WorldWideScience

Sample records for accident investigation sites

  1. Accident investigation of the electrical shock incident at the PG and E PVUSA site Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, L.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Garrett, J.O.; Tyler, R.

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the Accident Investigation Team (Team) assembled in response to a request from Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) to understand the events surrounding the electric shock of a worker at the PVUSA site in Davis, California and to provide recommendations to prevent such events from recurring. The report gives complete details on the sequence of events surrounding the accident and identifies 27 facts related to accident itself. Four technical deficiencies in the electrical systems which require further investigation were identified. The Team believes that the root cause of this accident was related to the absence of a proactive organizational entity responsible for overall health and safety on the site. Two contributing factors were identified. First, the prototype nature and associated operational difficulties of the electrical inverter resulted in large maintenance demands. Second, several of the injured employee`s co-workers noted that he occasionally failed to use appropriate personal protective equipment, but they never reported this practice to management. The direct cause of this accident was the failure of the injured employee to wear appropriate personal protective equipment (i.e., rubber gloves). Based on the review of the facts established in this investigation, five recommendations are presented to the funding agencies to reduce the possibility of future accidents at the PVUSA site.

  2. Supervisor's accident investigation handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This pamphlet was prepared by the Environmental Health and Safety Department (EH and S) of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to provide LBL supervisors with a handy reference to LBL's accident investigation program. The publication supplements the Accident and Emergencies section of LBL's Regulations and Procedures Manual, Pub. 201. The present guide discusses only accidents that are to be investigated by the supervisor. These accidents are classified as Type C by the Department of Energy (DOE) and include most occupational injuries and illnesses, government motor-vehicle accidents, and property damages of less than $50,000

  3. Accident investigation and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, J. van; Drupsteen, L.

    2013-01-01

    Many organisations and companies take extensive proactive measures to identify, evaluate and reduce occupational risks. However, despite these efforts things still go wrong and unintended events occur. After a major incident or accident, conducting an accident investigation is generally the next ste

  4. Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On May 14, 1997, at 7:53 p.m. (PDT), a chemical explosion occur-red in Tank A- 109 in Room 40 of the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (Facility) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site, approximately 30 miles north of Richland, Washington. The inactive processing Facility is part of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). On May 16, 1997, Lloyd L. Piper, Deputy Manager, acting for John D. Wagoner, Manager, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), formally established an Accident Investigation Board (Board) to investigate the explosion in accordance with DOE Order 225. 1, Accident Investigations. The Board commenced its investigation on May 15, 1997, completed the investigation on July 2, 1997, and submitted its findings to the RL Manager on July 26, 1997. The scope of the Board's investigation was to review and analyze the circumstances of the events that led to the explosion; to analyze facts and to determine the causes of the accident; and to develop conclusions and judgments of need that may help prevent a recurrence of the accident. The scope also included the application of lessons learned from similar accidents within DOE. In addition to this detailed report, a companion document has also been prepared that provides a concise summary of the facts and conclusions of this report, with an emphasis on management issues (DOE/RL-97-63)

  5. Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerton, R.E.

    1997-07-25

    On May 14, 1997, at 7:53 p.m. (PDT), a chemical explosion occur-red in Tank A- 109 in Room 40 of the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (Facility) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site, approximately 30 miles north of Richland, Washington. The inactive processing Facility is part of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). On May 16, 1997, Lloyd L. Piper, Deputy Manager, acting for John D. Wagoner, Manager, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), formally established an Accident Investigation Board (Board) to investigate the explosion in accordance with DOE Order 225. 1, Accident Investigations. The Board commenced its investigation on May 15, 1997, completed the investigation on July 2, 1997, and submitted its findings to the RL Manager on July 26, 1997. The scope of the Board`s investigation was to review and analyze the circumstances of the events that led to the explosion; to analyze facts and to determine the causes of the accident; and to develop conclusions and judgments of need that may help prevent a recurrence of the accident. The scope also included the application of lessons learned from similar accidents within DOE. In addition to this detailed report, a companion document has also been prepared that provides a concise summary of the facts and conclusions of this report, with an emphasis on management issues (DOE/RL-97-63).

  6. Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the Accident Investigation Board Report on the May 14, 1997, Chemical Explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington (DOE/RL-97-59). The referenced report provides a greater level of detail and includes a complete discussion of the facts identified, analysis of those facts, conclusions derived from the analysis, identification of the accident's causal factors, and recommendations that should be addressed through follow-up action by the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. This companion document provides a concise summary of that report, with emphasis on management issues. Evaluation of emergency and occupational health response to, and radiological and chemical releases from, this accident was not within the scope of this investigation, but is the subject of a separate investigation and report (see DOE/RL-97-62)

  7. 29 CFR 1960.29 - Accident investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accident investigation. 1960.29 Section 1960.29 Labor... MATTERS Inspection and Abatement § 1960.29 Accident investigation. (a) While all accidents should be investigated, including accidents involving property damage only, the extent of such investigation shall...

  8. Accident/Mishap Investigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Richard; Wolfe, Shawn; Gawdiak, Yuri; Carvalho, Robert; Panontin, Tina; Williams, James; Sturken, Ian

    2007-01-01

    InvestigationOrganizer (IO) is a Web-based collaborative information system that integrates the generic functionality of a database, a document repository, a semantic hypermedia browser, and a rule-based inference system with specialized modeling and visualization functionality to support accident/mishap investigation teams. This accessible, online structure is designed to support investigators by allowing them to make explicit, shared, and meaningful links among evidence, causal models, findings, and recommendations.

  9. Site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the construction of nuclear power stations, comprehensive site investigations are required to assure the adequacy and suitability of the site under consideration. The site investigations cover mainly the following matters: 1) hydrology; 2) geology; 3) seismology; 4) meteorology. Site investigations for nuclear power stations are carried out in stages in increasing detail and to an appreciable depth in order to assure the soundness of the project, and, in particular, to determine all measures required to assure the safety of the nuclear power station and the protection of the population against radiation exposure. (orig./RW)

  10. Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    On the evening of April 20, 2010, a well control event allowed hydrocarbons to escape from the Macondo well onto Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, resulting in explosions and fire on the rig. Eleven people lost their lives, and 17 others were injured. The fire, which was fed by hydrocarbons from the well, continued for 36 hours until the rig sank. Hydrocarbons continued to flow from the reservoir through the wellbore and the blowout preventer (BOP) for 87 days, causing a spill of national significance. BP Exploration and Production Inc. was the lease operator of Mississippi Canyon Block 252, which contains the Macondo well. BP formed an investigation team that was charged with gathering the facts surrounding the accident, analyzing available information to identify possible causes and making recommendations to enable prevention of similar accidents in the future. The BP investigation team began its work immediately in the aftermath of the accident, working independently from other BP spill response activities and organizations. The ability to gather information was limited by a scarcity of physical evidence and restricted access to potentially relevant witnesses. The team had access to partial real-time data from the rig, documents from various aspects of the Macondo well's development and construction, witness interviews and testimony from public hearings. The team used the information that was made available by other companies, including Transocean, Halliburton and Cameron. Over the course of the investigation, the team involved over 50 internal and external specialists from a variety of fields: safety, operations, subsea, drilling, well control, cementing, well flow dynamic modeling, BOP systems and process hazard analysis. This report presents an analysis of the events leading up to the accident, eight key findings related to the causal chain of events and recommendations to enable the prevention of a similar accident. The investigation team worked

  11. Research investigation report on Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was issued in February 2012 by Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation's Independent Investigation Commission on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, which consisted of six members from the private sector in independent positions and with no direct interest in the business of promoting nuclear power. Commission aimed to determine the truth behind the accident by clarifying the various problems and reveal systematic problems behind these issues so as to create a new starting point by identifying clear lessons learned. Report composed of four chapters; (1) progression of Fukushima accident and resulting damage (accident management after Fukushima accident, and effects and countermeasure of radioactive materials discharged into the environment), (2) response against Fukushima accident (emergency response of cabinet office against nuclear disaster, risk communication and on-site response against nuclear disaster), (3) analysis of historical and structural factors (technical philosophy of nuclear safety, problems of nuclear safety regulation of Fukushima accident, safety regulatory governance and social background of 'Safety Myth'), (4) Global Context (implication in nuclear security, Japan in nuclear safety regime, U.S.-Japan relations for response against Fukushima accident, lessons learned from Fukushima accident - aiming at creation of resilience). Report could identify causes of Fukushima accident and factors related to resulting damages, show the realities behind failure to prevent the spread of damage, and analyze the overall structural and historical background behind the accidents. (T. Tanaka)

  12. Lockout/tagout accident investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James R

    2014-08-01

    When I was in boot camp, our drill instructor told us that assume makes an ass out of u and me. It was true then, and it is true today. In this instance, assumptions came into play several times, both by the worker and by the companies involved. The good news is that it did not result in a fatality, but that does not relieve the pain and suffering that the employee had to endure. This same type of scenario is likely repeated at many job sites throughout the United States. Multiple contractors, dozens--maybe hundreds--of workers, power system equipment and devices; all of these have to be taken into consideration when performing maintenance activities. It can become a blur. People are people, and people make mistakes. That is why we have OSHA regulations, NFPA 70E, company procedures, policies, etc. Most if not all of us have either been involved in accidents or know people who have been. It's not like it's a secret that people make mistakes, but talk to some and they seem to think only others have that failing. Safety is not about just any one procedure or rule. It's about slowing down, making a plan, and executing that plan. There are plenty of tools available to help us: policies, procedures, codes, standards, federal regulations, and state and local laws. I am not about to say that the worker involved in this incident was not taking safety seriously, but he failed to follow some fundamental safety rules like test-before-touch. If he had taken just that one step, there would be nothing to write about. PMID:25188988

  13. 14 CFR 415.41 - Accident investigation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accident investigation plan. 415.41 Section... Launch Range § 415.41 Accident investigation plan. An applicant must file an accident investigation plan... reporting and responding to launch accidents, launch incidents, or other mishaps, as defined by § 401.5...

  14. Independent accident investigation: a modern safety tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, safety has been subjected to a fragmented approach. In the past, every department has had its own responsibility towards safety, focusing either on working conditions, internal safety, external safety, rescue and emergency, public order or security. They each issued policy documents, which in their time were leading statements for elaboration and regulation. They also addressed safety issues with tools of various nature, often specifically developed within their domain. Due to a series of major accidents and disasters, the focus of attention is shifting from complying with quantitative risk standards towards intervention in primary operational processes, coping with systemic deficiencies and a more integrated assessment of safety in its societal context. In The Netherlands recognition of the importance of independent investigations has led to an expansion of this philosophy from the transport sector to other sectors. The philosophy now covers transport, industry, defense, natural disaster, environment and health and other major occurrences such as explosions, fires, and collapse of buildings or structures. In 2003 a multi-sector covering law will establish an independent safety board in The Netherlands. At a European level, mandatory investigation agencies are recognized as indispensable safety instruments for aviation, railways and the maritime sector, for which EU Directives are in place or being progressed [Transport accident and incident investigation in the European Union, European Transport Safety Council, ISBN 90-76024-10-3, Brussel, 2001]. Due to a series of major events, attention has been drawn to the consequences of disasters, highlighting the involvement of rescue and emergency services. They also have become subjected to investigative efforts, which in return, puts demands on investigation methodology. This paper comments on an evolutionary development in safety thinking and of safety boards, highlighting some consequences for strategic

  15. ACCOUNT OF ROAD CONDITIONS WHILE INVESTIGATING TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    D. D. Selioukov; I. I. Leonovich

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers problems on better traffic safety at government, authority, engineering and driver activity levels, account of road conditions while investigating traffic accidents. The paper also provides road defects mentioned in forensic transport examinations of traffic accidents.

  16. The Importance of Safety in Construction Sector: Costs of Occupational Accidents in Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Yılmaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Occupational accidents cause important social and economic problems by loss of life and physical injuries. Construction sector involves high risk due to its production processes and labor intensive characteristic and because of occupational accidents the sector brings up against financial loss in large scale. In developing countries, construction sector is one of the most important sectors that have a great contribution to economic development with its employment capacity and added-value to the economy. On the other hand, due to the lack of preventive measures, occupational accidents occur, frequently in construction in Turkey. Major occupational accidents are defined as the cause of serious injuries and a long-term disability; minor occupational accidents are defined as the cause of insignificant injuries and short-term disability. Minor occupational accidents are not considered sufficiently, they are even not kept as a record. It is known that minor occupational accidents, which are not considered sufficiently and even not registered, cause great financial loss in workplaces. The aim of this paper is to investigate the cost of workforce loss caused by the accidents in construction sites by using the statistics of three construction sites in Turkey and to compare the financial losses of minor and major occupational accidents. In this study, three construction project are investigated in Turkey in 2009 and it is obtained that the cost of workday loss caused by major occupational accidents is 19431.75 $ and minor occupational accidents cause a loss of 6924.25 $. The cost of workday loss caused by minor occupational accidents are almost 35 % of major workday losses’. These costs presents the importance of preventive measures for workers’ health and safety in construction.

  17. Understanding accident investigators : a study of the required skills and behaviours for effective UK inspectors of accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Flaherty, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    In the UK, accidents associated with maritime, aviation and rail transport are conducted by the Inspectors of Accidents at the Marine, Air and Rail Accident Investigation Branches. A review of current academic literature provides little insight into the qualities and attributes essential for the role of accident investigator. A wealth of material exists about accidents themselves but as yet, a study into the profile of the accident investigator has not been conducted. This research soug...

  18. Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, J.; Rollenhagen, C.; Hollnagel, E.;

    2012-01-01

    Accident investigation reports usually lead to a set of recommendations for change. These recommendations are, however, sometimes resisted for reasons such as various aspects of ethics and power. When accident investigators are aware of this, they use several strategies to overcome the resistance....... This paper describes strategies for dealing with four different types of resistance to change. The strategies were derived from qualitative analysis of 25 interviews with Swedish accident investigators from seven application domains. The main contribution of the paper is a better understanding of effective...... strategies for achieving change associated with accident investigation. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Jonas; Rollenhagen, Carl; Hollnagel, Erik; Rankin, Amy

    2012-03-01

    Accident investigation reports usually lead to a set of recommendations for change. These recommendations are, however, sometimes resisted for reasons such as various aspects of ethics and power. When accident investigators are aware of this, they use several strategies to overcome the resistance. This paper describes strategies for dealing with four different types of resistance to change. The strategies were derived from qualitative analysis of 25 interviews with Swedish accident investigators from seven application domains. The main contribution of the paper is a better understanding of effective strategies for achieving change associated with accident investigation. PMID:22269530

  20. Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Jonas; Rollenhagen, Carl; Hollnagel, Erik; Rankin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Accident investigation reports usually lead to a set of recommendations for change. These recommendations are, however, sometimes resisted for reasons such as various aspects of ethics and power. When accident investigators are aware of this, they use several strategies to overcome the resistance. This paper describes strategies for dealing with four different types of resistance to change. The strategies were derived from qualitative analysis of 25 interviews with Swedish accident investigat...

  1. Aeromedical Lessons Learned from the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation provides an update on the Columbia accident response presented in 2005 with additional information that was not available at that time. It will provide information on the following topics: (1) medical response and Search and Rescue, (2) medico-legal issues associated with the accident, (3) the Spacecraft Crew Survival Integrated Investigation Team Report published in 2008, and (4) future NASA flight surgeon spacecraft accident response training.

  2. The medical investigation of airship accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, C J; McMeekin, R R; Ruehle, C J; Canik, J J

    1988-07-01

    A review of the autopsy reports for 18 of 21 victims in 3 of the 4 nonrigid Navy airship accidents during the period 1955 to 1966 revealed that the patterns of injury, complicated by postcrash entrapment, immersion, or fire, are similar to the injuries observed in the low-speed, low-altitude crashes of rigid airships and of light aircraft. With the renewed interest in the development of airships for military purposes, there is a need for improved design related to crashworthiness and to aircrew habitability, safety, restraint, and egress in order to enhance the chance for survival in the event of an accident. PMID:3171506

  3. ACCOUNT OF ROAD CONDITIONS WHILE INVESTIGATING TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Selioukov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems on better traffic safety at government, authority, engineering and driver activity levels, account of road conditions while investigating traffic accidents. The paper also provides road defects mentioned in forensic transport examinations of traffic accidents.

  4. SITE OF ACCIDENTS FOR VICTIMS OF ASSAULT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KINGMA, J

    1994-01-01

    The preponderance of males in violence was observed in 82.1% of 2,822 victims of assault (treated for injuries at the emergency unit of a hospital). Sex differences were found for site of occurrence of the violent act. Women became victims of violence most frequently (34.6%) at home and men in the s

  5. Safety investigation of team performance in accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, G; Todorov, V; Takov, T; Petrov, V; Stoychev, K; Vladimirov, V; Chukov, I

    2004-07-26

    The paper presents the capacities of the performance evaluation of teamwork (PET) method. Its practicability and efficiency are illustrated by retrospective human reliability analyse of the famous nuclear and maritime accidents. A quantitative assessment of operators' performance on the base of thermo-hydraulic (T/H) calculations and full-scope simulator data for set of NPP design basic accidents with WWER is demonstrated. The last data are obtained on the 'WWER-1000' full-scope simulator of Kozloduy NPP during the regular practical training of the operators' teams. An outlook on the "evaluation system of main control room (MCR) operators' reliability" project, based on simulator data of operators' training is given. PMID:15231353

  6. Investigation of the core melt accident in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the thesis the core melt accident, heating up and collapsing of the reactor core were investigated. The most important parameters of influence were found and their effect on the development of the accident were shown. A causal diagram was developed representing the great number of events occurring in the course of the core melt accident as well as their mutual dependences. Models were developed and applied for a detailed description of the collapse process, melting of materials, heat and material transport at flow-off of the melted mass and for taking into account steam blocking in the destroyed core sections. (orig.)

  7. Assessment of off-site consequences of nuclear accidents (MARIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief report is given of a workshop held in Luxembourg in 1985 on methods for assessing the off-site radiological consequences of nuclear accidents (MARIA). The sessions included topics such as atmospheric dispersion; foodchain transfer; urban contamination; demographic and land use data; dosimetry, health effects, economic and countermeasures models; uncertainty analysis; and application of probabilistic risk assessment results as input to decision aids. (U.K.)

  8. A Tool for Safety Officers Investigating " simple" Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    Most workplace accidents that happen in enterprises are simple and seldom result in serious injuries. Very often these kinds of workplace accidents are not investigated, and if they are, then the investigation is very brief, with comments such as that it was the victim’s own fault or just...... an unfortunate situation which could not be helped. Most prevention analysis and investigation methods focus on high risks, such as explosion, fire, lack of containment for chemicals, etc. In the industrial world, such risks do give rise to disasters, albeit very seldom. Nevertheless, the fact is that simpler...... on the investigation methods applied in major accidents, but comprises a simpler and more user-friendly presentation. The tool involves three steps: Mapping the facts, analysing the events, and developing preventive solutions. Practical application of the tool has shown that it affords managers and workers...

