of the Level-1 PSA by employing the code system developed by JNES. We conducted a close examination of the procedure that JAEA followed to evaluate CFFs in PLOHS and LORL events. It was confirmed that JAEA's Level-2 PSA quantified the phenomenal event trees was expanded in the three processes - the plant response process, the core damage process and the containment vessel response process - based on various analytical and experimental evidence and otherwise followed much the same basic evaluation procedures employed by JNES. As for PLOHS and LORL, quantitative evaluation of CFF was conducted according to the following procedures: Development of an event flow diagram, Development of a phenomenal event tree, Quantification of the phenomenal event tree, Evaluation of containment failure frequencies, and Evaluation of the effectiveness of the AM measures. In the evaluation of the PLOHS and LORL events, the following analytical codes were used; Plant dynamic characteristic analytical code (NALAP-II), Nuclear characteristics analytical system (ARCADIAN-FBR/MVP), Nuclear dynamics analysis code

  18. Workload: Measurement and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Brian Francis; Casner, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Poster: The workload research project has as its task to survey the available literature on: (1) workload measurement techniques; and (2) the effects of workload on operator performance. The first set of findings provides practitioners with a collection of simple-to-use workload measurement techniques along with characterizations of the kinds of tasks each technique has been shown reliably address. This allows design practitioners to select and use the most appropriate techniques for the task(s) at hand. The second set of findings provides practitioners with the guidance they need to design for appropriate kinds and amounts of workload across all tasks for which the operator is responsible. This guidance helps practitioners design systems and procedures that ensure appropriate levels of engagement across all tasks, and avoid designs and procedures that result in operator boredom, complacency, loss of awareness, undue levels of stress, or skill atrophy that can result from workload that distracts operators from the tasks they perform and monitor, workload levels that are too low, too high, or too consistent or predictable. Only those articles that were peer reviewed, long standing and generally accepted in the field, and applicable to a relevant range of conditions in a select domain of interest, in analogous "extreme" environments to those in space were included. In addition, all articles were reviewed and evaluated on uni-dimensional and multi-dimensional considerations. Casner & Gore also examined the notion of thresholds and the conditions that may benefit mostly from the various methodological approaches. Other considerations included whether the tools would be suitable for guiding a requirement-related and design-related question. An initial review of over 225 articles was conducted and entered into an EndNote database. The reference list included a range of conditions in the domain of interest (subjective/objective measures), the seminal works in workload, as

  19. Measuring project portfolio management maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Hänninen, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    The thesis is researching portfolio management maturity in organizations that have project type of work. The objective of the thesis is to define what factors affect portfolio management maturity, how the maturity level can be evaluated and create a method for measuring current level of maturity. The thesis also provides maturity level improvement suggestions. Why is maturity measurement useful? The organizations that have project type of work often have some standardized practices. But t...

  20. Environmental radioactivity measurements in north-western Greece following the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident in north–western Greece was assessed through an environmental monitoring programme activated by the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Ioannina. Measurements of 131I were carried out in atmospheric particulate, ovine milk and grass samples. In daily aerosol samplings, radioiodine was first detected on March 25-26, 2011 and reached maximum levels, up to 294 μBq m-3, between April 2 and April 4, 2011. In ovine milk samples, 131I concentrations ranged from 2.0 to 2.7 Bq L-1 between April 2 and April 6, 2011, while an average activity of 2.7 Bq kg-1 was measured in grass samples on April 4, 2011. The 134,137Cs isotopes were below detection limits in all samples and could only be determined in the air, by analysis of multiple daily filters. A maximum average activity concentration of 137Cs amounting to 24 μBq m-3 was measured during the period from April 5 to April 9, 2011, with the 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio being close to unity. Activity concentrations were consistent with measurements conducted in other parts of the country and were well below those reported in May 1986 after the Chernobyl accident. The committed effective dose to the whole body and to the thyroid gland from inhalation of 131I was estimated for the adult and infant population and was found to be of no concern for the public health. (author)

  1. Safety Implementation of Hydrogen Igniters and Recombiners for Nuclear Power Plant Severe Accident Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jianjun; ZHOU Zhiwei; JING Xingqing

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen combustion in a nuclear power plant containment building may threaten the integrity of the containment. Hydrogen recombiners and igniters are two methods to reduce hydrogen levels in containment buildings during severe accidents. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the safety implementation of hydrogen igniters and recombiners. This paper analyzes the risk of deliberate hydrogen ignition and investigates three mitigation measures using igniters only, hydrogen recombiners only or a combination of recombiners and igniters. The results indicate that steam can effectively control the hydrogen flame acceleration and the deflagration-to-detonation transition.

  2. Sustainable integration of EU research in severe accident phenomenology and management (SARNET2 project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to optimise the use of the available means and to constitute sustainable research groups in the European Union, the Severe Accident Research NETwork of Excellence (SARNET) has gathered 51 organisations representing most of the actors involved in Severe Accident (SA) research in Europe plus Canada. This project was co-funded by the European Commission (EC) under the 6th Euratom Framework Programme. Its objective was to resolve the most important pending issues for enhancing, in regard of SA, the safety of existing and future Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). SARNET tackled the fragmentation that existed between the national R and D programmes, in defining common research programmes and developing common computer codes for safety assessment. The Joint Programme of Activities consisted in: (i) Implementing an advanced communication tool for accessing all project information, fostering exchange of information, and managing documents; (ii) Harmonizing and re-orienting the research programmes, and defining new ones; (iii) Analyzing the experimental results provided by research programmes in order to elaborate a common understanding of relevant phenomena; (iv) Developing the ASTEC code (integral computer code used to predict the NPP behaviour during a postulated SA) by integrating the knowledge produced within SARNET; (v) Developing Scientific Databases, in which the results of research experimental programmes are stored in a common format; (vi) Developing a common methodology for Probabilistic Safety Assessment of NPPs; (vii) Developing short courses and writing a text book on Severe Accidents for students and researchers; (viii) Promoting personnel mobility amongst various European organizations. This paper presents the major achievements after four and a half years of operation of the network, in terms of knowledge gained, of improvements of the ASTEC reference code, of dissemination of results and of integration of the research programmes conducted by the various

  3. Radionuclides from the Fukushima accident in the air over Lithuania: measurement and modelling approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyses of 131I, 137Cs and 134Cs in airborne aerosols were carried out in daily samples in Vilnius, Lithuania after the Fukushima accident during the period of March–April, 2011. The activity concentrations of 131I and 137Cs ranged from 12 μBq/m3 and 1.4 μBq/m3 to 3700 μBq/m3 and 1040 μBq/m3, respectively. The activity concentration of 239,240Pu in one aerosol sample collected from 23 March to 15 April, 2011 was found to be 44.5 nBq/m3. The two maxima found in radionuclide concentrations were related to complicated long-range air mass transport from Japan across the Pacific, the North America and the Atlantic Ocean to Central Europe as indicated by modelling. HYSPLIT backward trajectories and meteorological data were applied for interpretation of activity variations of measured radionuclides observed at the site of investigation. 7Be and 212Pb activity concentrations and their ratios were used as tracers of vertical transport of air masses. Fukushima data were compared with the data obtained during the Chernobyl accident and in the post Chernobyl period. The activity concentrations of 131I and 137Cs were found to be by 4 orders of magnitude lower as compared to the Chernobyl accident. The activity ratio of 134Cs/137Cs was around 1 with small variations only. The activity ratio of 238Pu/239,240Pu in the aerosol sample was 1.2, indicating a presence of the spent fuel of different origin than that of the Chernobyl accident. - Highlights: ► Two observed maxima in radionuclide concentrations were related to air mass transport. ► HYSPLIT backward trajectories were applied for data interpretation. ► 7Be and 212Pb were used to study a vertical transport of air masses. ► The 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio was around 1. ► 238Pu/239,240Pu ratio was different from global fallout and Chernobyl accident.

  4. Body surface monitor for measuring radioactive contamination of the general population after a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new body surface monitor for monitoring the surface radioactive contamination of the general population living and working around the site in the early stages of a nuclear accident has been designed. The body surface monitors will be installed in a medium-sized bus with a thyroid counter and moved to the place where measurement is required. The different characteristics needed for the body surface monitor to measure the general population from those of monitors used in nuclear power stations are discussed. The detection sensitivity of the plastic scintillator was measured under various geometric conditions and the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) was found to be lower than 1 Bq/cm2 in a 10-second count time. Two body surface monitors can measure 2,880 persons in eight hours. (author)

  5. Safety culture and accident analysis-A socio-management approach based on organizational safety social capital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Suman [Risk Analyst (India)]. E-mail: sumanashokrao@yahoo.co.in

    2007-04-11

    One of the biggest challenges for organizations in today's competitive business environment is to create and preserve a self-sustaining safety culture. Typically, Key drivers of safety culture in many organizations are regulation, audits, safety training, various types of employee exhortations to comply with safety norms, etc. However, less evident factors like networking relationships and social trust amongst employees, as also extended networking relationships and social trust of organizations with external stakeholders like government, suppliers, regulators, etc., which constitute the safety social capital in the Organization-seem to also influence the sustenance of organizational safety culture. Can erosion in safety social capital cause deterioration in safety culture and contribute to accidents? If so, how does it contribute? As existing accident analysis models do not provide answers to these questions, CAMSoC (Curtailing Accidents by Managing Social Capital), an accident analysis model, is proposed. As an illustration, five accidents: Bhopal (India), Hyatt Regency (USA), Tenerife (Canary Islands), Westray (Canada) and Exxon Valdez (USA) have been analyzed using CAMSoC. This limited cross-industry analysis provides two key socio-management insights: the biggest source of motivation that causes deviant behavior leading to accidents is 'Faulty Value Systems'. The second biggest source is 'Enforceable Trust'. From a management control perspective, deterioration in safety culture and resultant accidents is more due to the 'action controls' rather than explicit 'cultural controls'. Future research directions to enhance the model's utility through layering are addressed briefly.

  6. Fission product activity ratios measured at trace level over France during the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vismes Ott, A; Gurriaran, R; Cagnat, X; Masson, O

    2013-11-01

    The nuclear accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi (Japan) which occurred after the tsunami that impacted the northeast coasts of Japan on March 11th, 2011 led to significant releases of radionuclides into the atmosphere and resulted in the detection of those radionuclides at a global scale. In order to track airborne radionuclides from the damaged reactors and to survey their potential impact on the French territory, the French Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire IRSN) set up an enhanced surveillance system to give quick results as needed and later give quality trace level measurements. Radionuclides usually measured at trace levels such as (137)Cs and in a very sporadic way (131)I were reported. Radionuclides that we had never measured in air since the Chernobyl accident: (134)Cs, (136)Cs, the mother/daughter pairs (129m)Te-(129)Te and (132)Te-(132)I, and (140)La (from the mother-daughter pair (140)Ba- (140)La) were also reported. Except the (131)I/(137)Cs ratio, activity concentration ratios were constant. These ratios could be used to help source term assessment, or as data for transfer studies realized after the passage of contaminated air masses, typically using the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio.

  7. Physical dose reconstruction in case of radiological accidents: an asset for the victims' management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most cases of radiological accidents caused by an external source, the irradiation is heterogeneous, even for a whole body irradiation. Therefore, more than a whole body dose, estimating the dose distribution in the victim's organism is essential to assess biological damages. This dose distribution can be obtained by physical dosimetric reconstruction methods. The laboratory has developed several techniques based on experimental and numerical dose reconstruction and retrospective dosimetry by ESR in order to assess as accurately as possible and as quickly as possible the dose received and especially its distribution throughout the organism so that the physicians may fine tune their diagnosis and prescribe the most suitable treatment. These last years, these techniques were applied several times and each time the results obtained proved to be essential for the physicians in charge of the victims in order to define the therapeutic strategy. This article proposes a review of the physical dose reconstructions performed in the laboratory for recent radiological accidents focusing on the complementarity of the methods and the gain for the victims' management. (author)

  8. Lessons learned from the CEOG generic accident management guidelines confirmation (validation) exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 1995, the CE Owner's Group completed and issued Revision 0 of the Generic Accident Management Guidelines (AMG's) to the owners group task participants. This guidance provides a structured mechanism for the plant staff at CE utilities to respond to accidents that beyond the plant design basis and, possibly, the Emergency Operating Procedures. Prior to final issue of the generic AMGs, the CEOG conducted an AMG Confirmation Exercise to establish the ability of the AMGs to fulfill this important role. The specific objectives of the AMG Confirmation Exercise were to (1) clarify the interactions and transitions between the AMG/Technical Support Center (TSC) and the EOPS/Operations Personnel (2) validate the adequacy of the AMG data collection and plant condition diagnostic evaluation process and (3) assess the feasibility of the mechanical material and recommendations contained in the AMG's. The purpose of paper is to provide a detailed description of the AMG Confirmation Exercise as well as important lessons learned during the planning and implementation of the exercise. In addition, a discussion will be presented pertaining to the relationship between the AMG's (incumbent to the Technical Support Center) and the plants Emergency Operating Procedures (incumbent to the Control Room Operations Staff)

  9. An Examination of Commercial Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Thomas, Megan A.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project is one of the four projects within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Aviation Safety Program (AvSafe). The IVHM Project conducts research to develop validated tools and technologies for automated detection, diagnosis, and prognosis that enable mitigation of adverse events during flight. Adverse events include those that arise from system, subsystem, or component failure, faults, and malfunctions due to damage, degradation, or environmental hazards that occur during flight. Determining the causal factors and adverse events related to IVHM technologies will help in the formulation of research requirements and establish a list of example adverse conditions against which IVHM technologies can be evaluated. This paper documents the results of an examination of the most recent statistical/prognostic accident and incident data that is available from the Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS) System to determine the causal factors of system/component failures and/or malfunctions in U.S. commercial aviation accidents and incidents.

  10. Emergency preparedness: medical management of nuclear accidents involving large groups of victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment of overexposed individuals implies hospitalisation in a specialized unit applying hematological intense care. If the accident results in a small number of casualties, the medical management does not raise major problems in most of the countries, where specialized units exist, as roughly 7% of the beds are available at any time. But an accident which would involved tens or hundreds of people raises much more problems for hospitalization. Such problems are also completely different and will involve steps in the medical handling, mainly triage, (combined injuries), determination of whole body dose levels, transient hospitalization. In this case, preplanning is necessary, adapted to the system of medical care in case of a catastrophic event in the given Country, with the main basic principles : emergency concerns essentially the classical injuries (burns and trauma) - and contamination problems in some cases - treatment of radiation syndrome is not an emergency during the first days but some essential actions have to be taken such as early blood sampling for biological dosimetry and for HLa typing

  11. Public health response to the nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Act on Special Measures Concerning Nuclear Emergency Preparedness was established in 2000 as a specific act within the broader Disaster Control Measures and Reactor Regulation Act which was written in response to the JCO Criticality Accident of 1999. However, this regulatory system did not address all aspects of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. This was especially evident with public health issues. For example, radioactive screening, prophylactic use of potassium iodide, support for vulnerable people, and management of contaminated dead bodies were all requested immediately after the occurrence of the nuclear power plant accident but were not included in these regulatory acts. Recently, the regulatory system for nuclear accidents has been revised in response to this reactor accident. Herein we review the revised plan for nuclear reactor accidents in the context of public health. (author)

  12. Simulation analysis of environmental risk accident and management of high-sulfur gas field development in complex terrain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao WANG; Fanghua HAO; Xuan ZHANG; Wen SUN; Hongguang CHENG

    2008-01-01

    Environmental risk of high sulfur gas field exploitation has become one of the hot spots of envir-onmental management studies. Severe gas H2S blowout accidents in recent years have shown that poor under-standing and estimates of the poisonous gas movement could lead to dangerous evacuation delays. It is important to evaluate the real concentration of H2S, especially in complex terrain. Traditional experiential models are not valid in the case of rough terrain, especially in low-lying areas where the gas accumulates. This study, using high sulfur content gas field of Sichuan "Pu Guang gas field" as study object and adopting objective diagnosis of wind field of land following coordinate three dimensions, applied Lagrangian Puff Model and breaking up tech-nique of puffs to simulate the H2S diffusion condition of blowout accidents produced in the high sulfur content gas field of complex terrain area. The results showed that the H2S distribution did not occur mainly in low wind dir-ection, and due to the obstruction of the mountain's body, it accumulated in front of mountain on produced turn over, flowed around submitted jumping type distribution. The mountain waist near the hilltop and low hollow river valley site rapture points simulating contrast showed that the higher the rapture point, the better the diffusing con-dition of pollutant, the distribution of risk sensitive point decided piping rupture environmental risk size combining the H2S diffusion result and residential area dispersing in the study area, synthetic judge located in the high rapture point environmental risk was smaller than the low hollow point, thus it was suggested to carryout laying of lining build of equal high line of higher terrain. According to simulation results, the environmental risk management measures aimed at putting down adverse effects were worked out.

  13. Consideration of severe accidents in design of advanced WWER reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe accident related requirements formulated in General Regulations for Nuclear Power Plant Safety (OPB-88), in Nuclear Safety Regulations for Nuclear Power Stations' Reactor Plants (PBYa RU AS-89) and in other NPP nuclear and radiation guides of the Russian Gosatomnadzor are analyzed. In accordance with these guides analyses of beyond design basis accidents should be performed in the reactor plant design. Categorization of beyond design basis accidents leading to severe accidents should be made on occurrence probability and severity of consequences. Engineered features and measures intended for severe accident management should be provided in reactor plant design. Requirements for severe accident analyses and for development of measures for severe accident management are determined. Design philosophy and proposed engineered measures for mitigation of severe accidents and decrease of radiation releases are demonstrated using examples of large, WWER-1000 (V-392), and medium size WWER-640 (V-407) reactor plant designs. Mitigation of severe accidents and decrease of radiation releases are supposed to be conducted on basis of consistent realization of the defense in depth concept relating to application of a system of barriers on the path of spreading of ionizing radiation and radioactive materials to the environment and a set of engineered measures protecting these barriers and retaining their effectiveness. Status of fulfilled by OKB Gidropress and other Russian organizations experimental and analytical investigations of severe accident phenomena supporting design decisions and severe accident management procedures is described. Status of the works on retention of core melt inside the WWER-640 reactor vessel is also characterized

  14. Applications of nano-fluids to enhance LWR accidents management in in-vessel retention and emergency core cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water-based nano-fluid, colloidal dispersions of nano-particles in water; have been shown experimentally to increase the critical heat flux and surface wettability at very low concentrations. The use of nano-fluids to enhance accidents management would allow either to increase the safe margins in case of severe accidents or to upgrade the power of an existing power plant with constant margins. Building on the initial work, computational fluid dynamics simulations of the nano-fluid injection system have been performed to evaluate the feasibility of a nano-fluid injection system for in-vessel retention application. A preliminary assessment was also conducted on the emergency core cooling system of the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) to implement a nano-fluid injection system for improving the management of loss of coolant accidents. Several design options were compared/or their respective merits and disadvantages based on criteria including time to injection, safety impact, and materials compatibility. (authors)

  15. Do accident and emergency senior house officers know the British guidelines on the management of acute asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulahannan, T; Hardern, R D; Hamer, D W

    1996-03-01

    Avoidable deaths from asthma continue, even in hospital. Since the management of acute severe asthma is often initiated in the Accident and Emergency department, it is crucial that staff there have adequate knowledge. An anonymous questionnaire, containing items based on chart 6 of the UK guidelines, was completed by 66 Accident and Emergency Senior House Officers from the Yorkshire region. The study aim was to establish these doctors' levels of knowledge about the recommended management of acute asthma in Accident and Emergency. The median score was 10 (out of a possible 24) and the interquartile range 8-13. Further efforts are required to implement these guidelines so that the best patient outcomes can be achieved.

  16. With safety more safe. An intelligent data management reduces the risk of accidents and supports the accident management; Mit Sicherheit sicherer. Intelligentes Datenmanagement minimiert das Stoerfallrisiko und unterstuetzt das Stoerfallmanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegg, Dirk [Siemens Industry Software GmbH and Co KG, Essen (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    It was not always possible to avoid accidents in industrial plants. Unfortunately, there will be no absolute security. Newest technologies, innovative solutions and effective safety concepts allow a significant reduction of the risk especially for critical applications. An intelligent data management system is an important tool for this reduction of risk.

  17. Construct Measurement in Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Far too often do management scholars resort to crude and often inappropriate measures of fundamental constructs in their research; an approach which calls in question the interpretation and validity of their findings. Scholars often legitimize poor choices in measurement with a lack of availability...... of better measures and/or that they are simply following existing research in adopting previously published measures without critically assessing the validity, appropriateness, and applicability of such measures in terms of the focal study. Motivated by a recent dialog in Journal of Business Research......, this research note raises important questions about the use of proxies in management research and argues for greater care in operationalizing constructs with particular attention to matching levels of theory and measurement....

  18. Measurement of airborne fission products in Chapel Hill, NC, USA from the Fukushima I reactor accident

    CERN Document Server

    MacMullin, S; Green, M P; Henning, R; Holmes, R; Vorren, K; Wilkerson, J F

    2011-01-01

    We present measurements of airborne fission products in Chapel Hill, NC, USA, from 62 days following the March 11, 2011, accident at the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant. Airborne particle samples were collected daily in air filters and radio-assayed with two high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The fission products I-131 and Cs-137 were measured with maximum activities of 4.2 +/- 0.6 mBq/m^2 and 0.42 +/- 0.07 mBq/m^2 respectively. Additional activity from I-131, I-132, Cs-134, Cs-136, Cs-137 and Te-132 were measured in the same air filters using a low-background HPGe detector at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF).

  19. Radioactivity measurements in Krakow surroundings in the aftermath of Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A team from different laboratories of the Institute of Nuclear Physics was formed to set a crash program of measurement of water and food contamination after the Chernobyl reactor accident. The main contaminants in the first days were 131I and 132Te which were superseded later on by 104Ru, 137Cs and 134Cs. The highest value of contamination of surface waters by 131I was attained in the Vistula river on the 2-nd of May with 530 Bq/dm3. Also measurements of food contamination by 131I,134Cs, 137Cs and 137Te were carried out. The additional effective dose equivalent related to Chernobyl accident received by the population of Krakow region in May 1986 was estimated at 0.45 mSV (45 rem). Another rise of 134Cs + 137Cs content up to 46 Bq/dm3 in cows milk was observed during March and April 1987 and was probably explicable by the use of hay harvested in June 1986. (author)

  20. Compendium of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's research projects related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor power station in the USSR on April 26, 1986, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) initiated a number of research projects as follows: (1) selected sites in both the Deposition and Surface Air networks were alerted and their sampling protocols adjusted to accommodate the anticipated arrival times and activity concentrations of the Chernobyl debris; (2) a number of cooperative programs involving field work, sampling, analysis and data interpretation were set up with institutions and scientists in other countries; (3) EML's Regional Baseline Station at Chester, NJ, as well as the roof of the Laboratory in New York City, provided bases for sampling and measurements to study the radionuclide concentrations, radiation levels, physical characteristics and potential biological implications of the Chernobyl fallout on the northeastern United States; and (4) the resulting fallout from the Chernobyl accident provided an 'experiment of opportunity' in that it enabled us to study fresh fission product deposition using collection systems resurrected from the 1950's and 1960's for comparison with current state-of-the-art methodology. The 13 reports of this volume have been entered separately into the data base

  1. Compendium of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's research projects related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volchok, H L; Chieco, N [comps.

    1986-10-01

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor power station in the USSR on April 26, 1986, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) initiated a number of research projects as follows: (1) selected sites in both the Deposition and Surface Air networks were alerted and their sampling protocols adjusted to accommodate the anticipated arrival times and activity concentrations of the Chernobyl debris; (2) a number of cooperative programs involving field work, sampling, analysis and data interpretation were set up with institutions and scientists in other countries; (3) EML's Regional Baseline Station at Chester, NJ, as well as the roof of the Laboratory in New York City, provided bases for sampling and measurements to study the radionuclide concentrations, radiation levels, physical characteristics and potential biological implications of the Chernobyl fallout on the northeastern United States; and (4) the resulting fallout from the Chernobyl accident provided an 'experiment of opportunity' in that it enabled us to study fresh fission product deposition using collection systems resurrected from the 1950's and 1960's for comparison with current state-of-the-art methodology. The 13 reports of this volume have been entered separately into the data base.

  2. Investigation of alternative solutions for severe accident management in future reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1991, the CEA/DRN 'Innovations-Future Reactors' Program (IFRP) has been developed in order to elaborate, to evaluate and validate technical options which can be of interest for future reactors. The main objectives of this program are: to improve both the safety and cost of future nuclear power plants, to optimize the fuel cycle and the management of nuclear materials. The present paper is focused on the third R and D theme, i.e., on the 'Innovation-Severe Accident Research Program' (ISARP). This specific CEA long-term program is developed in addition to shorter-term studies conducted in collaboration with the CEA partners (EDF and FRAMATOME), more particularly, for the future European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR). (J.P.N.)

  3. Information and communication technologies, a tool for risk prevention and accident management on sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Lépy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine ice melting topic is a repetitive phenomenon in alarmist speeches on climate change. The present positive evolution of air temperatures has in all probability many impacts on the environment and more or less directly on societies. Face to the temperature elevation, the ice pack is undergone to an important temporal variability of ice growth and melting. Human populations can be exposed to meteorological and ice hazards engendering a societal risk. The purpose of this paper is to better understand how ICT get integrated into the risk question through the example of the Bay of Bothnia in the northern extremity of the Baltic Sea. The study deals with the way that Finnish society, advanced in the ICT field, faces to new technology use in risk prevention and accident management on sea ice.

  4. Human factors issues in severe accident management: Training for decision-making under stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Training for operator and other technical positions in the commercial nuclear power industry traditionally has focused on mastery of the formal procedures used to control plant systems and processes. However, there is a growing awareness that the decision-making tasks required for selecting appropriate control actions, in addition to guidance from formal procedures, also involve cognitive activities commonly referred to as judgment or reasoning. A project was completed to address the nature of the cognitive skills that may be important to decision-making in the nuclear power plant environment, especially during severe accident management. The project identified a model of decision-making that could account for both rule-based and knowledge-based decision-making and used it to identify cognitive skills for both individuals and operational crews. This analysis was then used to identify existing training techniques for cognitive skills and the general characteristics of successful training techniques

  5. 'SAMIME' - An EC Concerted Action on Severe Accident Management in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EC Concerted Action 'Severe Accident Management Implementation and Expertise' - with acronym 'SAMIME' - was initiated in 1998 with the following main objectives: 1. to determine the status and the extent of the severe accident management (SAM) development and implementation in partner countries/regions/utilities; 2. to determine the extent to which the development is institutional and develop a consensus opinion among partners as to which elements are needed or useful in this respect; 3. to review the tools which are available to support SAM development and implementation and determine the extent to which these tools have a value during a SAM event; 4. to determine in which areas further research may be beneficial for SAM development. Thirteen organisations from all countries with NPPs in the European Union and neighbouring countries, also in Eastern Europe, agreed to participate in this effort. Partners were a balanced group of utilities, vendors and regulators. Two organisations became partners later on. One utility could not be a formal partner, but supported the project with its insights. Two US Owners Groups and the OECD Halden Reactor Programme provided input on specific topics. The Concerted Action was executed in a number of workshops which were preceded by extensive questionnaires to facilitate discussions. The project provided a good overview of what SAM guidance (SAMG) was in place in the various countries and in which direction the development went. After extensive discussions, a consensus opinion was achieved on what partners felt the elements of an adequate SAMG approach should be. Although differences may exist in the way SAMG can be implemented, a common base line could be defined - which was more than a common denominator, as it sometimes exceeded what was in place. Finally, the areas were outlined where additional research work still could enhance the SAMG, taking note of the fact that understanding of severe accidents would never be complete

  6. RISK MANAGEMENT MEASURES IN CMMI

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Khraiwesh

    2012-01-01

    Risk management is a continuous process that could endanger the objectives of a project or application.Risks are handled to reduce and avoid threats effects on the objectives of the project. The sources of riskare both internal and external to the project. This research will identify general measures for the specificgoal and its specific practices of Risk Management Process Area (PA) in Capability Maturity ModelIntegration (CMMI). CMMI is developed by Software Engineering Institute (SEI) in C...