  9. Investigation of the management of the wastes from plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant discharged large amount of radio-nuclides and contaminated wide areas in and out of the site. The decontamination, storage, treatment and disposal of generated wastes are now under planning. Though regulations for the radioactive wastes arisen from normal operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities have been prepared, it is necessary to make amendment of those regulations to deal with wastes from the severe accident which may have much different features on nuclides contents, or possible accompanying hazardous chemical materials. Characteristics of wastes from accidents in foreign nuclear installations, and the treatment and the disposal of those wastes were surveyed by literature and radionuclide migration from the assumed temporally storage yards of the disaster debris was analyzed for consideration of future regulation. (author)

  10. Decontamination analysis of the NUWAX-83 accident site using DECON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an analysis of the site restoration options for the NUWAX-83 site, at which an exercise was conducted involving a simulated nuclear weapons accident. This analysis was performed using a computer program deveoped by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The computer program, called DECON, was designed to assist personnel engaged in the planning of decontamination activities. The many features of DECON that are used in this report demonstrate its potential usefulness as a site restoration planning tool. Strategies that are analyzed with DECON include: (1) employing a Quick-Vac option, under which selected surfaces are vacuumed before they can be rained on; (2) protecting surfaces against precipitation; (3) prohibiting specific operations on selected surfaces; (4) requiring specific methods to be used on selected surfaces; (5) evaluating the trade-off between cleanup standards and decontamination costs; and (6) varying of the cleanup standards according to expected exposure to surface

  11. Integral Test Facility PKL: Experimental PWR Accident Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Umminger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of the thermal-hydraulic behavior of pressurized water reactors under accident conditions have been carried out in the PKL test facility at AREVA NP in Erlangen, Germany for many years. The PKL facility models the entire primary side and significant parts of the secondary side of a pressurized water reactor (PWR at a height scale of 1 : 1. Volumes, power ratings and mass flows are scaled with a ratio of 1 : 145. The experimental facility consists of 4 primary loops with circulation pumps and steam generators (SGs arranged symmetrically around the reactor pressure vessel (RPV. The investigations carried out encompass a very broad spectrum from accident scenario simulations with large, medium, and small breaks, over the investigation of shutdown procedures after a wide variety of accidents, to the systematic investigation of complex thermal-hydraulic phenomena. This paper presents a survey of test objectives and programs carried out to date. It also describes the test facility in its present state. Some important results obtained over the years with focus on investigations carried out since the beginning of the international cooperation are exemplarily discussed.

  12. Investigation of Key Factors for Accident Severity at Railroad Grade Crossings by Using a Logit Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Shou-Ren; Li, Chin-Shang; Lee, Chi-Kang

    2010-01-01

    Although several studies have used logit or probit models and their variants to fit data of accident severity on roadway segments, few have investigated accident severity at a railroad grade crossing (RGC). Compared to accident risk analysis in terms of accident frequency and severity of a highway system, investigation of the factors contributing to traffic accidents at an RGC may be more complicated because of additional highway–railway interactions. Because the proportional odds assumption ...

  13. Criticality accident in uranium fuel processing plant. Influence of the critical accident seen to consciousness investigation of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here was introduced a consciousness investigation result carried out at Fukui prefecture and Osaka city after about two months of the JCO criticality accident. Peoples were disturbed by the accident, and not a little changed their individual estimations on items relating to energy. However, peoples lived in Fukui prefecture did not increase rate of opposition against nuclear energy promotion and nuclear power plant construction to their living area on comparison with a year before the accident. This reason might be understood by that the accident was not an accident of a nuclear power plant directly, and that their living area was much distant from place of the accident and was not suffered any danger. On the other hand, public opinion in Osaka city made worse on comparison with that before a year, and if such worse public opinion was thought to be due to the accident, its effect could be said to be different in each area even with no direct relation to the accident to shown a result dependent upon its various conditions. As a rough tendency on psychological disturbance due to the accident, it could be said that peoples became to have feelings of avoiding hard nuclear energy technology at a chance of the accident and to direct thoughts of soft natural energy and environment respect. (G.K.)

  14. Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions are being investigated. A program overview and hghlight recent results of our investigation are presented. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. The test facilities used to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components are described. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported

  15. Techniques and Tools of NASA's Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDanels, Steve J.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia accident investigation was a fusion of many disciplines into a single effort. From the recovery and reconstruction of the debris, Figure 1, to the analysis, both destructive and nondestructive, of chemical and metallurgical samples, Figure 2, a multitude of analytical techniques and tools were employed. Destructive and non-destructive testing were utilized in tandem to determine if a breach in the left wing of the Orbiter had occurred, and if so, the path of the resultant high temperature plasma flow. Nondestructive analysis included topometric scanning, laser mapping, and real-time radiography. These techniques were useful in constructing a three dimensional virtual representation of the reconstruction project, specifically the left wing leading edge reinforced carbon/carbon heat protectant panels. Similarly, they were beneficial in determining where sampling should be performed on the debris. Analytic testing included such techniques as Energy Dispersive Electron Microprobe Analysis (EMPA), Electron Spectroscopy Chemical Analysis (ESCA), and X-Ray dot mapping; these techniques related the characteristics of intermetallics deposited on the leading edge of the left wing adjacent to the location of a suspected plasma breach during reentry. The methods and results of the various analyses, along with their implications into the accident, are discussed, along with the findings and recommendations of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board. Likewise, NASA's Return To Flight efforts are highlighted.

  16. 49 CFR 837.3 - Published reports, material contained in the public accident investigation dockets, and accident...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... For information regarding the types of documents routinely issued by the Board, see 49 CFR part 801... public accident investigation dockets, and accident database data. 837.3 Section 837.3 Transportation... OF RECORDS IN LEGAL PROCEEDINGS § 837.3 Published reports, material contained in the public...

  17. Emergency response to a nuclear facility accident: preplanning and preparedness by off-site organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction ('defence-in-depth' concept); accident assessment (prompt notification of off-site authorities); time factors associated with accidents leading to radiological releases off-site; radiological characteristics of releases; emergency communications; an adequate planning basis; training. (U.K.)

  18. Explanation of procedure on site medical emergency response for nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National occupational health standard-Procedure on Site Medical Emergency Response for Nuclear Accident has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. This standard is formulated according to the Emergency Response Law of the People's Republic of China, Law of the People 's Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Occupational Diseases, Regulations on Emergency Measures for Nuclear Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants, and Health Emergency Plans for Nuclear and Radiological Accidents of Ministry of Health, supporting the use of On-site Medical Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Nuclear Accidents and Off-site Medical Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Nuclear Accidents. Nuclear accident on-site medical response procedure is a part of the on-site emergency plan. The standard specifies the basic content and requirements of the nuclear accident on-site medical emergency response procedures of nuclear facilities operating units to guide and regulate the work of nuclear accident on-site medical emergency response of nuclear facilities operating units. The criteria-related contents were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  19. Investigation of Qom Rural Area Water Network Accident in 2010 and Minimization Approaches of Accident Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study : Accidents in water networks can lead to increase the uncounted water, costs of repair, maintenance, restoration and enter water contaminants to water network. The aim of this study is to survey the accidents of Qom rural water network and choose the right approaches to reduce the number of accidents. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, four sector of Qom province (Markazi, Dastjerd, Kahak and Qahan, were assessed over a period of 8 months (July – January 2010. This study was conducted through questionnaire of Ministry of Energy. Results: The total number of accidents was 763. The highest number of accidents in the four sectors was related to Markazi sector with 228 accidents. According to the time of the accident, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to September (19.7% and November (6.8%, respectively. According to the location of the accident on network, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to distribution network (64% and connections (17.5% and transmission pipe (18.34%, respectively. According to the type of the accident, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to breaking (47.8% and gasket failure (1.2%, respectively. Considering with the pipes’ material, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to polyethylene pipes (93% and steel and cast iron pipes (0.5%, 0.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Due to the high break rate of Polyethylene pipes, it is recommended to be placed in priority of leak detection and rehabilitation.   .

  20. Investigation of Qom Rural Area Water Network Accident in 2010 and Minimization Approaches of Accident Frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian; Ahmad Reza Yari; Mohsen Ansari; Shahram Nazari; Mohamad Saberi Bidgoli; Gharib Majidi

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims of the Study : Accidents in water networks can lead to increase the uncounted water, costs of repair, maintenance, restoration and enter water contaminants to water network. The aim of this study is to survey the accidents of Qom rural water network and choose the right approaches to reduce the number of accidents. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, four sector of Qom province (Markazi, Dastjerd, Kahak and Qahan), were assessed over a period of 8 mon...

  1. Mitigative techniques and analysis of generic site conditions for ground-water contamination associated with severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques to control radionuclide migration following a severe commercial nuclear power reactor accident. The two types of severe commercial reactor accidents investigated are: (1) containment basemat penetration of core melt debris which slowly cools and leaches radionuclides to the subsurface environment, and (2) containment basemat penetration of sump water without full penetration of the core mass. Six generic hydrogeologic site classifications are developed from an evaluation of reported data pertaining to the hydrogeologic properties of all existing and proposed commercial reactor sites. One-dimensional radionuclide transport analyses are conducted on each of the individual reactor sites to determine the generic characteristics of a radionuclide discharge to an accessible environment. Ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques that may be suitable, depending on specific site and accident conditions, for severe power plant accidents are identified and evaluated. Feasible mitigative techniques and associated constraints on feasibility are determined for each of the six hydrogeologic site classifications. The first of three case studies is conducted on a site located on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Mitigative strategies are evaluated for their impact on contaminant transport and results show that the techniques evaluated significantly increased ground-water travel times. 31 references, 118 figures, 62 tables

  2. Discussion on Inquiry Skills of Fire Accident Site%浅谈火灾事故现场询问技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松双

    2011-01-01

    This paper researched the common inquiry skills of fire accident investigation personnel at fire accident site, presented the significance and function of inquiry in accident investigation, and put forward the inquiry skills at fire accident site, which would play a consUuctive significance in fire accident investigation.%本文针对火调人员在火灾事故调查中常用的询问方式方法进行研究,阐述了询问在火灾事故调查中的意义和作用,并提出了火灾事故现场询问时应该注意的技巧,此技巧将对火灾事故调查工作起到建设性的意义.

  3. Accident investigation practices in Europe--main responses from a recent study of accidents in industry and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Europe has during recent years been shocked by disasters from natural events and technical breakdowns. The consequences have been comprehensive, measured by lost lives, injuries, and material and environmental damage. ESReDA wanted in 2000 - by setting up a special expert group on accident investigation - to clarify the state of art of accident investigation practices and to map the use of thoroughly accident investigation in order to learn lessons from past disasters and prevent new ones. The scope was to cover three sectors in the society: transport, production processes and storage of hazardous materials, and energy production. The main method used was a questionnaire, which was sent in 2001 to about 150 organisations. About 50 replies were analysed. The replies showed great variations but also similarities, among others in definition of accident and incident, the objectives of the investigation team, criteria used to start an investigation, the status of the investigation organisation, the flow of information, the composition of the investigation team, and the use of internal or international procedures or rules. Several methods (in total 14 different methods were mentioned) were used for carrying out accident /incident investigations. Most of the respondents were willing to co-operate in one or another way with ESReDA. Although there are important biases in the material, the results from questionnaire are important inputs to the future work of ESReDA Expert group in this field. 3 safety approaches have been identified

  4. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  5. Investigation of adolescent accident predictive variables in hilly regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Malaya; Gupta, Ankit

    2016-09-01

    The study aims to determine the significant personal and environmental factors in predicting the adolescent accidents in the hilly regions taking into account two cities Hamirpur and Dharamshala, which lie at an average elevation of 700--1000 metres above the mean sea level (MSL). Detailed comparisons between the results of 2 cities are also studied. The results are analyzed to provide the list of most significant factors responsible for adolescent accidents. Data were collected from different schools and colleges of the city with the help of a questionnaire survey. Around 690 responses from Hamirpur and 460 responses from Dharamshala were taken for study and analysis. Standard deviations (SD) of various factors affecting accidents were calculated and factors with relatively very low SD were discarded and other variables were considered for correlations. Correlation was developed using Kendall's-tau and chi-square tests and factors those were found significant were used for modelling. They were - the victim's age, the character of road, the speed of vehicle, and the use of helmet for Hamirpur and for Dharamshala, the kind of vehicle involved was an added variable found responsible for adolescent accidents. A logistic regression was performed to know the effect of each category present in a variable on the occurrence of accidents. Though the age and the speed of vehicle were considered to be important factors for accident occurrence according to Indian accident data records, even the use of helmet comes out as a major concern. The age group of 15-18 and 18-21 years were found to be more susceptible to accidents than the higher age groups. Due to the presence of hilly area, the character of road becomes a major concern for cause of accidents and the topography of the area makes the kind of vehicle involved as a major variable for determining the severity of accidents. PMID:26077876

  6. Investigation into information flow during the accident at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared in response to a request from NRC Chairman Ahearne that directed the Office of Inspection and Enforcement to resume its investigation of information flow during the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) that occurred on March 28, 1979. This investigation was resumed on March 21, 1980. The transfer of information among individuals, agencies, and personnel from Metropolitan Edison was analyzed to ascertain what knowledge was held by various individuals of the specific events, parameters, and systems during the accident at TMI. Maximum use was made of existing records, and additional interviews were conducted to clarify areas that had not been pursued during earlier investigations. Although the passage of time between the accident and post-accident interviews hampered precise recollections of events and circumstances, the investigation revealed that information was not intentionally withheld during the accident and that the system for effective transfer of information was inadequate during the accident

  7. Cavity Heating Experiments Supporting Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Joel L.; Berger, Karen T.; Bey, Kim S.; Merski, N. Ronald; Wood, William A.

    2011-01-01

    The two-color thermographic phosphor method has been used to map the local heating augmentation of scaled idealized cavities at conditions simulating the windward surface of the Shuttle Orbiter Columbia during flight STS-107. Two experiments initiated in support of the Columbia Accident Investigation were conducted in the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel. Generally, the first test series evaluated open (length-to-depth less than 10) rectangular cavity geometries proposed as possible damage scenarios resulting from foam and ice impact during launch at several discrete locations on the vehicle windward surface, though some closed (length-to-depth greater than 13) geometries were briefly examined. The second test series was designed to parametrically evaluate heating augmentation in closed rectangular cavities. The tests were conducted under laminar cavity entry conditions over a range of local boundary layer edge-flow parameters typical of re-entry. Cavity design parameters were developed using laminar computational predictions, while the experimental boundary layer state conditions were inferred from the heating measurements. An analysis of the aeroheating caused by cavities allowed exclusion of non-breeching damage from the possible loss scenarios being considered during the investigation.

  8. Proposal for computer investigation of LMFBR core meltdown accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental consequences of an LMFBR accident involving breach of containment are so severe that such accidents must not be allowed to happen. Present methods for analyzing hypothetical core disruptive accidents like a loss of flow with failure to scram cannot show conclusively that such accidents do not lead to a rupture of the pressure vessel. A major deficiency of present methods is their inability to follow large motions of a molten LMFBR core. Such motions may lead to a secondary supercritical configuration with a subsequent energy release that is sufficient to rupture the pressure vessel. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory proposes to develop a computer program for describing the dynamics of hypothetical accidents. This computer program will utilize implicit Eulerian fluid dynamics methods coupled with a time-dependent transport theory description of the neutronic behavior. This program will be capable of following core motions until a stable coolable configuration is reached. Survey calculations of reactor accidents with a variety of initiating events will be performed for reactors under current design to assess the safety of such reactors

  9. SFR site investigation. Bedrock Hydrogeochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden); Smellie, John [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Gimeno, Maria J.; Gomez, Javier B.; Auque, Luis F. [Univ. of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain); Sandstroem, Bjoern [WSP Sverige AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Pedersen, Karsten [Micans AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    There are plans that the final repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste, SFR, located about 150 km north of Stockholm, will be extended. Geoscientific studies to define and characterise a suitable bedrock volume for the extended repository have been carried out from 2007 to 2011, and have included the drilling and evaluation of seven new core drilled and four percussion boreholes. These new data, together with existing data extending back to 1985, have been interpreted and modelled in order to provide the necessary information for safety assessment and repository design. This report presents the final hydrogeochemical site description for the SFR site, and will constitute a background report for the integrated site description (the SFR Site Descriptive Model version 1.0) together with corresponding reports from the geological and hydrogeological disciplines. Most of the hydrogeochemical data from the field investigations consist of major ions and isotopes together with sporadic gas, microbe and measured redox data. Despite the close proximity of the Forsmark site, few data from this source are of relevance because of the shallow nature of the SFR site, the fact that SFR is located beneath the Baltic Sea and also the drawdown/upconing impacts of its construction on the hydrogeochemistry. This artificially imposed dynamic flow system is naturally more prevalent along major deformation fracture zones of higher transmissivity, whilst lower transmissive fractures together with the less transmissive bedrock masses between major deformation zones, still retain some evidence of the natural groundwater mixing patterns established prior to the SFR construction. The groundwaters in the SFR dataset cover a depth down to -250 m.a.s.l. with single sampling locations at -300 and -400 m.a.s.l. and represent a relatively limited salinity range (1,500 to 5,500 mg/L chloride). However, the {delta}{sup 18}O values show a wide variation (-15.5 to -7.5 per mille V

  10. Guide to radiological accident considerations for siting and design of DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide was prepared to provide the experienced safety analyst with accident analysis guidance in greater detail than is possible in Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. The guide addresses analysis of postulated serious accidents considered in the siting and selection of major design features of DOE nuclear facilities. Its scope has been limited to radiological accidents at nonreactor nuclear facilities. The analysis steps addressed in the guide lead to evaluation of radiological dose to exposed persons for comparison with siting guideline doses. Other possible consequences considered are environmental contamination, population dose, and public health effects. Choices of models and parameters leading to estimation of source terms, release fractions, reduction and removal factors, dispersion and dose factors are discussed. Although requirements for risk analysis have not been established, risk estimates are finding increased use in siting of major nuclear facilities, and are discussed in the guide. 3 figs., 9 tabs

  11. Aspects Concerning The Rules And The Investigation Of Traffic Accidents As Work Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnu, Lucian Ioan

    2015-07-01

    When Romania joined the European Union, it was imposed that the Romanian legislation in the field of the security and health at work be in line with the European one. The concept of health as it is defined by the International Body of Health, refers to a good physical, mental and social condition. The improvement of the activity of preventing the traffic accidents as work accidents must have as basis the correct and accurate evaluation of risks of getting injured. The goal of the activity of prevention and protection is to ensure the best working conditions, the prevention of accidents and occupational diseases and the adjustment to the scientific and technological progress. In the road transport sector, as in any other sector, it is very important to pay attention to working conditions to ensure a workforce motivated and well qualified. Some features make it a more difficult sector risk management than other sectors. However, if one takes into account how it works in practice this sector and the characteristics of drivers and how they work routinely, risks, dangers and threats can be managed efficiently and with great success.

  12. SFR site investigation. Bedrock Hydrogeochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden); Smellie, John [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Gimeno, Maria J.; Gomez, Javier B.; Auque, Luis F. [Univ. of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain); Sandstroem, Bjoern [WSP Sverige AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Pedersen, Karsten [Micans AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    There are plans that the final repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste, SFR, located about 150 km north of Stockholm, will be extended. Geoscientific studies to define and characterise a suitable bedrock volume for the extended repository have been carried out from 2007 to 2011, and have included the drilling and evaluation of seven new core drilled and four percussion boreholes. These new data, together with existing data extending back to 1985, have been interpreted and modelled in order to provide the necessary information for safety assessment and repository design. This report presents the final hydrogeochemical site description for the SFR site, and will constitute a background report for the integrated site description (the SFR Site Descriptive Model version 1.0) together with corresponding reports from the geological and hydrogeological disciplines. Most of the hydrogeochemical data from the field investigations consist of major ions and isotopes together with sporadic gas, microbe and measured redox data. Despite the close proximity of the Forsmark site, few data from this source are of relevance because of the shallow nature of the SFR site, the fact that SFR is located beneath the Baltic Sea and also the drawdown/upconing impacts of its construction on the hydrogeochemistry. This artificially imposed dynamic flow system is naturally more prevalent along major deformation fracture zones of higher transmissivity, whilst lower transmissive fractures together with the less transmissive bedrock masses between major deformation zones, still retain some evidence of the natural groundwater mixing patterns established prior to the SFR construction. The groundwaters in the SFR dataset cover a depth down to -250 m.a.s.l. with single sampling locations at -300 and -400 m.a.s.l. and represent a relatively limited salinity range (1,500 to 5,500 mg/L chloride). However, the {delta}{sup 18}O values show a wide variation (-15.5 to -7.5 per mille V

  13. SFR site investigation. Bedrock Hydrogeochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are plans that the final repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste, SFR, located about 150 km north of Stockholm, will be extended. Geoscientific studies to define and characterise a suitable bedrock volume for the extended repository have been carried out from 2007 to 2011, and have included the drilling and evaluation of seven new core drilled and four percussion boreholes. These new data, together with existing data extending back to 1985, have been interpreted and modelled in order to provide the necessary information for safety assessment and repository design. This report presents the final hydrogeochemical site description for the SFR site, and will constitute a background report for the integrated site description (the SFR Site Descriptive Model version 1.0) together with corresponding reports from the geological and hydrogeological disciplines. Most of the hydrogeochemical data from the field investigations consist of major ions and isotopes together with sporadic gas, microbe and measured redox data. Despite the close proximity of the Forsmark site, few data from this source are of relevance because of the shallow nature of the SFR site, the fact that SFR is located beneath the Baltic Sea and also the drawdown/upconing impacts of its construction on the hydrogeochemistry. This artificially imposed dynamic flow system is naturally more prevalent along major deformation fracture zones of higher transmissivity, whilst lower transmissive fractures together with the less transmissive bedrock masses between major deformation zones, still retain some evidence of the natural groundwater mixing patterns established prior to the SFR construction. The groundwaters in the SFR dataset cover a depth down to -250 m.a.s.l. with single sampling locations at -300 and -400 m.a.s.l. and represent a relatively limited salinity range (1,500 to 5,500 mg/L chloride). However, the δ18O values show a wide variation (-15.5 to -7.5 per mille V-SMOW) similar

  14. Investigations on pressure suppression system loads at accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For simulation of the integral behavior of pressure suppresion systems at accident conditions a mathematical model was developed which simulates a wide range of the loads occurring during a loss-of coolant accident. The multi-zone point model DRASYS serves for mathematical simulation of quasistatic (pressure and temperature build-up in the dry well and the suppression chamber) as well as dynamic loads (free-blowing process, water throw-up and condensing oscillations) in the course of a loss-of-coolant accident. For determination of the state variations with time in the individual pressure sections thermodynamic equilibrium is assumed between steam and water phases. Thermal non-equilibrium states are taken into account if phase separation interfaces between water and steam/air mixture exist. The flows between the individual pressure sections are treated as homogeneous, nonsteady, incompressible flows. For verification of the mathematical model recalculations were made of experiments performed at various test stands. Teh recalculations showed that the mathematical model has got a wide range of application and is suited for design and assessment of pressure suppression systems at accident conditions. (orig.)

  15. Investigation report on criticality accident at the Uranium Processing Plant of the JCO, Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summarized one of investigation results on a criticality accident at the Uranium Processing Plant of the JCO, Ltd., carried out by the Nuclear Safety Investigation Special Group (SISG) of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). AESJ published a statement of the president on this accident on October 8, 1999, and decided to perform its investigation under SISG. SISG carried out some questionnaires for new trials together with conventional lectures of the well-informed. This report contains six chapters on critical safety and accident, process of the accident and elucidation of its facts, cause analysis and picking-out on problems, questionnaires on improvement proposal', questionnaires on 'duty of AESJ7, and future efforts on nuclear safety culture. At the last chapter, SISG discussed about some items on re-occurrence protection of the nuclear accident. (G.K.)

  16. Bedrock Hydrogeology - Site investigation SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehman, Johan [Geosigma AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Bockgaard, Niclas [Golder Assoes AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has conducted site investigations for a planned extension of the existing final repository for short-lived radioactive waste (SFR). This report presents an integrated analysis and interpretation of the historic data from the existing SFR (1980 - 1986), as well as, from the recent investigations for the planned extension of SFR (2008 - 2009). The primary objective is to establish a conceptual hydrogeological model of the bedrock for safety assessment and design analyses. Analyses and interpretations of all (old and new) hydraulic data are analysed with regard to the recently developed geological deformation zone model of the SFR model domain (Curtis et al. 2011). The methodology used by Curtis et al. (2011) has focussed on magnetic anomalies and deformation zone intercepts with ground surface greater than 300 m. In the hydrogeological modelling, however, it has been considered important to also explore the occurrence and characteristics of shallow horizontal to sub-horizontal structures (sheet joints) inside the SFR model domain. Such structures are of considerable importance for the hydrogeology in the uppermost c. 150 m of bedrock in SDM-Site Forsmark; hence the term Shallow Bedrock Aquifer was used to emphasise their hydraulic significance. In this study, the acronym SBA-structure is used for horizontal structures identified in the hydrogeological modelling. In addition to the predominantly steeply dipping geological deformation zones, eight so-called SBA-structures are modelled deterministically in the hydrogeological model. The SBA-structures are envisaged as hydraulically heterogeneous and composed of clusters of minor gently dipping to horizontal fractures rather than extensive single features. A type of structures that is partly included in the definition of the SBA-structures is the Unresolved Possible Deformations Zone (Unresolved PDZ) intercepts identified by Curtis et al. (2011). The Unresolved

  17. Site restoration: Estimation of attributable costs from plutonium-dispersal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear weapons accident is an extremely unlikely event due to the extensive care taken in operations. However, under some hypothetical accident conditions, plutonium might be dispersed to the environment. This would result in costs being incurred by the government to remediate the site and compensate for losses. This study is a multi-disciplinary evaluation of the potential scope of the post-accident response that includes technical factors, current and proposed legal requirements and constraints, as well as social/political factors that could influence decision making. The study provides parameters that can be used to assess economic costs for accidents postulated to occur in urban areas, Midwest farmland, Western rangeland, and forest. Per-area remediation costs have been estimated, using industry-standard methods, for both expedited and extended remediation. Expedited remediation costs have been evaluated for highways, airports, and urban areas. Extended remediation costs have been evaluated for all land uses except highways and airports. The inclusion of cost estimates in risk assessments, together with the conventional estimation of doses and health effects, allows a fuller understanding of the post-accident environment. The insights obtained can be used to minimize economic risks by evaluation of operational and design alternatives, and through development of improved capabilities for accident response

  18. Site restoration: Estimation of attributable costs from plutonium-dispersal accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanin, D.I.; Murfin, W.B. [Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A nuclear weapons accident is an extremely unlikely event due to the extensive care taken in operations. However, under some hypothetical accident conditions, plutonium might be dispersed to the environment. This would result in costs being incurred by the government to remediate the site and compensate for losses. This study is a multi-disciplinary evaluation of the potential scope of the post-accident response that includes technical factors, current and proposed legal requirements and constraints, as well as social/political factors that could influence decision making. The study provides parameters that can be used to assess economic costs for accidents postulated to occur in urban areas, Midwest farmland, Western rangeland, and forest. Per-area remediation costs have been estimated, using industry-standard methods, for both expedited and extended remediation. Expedited remediation costs have been evaluated for highways, airports, and urban areas. Extended remediation costs have been evaluated for all land uses except highways and airports. The inclusion of cost estimates in risk assessments, together with the conventional estimation of doses and health effects, allows a fuller understanding of the post-accident environment. The insights obtained can be used to minimize economic risks by evaluation of operational and design alternatives, and through development of improved capabilities for accident response.

  19. Application of GIS in prediction and assessment system of off-site accident consequence for NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment and prediction software system of off-site accident consequence for Guangdong Nuclear Power Plant (GNARD2.0) is a GIS-based software system. The spatial analysis of radioactive materials and doses with geographic information is available in this system. The structure and functions of the GNARD system and the method of applying ArcView GIS are presented

  20. Japan: Accident Sequence Study for Seismic Event at the Multi-Unit Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One or more units of a multi-unit nuclear power plant (NPP) could fail simultaneously at seismic event depending on the seismic ground motion and its influence to units of the site. The approach proposed here is to analyze the multi-unit accident sequences with core damage frequency (CDF) at seismic event explicitly by best applying and improving the existing technology and providing interfacing capability of the Level 2 and 3 parts of PSA. The identified accident sequence at each unit, the end state of which could be failure (damaged core) as well as success (intact core), is linked mutually and a set of these sequences are conditionally quantified. If all potential accident sequences would be conditioned mutually, quite a number of accident sequences have to be analyzed. To circumvent such an unnecessary and quite resource-intensive burden, a screening process is effective and important for this approach. Therefore two-stage screening method was developed for the approach proposed here. The first and second stage screenings were applied to initiating events and accident sequences respectively. In these screening processes the correlation analysis of seismic-induced component failures was necessary and important, and was performed in use of representative response and capacity correlation factors, in application on which the floor response spectra were used for structures and components. The correlation analysis results were applied to quantify the concurrent seismic-induced failure probability. The above-mentioned approach was applied to an example of twin-unit BWR5 site for verification purpose. The preliminary results revealed that the evaluation of correlation factors or concurrent seismic-induced failure probabilities affected significantly on the dominant accident sequences and therefore it is important to improve the development of the correlation factors as long as detailed consequence evaluation at a multi-unit site would be required in future application

  1. Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel

  2. Design and implementation of an identification system in construction site safety for proactive accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huanjia; Chew, David A S; Wu, Weiwei; Zhou, Zhipeng; Li, Qiming

    2012-09-01

    Identifying accident precursors using real-time identity information has great potential to improve safety performance in construction industry, which is still suffering from day to day records of accident fatality and injury. Based on the requirements analysis for identifying precursor and the discussion of enabling technology solutions for acquiring and sharing real-time automatic identification information on construction site, this paper proposes an identification system design for proactive accident prevention to improve construction site safety. Firstly, a case study is conducted to analyze the automatic identification requirements for identifying accident precursors in construction site. Results show that it mainly consists of three aspects, namely access control, training and inspection information and operation authority. The system is then designed to fulfill these requirements based on ZigBee enabled wireless sensor network (WSN), radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and an integrated ZigBee RFID sensor network structure. At the same time, an information database is also designed and implemented, which includes 15 tables, 54 queries and several reports and forms. In the end, a demonstration system based on the proposed system design is developed as a proof of concept prototype. The contributions of this study include the requirement analysis and technical design of a real-time identity information tracking solution for proactive accident prevention on construction sites. The technical solution proposed in this paper has a significant importance in improving safety performance on construction sites. Moreover, this study can serve as a reference design for future system integrations where more functions, such as environment monitoring and location tracking, can be added. PMID:22664682

  3. The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident final report of the AESJ investigation committee

    CERN Document Server

    Atomic Energy Society of Japan

    2015-01-01

    The Magnitude 9 Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, followed by a massive tsunami struck  TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and triggered an unprecedented core melt/severe accident in Units 1 – 3. The radioactivity release led to the evacuation of local residents, many of whom still have not been able to return to their homes. As a group of nuclear experts, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan established the Investigation Committee on the Nuclear Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, to investigate and analyze the accident from scientific and technical perspectives for clarifying the underlying and fundamental causes, and to make recommendations. The results of the investigation by the AESJ Investigation Committee has been compiled herewith as the Final Report. Direct contributing factors of the catastrophic nuclear incident at Fukushima Daiichi NPP initiated by an unprecedented massive earthquake/ tsunami – inadequacies in tsunami measures, severe accident ma...

  4. Scoping Study Investigating PWR Instrumentation during a Severe Accident Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempe, J. L. [Rempe and Associates, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Knudson, D. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lutz, R. J. [Lutz Nuclear Safety Consultant, LLC, Asheville, NC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The accidents at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) and Fukushima Daiichi Units 1, 2, and 3 nuclear power plants demonstrate the critical importance of accurate, relevant, and timely information on the status of reactor systems during a severe accident. These events also highlight the critical importance of understanding and focusing on the key elements of system status information in an environment where operators may be overwhelmed with superfluous and sometimes conflicting data. While progress in these areas has been made since TMI-2, the events at Fukushima suggests that there may still be a potential need to ensure that critical plant information is available to plant operators. Recognizing the significant technical and economic challenges associated with plant modifications, it is important to focus on instrumentation that can address these information critical needs. As part of a program initiated by the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), a scoping effort was initiated to assess critical information needs identified for severe accident management and mitigation in commercial Light Water Reactors (LWRs), to quantify the environment instruments monitoring this data would have to survive, and to identify gaps where predicted environments exceed instrumentation qualification envelop (QE) limits. Results from the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) scoping evaluations are documented in this report. The PWR evaluations were limited in this scoping evaluation to quantifying the environmental conditions for an unmitigated Short-Term Station BlackOut (STSBO) sequence in one unit at the Surry nuclear power station. Results were obtained using the MELCOR models developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-sponsored State of the Art Consequence Assessment (SOARCA) program project. Results from this scoping evaluation indicate that some instrumentation identified to provide critical information would be exposed to conditions that

  5. Site investigation SFR. Bedrock geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    geological tunnel mapping and eleven drill cores remapped according to the Boremap system, input to model version 1.0 has included the results from eight new cored boreholes as well as a fuller integration of Forsmark site investigation data, a further more extensive review of the drill core from an additional 32 boreholes associated with the construction of the existing SFR facility and an updated mapping of the lower construction tunnel. The current modelling work has also reviewed the older SFR data and models. While details concerning the earlier zones lying in immediate contact with the existing SFR facility have been changed, the earlier overall position, orientation and number of these deformation zones is maintained. A significant difference concerns their thickness due to the contrasting methodologies used during the different campaigns. In SFR model version 0.1, a single deformation zone model was produced, with a volume corresponding to the regional model volume. The model contained all the deformation zones modelled irrespective of size. Separate local and regional deformation zone models have been produced in SFR model version 1.0, following resolution criteria for the different model volumes. The local model contains zones with a minimum size of 300 m, while the regional model has structures that have a minimum size constraint of 1,000 m trace length at the ground surface. The selection of these size limits is related to the model volume maximum depth (local model -300 masl and regional model -1,000 masl) and the applied methodology that requires the same model resolution throughout the defined model volume (see Section 5.3.1). To assist hydrogeological modelling work, an updated combined model, including all structures from both the regional and local models, has also been delivered. The existing SFR facility and the rock volume directly to the south-east, which is proposed for the new facility extension, lies within a tectonic block that is bounded to the

  6. Site investigation SFR. Bedrock geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Philip; Markstroem, Ingemar (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Petersson, Jesper (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB (Sweden)); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Isaksson, Hans; Mattsson, Haakan (GeoVista AB (Sweden))

    2011-12-15

    the geological tunnel mapping and eleven drill cores remapped according to the Boremap system, input to model version 1.0 has included the results from eight new cored boreholes as well as a fuller integration of Forsmark site investigation data, a further more extensive review of the drill core from an additional 32 boreholes associated with the construction of the existing SFR facility and an updated mapping of the lower construction tunnel. The current modelling work has also reviewed the older SFR data and models. While details concerning the earlier zones lying in immediate contact with the existing SFR facility have been changed, the earlier overall position, orientation and number of these deformation zones is maintained. A significant difference concerns their thickness due to the contrasting methodologies used during the different campaigns. In SFR model version 0.1, a single deformation zone model was produced, with a volume corresponding to the regional model volume. The model contained all the deformation zones modelled irrespective of size. Separate local and regional deformation zone models have been produced in SFR model version 1.0, following resolution criteria for the different model volumes. The local model contains zones with a minimum size of 300 m, while the regional model has structures that have a minimum size constraint of 1,000 m trace length at the ground surface. The selection of these size limits is related to the model volume maximum depth (local model -300 masl and regional model -1,000 masl) and the applied methodology that requires the same model resolution throughout the defined model volume (see Section 5.3.1). To assist hydrogeological modelling work, an updated combined model, including all structures from both the regional and local models, has also been delivered. The existing SFR facility and the rock volume directly to the south-east, which is proposed for the new facility extension, lies within a tectonic block that is bounded

  7. Site investigation SFR. Bedrock geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Philip; Markstroem, Ingemar (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Petersson, Jesper (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB (Sweden)); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Isaksson, Hans; Mattsson, Haakan (GeoVista AB (Sweden))

    2011-12-15

    the geological tunnel mapping and eleven drill cores remapped according to the Boremap system, input to model version 1.0 has included the results from eight new cored boreholes as well as a fuller integration of Forsmark site investigation data, a further more extensive review of the drill core from an additional 32 boreholes associated with the construction of the existing SFR facility and an updated mapping of the lower construction tunnel. The current modelling work has also reviewed the older SFR data and models. While details concerning the earlier zones lying in immediate contact with the existing SFR facility have been changed, the earlier overall position, orientation and number of these deformation zones is maintained. A significant difference concerns their thickness due to the contrasting methodologies used during the different campaigns. In SFR model version 0.1, a single deformation zone model was produced, with a volume corresponding to the regional model volume. The model contained all the deformation zones modelled irrespective of size. Separate local and regional deformation zone models have been produced in SFR model version 1.0, following resolution criteria for the different model volumes. The local model contains zones with a minimum size of 300 m, while the regional model has structures that have a minimum size constraint of 1,000 m trace length at the ground surface. The selection of these size limits is related to the model volume maximum depth (local model -300 masl and regional model -1,000 masl) and the applied methodology that requires the same model resolution throughout the defined model volume (see Section 5.3.1). To assist hydrogeological modelling work, an updated combined model, including all structures from both the regional and local models, has also been delivered. The existing SFR facility and the rock volume directly to the south-east, which is proposed for the new facility extension, lies within a tectonic block that is bounded

  8. Experimental investigations on vessel-hole ablation during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents experimental results, and subsequent analyses, of scaled reactor pressure vessel (RPV) failure site ablation tests conducted at the Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Nuclear Power Safety (RIT/NPS). The goal of the test program is to reduce the uncertainty level associated with the phase-change-ablation process, and, thus, improve the characterization of the melt discharge loading on the containment. In a series of moderate temperature experiments, the corium melt is simulated by the binary oxide CaO-B2O3 or the binary eutectic and non-eutectic salts NaNO3-KNO3, while the RPV head steel is represented by a Pb, Sn or metal alloys plate. A complementary set of experiments was conducted at lower temperatures, using water as melt and salted ice as plate material. These experiments scale well to the postulated prototypical conditions. The multidimensional code HAMISA, developed at RIT/NPS, is employed to analyze the experiments with good pre- and post-test predictions. The effects of melt viscosity and crust surface roughness, along with failure site entrance and exit frictional losses on the ablation characteristics are investigated. Theoretical concept was proposed to describe physical mechanisms which govern the vessel-hole ablation process during core melt discharge from RPV. Experimental data obtained from hole ablation tests and separate-effect tests performed at RIT/NPS were used to validate component physical models of the HAMISA code. It is believed that the hole ablation phenomenology is quite well understood. Detailed description of experiments and experimental data, as well as results of analyses are provided in the appendixes

  9. Type A Accident Investigation Board report on the January 17, 1996, electrical accident with injury in Technical Area 21 Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    An electrical accident was investigated in which a crafts person received serious injuries as a result of coming into contact with a 13.2 kilovolt (kV) electrical cable in the basement of Building 209 in Technical Area 21 (TA-21-209) in the Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility (TSFF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In conducting its investigation, the Accident Investigation Board used various analytical techniques, including events and causal factor analysis, barrier analysis, change analysis, fault tree analysis, materials analysis, and root cause analysis. The board inspected the accident site, reviewed events surrounding the accident, conducted extensive interviews and document reviews, and performed causation analyses to determine the factors that contributed to the accident, including any management system deficiencies. Relevant management systems and factors that could have contributed to the accident were evaluated in accordance with the guiding principles of safety management identified by the Secretary of Energy in an October 1994 letter to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and subsequently to Congress.