  7. Development of a taxonomy of performance influencing factors for human reliability assessment of accident management tasks and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. We collected the existing PIF taxonomies as many as possible. Then, we analyzed the trend in the selection of PIFs, the frequency of use between PIFs in HRA methods, and the level of definition of PIFs, in order to reflect these characteristics into the development of a new PIF taxonomy. Next, we analyzed the principal task context during accident management to draw the context specific PIFs. Afterwards, we established several criteria for the selection of the appropriate PIFs for HRA under emergency operation and accident management situations. Finally, the final PIF taxonomy containing the subitems for assessing each PIF was constructed based on the results of the previous steps and the selection criteria. The final result of this study is the new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. The selected 11 PIFs in the study are as follows: training and experience, availability and quality of information, status and trend of critical parameters, status of safety system/component, time pressure, working environment features, team cooperation and communication, plant policy and safety culture. (author). 35 refs., 23 tabs

  8. Lessons learned from post-accident management at Chernobyl: the P.a.r.e.x. project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Return of experience on Chernobyl post-accident management: the PAREX study Belarus is the country the most affected by the Chernobyl fallouts and is among the most significant experiences in the nuclear post-accident field. Despite specificities inherent to the political and social situation in Belarus, the experience of post-accidental management in this country holds a wealth of lessons in the perspective of preparation to a post-accidental situation in the French and European context. Through the PAREX project (2005-2006), the French Nuclear Safety Authority analysed the return of experience of Chernobyl post-accident management from 1986 to 2005 in order to draw its lessons in the perspective of a preparation policy. The study was led by a group of experts and involved the participation of a pluralistic group of about thirty participants (public authorities, local governments, NGOs, experts, operators). PAREX highlighted the complexity of a situation of long-lasting radioactive contamination (diversity of stakeholders and of dimensions at stake: health, environment, economy, society...). Beyond traditional public crisis management tools and frameworks, post-accident strategies also involves in the longer term a territorial and social response, which relies on local capacities of initiative. Preparation to such process requires experimenting new modes of operation that allow a diversity of local actors to take part to the response to a situation of contamination and to the surveillance system, with the support of public authorities. The conclusions of PAREX include a set of recommendations in this perspective. (authors)

  9. Development of a taxonomy of performance influencing factors for human reliability assessment of accident management tasks and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Whan; Jung, Won Dae; Kang, Dae Il; Ha, Jae Joo

    1999-06-01

    In this study, a new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. We collected the existing PIF taxonomies as many as possible. Then, we analyzed the trend in the selection of PIFs, the frequency of use between PIFs in HRA methods, and the level of definition of PIFs, in order to reflect these characteristics into the development of a new PIF taxonomy. Next, we analyzed the principal task context during accident management to draw the context specific PIFs. Afterwards, we established several criteria for the selection of the appropriate PIFs for HRA under emergency operation and accident management situations. Finally, the final PIF taxonomy containing the subitems for assessing each PIF was constructed based on the results of the previous steps and the selection criteria. The final result ofthis study is the new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. The selected 11 PIFs in the study are as follows: training and experience, availability and quality of information, status and trend of critical parameters, status of safety system/component, time pressure, working environment features, team cooperation and communication, plant policy and safety culture. (author). 35 refs., 23 tabs.

  10. Accident management following loss-of-coolant accidents during cooldown in a Westinghouse two-loop PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operation of pressurised water reactors involves shutdown periods for refuelling and maintenance. In preparation for this, the reactor system is cooled down, depressurised and partially drained. Although reactor coolant pressure is lower than during full-power operation, there remains the possibility of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), with a certain but low probability. While the decay heat to be removed is lower than that from a LOCA at full power, the reduced availability of safety systems implies a risk of failing to maintain core cooling, and hence of core damage. This is recognised though probabilistic safety analyses (PSA), which identify low but non-negligible contributions to core damage frequency from accidents during cooldown and shutdown. Analyses are made for a typical two-loop Westinghouse PWR of the consequences of a range of LOCAs during hot and intermediate shutdown, 4 and 5 h after reactor shutdown respectively. The accumulators are isolated, while power to some of the pumped safety injection systems (SIs) is racked out. The study assesses the effectiveness of the nominally assumed SIs in restoring coolant inventory and preventing core damage, and the margin against core damage where their actuation is delayed. The calculations use the engineering-level MELCOR1.8.5 code, supplemented by the SCDAPSIM and SCDAP/RELAP5 codes, which provide a more detailed treatment of coolant system thermal hydraulics and core behaviour. Both treatments show that the core is readily quenched, without damage, by the nominal SI which assumes operation of only one pump. Margins against additional scenario and model uncertainties are assessed by assuming a delay of 900 s (the time needed to actuate the remaining pumps) and a variety of assumptions regarding models and the number of pumps available in conjunction with both MELCOR and versions of SCDAP. Overall, the study provides confidence in the inherent robustness of the plant design with respect to LOCA during

  11. Agricultural measures to reduce radiation doses to man caused by severe nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural land and products may become contaminated after a severe nuclear accident. If radiation doses to man caused by the ingestion of contaminated agricultural products from such areas will be unacceptably high, measures to reduce this radiation dose will have to be taken. Radiation doses to man can be estimated by using models which describe quantitatively the transfer of radionuclides through the biosphere. The following processes and pathways are described in this study: accidental releases into atmospheric environments and subsequent nearby deposition; contamination of crops by direct deposition and the subsequent short term pathway (e.g. grass-cow-milk-man); contamination of soil and the subsequent long term pathway (e.g. soil-crop-man, soil-grass-cattle-milk/meat-man). Depending on the degree of contamination and on the estimated radiation doses to man, various measures are advised. (Auth.)

  12. Cooperative measures to support the Indo-Pak Agreement Reducing Risk from Accidents Relating to Nuclear Weapons.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Sitakanta; Ahmed, Mansoor

    2014-04-01

    In 2012, India and Pakistan reaffirmed the Agreement on Reducing the Risk from Accidents Relating to Nuclear Weapons. Despite a history of mutual animosity and persistent conflict between the two countries, this agreement derives strength from a few successful nuclear confidence building measures that have stood the test of time. It also rests on the hope that the region would be spared a nuclear holocaust from an accidental nuclear weapon detonation that might be misconstrued as a deliberate use of a weapon by the other side. This study brings together two emerging strategic analysts from South Asia to explore measures to support the Agreement and further develop cooperation around this critical issue. This study briefly dwells upon the strategic landscape of nuclear South Asia with the respective nuclear force management structures, doctrines, and postures of India and Pakistan. It outlines the measures in place for the physical protection and safety of nuclear warheads, nuclear materials, and command and control mechanisms in the two countries, and it goes on to identify the prominent, emerging challenges posed by the introduction of new weapon technologies and modernization of the respective strategic forces. This is followed by an analysis of the agreement itself leading up to a proposed framework for cooperative measures that might enhance the spirit and implementation of the agreement.

  13. International aspects of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Chernobyl revealed that there were shortcomings and gaps in the existing international mechanisms and brought home to governments the need for stronger measures to provide better protection against the risks of severe accidents. The main thrust of international co-operation with regard to nuclear safety issues is aimed at achieving a uniformly high level of safety in nuclear power plants through continuous exchanges of research findings and feedback from reactor operating experience. The second type of problem posed in the event of an accident resulting in radioactive contamination of several countries relates to the obligation to notify details of the circumstances and nature of the accident speedily so that the countries affected can take appropriate protective measures and, if necessary, organize mutual assistance. Giving the public accurate information is also an important aspect of managing an emergency situation arising from a severe accident. Finally, the confusion resulting from the unwarranted variety of protective measures implemented after the Chernobyl accident has highlighted the need for international harmonization of the principles and scientific criteria applicable to the protection of the public in the event of an accident and for a more consistent approach to emergency plans. The international conventions on third party liability in the nuclear energy sector (Paris/Brussels Conventions and the Vienna Convention) provide for compensation for damage caused by nuclear accidents in accordance with the rules and jurisdiction that they lay down. These provisions impose obligations on the operator responsible for an accident, and the State where the nuclear facility is located, towards the victims of damage caused in another country

  14. RISK MANAGEMENT MEASURES IN CMMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Khraiwesh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Risk management is a continuous process that could endanger the objectives of a project or application.Risks are handled to reduce and avoid threats effects on the objectives of the project. The sources of riskare both internal and external to the project. This research will identify general measures for the specificgoal and its specific practices of Risk Management Process Area (PA in Capability Maturity ModelIntegration (CMMI. CMMI is developed by Software Engineering Institute (SEI in Carnegie MellonUniversity in USA. CMMI is a framework for improvement and assessment of computer informationsystems. The method we used to define the measures is to apply the Goal Questions Metrics (GQMparadigm to the specific goals and its specific practices of Risk Management Process Area in CMMI.

  15. Effect of Occupational Health and Safety Management System on Work-Related Accident Rate and Differences of Occupational Health and Safety Management System Awareness between Managers in South Korea's Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Seok J.; Lin, Hsing K.; Chen, Gang; Yi, Shinjea; Choi, Jeawook; Rui, Zhenhua

    2013-01-01

    Background The study was conducted to investigate the current status of the occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS) in the construction industry and the effect of OHSMS on accident rates. Differences of awareness levels on safety issues among site general managers and occupational health and safety (OHS) managers are identified through surveys. Methods The accident rates for the OHSMS-certified construction companies from 2006 to 2011, when the construction OHSMS became widel...

  16. Measurement of oxyluminescence of solid waste for speedy dose determination following a radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was the task of the study to show by means of potassium iodide pellets and sugar that chemiluminescence measurement enables quick dose determination on irradiated solid waste, 'quick' meaning within a few hours following a radiation accident. The following results are noteworthy: - The traceability limit of a radiation exposure for potassium iodide is about 0.4 Gy with gamma irradiation (Co-60) and below 0.05 Gy with X-ray irradiation. At present no reasons are known for this great difference of the lower traceability limit. Sugar irradiated with gamma rays can be traced down to about 0.1 Gy. - The intensity of chemiluminescence does not depend on the dose rate in the examined area (0.4 Gy/min to 90 Gy/min). - The radiation exposure can be traced even after a number of months. (orig./HP)

  17. Implications for accident management of adding water to a degrading reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report evaluates both the positive and negative consequences of adding water to a degraded reactor core during a severe accident. The evaluation discusses the earliest possible stage at which an accident can be terminated and how plant personnel can best respond to undesired results. Specifically discussed are (a) the potential for plant personnel to add water for a range of severe accidents, (b) the time available for plant personnel to act, (c) possible plant responses to water added during the various stages of core degradation, (d) plant instrumentation available to understand the core condition and (e) the expected response of the instrumentation during the various stages of severe accidents

  18. Implications for accident management of adding water to a degrading reactor core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuan, P.; Hanson, D.J.; Pafford, D.J.; Quick, K.S.; Witt, R.J. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-02-01

    This report evaluates both the positive and negative consequences of adding water to a degraded reactor core during a severe accident. The evaluation discusses the earliest possible stage at which an accident can be terminated and how plant personnel can best respond to undesired results. Specifically discussed are (a) the potential for plant personnel to add water for a range of severe accidents, (b) the time available for plant personnel to act, (c) possible plant responses to water added during the various stages of core degradation, (d) plant instrumentation available to understand the core condition and (e) the expected response of the instrumentation during the various stages of severe accidents.

  19. A methodology for supporting decisions on the establishment of protective measures after severe nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to demonstrate the use of a methology supporting decisions on protective measures following severe nuclear accidents. A multicriteria decision analysis approach is recommended where value tradeoffs are postponed until the very last stage of the decision process. Use of efficient frontiers is made to exclude all technically inferior solutions and present the decision maker with all nondominated solutions. A choice among these solutions implies a value trade-off among the multiple criteria. An interactive computer packge has been developed where the decision maker can choose a point on the efficient frontier in the consequence space and immediately see the alternative in the decision space resulting in the chosen consequences. The methodology is demonstrated through an application on the choice among possible protective measures in contaminated areas of the former USSR after the Chernobyl accident. Two distinct cases are considered: First a decision is to be made only on the basis of the level of soil contamination with Cs-137 and the total cost of the chosen protective policy; Next the decision is based on the geographic dimension of the contamination ant the total cost. Three alternative countermeasure actions are considered for population segments living on soil contaminated at a certain level or in a specific geographic region: (a) relocation of the population; (b) improvement of the living conditions; and, (c) no countermeasures at all. This is final deliverable of the CEC-CIS Joint Study Project 2, Task 5: Decision-Aiding-System for Establishing Intervention Levels, performed under Contracts COSU-CT91-0007 and COSU-CT92-0021 with the Commission of European Communities through CEPN

  20. Suggestion from young researchers in symposium II conducted by Japan health physics society about Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Focusing on internal exposure management to relate to Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake suffered reactor core meltdown and discharged a large amount of radioactive nuclides to the air, which brought about a disorder among the public for internal exposure. Internal exposure management at the accident so as to evaluate internal exposure dose rate of personnel or the public in a quick and optimum way should be standardized with reflecting lessons learned at Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. Three themes on internal exposure management; (1) thyroid gland screening test, (2) whole-body counters and (3) bioassay, were discussed from young researchers in symposium II conducted by Japan Health Physics Society about Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. Progression of response to the accident and problems and proposals for each respective theme were presented in the article. (T. Tanaka)

  1. Air radioactivity levels following the Fukushima reactor accident measured at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiza, P; Brudanin, V; Piquemal, F; Reyss, J-L; Stekl, I; Warot, G; Zampaolo, M

    2012-12-01

    The radioactivity levels in the air of the radionuclides released by the Fukushima accident were measured at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, in the South-East of France, during the period 25 March-18 April 2011. Air-filters from the ventilation system exposed for one or two days were measured using low-background gamma-ray spectrometry. In this paper we present the activity concentrations obtained for the radionuclides (131)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (95)Nb, (95)Zr, (106)Ru, (140)Ba/La and (103)Ru. The activity concentration of (131)I was of the order of 100 μBq/m(3), more than 100 times higher than the activities of other fission products. The highest activities of (131)I were measured as a first peak on 30 March and a second peak on 3-4 April. The activity concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs varied from 5 to 30 μBq/m(3). The highest activity concentration recorded for Cs corresponded to the same period as for (131)I, with a peak on 2-3 April. The results of the radioactivity concentration levels in grass and mushrooms exposed to the air in the Modane region were also measured. Activity concentrations of (131)I of about 100 mBq/m(2) were found in grass.

  2. Work Incapacity and Treatment Costs After Severe Accidents: Standard Versus Intensive Case Management in a 6-Year Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Stefan M; Andermatt, Peter; Tobler, Benno L; Spinnler, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Purpose Case management is widely accepted as an effective method to support medical rehabilitation and vocational reintegration of accident victims with musculoskeletal injuries. This study investigates whether more intensive case management improves outcomes such as work incapacity and treatment costs for severely injured patients. Methods 8,050 patients were randomly allocated either to standard case management (SCM, administered by claims specialists) or intensive case management (ICM, administered by case managers). These study groups differ mainly by caseload, which was approximately 100 cases in SCM and 35 in ICM. The setting is equivalent to a prospective randomized controlled trial. A 6-year follow-up period was chosen in order to encompass both short-term insurance benefits and permanent disability costs. All data were extracted from administrative insurance databases. Results Average work incapacity over the 6-year follow-up, including contributions from daily allowances and permanent losses from disability, was slightly but insignificantly higher under ICM than under SCM (21.6 vs. 21.3 % of pre-accident work capacity). Remaining work incapacity after 6 years of follow-up showed no difference between ICM and SCM (8.9 vs. 8.8 % of pre-accident work incapacity). Treatment costs were 43,500 Swiss Francs (CHF) in ICM compared to 39,800 in SCM (+9.4 %, p = 0.01). The number of care providers involved in ICM was 10.5 compared to 10.0 in ICM (+5.0 %, p reintegration of accident victims. PMID:26687330

  3. Evaluation of an accident management strategy of emergency water injection using fire engines in a typical pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Yong; Ahn, Kwang Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Following the Fukushima accident, a special safety inspection was conducted in Korea. The inspection results show that Korean nuclear power plants have no imminent risk for expected maximum potential earthquake or coastal flooding. However long- and short-term safety improvements do need to be implemented. One of the measures to increase the mitigation capability during a prolonged station blackout (SBO) accident is installing injection flow paths to provide emergency cooling water of external sources using fire engines to the steam generators or reactor cooling systems. This paper illustrates an evaluation of the effectiveness of external cooling water injection strategies using fire trucks during a potential extended SBO accident in a 1,000 MWe pressurized water reactor. With regard to the effectiveness of external cooling water injection strategies using fire engines, the strategies are judged to be very feasible for a long-term SBO, but are not likely to be effective for a short-term SBO.

  4. Emergency treatment and nursing management of group patients of traffic accident%成批车祸事故患者的急救与护理管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宁静

    2015-01-01

    目的 分析成批车祸事故患者的急救与护理.方法 采取2013年7月份至2014年10月份本院收治的4批车祸事故患者共94例,回顾性分析这94例患者的临床资料,总结患者的急救与护理措施.结果 通过采取相应的急救与护理管理后,94例患者中,88例抢救脱险,2例现场死亡,4例抢救无效死亡,死亡率为6.4%.结论 有效的急救与护理管理能有效地降低成批车祸事故中的死亡率,提高车祸事故患者的生存率.%Objective analyze emergency treatment and nursing of group patients of trafifc accident.Method review and analyze 94 patients treated in our hospital from July 2013 to October 2014, 4 groups of patients with trafifc accidents. Summarize their clinical data and emergency treatment and nursing measures.Result after taking corresponding measures of emergency treatment and nursing management, 88 cases of 94 patients survived, 2 cases died on the spot, 4 cases died after emergency treatment, mortality was 6.4%.Conclusion effective emergency management and nursing management can effectively reduce mortality and improve survival rate of patients with trafifc accident.

  5. Hazardous waste storage facility accident scenarios for the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the methods for developing accident categories and accident frequencies for internally initiated accidents at hazardous waste storage facilities (HWSFs) at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. This categorization is a necessary first step in evaluating the risk of accidents to workers and the general population at each of the sites. This risk evaluation is part of the process of comparing alternative management strategies in DOE's Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Such strategies involve regionalization, decentralization, and centralization of waste treatment, storage, and disposal activities. Potential accidents at the HWSFs at the DOE sites are divided into categories of spill alone, spill plus fire, and other event combinations including spill plus fire plus explosion, fire only, spill and explosion, and fire and explosion. One or more accidents are chosen to represent the types of accidents for FY 1992 for 12 DOE sites were studied to determine the most representative set of possible accidents at all DOE sites. Each accident scenario is given a probability of occurrence that is adjusted, depending on the throughput and waste composition that passes through the HWSF at the particular site. The justification for the probabilities chosen is presented

  6. Validation of techniques for simulating long range dispersal and deposition of atmospheric pollutants based upon measurements after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problem specifications and a time schedule for an international study of computerized simulation of transfrontier atmospheric contamination are presented. Started on the initiative of the Nordic Liaison Committee for Atomic Energy, the study will be based on international measurements after the Chernobyl accident

  7. Role of Laws and Regulations For Nuclear Energy Installation in Developing Safety Measures Against Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy industry has been considered as an economic development driver. The fundamental safety policy for nuclear facilities is to protect health and safety of the public and the site personnel against undue risks associated with radiation and radioactive materials resulting from normal operation and abnormal conditions. This policy is implemented, based on the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principle for normal operation and the defense-in-depth principle (prevention of the occurrence of anomalies, prevention of the escalation of anomalies into accidents, and prevention of excessive release of radioactive materials into the environment), through establishment of safety guides and standards. More over the consideration of suitable site selection and safety design, verification by safety evaluation, quality assurance for manufacturing, construction and operation, periodic testing and inspection, confirmation by regulatory bodies, and reflection of experienced troubles to safety countermeasures. Are of these paramount importance concepts are applied variety of nuclear facilities, which is, nuclear reactors, uranium enrichment plants, fuel conversion/fabrication plants, reprocessing plants, radioactive waste management facilities, and so on, considering unique features of each facility.

  8. A local perspective to asthma management in the accident and emergency department in Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Gouder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was performed to assess the management of adult patients presenting to the Mater Dei Hospital Accident and Emergency (A&E department with acute asthma. Subjects and Methods: Asthmatic patients age 14 or older who presented to A&E department between January and October 2010 with asthma exacerbations were included. Data were collected from the clinical notes and analyzed. Results: A total of 244 patients (67.2% females were included, 126 (51.6% were admitted, 97 (39.8% discharged and 21 (8.6% discharged themselves against medical advice. There was a decline in the presentations between January and July, followed by an upward trend until October (P = 0.42. Pulse oximetry was performed in 207 patients (84.8%, arterial blood gases in 133 (54.5%, peak expiratory flow rate in 106 (43.4% and chest radiography in 206 (84.4% patients. The respiratory rate was documented in 151 (61.8%, heart rate in 204 (83.6% and ability to complete sentences in 123 (50.4% patients. One hundred and ninety six patients (80.3% were given nebulized bronchodilators, 103 (42.2% intravenous corticosteroids, 7 (2.87% oral corticosteroids, 109 (44.7% oxygen, 28 (11.5% antibiotics and 9 (3.69% magnesium. Systemic corticosteroids and antibiotics were more commonly prescribed to patients admitted (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Management of acute asthma in Malta requires optimization in order to compare with international guidelines.

  9. Analysis of Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China: Characteristics and Lessons for Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Zhang, Tongzhu; Liu, Bo; Lu, Feng; Fang, Shurong; You, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Understanding historical accidents is important for accident prevention and risk mitigation; however, there are no public databases of pollution accidents in China, and no detailed information regarding such incidents is readily available. Thus, 653 representative cases of surface water pollution accidents in China were identified and described as a function of time, location, materials involved, origin, and causes. The severity and other features of the accidents, frequency and quantities of chemicals involved, frequency and number of people poisoned, frequency and number of people affected, frequency and time for which pollution lasted, and frequency and length of pollution zone were effectively used to value and estimate the accumulated probabilities. The probabilities of occurrences of various types based on origin and causes were also summarized based on these observations. The following conclusions can be drawn from these analyses: (1) There was a high proportion of accidents involving multi-district boundary regions and drinking water crises, indicating that more attention should be paid to environmental risk prevention and the mitigation of such incidents. (2) A high proportion of accidents originated from small-sized chemical plants, indicating that these types of enterprises should be considered during policy making. (3) The most common cause (49.8 % of the total) was intentional acts (illegal discharge); accordingly, efforts to increase environmental consciousness in China should be enhanced.

  10. Level-2 PSA for the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor MONJU Applied to the Accident Management Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JNES independently evaluated the three events it selected - PLOHS, LORL and ATWS events - and reviewed the results of the Level 2 PSA carried out by JAEA. Regarding ATWS events, the organization carried out a qualitative evaluation of the results of JAEA's evaluation and carried out a quantitative evaluation of the containment failure frequency (CFF) in relation to PLOHS and LORL events. In JNES's independent evaluation of PLOHS and LORL events, accident scenarios in the three phases - the plant response phase, the core damage phase and the containment vessel response phase - were analyzed. The phenomenal event trees were quantified by applying the information about phenomena specific to fast reactors, including plant thermal-hydraulic analysis at the time of core damage, boundary structure analysis, analysis of the characteristics of the disrupted core, the results of sodium-concrete reaction tests, and the results of hydrogen diffusion induced combustion tests, to the PRDs. As the result, the total CFF before the preparation of the AM measures was rated at 9.2E-9/reactor year (CDF at 2.7E-7/reactor year), and it has been confirmed that these numerical values are well below the power reactor performance goal indicator values (CDF: 10-4/year or so; CFF: 10-5/year or so) even before the preparation of the AM measures. (author)

  11. Manual on the medical management of individuals involved in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual is concerned with accidents or emergencies which involve sources of ionizing radiation. It does not cover other forms of radiation such as non-ionizing radiation (ultra-violet, light, radiofrequency radiations), heat, etc. Most radiation accidents have involved individuals either at the workplace or with medical misadministrations; they have received external exposure from X-ray or gamma-ray sources or have been contaminated with radioactive material. A few members of the public have also been involved through misadventures with radioactive sources although these may not be thought of as accidents; more commonly, they are referred to as 'incidents'. For the purpose of this manual, there is not differentiation between an accident and an incident, as the medical care required is the same in both situations. Some of the reference papers are reprinted at the back of the manual. 17 refs., 12 tabs., 9 figs

  12. Accident management in the case of serious emergencies in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On-site emergency planning comprises all action taken in a nuclear power station to identify beyond-design base accidents at an early stage and reliably, to keep it under control and overcome it with the minimum of damage. The individual papers set out the basic terminology, the thermohydraulic processes in the cooling circuits during severe incidents, action to maintain the integrity of the containment, the potential of expert systems, simulator training and new developments for simulating accident conditions. (DG)

  13. Database of meteorological and radiation measurements made in Belarus during the first three months following the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Zhukova, Olga; Germenchuk, Maria; Khrutchinsky, Arkady; Kukhta, Tatiana; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Minenko, Victor; Podgaiskaya, Marina; Savkin, Mikhail; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Voillequé, Paul; Bouville, André

    2013-02-01

    Results of all available meteorological and radiation measurements that were performed in Belarus during the first three months after the Chernobyl accident were collected from various sources and incorporated into a single database. Meteorological information such as precipitation, wind speed and direction, and temperature in localities were obtained from meteorological station facilities. Radiation measurements include gamma-exposure rate in air, daily fallout, concentration of different radionuclides in soil, grass, cow's milk and water as well as total beta-activity in cow's milk. Considerable efforts were made to evaluate the reliability of the measurements that were collected. The electronic database can be searched according to type of measurement, date, and location. The main purpose of the database is to provide reliable data that can be used in the reconstruction of thyroid doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident.