  10. Type A Accident Investigation Board report on the January 17, 1996, electrical accident with injury in Technical Area 21 Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electrical accident was investigated in which a crafts person received serious injuries as a result of coming into contact with a 13.2 kilovolt (kV) electrical cable in the basement of Building 209 in Technical Area 21 (TA-21-209) in the Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility (TSFF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In conducting its investigation, the Accident Investigation Board used various analytical techniques, including events and causal factor analysis, barrier analysis, change analysis, fault tree analysis, materials analysis, and root cause analysis. The board inspected the accident site, reviewed events surrounding the accident, conducted extensive interviews and document reviews, and performed causation analyses to determine the factors that contributed to the accident, including any management system deficiencies. Relevant management systems and factors that could have contributed to the accident were evaluated in accordance with the guiding principles of safety management identified by the Secretary of Energy in an October 1994 letter to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and subsequently to Congress

  11. The official report of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 2011, the Act regarding Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission was enacted to investigate the Fukushima accident with the authority to request documents and request the legislative branch to use its investigative powers to obtain any necessary documents or evidence required. In December 2011, chairman and nine other members were appointed. After a six-month investigation, Commission had concluded. 'In order to prevent future disasters, fundamental reforms must take place covering both the structure of electric power industry and the structure of related government and regulatory agencies as well as operation processes, for both normal and emergency situations'. Main parts of report consisted of overview, conclusions and recommendations, and six findings; (1) was the accident preventable?, (2) Escalation of the accident, (3) Emergency response to the accident, (4) Spread of the damage, (5) Organizational issues in accident prevention and response and (6) the legal system. Based on the above findings, Commission made seven recommendations regarding (1) Monitoring of the nuclear regulatory body by the National Diet, (2) Reform the crisis management system, (3) Government responsibility for public health and welfare, (4) Monitoring the operators, (5) Criteria for the new regulatory body, (6) Reforming laws related to nuclear energy and (7) Develop a system of independent investigation commissions. National Diet's thorough debate and deliberate on these recommendation was highly encouraged for the future. (T. Tanaka)

  12. Safety and Health Standard 110: Incident/accident reporting and investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sones, K. [West Kootenay Power, BC (Canada)

    1999-10-01

    Incident/accident reporting requirements in effect at West Kootenay Power are discussed. Details provided include definitions of low risk, high risk, and critical events, the incidents to be reported, the nature of the reports, the timelines, the investigation to be undertaken for each type of incident/accident, counselling services available to employees involved in serious incidents, and the procedures to be followed in accidents involving serious injury to non-employees. The emphasis is on the `critical five` high risk events and the procedures relating to them.

  13. Investigation into the March 28, 1979 Three Mile Island accident by Office of Inspection and Enforcement (Investigative Report No. 50-320/79-10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 28, 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant experienced the most severe accident in U.S. commercial nuclear power plant operating history. This report sets forth the facts concerning the events of the accident determined as a result of an investigation by the NRC Office of Inspection and Enforcement. The IE investigation is limited to two aspects of the accident: (1) Those related operational actions by the licensee during the period from before the initiating event until approximately 8:00 p.m., March 28, when primary coolant flow was re-established by starting a reactor coolant pump, and (2) Those steps taken by the licensee to control the release of radioactive material to the off-site environs, and to implement his emergency plan during the period from the initiation of the event to midnight, March 30. These investigation periods were selected because they include the licensee actions which most significantly affected the accident sequence and its results

  14. Development of emergency plans for accidents at civil nuclear sites in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is about the management of the off-site consequences of an accident at a UK civil nuclear installation. It describes the measures that would be taken to protect the public in the vicinity of an installation after an emergency had been declared; and it sets out the respective responsibilities of the operator and the various authorities who would be involved in the emergency. (author)

  15. Use of casual tree method for investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many methodologies used for investigation of accidents to facilitate the search of the factors that cause these events in different areas of industry. These can be called proactive methods, if they are used before the occurrence of the events, or reactive methods that are applied after the occurrence of the incident or accident, and are used as a basis of information to prevent further events. One of these methods is the Causal Tree Method (CTM). The basic idea of this technique is that incidents and accidents result from variations in usual processes. These variations can be related to the individual, the task, the material or the environment. The tree starts with the end event (incident or accident) and works backwards. The facts relating to the end event are used in the construction of the causal tree. The end event is the starting point and only the facts that contributed to the incident or accident should be selected. The analyst has to identify and list the variations and then display them in the analytic tree, showing causal relations. The objective of this paper is to test the application of the CTM method in investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials, in order to evaluate its efficiency on finding the typical factors causing these events. (author)

  16. Review of five investigation committees' reports on the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant severe accident. Focusing on accident progression and causes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 11, 2011, the Tohoku District-off the Pacific Ocean Earthquake and the subsequent tsunami resulted in the severe core damage at TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station Units 1-3, involving hydrogen explosions at Units 1, 3, and 4 and the large release of radioactive materials to the environment. Four independent committees were established by the Japanese government, the Diet of Japan, the Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation, and TEPCO to investigate the accident and published their respective reports. Also, the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency carried out an analysis of accident causes to obtain the lessons learned from the accident and made its report public. This article reviews the reports and clarifies the differences in their positions, from the technological point of view, focusing on the accident progression and causes. Moreover, the undiscussed issues are identified to provide insights useful for the near-term regulatory activities including accident investigation by the Nuclear Regulation Authority. (author)

  17. Review of the TMI-2 accident evaluation and vessel investigation projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladekarl Thomsen, Knud

    1998-03-01

    The results of the TMI-2 Accident Evaluation Programme and the Vessel Investigation Project have been reviewed as part of a literature study on core meltdown and in-vessel coolability. The emphasis is placed on the late phase melt progression, which is of special relevance to the NKS-sponsored RAK-2.1 project on Severe Accident Phenomenology. The body of the report comprises three main sections, The TMI-2 Accident Scenario, Core Region and Relocation Path Investigations, and Lower Head Investigations. In the final discussion, the lower head gap formation mechanism is explained in terms of thermal contraction and fracturing of the debris crust. This model seems more plausible than the MAAP model based on creep expansion of the lower head. (au) 1 tab., 33 ills., 31 refs.

  18. Ontology Development and Evolution in the Accident Investigation Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Robert; Berrios, Dan; Williams, James

    2004-01-01

    InvestiigationOrganizer (IO) is a collaborative semantic web system designed to support the conduct of mishap investigations. IO provides a common repository for a wide range of mishap related information, allowing investigators to integrate evidence, causal models, and investigation results. IO has been used to support investigations ranging from a small property damage case to the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Through IO'S use in these investigations, we have learned significant lessons? about the application of ontologies and semantic systems to solving real-world problems. This paper will describe the development of the ontology within IO, from the initial development, its growth in response to user requests during use in investigations, and the recent work that was done to control the results of that growth. This paper will also describe the lessons learned from this experience and how they may apply to the implementaton of future ontologies and semantic systems.

  19. 32 CFR 634.30 - Use of traffic accident investigation report data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... data will be used to inform and educate drivers and to conduct traffic engineering studies. (e) Army... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Use of traffic accident investigation report data... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic...

  20. Guide to radiological accident considerations for siting and design of DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE Office of Nuclear Safety has sponsored preparation of a guidance document to aid field offices and contractors in their analyses of consequences of postulated major accidents. The guide addresses the requirements of DOE Orders 5480.1A, Chapter V, and 6430.1, including the general requirement that DOE nuclear facilities be sited, designed, and operated in accordance with standards, codes, and guides consistent with those applied to comparable licensed nuclear facilities. The guide includes both philosophical and technical information in the areas of: siting guidelines doses applied to an offsite reference person; consideration also given to an onsite reference person; physical parameters, models, and assumptions to be applied when calculating doses for comparison to siting criteria; and potential accident consequences other than radiological dose to a reference person which might affect siting and major design features of the facility, such as environmental contamination, population dose, and associated public health effects. Recommendations and/or clarifications are provided where this could be done without adding new requirements. In this regard, the guide is considered a valuable aid to the safety analyst, especially where requirements have been subject to inconsistent interpretation or where analysis methods are in transition, such as use of dose model (ICRP 2 or ICRP 30) or use of probabilistic methods of risk analysis in the siting and design of nuclear facilities

  1. On-site habitability in the event of an accident at a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is intended to provide technical guidance and a methodology for regulatory bodies, designers, constructors and operators of nuclear facilities to assist them in assessing the current situation as regards on-site habitability for their specific nuclear facilities. Initially, the aim will be to ensure that the ''vital areas'' of the facility which are necessary for the safe operation and shutdown of the facility will remain habitable, in some cases continuously and in others transiently, in the event of an accident inside or outside the installation. The assessment procedure can be used not only for potential radiation accidents but also to consider the effects on habitability of those probable non-radiological events which, if not correctly and effectively countered, could lead to the development of potentially unsafe conditions in the facility itself. 30 refs, 4 figs, 8 tabs

  2. Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the 'State-of-the-Art'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or 'human error'. Whereas the complexity of socio-technical systems is steadily growing across all industrial domains, including nuclear power production, accident investigation methods are only updated when their inability to account for novel types of accidents and incidents becomes inescapable. Accident investigation methods therefore typically lag behind the socio-technological developments by 20 years or more. The project first compiled a set of methods from the recognised scientific literature and in major major research and development programs, excluding methods limited to risk assessment, technological malfunctions, human reliability, and safety management methods. An initial set of 21 methods was further reduced to seven by retaining only prima facie accident investigation methods and avoiding overlapping or highly similar methods. The second step was to develop a set of criteria used to characterise the methods. The starting point was Perrow's description of normal accidents in socio-technical systems, which used the dimensions of coupling, going from loose to tight, and interactions, going from linear to complex. For practical reasons, the second dimension was changed to that of tractability or how easy it is to describe the system, where the sub-criteria are the level of detail, the availability of an articulated model, and the system dynamics. On this basis the seven selected methods were characterised in terms of the systems - or conditions - they could account for, leading to the following four groups: methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are loosely

  3. Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from cytogenetic investigations into 55 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation during 1977 are reviewed. This report is the seventh in an annual series (previous results were published in NRPB-R5, R10, R23, R35, R41 and R57) which together contain data on 327 studies. Results from all investigations have been pooled for general analysis. Brief accounts are given in an appendix of the circumstances behind the past year's investigations and, where possible, physical estimates of dose have been included for comparison. Two cases are described in more detail: the first concerned a non-classified worker who put an iridium-192 source in his pocket and took it home; and the second involved the accidental contamination of two people with tritium gas. In a second appendix, the confidence limits on cytogenetic dosimetry for X- and γ-ray over-exposures are given and the derivation of these limits is discussed. (author)

  4. Confined Site Construction: A qualitative investigation of critical issues affecting management of Health and Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Spillane, John P.; Oyedele, Lukumon O.; Von Meding, Jason; Konanahalli, Ashwini; Jaiyeoba, Babatunde E; Tijani, Iyabo K

    2011-01-01

    The construction industry is inherently risky, with a significant number of accidents and disasters occurring, particularly on confined construction sites. This research investigates and identifies the various issues affecting successful management of health and safety in confined construction sites. The rationale is that identifying the issues would assist the management of health and safety particularly in inner city centres which are mostly confined sites. Using empiricism epistemology, th...

  5. Methods and codes for assessing the off-site Consequences of nuclear accidents. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Commission of the European Communities, within the framework of its 1980-84 radiation protection research programme, initiated a two-year project in 1983 entitled methods for assessing the radiological impact of accidents (Maria). This project was continued in a substantially enlarged form within the 1985-89 research programme. The main objectives of the project were, firstly, to develop a new probabilistic accident consequence code that was modular, incorporated the best features of those codes already in use, could be readily modified to take account of new data and model developments and would be broadly applicable within the EC; secondly, to acquire a better understanding of the limitations of current models and to develop more rigorous approaches where necessary; and, thirdly, to quantify the uncertainties associated with the model predictions. This research led to the development of the accident consequence code Cosyma (COde System from MAria), which will be made generally available later in 1990. The numerous and diverse studies that have been undertaken in support of this development are summarized in this paper, together with indications of where further effort might be most profitably directed. Consideration is also given to related research directed towards the development of real-time decision support systems for use in off-site emergency management

  6. Investigating the role of behavioral factors in non-fatal accidents of urban and suburban driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Azad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road accidents are of the most important events, which cause death and injury of a large number of people and impose huge economic losses. According to previous studies, human factors are the main cause of traffic accidents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of behavioral factors in driving-related non-fatal accidents. Material and Method: The present analytical study was carried out among 150 drivers of urban and suburban transportation system in Yazd province. The research tool was Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ which is consisted of two sections: demographic information and driving behavior. Result: 83/9 % of the participants reported to use safety belt nearly always. The highest deliberate violations, slips, and mistakes were belonged to drivers with age group of 18-25. Moreover, deliberate violations had a significant relationship with rage (P < 0.05. Survey of behavioral factors in terms of vehicle ownership type showed that “deliberate violations” and “slips and mistakes” high among personal bus drivers and state-owned bus drivers, respectively, which shows the significant association between these behavioral factors and ownership type. What is more, rates of deliberate and unintentional violations and slips were higher among those with a history of two times incidents (P < 0.004. Conclusion: The results revealed that behavioral factors such as age, type of vehicle ownership, and accident history played a significant role in occurrence of traffic accidents.

  7. Techniques and decision making in the assessment of off-site consequences of an accident in a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Guide is intended to complement the IAEA's existing technical guidance on emergency planning and preparedness by providing information and practical guidance related to the assessment of off-site consequences of an accident in a nuclear or radioactive materials installation and to the decision making process in implementing protective measures. This Guide contains information on emergency response philosophy, fundamental factors affecting accident consequences, principles of accident assessment, data acquisition and handling, systems, techniques and decision making principles. Many of the accident assessment concepts presented are considerably more advanced than some of those that now pertain in most countries. They could, if properly interpreted, developed and applied, significantly improve emergency response in the early and intermediate phases of an accident. Furthermore, they are considered to be applicable to a broad range of serious nuclear accidents and radiological emergencies. The extent of their application is governed by both the scale of the accident and by the availability of preplanned resources for accident assessment and emergency response. 68 refs, 28 figs, 14 tabs

  8. Site investigations. Investigation methods and general execution programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    SKB plans to commence site investigations in 2002. The present report is a broadening of the general programme and describes the execution of the investigations in so-called discipline-specific programmes for the disciplines geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydro geochemistry, transport properties of the rock and surface ecosystems. It also describes various technical aspects of drilling, which comprises a significant portion of the investigations. Based on this possible programme, site-specific programmes will then be prepared and adapted to the site-specific questions and conditions on the specific candidate area. The main product of the investigations is a site description. This document presents an integrated description of the site (geosphere and biosphere) and its regional environs with respect to current state and naturally ongoing processes. Provided that the initial site investigation shows that the site is still favourable, complete investigations are commenced. Primary investigation data are stored in SKB's database SICADA. The database's primary data mainly represent parameter values for single measurement points or limited measurement objects. Primary data are subjected to both discipline-specific and integrated analysis and interpretation in order to be able to subdivide the site into suitable geometric units and to assign discipline-specific properties to these geometric units. In this way a three-dimensional, primarily geo scientific, site-descriptive model of rock and ground is built. The site-descriptive model is represented with the aid of both geographic information systems (GIS) and above all SKB's CAD-based computer tool, Rock Visualization System (RVS). RVS is also used as an active instrument in the interpretation of information, especially to be able to judge the relative locations of different deformation zones. When the site has been selected, the investigations are focused on characterizing

  9. Site investigations. Investigation methods and general execution programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKB plans to commence site investigations in 2002. The present report is a broadening of the general programme and describes the execution of the investigations in so-called discipline-specific programmes for the disciplines geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydro geochemistry, transport properties of the rock and surface ecosystems. It also describes various technical aspects of drilling, which comprises a significant portion of the investigations. Based on this possible programme, site-specific programmes will then be prepared and adapted to the site-specific questions and conditions on the specific candidate area. The main product of the investigations is a site description. This document presents an integrated description of the site (geosphere and biosphere) and its regional environs with respect to current state and naturally ongoing processes. Provided that the initial site investigation shows that the site is still favourable, complete investigations are commenced. Primary investigation data are stored in SKB's database SICADA. The database's primary data mainly represent parameter values for single measurement points or limited measurement objects. Primary data are subjected to both discipline-specific and integrated analysis and interpretation in order to be able to subdivide the site into suitable geometric units and to assign discipline-specific properties to these geometric units. In this way a three-dimensional, primarily geo scientific, site-descriptive model of rock and ground is built. The site-descriptive model is represented with the aid of both geographic information systems (GIS) and above all SKB's CAD-based computer tool, Rock Visualization System (RVS). RVS is also used as an active instrument in the interpretation of information, especially to be able to judge the relative locations of different deformation zones. When the site has been selected, the investigations are focused on characterizing conditions at depth

  10. An investigation of awareness on the Fukushima nuclear accident and Radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jeong Chul; Song, Young Ju [Dept. of Consumer Safety, Korea Consumer Agency, Eumseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate Korean people's awareness about impact of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in Japan and radioactive contamination caused by it. The respondents of the survey were 600 adults who resided in the Seoul metropolitan area. The survey results show that the majority of respondents were concerned about impact of radiation leakage that might have an effect on our environment. They were worried about radioactive contamination of foodstuffs, particularly fishery products and preferred to acquire information through TV(49.8%) or the Internet(31.3%). Meanwhile, respondents mentioned that the information on the Fukushima nuclear accident and radioactive contamination had not been sufficient and they didn't know well about the follow-up measures of the government on the accident. Most respondents answered that information on radioactive contamination levels and safety of foods and environment was most needed. The results of this study could be useful to enhance awareness on radioactivity and improve risk communication on nuclear power plant accidents.

  11. Seismological investigations for siting an LNG facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mualchin, L.

    1985-05-01

    Siting of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) facilities requires seismological investigations to identify the closest capable faults, to estimate the capability of faults in the vicinity of proposed sites to generate earthquakes, and to provide engineers with appropriate ground-motion parameters (peak acceleration, predominant period, and duration of strong ground-motion) for design and construction. These investigations consist of analysis of seismicity data to correlate hypocenters and faults, estimation of the maximum magnitude of an earthquake for particular faults, and calculations of recurrence intervals of earthquakes. The investigation of the proposed Little Cojo Bay LNG Terminal Site, near Point Conception, California, for which a peak acceleration of about 0.65 g appears reasonable, is presented as an example.

  12. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Main Body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US DOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  13. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  14. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  15. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  16. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US DOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  17. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  18. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  19. The environmental restoration in the management of radiological accidents with off site consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological accidents are among the potential cases of environmental contamination that could have consequences on the health of the population. These accidents, associated with an increase in the level of radiological exposure surpassing the natural background, have been investigated in greater depth than other conventional accidents. This investigation has included the evaluation of their probability, magnitude and consequences in order to establish safety norms. Nevertheless, the social perception of this type of risk appears to be disproportionately high. The development of a comprehensible and adequate standardized system for the evaluation of the radiological risk and the applicability of corrective actions to reduce this type of risk at local level, will undoubtedly contribute to increase the public confidence in the advised options for the restoration of environments contaminated with the long lived radionuclides. This system should consider the local specificity of each contaminated place, and take into account the associated unwanted consequences for each option. This paper presents the first results of a system to help the decision makers in the quantitative evaluation of the radiological risk produced by long lived radionuclides Cs 137, Cs 134 and Sr 90 spread over urban, agricultural and semi-natural environments and the applicable options to reduce it. The evaluation of these applicable options is made considering the reduction of dose that can be reached, the monetary costs and the significant associated secondary effects if there are any. All these factors are integrated for a time period depending on the half-life of the contaminants and on their strength and distribution on the scenario when intervention is being planned. (authors)

  20. Identification of Process Hazards and Accident Scenarios for Site 300 B-Division Firing Areas, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, H; Johnson, G

    2001-05-04

    This report describes a hazard and accident analysis conducted for Site 300 operations to support update of the ''Site 300 B-Division Firing Areas Safety Analysis Report'' (SAR) [LLNL 1997]. A significant change since the previous SAR is the construction and the new Contained Firing Facility (CFF). Therefore, this hazard and accident analysis focused on the hazards associated with bunker operations to ensure that the hazards at CFF are properly characterized in the updated SAR. Hazard tables were created to cover both the CFF and the existing bunkers with ''open air'' firing tables.

  1. Observations on the geology and geohydrology of the Chernobyl' nuclear accident site, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzko, J.R.; Percious, D.J.; Rachlin, J.; Marples, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    The most highly contaminated surface areas from cesium-137 fallout from the April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power station in Ukraine occur within the 30-km radius evacuation zone set up around the station, and an 80-km lobe extending to the west-southwest. Lower levels of contamination extend 300 km to the west of the power station. The geology, the presence of surface water, a shallow water table, and leaky aquifers at depth make this an unfavorable environment for the long-term containment and storage of the radioactive debris. An understanding of the general geology and hydrology of the area is important to assess the environmental impact of this unintended waste storage site, and to evaluate the potential for radionuclide migration through the soil and rock and into subsurface aquifers and nearby rivers. -from Authors

  2. Health effects models for off-site radiological consequence analysis on nuclear reactor accidents (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, Toshimitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Takahashi, Tomoyuki [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst; Yonehara, Hidenori [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [eds.

    2000-12-01

    This report is a revision of JAERI-M 91-005, 'Health Effects Models for Off-Site Radiological Consequence Analysis of Nuclear Reactor Accidents'. This revision provides a review of two revisions of NUREG/CR-4214 reports by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission which is the basis of the JAERI health effects models and other several recent reports that may impact the health effects models by international organizations. The major changes to the first version of the JAERI health effects models and the recommended parameters in this report are for late somatic effects. These changes reflect recent changes in cancer risk factors that have come from longer followup and revised dosimetry in major studies on the Japanese A-bomb survivors. This report also provides suggestions about future revisions of computational aspects on health effects models. (author)

  3. Health effects models for off-site radiological consequence analysis on nuclear reactor accidents (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a revision of JAERI-M 91-005, 'Health Effects Models for Off-Site Radiological Consequence Analysis of Nuclear Reactor Accidents'. This revision provides a review of two revisions of NUREG/CR-4214 reports by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission which is the basis of the JAERI health effects models and other several recent reports that may impact the health effects models by international organizations. The major changes to the first version of the JAERI health effects models and the recommended parameters in this report are for late somatic effects. These changes reflect recent changes in cancer risk factors that have come from longer followup and revised dosimetry in major studies on the Japanese A-bomb survivors. This report also provides suggestions about future revisions of computational aspects on health effects models. (author)

  4. The Chernobyl nuclear accident: environmental radioactivity monitoring at the LENA site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pumping and filtration stations nearby the LENA site, routinely active for air radioactivity monitoring, were alerted on April 28, 1986 to look for fission products coming from U.S.S.R. after the Chernobyl accident according to weather forecast. Air filters were submitted to direct gamma ray spectrometry and fission products detected. After May 1st 1986, when the maximum radionuclide concentration in air was observed, an environmental radioactivity monitoring program was started. Several matrices such as milk, soil, grass, vegetables, tap and rain water, were systematically analyzed. At the moment the program is still active but only air, milk, vegetables and meat are periodically analyzed by gamma ray spectrometry. Results, distributions and correlations are presented and discussed. (author)

  5. Site investigations. Investigation methods and general execution programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    SKB plans to commence site investigations in 2002. The present report is a broadening of the general programme and describes the execution of the investigations in so-called discipline-specific programmes for the disciplines geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydro geochemistry, transport properties of the rock and surface ecosystems. It also describes various technical aspects of drilling, which comprises a significant portion of the investigations. Based on this possible programme, site-specific programmes will then be prepared and adapted to the site-specific questions and conditions on the specific candidate area. The main product of the investigations is a site description. This document presents an integrated description of the site (geosphere and biosphere) and its regional environs with respect to current state and naturally ongoing processes. Provided that the initial site investigation shows that the site is still favourable, complete investigations are commenced. Primary investigation data are stored in SKB's database SICADA. The database's primary data mainly represent parameter values for single measurement points or limited measurement objects. Primary data are subjected to both discipline-specific and integrated analysis and interpretation in order to be able to subdivide the site into suitable geometric units and to assign discipline-specific properties to these geometric units. In this way a three-dimensional, primarily geo scientific, site-descriptive model of rock and ground is built. The site-descriptive model is represented with the aid of both geographic information systems (GIS) and above all SKB's CAD-based computer tool, Rock Visualization System (RVS). RVS is also used as an active instrument in the interpretation of information, especially to be able to judge the relative locations of different deformation zones. When the site has been selected, the investigations are focused on characterizing

  6. Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Lessing; Blair H. Park; Jakeob Maupin

    2013-09-01

    As part of a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with industry, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating several options for accident resistant uranium compounds including silicides, and nitrides for use in future light water reactor (LWR) fuels. This work is part of a larger effort to create accident tolerant fuel forms where changes to the fuel pellets, cladding, and cladding treatment are considered. The goal fuel form should have a resistance to water corrosion comparable to UO2, have an equal to or larger thermal conductivity than uranium dioxide, a melting temperature that allows the material to stay solid under power reactor conditions, and a uranium loading that maintains or improves current LWR power densities. During the course of this research, fuel fabricated at INL will be characterized, irradiated at the INL Advanced Test Reactor, and examined after irradiation at INL facilities to help inform industrial partners on candidate technologies.

  7. Investigation of Radionuclide Concentrations in Pine Needles in Vietnam after the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the results of measurements concentrations in pine needles in Vietnam after the Chernobyl accident. Investigations were made since second half of 1986 to 1988. Increasing of concentration radionuclide levels in 1986 was not significant and was ended at the end of 1987. The concentrations of radionuclide Cs-137 in pine needles were compared with those in precipitations. The pine needles can be recommended as a useful and accessible material for supplementary monitoring of radioactive situation in the environment. The results obtained can contribute to the overall picture of studies on the dynamics of radioactive distribution and global fallouts formed by macro scale nuclear accidents. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Site investigation-the maximization of data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most instances, contaminated land management conjures up in people's minds varying degrees of remediation practices. These may vary from dig and dump, in situ or ex situ processes, volume reduction, containment, or even natural attenuation. The key word, however, is 'management', in that, while a site may exhibit contamination, it may not necessarily pose a hazard. It is only through conducting a site investigation and possibly a risk assessment that the hazard and associated risk can be determined. According to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), 'the primary aim of radiological protection is to provide an appropriate standard of protection for man without unduly limiting the beneficial practices giving rise to radiation exposure'. Of equal importance is the general ICRP definition of intervention as 'an activity that decreases overall exposure by removing existing sources, modifying pathways, or reducing the number of exposed individuals'. Interpreting these definitions is key to the provision of safe and effective management of contaminated land. Site investigation is therefore the tool through which the supporting and underpinning information is derived. Invariably, it is an expensive exercise and, if not carefully designed, has the potential to involuntary mobilize contamination or even cross-contaminate geological strata. An investigation therefore needs clearly to address the overall objectives and must be designed first and foremost with this in mind. The importance of the desk study phase in collating existing information prior to design is often underestimated and requires special attention. Of equal importance is the necessity to ensure that the site investigation process does not neglect human safety or environmental protection. While it is possible to maintain an overall generic approach, it is important carefully to target known drivers and objectives. An investigation may be used to support any of the following, and

  9. Site investigations: Strategy for rock mechanics site descriptive model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the planning work for the Site Investigations, SKB has developed a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Modelling Strategy. Similar strategies are being developed for other disciplines. The objective of the strategy is that it should guide the practical implementation of evaluating site specific data during the Site Investigations. It is also understood that further development may be needed. This methodology enables the crystalline rock mass to be characterised in terms of the quality at different sites, for considering rock engineering constructability, and for providing the input to numerical models and performance assessment calculations. The model describes the initial stresses and the distribution of deformation and strength properties of the intact rock, of fractures and fracture zones, and of the rock mass. The rock mass mechanical properties are estimated by empirical relations and by numerical simulations. The methodology is based on estimation of mechanical properties using both empirical and heroretical/numerical approaches; and estimation of in situ rock stress using judgement and numerical modelling, including the influence of fracture zones. These approaches are initially used separately, and then combined to produce the required characterisation estimates. The methodology was evaluated with a Test Case at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The quality control aspects are an important feature of the methodology: these include Protocols to ensure the structure and coherence of the procedures used, regular meetings to enhance communication, feedback from internal and external reviewing, plus the recording of an audit trail of the development steps and decisions made. The strategy will be reviewed and, if required, updated as appropriate

  10. Site investigations: Strategy for rock mechanics site descriptive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Christiansson, Rolf [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hudson, John [Rock Engineering Consultants, Welwyn Garden City (United Kingdom)

    2002-05-01

    As a part of the planning work for the Site Investigations, SKB has developed a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Modelling Strategy. Similar strategies are being developed for other disciplines. The objective of the strategy is that it should guide the practical implementation of evaluating site specific data during the Site Investigations. It is also understood that further development may be needed. This methodology enables the crystalline rock mass to be characterised in terms of the quality at different sites, for considering rock engineering constructability, and for providing the input to numerical models and performance assessment calculations. The model describes the initial stresses and the distribution of deformation and strength properties of the intact rock, of fractures and fracture zones, and of the rock mass. The rock mass mechanical properties are estimated by empirical relations and by numerical simulations. The methodology is based on estimation of mechanical properties using both empirical and heroretical/numerical approaches; and estimation of in situ rock stress using judgement and numerical modelling, including the influence of fracture zones. These approaches are initially used separately, and then combined to produce the required characterisation estimates. The methodology was evaluated with a Test Case at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The quality control aspects are an important feature of the methodology: these include Protocols to ensure the structure and coherence of the procedures used, regular meetings to enhance communication, feedback from internal and external reviewing, plus the recording of an audit trail of the development steps and decisions made. The strategy will be reviewed and, if required, updated as appropriate.

  11. Bicycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, M G; Wollin, S

    1986-01-01

    Information concerning 520 bicycle accidents and their victims was obtained from medical records and the victims' replies to questionnaires. The analyzed aspects included risk of injury, completeness of accident registrations by police and in hospitals, types of injuries and influence of the cyclists' age and sex, alcohol, fatigue, hunger, haste, physical disability, purpose of cycling, wearing of protective helmet and other clothing, type and quality of road surface, site of accident (road junctions, separate cycle paths, etc.) and turning manoeuvres.

  12. Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation. [Comparison of aviation with other industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinestiver, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel.

  13. Aircraft accident investigation: the decision-making in initial action scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Marcia M; Ribeiro, Selma L O

    2012-01-01

    In the complex aeronautical environment, the efforts in terms of operational safety involve the adoption of proactive and reactive measures. The process of investigation begins right after the occurrence of the aeronautical accident, through the initial action. Thus, it is in the crisis scenario, that the person responsible for the initial action makes decisions and gathers the necessary information for the subsequent phases of the investigation process. Within this scenario, which is a natural environment, researches have shown the fragility of rational models of decision making. The theoretical perspective of naturalistic decision making constitutes a breakthrough in the understanding of decision problems demanded by real world. The proposal of this study was to verify if the initial action, after the occurrence of an accident, and the decision-making strategies, used by the investigators responsible for this activity, are characteristic of the naturalistic decision making theoretical approach. To attend the proposed objective a descriptive research was undertaken with a sample of professionals that work in this activity. The data collected through individual interviews were analyzed and the results demonstrated that the initial action environment, which includes restricted time, dynamic conditions, the presence of multiple actors, stress and insufficient information is characteristic of the naturalistic decision making. They also demonstrated that, when the investigators make their decisions, they use their experience and the mental simulation, intuition, improvisation, metaphors and analogues cases, as strategies, all of them related to the naturalistic approach of decision making, in order to satisfy the needs of the situation and reach the objectives of the initial action in the accident scenario. PMID:22317482

  14. Aircraft accident investigation: the decision-making in initial action scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Marcia M; Ribeiro, Selma L O

    2012-01-01

    In the complex aeronautical environment, the efforts in terms of operational safety involve the adoption of proactive and reactive measures. The process of investigation begins right after the occurrence of the aeronautical accident, through the initial action. Thus, it is in the crisis scenario, that the person responsible for the initial action makes decisions and gathers the necessary information for the subsequent phases of the investigation process. Within this scenario, which is a natural environment, researches have shown the fragility of rational models of decision making. The theoretical perspective of naturalistic decision making constitutes a breakthrough in the understanding of decision problems demanded by real world. The proposal of this study was to verify if the initial action, after the occurrence of an accident, and the decision-making strategies, used by the investigators responsible for this activity, are characteristic of the naturalistic decision making theoretical approach. To attend the proposed objective a descriptive research was undertaken with a sample of professionals that work in this activity. The data collected through individual interviews were analyzed and the results demonstrated that the initial action environment, which includes restricted time, dynamic conditions, the presence of multiple actors, stress and insufficient information is characteristic of the naturalistic decision making. They also demonstrated that, when the investigators make their decisions, they use their experience and the mental simulation, intuition, improvisation, metaphors and analogues cases, as strategies, all of them related to the naturalistic approach of decision making, in order to satisfy the needs of the situation and reach the objectives of the initial action in the accident scenario.

  15. Status of ANL out-of-pile investigations of severe accident phenomena for liquid metal reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, B.W.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Anderson, R.P.; Armstrong, D.R.; Baker, L.; Cho, D.H.; Gabor, J.D.; Pedersen, D.R.; Sienicki, J.J.; Stein, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Research addressing LMFBR whole core accidents has been terminated, and there is now emphasis on quantifying reactivity feedbacks, and in particular enhancing negative feedback, so that advanced LMR designs will provide inherently safe operation. The status of recent HCDA-related laboratory research performed at ANL, up to the time that such activities were no longer needed to support CRBR licensing, is described. Included are descriptions of programs addressing sodium channel voiding, fuel sweepout, fuel dispersal and plugging, boiled-up pool, UO/sub 2//sodium FCI, and debris coolability. Descriptions of recent investigations involving the metal fuel/sodium system are also included.

  16. Status of ANL out-of-pile investigations of severe accident phenomena for liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research addressing LMFBR whole core accidents has been terminated, and there is now emphasis on quantifying reactivity feedbacks, and in particular enhancing negative feedback, so that advanced LMR designs will provide inherently safe operation. The status of recent HCDA-related laboratory research performed at ANL, up to the time that such activities were no longer needed to support CRBR licensing, is described. Included are descriptions of programs addressing sodium channel voiding, fuel sweepout, fuel dispersal and plugging, boiled-up pool, UO2/sodium FCI, and debris coolability. Descriptions of recent investigations involving the metal fuel/sodium system are also included

  17. Post-Accident Sporadic Releases of Airborne Radionuclides from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Niisoe, Tamon; Harada, Kouji H; Shozugawa, Katsumi; Schneider, Stephanie; Synal, Hans-Arno; Walther, Clemens; Christl, Marcus; Nanba, Kenji; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Koizumi, Akio

    2015-12-15

    The Fukushima nuclear accident (March 11, 2011) caused the widespread contamination of Japan by direct deposition of airborne radionuclides. Analysis of weekly air filters has revealed sporadic releases of radionuclides long after the Fukushima Daiichi reactors were stabilized. One major discharge was observed in August 2013 in monitoring stations north of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP). During this event, an air monitoring station in this previously scarcely contaminated area suddenly reported (137)Cs activity levels that were 30-fold above the background. Together with atmospheric dispersion and deposition simulation, radionuclide analysis in soil indicated that debris removal operations conducted on the FDNPP site on August 19, 2013 are likely to be responsible for this late release of radionuclides. One soil sample in the center of the simulated plume exhibited a high (90)Sr contamination (78 ± 8 Bq kg(-1)) as well as a high (90)Sr/(137)Cs ratio (0.04); both phenomena have usually been observed only in very close vicinity around the FDNPP. We estimate that through the resuspension of highly contaminated particles in the course of these earthmoving operations, gross (137)Cs activity of ca. 2.8 × 10(11) Bq has been released.

  18. Radiological Closure of a Nuclear Weapon Accident Site with Plutonium Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An explosion and fire in a BOMARC-missile launching pad in June 1960 resulted in the direct release of weapons grade plutonium (WGP) within the confines of an Air Force site in central New Jersey. The site had undergone a large-scale remediation and final status survey (FSS) in 2002 to 2004 that resulted in over 20,000 cubic yards (yd3) of plutonium-contaminated soil being excavated. However, it was later discovered that the prior investigation did not address all impacted areas of the site. Several years after the initial remediation project was completed, plutonium contamination in the form of discrete particles was discovered at the site in areas excluded from the previous investigation. Emergency response activities following the fire, while following standard practices of the day, resulted in the initial spread of contamination beyond the expected fate and transport pathways that were addressed during the initial project. Routine maintenance and site operational activities at the site also contributed to further spread of contamination beyond what was expected. Cabrera Services, Inc. (CABRERA) completed several phases of site characterization, radiological remediation, and final status survey (FSS) at the site in accordance with the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) to address the discrete particle issues at the site. CABRERA also conducted a thorough plutonium particle speciation study in coordination with the University of Nevada at Las Vegas as part of the development of a radiological conceptual site model. Details of this study are being presented in a separate publication. The WGP contamination throughout the site presented unique challenges in terms of site characterization and remediation. Specific technical challenges included the field detection of discrete high-activity plutonium particles over a 200-acre site and designing survey and sampling approaches to ensure compliance with the protocols outlined in the

  19. Discussion about Enterprise Accident Investigation and Analysis Methods%企业事故调查分析方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡强

    2011-01-01

    对企业事故调查分析方法进行了探讨,明确了企业事故调查分析程序,提出了具体的事故调查取证方法、事故原因分析方法和事故责任分析方法。%The investigation and analysis methods of enterprise accidents are discussed, the investigation and analysis procedure of enterprise accidents is defined and concrete accident investigating and evidence collecting methods, accident cause analysis methods and accident responsibility analysis methods are presented.