  14. Measures taken to improve the safety of nuclear power plants in the USSR after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Soviet delegation to the IAEA experts' meeting (August 25-29, 1986) presented information on the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident and its consequences. Using data obtained through August 1, 1986, this information contained the results of an investigation into the causes of the accident as well as a description and preliminary analysis of the effectiveness of the immediate steps taken to limit and eliminate its consequences. Subsequent efforts were channeled in the following directions: (1) Continuing operations to eliminate the accident's consequences including: (a) completing the design and construction of a protective cover (sarcophagus) to reliably protect the environment from radioactivity and the introduction of radioactive matter from the destroyed unit; (b) further decontamination of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site and inhabited areas within the affected zone; and (c) carrying out required sanitary and medical measures to ensure the safety of the population and to protect their health. (2) Development and implementation of longitudinal studies of the long-term consequences of the accident. (3) Development of introduction of measures to increase the safety of working nuclear power stations. (4) Examination of plans for the future development of the nuclear power industry and prospects for increasing its safety level, including: conceptual development of a new generation of nuclear reactors; and expansion of scientific investigation into all aspects of safety assessment and safety assurance in the nuclear power industry. The present report examines the progress of studies along these lines and the conclusions which have been drawn

  15. An analysis of Japan radiation protection measurements after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Arlene A. dos; Souza-Santos, Denison; Melo, Dunstana R. de; Hunt, John G.; Juliao, Ligia M.Q C.; Conti, Luiz F.C.; Pires do Rio, Monica A.; Reis, Rocio G., E-mail: arlene@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    On March 11th 2011, Japan was struck by a devastating earthquake followed by a tsunami wave that took the lives of thousands and started a major nuclear accident in the Fukushima Dai-ichi power plant complex. Right from the beginning, the information published by the Japanese government and by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was followed by a team of experts at the Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) of Brazil. Radiation monitoring data, such as radionuclide activity concentration in water and food, ambient dose rate and fallout concentration in specific cities have been compiled and analyzed, with emphasis on dose limits established by Brazilian regulatory authority. A computer code for dose assessment, developed at the IRD and based upon the IAEA documents TECDOC-1162 and TECDOC-955, was used to assess the doses due to intakes of radionuclides and external exposure for individuals of different age groups. The IAEA model predictions for the ambient dose rates, when the fallout is known, are compared with the measured values in different cities. The Japanese recommendations for evacuation, sheltering and restriction of food and water consumption are evaluated with regards to the Brazilian limits defined in the CNEN NN 3.01 standard. (author)

  16. General radiation management situation at the first stage of accident occurrence. Fire and explosion of asphalt solidification processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Kimio; Shimizu, Takehiko; Ishiguro, Shuji [Health and Safety Division, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Fire accident in the cell of Asphalt Solidification Processing Facility (ASP) in PNC took placed at 10:06 a.m., March 11, 1997. Explosion accident occurred subsequently in the ASP at 8:04 p.m. of the day about 10 hours later. The accident which included loss of confinement function of the cell, release of radioactive materials to the working environment, evacuation of many workers, radioactive materials intake of the workers, alarm of many radiation monitoring system, diffusion of radiation materials to off-site, required the radiation management division to take a prompt and wide-ranging protective action. No one was inflicted an external injury by the accident. The workers who inhaled a few radioactive materials, such as Cs-137, were 37 in number. The maximum committed effective dose equivalent or a person was estimated 0.4-1.6 mSv, taking account of the effects of alpha-ray emission nuclides. Radioactive materials were released outside through the raptured windows of the facility. Radioactive nuclides, such as Cs, Sr, Pu, and Am were detected in site by the environmental monitoring. A small quantity of Cs was detected in the aerosols of Oarai area, where is located at about 20 km south-south-west distant from the accidental site. The total amount of effluent throughout the accident was estimated about 1-4 GBq for {beta}-ray emission nuclides, excluding C-14, and about 1x10{sup -4}-4 x 10{sup -3} GBq for {alpha}-ray emission nuclides. The maximum committed effective dose equivalent for the general public was estimated about 1x10{sup -3}-2 x 10{sup -2} mSv. (M. Suetake)

  17. Farm accidents in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogbill, T H; Busch, H M; Stiers, G R

    1985-10-01

    During a 6 1/2 year period, 105 children were admitted to the hospital as the result of trauma that occurred on farms. The mechanism of injury was animal related in 42 (40%), tractor or wagon accident in 28 (26%), farm machinery in 21 (20%), fall from farm building in six (6%), and miscellaneous in eight (8%). Injury Severity Score was calculated for each patient. An Injury Severity Score of greater than or equal to 25 was determined for 11 children (11%). Life-threatening injuries, therefore, are frequently the result of childhood activities that take place in agricultural environments. The most common injuries were orthopedic, neurologic, thoracoabdominal, and maxillofacial. There was one death in the series, and only one survivor sustained major long-term disability. Such injuries are managed with optimal outcome in a regional trauma center. Educational programs with an emphasis on prevention and safety measures may reduce the incidence of farm accidents. PMID:4047799

  18. Environmental risk management for radiological accidents: integrating risk assessment and decision analysis for remediation at different spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsalo, Boris; Sullivan, Terrence; Didenko, Vladimir; Linkov, Igor

    2011-07-01

    The consequences of the Tohuku earthquake and subsequent tsunami in March 2011 caused a loss of power at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, in Japan, and led to the release of radioactive materials into the environment. Although the full extent of the contamination is not currently known, the highly complex nature of the environmental contamination (radionuclides in water, soil, and agricultural produce) typical of nuclear accidents requires a detailed geospatial analysis of information with the ability to extrapolate across different scales with applications to risk assessment models and decision making support. This article briefly summarizes the approach used to inform risk-based land management and remediation decision making after the Chernobyl, Soviet Ukraine, accident in 1986. PMID:21608109

  19. Measurement of long-lived radionuclides in surface soil around F1NPP accident site by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yasuto; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Sasa, Kimikazu; Takahashi, Tsutomu

    2015-10-01

    In March 2011, vast amounts of radionuclides were released into the environment due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident. However, very little work has been done concerning accident-derived long-lived nuclides such as 129I (T1/2 = 1.57 × 107 year) and 36Cl (T1/2 = 3.01 × 105 year). 129I and 131I are both produced by 235U fission in nuclear reactors. Being isotopes of iodine, these nuclides are expected to behave similarly in the environment. This makes 129I useful for retrospective reconstruction of 131I distribution during the initial stages of the accident. On the other hand, 36Cl is generated during reactor operation via neutron capture reaction of 35Cl, an impurity in the coolant or reactor component. Resulting 36Cl/Cl ratio within the reactor is thus much higher compared to that in environment. Similar to 129I, 36Cl is expected to have leaked out during the accident and it is important to evaluate its effects. In this study, 129I concentrations were determined in several surface soil samples collected around F1NPP. Average 129I/131I ratio was estimated to be 26.1 ± 5.8 as of March 11, 2011, consistent with calculations using ORIGEN2 code and other published data. 36Cl/Cl ratios in some of the soil samples were likewise measured and ranged from 1.1 × 10-12 to 2.6 × 10-11. These are higher compared to ratios measured around F1NPP before the accident. A positive correlation between 36Cl and 129I concentration was observed.

  20. Tchernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, R.M.B.K type reactors are described. Then, safety problems are dealt with reactor control, behavior during transients, normal loss of power and behavior of the reactor in case of leak. A possible scenario of the accident of Tchernobyl is proposed: events before the explosion, possible initiators, possible scenario and events subsequent to the core meltdown (corium-concrete interaction, interaction with the groundwater table). An estimation of the source term is proposed first from the installation characteristics and the supposed scenario of the accident, and from the measurements in Europe; radiological consequences are also estimated. Radioactivity measurements (Europe, Scandinavia, Western Europe, France) are given in tables (meteorological maps and fallouts in Europe). Finally, a description of the site is given

  1. Nuclear industry and the management of accident risk in Europe: from the internalisation default to the coverage organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of nuclear energy creates environmental and sanitary risks among which the risk of nuclear accident. There is a twofold dimension in the management of such a risk: a preventive dimension and a compensatory one. Given its catastrophic and unpredictable character, the nuclear risk has always been managed in a specific way. In Europe, its management is unsatisfactory. The civil liability regime is beneficial to the nuclear industry as it leads to a lack of internalisation and thus to a limited coverage of potential damages. The financial cap of the nuclear operator's civil liability reduces his incentives for the prevention of accidents. By narrowing its liability, it also limits the burden tied to the coverage of the full potential damages. The organisation of the nuclear risk coverage was heavily conditioned by the civil liability regime and the financial cap it creates. Such an organisation is inefficient. The nuclear insurance market's financial capacity is not enough to compensate for all the potential victims of a major nuclear accident. Moreover, the functioning of this market is quite costly for the nuclear operator. While new electronuclear projects are being launched in Europe, the management of nuclear risks must be questioned in order to find better solutions to the necessity of internalising, preventing and compensating. Nuclear operators should be responsible for all the damages caused through an unlimited liability rule. The coverage of potential damages could also be improved by setting up a risk-sharing agreement at the European scale between operators. (author)

  2. Depressurization as an accident management strategy for Jose Cabrera nuclear plant loss of feedwater and station blackout events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on an evaluation of the efficiency of the operator initiated depressurization in the Spanish Westinghouse one loop Jose Cabrera nuclear power plant that has been developed. This operation is recommended in the present emergency procedure for the total loss of feedwater event in the bleed and feed mode. RELAP5/MOD2 analyses show that this is an effective measure to bring the plant to a cold and stable condition in a design-based accident scenario

  3. A study on people's awareness of the causal factors of the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident and measures to ensure nuclear power plants safety. Questionnaire survey conducted in the Kansai area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we conducted three questionnaire surveys targeting a total of 808 respondents living in the cities of Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe, in order to elucidate people's awareness of the following 1) the causal factors of the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, 2) measures taken by electric power companies to ensure nuclear power plants safety, 3) management measures for earthquake and tsunami disaster. The results revealed that 1) the causal factors of the accident the respondents were aware of were a) a mega earthquake and tsunami disaster, b) insufficient preparations for an earthquake and tsunami disaster, c) failure to take adequate management decisions and insufficient preparations to prevent severe nuclear power plant accidents, d) high confidence in nuclear power plants safety, 2) most respondents knew about the information concerning the measures taken by electric power companies from television and newspapers, and only a few respondents sought additional information, 3) respondents were anxious about a) the uncertainty of pre-disaster hazard assumptions and management measures, b) limitations of technological countermeasures against the natural disasters, c) the tendency to overvalue the safety measures. (author)

  4. Cooperative research at JAERI on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. 1. Study on the measurements and evaluation of environmental external exposure after the nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement data obtained from 1992 mainly in 30 km distant areas from the accident reactor were analyzed and evaluated. On-site study included the radiation survey studies of wide range of areas with the spherical NaI(Tl) detector carried on the car and helicopter, studies on the accumulated dose in inhabitants and dose rate distribution of their residential settlements with the glass dosimeter and portable gamma dose-rate meter, experimental studies on the shielding effect of houses by simulation and studies on the characterization of environmental γ-ray field. These studies brought about developments of the method for rapid radiation survey in wide range of contaminated areas, of the evaluation method for estimated external exposure dose in residents, of the Monte Carlo arrangement method for evaluation of γ-ray doses and of analytical method for contaminated areas. Data were provided to organizations for measures of Ukraine and Belarus and would be also useful for possible urgent matters in future. (K.H.)

  5. Application of Core Exit Temperature for Effective Safety Injection Strategy of Severe Accident Management Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to limited time for operator's action under the postulated severe accident, immediate and short term actions are needed and relevant strategies are constructed in the SAMG. Therefore, the SAMG includes a variety of information to assist the proper operator actions. Among these, pre-calculated graphs and formulas facilitate understanding of plant status and operator's action needed for accident mitigation. These are essential for ease of application and regarded as Computational Aids (CA). The representative example is the estimation of injection flow rates for removing decay heat and oxidation heat of core, and hydrogen generation rate, to mention a few. Most of all, calculation of the necessary injection flow rate is important in order to mitigate and/or terminate core damages. In estimating the flow rate for accident mitigation, Core Exit Temperature (CET) is utilized as a key variable. CET is considered most effective and reliable means for diagnosing core state. As such, CET has been adopted as a criterion transitioning from EOPs to SAMG. In this study, the necessary flow rate is calculated utilizing simple model with CET for RCS injection in mitigation strategy of SAMG. MELCOR simulation results are introduced for the calculation. A simple model of flow rate necessary for core heat removal is developed using CET data obtained from MELCOR simulations of OPR1000. The suggested model is expected to contribute on judging the core state in its coolability and required flow injection due to ease of application. More detailed analyses are needed to normalize by including additional accident scenarios

  6. Results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident and regional analysis of environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the results concerning the monitoring of the environmental radioactivity in France following Chernobyl accident. Atmospheric dusts, milk and milk products, vegetables, water and various beverages are analyzed. More than 1500 additional food samples are presented. Regional analysis of radioactivity and human gamma-spectrometric investigations are included

  7. Measuring accident risk exposure for pedestrians in different micro-environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassarre, Sylvain; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George; Golias, John

    2007-11-01

    Pedestrians are mainly exposed to the risk of road accident when crossing a road in urban areas. Traditionally in the road safety field, the risk of accident for pedestrian is estimated as a rate of accident involvement per unit of time spent on the road network. The objective of this research is to develop an approach of accident risk based on the concept of risk exposure used in environmental epidemiology, such as in the case of exposure to pollutants. This type of indicator would be useful for comparing the effects of urban transportation policy scenarios on pedestrian safety. The first step is to create an indicator of pedestrians' exposure, which is based on motorised vehicles' "concentration" by lane and also takes account of traffic speed and time spent to cross. This is applied to two specific micro-environments: junctions and mid-block locations. A model of pedestrians' crossing behaviour along a trip is then developed, based on a hierarchical choice between junctions and mid-block locations and taking account of origin and destination, traffic characteristics and pedestrian facilities. Finally, a complete framework is produced for modelling pedestrians' exposure in the light of their crossing behaviour. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated on an artificial network and a first set of results is obtained from the validation of the models in observational studies. PMID:17920847

  8. Implementing and measuring safety goals and safety culture. 4. Utility's Activities for Better Safety Culture After the JCO Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    three activities described below. As a part of self-diagnosis of organizational behavior and an individual's factors influencing safety, measurement was carried out by asking questions to every employee at the station, i.e., 21 questions asking if we are appropriately implementing safety culture 'standards' as set forth in INSAG-4 (Ref. 2). The purpose was twofold: to educate about INSAG-4 and to find areas for improvement. The results indicated that employees want to learn more about (a) the background for the specific actions required/prescribed in the procedures/guidelines and (b) how things go wrong if they do not strictly follow the procedures/guidelines. These were important findings, which led to the reconstruction of the on-site education and training. Considering that employees should be well informed on safety culture; management's policy; and lessons learned from incidents, domestic or international, we started the bimonthly magazine Safety Culture. The first publication included articles on 'Lessons Learned from JCO', 'The Results from the Self- Diagnosis', 'Lessons from an Incident at Hunterston NPS (LOOP Followed by Operator Actions for Safe Shutdown)', and others. The on-site training system has two elements: on-the-job training and off-the-job study with classroom and hands-on training. Most of the employees are trained at the On-Site Training Center with equipment and are qualified for specific job categories. Training of operators has its own lengthy program. Given the foregoing findings, we (a) started lectures on JCO lessons learned, (b) modified the educational system at the On-Site Training Center to nurture the employees with well-balanced knowledge and thinking (Fig. 1), and (c) prepared documents that describe the background and reasons for the actions required/prescribed in the procedures/guidelines for use in on-the-job training. The important point to be remembered about the JCO accident is that the criticality safety at this facility

  9. Simulation technology for training in the management of severe accidents in nuclear power; Tecnologia de simulacion para entrenamiento en gestion de accidentes severos en centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil Moya, E.; Ruiz Martin, J. A.

    2012-07-01

    The objective of the project consists of the development of a module of severe accident based on the code Thermo-hydraulic MAAP and their integration in a Spanish CN training Simulator. Currently, stimulated the tools designed by Tecnatom aimed at training and assistance in the management of emergencies, complemented by the development of a dynamic interactive guides of severe accidents, thus constituting a set of aid for the operation.

  10. Guide update Severe Accident Management (SAMG) of CN. Almaraz post Fukushima; Actualizacion de las Guias de Gestion de Accidente Severo (GGAS) de CN. Almaraz post Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Fanegas, R.; Aguado Miquel, F.; Tanarro Onrubia, A.; Uruburu Rodriguez, A.

    2014-07-01

    The work is part of the activities carried out by CN. Almaraz in applying lessons learned from the Fukushima accident. The achievement of this objective requires a substantial change in the Guidelines Severe Accident Management (SAMG), starting with the adaptation of the Revision 2 of the Generic Guidelines (SAMG) Owners Group (PWROG, January 2013), which is the work is the fundamental part of this paper. (Author)

  11. A knowledge based severe accident handbook for PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade the level of knowledge about severe accident phenomena has increased dramatically. The improved understanding has been achieved by extensive research but also from feed-back of experience from actual incidents/accidents such as Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. In Sweden, mitigating measures such as filtered venting and external water source were implemented at all nuclear power plants by 1988. In parallel the Emergency Operating Procedures (at Ringhals called Emergency Response Guidelines, ERG, and Beyond ERG, BERG) were developed to include these new features. However, the accident management system has since then been further improved and one important aspect is the long-term accident management. The new information obtained has been one of the basis for a new knowledge based handbook to support the unit leader and the Technical Support Center. The handbook contains information concerning specific issues in the BERG and advice how the organization can manage a long-term severe accident situation

  12. National emergency plan for nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The national emergency plan for nuclear accidents is a plan of action designed to provide a response to accidents involving the release or potential release of radioactive substances into the environment, which could give rise to radiation exposure to the public. The plan outlines the measures which are in place to assess and mitigate the effects of nuclear accidents which might pose a radiological hazard in ireland. It shows how accident management will operate, how technical information and monitoring data will be collected, how public information will be provided and what measures may be taken for the protection of the public in the short and long term. The plan can be integrated with the Department of Defence arrangements for wartime emergencies

  13. RaCon: a software tool serving to predict radiological consequences of various types of accident in support of emergency management and radiation monitoring management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RaCon software system, developed by the Nuclear Research Institute Rez, is described and its application when addressing various tasks in the domain of radiation accidents and nuclear safety (accidents at nuclear facilities, transport of radioactive material, terrorist attacks) are outlined. RaCon is intended for the prediction and evaluation of radiological consequences to population and rescue teams and for optimization of monitoring actions. The system provides support to emergency management when evaluating and devising actions to mitigate the consequences of radiation accidents. The deployment of RaCon within the system of radiation monitoring by mobile emergency teams or remote controlled UAV is an important application. Based on a prediction of the radiological situation, RaCon facilitates decision-making and control of the radiation monitoring system, and in turn, refines the prediction based on observed values. Furthermore, the system can perform simulations of evacuation patterns at the Dukovany NPP and at schools in the vicinity of the power plant and can provide support to emergency management should any such situation arise. (orig.)

  14. Severe Psychological Distress of Evacuees in Evacuation Zone Caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuto Kunii

    Full Text Available Following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has continued to affect the mental health status of residents in the evacuation zone. To examine the mental health status of evacuee after the nuclear accident, we conducted the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey as part of the ongoing Fukushima Health Management Survey.We measured mental health status using the Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale (K6 in a total of 73,569 (response rate: 40.7% evacuees aged 15 and over who lived in the evacuation zone in Fukushima Prefecture. We then dichotomized responders using a 12/13 cutoff on the K6, and compared the proportion of K6 scores ≥13 and ≤12 in each risk factor including demographic information, socioeconomic variables, and disaster-related variables. We also performed bivariate analyses between mental health status and possible risk factors using the chi-square test. Furthermore, we performed multivariate regression analysis using modified Poisson regression models.The median K6 score was 5 (interquartile range: 1-10. The number of psychological distress was 8,717 (14.6%. We found that significant differences in the prevalence of psychological distress by almost all survey items, including disaster-related risk factors, most of which were also associated with increased Prevalence ratios (PRs. Additionally, we found that psychological distress in each evacuation zone was significantly positively associated with the radiation levels in their environment (r = 0.768, p = 0.002.The earthquake, tsunami and subsequent nuclear accident likely caused severe psychological distress among residents in the evacuation zone in Fukushima Prefecture. The close association between psychological distress and the radiation levels shows that the nuclear accident seriously influenced the mental health of the residents, which might be exacerbated by increased risk perception. To

  15. Aerial Measurement of Radioxenon Concentration off the West Coast of Vancouver Island following the Fukushima Reactor Accident

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, L E; Fortin, R; Carson, J M; Saull, P R B; Coyle, M J; Van Brabant, R A; Buckle, J L; Desjardins, S M; Hall, R M

    2011-01-01

    In response to the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident, on March 20th, 2011, Natural Resources Canada conducted aerial radiation surveys over water just off of the west coast of Vancouver Island. Dose-rate levels were found to be consistent with background radiation, however a clear signal due to Xe-133 was observed. Methods to extract Xe-133 count rates from the measured spectra, and to determine the corresponding Xe-133 volumetric concentration, were developed. The measurements indicate that Xe-133 concentrations on average lie in the range of 30 to 70 Bq/m3.

  16. The first aid management of epistaxis by accident and emergency department staff.

    OpenAIRE

    McGarry, G W; Moulton, C

    1993-01-01

    Most nose bleeds can be controlled by compressing the ala nasi, thus applying direct pressure over Little's area. The ability to demonstrate the correct position for this manoeuvre was assessed in 115 members of the staff of the accident and emergency (A&E) department of a major teaching hospital. Overall, the correct response rate was only 33% and even trained medical and nursing staff achieved less than a 50% success rate. Increased awareness of this simple and effective technique is recomm...

  17. A NPO project for measurement of environmental neutrons in the peninsula Shimokita after the JCO criticality accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aratani, Michi [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    ), Kanazawa University. He has already successfully detected various radioactive nuclides activated by environmental neutrons of natural level using extremely low background gamma ray spectrometers located in the Ogoya Underground Laboratory. At the JCO accident, he applied his method to samples irradiated in the jewelry boxes, chests, and kitchens in the houses near the accident point by the accidental neutrons. Golden jewelries were borrowed for measurement by the low background gamma ray spectrometers in Ogoya, and the neutron flux at the criticality was obtained. The members of SAS and EGG as audiences of the IES Seminar were deeply impressed with the lecture, especially, simplicity of the method, and they were eager for measurement of natural neutron level in their own environment, Penin. Shimokita. Soon afterwards they visited Ogoya and asked Prof. Komura to help them measure their environmental neutron flux. They applied to the Fund of Aomori Prefecture, Blue Woods Fund, and won 3,000,000 yen during coming 3 years for their theme containing environmental neutron measurement. Discussion: The news of their winning of Blue Woods Fund, Aomori Prefecture, for their theme of environmental neutron measurement seems us to be a bolt out of the blue at preset stage of scientific culture of our country, because it might suggest a beginning of science of the people, science by the people, and science for the people. The situation may suggest a maturity of scientific culture in this region over arguments pro and con regarding the policy for nuclear energy development in the Penin. Shimokita. The global environment may be thought to have attained to a saturation condition. Our society is full of goods. Science and technology for production of goods have been already past culture. Coming science should be science for pleasure and refreshment of human mind as well as various arts, for example, music, picture, sculpture, drama, and literature. (author)

  18. 加强电力行业安全管理减少安全事故发生%Strengthening Safety Management of Electric Power Industry to Reduce Safety Accidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭娟

    2012-01-01

    电力行业发展到今天,法律法规,规章制度,劳动纪律,技术规程,安全措施,已相当严密完善,但由于位于中心的“人”的失误造成事故仍时有发生,许多事故造成很惨痛的后果.事故的发生往往是猝不及防,有些事故不该发生,分析各种事故案例,发现大量事故都是由于事故责任人心存侥幸心理、冒险心理、麻痹心理,图快、图省事等原因造成违反规程,酿成惨祸.安全工作是一项只有起点没有终点的工作.安全事故的发生,与有关人员思想不重视、工作不落实、制度不坚持、责任不到位有很大关系.养成好的工作习惯,安全从点滴做起,从细节做起.%With the development of electric power industry, laws and regulations, rules and regulations, labor discipline, technical procedures, and safety measures have been sound. The accidents caused by human being mistake are increased, and many accidents are very disastrous. The accident is often sudden, and many accidents are avoidable. Through analyzing the accidents, the authors find that most of accidents are caused by the operator with fluke mind. Safety management work is constant. At last, the paper puts forward the measures such as developing good habit about work, be careful and serious about work.

  19. Status of the Real-time On-line Decision Support (RODOS) system for off-site emergency management after nuclear and radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the auspices of its EURATOM Research Framework Programmes, the European Commission (EC) has supported the development of the comprehensive decision support system RODOS (Real-time On-line Decision Support) for off-site emergency management after nuclear accidents for more than a decade. Many national research programmes, research institutes and industrial collaborators contributed to the project, in particular the German Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (B MU). The RODOS system can be applied to accidental releases into the atmosphere and various aquatic environments within and across Europe. It provides coherent support before, during and after such a release to assist analysis of the situation and decision making about short and long-term countermeasures for mitigating the consequences with respect to health, the environment, and the economy. Appropriate interfaces exist with local and national radiological monitoring data systems, meteorological measurements and forecasts, and for the adaptation to local, regional and national conditions in Europe. Within the European Integrated Project EURANOS of the sixth Framework Programme, the RODOS system is being enhanced, among others, for radiological emergencies such as dirty bombs attacks, transport accidents and satellite crashes by extensions of the nuclide list, the source term characteristics and the atmospheric dispersion model

  20. Cost Management System: Performance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Christauskas, Česlovas; Sapkauskiene, Alfreda

    2004-01-01

    Existing standards of manufacturing development in the West are poor and the potential to improve value-adding capability and reduce waste is substantial. A cost management system requires a commitment from the top management of the company, involvement of its workers at all levels, and the establishment of a self-perpetuating system of improvement that will help improve value-added activities and decrease non-value added activities. It may begin with activity based costing, but a comprehensi...

  1. Comparative analysis on emergency management for leakage explosion accidents of urban oil and gas pipeline%城市油气管道泄漏爆炸重大案例应急管理对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶晶; 朱渊; 陈国明; 李修峰

    2014-01-01

    The extraordinary serious accident of Dongying-Huangdao oil pipeline leakage explosion in Qingdao , Shandong, has aroused public concern nationwide about urban oil and gas pipeline safety .In recent years, acci-dents in urban oil and gas pipeline frequently occurred , which seriously indicate the major problems existed in se-curity management .Comparative analysis was carried out based on similar accident investigation , between sewer network explosion in Guadalajara Mexico and Dongying-Huangdao oil pipeline leakage explosion in Qingdao Shang-dong .According to the accident-causing theory , the developing trend of accident was explored and chain model was established .Combined the concept of emergency management , common issues were analyzed during the process from pre-warning and pre-control , emergency disposal , assessment and recovery .Control measures were proposed in each stage of emergency management , by learning from the lessons of accidents , in order to reduce the probabili-ty of accidents and enhance the capability of emergency manage .%青岛东黄输油管道泄漏爆炸特别重大事故,引起公众对城市油气管道安全的普遍关注。近年来,城市油气管道事故频繁发生,反映出我国在城市地下管道安全管理方面存在较大问题。基于国内外管道相似事故调研,选取墨西哥瓜达拉哈拉管道泄漏爆炸事故和青岛东黄输油管道泄漏爆炸事故进行对比分析。基于事故致因理论,探究事故发展模式,建立事故链模型。结合应急管理思想,从预警预控、应急处置、评估恢复角度分析事故应急管理过程的共性失误。最后,针对应急管理各阶段共性失误提出防范措施,对提高类似事故的应急管理能力具有一定的参考意义。

  2. Severe accident management development program for VVER-1000 and VVER-440/213 based on the westinghouse owners group approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the Westinghouse Owners Group Severe Accident Management Guidelines (WOG SAMG) between 1991 and 1994 was initiated in response to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirement for addressing the regulatory severe accident concerns. Hence, the WOG SAMG is designed to interface with other existing procedures at the plant and is used in accident sequences that have progressed to the point where these other procedures are not applicable any longer, i.e. following core damage. The primary purpose of the WOG SAMG is to reach a controlled stable state, which can be declared when fission product releases are controlled, challenges to the confinement fission product boundary have been mitigated, and adequate heat removal is provided to the core and the containment. Although the WOG SAMG is a generic severe accident management guidance developed for use by the entirety of the operating Westinghouse PWR plants, provisions have been made in their development to address specific features of individual plants such as confinement type and the feasibility of reactor cavity flooding. Similarly, the generic SAMG does not address unique plant features and equipment, but rather allows for consideration of plant specific features and strategies. This adaptable approach has led to several SAMG development programs for VVER-1000 and VVER-440 type of power plants, under Westinghouse' s lead. The first of these programs carried out to completion was for Temelin NPP - VVER-1000 - in the first quarter of 2003. Other ongoing programs aim at providing a similar work for VVER-440 design, namely Dukovany, Mochovce and Bohunice NPPs. The challenge of adapting the existing generic WOG material to plants other than PWRs mainly arises for VVER-440 because of important differences in confinement design, making it more vulnerable to ex-vessel phenomena such as hydrogen burn. Also, for both eastern designs, cavity flooding strategy requires special consideration and

  3. Measurements of 131I in the thyroids of employees involved in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster on 11 March 2011 caused an unprecedented accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories of Japan Atomic Energy Agency performed internal dose measurements of 560 employees involved in the accident during the period from 20 April to 5 August in 2011 at the request of TEPCO. The present paper describes our measurements of 131I in the thyroid that is the predominant contributor to the internal dose. These measurements were carried out using an HPGe detector installed in a low-background shielded chamber made of 20-cm-thick steel and the detector was placed adjacent to the subject's neck. The typical minimum detectable activity of this technique was 10 Bq for a counting time of 10 min; however, this sensitivity made it difficult to identify a residual thyroid content of 131I corresponding to a committed effective dose of 20 mSv for late subjects. This paper discussed technical issues experienced through the measurements such as the influence of 131I in the rest of the body, the calibration phantom of use, and so on. (author)

  4. Improving Measurement of Workplace Sexual Identity Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Teresa S.; Anderson, Mary Z.; Croteau, James M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to advance measurement of sexual identity management for lesbian, gay, and bisexual workers. Psychometric properties of a revised version of the Workplace Sexual Identity Management Measure (WSIMM; Anderson, Croteau, Chung, & DiStefano, 2001) were examined on a sample of 64 predominantly White K-12 teachers.…

  5. Error-Based Accidents and Security Incidents in Nuclear Materials Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazard and risk assessments, along with human error analysis and mitigation techniques, have long been mainstays of effective safety programs. These tools have revealed that worker errors contributing to or resulting in accidents are often the consequence of ineffective system conditions, process features, or individual employee characteristics. At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), security, safety, human error, and organizational analysts determined that the system-induced human errors that make accidents more likely also are contributing to security incidents. A similar set of system conditions has been found to underlie deliberate, non-malevolent deviations from proper security practices - termed breaches - that also can result in a security incident. In fiscal-year (FY) 2002, LANL's Security Division therefore established the ESTHER (Enhanced Security Through Human Error Reduction) program to identify and reduce the influence of the factors that underlie employee errors and breaches and, in turn, security incidents. Recognizing the potential benefits of this program and approach, in FY2004 the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Security Policy (DOE-SO) funded an expansion of ESTHER implementation to the causal assessment and reporting of security incidents at other DOE sites. This presentation will focus on three applications of error/breach assessment and mitigation techniques. One use is proactive, accomplished through the elimination of contributors to error, whereas two are reactive, implemented in response to accidents or security incidents as well as to near misses, to prevent recurrence. The human performance and safety bases of these techniques will be detailed. Associated tools - including computer-based assessment training and web-based incident reporting modules developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - will be discussed

  6. The environmental restoration in the management of radiological accidents with off site consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological accidents are among the potential cases of environmental contamination that could have consequences on the health of the population. These accidents, associated with an increase in the level of radiological exposure surpassing the natural background, have been investigated in greater depth than other conventional accidents. This investigation has included the evaluation of their probability, magnitude and consequences in order to establish safety norms. Nevertheless, the social perception of this type of risk appears to be disproportionately high. The development of a comprehensible and adequate standardized system for the evaluation of the radiological risk and the applicability of corrective actions to reduce this type of risk at local level, will undoubtedly contribute to increase the public confidence in the advised options for the restoration of environments contaminated with the long lived radionuclides. This system should consider the local specificity of each contaminated place, and take into account the associated unwanted consequences for each option. This paper presents the first results of a system to help the decision makers in the quantitative evaluation of the radiological risk produced by long lived radionuclides Cs 137, Cs 134 and Sr 90 spread over urban, agricultural and semi-natural environments and the applicable options to reduce it. The evaluation of these applicable options is made considering the reduction of dose that can be reached, the monetary costs and the significant associated secondary effects if there are any. All these factors are integrated for a time period depending on the half-life of the contaminants and on their strength and distribution on the scenario when intervention is being planned. (authors)

  7. Monitoring Severe Accidents Using AI Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is very difficult for nuclear power plant operators to monitor and identify the major severe accident scenarios following an initiating event by staring at temporal trends of important parameters. The objective of this study is to develop and verify the monitoring for severe accidents using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques such as support vector classification (SVC), probabilistic neural network (PNN), group method of data handling (GMDH) and fuzzy neural network (FNN). The SVC and PNN are used for event classification among the severe accidents. Also, GMDH and FNN are used to monitor for severe accidents. The inputs to AI techniques are initial time-integrated values obtained by integrating measurement signals during a short time interval after reactor scram. In this study, 3 types of initiating events such as the hot-leg LOCA, the cold-leg LOCA and SGTR are considered and it is verified how well the proposed scenario identification algorithm using the GMDH and FNN models identifies the timings when the reactor core will be uncovered, when CET will exceed 1200 .deg. F and when the reactor vessel will fail. In cases that an initiating event develops into a severe accident, the proposed algorithm showed accurate classification of initiating events. Also, it well predicted timings for important occurrences during severe accident progression scenarios, which is very helpful for operators to perform severe accident management

  8. EXPERIENCE OF RADIATION-HYGIENIC MONITORING MANAGEMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF RADIATION SITUATION IN THE BRYANSK REGION TERRITORY AFTER 25 YEARS SINCE THE DAY OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Trapeznikova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly presents the experience of the radiation-hygienic monitoring system creation in the territory contaminated with the radionuclides due to the Chernobyl accident and application of the radiation hygienic monitoring data for the assessment of protective measures efficiency. Radiation situation data for the territory of the Bryansk region after 25 years of Chernobyl accident and dynamics of the population average annual effective exposure dose are being presented.