  20. Test Plans for Investigating Molten Fuel Behavior in Coolant Channel during SFR Core Melting Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metal-fueled, sodium-cooled fast reactor system is expected to accommodate all credible malfunctions or accident initiators passively without damage to the core. However, the evaluation of the safety performance and the containment requirements for this system will most likely require consideration of postulated low-probability accident sequences that result in partial or whole core melting. For these sequences, some phenomenological uncertainties exist and experimental data are needed for modeling purposes. One such data need is concerned with the potential for freezing and plugging of molten metallic fuel in above-and below-core structures and possibly in inter subassembly spaces. The first basic data need is the properties for metallic fuel/steel mixtures such as liquidus/solidus and mobilization temperatures, as part of measurement of phenomenological data describing the relocation and freezing behavior of molten metallic fuel. Accordingly, plans for two different tests, one for determination of the liquidus/solidus temperature and another for determination of the mobilization temperature, are described in this report. Test plans are then described in the report for the investigations of the relocation and freezing behavior of molten metallic fuel in coolant channels, including possible chemical interactions of molten fuel with the channel steel structure

  1. Test Plans for Investigating Molten Fuel Behavior in Coolant Channel during SFR Core Melting Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, Soo Dong; Hahn, Doo Hee; Lee, Yong Bum

    2006-09-15

    The metal-fueled, sodium-cooled fast reactor system is expected to accommodate all credible malfunctions or accident initiators passively without damage to the core. However, the evaluation of the safety performance and the containment requirements for this system will most likely require consideration of postulated low-probability accident sequences that result in partial or whole core melting. For these sequences, some phenomenological uncertainties exist and experimental data are needed for modeling purposes. One such data need is concerned with the potential for freezing and plugging of molten metallic fuel in above-and below-core structures and possibly in inter subassembly spaces. The first basic data need is the properties for metallic fuel/steel mixtures such as liquidus/solidus and mobilization temperatures, as part of measurement of phenomenological data describing the relocation and freezing behavior of molten metallic fuel. Accordingly, plans for two different tests, one for determination of the liquidus/solidus temperature and another for determination of the mobilization temperature, are described in this report. Test plans are then described in the report for the investigations of the relocation and freezing behavior of molten metallic fuel in coolant channels, including possible chemical interactions of molten fuel with the channel steel structure.

  2. SWIR Investigation of sites of astrobiological interest

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Adrian J; Cudahy, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Rover missions to the rocky bodies of the Solar System and especially to Mars require light- weight, portable instruments that use minimal power, require no sample preparation, and provide suitably diagnostic mineralogical information to an Earth-based exploration team. Short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectroscopic instruments such as the Portable Infrared Mineral Analyser (PIMA, Integrated Spectronics Pty Ltd., Baulkham Hills, NSW, Australia) fulfill all these requirements. We describe an investigation of a possible Mars analogue site using a PIMA instrument. A survey was carried out on the Strelley Pool Chert, an outcrop of stro- matolitic, silicified Archean carbonate and clastic succession in the Pilbara Craton, interpreted as being modified by hydrothermal processes. The results of this study demonstrate the ca- pability of SWIR techniques to add significantly to the geological interpretation of such hy- drothermally altered outcrops. Minerals identified include dolomite, white micas such as il- lite-muscovit...

  3. [Methodological aspects of measuring injuries from traffic accidents at the site of occurrence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Híjar-Medina, M C; López-López, M V; Flores-Aldana, M; Anaya, R

    1997-02-01

    Traffic accidents are a well-known public health problem worldwide. In Mexico research into risk factors for motor involving vehicles accidents and their consequences has recently been taken into account. The relevant literature does not normally describe the methodological aspects involved in the collection of primary data, since most studies have used secondary data the good quality and validity of which are assumed. The paper presented seeks to discuss and share with researchers in this field, some of the methodological aspects to be considered in the attempt to recreate the scene of the accident and obtain information approximating to reality. The measurements in situ of, such traffic accident variables as injury, use of seat belt, speed and alcohol intake are discussed. PMID:9430931

  4. Investigation of relationship between mental workload and information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to investigate experimentally the relationship between an operator's mental workload and the information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks and further to propose the information flow rate as an analytic method for measuring the mental workload. There are two types of mental workload in the advanced MCR of NPPs: the information processing workload, which is the processing that the human operator must actually perform in order to complete the diagnosis task, and emotional stress workload experienced by the operator. In this study, the focus is on the former. Three kinds of methods are used to measure the operator's workload: information flow rate, subjective methods, and physiological measures. Information flows for eight accident diagnosis tasks are modeled qualitatively using a stage model and are quantified using Conant's model. The eight accident cases are considered here are: Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR), Steam Line Break (SLB), Feedwater Line Break (FLB), Pressurizer (PZR) spray and heater failure, Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) trip, Main Steam Isolation Valve (MSIV) failure, and PZR spray failure. The information flow rate is obtained for each diagnosis task by imposing time limit restrictions for the tasks. Subjective methods require the operators to respond to questionnaires to rate their level of mental effort. NASA-TLX and MCH scale are selected as subjective methods. NASA-TLX is a subjective method used in the various fields including the aviation, automobile, and nuclear industries. It has a multi-dimensional rating technique and provides an overall workload score based on a weighted average on six subscales using pair-wise comparison tests. MCH, on the other hand, is one-dimensional and uses a 10- point rating technique. As with NASA-TLX, the higher the score is, the higher the subjective workload is. For the physiological measurements, an eye tracking system analyzes eye movements

  5. Site description of Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the model is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model for geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site, presents an integrated understanding of the Forsmark area at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted at Forsmark during the period 2002 to 2007. It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details in data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. The Forsmark area is located in northern Uppland within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, within the north-western part of a major tectonic lens that formed between 1.87 and 1.85 billion years ago during the Svecokarelian orogeny. The candidate area is approximately 6 km long and 2 km wide. The

  6. Site description of Laxemar at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the SDM is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model of geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site Laxemar, presents an integrated understanding of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area (with special emphasis on the Laxemar subarea) at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted during the period 2002 to 2007. A summary is also provided of the abundant underlying data and the discipline specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details of the data analyses and modelling of the different disciplines. The Laxemar-Simpevarp area is located in the province of Smaaland within the municipality of Oskarshamn, about 230 km south of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of the strait of Kalmarsund, within a 1.8 billion year old suite of well preserved bedrock belonging to the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt formed during

  7. The crisis of investigative Journalism in Spain. The journalism practice in the Spanair accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente García-Santamaría, Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The crash of the McDonnell Douglas plane operated by the Spanish airline Spanair, on 20 August 2008 at Barajas Airport, and the journalistic treatment it received undoubtedly represent a unique opportunity to address the current state of journalism in Spain. In particular, this article studies the use of information sources in a crisis situation, which requires a major effort to find the maximum number of primary and specialised sources to provide, in a short period of time, the audience with the key facts to understand the event. This accident also represents an excellent opportunity to study some practices within investigative journalism and the different factors that condition the media agenda. Finally, as in any other air tragedy, where millionaire compensations can be paid to the victims, it is important to examine the application of a series of ethical frameworks, which have been captured in deontological codes designed to assure fair journalistic practices.

  8. Investigation of the radiological impact of reactor accidents under probabilistic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis and conceptional investigation have been performed for the accident consequence model of the German reactor risk study. A dynamic atmospheric diffusion model is developed, which is applied in the first stage of the study to all distance ranges, and will be restricted finally to the long distance range. The wind direction and its variations are not taken into account in this model. The program set UFO-BAS calculates the time integrated nuclide concentration in air at any location downwind of the source. A further model which takes into account wind direction variations is being developed. On the basis of the proposals for the calculation of the health effects in the German risk study considerations on the storage requirements were accomplished. By means of these assessments a revised grid of parameters was evaluated. Furthermore, considerations were made for the implementation of an evaluation model, which will be developed by the Institut fuer Unfallforschung. (orig./RW)

  9. Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the 'State-of-the-Art'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollnagel, Erik; Speziali, Josephine (Ecole des Mines de Paris, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France))

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or 'human error'. Whereas the complexity of socio-technical systems is steadily growing across all industrial domains, including nuclear power production, accident investigation methods are only updated when their inability to account for novel types of accidents and incidents becomes inescapable. Accident investigation methods therefore typically lag behind the socio-technological developments by 20 years or more. The project first compiled a set of methods from the recognised scientific literature and in major major research and development programs, excluding methods limited to risk assessment, technological malfunctions, human reliability, and safety management methods. An initial set of 21 methods was further reduced to seven by retaining only prima facie accident investigation methods and avoiding overlapping or highly similar methods. The second step was to develop a set of criteria used to characterise the methods. The starting point was Perrow's description of normal accidents in socio-technical systems, which used the dimensions of coupling, going from loose to tight, and interactions, going from linear to complex. For practical reasons, the second dimension was changed to that of tractability or how easy it is to describe the system, where the sub-criteria are the level of detail, the availability of an articulated model, and the system dynamics. On this basis the seven selected methods were characterised in terms of the systems - or conditions - they could account for, leading to the following four groups: methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that

  10. Investigation program on PWR-steel-containment behavior under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a first documentation of the KfK/PNS activities and plans to investigate the behaviour of steel containments under accident conditions. The investigations will deal with a free standing spherical containment shell built for the latest type of a German pressurized water reactor. The diameter of the containment shell is 56 m. The minimum wall thickness is 38 mm. The material used is the ferritic steel 15MnNi63. According to the actual planning the program is concerned with four different problems which are beyond the common design and licensing practice: Containment behavior under quasi-static pressure increase up to containment failure. Containment behavior under high transient pressures. Containment oscillations due to earthquake loadings; consideration of shell imperfections. Containment buckling due to earthquake loadings. The investigation program consists of both theoretical and experimental activities including membrane tests allowing for very high plastic strains and oscillation tests with a thin-walled, high-accurate spherical shell. (orig.)

  11. Implications from the Chernobyl-accident for off-site response to transboundary contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews the performance of radiation monitoring and meteorological systems, communication problems, and the suitability of countermeasures taken. Socio-economic consequences and legal aspects are discussed, together with actions needed in order to improve crisis management in a similar accident in the future

  12. Archaeological Investigations at a Wisconsin Petroglyph Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Steinbring

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary test excavations at the Hensler Petroglyph Site in East Central Wisconsin, U.S.A. have disclosed the remains of aboriginal engravings below Aeolian sediments dated to ca. 15,000 years B.P. The stratified deposits lying adjacent to an engraved panel, containing 35 pecked images, have yielded animal-like cobbles, some covered with red ochre, apparently picked for some esoteric use. The site itself has unusual natural shapes in the rock formation, along with acoustical properties, lightning strikes, a magnetic anomaly, and geographic prominence. Collectively these factors are thought to have attracted the ancient rock artists to the site.

  13. The Role of Materials Degradation and Analysis in the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDanels, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    The efforts following the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia included debris recovery, reconstruction, and analysis. The debris was subjected to myriad quantitative and semiquantitative chemical analysis techniques, ranging from examination via the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) to X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). The results from the work with the debris helped the investigators determine the location where a breach likely occurred in the leading edge of the left wing during lift off of the Orbiter from the Kennedy Space Center. Likewise, the information evidenced by the debris was also crucial in ascertaining the path of impinging plasma flow once it had breached the wing. After the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) issued its findings, the major portion of the investigation was concluded. However, additional work remained to be done on many pieces of debris from portions of the Orbiter which were not directly related to the initial impact during ascent. This subsequent work was not only performed in the laboratory, but was also performed with portable equipment, including examination via portable X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Likewise, acetate and silicon-rubber replicas of various fracture surfaces were obtained for later macroscopic and fractographic examination. This paper will detail the efforts and findings from the initial investigation, as well as present results obtained by the later examination and analysis of debris from the Orbiter including its windows, bulkhead structures, and other components which had not been examined during the primary investigation.

  14. Site description of Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the model is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model for geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site, presents an integrated understanding of the Forsmark area at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted at Forsmark during the period 2002 to 2007. It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details in data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. The Forsmark area is located in northern Uppland within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, within the north-western part of a major tectonic lens that formed between 1.87 and 1.85 billion years ago during the Svecokarelian orogeny. The candidate area is approximately 6 km long and 2 km wide. The

  15. Site description of Laxemar at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the SDM is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model of geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site Laxemar, presents an integrated understanding of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area (with special emphasis on the Laxemar subarea) at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted during the period 2002 to 2007. A summary is also provided of the abundant underlying data and the discipline specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details of the data analyses and modelling of the different disciplines. The Laxemar-Simpevarp area is located in the province of Smaaland within the municipality of Oskarshamn, about 230 km south of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of the strait of Kalmarsund, within a 1.8 billion year old suite of well preserved bedrock belonging to the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt formed during

  16. Site description of Laxemar at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the SDM is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model of geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site Laxemar, presents an integrated understanding of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area (with special emphasis on the Laxemar subarea) at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted during the period 2002 to 2007. A summary is also provided of the abundant underlying data and the discipline specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details of the data analyses and modelling of the different disciplines. The Laxemar-Simpevarp area is located in the province of Smaaland within the municipality of Oskarshamn, about 230 km south of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of the strait of Kalmarsund, within a 1.8 billion year old suite of well preserved bedrock belonging to the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt formed during

  17. Site description of Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the model is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model for geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site, presents an integrated understanding of the Forsmark area at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted at Forsmark during the period 2002 to 2007. It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details in data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. The Forsmark area is located in northern Uppland within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, within the north-western part of a major tectonic lens that formed between 1.87 and 1.85 billion years ago during the Svecokarelian orogeny. The candidate area is approximately 6 km long and 2 km wide. The

  18. Investigation Effect of Biorhythm on Work-Related Accidents in The Metal Industry (A Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanollah Habibi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Biorhythm is one of the newest subjects in the field of cognition of mental ergonomics which can be very effective in reduction of work-related accidents or mistakes with no apparent reason. With evaluating Biorhythm individuals can intervention action to reduce job accidents carried out. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship Biorhythm and work-related accidents in the metal industry. This research is a cross-sectional and analytical-descriptive in the metal industrial Isfahan city of 120 work-related accidents during 2015. The required information was collected from available documents in HSE unit of the company biorhythm charts were drawn based on a date of accidents and participants birthdays, using natural Biorhythm Software V3.02 Conduct. Finally، the data were analyzed using spss version 20 and descriptive statistics.This study showed that the frequency of accidents in critical days and negative section of physical cycle was more than expected. Also the frequency of accidents in critical days and negative section of emotional and intellectual cycles was less than expected. Most type of injury, including cuts to 35.8 percent and the lowest type of injury was torsion with 5 percent. Most limb injury, hands and fingers with 51.7 percent and the lowest limb injury were back at 2.5 percent. Accidents outbreak in physical cycles was 38.3 percent. These 120 accidents in additionally were causing 120 loss of working days in effect accident. Most percent of loss of working days were for 20 to 30 days with of 39.2 percent. Most percent of loss of working days were for 20 to 30 days with of 39.2 percent. Due to the physical nature of the work activities in the metal industry can be stated that the study showed that in physical work activities, frequency of accidents in critical days and negative section of physical cycle in which the person is not physically ready to do the job was more than expected. Therefore, by training

  19. Proceedings of the Seminar on Methods and Codes for Assessing the off-site consequences of nuclear accidents. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Commission of the European Communities, within the framework of its 1980-84 radiation protection research programme, initiated a two-year project in 1983 entitled 'methods for assessing the radiological impact of accidents' (Maria). This project was continued in a substantially enlarged form within the 1985-89 research programme. The main objectives of the project were, firstly, to develop a new probabilistic accident consequence code that was modular, incorporated the best features of those codes already in use, could be readily modified to take account of new data and model developments and would be broadly applicable within the EC; secondly, to acquire a better understanding of the limitations of current models and to develop more rigorous approaches where necessary; and, thirdly, to quantify the uncertainties associated with the model predictions. This research led to the development of the accident consequence code Cosyma (COde System from MAria), which will be made generally available later in 1990. The numerous and diverse studies that have been undertaken in support of this development are summarized in this paper, together with indications of where further effort might be most profitably directed. Consideration is also given to related research directed towards the development of real-time decision support systems for use in off-site emergency management

  20. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  1. Experimental investigation of symmetric and asymmetric heating of pressure tube under accident conditions for Indian PHWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Ashwini K., E-mail: ashwinikumaryadav@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee-247667 (India); Majumdar, P., E-mail: pmajum@barc.gov.in [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Kumar, Ravi, E-mail: ravikfme@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee-247667 (India); Chatterjee, B., E-mail: barun@barc.gov.in [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Gupta, Akhilesh, E-mail: akhilfme@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee-247667 (India); Lele, H.G., E-mail: hglele@barc.gov.in [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Circumferential temperature gradient for asymmetric heat-up was 400 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At same pressure ballooning initiates at lower temperature in asymmetrical heat-up. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At 1 MPa ballooning initiated at 408 Degree-Sign C and with expansion rate of 0.005 mm/s. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At 2 MPa ballooning initiation at 330 Degree-Sign C and with expansion rate of 0.0056 mm/s. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For symmetrical heat-up strain rate was 10 times faster than asymmetric heat-up. - Abstract: In pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR), under postulated scenario of small break Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) coincident with the failure of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS), a situation may arise under which reduction in mass flow rate of coolant through individual reactor channel can lead to stratified flow. Such stratified flow condition creates partial uncover of fuel bundle, which creates a circumferential temperature gradient over PT. The present investigation has been carried out to study thermo-mechanical behaviour of PT under asymmetric heating conditions for a 220 MWe PHWR. A 19-pin fuel simulator has been developed in which preferential heating of elements could be done by supplying power to the selected pins. The asymmetric heating of PT has been carried out at pressure 2 MPa and 1 MPa, respectively, by supplying power to upper region heating elements thus creating an half filled stratified flow conditions. The temperature difference up to 425 Degree-Sign C has been observed along top to bottom periphery of PT. A comparison is made between thermo-mechanical behaviour of PT under asymmetrical and symmetrical heat-up, expected from a large break LOCA condition. The radial expansion rate during symmetrical heating is found to be much faster as compared to that for asymmetric ballooning of PT at the same internal pressure. Integrity of PT is found to be

  2. Investigation on droplet impingement erosion during steam generator tube failure accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Sodium droplet impingement is regarded as one of the mechanisms causing secondary tube failure in case of steam generator tube rupture accident. ► The moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method is applied to simulate the sodium droplet impingement. ► The erosion rate correlation for water impingement is extended for application in the sodium impingement. - Abstract: Droplet impingement erosion is one of the reasons causing the secondary heat transfer tube damage in case of the heat transfer tube failure in the steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactor. This paper has been dedicated to investigate the impingement phenomena, pressure load and the damage rate by impingement. Single droplet impingement on the rigid wall was first simulated with MPS-AS (moving particle semi-implicit method for all speeds) method for water and sodium. The shockwave propagation during the impingement has been well captured. The pressure load by water impingement can be characterized with . A correlation for pressure load by sodium impingement is proposed based on the water hammer theory. The new correlation shows to be consistent with the simulation result. For prediction of erosion rate by sodium droplet impingement, were extended by including the effects of liquid properties, i.e. density, sound speed and viscosity. The extended correlations show similar prediction accuracy to the original ones.