  9. Present status of research activities in severe accident evaluation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basis for securing nuclear safety is to prevent occurrence of accidents and to mitigate propagation of abnormal events or accidents to severe accidents. In practice, a nuclear power plant is designed and constructed so that abnormal events can be detected at the early phase to cope with the events and safety features and facilities are installed to mitigate and reduce the consequences in the case of such accidents. However it is important to prepare preventive measures as well as mitigative measures to cope with severe accidents to further improve the level of safety. Research on the evaluation of severe accidents is needed to develop such measures. Severe accident research is performed in many countries including Japan and a lot of findings have been made. At JAERI, experiments are being conducted to clarify severe accident phenomena and to make quantitative evaluation of safety margin of a nuclear power plant against severe accidents. A lot of findings on the fuel damage process in the early phase of severe accidents have been obtained in the past years. However there are still large uncertainties on the fuel damage process in the late phase of accidents. In the area of accident management, there exists need for experiments and analyses. (author)

  10. Stake-holder involvement in the management of rural areas after an accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widespread contamination of the food chain following a nuclear accident could have considerable consequences for European farming and food industries. For the purposes of contingency planning it is important to bring together the many and diverse stakeholders who would be involved in intervention so that strategies can be developed for maintaining agricultural production and food safety. This type of approach has been successfully implemented in the UK through the setting up of the Agriculture and Food Countermeasures Working Group. Building on this initiative, the European Commission under the auspices of its 5. Framework Programme is funding a thematic network in which similar stakeholder groups are being established in four other Member States. These national groups contain individuals involved in making policy decisions within government departments and agencies, regulatory authorities, the water, milk and farming industries, the retail trade and consumer groups, as well as individuals with specialist expertise. The stakeholder network will provide a European focus for tackling future nuclear accidents and assist in the harmonization of policies and strategies between Member States. This paper gives an overview of the approaches being adopted and discusses the achievements and expected benefits of stakeholder engagement. (author)

  11. Stake-holder involvement in the management of rural areas after an accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisbet, A.F. [National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    Widespread contamination of the food chain following a nuclear accident could have considerable consequences for European farming and food industries. For the purposes of contingency planning it is important to bring together the many and diverse stakeholders who would be involved in intervention so that strategies can be developed for maintaining agricultural production and food safety. This type of approach has been successfully implemented in the UK through the setting up of the Agriculture and Food Countermeasures Working Group. Building on this initiative, the European Commission under the auspices of its 5. Framework Programme is funding a thematic network in which similar stakeholder groups are being established in four other Member States. These national groups contain individuals involved in making policy decisions within government departments and agencies, regulatory authorities, the water, milk and farming industries, the retail trade and consumer groups, as well as individuals with specialist expertise. The stakeholder network will provide a European focus for tackling future nuclear accidents and assist in the harmonization of policies and strategies between Member States. This paper gives an overview of the approaches being adopted and discusses the achievements and expected benefits of stakeholder engagement. (author)

  12. Societal and ethical aspects of the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oughton, Deborah

    2016-10-01

    The Fukushima Nuclear Power Station accident in Japan in 2011 was a poignant reminder that radioactive contamination of the environment has consequences that encompass far more than health risks from exposure to radiation. Both the accident and remediation measures have resulted in serious societal impacts and raise questions about the ethical aspects of risk management. This article presents a brief review of some of these issues and compares similarities and differences with the lessons learned from the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in Ukraine. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:651-653. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:27640410

  13. Accident investigation and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, J. van; Drupsteen, L.

    2013-01-01

    Many organisations and companies take extensive proactive measures to identify, evaluate and reduce occupational risks. However, despite these efforts things still go wrong and unintended events occur. After a major incident or accident, conducting an accident investigation is generally the next ste

  14. Direction Committee for the management of the post-accident phase of a nuclear accident or of a radiological event (CODIRPA). Work group nr 3: 'Assessment of radiological and dose consequences in a post-accident situation'. Final report; Comite Directeur pour la gestion de la phase post-accidentelle d'un accident nucleaire ou d'une situation radiologique (CODIRPA). Groupe de travail n. 3 'Evaluation des consequences radiologiques et dosimetriques en situation post-accidentelle'. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This report first describes how radioactive contamination occurs after a nuclear accident, whether it concerns plants, animals, people, and buildings, how people can be exposed, and how a post-accidental zoning is implemented either to protect population or to control territories. It describes principles and methods for the assessment of the contamination of the environment (radiological values, characterization of radioactive deposits, of agriculture products, and of wastes, materials and manufactured products). It describes how to organise radioactivity measurements in the environment (principles and objectives of measurement programmes, sampling organisation and management, laboratory radioactivity measurements, identification and preparation of radioactivity measurement operators, results management). It describes how to assess doses received by exposed people (measurement techniques, retrospective assessment, proposition of a dose assessment strategy for exposed population)

  15. 41 CFR 101-39.407 - Accident records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Accident records. 101-39...-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.4-Accidents and Claims § 101-39.407 Accident records. If GSA's records of vehicle accidents indicate that a particular activity has had an unusually high accident...

  16. 78 FR 73756 - Process Safety Management and Prevention of Major Chemical Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1910 RIN 1218-AC82 Process Safety Management and... requests comment on potential revisions to its Process Safety Management (PSM) standard and its Explosives...://www.osha.gov/SLTC/processsafetymanagement/ . B. Process Safety Management of Highly...

  17. Agricultural land management options after the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents: The articulation of science, technology, and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Turcanu, Catrinel

    2016-10-01

    The options adopted for recovery of agricultural land after the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents are compared by examining their technical and socio-economic aspects. The analysis highlights commonalities such as the implementation of tillage and other types of countermeasures and differences in approach, such as preferences for topsoil removal in Fukushima and the application of K fertilizers in Chernobyl. This analysis shows that the recovery approach needs to be context-specific to best suit the physical, social, and political environment. The complex nature of the decision problem calls for a formal process for engaging stakeholders and the development of adequate decision support tools. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:662-666. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:27640412

  18. In-vessel melt retention as a severe accident management strategy for the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kymaelaeinen, O.; Tuomisto, H. [IVO International Ltd., Vantaa (Finland); Theofanous, T.G. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The concept of lower head coolability and in-vessel retention of corium has been approved as a basic element of the severe accident management strategy for IVO`s Loviisa Plant (VVER-440) in Finland. The selected approach takes advantage of the unique features of the plant such as low power density, reactor pressure vessel without penetrations at the bottom and ice-condenser containment which ensures flooded cavity in all risk significant sequences. The thermal analyses, which are supported by experimental program, demonstrate that in Loviisa the molten corium on the lower head of the reactor vessel is coolable externally with wide margins. This paper summarizes the approach and the plant modifications being implemented. During the approval process some technical concerns were raised, particularly with regard to thermal loadings caused by contact of cool cavity water and hot corium with the reactor vessel. Resolution of these concerns is also discussed.

  19. 抓好班组管理,做好事故预防%Clutching Well Team Management,Doing Well Prevention of Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于润强

    2014-01-01

    Team management has important significance for safe production. This paper firstly analyzes the inevitable link between the team management and prevention of accident, discusses the effective countermeasures for strengthening team safety management, preventing accidents from two aspects of the"five simultaneous"of team safety management and management responsibilities.%班组管理对于安全生产意义重大。本文首先分析班组管理与事故预防之间的必然联系,从班组安全管理“五同时”和管理责任两方面探讨强化班组安全管理,预防安全事故的有效对策。

  20. Risk Analysis of Security Accident Management in Chemical Enterprises%化工企业的安全事故管理隐患的探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康钦利

    2014-01-01

    本文从化工企业目前存在的安全管理隐患入手,阐述了其企业自身可能引发安全责任事故发生的人为隐患、物的隐患与管理上的隐患等,并给出了化工企业潜在安全管理隐患的定性与定量判识方法;并针对化工企业的行业特殊性,提出了排查、治理安全管理环节所存在的各种隐患的解决措施和相应的安全对策。%Some risks which may lead security responsibility accident including anthropogenic risks , physical risks and management risks , etc.were described , and some qualitative and quantitative diagnostic methods about potential security risk management were listed , according to the existing security management in chemical enterprises.Many solutions and appropriate measures were proposed for a variety of risks existed in the investigation , control work , etc.and for the chemical industry enterprises particularity.

  1. Measures against increased environmental radiation dose by the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident in some local governments in the tokyo metropolitan area: Focusing on examples of both Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities in Chiba prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant of Tokyo Electric Power Cooperation (TEPCO) after the great east Japan earthquake (11 March 2011) elevated the background level of environmental radiation in Eastern Japan. Around the Tokyo metropolitan area, especially around Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities, the ambient dose equivalent rate has been significantly increased after the accident. Responding to strong requests from citizens, the local governments started to monitor the ambient dose equivalent rate precisely and officially, about 3 months after the accident had occurred. The two cities in cooperation with each other also organised a local forum supported by three radiation specialists. In this article, the activities of the local governments are introduced, with main focus on radiation monitoring and measurements. Topics are standardisation of environmental radiation measurements for ambient dose rate, dose mapping activity, investigation of foodstuff and drinking water, lending survey meters to citizens, etc. Based on the data and facts mainly gained by radiation monitoring, risk management and relating activity have been organised. 'Small consultation meetings in kindergartens', 'health consultation service for citizens', 'education meeting on radiation protection for teachers, medical staffs, local government staffs, and leaders of active volunteer parties' and 'decontamination activity', etc. are present key activities of the risk management and restoration around the Tokyo metropolitan area. (authors)

  2. Overview of the facility accident analysis for the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integrated risk-based approach has been developed to address the human health risks of radiological and chemical releases from potential facility accidents in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Accordingly, the facility accident analysis has been developed to allow risk-based comparisons of EM PEIS strategies for consolidating the storage and treatment of wastes at different sites throughout the country. The analysis has also been developed in accordance with the latest DOE guidance by considering the spectrum of accident scenarios that could occur in implementing the various actions evaluated in the EM PEIS. The individual waste storage and treatment operations and inventories at each site are specified by the functional requirements defined for each waste management alternative to be evaluated. For each alternative, the accident analysis determines the risk-dominant accident sequences and derives the source terms from the associated releases. This information is then used to perform health effects and risk calculations that are used to evaluate the various alternatives

  3. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by US Department of Energy waste management operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Folga, S.; Policastro, A.; Freeman, W.; Jackson, R.; Mishima, J.; Turner, S.

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms evaluated. A personal-computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for the calculation of human health risk impacts. The WM PEIS addresses management of five waste streams in the DOE complex: low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste (HW), high-level waste (HLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (TRUW). Currently projected waste generation rates, storage inventories, and treatment process throughputs have been calculated for each of the waste streams. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated, and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. Key assumptions in the development of the source terms are identified. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also discuss specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

  4. Measuring the ROI on Knowledge Management Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickhorst, Vickie

    2002-01-01

    Defines knowledge management and corporate portals and provides a model that can be applied to assessing return on investment (ROI) for a knowledge management solution. Highlights include leveraging knowledge in an organization; assessing the value of human capital; and the Intellectual Capital Performance Measurement Model. (LRW)

  5. Measuring effectiveness of food quality management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: effectiveness, food quality management, instrument, quality performance, contextual factors, agri-food production, conceptual model, performance measurement indicators, identification, validation, assessment, quality assurance systems, QA systems, HACCP, Hygiene code, ISO, BRC, GMP, bakery

  6. Mitigation of Hydrogen Hazards in Severe Accidents in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration of severe accidents in nuclear power plants is an essential component of the defence in depth approach in nuclear safety. Severe accidents have very low probabilities of occurring, but may have significant consequences resulting from the degradation of nuclear fuel. The generation of hydrogen and the risk of hydrogen combustion, as well as other phenomena leading to overpressurization of the reactor containment in case of severe accidents, represent complex safety issues in relation to accident management. The combustion of hydrogen, produced primarily as a result of heated zirconium metal reacting with steam, can create short term overpressure or detonation forces that may exceed the strength of the containment structure. An understanding of these phenomena is crucial for planning and implementing effective accident management measures. Analysis of all the issues relating to hydrogen risk is an important step for any measure that is aimed at the prevention or mitigation of hydrogen combustion in reactor containments. The main objective of this publication is to contribute to the implementation of IAEA Safety Standards, in particular, two IAEA Safety Requirements: Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design and Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation. These Requirements publications discuss computational analysis of severe accidents and accident management programmes in nuclear power plants. Specifically with regard to the risk posed by hydrogen in nuclear power reactors, computational analysis of severe accidents considers hydrogen sources, hydrogen distribution, hydrogen combustion and control and mitigation measures for hydrogen, while accident management programmes are aimed at mitigating hydrogen hazards in reactor containments.

  7. To the problem of concepts of measures for water protection against secondary radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl' NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basing on the analysis of experience in water protection measures in the zone of the Chernobyl' accident influence some conceptual approaches to solving the problems of secondary radioactive contamination of the Dnieper river water system are discussed. The scheme of the necessary information support for decision making in the field of water protection measures in zones subjected to accidental contamination by radioactive materials is suggested. It is shown that isolation of flooded source forming radionuclide washing-out from ground and surface waters is the most efficient method for decreasing water contamination level in the zone affected by contaminated spillways and river flood-plain basins. The objects for localization are the contaminated soils or leakages from radioactive waste storage places. 12 refs.; 1 tab

  8. Using Numerical Models in the Development of Software Tools for Risk Management of Accidents with Oil and Inert Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R.; Leitão, P. C.; Braunschweig, F.; Lourenço, F.; Galvão, P.; Neves, R.

    2012-04-01

    The increasing ship traffic and maritime transport of dangerous substances make it more difficult to significantly reduce the environmental, economic and social risks posed by potential spills, although the security rules are becoming more restrictive (ships with double hull, etc.) and the surveillance systems are becoming more developed (VTS, AIS). In fact, the problematic associated to spills is and will always be a main topic: spill events are continuously happening, most of them unknown for the general public because of their small scale impact, but with some of them (in a much smaller number) becoming authentic media phenomena in this information era, due to their large dimensions and environmental and social-economic impacts on ecosystems and local communities, and also due to some spectacular or shocking pictures generated. Hence, the adverse consequences posed by these type of accidents, increase the preoccupation of avoiding them in the future, or minimize their impacts, using not only surveillance and monitoring tools, but also increasing the capacity to predict the fate and behaviour of bodies, objects, or substances in the following hours after the accident - numerical models can have now a leading role in operational oceanography applied to safety and pollution response in the ocean because of their predictive potential. Search and rescue operation, oil, inert (ship debris, or floating containers), and HNS (hazardous and noxious substances) spills risk analysis are the main areas where models can be used. Model applications have been widely used in emergency or planning issues associated to pollution risks, and contingency and mitigation measures. Before a spill, in the planning stage, modelling simulations are used in environmental impact studies, or risk maps, using historical data, reference situations, and typical scenarios. After a spill, the use of fast and simple modelling applications allow to understand the fate and behaviour of the spilt

  9. Carrying out and planning measures for improvement of radiation situation in alienation zone after accident at Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technogenic radionuclides that were released into environment as the result of the Chernobyl accident joined the energy and mass transfer processes, which to a great extent are determined by the specificity of natural and climatic conditions of Ukrainian woodlands. The state of the spread of radioactive materials, and the data furnished by the Dosimetric Monitoring Board of the NPO 'Pripyat' over the zone territory are reported. After the primary radioactive contamination of the terrain, with meteorfactors superimposed on the physical and chemical conditions of radioactivity release and topographic factors, a new type of vegetation has developed, as well as a pattern of the economic exploitation of the territory. The process of radioactivity redistribution by water, wind and technogenic transport must be carefully investigated. The studies on radionuclide migration and the results are discussed. The estimation of dynamic capacitance in soil in the nearby zone of the ChNPP, the studies of hydrogeological condition in the 10 km zone, the analysis of groundwater condition, the studies on the wind-lift transport and fallout of radionuclides in 30 km zone and others are reported. Decontamination measures, one of the most large scale and labor-intensive operations in the elimination of the accident effects, and the burial of radioactive waste are described. The requirements for executing the project are summarized. (K.I.)

  10. Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident and the project of prefectural health management survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Project in the title after the Accident (Mar. 11, 2011) formally started in September in Fukushima Medical University in contract with the Prefecture on the national fund, of which progress and future aspect are reported. Based on a preliminary study in June, the subsequent fundamental investigation was conducted on all prefectural residents from August with questionnaire to see individual's health state and to estimate their accumulated maximal dose (mSv/4 months after the Accident). The preliminary study above was conducted for 29 thousands residents having been supposedly exposed to high dose at regions of Yamakiya, Namie and Iitate, 15 thousands (52%) of whom replied, where 99.3% were exposed to <10 mSv with the maximum of 23.0 mSv. In the fundamental study, until the end of May, 2012, 440 thousands replies (22%) were obtained from 2.05 million postal questionnaire mails sent, whose analysis was not finished, yet the results were retuned to individuals in due order of analysis completion. Another detailed investigation started almost simultaneously, which contained examinations of ultrasonic (US) thyroid testing for residents younger than age 18 y, of detailed health and mental state/life habit of 21 thousands people in the evacuation area, and of expectant/nursing mothers. Preliminarily, the internal exposure dose rate of thyroid was found to be 0.1 mcSv/h in one subject and <0.04 in 99% of 1,080 children in the Prefecture (Mar. 24-30), and US test of 38 thousands in the evacuation area revealed 0.5% of children were necessary for secondary examination due to benign lesions in the organ. To expectant/nursing mothers, questionnaire was performed asking about the health state during pregnancy, childbirth, mental health, etc. Reply was obtained in 55% within 2011 and follow-up has been conducted when judged to be necessary. Tasks derived from all matters described above include various things, of which continued long term follow-up supports are necessary. (T.T.)

  11. INTEGRATED PROJECT MANAGEMENT MEASURES IN CMMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Khraiwesh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Project management is quite important to execute projects effectively and efficiently. Project management is vital to projects success. The main challenge of project management is to achieve all project goals, taking into consideration time, scope, budget constraints, and quality. This paper will identify general measures for the two specific goals and its ten specific practices of Integrated Project management Process Area in Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI. CMMI is a framework for improvement and assessment of computer information systems. The method we used to define the measures is to apply the Goal Questions Metrics (GQM paradigm to the two specific goals and its ten specific practices of Integrated Project management Process Area in CMMI.

  12. Proceedings of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission fifteenth water reactor safety information meeting: Volume 6, Decontamination and decommissioning, accident management, TMI-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, A. J. [comp.

    1988-02-01

    This six-volume report contains 140 papers out of the 164 that were presented at the Fifteenth Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland, during the week of October 26-29, 1987. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. This report, Volume 6, discusses decontamination and decommissioning, accident management, and the Three Mile Island-2 reactor accident. Thirteen reports have been cataloged separately.

  13. Proceedings of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission fifteenth water reactor safety information meeting: Volume 6, Decontamination and decommissioning, accident management, TMI-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This six-volume report contains 140 papers out of the 164 that were presented at the Fifteenth Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland, during the week of October 26-29, 1987. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. This report, Volume 6, discusses decontamination and decommissioning, accident management, and the Three Mile Island-2 reactor accident. Thirteen reports have been cataloged separately

  14. The impact of nationally distributed guidelines on the management of paracetamol poisoning in accident and emergency departments. National Poison Information Service.

    OpenAIRE

    Bialas, M. C.; Evans, R J; Hutchings, A D; Alldridge, G; Routledge, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the treatment guidelines on the management of paracetamol self poisoning in accident and emergency (A&E) departments. METHODS: 24 A&E departments in Wales and England provided details of their management of paracetamol poisoning before and after the distribution of national treatment guidelines to all A&E departments in the United Kingdom. RESULTS: Significant increases were seen in the availability of formal written policies, the display of treatment nomogr...

  15. Feasibility studies on severe accident mitigation measures against containment over-pressurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integrity of the containment as the last barrier against radioactive material releases to the environment can be threatened during severe accident. Containment over-pressurization occurs when decay heat and chemical reaction from the degraded core cannot be removed effectively. Then, steam and non-condensable gases are produced by boiling and molten core concrete interaction. If operator actions are not implemented properly, it leads to a containment failure. The applicable means to depressurize the containment includes external cooling of the containment, internal decay heat removal, and containment venting. So, the feasibility study on containment backup spray system and containment filtered venting system are examined on PWR with large dry containment. Thermo-hydraulic analysis results show that both options can effectively de-pressurize the containment against representative containment over-pressurization scenarios. Containment backup spray system can prevent radiological release and maintain containment integrity as an active way. But optimal operating strategy is needed to prevent flooding inside the containment and hydrogen flammability. Filtered venting can mitigate radiological release below 10-3 of initial inventory as a passive way. But the molten core concrete interaction cannot be mitigated. Overall, each option has its own pros. and cons. So, the final design option should be chosen considering the overall safety effect based on thermo-hydraulic analysis, risk reduction factor, incorporation into design concept (diversity .vs redundancy), reliability of each component (passive .vs active), operability, etc. (author)

  16. Tools for improving safety management in the Norwegian Fishing Fleet occupational accidents analysis period of 1998-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasjord, Halvard L

    2006-01-01

    Reporting of human accidents in the Norwegian Fishing Fleet has always been very difficult because there has been no tradition in making reports on all types of working accidents among fishermen, if the accident does not seem to be very serious or there is no economical incentive to report. Therefore reports are only written when the accidents are serious or if the fisherman is reported sick. Reports about an accident are sent to the insurance company, but another report should also be sent to the Norwegian Maritime Directorate (NMD). Comparing of data from one former insurance company and NMD shows that the real numbers of injuries or serious accidents among Norwegian fishermen could be up to two times more than the numbers reported to NMD. Special analyses of 1690 accidents from the so called PUS-database (NMD) for the period 1998-2002, show that the calculated risk was 23.6 accidents per 1000 man-years. This is quite a high risk level, and most of the accidents in the fishing fleet were rather serious. The calculated risks are highest for fishermen on board the deep sea fleet of trawlers (28.6 accidents per 1000 man-years) and also on the deep sea fleet of purse seiners (28.9 accidents per 1000 man-years). Fatal accidents over a longer period of 51.5 years from 1955 to 2006 are also roughly analysed. These data from SINTEF's own database show that the numbers of fatal accidents have been decreasing over this long period, except for the two periods 1980-84 and 1990-94 where we had some casualties with total losses of larger vessels with the loss of most of the crew, but also many others typical work accidents on smaller vessels. The total numbers of registered Norwegian fishermen and also the numbers of man-years have been drastically reduced over the 51.5 years from 1955 to 2006. The risks of fatal accidents have been very steady over time at a high level, although there has been a marked risk reduction since 1990-94. For the last 8.5-year period of January 1998

  17. Insights of probabilistic risk analysis on the development of severe accident management guidance: a case study for a plant similar to ANGRA I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) surges as a way to evaluate the risk of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) and to quantify it. Its objective was to track sequences of accidents and define mitigate actions to prevent core damage. But when the core is damaged the question is how to avoid releases of radionuclides to the environment. PRA evaluates this scenario too and is input to the Severe Accident Management Guidance (SAMG). This paper aims in the interaction between PRA and SAMG, both under development for the Brazilian NPPs, focusing in one specific Plant Damage State (PDS). The objective is to develop an Accident Progression Event Tree (APET) proposing the mitigate actions for the event, helping to understand the phenomena.(author)

  18. Direct measurements of employees involved in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident for internal dose estimates. JAEA's experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) performed internal dose measurements of employees involved in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station accident. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories (NFCEL), one of the JAEA's core centers, examined 560 of these employees by direct (in vivo) measurements during the period from April 20 to August 5 in 2011. These measurements consisted of whole-body counting for radiocesium and thyroid counting for radioiodine. The whole-body counting was conducted with two types of whole-body counters (WBCs): a standing-type WBC with two large NaI(Tl) detectors (FastscanTM, Canberra Inc.) and a chair-type WBC with HPGe detectors (GC5021, Canberra Inc.) installed in a shielded chamber made of 20-cm-thick steel. The thyroid counting was mainly performed using one of the two HPGe detectors equipped with the chair-type WBC. The subjects examined in this work were divided into two groups: Group 1 was the first 39 subjects who were measured up to June 17, 2011 and Group 2 was the remaining 521 subjects who were measured on and after June 18, 2011. The performance of our direct measurements was validated by comparing measurement results of the Group 1 subjects using two different methods (e.g., the standing-type WBC vs. the chair-type WBC). Tentative internal dose estimates of the subjects of Group 1 were also performed based on the assumption of a single intake scenario on either March 12, when the first hydrogen explosion occurred at the station or the first day of work after the accident. It was found that the contribution of 131I to the total internal dose greatly exceeded those of 134Cs and 137Cs, the other major nuclides detected in the measurements. The maximum committed effective dose (CED) was found in a male subject whose thyroid content of 131I was 9760 Bq on May 23, 2011; the CED of this subject was estimated to be 600 mSv including a small contribution of 134Cs and 137Cs. The typical minimum detectable activity for 131I in the

  19. Bicycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, M G; Wollin, S

    1986-01-01

    Information concerning 520 bicycle accidents and their victims was obtained from medical records and the victims' replies to questionnaires. The analyzed aspects included risk of injury, completeness of accident registrations by police and in hospitals, types of injuries and influence of the cyclists' age and sex, alcohol, fatigue, hunger, haste, physical disability, purpose of cycling, wearing of protective helmet and other clothing, type and quality of road surface, site of accident (road junctions, separate cycle paths, etc.) and turning manoeuvres.