  3. Review of off-site emergency preparedness and response plan of Indian NPPs based on experience of Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants in India are designed, constructed and operated based on the principle of the highest priority to nuclear safety. To deal with any unlikely situation of radiological emergency, the emergency preparedness and response plans are ensured to be in place at all NPPs prior to their commissioning. These plans are periodically reviewed and tested by conducting emergency exercise with the participation of various agencies such as Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, NDMA, district authorities, regulatory body and general public. On March 11, 2011 an earthquake of magnitude 9.0 hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi and Dai-ni followed by tsunami waves of height 15 meters above reference sea level. This resulted in large scale release of radioactive material from Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS. This led to the evacuation of a large number of people from the areas surrounding the affected nuclear power plants. The event was rated as level 7 event in International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). The event also revealed the challenges in handling radiological emergency situation in adverse environmental conditions, The experience of managing radiological emergency situation during Fukushima nuclear accident provides opportunities to review and improve emergency preparedness and response programme. The present paper presents the chronology of the emergency situation, challenges faced and handled in Fukushima. Even though the possibility of a Fukushima type nuclear accident in India is very remote due to the low probability of a high intensity earthquake followed by tsunami at NPP sites, the efforts needs to be initiated from the regulatory point of view for an effective Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Preparedness and Response Plans. The Emergency Preparedness and Response Plans of NPP sites were reviewed in the light of unique challenges of accident at Fukushima. It is realized that multi unit events are the realities that must be addressed as part of Emergency

  4. Documented Safety Analysis Did Not Analyse Variations on Accident Scenarios, Hanford Site, United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collaborative in-depth reviews are essential in developing Safety Basis documents. Process changes to development and review of safety basis documents have since been implemented, which focus on a collaborative effort between the contractor and DOE in order to provide a more in-depth review. This change is anticipated to provide new perspectives, which may compensate for human error. A comprehensive description of spent fuel pool accident risks at decommissioning nuclear power plants including heavy load drops among others is given in this publication

  5. Planning for off-site response to radiation accidents in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this publication is to give guidance to those who are responsible for the protection of the public in the event of an accident occurring at a land-based nuclear facility. This guidance should assist in the advance preparation of emergency response plans and implementing procedures. Basic principles of protective measures along with their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Other principles related to emergency planning and the operational response to an emergency are outlined. Although the guidance is primarily oriented towards land-based nuclear power facilities, the guidance does have general application to other types of nuclear facility

  6. Planning for off-site response to radiation accidents in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this manual is to give guidance to those who are responsible for the protection of the public in the event of an accident occurring at a land-based nuclear facility. This guidance should assist in the advance preparation of emergency response plans and implementing procedures. Basic principles of protective measures along with their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Other principles related to emergency planning and the operational response to an emergency are outlined. Although the guidance is primarily oriented toward land-based nuclear power facilities, the guidance does have general application to other types of nuclear facilities

  7. Investigation on Melt-Structure-Water Interactions (MSWI) during severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Yang, Z.L.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Bui, V.A.; Haraldsson, H.O.; Li, H.X.; Konovakhin, M.; Paladino, D.; Leung, W.H [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety

    1999-08-01

    This report is the final report for the work performed in 1998 in the research project Melt Structure Water Interactions (MSWI), under the auspices of the APRI Project, jointly funded by SKI, HSK, USNRC and the Swedish and Finnish power companies. The present report describes results of advanced analytical and experimental studies concerning melt-water-structure interactions during the course of a hypothetical severe core meltdown accident in a light water reactor (LWR). Emphasis has been placed on phenomena and properties which govern the fragmentation and breakup of melt jets and droplets, melt spreading and coolability, and thermal and mechanical loadings of a pressure vessel during melt-vessel interaction. Many of the investigations performed in support of this project have produced papers which have been published in the proceedings of technical meetings. A short summary of the results achieved in these papers is provided in this overview. Both experimental and analytical studies were performed to improve knowledge about phenomena of melt-structure-water interactions. We believe that significant technical advances have been achieved during the course of these studies. It was found that: the solidification has a strong effect on the drop deformation and breakup. Initially appearing at the drop surface and, later, thickening inwards, the solid crust layer dampens the instability waves on the drop surface and, therefore, hinders drop deformation and breakup. The drop thermal properties also affect the thermal behavior of the drop and, therefore, have impact on its deformation behavior. The jet fragmentation process is a function of many related phenomena. The fragmentation rate depends not only on the traditional parameters, e.g. the Weber number, but also on the melt physical properties, which change as the melt cools down from the liquidus to the solidus temperature. Additionally, the crust formed on the surface of the melt jet will also reduce the propensity

  8. Investigation on Melt-Structure-Water Interactions (MSWI) during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the final report for the work performed in 1998 in the research project Melt Structure Water Interactions (MSWI), under the auspices of the APRI Project, jointly funded by SKI, HSK, USNRC and the Swedish and Finnish power companies. The present report describes results of advanced analytical and experimental studies concerning melt-water-structure interactions during the course of a hypothetical severe core meltdown accident in a light water reactor (LWR). Emphasis has been placed on phenomena and properties which govern the fragmentation and breakup of melt jets and droplets, melt spreading and coolability, and thermal and mechanical loadings of a pressure vessel during melt-vessel interaction. Many of the investigations performed in support of this project have produced papers which have been published in the proceedings of technical meetings. A short summary of the results achieved in these papers is provided in this overview. Both experimental and analytical studies were performed to improve knowledge about phenomena of melt-structure-water interactions. We believe that significant technical advances have been achieved during the course of these studies. It was found that: the solidification has a strong effect on the drop deformation and breakup. Initially appearing at the drop surface and, later, thickening inwards, the solid crust layer dampens the instability waves on the drop surface and, therefore, hinders drop deformation and breakup. The drop thermal properties also affect the thermal behavior of the drop and, therefore, have impact on its deformation behavior. The jet fragmentation process is a function of many related phenomena. The fragmentation rate depends not only on the traditional parameters, e.g. the Weber number, but also on the melt physical properties, which change as the melt cools down from the liquidus to the solidus temperature. Additionally, the crust formed on the surface of the melt jet will also reduce the propensity

  9. Experimental investigations of BWR pressure suppression pool behavior under loss of coolant accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments discussed in this paper look into different processes which may occur during a loss-of-coolant accident in the pressure suppression pool of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). These processes include: a) development of a thermal stratification, b) bubble dynamics and related water flow during continuous release of air and c) air blowdown and associated water slug phenomenon in the water pool. The experiments have been performed in the THAI test facility, which is a cylindrical vessel of 9.2 m height, 3.2 m diameter and with a gas volume of 60 m3. The variation in the investigated test parameters included, steam and air mass flux, initial water pool temperature, blowdown pressures, downcomer submergence, etc. A systematic variation of the test parameters allowed better understanding of the phenomena. Experiments discussed in this paper were performed with a vertical downcomer of 0.1 m diameter and 2 m submergence depth in the water pool. For the blowdown experiments, a separate interconnecting vessel of 1 m3 volume was used to inject air at pressures between 3 bar and 10 bar. A high speed camera (1000 fps) was installed to visualize the formation and propagation of air bubbles in the suppression pool and the resulting pool swelling phenomena. Customized instrumentation applied during the tests included grids of densely spaced thermocouples and of pressure transducers at various locations in order to capture the temperature distribution in the pool and the water slug induced pressure loadings, respectively. The present paper discusses the main outcome of the selected experiments. On the whole the experimental data may be very useful for code validation. (authors)

  10. The Columbia Accident Investigation and The NASA Glenn Ballistic Impact Laboratory Contributions Supporting NASA's Return to Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Matthew E.

    2007-01-01

    On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during reentry, resulting in loss of the vehicle and its seven crewmembers. For the next several months, an extensive investigation of the accident ensued involving a nationwide team of experts from NASA, industry, and academia, spanning dozens of technical disciplines. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), a group of experts assembled to conduct an investigation independent of NASA, concluded in August, 2003 that the most likely cause of the loss of Columbia and its crew was a breach in the left wing leading edge Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) thermal protection system initiated by the impact of thermal insulating foam that had separated from the orbiters external fuel tank 81 seconds into the mission's launch. During reentry, this breach allowed superheated air to penetrate behind the leading edge and erode the aluminum structure of left wing, which ultimately led to the breakup of the orbiter. The findings of the CAIB were supported by ballistic impact tests, which simulated the physics of External Tank Foam impact on the RCC wing leading edge material. These tests ranged from fundamental material characterization tests to full-scale Orbiter Wing Leading Edge tests. Following the accident investigation, NASA spent the next 18 months focused on returning the shuttle safely to flight. In order to fully evaluate all potential impact threats from the many debris sources on the Space Shuttle during ascent, NASA instituted a significant impact testing program. The results from these tests led to the validation of high-fidelity computer models, capable of predicting actual or potential Shuttle impact events, were used in the certification of STS-114, NASA s Return to Flight Mission, as safe to fly. This presentation will provide a look into the inner workings of the Space Shuttle and a behind the scenes perspective on the impact analysis and testing done for the Columbia Accident Investigation and

  11. Investigation of the melt-down behaviour of massive radial core enclosures during LWR accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hering, W.; Sengpiel, W.; Messainguiral, C. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-les-Durance (France). DRN

    2000-11-01

    At the Institute for Reactor Safety (IRS) of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK) accident analyses were performed for the projected European pressurised water reactor (EPR) up to 1999 using the best estimate severe core damage code SCDAP/RELAP5 (S/R5). From various scenarios investigated with S/R5 the loss-of-offsite power (LOOP) and the 46 cm{sup 2} small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) were selected to be discussed here in some detail. To simulate the heavy reflector (HR) and core barrel (CB) behaviour beyond the capabilities of S/R5 mod 3.2 a detailed stand alone analytical tool (LOWCOR2) was developed and used to determine the time of HR melting, its axial position, the melting velocity and the melt mass. Furthermore, results of MELCOR calculations performed at Siemens/KWU were used for the SBLOCA scenario. The analyses were extended by a feasibility study to find out whether ICARE2 and the commercial FEM code FIDAP are applicable. The axial position of HR and CB melt through strongly depends on the scenario an ranges between 1.0 m and 2.5 m core elevation. The time period to melt down the HR inner edges lasts up to 17 min and a complete melt through of HR and CB is in the order of magnitude of one hour. At melt through time LOWCOR2 calculated a molten steel mass between 10 Mg and 32 Mg and a melt relocation rate of 35 kg/s along the HR inner surface into the core cavity. (orig.) [German] Am Institut fuer Reaktorsicherheit (IRS) des Forschungszentrums Karlsruhe (FZK) wurden bis 1999 Unfallanalysen fuer den projektierten Europaeischen Druckwasser Reaktor (EPR) mit dem ''best estimate'' Kernschmelzcode SCDAP/RELAP5 (S/R5) durchgefuehrt. Von den verschiedenen mit S/R5 untersuchten Szenarien wurden der ''Ausfall der Wechselspannungsnetze'' (LOOP) und das kleine Leck (46 cm{sup 2}) im kalten Strang der Hauptkuehlmittelleitung (SBLOCA) fuer eine ausfuehrlichere Diskussion ausgewaehlt. Um das Verhalten des &apos

  12. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for the Grace Road Site (631-22G)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the activities and documents the results of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation conducted at Grace Road Site on the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina

  13. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for the Grace Road Site (631-22G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E.

    1998-10-02

    This report summarizes the activities and documents the results of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation conducted at Grace Road Site on the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina.

  14. Health effects models for off-site radiological consequence analysis of nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first version of models has been developed for predicting the number of occurrences of health effects induced by radiation exposure in nuclear reactor accidents. The models are based on the health effects models developed originally by Harvard University (NUREG/CR-4214). These models are revised on the basis of the new information on risk estimates by the reassessment of the radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The models deal with the following effects: (1) early effects models for bone marrow, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system, thyroid, skin and reproductive organs, using the Weibull function, (2) late somatic effects models including leukemia and cancers of breast, lungs, thyroid, gastrointestinal tract and so forth, on the basis of the information derived from epidemiological studies on the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, (3) models for late and developmental effects due to exposure in utero. (author)

  15. New public commons and network of nuclear site regions for the post-Fukushima accident re-vitalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the Fukushima NPP accidents on 11 March 2011, we have deadly lost the regional ties among local people, electricity consumers, and people involved in the nuclear research, development and businesses. Now we need the method to reconstruct the ties and further the activation of locals in accordance to the concept of 'New Public Commons'. And it is the most important key to recover the people's confidence for the nuclear business and promote the new siting and replacement of nuclear power stations. More than forty years have past since the earliest stage of invitation of nuclear power stations to regional areas in Japan. For this period, the efforts for the development of regional industries and the improvement of regional life obtained a level of results. However, now a new turn is required in the regional development, as the perception of wealthy has been gradually changed. The primary objective of this study is to make a network among regional areas where nuclear power stations and related facilities are located. It should further the understanding for nuclear energy, stimulate the 'emergence' through the cooperative works among regional areas. As a result, such efforts will enhance the Social Responsibility of conducts related to the nuclear energy. i.e., Nuclear SR (NSR). The basic frame of the NSR should be re-estimated in the reflection of 3.11 Fukushima NPP accidents. (author)

  16. A GIS-based prediction and assessment system of off-site accident consequence for Guangdong nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X Y; Qu, J Y; Shi, Z Q; Ling, Y S

    2003-01-01

    GNARD (Guangdong Nuclear Accident Real-time Decision support system) is a decision support system for off-site emergency management in the event of an accidental release from the nuclear power plants located in Guangdong province, China. The system is capable of calculating wind field, concentrations of radionuclide in environmental media and radiation doses. It can also estimate the size of the area where protective actions should be taken and provide other information about population distribution and emergency facilities available in the area. Furthermore, the system can simulate and evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures assumed and calculate averted doses by protective actions. All of the results can be shown and analysed on the platform of a geographical information system (GIS).

  17. An investigation of occupational accidents and safety risks in policing: Views of employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Gözübenli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Policing is one of the riskiest and dangerous professions by its nature. Police officers face a range of risks at work: homicide, assaults, attacks, communicable diseases, car crashes or explosions. The risks vary according to the task being undertaken such as arresting offenders, attending street disturbances or performing traffic duties. These risks, having the characteristics of occupational accident in a way, have institutional losses like compensation, loss of manpower and reputation besides individual results like injury, death, mutilation, and posttraumatic stress disorder, exposure to psychological disorders or decrease in quality of life. Opinions and suggestions of 1066 employees currently working at different ranks and units in Turkish National Police in regards with reducing the risks of occupational accidents and safety risks were studied in this research. Suggestions of the participants were reviewed under total nine headings (themes consisting of training, physical fitness and health, security measures, institutional policies and procedures, managerial policies, working conditions, equipment, uniforms, and patrol cars.

  18. Off-site consequences of radiological accidents: methods, costs and schedules for decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawil, J.J.; Bold, F.C.; Harrer, B.J.; Currie, J.W.

    1985-08-01

    This report documents a data base and a computer program for conducting a decontamination analysis of a large, radiologically contaminated area. The data base, which was compiled largely through interviews with knowledgeable persons both in the public and private sectors, consists of the costs, physical inputs, rates and contaminant removal efficiencies of a large number of decontamination procedures. The computer program utilizes this data base along with information specific to the contaminated site to provide detailed information that includes the least costly method for effectively decontaminating each surface at the site, various types of property losses associated with the contamination, the time at which each subarea within the site should be decontaminated to minimize these property losses, the quantity of various types of labor and equipment necessary to complete the decontamination, dose to radiation workers, the costs for surveying and monitoring activities, and the disposal costs associated with radiological waste generated during cleanup. The program and data base are demonstrated with a decontamination analysis of a hypothetical site. 39 refs., 24 figs., 155 tabs.

  19. Off-site consequences of radiological accidents: methods, costs and schedules for decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents a data base and a computer program for conducting a decontamination analysis of a large, radiologically contaminated area. The data base, which was compiled largely through interviews with knowledgeable persons both in the public and private sectors, consists of the costs, physical inputs, rates and contaminant removal efficiencies of a large number of decontamination procedures. The computer program utilizes this data base along with information specific to the contaminated site to provide detailed information that includes the least costly method for effectively decontaminating each surface at the site, various types of property losses associated with the contamination, the time at which each subarea within the site should be decontaminated to minimize these property losses, the quantity of various types of labor and equipment necessary to complete the decontamination, dose to radiation workers, the costs for surveying and monitoring activities, and the disposal costs associated with radiological waste generated during cleanup. The program and data base are demonstrated with a decontamination analysis of a hypothetical site. 39 refs., 24 figs., 155 tabs

  20. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  1. Parameters of importance to determine during geoscientific site investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [QuantiSci AB (Sweden); Almen, K.E. [KEA GEO-Konsult AB (Sweden); Ericsson, Lars O.; Karlsson, Fred; Stroem, A. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Fredriksson, Anders [ADG Grundteknik AB (Sweden); Stanfors, R. [Roy Stanfors Consulting AB (Sweden)

    1998-06-01

    This document identifies and describes geo-scientific parameters that are of importance in order to carry out performance and safety assessments of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, based on the information that can be obtained from a site investigation. The document also discusses data needs for planning and design of the rock works and for description of other environmental aspects. Evaluation of the different parameters is discussed in the document as well. The document was produced by a working group consisting of the authors and various SKB staff and consultants, and comprises a step in the planning of a geo-scientific investigation programme at the sites where site investigations will be conducted. The goals of the work presented in this report can be derived directly from SKBs ongoing RD and D Programme. The programme stipulates that a geo-scientific site investigation programme must be available before a site investigation begins. This programme is supposed to specify the goals, measurement methods and evaluation methodology, as well as the acceptance criteria against which the site is evaluated. It is pointed out that site evaluation is a collective term for an interactive process consisting of different parts 65 refs, 15 figs, 12 tabs

  2. Parameters of importance to determine during geoscientific site investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document identifies and describes geo-scientific parameters that are of importance in order to carry out performance and safety assessments of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, based on the information that can be obtained from a site investigation. The document also discusses data needs for planning and design of the rock works and for description of other environmental aspects. Evaluation of the different parameters is discussed in the document as well. The document was produced by a working group consisting of the authors and various SKB staff and consultants, and comprises a step in the planning of a geo-scientific investigation programme at the sites where site investigations will be conducted. The goals of the work presented in this report can be derived directly from SKBs ongoing RD and D Programme. The programme stipulates that a geo-scientific site investigation programme must be available before a site investigation begins. This programme is supposed to specify the goals, measurement methods and evaluation methodology, as well as the acceptance criteria against which the site is evaluated. It is pointed out that site evaluation is a collective term for an interactive process consisting of different parts

  3. Investigation on two-phase critical flow for loss-of-coolant accident of pressurized water reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    The previous investigations were mainly conducted under the condition of low pressure,however,the steam-water specific volume and the interphase evaporation rate in high pressure are much different from those in low pressure,Therefore,the new experimental and theoretical investigation are performed in Xi'an Jiaotong University.The investigation results could be directly applied to the analysis of loss-of -coolant accident for pressurized water reacor.The system transition characteristics of cold leg and hot leg break loss-of -coolant tests are described for convective circulation test loop.Two types of loss-of-coolant accident are identified for :hot leg” break,while three types for “cold leg”break and the effect parameters on the break geometries.Tests indicate that the mass flow rate with convergent-divergent nozzle reaches the maximum value among the different break sections at the same inlet fluid condition because the fluid separation does not occur.A wall surface cavity nucleation model is developed for prediction of the critical mass flow rate with water flowing in convergentdivergent nozzles.