  20. ACCIDENT PREDICTION METHODOLOGY USING CONFLICT ZONE METHOD FOR “TRANSIT TRANSPORT-PEDESTRIAN” CONFLICT SITUATION AND MODELS OF TRAFFIC FLOWS AT CONTROLLED INTERSECTION

    OpenAIRE

    D. V. Kapsky; P. A. Pegin

    2015-01-01

    Accidents are considered as the most significant cost of road traffic. Therefore any measures for road traffic management should be evaluated according to a minimization  criterion of accident losses. In order to develop a method for evaluation of the accident losses it is necessary to prepare a methodology for cost estimate of road accidents of various severity with due account of their consequences and prediction (economic assessment) and severity level of their consequences (quantitative r...

  1. A methodology for supporting decisions on the establishment of protective measures after severe nuclear accidents. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The objective of this report is to demonstrate the use of a methodology supporting decisions on protective measures following severe nuclear accidents. A multicriteria decision analysis approach is recommended where value tradeoffs are postponed until the very last stage of the decision process. Use of efficient frontiers is made to exclude all technically inferior solutions and present the decision maker with all non-dominated solutions. A choice among these solutions implies a value trade-off among the multiple criteria. An interactive computer package has been developed where the decision maker can choose a point on the efficient frontier in the consequence space and immediately see the alternative in the decision space resulting in the chosen consequences. The methodology is demonstrated through an application on the choice among possible protective measures in contaminated areas of the former USSR after the Chernobyl accident. Two distinct cases are considered: First a decision is to be made only on the basis of the level of soil contamination with Cs-137 and the total cost of the chosen protective policy; Next the decision is based on the geographic dimension of the contamination and the total cost. Three alternative countermeasure actions are considered for population segments living on soil contaminated at a certain level or in a specific geographic region: (a) relocation of the population; (b) improvement of the living conditions; and, (c) no countermeasures at all. This is the final deliverable of the CEC-CIS Joint Study Project 2, Task 5: Decision-Aiding-System for Establishing Intervention Levels, performed under Contracts COSU-CT91-0007 and COSU-CT92-0021 with the Commission of European Communities through CEPN. (author)

  2. Conclusions on severe accident research priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Estimation of research priorities related to severe accident phenomena. • Consideration of new topics, partly linked to the severe accidents at Fukushima. • Consideration of results of recent projects, e.g. SARNET, ASAMPSA2, OECD projects. - Abstract: The objectives of the SARNET network of excellence are to define and work on common research programs in the field of severe accidents in Gen. II–III nuclear power plants and to further develop common tools and methodologies for safety assessment in this area. In order to ensure that the research conducted on severe accidents is efficient and well-focused, it is necessary to periodically evaluate and rank the priorities of research. This was done at the end of 2008 by the Severe Accident Research Priority (SARP) group at the end of the SARNET project of the 6th Framework Programme of European Commission (FP6). This group has updated this work in the FP7 SARNET2 project by accounting for the recent experimental results, the remaining safety issues as e.g. highlighted by Level 2 PSA national studies and the results of the recent ASAMPSA2 FP7 project. These evaluation activities were conducted in close relation with the work performed under the auspices of international organizations like OECD or IAEA. The Fukushima-Daiichi severe accidents, which occurred while SARNET2 was running, had some effects on the prioritization and definition of new research topics. Although significant progress has been gained and simulation models (e.g. the ASTEC integral code, jointly developed by IRSN and GRS) were improved, leading to an increased confidence in the predictive capabilities for assessing the success potential of countermeasures and/or mitigation measures, most of the selected research topics in 2008 are still of high priority. But the Fukushima-Daiichi accidents underlined that research efforts had to focus still more to improve severe accident management efficiency

  3. Key Parameters for Operator Diagnosis of BWR Plant Condition during a Severe Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the key information needed from nuclear power plant instrumentation to guide severe accident management and mitigation for boiling water reactor (BWR) designs (specifically, a BWR/4-Mark I), estimate environmental conditions that the instrumentation will experience during a severe accident, and identify potential gaps in existing instrumentation that may require further research and development. This report notes the key parameters that instrumentation needs to measure to help operators respond to severe accidents. A follow-up report will assess severe accident environmental conditions as estimated by severe accident simulation model analysis for a specific US BWR/4-Mark I plant for those instrumentation systems considered most important for accident management purposes.

  4. Source term estimation using air concentration measurements and a Lagrangian dispersion model - Experiments with pseudo and real cesium-137 observations from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Tianfeng; Draxler, Roland; Stein, Ariel

    2015-04-01

    A transfer coefficient matrix (TCM) was created in a previous study using a Lagrangian dispersion model to provide plume predictions under different emission scenarios. The TCM estimates the contribution of each emission period to all sampling locations and can be used to estimate source terms by adjusting emission rates to match the model prediction with the measurements. In this paper, the TCM is used to formulate a cost functional that measures the differences between the model predictions and the actual air concentration measurements. The cost functional also includes a background term which adds the differences between a first guess and the updated emission estimates. Uncertainties of the measurements, as well as those for the first guess of source terms are both considered in the cost functional. In addition, a penalty term is added to create a smooth temporal change in the release rate. The method is first tested with pseudo observations generated using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model at the same location and time as the actual observations. The inverse estimation system is able to accurately recover the release rates and performs better than a direct solution using singular value decomposition (SVD). It is found that computing ln(c) differences between model and observations is better than using the original concentration c differences in the cost functional. The inverse estimation results are not sensitive to artificially introduced observational errors or different first guesses. To further test the method, daily average cesium-137 air concentration measurements around the globe from the Fukushima nuclear accident are used to estimate the release of the radionuclide. Compared with the latest estimates by Katata et al. (2014), the recovered release rates successfully capture the main temporal variations. When using subsets of the measured data, the inverse estimation method still manages to identify most of the

  5. Development of intergrated accident management assessment technology; development of interface modules of risk-monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, S. K.; Park, S. K.; Seok, H.; Kim, D. K.; Han, J. K.; Park, B. R. [KOPEC, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    Based on the development of interface modules with FORTE.- DynaRM can quantify risk model very fast (Very frequent risk model quantification is needed for configuration risk management).- risk monitoring system technology transfer to foreign NPPs. Contribution to component failure and maintenance control automation with the development of Tagging control System. On-Line risk monitoring system development by joint team between Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and KOPEC is a request by KEPCO. The softwares developed in this study is easily implemented at domestic NPPs without extra study or cost. Economic benefit and Software export to foreign NPPs are expected because of the development of technology related to risk monitoring system and its management. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  6. Development, evaluation, and implementation of safety measures to prevent marine accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Stephen Mark

    1991-01-01

    Methodologies to determine, evaluate, and implement prospective measures for preventing marine collisions and groundings are presented. The use of cost-benefit analysis to evaluate prospective safety measures is emphasized. Prospective safety measures are represented as changes to variables that relate to the life-cycle of an oil tanker. Most of these variables, such as crew size and training, are associated with the operational phase. A systems engineering approac...

  7. Aftermath of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011 - Situation review in March 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this detailed report addresses the consequences of the accident regarding nuclear safety. It proposes a situation review of site damaged installations, of radioactive water management, and of underground water management. It presents and comments lessons learned from this accident for French nuclear installations, gives an overview of researches performed by the IRSN in the field of nuclear safety. The second part addresses health consequences of the accident. It discusses an assessment of epidemiologic studies performed on inhabitants of the Fukushima Prefecture, and comments the situation of workers involved in operations performed in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The third part addresses environmental consequences. It discusses values of radionuclide concentrations in Japanese air five years after the accident, measurements of caesium activities, assessments of contamination of Japanese food products, decontamination actions and waste management, the status of marine contamination in 2015, the evolution of evacuation areas between 2011 and 2016, the first returns and wills to return of evacuated populations, the update of knowledge related to the dispersion and depositions of atmospheric releases of the accident, and the modelling of atmospheric transport and fallouts of releases emitted during the accident. The last part proposes a comparison between the Chernobyl accident and the Fukushima accident in terms of distribution of radioactive depositions within river basins, of knowledge drawn from ecologic studies on fauna and flora performed on the long term in contaminated areas, and of management of forest environments after a nuclear accident

  8. Strategies for operation of containment related ESFs in managing activity release to the environment during accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Indian PHWR design, a double containment concept with passive vapour suppression pool (to limit peak pressure) system has been adopted. In addition to it, various Engineered Safety Features (ESFs) have been incorporated to limit the release of radioactivity to the environment. They are: Reactor building emergency coolers for cooling which results in fast reduction of overpressure; Primary Containment Filtration and Pump Back System (PCFPBS) for reduction in iodine concentration inside RB atmosphere during post LOCA period; and, Primary Containment Controlled Discharge System (PCCDS) for the rapid reduction of over-pressure tail. Due to operation of secondary containment purge system, which maintain negative pressure in the annulus, the ground level release is negligibly small. However, if non- availability of negative pressure in secondary containment space is assumed, then operation of PCFPBS and PCCDS system reduces the ground level release significantly. In this situation, depending upon time of operation of the PCFPBS, it can effectively reduce the iodine release, both in stack level and ground level by trapping it in charcoal filters. It is seen that delay time of PCFPBS operation in conjunction with prevailing weather condition can be manipulated to reduce the effect of stack level release of iodine. In this paper the containment related ESFs used in Indian PHWR is discussed in brief and the effectiveness of operator actions and management strategies in actuation of the ESFs in reducing the activity release to environment (during postulated accident conditions) will be brought out. (author)

  9. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  10. Fission product behaviour in severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The understanding of fission product (FP) behaviour in severe accidents is important for source term assessment and accident mitigation measures. For example in accident management the operator needs to know the effect of different actions on the behaviour and release of fission products. At VTT fission product behaviour have been studied in different national and international projects. In this presentation the results of projects in EU funded 4th framework programme Nuclear Fission Safety 1994-1998 are reported. The projects are: fission product vapour/aerosol chemistry in the primary circuit (FI4SCT960020), aerosol physics in containment (FI4SCT950016), revaporisation of test samples from Phebus fission products (FI4SCT960019) and assessment of models for fission product revaporisation (FI4SCT960044). Also results from the national project 'aerosol experiments in the Victoria facility' funded by IVO PE and VTT Energy are reported

  11. Optimization of the Severe Accident Management Strategy for Domestic Plants and Validation Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. B.; Park, R. J.; Kim, H. D.; Koo, K. M.; Cho, Y. R.; Kim, J. T.; Ha, K. S.; Kang, K. H.; Hong, S. H.; Kim, H. Y

    2005-04-15

    Main components and structures in nuclear power plants generally use materials having superior resistance to corrosion.Since the damages related to corrosion have become a menace to the safety of NPPs as well as economical loss and the steam generator tubing forming a boundary between the primary and secondary sides of NPPs is one of the main components that are most damaged by corrosion, it is strongly required to verify the mechanisms of the steam generator tubing degradations, to develop remedial techniques for the degradations, to manage the damages, and to develop techniques for the extension of the plant's life. In this study, the PWSCC characteristics of the archived steam generator tube materials in the domestic NPPs were evaluated and the databases of the obtained results were established. Also, the PWSCC characteristics of the welding material, Alloy 182, for Alloy 600, were evaluated. To verify the damage mechanisms of the circumferential SCC occurring in the expansion transition region of the tubes in the Korean standard NPPS, the evaluation technique for the residual stresses in the expanded region was acquired. A procedure of the inhibition technique for the SCC occurring in the secondary side of steam generators and a model for estimating the safety of damaged tubes by the structural leakage were developed, by which the fundamental technologies for the safe operations of NPPs, the management of the damages, and the expansion of the plant life were acquired. The material improvement technique for the integrity enhancement of tubes was developed. Along with the development of the Ni-coating technique the evaluation of the properties such as mechanical and SCC properties of the coated film was performed.

  12. Return on experience by the Marcoule-Gard CLI in the management of a post-accident situation following a nuclear or radiological event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having recalled the legal framework which strengthens the roles and responsibilities of local authorities with respect to natural or technological risks, this short report describes the activity of the Marcoule-Gard CLI (Commission locale d'information, information local commission) in the management of a post-accident situation during a nuclear crisis. This commission notably participates to several work groups, and to some exercises (two examples - a simulated crisis and a real one - are briefly reported and analyzed)

  13. Internal contamination measurements conducted in Europe after the Chernobyl accident, bibliographical revue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the radioactivity levels actually ingested by the populations of various European countries were being assessed, it was decided to conduct many in vivo measurements and measurements on excreta. The data acquired in this way for a wide range of different populations are reviewed in this report. Caesium (137Cs and 134Cs) and iodine-131, were the only radionuclides to be studied systematically. It is shown in this report that the levels of radioactivity ingested, calculated on the basis of measurements in the food chain, were constantly overestimated by up to one order of magnitude. It is also shown that there is a good correlation between the geographical distribution of the quantities ingested and the charted radionuclide deposits

  14. [Managed health care: scope, concept and strategic management potentials from the viewpoint of the Swiss Accident Insurance Fund].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapst, L

    1996-01-01

    The following item presents briefly the cost relevant factors in health care in Switzerland. The principal key issues and reasons for managed health care programs are dealt with by recognizing the new health care law. In order to present the central strategies for improvement in managed care from an integral point of view, managed health care is being treated in the context of a widely founded conceptional framework. A very detailed and medically complete as well as performance oriented case statistic of medical treatments is a strategic success and key factor. The author represents the thesis that the given opportunities and micro-management tools could be much more widely used, that they should be extended and that, therefore, the strength of our independent and liberal health care system could be much better integrated in the context of a necessary social acceptance. This shall not only be reached by maximising the individual revenues, but by optimizing structures and increasing organizational effectiveness in medical health care. The existing readiness of the health care suppliers, especially the physicians, to take over responsibility in improving health care outcome is the core to this strategy. PMID:9312392

  15. Development and qualification of a particulate and iodine monitor for measuring radioactive discharges in the event of accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of accidents the German rule KTA1503.2 requires for nuclear power plants a monitoring of the radioactive effluents from the stack. In order to protect human health and the environment the amount of the radiologically relevant isotopes of iodine and particulates has to be measured over a wide range. For this object MGP Instruments has developed the PIM203 monitor with support of E.ON and other power plant companies. The monitor measures simultaneously the particulate and iodine activity. The monitor fulfills at least all requirements of the rule KTA1503.2. This was verified by a plant independent type test according to VdTUV directive 26, carried out by the German expert organization TUV Nord e. V.. Following we will present in detail the requirements of the rule KTA1503.2 and a description of the PIM203 monitor. Finally we will explain the type and extent of the qualification tests and show some relevant results. (author)

  16. A study on an ultrasonic thermometry system for measuring very high temperatures in severe accident experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LAVA (Lower-plenum Arrested Vessel Attack) experiments have been performed using high temperature molten material to be relocated into a linearly scaled lower head vessel, in which temperature measuring is a very important factor. In this paper, the measure of very high temperatures includes out of reactor room temperature studies of ultrasonic thermometer design, high temperature investigations of probe materials, and the implementation of a high resolution signal processing system using the split spectrum processing technique based on PC software control. This system is composed of sensors, a transducer, ultrasonic instruments, and a PC control system. To match the sensors, a tungsten rod was inserted in the centerline of the transducer, and the measured temperature was converted into an ultrasonic delay time from the reflected signal at the notch fabricated by an electric beam. The two sensor's lengths are 500 mm and 1000 mm, and the two notches at 50 and 80 mm from the end of the rods could be used to measure the axial temperature in a molten material pool heated to about 2000degC. (author)

  17. Bullet scintigraphy: can gamma camera be used for depleted uranium accident measurements?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to see could gamma cameras be used for measurement of internal contamination with depleted uranium. Radioactive waste depleted uranium, which is by-product from the production of enriched fuel for nuclear rectors and weapons now, is used for manufacture bullets, which are used in Iraq, Republic of Srpska and Yugoslavia. In this paper is measured minimum detectable activity (MDA) of gamma cameras for depleted uranium, iodine and technetium. For detection of the depleted uranium are used low energy X-rays, energy of 100 keV with 20% windows width. About 40% of gamma emissions of the depleted uranium are in these limits. Measured MDA activities 50-100 Bq for depleted uranium, iodine and technetium are about ten times more than same for WBC (5 Bq). Gamma cameras can be used for relatively measurement of depleted uranium activity, what can be used for absorbed dose estimation. Detection of low level internal contamination with depleted uranium can be done with gamma cameras. (author)

  18. Bullet scintigraphy: can gamma camera be used for depleted uranium accident measurements?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to see could gamma cameras be used for measurement of internal contamination with depleted uranium. Radioactive waste depleted uranium, which is by-product from the production of enriched fuel for nuclear rectors and weapons now, is used for manufacture bullets, which are used in Iraq, Republic of Srpska and Yugoslavia. In this paper is measured minimum detectable activity (MDA) of gamma cameras for depleted uranium, iodine and technetium. For detection of the depleted uranium are used low energy X-rays, energy of 100 keV with 20% windows width. About 40% of gamma emissions of the depleted uranium are in these limits. Measured MDA activities 50-100 Bq for depleted uranium, iodine and technetium are about then times more then same for WBC (5 Bq). Gamma cameras can be used for relatively measurement of depleted uranium activity, what can be used for absorbed dose estimation. Detection of low level internal contamination with depleted uranium can be done with gamma cameras. (authors)

  19. Measurement of airborne radioactivity from the Fukushima reactor accident in Tokushima, Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Fushimi, K; Sakama, M; Sakaguchi, Y

    2011-01-01

    The airborne radioactive isotopes from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant was measured in Tokushima, western Japan. The continuous monitoring has been carried out in Tokushima. From March 23, 2011 the fission product $^{131}$I was observed. The radioisotopes $^{134}$Cs and $^{137}$Cs were also observed in the beginning of April. However the densities were extremely smaller than the Japanese regulation of radioisotopes.

  20. Tractor accidents in Swedish traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzke, Stefan; Nilsson, Kerstin; Lundqvist, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to reach a better understanding of accidents on Swedish roads involving tractors and to suggest ways of preventing them. In an earlier study we analyzed police-reported fatal accidents and accidents that led to physical injuries from 1992 to 2005. During each year of this period, tractors were involved in 128 traffic accidents on average, an average of 7 people were killed, 44 sustained serious injuries, and 143 sustained slight injuries. The number of fatalities in these tractor accidents was about 1.3% of all deaths in traffic accidents in Sweden. Cars were most often involved in the tractor accidents (58%) and 15% were single vehicle accidents. The mean age of the tractor driver involved was 39.8 years and young drivers (15-24 years) were overrepresented (30%). We are now increasing the data collected with the years 2006-2010 in order to study the changes in the number of accidents. Special attention will be given to the younger drivers and to single vehicle accidents. Based on the results we aim to develop suggestions for reducing road accidents, e.g. including measures for making farm vehicles more visible and improvement of the training provided at driving schools. PMID:22317543

  1. Human factors engineering in healthcare systems: the problem of human error and accident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciabue, P C; Vella, G

    2010-04-01

    This paper discusses some crucial issues associated with the exploitation of data and information about health care for the improvement of patient safety. In particular, the issues of human factors and safety management are analysed in relation to exploitation of reports about non-conformity events and field observations. A methodology for integrating field observation and theoretical approaches for safety studies is described. Two sample cases are discussed in detail: the first one makes reference to the use of data collected in the aviation domain and shows how these can be utilised to define hazard and risk; the second one concerns a typical ethnographic study in a large hospital structure for the identification of most relevant areas of intervention. The results show that, if national authorities find a way to harmonise and formalize critical aspects, such as the severity of standard events, it is possible to estimate risk and define auditing needs, well before the occurrence of serious incidents, and to indicate practical ways forward for improving safety standards.

  2. Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  3. Sports Accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    Kiebel

    1972-01-01

    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  4. A documentation presented by the Land government of Baden-Wuerttemberg, on the impacts of the Chernobyl reactor accident and the measures taken. Vol. 1-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first volume of the documentation starts with basic facts and data of environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in general and then proceeds to discussions of the specific problems resulting from the reactor accident. The reactor accident scenario is described, and the impacts are explained, as well as measures taken by the EC, the German Federal Government, and the Land government of Baden-Wuerttemberg. The concept and strategies set up by the Land government for improving precautionary and emergency measures within the framework of disaster control are explained. The second and third volumes present measured data taken from April to August 28, 1986 (2nd volume) and from August 29, 1986 to end of February, 1987. The data measured in the various regions of the Land are arranged by government districts, administrative county, and date. (HP)

  5. The aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear accident: Measures to contain groundwater contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Adrian H; Marui, Atsunao

    2016-03-15

    Several measures are being implemented to control groundwater contamination at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant. This paper presents an overview of work undertaken to contain the spread of radionuclides, and to mitigate releases to the ocean via hydrological pathways. As a first response, contaminated water is being held in tanks while awaiting treatment. Limited storage capacity and the risk of leakage make the measure unsustainable in the long term. Thus, an impervious barrier has been combined with a drain system to minimize the discharge of groundwater offshore. Caesium in seawater at the plant port has largely dropped, although some elevated concentrations are occasionally recorded. Moreover, a dissimilar decline of the radioactivity in fish could indicate additional sources of radionuclides intake. An underground frozen shield is also being constructed around the reactors. This structure would reduce inflows to the reactors and limit the interaction between fresh and contaminated waters. Additional strategies include groundwater abstraction and paving of surfaces to lower water levels and further restrict the mobilisation of radionuclides. Technical difficulties and public distrust pose an unprecedented challenge to the site remediation. Nevertheless, the knowledge acquired during the initial work offers opportunities for better planning and more rigorous decisions in the future. PMID:26789364

  6. WASA-BOSS. ATHLET-CD model for severe accident analysis for a generic KONVOI reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tusheva, Polina; Schaefer, Frank; Kozmenkov, Yaroslav; Kliem, Soeren [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany). Reactor Safety Div.; Hollands, Thorsten [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Garching (Germany); Trometer, Ailine; Buck, Michael [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Reactor Safety, Systems and Environment

    2015-07-15

    Within the scope of the ongoing joint research project WASA-BOSS (Weiterentwicklung und Anwendung von Severe Accident Codes - Bewertung und Optimierung von Stoerfallmassnahmen) an ATHLET-CD model for investigation of severe accident scenarios has been developed. The model represents a generic pressurized water reactor (PWR) of type KONVOI. It has been applied for analyzing selected hypothetical core degradation scenarios, considering application of countermeasures and accident management measures, during the early phase of an accident, as well as the late in-vessel phase, when the core degradation process has already begun. Possible accident management measures for loss of coolant (LOCA) and station blackout (SBO) scenarios are discussed. This paper focuses on the ATHLET-CD model development and results from selected simulations for a SBO scenario without and with application of countermeasures.

  7. Radiological accidents: education for prevention and confrontation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to train and inform on radiological accidents as a preventive measure to improve the people life quality. Radiological accidents are part of the events of technological origin which are composed of nuclear and radiological accidents. As a notable figure is determined that there have been 423 radiological accidents from 1944 to 2005 and among the causes prevail industrial accidents, by irradiations, medical accidents and of laboratories, among others. Latin American countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Peru are some where most accidents have occurred by radioactivity. The radiological accidents can have sociological, environmental, economic, social and political consequences. In addition, there are scenarios of potential nuclear accidents and in them the potential human consequences. Also, the importance of the organization and planning in a nuclear emergency is highlighted. Finally, the experience that Cuba has lived on the subject of radiological accidents is described

  8. Financial Risk Measurement for Financial Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Torben G. Andersen; Tim Bollerslev; Peter F. Christoffersen; Francis X. Diebold

    2012-01-01

    Current practice largely follows restrictive approaches to market risk measurement, such as historical simulation or RiskMetrics. In contrast, we propose flexible methods that exploit recent developments in financial econometrics and are likely to produce more accurate risk assessments, treating both portfolio-level and asset-level analysis. Asset-level analysis is particularly challenging because the demands of real-world risk management in financial institutions - in particular, real-time r...

  9. Measuring effectiveness of food quality management

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegel, van der, M.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: effectiveness, food quality management, instrument, quality performance, contextual factors, agri-food production, conceptual model, performance measurement indicators, identification, validation, assessment, quality assurance systems, QA systems, HACCP, Hygiene code, ISO, BRC, GMP, bakery sector.In the last decade several incidents have occurred in the agri-food sector, such as the affairs of dioxin and BSE, whereas also the incidence of food-borne diseases and the production of hi...

  10. 25 CFR 163.28 - Fire management measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... as a management tool on Indian land to achieve land and/or resource management objectives. ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fire management measures. 163.28 Section 163.28 Indians... Management and Operations § 163.28 Fire management measures. (a) The Secretary is authorized to...

  11. 关于护理差错事故的调查分析及防范措施%Investigation and analysis of nursing accidents and precaution measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马忠金

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyze the cause of nursing accident errors and propose precaution measures.Methods From the year of 1991 to 2011,109 nurses who made nursing accident errors were analyzed statistically by their education background and occupational tenure and those errors were categorized according to records. Results Nursing accident errors was negatively related to education background and occupational tenure.Nursing accident errors was also relative to the fixed habits.Conclusions Continual learning,learning from lessons,overcoming fixed habits are all effective measures in preventing nursing accident errors.%目的 调查分析护理差错事故发生的原因并提出防范措施.方法 对我院1991年1月1日到2011年1月1日发生109例的护理差错事故的护理人员按学历、护龄足以统计并依据当时的记录描述对护理差错事故归类分析.结果 护理差错事故的发生与学历、工龄(工作半年以上)成相关负性增长,护理差错事故大多与习惯性定势有关.结论 不断学习、吸取经验教训、克服习惯性定势是防范护理差错事故的有效措施.

  12. The sector of agro-industrial production: Post-accident radiological consequences and the basic protective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station led to fallout of radioactive substances on agricultural land. In this connection, the USSR State Agro-Industrial Committee, Gosagroprom, faced a number of tasks concerning evaluation of the radiological situation in the sector of agro-industrial production, organization of radiation monitoring of agricultural products and implementation of a series of agricultural ameliorative measures to reduce the radionuclide contamination of foodstuffs. The study of the radiological situation revealed a complex dynamics of the emergency release of radioactivity and inhomogeneous composition of the fallout on the contamination zone. Early autumn fallout of radionuclides caused aerial contamination of the leaves and stems of a number of agricultural crops - winter, natural and sown perennial grasses. The other types of plant were contaminated mainly through the soil and through wind lift. After deposition the bulk of the radionuclides were concentrated in the top soil. The availability of radionuclides for root assimilation depends on the proportion between the forms in which they occur in soils, which varies considerably in soils of different types. Application of amendments changes the transfer of radionuclides to agricultural crops. In animal husbandry two principal areas of activity are of the greatest interest: evaluation of the degree of contamination of products (first of all, milk and meat) and determination of the physiological condition of livestock in the immediate neighbourhood of the power station. An evaluation has been made of the organizational and agricultural ameliorative measures which were applied to ensure stable agro-industrial production in the contaminated area. (author). 1 fig., 9 tabs

  13. Help guides for post-accident consequence management: farm activities and exiting the emergency phase; Les guides d'aide a la gestion des consequences post-accidentelles: activites agricoles et sortie de la phase d'urgence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cessac, B.; Reales, N. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, BP 17 - 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Mehl-Auget, I. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire - 6, place du Colonel Bourgoin - 75012 Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    After having recalled the main actions foreseen in the PPIs (plans particuliers d'intervention, intervention specific plans) in case of radionuclide release in the environment after a nuclear accident, i.e. sheltering and ingestion of steady iodine, and also indicated the different phases of consequence management (preparation, emergency and post-accident phases), this report describes and comments the contents of two guides published by the IRSN (the French Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Institute) and dealing with the management of post-accident consequences. The first one is a guide to aid to decision-making for the management of the agricultural sector in case of nuclear accident, and the second one is a guide for the preparation of the end of the emergency phase in which actions to be performed during the first week after the end of accidental releases are described

  14. Measurement of neutron and gamma-ray absorbed doses inside human body in criticality accident situations using phantom and tissue-equivalent dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Personal dosimeters provide a fundamental evaluation of external exposures to human bodies in radiation accidents. For emergency medical treatment to heavily exposed patients, the evaluation of dose distribution inside the body has been tried by computational simulations. Experimental data on dose distributions inside the body are necessary for accurate simulation of human dosimetry, particularly in complex radiation fields of neutrons and gamma-rays such as criticality accidents. A preliminary experiment on the human dosimetry was carried out at the Transient Experiment Critical Facility (TRACY) to acquire such experimental data in criticality accident situations. A combined use of two kinds of tissue-equivalent dosimeters together with a human phantom was employed to measure neutron and gamma-ray absorbed doses inside the body. The neutron and gamma-ray absorbed doses measured on the phantom were found to be in roughly the same level as those averaged over the phantom inside or those measured in free air. The dose distributions measured inside and on the phantom could be qualitatively interpreted from reflection an attenuation of neutrons and gamma-rays in the phantom, neutron-induced secondary gamma-rays emitted in the phantom, and so forth. (author)

  15. An Entry Point of the Emergency Response Robot for Management of Severe Accident of the Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jaiwan; Jeong, Kyungmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    In this paper, from the view point of DID (defense-in depth), we discuss the entry point of the nuclear emergency response robot to cope with a nuclear disaster. A Japanese nuclear disaster preparedness robot system was developed, after the JCO criticality accident in 1999, to cope with INES (International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale) Level 3 serious incidents. INES Level 3 means the loss of DID (defense-in-depth) functions. It also indicates that ESF (engineered safety features) and ECCS (emergency core cooling system) resources, which are used to prevent serious incidents from escalating to severe accidents (core melt-down), have been almost exhausted. In the unit 1 reactor accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, escalation from INES Level 1 (Out of Limiting Condition for Operation) to INES Level 5 (serious core melting-down) took less than two hours. Major facts are briefly described here in based on data gathered immediately after the tsunami over Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Ο 15:35 on March 11, 2nd tsunami arrived. - 15:37, SBO (station black out) Ο 15:42, Interprets as a SBO (INES Level 1) - Loss of DC power for Instrumentation (Unknown of reactor water level) Ο 16:36, Loss of ECCS function (INELS Level 5) (Entry into a BDBA status) The Moni ROBO-A robot of the Japan Nuclear Safety Technology Center (NUSTEC) was a nuclear disaster preparedness robot developed after the JCO criticality accident. It was the only robot that had been steadily maintained and was available at the time of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. However, it was not helpful in mitigating the accident because it is assumed to have arrived at J-Village after the accident had been escalated to INES Level 5 or higher. Based on the paper by S. Kawatsuma of JAEA and response data gathered immediately after the tsunami, it is estimated that the NUSTEC's Moni ROBO-A arrived at J-Village after the designed entry point for INES Level 3

  16. An Entry Point of the Emergency Response Robot for Management of Severe Accident of the Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, from the view point of DID (defense-in depth), we discuss the entry point of the nuclear emergency response robot to cope with a nuclear disaster. A Japanese nuclear disaster preparedness robot system was developed, after the JCO criticality accident in 1999, to cope with INES (International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale) Level 3 serious incidents. INES Level 3 means the loss of DID (defense-in-depth) functions. It also indicates that ESF (engineered safety features) and ECCS (emergency core cooling system) resources, which are used to prevent serious incidents from escalating to severe accidents (core melt-down), have been almost exhausted. In the unit 1 reactor accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, escalation from INES Level 1 (Out of Limiting Condition for Operation) to INES Level 5 (serious core melting-down) took less than two hours. Major facts are briefly described here in based on data gathered immediately after the tsunami over Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Ο 15:35 on March 11, 2nd tsunami arrived. - 15:37, SBO (station black out) Ο 15:42, Interprets as a SBO (INES Level 1) - Loss of DC power for Instrumentation (Unknown of reactor water level) Ο 16:36, Loss of ECCS function (INELS Level 5) (Entry into a BDBA status) The Moni ROBO-A robot of the Japan Nuclear Safety Technology Center (NUSTEC) was a nuclear disaster preparedness robot developed after the JCO criticality accident. It was the only robot that had been steadily maintained and was available at the time of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. However, it was not helpful in mitigating the accident because it is assumed to have arrived at J-Village after the accident had been escalated to INES Level 5 or higher. Based on the paper by S. Kawatsuma of JAEA and response data gathered immediately after the tsunami, it is estimated that the NUSTEC's Moni ROBO-A arrived at J-Village after the designed entry point for INES Level 3. According to

  17. Accident management information needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tables contained in this Appendix A describe the information needs for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) with a large, dry containment. To identify these information needs, the branch points in the safety objective trees were examined to decide what information is necessary to (a) determine the status of the safety functions in the plant, i.e., whether the safety functions are being adequately maintained within predetermined limits, (b) identify plant behavior (mechanisms) or precursors to this behavior which indicate that a challenge to plant safety is occurring or is imminent, and (c) select strategies that will prevent or mitigate this plant behavior and monitor the implementation and effectiveness of these strategies. The information needs for the challenges to the safety functions are not examined since the summation of the information needs for all mechanisms associated with a challenge comprise the information needs for the challenge itself

  18. Updated action plan for the implementation of measures as a consequence of the Fukushima reactor accident; Fortgeschriebener Aktionsplan zur Umsetzung von Massnahmen nach dem Reaktorunfall in Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-03-15

    The updated German action plan for the implementation of measures as a consequence of the Fukushima reactor accident covers the following issues: decision on the future utilization of nuclear energy in Germany; national frame for security checks, inspections and measures for nuclear power plants; international frame for inspections; action plan and WENRA reference level; action plan for the implementation of measures form robustness enhancement in German nuclear power plants (SNC topics 1-3), action plan for implementation of further measures (CNS topics 4-6).

  19. A B C分类管理方法在海事安全管理中的应用%ABC Classification in Waterborne Traffic Accidents Safety Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊振南

    2001-01-01

    将仓储管理ABC分类法引入海事的安全管理中,以便于安全管理部门针对不同水域的海事发生频率、危险程度,制定不同的安全管理对策,并能够充分利用有限的管理资源以提高海事安全管理水平.%If the ABC classification is applied to the management of the waterborne traffic safety,it is convenient for the safety management department to establish different management countermeasures according to the different frequency and criticality of waterborne traffic accidents in different shipping area,shipping company,etc,and to make full use the best of the limited resources in order to improve the management level of waterborne traffic safety.

  20. Severe accidents in nuclear power plants. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Symposium on Severe Accidents in Nuclear Power Plants, organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and co-sponsored by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD, was held in Sorrento, Italy, from 21 to 25 March 1988. The symposium was attended by over 300 participants from 35 Member States and 4 organizations. There were 72 oral presentations and 28 poster presentations. In addition, a special session devoted to the publication entitled Basic Safety Principles for Nuclear Power Plants was organized by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) in the form of a panel discussion. The objective of the symposium was to provide a forum for an international exchange of information on the scientific and technical aspects of severe accidents, and on the rationale and implementation of severe accident practices in participating countries. The papers provided an excellent overview of different national approaches, with the overall emphasis on preventive, mitigative and accident management measures. Every reasonable effort is being made in design and operation to prevent accidents from happening and to limit the consequences of any that might occur. However, it is also generally considered prudent to introduce design modifications and operational changes and prepare contingency plans for dealing with a possible accident. The actual measures taken vary from country to country but usually involve detailed extended or new emergency operating procedures and the use of existing and/or new systems to limit off-site releases. Containment filtering and venting, the use of mobile equipment and the utilization of external water sources were among the options presented and discussed in detail. This is volume 2 of the proceedings of a symposium. Two main scientific and technical topics are presented in this volume: accident research and development (34 papers) and accident management (24 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  1. Health Problems in Radiation Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors define a radiation accident as a situation which has led or could have led to the unexpected irradiation of persons or contamination of the environment over and above the levels accepted as safe. Several categories of accidents are distinguished as a function of the consequences to be expected. The suggested system of classifying accidents makes it possible to plan post-accident measures within a single system of 'concentric circles', taking into account at the same time whether it will be possible to carry out the post-accident measures unaided or whether it will be necessary to bring in additional manpower and resources from outside. The authors consider the possibility of countering the effects of accidents as a function of their nature, with reference to the biological, economic and psychological aspects. They evaluate the part played by the health service in planning and carrying out accident prevention measures, and consider the function of radiological units attached to epidemiological health stations ; these units are essentially centres providing for precautionary measures to avert accidents and action to counter their effects. (author)

  2. The child accident repeater: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J G

    1980-04-01

    The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.

  3. Review of current severe accident management approaches in Europe and identification of related modelling requirements for the computer code ASTEC V2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermsmeyer, S. [European Commission JRC, Petten (Netherlands). Inst. for Energy and Transport; Herranz, L.E.; Iglesias, R. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-07-15

    The severe accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) has led to a worldwide review of nuclear safety approaches and is bringing a refocussing of R and D in the field. To support these efforts several new Euratom FP7 projects have been launched. The CESAM project focuses on the improvement of the ASTEC computer code. ASTEC is jointly developed by IRSN and GRS and is considered as the European reference code for Severe Accident Analyses since it capitalizes knowledge from the extensive Euro-pean R and D in the field. The project aims at the code's enhancement and extension for use in Severe Accident Management (SAM) analysis of the NPPs of Generation II-III presently under operation or foreseen in the near future in Europe, spent fuel pools included. The work reported here is concerned with the importance, for the further development of the code, of SAM strategies to be simulated. To this end, SAM strategies applied in the EU have been compiled. This compilation is mainly based on the public information made available in the frame of the EU ''stress tests'' for NPPs and has been complemented by information pro-vided by the different CESAM partners. The context of SAM is explained and the strategies are presented. The modelling capabilities for the simulation of these strategies in the current production version 2.0 of ASTEC are discussed. Furthermore, the requirements for the next version of ASTEC V2.1 that is supported in the CESAM project are highlighted. They are a necessary complement to the list of code improvements that is drawn from consolidating new fields of application, like SFP and BWR model enhancements, and from new experimental results on severe accident phenomena.

  4. Review of current severe accident management approaches in Europe and identification of related modelling requirements for the computer code ASTEC V2.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The severe accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) has led to a worldwide review of nuclear safety approaches and is bringing a refocussing of R and D in the field. To support these efforts several new Euratom FP7 projects have been launched. The CESAM project focuses on the improvement of the ASTEC computer code. ASTEC is jointly developed by IRSN and GRS and is considered as the European reference code for Severe Accident Analyses since it capitalizes knowledge from the extensive Euro-pean R and D in the field. The project aims at the code's enhancement and extension for use in Severe Accident Management (SAM) analysis of the NPPs of Generation II-III presently under operation or foreseen in the near future in Europe, spent fuel pools included. The work reported here is concerned with the importance, for the further development of the code, of SAM strategies to be simulated. To this end, SAM strategies applied in the EU have been compiled. This compilation is mainly based on the public information made available in the frame of the EU ''stress tests'' for NPPs and has been complemented by information pro-vided by the different CESAM partners. The context of SAM is explained and the strategies are presented. The modelling capabilities for the simulation of these strategies in the current production version 2.0 of ASTEC are discussed. Furthermore, the requirements for the next version of ASTEC V2.1 that is supported in the CESAM project are highlighted. They are a necessary complement to the list of code improvements that is drawn from consolidating new fields of application, like SFP and BWR model enhancements, and from new experimental results on severe accident phenomena.

  5. Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident (IPHECA). Report of the management committee meeting Geneva 16-17 March 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA) have been initiated in mid-1991 following its endorsement by the Forty-fourth World Health Assembly in resolution WHA44.36. The report of the Management Committee Meeting outlines the progress made in the implementation of the Programme, and summarises the scientific information obtained to date on the health effects and planned future activities. Status reports were provided by the representatives of Belarus, Russia, Ukraine and the WHO Secretariat. The major projects under the programme include Thyroid project, Hematology project, Dosimetry and Communication Support Services, Brain Damage in utero project and Epidemiological Registry project. 4 tabs

  7. 风险管理应用在实习护生减少差错事故中的观察%The risk management mechanism to practice nurses reduce mistakes in the accident application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张劲梅; 刘凯; 杨亚红; 王坦; 王敏; 徐丽

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨将护理风险管理机制运用于实习护生减少差错事故中的效果调查,防范或减少护理风险的发生,以提高护生护理质量.方法 分析可能引起护生护理风险的相关因素,建立完善的风险管理制度,制订风险防范措施,进行护生培训,强化护生风险意识,提高风险防范能力.结果 实施护理风险管理后,实习护生差错事故的发生率均较实施前有所下降,经统计学分析,均P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义.结论 将风险管理机制应用于实习护生在实习中的管理,减少了护理差错事故的发生,有效地提高护理质量.%Objective To discuss to care risk management mechanism used in practice nurses reduce mistakes in the accident investigation,prevent or reduce the effect of the occurrence of nursing risk,in order to improve the quality of nursing and protect life.Methods The nursing risks related factors were analyzed,building risk management system,making measures to prevent risks,and protecting life training,strengthening the protection of life risk consciousness and improve risk prevention ability.Results Implementation of nursing risk management,the accident rate of practice nurses mistake was declined,the statistical analysis,P < 0.05,there was statistically significant difference.Conclusions Risk management mechanism used in practice nurses in practice of management,could reduce the nursing error accidents,effectively improve the quality of nursing.

  8. Measuring productivity of customer knowledge management in projects

    OpenAIRE

    Tanika D. Sofianti; Kadarsah Suryadi; Rajesri Govindaraju; Budhi Prihartono

    2013-01-01

    Projects is one of the dominating modes of international business today. Companies interact with their customers in projects for a certain period. To explore the impact of customer knowledge management in such interactions, this paper promotes a measurement framework that can be used to measure the productivity of customer knowledge management. The measures are developed based on previous studies on customer knowledge management and project management. To verify the measures, this study condu...

  9. Management options for food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. Task 7: biological treatment of contaminated milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of a nuclear accident affecting the UK, regulation of contamination in the foodchain would involve both the Food Standards Agency (FSA) and the Environment Agency (EA). Restrictions would be based on intervention levels imposed by the Council of the European Communities (often referred to as Council Food Intervention Levels, CFILs). FSA would be responsible for preventing commercial foodstuffs with concentrations of radionuclides above the CFILs from entering the foodchain, while EA would regulate the storage and disposal of the waste food. Milk is particularly important in this respect because it is produced continually in large quantities in many parts of the UK. An evaluation of various options for the management of waste foodstuffs has been carried out by NRPB, with support from FSA and its predecessor, the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, and EA. This report describes an evaluation of the practicability of one of those options, namely the biological treatment of contaminated milk. Whole milk has a high content of organic matter and in consequence a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). If not disposed of properly, releases of whole milk into the environment can have a substantial detrimental effect because of the high BOD. Biological treatments are therefore potentially an attractive management option because the fermentation by bacteria reduces the BOD in the resultant liquid effluent. The objectives of this study were as follows: a. To compile information about the options available for the biological treatment of milk; b. To establish the legal position; c. To assess practicability in terms of technical feasibility, capacity, cost, environmental and radiological impacts and acceptability; d. To assess the radiation doses that might be received by process operators, contractors, farmers and the general public from the biological treatment of contaminated milk. The radionuclides of interest were 131II

  10. Evaluation of urban freight transport management measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kaszubowski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Problems with urban freight traffic in downtown areas emerge in parallel with the growth of motorization and changes in consumption patterns. Supply chains become more and more dependent on small and frequent deliveries. It is a problem common for most modern cities and one that requires tailor-made solutions which meet local requirements and can be extended, if necessary. Methods: An extensive literature review was conducted to obtain a comprehensive overview of existing urban freight related problems and possible solutions. The specificity of the problem required a broad approach including an analysis of many case studies from European cities and gathering the theoretical background. On this basis a general set of freight related measures was selected for evaluation. Because of the complexity of both the problem and its solutions an adequate method of evaluation was needed. The method had to be flexible and offer an understandable and manageable structure. The analytic network process (ANP was selected for this task. It is a multi-criteria decision making method used in complex decisions, which can measure tangible and intangible factors. The author's aim was to build a sufficiently detailed model that ensures reliable results and accomplishes the goals of the main actors and of sustainable city transport policy. Results and Conclusions: The analysis showed that given the current state of development of urban freight traffic in Gdansk, the situation can be rationalised with regulatory measures. Only well balanced and carefully implemented measures have the potential to rationalize urban freight transport without disturbing the city's economic growth. They have to be prepared in advance on the basis of a continuous analysis of the urban transport system. It is important to involve all actors in the development of more advanced measures in a bottom-up planning process. Otherwise, the risk is that overly complicated solutions without

  11. Reconstructing the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident 30 years after. A unique database of air concentration and deposition measurements over Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Hamburger, Thomas; Talerko, Nikolai; Zibtsev, Sergey; Bondar, Yuri; Stohl, Andreas; Balkanski, Yves; Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

    2016-09-01

    30 years after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident, its radioactive releases still remain of great interest mainly due to the long half-lives of many radionuclides emitted. Observations from the terrestrial environment, which hosts radionuclides for many years after initial deposition, are important for health and environmental assessments. Furthermore, such measurements are the basis for validation of atmospheric transport models and can be used for constraining the still not accurately known source terms. However, although the "Atlas of cesium deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl accident" (hereafter referred to as "Atlas") has been published since 1998, less than 1% of the direct observations of (137)Cs deposition has been made publicly available. The remaining ones are neither accessible nor traceable to specific data providers and a large fraction of these data might have been lost entirely. The present paper is an effort to rescue some of the data collected over the years following the CNPP accident and make them publicly available. The database includes surface air activity concentrations and deposition observations for (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs measured and provided by Former Soviet Union authorities the years that followed the accident. Using the same interpolation tool as the official authorities, we have reconstructed a deposition map of (137)Cs based on about 3% of the data used to create the Atlas map. The reconstructed deposition map is very similar to the official one, but it has the advantage that it is based exclusively on documented data sources, which are all made available within this publication. In contrast to the official map, our deposition map is therefore reproducible and all underlying data can be used also for other purposes. The efficacy of the database was proved using simulated activity concentrations and deposition of (137)Cs from a Langrangian and a Euleurian transport model.

  12. Development of MAAP5.0.3 Spent Fuel Pool Model for Severe Accident Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Mi Ro [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    After the Fukushima accident, the severe accident phenomena in the Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) have been the great issues in the nuclear industry. Generally, during full power operation status, the decay heat of the spent fuel in the SFP is not high enough to cause the severe accident that is the say, the melting of fuel and fuel rack. In addition to this, the SFP of the PWR is not isolated within the containment like the SFP of the old BWR plant, there are so many possible measures to prevent and mitigate severe accidents in the SFP. On the other hand, in the low power shutdown status (fuel refueling), all the core is transferred into the SFP during the refueling period. At this period, if some accidents happen such as the loss of SFP cooling and the failure of SFP integrity then the accidents may be developed into severe accident because the decay heat is high enough. So, the analysis of severe accidents in the SFP during low power shutdown state is greatly affected to the establishment of the major strategies in the severe accident management guideline (SAMG). However, the status of the domestic technical background for those analyses is very weak. it is known that the decay heat of the spent fuel in the SFP is not high enough to cause the severe accident qualitatively. However, there are some possibilities that can cause the severe accidents in the SFP if the loss of SFP cooling and integrity happens simultaneously. The severe accident phenomena in SFP themselves are not much different from those in the containment. However, since the structure of SFP cannot be isolated during the accidents like the containment, the consequence can be extremely significant. So, in terms of the establishment of the severe accident management strategy, it is necessary that the quantitative analysis for the severe accident progression in the SFP should be performed. In this study, the general behavior which can be appeared during the severe accidents in the SFP was analyzed using the

  13. 50 CFR 300.62 - Annual management measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual management measures. 300.62 Section... REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries § 300.62 Annual management measures. Annual management measures may be... of unloading and weighing, and sport fishing for halibut. The Assistant Administrator will...

  14. Severe Accident Recriticality Analyses (SARA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, W. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Hoejerup, F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Puska, E.K. [VTT Energy, Helsinki (Finland); Nilsson, Lars [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Sjoevall, H. [Teoliisuuden Voima Oy (Finland)

    1999-11-01

    Recriticality in a BWR has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In a BWR, the B{sub 4}C control rods would melt and relocate from the core before the fuel during core uncovery and heat-up. If electric power returns during this time-window unborated water from ECCS systems will start to reflood the partly control rod free core. Recriticality might take place for which the only mitigating mechanisms are the Doppler effect and void formation. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management measures, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: 1. the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst, 2. the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst and 3. containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core state initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality - both superprompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation - for the studied range of parameters, i. e. with core uncovery and heat-up to maximum core temperatures around 1800 K and water flow rates of 45 kg/s to 2000 kg/s injected into the downcomer. Since the recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core the power densities are high which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal/g, was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding

  15. Accident: Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

  16. Identification and evaluation of competencies of health professionals in the hospital emergency management of the radiation accident victim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary list of ten competency and forty-six sub-competency statements derived from literature and consultation with experts and based on the general areas of clinical performance defined by the National Board of Medical Examiners were the concern of Phase I of this study. Forty-eight experts in nuclear medicine, radiology, radiotherapy, health physics, medical physics, radiation biology, public and occupational health, surgery, and emergency medicine and nursing considered this preliminary list of competencies and sub-competencies to determine which were essential for health professionals who may be caring for radiation accident victims in hospital emergency departments. Eight competencies and thirty-three sub-competencies were rated as Essential competencies. Competencies dealing with establishing priorities in patient care and initiating treatment, assessment, contamination control, and decontamination were highly rated. In the second part of this study, the Essential competencies were utilized in the development of an original evaluation instrument designed to identify deficiencies and continuing education needs during radiation accident drills or exercises. The instrument was designed for use in sixteen possible patient care situations in which the radiation accident victims have varying medical and radiological conditions. Development of the evaluation instrument was described

  17. Application of ant colony optimization approach to severe accident management measures of Maanshan nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first three guidelines in the Maanshan SAMG were respectively evaluated for the effects in the SBO incident. The MAAP5 code was used to simulate the sequence of events and physical phenomena in the plant. The results show that the priority optimization should be carried out at two separated scenarios, i.e. the power recovered prior or after hot-leg creep rupture. The performance indices in the ant colony optimization could be the vessel life and the hydrogen generation from core for ant colony optimization. (author)

  18. Application of ant colony optimization approach to severe accident management measures of Maanshan nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, C.-M.; Wang, S.-J. [Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-01

    The first three guidelines in the Maanshan SAMG were respectively evaluated for the effects in the SBO incident. The MAAP5 code was used to simulate the sequence of events and physical phenomena in the plant. The results show that the priority optimization should be carried out at two separated scenarios, i.e. the power recovered prior or after hot-leg creep rupture. The performance indices in the ant colony optimization could be the vessel life and the hydrogen generation from core for ant colony optimization. (author)

  19. PTSD in post-road traffic accident patients requiring hospitalization in Indian subcontinent: A review on magnitude of the problem and management guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undavalli, Chaitanya; Das, Piyush; Dutt, Taru; Bhoi, Sanjeev; Kashyap, Rahul

    2014-10-01

    Traumatic events after a road traffic accident (RTA) can be physical and/or psychological. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the major psychological conditions which affect accident victims. Psychological issues may not be addressed in the emergency department(ED) immediately. There have been reports about a mismatch between the timely referrals from ED to occupational or primary care services for these issues. If left untreated, there may be adverse effects on quality of life (QOL) and work productivity. Hospital expenses, loss of income, and loss of work could create a never ending cycle for financial difficulties and burden in trauma victims. The aim of our review is to address the magnitude of PTSD in post-RTA hospitalized patients in Indian subcontinent population. We also attempted to emphasis on few management guidelines. A comprehensive search was conducted on major databases with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) term 'PTSD or post-traumatic stress' and Emergency department and vehicle or road or highway or automobile or car or truck or trauma and India. Out of 120 studies, a total of six studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Our interpretation of the problem is that; hospital expenditure due to trauma, time away from work during hospitalization, and reduction in work performance, are three major hits that can lead RTA victims to financial crisis. Proposed management guidelines are; establish a coordinated triage, implementing a screening tool in the ED, and provide psychological counseling.

  20. PTSD in post-road traffic accident patients requiring hospitalization in Indian subcontinent: A review on magnitude of the problem and management guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitanya Undavalli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic events after a road traffic accident (RTA can be physical and/or psychological. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is one of the major psychological conditions which affect accident victims. Psychological issues may not be addressed in the emergency department(ED immediately. There have been reports about a mismatch between the timely referrals from ED to occupational or primary care services for these issues. If left untreated, there may be adverse effects on quality of life (QOL and work productivity. Hospital expenses, loss of income, and loss of work could create a never ending cycle for financial difficulties and burden in trauma victims. The aim of our review is to address the magnitude of PTSD in post-RTA hospitalized patients in Indian subcontinent population. We also attempted to emphasis on few management guidelines. A comprehensive search was conducted on major databases with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH term ′PTSD or post-traumatic stress′ and Emergency department and vehicle or road or highway or automobile or car or truck or trauma and India. Out of 120 studies, a total of six studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Our interpretation of the problem is that; hospital expenditure due to trauma, time away from work during hospitalization, and reduction in work performance, are three major hits that can lead RTA victims to financial crisis. Proposed management guidelines are; establish a coordinated triage, implementing a screening tool in the ED, and provide psychological counseling.

  1. A feasibility study of the use of incidents and accidents reports to evaluate effects of team resource management in air traffic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, V.; Bove, T.

    2000-01-01

    to the domain of Air Traffic Control under the heading of 'Team Resource Management'. In this adaptation phase, it is important to obtain knowledge concerning the effectiveness of such training programmes in relation to enhancing human factors awareness and knowledge. This requires a methodology for detecting...... training effects. For this purpose a feasibility study has been conducted concerning the use of paper cases - short written reports on real or fictitious incidents or accidents - to discriminate air traffic controllers with regard to their ability to identify 'human factors' determinants involved......Valuable improvements in performance have been obtained by 'Crew Resource Management' (CRM) courses performed in the domain of aviation related to the crew in a cockpit, and in the maritime domain related to the crew on the bridge of large ships. CRM courses are currently being adapted...

  2. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at waste treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations, Volume 3: Appendixes C-H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J. [and others

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the Appendices for the Analysis of Accident Sequences and Source Terms at Waste Treatment and Storage Facilities for Waste Generated by the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations. The main report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed as a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies are assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms are evaluated. A personal computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for calculation of human health risk impacts. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also provide discussion of specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

  3. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at waste treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations, Volume 3: Appendixes C-H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the Appendices for the Analysis of Accident Sequences and Source Terms at Waste Treatment and Storage Facilities for Waste Generated by the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations. The main report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed as a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies are assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms are evaluated. A personal computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for calculation of human health risk impacts. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also provide discussion of specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report

  4. Approaches for measuring the management effectiveness of software projects

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, James Bret; Osmundson, John S.

    2008-01-01

    Effective software project management is a key element in achieving software project success. In order to improve the quality of the management and focus our efforts on the right issues, it is essential to measure software project management effectiveness first. In this report, we introduce four alternative approaches for guiding the development of project management metrics.

  5. Measuring productivity of customer knowledge management in projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanika D. Sofianti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Projects is one of the dominating modes of international business today. Companies interact with their customers in projects for a certain period. To explore the impact of customer knowledge management in such interactions, this paper promotes a measurement framework that can be used to measure the productivity of customer knowledge management. The measures are developed based on previous studies on customer knowledge management and project management. To verify the measures, this study conducted a survey involving 24 projects. The results of the study provide some insights into the impact of customer knowledge management in interactions between companies and their customers through projects.

  6. Study on Emergency Measures for Nuclear Accident of Missile Nuclear Weapon%导弹核武器核事故应急有关问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高桂清; 毕义明

    2001-01-01

    The major task, characteristics, organizing and commending, and resource manipulation of the emergency measures for nuclear accident of missile nuclear weapon are probed into. The measures may be considered as a complex system engineering involving system of organization, personnel, equipment, technique and scientific theory, so on. Relevant problems of emergency measures are deliberately studied referring the practical situations. The results could provide the theoretical guidance to emergency measures for nuclear accident of missile nuclear weapon.%对导弹核武器核事故应急的主要任务、特点、组织指挥以及力量运用等问题进行了探讨,导弹核武器核事故的应急问题是一项涉及体制、人员、装备、技术、科学理论等方面的复杂系统工程,笔者结合实际,有针对性的研究了事故应急有关的问题,可为导弹核武器核事故应急提供理论指导。

  7. Collection, documentation and assessment of data measured in the Federal Republic of Germany after the reactor accident in the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Representative for the Federal Republic of Germany, regions were selected that showed a lesser (Hesse) and higher (Bavaria) contamination. The contamination in individual environmental media (milk, i.a.) was demonstrated by values measured and assessed on a prognostic model and subsequently compared with each other. The intake was then evaluated on the basis of food basket and total body measurement data for determining the dose for various age groups and regions. Against those from food baskets, the doses derived from total body measurements were generally lower by 20-60%. This indicates change in consumption habits, adherence to recommendations and the effect of countermeasures, particularly in the higher contaminated southern region of the Federal Republic of Germany. The intake and dose assessments were compared to those measured during the time of contamination from fallout due to nuclear weapons tests. External radiation exposure and cumulative dose from fallout due to nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl accident were calculated. In 1986, the radiation exposure from external sources and from ingestion in consequence of the reactor accident had reached in the region of highest contamination (County of Berchtesgaden) 40%, in the lesser contaminated region (Hesse) about 5% of the average natural radiation exposure. (orig./HP)

  8. Transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predicting the possible consequences of transportation accidents provides a severe challenge to an analyst who must make a judgment of the likely consequences of a release event at an unpredictable time and place. Since it is impractical to try to obtain detailed knowledge of the meteorology and terrain for every potential accident location on a route or to obtain accurate descriptions of population distributions or sensitive property to be protected (data which are more likely to be more readily available when one deals with fixed-site problems), he is constrained to make conservative assumptions in response to a demanding public audience. These conservative assumptions are frequently offset by very small source terms (relative to a fixed site) created when a transport vehicle is involved in an accident. For radioactive materials, which are the principal interest of the authors, only the most elementary models have been used for assessing the consequences of release of these materials in the transportation setting. Risk analysis and environmental impact statements frequently have used the Pasquill-Gifford/gaussian techniques for releases of short duration, which are both simple and easy to apply and require a minimum amount of detailed information. However, after deciding to use such a model, the problem of selecting what specific parameters to use in specific transportation situations still presents itself. Additional complications arise because source terms are not well characterized, release rates can be variable over short and long time periods, and mechanisms by which source aerosols become entrained in air are not always obvious. Some approaches that have been used to address these problems will be reviewed with emphasis on guidelines to avoid the Worst-Case Scenario Syndrome

  9. Management options for food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. Task 5: disposal of waste milk to sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In emergency exercises, discharge to sea is often put forward as a disposal option for waste milk, the intention being to use the outfalls for coolant water or liquid effluent at nuclear installations. However, so far the legislative constraints and the practical and scientific limitations of this option have not been fully considered. This report sets out the current legal position and evaluates the practicability of transporting milk from an affected farm to a suitable coastal facility for disposal. The effect of discharging milk into coastal water bodies has also been considered, bearing in mind that after a serious accident disposals could continue for several weeks

  10. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R A; Mahaffey, J A; Carr, F Jr

    1992-04-01

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit{trademark}) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report.

  11. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit trademark) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report

  12. 2007 Merit Principles Survey: Performance Management Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Merit Systems Protection Board — 2007 survey responses from selected Federal agencies summarizing the existence of positive performance management practices and employee engagement scores for each...

  13. Multiple Errands Test-Revised (MET-R): a performance-based measure of executive function in people with mild cerebrovascular accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, M Tracy; Giles, Gordon Muir; Ryan, Jennifer D; Baum, Carolyn M; Dromerick, Alexander W; Polatajko, Helene J; Edwards, Dorothy F

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This article describes a performance-based measure of executive function, the Multiple Errands Test-Revised (MET-R), and examines its ability to discriminate between people with mild cerebrovascular accident (mCVA) and control participants. METHOD. We compared the MET-R scores and measures of CVA outcome of 25 participants 6 mo post-mCVA and 21 matched control participants. RESULTS. Participants with mCVA showed no to minimal impairment on measures of executive function at hospital discharge but reported difficulty with community integration at 6 mo. The MET-R discriminated between participants with and without mCVA (p ≤ .002). CONCLUSION. The MET-R is a valid and reliable measure of executive functions appropriate for the evaluation of clients with mild executive function deficits who need occupational therapy to fully participate in community living. PMID:23791321

  14. Apparatus development for measurement of (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi; Okashiro, Yasuharu; Kai, Hiroaki; Fujii, Syuuji; Mishima, Atsushi; Matsubara, Takahide; Yoshida, Shinji

    2016-09-01

    We developed an apparatus containing a NaI(Tl) scintillator to measure the (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The unfolding method with the least-squares technique was used to determine the radioactivity. Detector responses for each radionuclide in soil were calculated with EGS5 code for the unfolding method. The radionuclides that were measured were (40)K, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (208)Tl, (214)Bi, and (228)Ac. The measured spectrum agreed well with the spectrum calculated from the response matrix and measured radioactivities. The unfolding method allows us to use the NaI(Tl) scintillator despite the overlap of peaks.

  15. Apparatus development for measurement of (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi; Okashiro, Yasuharu; Kai, Hiroaki; Fujii, Syuuji; Mishima, Atsushi; Matsubara, Takahide; Yoshida, Shinji

    2016-09-01

    We developed an apparatus containing a NaI(Tl) scintillator to measure the (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The unfolding method with the least-squares technique was used to determine the radioactivity. Detector responses for each radionuclide in soil were calculated with EGS5 code for the unfolding method. The radionuclides that were measured were (40)K, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (208)Tl, (214)Bi, and (228)Ac. The measured spectrum agreed well with the spectrum calculated from the response matrix and measured radioactivities. The unfolding method allows us to use the NaI(Tl) scintillator despite the overlap of peaks. PMID:27289189

  16. Scenario development on application of engineering technology for geological disposal. Study on engineering measures for accidents and human factors (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the safety assessment for geological disposal of the high-level radioactive waste, scenarios need to be developed in consideration of influence on disposal systems by applying engineering technologies at each stage of site characterization, construction, operation and closure of disposal facility. To develop the scenarios, the engineering technologies which are applicable for each stage of geological disposal are listed in previous study. From this information, deviation events caused by the accidents and human factors lurking in the engineering technologies, which are deviated states of engineered and natural barriers from expected states occurred by applying engineering technologies were identified. Assuming the occurrence of the deviation events, possible evolution of features of barriers or loss/reduction of safety functions of barriers was discussed. Finally, the sequence of influence of the deviation events caused by application of engineering technologies on long-term safety after closure of the disposal facility was shown as scenarios. In this study, we compiled information of prevention measures for the accidents and human factors. Furthermore, we surveyed prevention measures and detecting means for the deviation events and compiled applicable influence reduction means for the deviation events. In addition, we identified remarkable deviation events from the point of view of safety, whose influence is not expected to be reduced sufficiently by these engineering measures. These results were integrated to the database that could support development of scenarios caused by application of engineering technologies to geological disposal. (author)

  17. Performance of Core Exit Thermocouple for PWR Accident Management Action in Vessel Top Break LOCA Simulation Experiment at OECD/NEA ROSA Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Takeda, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hideo

    Presented are experiment results of the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) conducted at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) with a focus on core exit thermocouple (CET) performance to detect core overheat during a vessel top break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) simulation experiment. The CET temperatures are used to start accident management (AM) action to quickly depressurize steam generator (SG) secondary side in case of core temperature excursion. Test 6-1 is the first test of the OECD/NEA ROSA Project started in 2005, simulating withdraw of a control rod drive mechanism penetration nozzle at the vessel top head. The break size is equivalent to 1.9% cold leg break. The AM action was initiated when CET temperature rose up to 623K. There was no reflux water fallback onto the CETs during the core heat-up period. The core overheat, however, was detected with a time delay of about 230s. In addition, a large temperature discrepancy was observed between the CETs and the hottest core region. This paper clarifies the reasons of time delay and temperature discrepancy between the CETs and heated core during boil-off including three-dimensional steam flows in the core and core exit. The paper discusses applicability of the LSTF CET performance to pressurized water reactor (PWR) conditions and a possibility of alternative indicators for earlier AM action than in Test 6-1 is studied by using symptom-based plant parameters such as a reactor vessel water level detection.

  18. 50 CFR 648.77 - Framework adjustments to management measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... recommended management measures are based allows for adequate time to publish a proposed rule, and whether the... management measures should be published first as a proposed rule, the measures will be published as a... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Framework adjustments to...

  19. 50 CFR 648.108 - Framework adjustments to management measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... recommended management measures are based allows for adequate time to publish a proposed rule, and whether the... management measures should be published first as a proposed rule, the measures will be published as a... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Framework adjustments to...

  20. Simulation of a low-pressure severe accident scenario in a PWR with ATHLET-CD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Mathias; Koch, Marco K. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Reactor Simulation and Safety Group

    2013-07-01

    The plant behavior of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) during a severe accident scenario is analyzed with system code ATHLET-CD Mod. 2.2C in order to assess the code capabilities in terms of the late-phase of the core degradation. For this purpose a severe accident sequence caused by a Station Black-out and a large break in the primary cooling system is simulated both without any accident management measures and with a delayed reflooding of the substantially degraded core. Selected code results are presented in this paper. (orig.)

  1. Exploratory analysis of Spanish energetic mining accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Freijo, Modesto; Rossell, Josep M

    2012-01-01

    Using data on work accidents and annual mining statistics, the paper studies work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining sector in 1999-2008. The following 3 parameters are considered: age, experience and size of the mine (in number of workers) where the accident took place. The main objective of this paper is to show the relationship between different accident indicators: risk index (as an expression of the incidence), average duration index for the age and size of the mine variables (as a measure of the seriousness of an accident), and the gravity index for the various sizes of mines (which measures the seriousness of an accident, too). The conclusions of this study could be useful to develop suitable prevention policies that would contribute towards a decrease in work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining industry. PMID:22721539

  2. Severe Accident Progression and Consequence Assessment Methodology Upgrades in ISAAC for Wolsong CANDU6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amongst the applications of integrated severe accident analysis codes like ISAAC, the principal are to a) help develop an understanding of the severe accident progression and its consequences; b) support the design of mitigation measures by providing for them the state of the reactor following an accident; and c) to provide a training platform for accident management actions. After Fukushima accident there is an increased awareness of the need to implement effective and appropriate mitigation measures and empower the operators with training and understanding about severe accident progression and control opportunities. An updated code with reduced uncertainties can better serve these needs of the utility making decisions about mitigation measures and corrective actions. Optimal deployment of systems such as PARS and filtered containment venting require information on reactor transients for a number of critical parameters. Thus there is a greater consensus now for a demonstrated ability to perform accident progression and consequence assessment analyses with reduced uncertainties. Analyses must now provide source term transients that represent the best in available understanding and so meaningfully support mitigation measures. This requires removal of known simplifications and inclusion of all quantifiable and risk significant phenomena. Advances in understanding of CANDU6 severe accident progression reflected in the severe accident integrated code ROSHNI are being incorporated into ISAAC using CANDU specific component and system models developed and verified for Wolsong CANDU 6 reactors. A significant and comprehensive upgrade of core behavior models is being implemented in ISAAC to properly reflect the large variability amongst fuel channels in feeder geometry, fuel thermal powers and burnup. The paper summarizes the models that have been added and provides some results to illustrate code capabilities. ISAAC is being updated to meet the current requirements and

  3. Licensing topical report: the measurement and modelling of time-dependent fission product release from failed HTGR fuel particles under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of fission products from failed fuel particles was measured under simulated accident (core heatup) conditions. A generic model and specific model parameters that describe delayed fission product release from the kernels of failed HTGR fuel particles were developed from the experimental results. The release of fission products was measured from laser-failed BISO ThO2 and highly enriched (HEU) TRISO UC2 particles that had been irradiated to a range of kernel burnups. The burnups were 0.25, 1.4, and 15.7% FIMA for ThO2 particles and 23.5 and 74% FIMA for UC2 particles. The fission products measured were nuclides of xenon, iodine, krypton, tellurium, and cesium

  4. EFFICIENCY OF PROTECTIVE MEASURES TO REDUCE INTERNAL DOSE FROM CAESIUM RADIONUCLIDES FOR THE INHABITANTS OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION AREA IN THE FIRST YEARS AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Travnikova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we use the data on the content of caesium radionuclides in foodstuffs and in Bryansk region adult inhabitant’s body, on their food ration and its changes during the first years after the Chernobyl accident, and on the measures to protect the population from internal exposure. We calculate dynamics of 137Cs intake in the body and its contents therein, while maintaining a traditional diet and while replacing food products for radiationfree ones. The results show that the actual 137Cs content in the body is usually below the one calculated on the basis of the food ration. It was found out that individual 137Cs contents in the body correlate with the rate of meat, dairy and natural food products consumption and with factors of protection from internal exposure. The efficiency of the protective measures to reduce the intake and the content of caesium radionuclides in the body of inhabitants, as well as the average effective dose in the first years after the accident has been quantitatively assessed.

  5. Use of activity measurements in the plume from Chernobyl to deduce fuel state before, during and after the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work performed at Berkely Nuclear Laboratories both prior to the meeting in Vienna at which USSR gave full details of the Chernobyl accident and after that meeting is recorded. Plume data from Western Europe were used to deduce the likely damage to the fuel and its previous irradiation history. The note concludes that the source to the environment consisted of an initial dispersion of fuel particulate followed by a prolonged release at a lower rate, the total release being some 3% of the core inventory of fuel. Early and late in the release period it was enhanced in volatile species. Damage to the fuel was thus due both to mechanical disruption and to high temperatures. During the early dispersive event high temperatures (probably approaching fuel melting) were reached in some of the core, though the proportion of the fuel affected may have been small. (UK)

  6. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at waste treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations, Volume 1: Sections 1-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies are assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms are evaluated. A personal computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for calculation of human health risk impacts. The methodology is in compliance with the most recent guidance from DOE. It considers the spectrum of accident sequences that could occur in activities covered by the WM PEIS and uses a graded approach emphasizing the risk-dominant scenarios to facilitate discrimination among the various WM PEIS alternatives. Although it allows reasonable estimates of the risk impacts associated with each alternative, the main goal of the accident analysis methodology is to allow reliable estimates of the relative risks among the alternatives. The WM PEIS addresses management of five waste streams in the DOE complex: low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste (HW), high-level waste (HLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (TRUW). Currently projected waste generation rates, storage inventories, and treatment process throughputs have been calculated for each of the waste streams. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also provide discussion of specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report

  7. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at waste treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations, Volume 1: Sections 1-9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J. [and others

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies are assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms are evaluated. A personal computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for calculation of human health risk impacts. The methodology is in compliance with the most recent guidance from DOE. It considers the spectrum of accident sequences that could occur in activities covered by the WM PEIS and uses a graded approach emphasizing the risk-dominant scenarios to facilitate discrimination among the various WM PEIS alternatives. Although it allows reasonable estimates of the risk impacts associated with each alternative, the main goal of the accident analysis methodology is to allow reliable estimates of the relative risks among the alternatives. The WM PEIS addresses management of five waste streams in the DOE complex: low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste (HW), high-level waste (HLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (TRUW). Currently projected waste generation rates, storage inventories, and treatment process throughputs have been calculated for each of the waste streams. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also provide discussion of specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

  8. 50 CFR 648.24 - Framework adjustments to management measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for scientific research, regional management, and process for inseason adjustment to the annual... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Framework adjustments to management measures. 648.24 Section 648.24 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT,...

  9. Cooperation in the Event of Nuclear Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is concerned only with the action to be taken in respect of an individual directly affected by an accident and not with the more general measures relating to the population as a whole. Keeping the same sequence of ideas, the paper deals with nuclear establishments and cites criteria for classifying them; hence only the relationship between the establishment and the hospital, and between the radiation protection experts and medical personnel, is discussed. The complex organization of emergency measures, reception of the victim of the accident, and the treatment possibly required should be based on standard practice and published material, both national and international, allowance being made for the characteristics of each sector. A ''flexible'' plan of co-ordination is given as an illustration. Action must be taken in such cases at the site of the accident, inside and outside the establishment, and above all at the hospital. All categories of persons are involved in the process, i.e. fellow-workers, management, specialized services, and medical personnel, each with their own part to play. The manpower and equipment brought into service therefore vary, and depend upon the internal and external relations maintained by the establishment. The measures envisaged should provide for the transport, reception and treatment of those involved in the accident. An existing organization of this kind is described as an illustration. Finally, no action can be of value without full knowledge of the facts and thorough training of the personnel. Some clearly defined ideas on the.subject are considered under this heading. (author)

  10. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by US Department of Energy waste management operations. Volume 1: Sections 1-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms evaluated. A personal-computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for the calculation of human health risk impacts. The WM PEIS addresses management of five waste streams in the DOE complex: low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste (HW), high-level waste (HLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (TRUW). Currently projected waste generation rates, storage inventories, and treatment process throughputs have been calculated for each of the waste streams. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated, and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. Key assumptions in the development of the source terms are identified. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also discuss specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report

  11. Study on actions for social acceptance of a nuclear power plant incident/accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When an incident/accident has occurred, dealing technically with it in an appropriate way is essential for social acceptance. One of the most important actions that are expected from the plant representative is to provide, without delay, each of the concerned authorities and organizations with full information concerning the incident/accident, while necessary technical measures are being implemented. While the importance of socially dealing with the incident/accident is widely recognized, up to now there have been no attempts to study previous incidents/accidents cases from the social sciences viewpoint. Therefore, in the present study is a case study of the incident/accident that occurred in 1991 at the No.2 Unit of the Mihama Nuclear Plant of Kansai Power Co., Ltd.. The data used in the present study is based on intensive interview of the staff involved in this incident/accident. The purpose of the study was to shed light on the conditions necessary for maintaining and improving the skill of the plant representative when dealing with social response in case of an incident/accident. The results of the present study has led to a fuller recognition of the importance of the following factors: On the personal level: 1) recognition of personal accountability, 2) complete disclosure of information concerning the incident/accident. On the organizational level: 1) acceptance of different approaches and viewpoints, 2) promoting risk-taking behavior, 3) top management's vision and commitment to providing a social response. (author)

  12. Tool to Assist the Management of Severe Accident Guide NPP Vandellos-II; Herramienta de Ayuda a la Gestion de las Guias de Accidentes Severos de CN. Vandellos-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Varela, J.; Pontejo Calvente, A.; Martinez Fanegas, R.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of the project is the development of the software tool {sup M}anagement System Severe Accident Guide (GGAS) {sup w}hich makes tracking and optimal application of these guidelines by the Technical Support Center (CAT) Vandellos II.

  13. Radiation accident/disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described are the course of medical measures following Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) Accident after the quake and tsunami (Mar. 11, 2011) and the future task for radiation accident/disaster. By the first hydrogen explosion in FNPP (Mar. 12), evacuation of residents within 20 km zone was instructed, and the primary base for measures of nuclear disaster (Off-site Center) 5 km afar from FNPP had to work as a front base because of damage of communicating ways, of saving of injured persons and of elevation of dose. On Mar. 13, the medical arrangement council consisting from stuff of Fukushima Medical University (FMU), National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Safety Research Association and Prefectural officers was setup in residents' hall of Fukushima City, and worked for correspondence to persons injured or exposed, where communication about radiation and between related organizations was still poor. The Off-site Center's head section moved to Prefectural Office on Mar. 15 as headquarters. Early in the period, all residents evacuated from the 20 km zone, and in-hospital patients and nursed elderly were transported with vehicles, >50 persons of whom reportedly died mainly by their base diseases. The nation system of medicare for emergent exposure had consisted from the network of the primary to third facilities; there were 5 facilities in the Prefecture, 3 of which were localized at 4-9 km distance from FNPP and closed early after the Accident; and the secondary facility of FMU became responsible to all exposed persons. There was no death of workers of FNPP. Medical stuff also measured the ambient dose at various places near FNPP, having had risk of exposure. At the Accident, the important system of command, control and communication was found fragile and measures hereafter should be planned on assumption of the worst scenario of complete damage of the infrastructure and communication. It is desirable for Disaster Medical Assistance Team which

  14. Measurements of 134Cs and 137Cs in urine and estimation of the inter nal dose of an adult exposed to the Chernobyl Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To estimate the internal dose of a Chinese visiting scholar internally contaminated because of the Chernobyl Accident, the contents of 134Cs and 137Cs in urine were measured using a Ge(Li) γ-spectrometer. The internal doses were calculated based on data from the ICRP Publications. The effective doses from 134Cs and 137Cs were estimated to be 61 μSv and 98 μ Sv, respectively. The sum of 159 μSv was lower than the total effective dose (310 μSv), from the inhalation and ingestion of natural radionuclides. The dose of 131I was also reviewed referring to the UNSCEAR 2000 Report. The equivalent effective dose of 131I was estimated to be 2.9 mSv, 18 times more than the amount of 134Cs and 137Cs. Therefore, it is considered that the earlier estimation of internal doses of 131I is important in evaluating radiation injuries from a nuclear reactor accident.

  15. Technical measures for management of Construction Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于泽东; 王英明

    2014-01-01

    the production of improved quality of life, cannot do without the construction, in recent years, the construction quality of the increasingly stringent requirements, how to ef ectively carry out the technical management of building construction is worthy of discussion. This paper wil discuss from the fol owing aspects.

  16. [Drowning accidents in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krandick, G; Mantel, K

    1990-09-30

    This is a report on five boys aged between 1 and 5 years who, after prolonged submersion in cold water, were treated at our department. On being taken out of the water, all the patients were clinically dead. After 1- to 3-hour successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, with a rectal temperature of about 27 degrees C, they were rewarmed at a rate of 1 degree/hour. Two patients died within a few hours after the accident. One patient survived with an apallic syndrome, 2 children survived with no sequelae. In the event of a water-related accident associated with hypothermia, we consider suitable resuscitation to have preference over rewarming measures. The most important treatment guidelines and prognostic factors are discussed.

  17. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, C S

    1989-09-01

    Twenty-two nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast-pulse Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a total of 62 different organizations a forum for discussion of criticality accident dosimetry, an opportunity to test their neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry systems under a variety of simulated criticality accident conditions, and the experience of comparing results with reference dose values as well as with the measured results obtained by others making measurements under identical conditions. Sixty-nine nuclear accidents (27 with unmoderated neutron energy spectra and 42 with eight different shielded spectra) have been simulated in the studies. Neutron doses were in the 0.2-8.5 Gy range and gamma doses in the 0.1-2.0 Gy range. A total of 2,289 dose measurements (1,311 neutron, 978 gamma) were made during the intercomparisons. The primary methods of neutron dosimetry were activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and blood sodium activation. The main methods of gamma dose measurement were thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiophotoluminescent glass, and film. About 68% of the neutron measurements met the accuracy guidelines (+/- 25%) and about 52% of the gamma measurements met the accuracy criterion (+/- 20%) for accident dosimetry. PMID:2777549

  18. The cost of nuclear accidents in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRSN has produced estimates for costs of possible nuclear accidents on French PWRs. This paper outlines the strong differences between severe accidents, which feature a core melt but more or less controlled radioactive releases, and major accidents implying massive releases. In the first case, crisis managers would be faced with a mainly 'economic' accident, the larger part of costs being borne in a diffused fashion by the economy at large (image costs and impacts on electricity production). In the second case, authorities would be faced with the challenges of a full-scale radiological crisis involving sizeable areas of contaminated territories and large numbers of radiological refugees. (author)

  19. Value Judgements and Trade-Offs in Management of Nuclear Accidents: Using an Ethical Matrix in Practical Decision-Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience after the Chernobyl accident has shown that restoration strategies need to consider a wide range of different issues to ensure the long-term sustainability of large and varied contaminated areas. Thus, the criteria by which we evaluate countermeasures needs to be extended from simple cost benefit effectiveness and radiological protection standards to a more integrated, holistic approach, including social and ethical aspects. Within the EU STRATEGY project, the applicability of many countermeasures is being critically assessed using a wide range of criteria, such as practicability, environmental side-effects, public perceptions of risk, communication and dialogue, and ethical aspects such as informed consent and the fair distribution of costs and doses. Although such socio-ethical factors are now the subject of a substantial field of research, there has been little attempt to integrate them in a practical context for decision makers. Within this paper, we suggest practical means by which these can be taken into account in the decision making process, proposing use of an ethical matrix to ensure transparent and systematic consideration of values in selection of a restoration strategy. in selection of a restoration strategy

  20. Speed Spatial Distribution Models for Traffic Accident Section of Freeway Based on Computer Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Decai Li; Jiangwei Chu; Wenhui Zhang; Xiaojuan Wang; Guosheng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Simulation models for accident section on freeway are built in microscopic traffic flow simulation environment. In these models involving 2⁃lane, 3⁃lane and 4⁃lane freeway, one detector is set every 10 m to measure section running speed. According to the simulation results, speed spatial distribution curves for traffic accident section on freeway are drawn which help to determine dangerous sections on upstream of accident section. Furthermore, the speed spatial distribution models are obtained for every speed distribution curve. The results provide theoretical basis for determination on temporal and spatial influence ranges of traffic accident and offer reference to formulation of speed limit scheme and other management measures.

  1. CNEN, IAEA and ISO normative requirements for measurement management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibrit, Eduardo [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil). Dept. da Qualidade], e-mail: kibrit@ctmsp.mar.mil.br

    2009-07-01

    International standard ISO 10012:2003 establishes requirements for measurement management systems, including requirements for measurement processes and measuring equipment. ISO 9001:2008 presents requirements for quality management systems, including requirements for the control of monitoring and measuring equipment. ISO 17025:2005 presents general requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. In the nuclear field the requirements for measurement management are established by standards published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and in Brazil, by the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). The present paper presents and discusses the normative requirements for measurement management, considering requirements established by National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO). (author)

  2. Outline of the Desktop Severe Accident Graphic Simulator Module for OPR-1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. Y.; Ahn, K. I. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This paper introduce the desktop severe accident graphic simulator module (VMAAP) which is a window-based severe accident simulator using MAAP as its engine. The VMAAP is one of the submodules in SAMEX system (Severe Accident Management Support Expert System) which is a decision support system for use in a severe accident management following an incident at a nuclear power plant. The SAMEX system consists of four major modules as sub-systems: (a) Severe accident risk data base module (SARDB): stores the data of integrated severe accident analysis code results like MAAP and MELCOR for hundreds of high frequency scenarios for the reference plant; (b) Risk-informed severe accident risk data base management module (RI-SARD): provides a platform to identify the initiating event, determine plant status and equipment availability, diagnoses the status of the reactor core, reactor vessel and containment building, and predicts the plant behaviors; (c) Severe accident management simulator module (VMAAP): runs the MAAP4 code with user friendly graphic interface for input deck and output display; (d) On-line severe accident management guidance module (On-line SAMG); provides available accident management strategies with an electronic format. The role of VMAAP in SAMEX can be described as followings. SARDB contains the most of high frequency scenarios based on a level 2 probabilistic safety analysis. Therefore, there is good chance that a real accident sequence is similar to one of the data base cases. In such a case, RI-SARD can predict an accident progression by a scenario-base or symptom-base search depends on the available plant parameter information. Nevertheless, there still may be deviations or variations between the actual scenario and the data base scenario. The deviations can be decreased by using a real-time graphic accident simulator, VMAAP.. VMAAP is a MAAP4-based severe accident simulation model for OPR-1000 plant. It can simulate spectrum of physical processes

  3. Measuring and managing risk in UK listed firms

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen sustained pressure on firms in the UK and globally to demonstrate good corporate governance and, in particular, to manage risk in an appropriate manner; the overall aim of this study is therefore to contribute to the understanding of how to measure and manage risk at the firm level more effectively. This involves three specific research objectives: to investigate the measurement properties of some of the most commonly used corporate risk measures; to investiga...

  4. Physical reconstruction of the radiological accident of Chilca (Lima - Peru)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological accident happened in the Chilca District, the Canete County at 60 km to the south of Lima-Peru, during the night of January 11 to 12, 2012. The physical reconstruction of the accident was carried out in January 21, 2012, by means of the information gathering administrative and technical of the radioactive source as well as of the installation, the personnel and the involved procedures in the accidental event, information of the space geometry where the event took place. The preliminary information indicates that the source could have been locked in the guide tube of the equipment, next to the collimator in the first takes radiographic. The radiation monitors were not activated on the procedure, impeding this way, not to realize the flaw and causing that the personnel were exposed to the radiation during the whole work period. Their hands and especially their fingers would have been only to some millimeters of the source. With the obtained information and the measurements of the exposure rates of the radioactive source, was carried out the dose calculation to total body, the dose received in the hands and the dose received in the index finger of the left hand. The accident happened by operative procedure breach, by lack of training of the operators. The physical reconstruction of the accident contributes fundamental information for the decisions taking in the medical management of the accidents by radiation. (author)

  5. Measurement of airborne 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs nuclides due to the Fukushima reactors accident in air particulate in Milan (Italy)

    CERN Document Server

    Clemenza, Massimiliano; Previtali, Ezio; Sala, Elena

    2011-01-01

    After the earthquake and the tsunami occurred in Japan on 11th March 2011, four of the Fukushima reactors had released in air a large amount of radioactive isotopes that had been diffused all over the world. The presence of airborne 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs in air particulate due to this accident has been detected and measured in the Low Radioactivity Laboratory operating in the Department of Environmental Sciences of the University of Milano-Bicocca. The sensitivity of the detecting apparatus is of 0.2 \\mu Bq/m3 of air. Concentration and time distribution of these radionuclides were determined and some correlations with the original reactor releases were found. Radioactive contaminations ranging from a few to 400 \\mu Bq/m3 for the 131I and of a few tens of \\mu Bq/m3 for the 137Cs and 134Cs have been detected

  6. Scoping Experiments for Pressure Drop Measurement for the Ex-Vessel Debris Bed Coolability in Severe Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ho; Kim, Eun Ho; Park, Hyun Sun [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moo Hwan [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ma, Weimin; Bechta, Sevostian [Nuclear Power Safety Division, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-05-15

    To ensure the long-term cooling of corium in the reactor cavity, it is important to ensure the coolant ingression into the internally heat generated corium debris bed governed by pressure drop in the porous media. According to the previous investigations on molten fuel-coolant interactions (FCIs) experiments, the debris beds are expected to form channels in the bed due to intensive boiling and flow. And also, it was found that quenched particulate debris bed was composed of multi-sized (0∼10 mm), irregular shape particles and it has a micro/macro inhomogeneity such as axially and radially stratified debris bed, where a layer of smaller particles covers the main bed part. In this particulate debris bed with the internal heat generation by decay heat, not only co- but also counter-current two-phase flow may be occurred by the water inflow through sides of bed combined with steam outflow to top of bed. To investigate the effect of each characteristics of heterogeneous debris bed expected in real severe accident scenarios on pressure drop with various conditions, an experimental facility called as PICASSO (Pressure drop Investigation and Coolability ASSessment through Observation) facility was constructed. With the experimental facility, the scoping test was conducted as injecting upward air flow into the bottom of particle bed composed of 2 mm, 5 mm spherical SUJ-2 balls respectively, and the experimental data compared with Ergun equation. As a result of the single phase flow experiment using air, Ergun equation predicts the experimental data for the spherical particles with the diameter of 2 mm and 5 mm with a mean deviation of 14.62 %.

  7. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  8. Accidents and human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the TMI accident occurred it was 4 a.m., an hour when the error potential of the operators would have been very high. The frequency of car and train accidents in Japan is also highest between 4 a.m. and 6 a.m. The error potential may be classified into five phases corresponding to the electroencephalogramic pattern (EEG). At phase 0, when the delta wave appears, a person is unconscious and in deep sleep; at phase I, when the theta wave appears, he is very tired, sleepy and subnormal; at phase II, when the alpha wave appears, he is normal, relaxed and passive; at phase III, when the beta wave appears, he is normal, clear-minded and active; at phase IV, when the strong beta or epileptic wave appears, he is hypernormal, excited and incapable of normal judgement. Should an accident occur at phase II, the brain condition may jump to phase IV. At this phase the error or accident potential is maximum. The response of the human brain to different types of noises and signals may vary somewhat for different individuals and for different groups of people. Therefore, the possibility that such differences in brain functions may influence the mental structure would be worthy of consideration in human factors and in the design of man-machine systems. Human reliability and performance would be affected by many factors: medical, physiological and psychological, etc. The uncertainty involved in human factors may not necessarily be probabilistic, but fuzzy. Therefore, it would be important to develop a theory by which both non-probabilistic uncertainties, or fuzziness, of human factors and the probabilistic properties of machines can be treated consistently. From the mathematical point of view, probabilistic measure is considered a special case of fuzzy measure. Therefore, fuzzy set theory seems to be an effective tool for analysing man-machine systems. To minimize human error and the possibility of accidents, new safety systems should not only back up man and make up for his

  9. Measuring enterprise proactiveness in managing occupational safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderstrup-Andersen, Hans H. K.; Fløcke, Thomas; Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to communicate results, and lessons learned, from developing and applying a national questionnaire based survey for measuring the initiation of occupational safety activities in Danish enterprises and public institutions1. The survey is cross-sectional and it is part of t...

  10. The performance measurement-management divide in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert; Deber, Raisa

    2016-03-01

    What happens when performance measurement and management (PMM) is applied to public health systems? This review of the experiences of high-income jurisdictions reveals considerable challenges, some familiar from the general public management literature and some more unique to public health. To aid understanding, the PMM ladder, a framework for evaluating PMM systems is developed and applied to 55 public health measurement systems from Australia, Canada, EU, New Zealand, UK and US. Results indicate that: considerable measurement is occurring for informational purposes; measurement focuses more on clinical than on population health measures; and there is relatively little use of measurement results for improving management. Results demonstrate that much public health performance measurement is restricted to population health outcomes and fails to include more proximate activity and output measures that would be more useful for managing public health organizations. There are early signs of the emergence of a new breed of public health performance measurement that attempts to do just this. The PMM ladder proved useful for assessing efforts across a range of jurisdictions. It allows policymakers and managers to easily compare their PMM efforts with others and assists researchers in assessing what happens when PMM is applied to public health.

  11. gLite Workload Management System Performance Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Svraka, N; Belic, A; Bogojevic, A R

    2006-01-01

    In this paper an introduction to the gLite Grid middleware and one of its most important components, Workload Management System (WMS), responsible for management of user jobs is given.Useful performance metrics of gLite WMS are defined from a Grid application point of view, and preliminary results of performance measurements are presented and briefly analyzed.

  12. Quality assurance measurement for emergency management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlowski, M.S. [SL-OE-SD-IN Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Under the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950, as amended, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is charged with maintenance of a nationwide inventory of 4.3 million radiological instruments procured and granted by the federal government to state and local governments. These instruments are used by trained state Radiological Response Team Members, first responders, and critical workers to support the population from a national security or large-scale peacetime radiological disaster, e.g., Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, Satellite Reentry, etc. The inventory is maintained through a network of 100% federally funded state maintenance and calibration facilities, with overall technical guidance and standardization provided by the FEMA Radiological Instrumentation Test Facility. The system used to support maintenance and standardized calibration of the inventory consists of CDV-794 Radiation Calibrator (High Range), CDV-765 Model 2 Gamma Transfer Standard, CDV-790 Model 1 Calibrator (Low Range), and Dosimeter Transfer Standards. Past studies have indicated the {open_quotes}Readiness{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Reliability{close_quotes} of the inventory to meet mission requirements based upon a standardized system of maintenance and calibration. FEMA has just initiated a new instrument Readiness and Reliability study with the State of Ohio Radiological Instrument Maintenance and Calibration Program to provide data to reassess the capability of the current inventory to support all types of peacetime and national security missions.

  13. 50 CFR 648.127 - Framework adjustments to management measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... habitat (and fishing gear management measures that impact EFH), description and identification of habitat... restrictions, recreational possession limit, recreational seasons, closed areas, commercial seasons, commercial trip limits, commercial quota system including commercial quota allocation procedure and possible...

  14. Severe accident simulation at Olkiuoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirkkonen, H.; Saarenpaeae, T. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), Olkiluoto (Finland); Cliff Po, L.C. [Micro-Simulation Technology, Montville, NJ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A personal computer-based simulator was developed for the Olkiluoto nuclear plant in Finland for training in severe accident management. The generic software PCTRAN was expanded to model the plant-specific features of the ABB Atom designed BWR including its containment over-pressure protection and filtered vent systems. Scenarios including core heat-up, hydrogen generation, core melt and vessel penetration were developed in this work. Radiation leakage paths and dose rate distribution are presented graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an 486 DX2-66, PCTRAN-TVO achieves a speed about 15 times faster than real-time. A convenient and user-friendly graphic interface allows full interactive control. In this paper a review of the component models and verification runs are presented.

  15. The Use of Deer Vehicle Accidents as a Proxy for Measuring the Degree of Interaction Between Human and Deer Populations and Its Correlation With the Incidence Rate of Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiznia, Daniel H.; Christos, Paul J.; LaBonte, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    The study described in this article examined the relationship between the incidence rate of deer vehicle accidents (DVAs), a proxy for measuring the interaction between populations of humans and deer, and human Lyme disease incidence rate. The authors also examined the relationship between deer population density and human Lyme incidence rate. They analyzed data from Connecticut’s Department of Environmental Protection and the Department of Public Health from 1999 through 2008 by deer management zone (DMZ) and town. For DVA incidence rate versus Lyme incidence rate for both DMZs and towns, most of the correlation coefficients computed yearly were moderate to strong and all of the p-values were significant. A weak correlation was observed between deer population density and Lyme disease incidence rate by DMZ. The authors propose DVAs as a proxy for measuring the interaction between coexisting populations of humans and deer. The authors’ study suggests that additional investigations of DVAs and their relationship to Lyme disease to further assess the utility of public health interventions are warranted. PMID:23621054

  16. LESSONS FROM FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR ACCIDENT FOR NUCLEAR EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT IN CHINA%日本福岛核事故对我国核应急管理的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王韶伟; 柴建设; 岳会国; 林权益; 晋宏博; 王红瑞

    2012-01-01

    Fukushima nuclear accident is reviewed. Laws and regulations of nuclear emergency management and nuclear emergency management system in China are presented in this paper. Nuclear emergency response, radiation environmental monitoring, radioactive consequence assessment, information publicity and public opinion control in China during Fukushima nuclear accident are introduced. Advices are given for promoting nuclear emergency management in China, based on experiences of Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident, international suggestions and recommended actions: enhanced recognition ability of nuclear accident risk, strengthened assessment ability of nuclear accident consequence, and positive and efficient response to public sentiment.%在简要回顾日本福岛核电站事故的基础上,阐述了我国现有的核应急管理法律法规和核应急管理体系,从应急响应、辐射环境监测、放射性后果评估、信息公开和舆论监控等方面介绍了我国在日本福岛核事故期间的应急管理.最后依据福岛核事故的经验,结合国际上相关国家的建议和推荐的行动计划,针对我国国情,从提高核事故风险认识能力,加强核事故后果评估能力,积极有效应对核事故舆情3个方面给出提升我国核事故应急管理水平的建议.

  17. Monitoring severe accidents using AI techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011, there has been increasing concern regarding severe accidents in nuclear facilities. Severe accident scenarios are difficult for operators to monitor and identify. Therefore, accurate prediction of a severe accident is important in order to manage it appropriately in the unfavorable conditions. In this study, artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, such as support vector classification (SVC), probabilistic neural network (PNN), group method of data handling (GMDH), and fuzzy neural network (FNN), were used to monitor the major transient scenarios of a severe accident caused by three different initiating events, the hot-leg loss of coolant accident (LOCA), the cold-leg LOCA, and the steam generator tube rupture in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The SVC and PNN models were used for the event classification. The GMDH and FNN models were employed to accurately predict the important timing representing severe accident scenarios. In addition, in order to verify the proposed algorithm, data from a number of numerical simulations were required in order to train the AI techniques due to the shortage of real LOCA data. The data was acquired by performing simulations using the MAAP4 code. The prediction accuracy of the three types of initiating events was sufficiently high to predict severe accident scenarios. Therefore, the AI techniques can be applied successfully in the identification and monitoring of severe accident scenarios in real PWRs.

  18. The accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed

  19. Catastrophe model of the accident process, safety climate, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastello, Stephen J; Lynn, Mark

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed (a) to address the evidence for situational specificity in the connection between safety climate to occupational accidents, (b) to resolve similar issues between anxiety and accidents, (c) to expand and develop the concept of safety climate to include a wider range of organizational constructs, (d) to assess a cusp catastrophe model for occupational accidents where safety climate and anxiety are treated as bifurcation variables, and environ-mental hazards are asymmetry variables. Bifurcation, or trigger variables can have a positive or negative effect on outcomes, depending on the levels of asymmetry, or background variables. The participants were 1262 production employees of two steel manufacturing facilities who completed a survey that measured safety management, anxiety, subjective danger, dysregulation, stressors and hazards. Nonlinear regression analyses showed, for this industry, that the accident process was explained by a cusp catastrophe model in which safety management and anxiety were bifurcation variables, and hazards, age and experience were asymmetry variables. The accuracy of the cusp model (R2 = .72) exceeded that of the next best log-linear model (R2 = .08) composed from the same survey variables. The results are thought to generalize to any industry where serious injuries could occur, although situationally specific effects should be anticipated as well.

  20. 硝酸装置铂网中毒事故原因分析及解决措施%Cause Analysis of Poisoning Accident of Platinum Net in Nitric Acid Plant and Its Solution Measure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘利新

    2014-01-01

    In allusion to that a relatively serious poisoning accident of platinum net existed in the nitric acid section of ammonium nitrate plant in Hei-longjiang Chemical Engineering Group Corporation, the reason of accident was analyzed and the appropriate solution measure was briefly described.%针对黑化集团硝铵厂硝酸工段一次较为严重的铂网中毒事故,分析了事故原因,简述了相应的解决措施。

  1. 基于事故致因理论的实验室安全管理体系的分析%Analysis on the Laboratory Management System Based on Accident-Cauring Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩雪; 宋旭梅; 景峰

    2016-01-01

    Compared with the other accidents, laboratory accidents are much emergent and complicated. The outcomes of laboratory accidents directly affect the construction and stability of the campus, therefore, the safety management is the top priority of every laboratory in every campus. Based on the laboratory management situation of Textile & Chemical Engineering Experimental Demonstration Center in Qiqihar University, the paper aims to provide some reference for the laboratory safety management of other universities by doing the following aspects in view of accident reason theory: to explore the potential reasons leading to the laboratory safety accident; to further improve the rules and strengthen the leadership as well as optimize the management in line with our own practices;to enhance the safety awareness and skills of the laboratory workers to avoid the accident and optimize safety management.%高校实验室事故的后果与其他事故相比,更具有突发性、复杂性等特点,直接影响高校建设与校园安定,故高校实验室的安全管理成为一个至关重要的问题。针对齐齐哈尔大学轻化工程实验示范中心的实验室管理现状,基于事故致因理论,探究了可能诱发实验室安全事故的原因,结合自身的管理实践,进一步完善规章制度、强化组织领导、优化管理流程、加强宣传教育,以及提高实验室人员的使用素质和安全意识等,以避免实验室事故的发生,优化安全管理,为其他高校实验室安全管理提供一定的借鉴。

  2. Causes Analysis and Preventive Measures of the J436A Magnetic Pump Shaft Holding Accident%J436A 磁力泵抱轴原因分析与防范措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王邦旭; 卢志勇

    2014-01-01

    After analyzing the disassembly and assembly of the magnetic pump ,discuss the causes and preventive measures of the magnetic pump shaft holding accident .%通过对磁力泵拆卸情况及装配过程的分析,探讨磁力泵抱轴的原因及防范措施。

  3. Report of the working group 'Regulatory requirements on AM - Concept of nuclear and radiation safety during beyond-design-basis accidents'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The developed working group report contains the following main paragraphs: legal basis and basis for regulatory requirements for on-site and off-site Accident Management (AM), regulatory requirements or recommendations for on-site AM and for emergency preparedness, background information concerning the implementation and review of an AM program as a basis for an AM guideline. Overview about AM/SAM implementation in member countries of the SAMINE project; measure and candidates for high level actions based upon US SAMG; interactions of severe accident research and the regulatory positions, relationship between different components of an accident management programme are also given

  4. Radiological fundamentals for decision making on public radiation protection measures in case of accident caused radionuclide release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accepted revised version of the recommendations concerning in the frame of emergency management by the German SSK (radiation protection commission) the radiological fundamentals dating from 1990 were revised. The corrections of the dose benchmarks for children and juveniles for the case of iodine tablets intake that were included, in the chapter on radiation protection for the field and rescue personnel of fire brigade and police the new regulations of the radiation protection ordinance were added. The volume includes two parts: Guidelines for emergency planning in the environment of nuclear facilities; guideline on public information in nuclear emergency situations.

  5. The accident information and management system CAIRE for real time applications. Das Stoerfall-Leitsystem CAIRE fuer Echtzeitanwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenk, H.D.; Kluttig, H.; Witt, H. de; Kistinger, S.; Kruschel, K.P.; Knaup, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    Remote monitoring systems have increased their importance as an inherent part of environmental surveillance installations in the FRG and in other countries. The existing systems in Germany are designed to cover both, routine operation and emergency situations. They provide site specific meteorological data, gross effluent dose rates, and dose rate measurements at on-site and approximately 30 off-site locations in the vicinity of a plant. Based on such telemetric surveillance networks an advanced automatic on-line system named CAIRE (Computer Aided Response to Emergencies) has been developed as a real time emergency response tool for nuclear facilities. This tool is designed to provide decision makers with most relevant radiation exposure data of the population at risk. CAIRE allows the continuous feed-back of current measurements of environmental impacts into diagnostic calculations for bringing measurements and calculations into best correspondence. This is the main advantage of CAIRE compared to conventional emergency systems and it results in both, a consistent actual interpretation of a bulk of single measurements of dose rates and/or activity concentrations, and a more realistic set of model parameters. Subsequently these parameters are used as input data for the evaluation of actual dose commitments and projections of them by means of real-time calculation. A second advantage is a more realistic assessment of the source term if in-plant dose rate measurements are not available due to emissions out of leckages, e.g. In such cases the assessment of the source term can be based an of-plant dose rate measurements located on the ground within a source distance between 200 and 300 m. (orig./HP).

  6. Sarnet lecture notes on nuclear reactor severe accident phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'Severe Accident Phenomenology Short Course' is part of the Excellence Spreading activities of the European Severe Accident Research NETwork of Excellence SARNET (project of the EURATOM 6. Framework programme). It was held at Cadarache, 9-13 January 2006. The course was divided in 14 lectures covering all aspects of severe accident phenomena that occur during a scenario. It also included lectures on PSA-2, Safety Assessment and design measures in new LWR plants for severe accident mitigation (SAM). This book presents the lecture notes of the Severe Accident Phenomenology Short Course and condenses the essential knowledge on severe accident phenomenology in 2008. (authors)

  7. Follup-up of delayed health consequences of the Istanbul radiological accident and lessons to be learned from its medical management. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A serious radiological accident occurred in Istanbul, Turkey, in December 1998. Two transport containers, one had a spent 60Co radiotherapy source, were transferred in February 1998 from licensed premises in Ankara to unauthorized premises in Istanbul. After several months the premises were sold together with the source transport containers. The new owners, not realizing what was in the packages, sold them as scrap metal. Ten scrap metal dealers started to dismantle the containers on 13 December 1998. The steel shell of containers was peeled off using oxyacetylene torch, mechanical tools and also an excavator. They managed to open the containers. Shortly after they removed shielding plug and drawer assembly, six of them had nausea that rapidly progressed to vomiting and stopped working. They thought their sickness was due to lead poisoning and they buried lead containers but the source remained at the junkyard, adjacent to the family house two weeks. On 27 December 1998, the scrap metal, including the source, was loaded onto a truck by hand and with a shovel, and taken to a large scrap metal dealer in the same area. The source remained at this second junkyard under a pile of scrap metal till its recovery on 10 January 1999. Although accident victims applied to several out-patient clinics and hospitals, their symptoms were not initially diagnosed as being caused by radiation exposure. This situation has occurred in many other reported accidents - medical doctors are frequently not able to recognize a radiation injury. Early diagnosis, and treatment, can be crucial, and in some cases even life saving. With adequate supportive care, platelet transfusions and granulocyte stimulation by GCSF - when indicated -, return to safe levels of all blood components can be achieved within a few days. The clinical evolution observed in this case confirms, that even with rather severe haematopoietic syndrome due to accidental whole body irradiation of a few grays (about the LD50

  8. Management options for food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. Task 1: radionuclide behaviour during composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composting can be used to stabilise and reduce the volume of waste agricultural crops. The composting process results in the generation of leachates. The partitioning of radionuclides between the leachate and the solid compost is an important factor in assessing the practicability of the process as a management option. This report describes experimental work in which the partitioning of 90Sr, 137Cs, 239Pu and 241Am has been determined under two contrasting sets of conditions. The results indicated that the proportion of activity transferred to the leachate depended on the experimental conditions. Temporary compost heaps such as those that a farmer might set up on open ground would benefit from being protected from precipitation, since this would reduce the amount of activity transferred to the underlying soil. For large engineered facilities where the composting process might take place in open windrows, it would be prudent to assess the need to collect leachate for subsequent treatment or disposal. (author)

  9. Improvements in emergency management in nuclear power plants after the Fukushima accident: ORE, CAE and CAGE; Mejoras en la gestion de emergencias en centrales nucleares tras el accidente de Fukushima: ORE, CAE y CAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimenez Gonzalez, S.; Sanchez Lombardia, A.; Martin Calvarro, J. M.; Calvin Cuartero, M.

    2016-08-01

    After Fukushima accident European NPP safety was checked by means of homogenous stress test promoted by European council. At Spain CSN issued Technical instructions to confirm safety NPP margins were appropriate . As a result of this assessment licensees promoted improving NPP safety by strengthen ERO; a new Support Emergency center (CAE) and construction of a new alternative management centre (CAGE) at each site. European countries have been improving and reinforced NPP safety in a similar way to Spain. (Author)

  10. Residual limb volume change: Systematic review of measurement and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan E. Sanders, PhD

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Management of residual limb volume affects decisions regarding timing of fit of the first prosthesis, when a new prosthetic socket is needed, design of a prosthetic socket, and prescription of accommodation strategies for daily volume fluctuations. This systematic review assesses what is known about measurement and management of residual limb volume change in persons with lower-limb amputation. Publications that met inclusion criteria were grouped into three categories: group I: descriptions of residual limb volume measurement techniques; group II: studies investigating the effect of residual limb volume change on clinical care in people with lower-limb amputation; and group III: studies of residual limb volume management techniques or descriptions of techniques for accommodating or controlling residual limb volume. We found that many techniques for the measurement of residual limb volume have been described but clinical use is limited largely because current techniques lack adequate resolution and in-socket measurement capability. Overall, limited evidence exists regarding the management of residual limb volume, and the evidence available focuses primarily on adults with transtibial amputation in the early postoperative phase. While we can draw some insights from the available research about residual limb volume measurement and management, further research is required.

  11. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

  12. Studies for integration of recent information from risk analyses into systems for accident management in the environment of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The module for turbulence parametrisation (DFKSIG), developed by an ad-hoc working group of the Franco-German Commission, as well as the upstream pre-processors for calculation of the required boundary layer parameters from meteorological measurements (modules MPT and MPS) are to be integrated into the current version of the RODOS/RESY program package of the Institut fuer Neutronenphysik and Reaktortechnik (INR) of KArlsruhe Research Center. (orig./CB)

  13. Radioactive materials transport accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSweeney, T.I.; Maheras, S.J.; Ross, S.B. [Battelle Memorial Inst. (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Over the last 25 years, one of the major issues raised regarding radioactive material transportation has been the risk of severe accidents. While numerous studies have shown that traffic fatalities dominate the risk, modeling the risk of severe accidents has remained one of the most difficult analysis problems. This paper will show how models that were developed for nuclear spent fuel transport accident analysis can be adopted to obtain estimates of release fractions for other types of radioactive material such as vitrified highlevel radioactive waste. The paper will also show how some experimental results from fire experiments involving low level waste packaging can be used in modeling transport accident analysis with this waste form. The results of the analysis enable an analyst to clearly show the differences in the release fractions as a function of accident severity. The paper will also show that by placing the data in a database such as ACCESS trademark, it is possible to obtain risk measures for transporting the waste forms along proposed routes from the generator site to potential final disposal sites.

  14. Fatal motorcycle accidents and alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M

    1987-01-01

    A series of fatal motorcycle accidents from a 7-year period (1977-1983) has been analyzed. Of the fatalities 30 were operators of the motorcycle, 11 pillion passengers and 8 counterparts. Of 41 operators 37% were sober at the time of accident, 66% had measurable blood alcohol concentration (BAC......); 59% above 0.08%. In all cases where a pillion passenger was killed, the operator of the motorcycle had a BAC greater than 0.08%. Of the killed counterparts 2 were non-intoxicated, 2 had a BAC greater than 0.08%, and 4 were not tested. The results advocate that the law should restrict alcohol...

  15. Analysis of Fukushima Daiichi Accident Using HFACS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Saeed Almheiri [Korea Advanced Institue of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The shadow of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident is still too big and will last long. On the other hand, it could still teach us lots of lessons to better design and operate nuclear power plants. In this paper, we will be focusing on the Fukushima Daiichi accident, especially on human organizational factors. We will analyze the accident using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in order to better understand the organizational climate of TEPCO{sup 1} and NISA{sup 2} that led to Fukushima Daiichi Accident. HFACS was developed for the U. S. aviation industry and has been used at many industries like the rail and mining industries. We found that the HFACS to be greatly beneficial in investigating the latent and organizational causes for the accident. The application results show that the causes of Fukushima Daiichi accident were spread out from sharp end (i.e. Unsafe Act) to blunt end (i. e. Organizational Influences). This means that the corresponding countermeasures should cover from front line staff to management. Thus, we managed to develop a better understanding on how to prevent similar errors or violations. The incident and near-miss have a lot of helpful information because it may show the actual and latent deficiencies of complex systems. We applied the HFACS into Fukushima Daiichi accident to better locate the causes related to both sharp and blunt ends of operation of NPP. In order to derive useful lessons from the accident analysis, the analyst should try to find the similarities not differences from the incident. It is imperative that whatever accident/incident analysis systems we use, we should fully utilize the disastrous Fukushima accident.

  16. An Evaluation Methodology Development and Application Process for Severe Accident Safety Issue Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    A general evaluation methodology development and application process (EMDAP) paradigm is described for the resolution of severe accident safety issues. For the broader objective of complete and comprehensive design validation, severe accident safety issues are resolved by demonstrating comprehensive severe-accident-related engineering through applicable testing programs, process studies demonstrating certain deterministic elements, probabilistic risk assessment, and severe accident management...

  17. Integration of Web-GIS and oil spill simulation applications for environmental management of near-shore spill accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of a near-shore oil spill, the use of a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) can greatly improve emergency response management and oil recovery operations by providing real-time information support. This paper presented a Web-GIS that is used in combination with an oil spill simulation model. The structure and content of the system was defined after the Nakhodka vessel spilled oil in the Sea of Japan in January 1997, leaving serious environmental damage to the coastal area of the Ishikawa prefecture. The Web-GIS provides a wide range of environmental and oil spill related information, presented in a geographical form. The system also consolidates spill and environmental damage related information from different sources and provides links to the specialized environmental and socio-economical information of other GIS databases. The oil spill modeling subsystem is part of an application for protection planning and oil recovery operations. With this system, oil-drift simulation begins at the onset of any oil spill and then remote sensing data are used to estimate the position and state of the spilled oil. The spill information is then assimilated into the spill model and the observed simulated results are uploaded to the Web page for public information. The applicability of the Web-GIS is extended by support for information gathering from the public and the responsible agencies. The relative simplicity of the system interface is an added advantage. 9 refs., 4 figs

  18. Conceptualization and measurement of key account management orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Gounaris, Spiros; Tzempelikos, Nektarios

    2012-01-01

    Even though the importance of Key Account Management (KAM) in building long term buyer-seller relationships is widely recognized in literature this long term perspective of KAM lacks appropriate empirical examination. The purpose of this study is to propose a conceptualization of Key Account Management Orientation (KAMO) as well as to derive an empirical based measure of it. In doing so, we first establish the construct through qualitative research and then using quantitative data from 304 pe...

  19. Fukushima accident study using MELCOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Randall O Gauntt

    2013-01-01

    The accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station stunned the world as the sequences played out over severals days and videos of hydrogen explosions were televised as they took place.The accidents all resulted in severe damage to the reactor cores and releases of radioactivity to the environment despite heroic measures had taken by the operating personnel.The following paper provides some background into the development of these accidents and their root causes,chief among them,the prolonged station blackout conditions that isolated the reactors from their ultimate heat sink — the ocean.The interpretations given in this paper are summarized from a recently completed report funded by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE).

  20. Road characteristics and bicycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, P; Björnstig, U; Bygren, L O

    1996-12-01

    In Umeå, Sweden, defects in the physical road surface contributed to nearly half of the single bicycle accidents. The total social cost of these injuries to people amount to at least SEK 20 million (SEK 60,000 or about USD 8,500 per accident), which corresponds to the estimated loss of "eight life equivalents a year". Improved winter maintenance seems to have the greatest injury prevention potential and would probably reduce the number of injuries considerably, whereas improved road quality and modification of kerbs would reduce the most severe injuries. A local traffic safety program should try to prevent road accidents instead of handling the consequences of them. In accordance with Parliament decisions on traffic we would like to see increased investment in measures favoring bicycle traffic, where cycling is seen as a solution, not as a problem.