  4. Hydrogeological Site Descriptive Model - a strategy for its development during Site Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhen, Ingvar [SWECO VIAK AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    The report is to present a strategy for the development of the Site Descriptive Hydrogeological Model within the SKB Site Investigation Programme. The report, and similar reports from the Geology, Rock Mechanics, Thermal properties, Hydrogeochemistry, Transport Properties and Surface Ecosystem disciplines are intended to guide SKB Site Descriptive Modelling but also to provide the authorities with an overview of how the modelling should be performed. Thus the objectives of this report are to: provide guidelines for the modelling of different sites resulting in consistent handling of modelling issues during the Site Investigations, provide a structure for the modelling sequence that is suitable for the establishment of a Site Descriptive model and provide some necessary details that should be considered in a Site Descriptive model.

  5. Forsmark site investigation. Programme for long-term observations of geosphere and biosphere after completed site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    The site investigation at Forsmark was terminated the last of June, 2007. Hundreds of investigations have been conducted during a period of more than five years. Monitoring of a number of geoscientific parameters and biological objects has been one important part of the site investigation programme. Monitoring is defined as recurrent measurements of the same parameters/objects, so that time series are generated. Long-term monitoring of for example weather parameters, surface water discharge in brooks, and the groundwater head in a large number of boreholes has been conducted during the site investigations. Furthermore, repeated sampling of precipitation, surface water and groundwater in soil and rock for hydrochemical analyses has been carried out, and the groundwater flow in isolated borehole sections has been measured several times. Besides, some biological objects, for example rare bird species, have been invented each year of the site investigation. The measured parameters and the invented objects are characterized by a certain degree of time dependent variability, which is also site-specific. The aim of the monitoring is primarily to establish the 'undisturbed' conditions, the so called 'baseline'. If a deep repository is sited at Forsmark, many site-specific conditions will change, due to natural causes as well as to the construction works. Knowledge about the undisturbed conditions strengthens the ability to reveal and quantify such changes and to distinguish natural changes from those caused by the human activities. Another object of monitoring is to, by the study of the variability pattern of the monitored parameters, elevate the knowledge about the underlying, often complex causes governing the variations. In this way the description of site-specific conditions may be more precise and the prospects of modelling important processes are improved. After completion of the site investigations, a period of about two years will follow, when

  6. Oskarshamn site investigation. Programme for further investigations of bedrock, soil, water and environment in Laxemar subarea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), has been conducting a site investigation at Simpevarp and Laxemar in Oskarshamn for siting of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. An equivalent investigation is being conducted in Forsmark in Ohmmeter's. The initial part of the site investigations had been completed for the both of the subareas Simpevarp and Laxemar in the autumn of 2004. Based on the results of these investigations, SKB preliminarily prioritized the Laxemar subarea for further investigations. A programme was presented for the first stage of the complete site investigation in the Laxemar subarea, along with the main features of the remainder of the site investigation. The programme included investigations up until the summer of 2005 and was particularly aimed at obtaining answers to several vital questions so that the subsequent investigations could be focused on the rock areas judged to be most suitable for a final repository. These investigations have now been completed. This report presents the programme for the remainder of the site investigation. The points of departure are the general goals for the Deep Repository Project during the site investigation phase, analyses and evaluations of data from completed investigations, and the needs for additional data to be able to evaluate the site as a siting alternative for the final repository. The account mainly covers the investigations on the site. All other work - analyses, site descriptive modelling, facility design, safety assessments and studies and assessments of consequences for the environment, human health and society - are only mentioned to the extent necessary in order to place the investigations in their context. The direction of the site investigation in Oskarshamn and the investigation programme presented in this report is based on SKB's preliminary decision to prioritize the Laxemar subarea for further investigations. A final decision on the direction of the site

  7. Oskarshamn site investigation. Programme for further investigations of bedrock, soil, water and environment in Laxemar subarea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), has been conducting a site investigation at Simpevarp and Laxemar in Oskarshamn for siting of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. An equivalent investigation is being conducted in Forsmark in Ohmmeter's. The initial part of the site investigations had been completed for the both of the subareas Simpevarp and Laxemar in the autumn of 2004. Based on the results of these investigations, SKB preliminarily prioritized the Laxemar subarea for further investigations. A programme was presented for the first stage of the complete site investigation in the Laxemar subarea, along with the main features of the remainder of the site investigation. The programme included investigations up until the summer of 2005 and was particularly aimed at obtaining answers to several vital questions so that the subsequent investigations could be focused on the rock areas judged to be most suitable for a final repository. These investigations have now been completed. This report presents the programme for the remainder of the site investigation. The points of departure are the general goals for the Deep Repository Project during the site investigation phase, analyses and evaluations of data from completed investigations, and the needs for additional data to be able to evaluate the site as a siting alternative for the final repository. The account mainly covers the investigations on the site. All other work - analyses, site descriptive modelling, facility design, safety assessments and studies and assessments of consequences for the environment, human health and society - are only mentioned to the extent necessary in order to place the investigations in their context. The direction of the site investigation in Oskarshamn and the investigation programme presented in this report is based on SKB's preliminary decision to prioritize the Laxemar subarea for further investigations. A final decision on the direction of the site

  8. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 137: Waste Disposal Sites. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 137 contains sites that are located in Areas 1, 3, 7, 9, and 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 137 is comprised of the eight corrective action sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) CAS 01-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; (2) CAS 03-23-01, Waste Disposal Site; (3) CAS 03-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (4) CAS 03-99-15, Waste Disposal Site; (5) CAS 07-23-02, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (6) CAS 09-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (7) CAS 12-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; and (8) CAS 12-23-07, Waste Disposal Site. The Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, sampling of environmental media, analysis of samples, and assessment of investigation results, where appropriate. Data will be obtained to support corrective action alternative evaluations and waste management decisions. The CASs in CAU 137 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting corrective action

  9. Investigations of the behaviour of coated fuel particles and spherical fuel elements at accident temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A post irradiation annealing test apparature was constructed for the measurement of fission gas release at temperatures similar to those to be reached in a HTR during a hypothetical accident. From examinations with existing apparatures up to temperatures of 18000C results were available about the load capacity of coated particles as well as knowledges about fission gas release and defect behaviour. These results were used to plan a series of annealing tests with spherical fuel elements up to 25000C. It could be shown that the (U,Th)O2-particles with high burn up will fail during maximum core heat up of a HTR only after some hours at temperatures above 24000C. (orig.)

  10. Investigation of alternative solutions for severe accident management in future reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1991, the CEA/DRN 'Innovations-Future Reactors' Program (IFRP) has been developed in order to elaborate, to evaluate and validate technical options which can be of interest for future reactors. The main objectives of this program are: to improve both the safety and cost of future nuclear power plants, to optimize the fuel cycle and the management of nuclear materials. The present paper is focused on the third R and D theme, i.e., on the 'Innovation-Severe Accident Research Program' (ISARP). This specific CEA long-term program is developed in addition to shorter-term studies conducted in collaboration with the CEA partners (EDF and FRAMATOME), more particularly, for the future European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR). (J.P.N.)

  11. Investigation of the behaviour of packaged radioactive waste under fire accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been made of the behaviour of packaged intermediate level waste (ILW) when exposed to fire conditions so as to provide information to support safety cases for ILW transport and disposal. The temperatures used in the study were selected to exceed those that the waste might be subject to in fire accidents during the transport and handling of ILW. Four waste materials, immobilised in cement or in organic resin, with properties representative of a wide range of waste streams were included in the study. Tests were carried out on samples of both real waste materials and non-radioactive simulants, and also on full-scale (500 litre) drums of simulant wastes. The overall release fractions were low, even for external temperatures of up to 1000oC. Examination showed that the stainless steel drums were still in good condition and on sectioning, little damage to the matrix or decrease in its strength was evident. (author)

  12. Site investigation - equipment for geological, geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrochemical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigations are performed within a site investigation program. In total about 60,000 m of cored 56 mm boreholes have been drilled and investigated at eight study sites. A summarized description of the main investigation methods is included. Instruments for geophysical investigations contains equipment for ground measurements as well as for borehole logging. The Geophysical investigations including the borehole radar measurements, are indirect methods for the geological and hydrogeological characterization of the rock formation. Great effort has been laid on the development of hydrogeological instruments for hydraulic tests and groundwater head measurements. In order to obtain hydrochemical investigations with high quality, a complete system for sampling and analysis of ground water has been developed. (orig./PW)

  13. Tchernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, R.M.B.K type reactors are described. Then, safety problems are dealt with reactor control, behavior during transients, normal loss of power and behavior of the reactor in case of leak. A possible scenario of the accident of Tchernobyl is proposed: events before the explosion, possible initiators, possible scenario and events subsequent to the core meltdown (corium-concrete interaction, interaction with the groundwater table). An estimation of the source term is proposed first from the installation characteristics and the supposed scenario of the accident, and from the measurements in Europe; radiological consequences are also estimated. Radioactivity measurements (Europe, Scandinavia, Western Europe, France) are given in tables (meteorological maps and fallouts in Europe). Finally, a description of the site is given

  14. The Nirex Sellafield site investigation: the role of geophysical interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the methods by which geophysical data are interpreted, and used to characterize the 3-D geology of a site for potential storage of radioactive waste. The report focuses on the NIREX site investigation at Sellafield, for which geophysical observations provide a significant component of the structural geological understanding. In outlining the basic technical principles of seismic data processing and interpretation, and borehole logging, an attempt has been made to identify errors, uncertainties, and the implicit use of expert judgement. To enhance the reliability of a radiological probabilistic risk assessment, recommendations are proposed for independent use of the primary NIREX geophysical site investigation data in characterizing the site geology. These recommendations include quantitative procedures for undertaking an uncertainty audit using a combination of statistical analysis and expert judgement. (author)

  15. Cyclical Fluctuations in Workplace Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    This Paper presents a theory and an empirical investigation on cyclical fluctuations in workplace accidents. The theory is based on the idea that reporting an accident dents the reputation of a worker and raises the probability that he is fired. Therefore a country with a high or an increasing unemployment rate has a low (reported) workplace accident rate. The empirical investigation concerns workplace accidents in OECD countries. The analysis confirms that workplace accident rates are invers...

  16. The Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  17. Investigation of surface and underground waters about the Blayais nuclear site - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation aims at proposing a first assessment of the impact of releases on surface and underground waters around the Blayais nuclear power station, i.e. the assessment of the (mainly radiological) quality of waters. The report identifies the various pollution sources: old sources (like atmospheric nuclear tests, nuclear accidents), incidents in the Blayais station, and potential sources for the present contamination. Different radionuclides are searched like tritium, carbon 14, gamma radioactivity (from different elements), some beta emitters, radon as well as some chemicals related to the station activity (hydrazine, boric acid, EDTA, lithium, morpholine). Sampling sites are presented (estuary, canals, reservoirs). Radiological and chemical analysis are reported and commented. Significant presence of Tritium and Nickel-63 are noticed

  18. Investigation on the sodium leak accident of Monju. Sodium leak test simulating the Monju leak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, Kazuhito; Nishimura, Masahiro; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Usami, Masayuki

    1996-11-01

    Sodium fire experiments were carried out two times using the Sodium Fire Test Rig (SOFT-1) in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp (PNC) as a part of works to research the cause of the accident in secondary main cooling system of Monju. The purposes of these experiments are to confirm the leak rate and leakage form of sodium from damaged thermometer, to confirm the damage to the piping insulating structure around the thermometer and to the flexible tube, and to compare the temperature history of the signal from the thermometer between the experiments and Monju. In the experiments 56({+-}2)g/sec was obtained as the leak rate under the condition of ensuring the leakage pass in the simulated thermometer. This leak rate was corrected to 53g/sec to take account of manufacturing error of the thermometer between the experiment and Monju. In calculation of this leak rate, it is assumed that the annulus size of thermometer well tip is a nominal distance and pressure value to the leakage sodium is 1.65kg/cm{sup 2}G, which was the maximum one during the leakage of Monju. The behavior of signal from the simulated thermometer was very similar to that of the damaged thermometer in Monju and it was confirmed this temperature history could be sufficiently explained by moving of the temperature contact position of the thermocouple following the runoff of leakage sodium. (J.P.N.)

  19. Main investigation results on the forest radioecology in the Kyshtym and Chernobyl accident zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the long-term studies of radionuclide migration in forest ecosystems in zones of radioactive contamination after the Kyshtym and Chernobyl accidents, the following trends were revealed: (1) High retention capacity of stand canopy with respect to radioactive fallout. This leads to high doses absorbed by apical and leaf meristems, β-radiation giving the main part of the dose; (2) Fast self-decontamination of crowns during the growth period and relatively slow decontamination in the phase of physiological rest, regardless of amount of atmospheric precipitation. The rate of crown decontamination determines the value and duration of radiation stress on woody plants; (3) Accumulation not less than 95% of the total radionuclide amount in the forest litter 1-2 years after the cessation of radioactive fallout; (4) Relatively slow migration of strontium and cesium radionuclides along the forest soil profile; (5) High capacity of the forest when serving as a biogeochemical barrier to the routes of horizontal and vertical radionuclide migration and export out of the zone of initial contamination, including migration into the river water; (6) Considerable difference between strontium and cesium when migrating in forest soils and in the soil-plant system; (7) Broad variations in transfer factors for uptake of cesium-137 from soil into forest plants depending on the plant species and soil type. The primary radiobiological effects connected with irradiation of organisms are considered and secondary disturbances due to changes of ecological bonds between the components of irradiated forest ecosystem are discussed

  20. Geological and geotechnical investigations for nuclear power plants sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation presents a general methodology for the tasks of geological and geotechnical investigations, to be performed in the proposed sites for construction of nuclear Power Plants. In this work, items dealing with the standards applied to licensing of Nuclear Power Plants, with the selection process of sites and identification of geological and geotechnical parameters needed for the regional and local characterization of the area being studied, were incorporated. This dissertation also provides an aid to the writing of Technical Reports, which are part of the documentation an owner of a Nuclear Power Plant needs to submit to the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, to fulfill the nuclear installation licensing requirements. Moreover, this work can contribute to the planning of field and laboratory studies, needed to determine the parameters of the area under investigation, for the siting of Nuclear Power Plants. (Author)

  1. Rock mechanics investigation for site characterisation of nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposal of spent nuclear fuel is a task which calls for high security within the whole process of design for the control of the finite repository. Hence a comprehensive rock mechanics investigation in addition to geology, hydrogeology, geochemistry of the site has to be made in detail to enable the development of the necessary geological interpretation, safety assessment and repository designs. (author)

  2. Lessons learned from on-site safety assessments performed by DOE in response to the Tomsk accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to the accident, in April 1993, at the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant of the Siberian chemical Combine, Tomsk, Russia, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated concurrent efforts to understand the causes for the accident and to review potential vulnerabilities for similar occurrences across the DOE radiochemical complex. Because the accident occurred in the feed adjustment stage of a Purex type process, US facilities which contained significant inventories of TBP, organic diluent and nitric acid were evaluated by expert teams. From accident conditions, prior experience, modeling and experimental programs and confirmatory dialogue with the Russians, enhanced understanding was achieved and vulnerabilities (e.g., lack of safety analysis, organic layering, inadvertent acid addition, use of aromatic diluents, uncertain venting capability, no mitigative/emergency procedures, etc.) were identified and corrected

  3. Investigation of fragmentation phenomena and debris bed formation during core meltdown accident in SFR using simulated experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathai, Amala M., E-mail: amala@igcar.gov.in [Safety Engineering Division, RDG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India); Sharma, Anil Kumar, E-mail: aksharma@igcar.gov.in [Safety Engineering Division, RDG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India); Anandan, J., E-mail: janand@igcar.gov.in [Safety Engineering Division, RDG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India); Malarvizhi, B., E-mail: malar@igcar.gov.in [Safety Engineering Division, RDG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India); Das, Sanjay Kumar, E-mail: skd@igcar.gov.in [Safety Engineering Division, RDG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India); Nashine, B.K., E-mail: bknash@igcar.gov.in [Safety Engineering Division, RDG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India); Chellapandi, P., E-mail: pcp@igcar.gov.in [Reactor Design Group (RDG), IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Study on settling characteristics of debris after severe accident in SFR. • Understanding fragmentation mechanisms of liquid molten simulant. • Correlation between key parameters of PSD in the ULLN expression. • Investigation of debris bed formation and radial stratification on collector tray. - Abstract: The event of a severe core melt down accident, resulting in the relocation of the active core is analyzed as a part of the nuclear reactor safety research in order to ensure safe removal of decay heat. Molten Fuel Coolant Interaction (MFCI) and debris bed configuration on the core catcher plate assumes importance in assessing the post accident heat removal capability. The key factors affecting the coolability of the debris bed are the bed porosity, morphology of the fragmented particles, degree of spreading/heaping of the debris on the core catcher and the fraction of lump formed. A well defined debris bed is helpful in fixing a prototypical source term for the PAHR studies. Towards this, a series of experiments on fragmentation kinetics and subsequent debris bed formation is conducted with molten Wood's metal (an alloy of Bi 50%, Pb 25%, Sn 12.5% and Cd 12.5% with melting point of 346 K) in water simulant system. The experiments are carried out using 2 kg, 5 kg and 20 kg melt inventories. The particle size distribution obtained for the fragmented debris is fit using an Upper Limit Log Normal (ULLN) distribution. The dependence of particle size distribution on initial melt temperature and interaction height is quantified by correlating them to the key parameters i.e. shape factor and location factor in the ULLN expression. Morphology of the debris particles is investigated to understand the fragmentation mechanisms involved. Three major mechanisms of fragmentation are identified namely melt entrainment mechanism, boundary layer stripping and hydrodynamic breakup due to capillary forces. Finally, an approach to quantify the stratification

  4. Investigation of Countercurrent Helium-Air Flows in Air-ingress Accidents for VHTRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard; Oh, Chang

    2013-10-03

    The primary objective of this research is to develop an extensive experimental database for the air- ingress phenomenon for the validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. This research is intended to be a separate-effects experimental study. However, the project team will perform a careful scaling analysis prior to designing a scaled-down test facility in order to closely tie this research with the real application. As a reference design in this study, the team will use the 600 MWth gas turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) developed by General Atomic. In the test matrix of the experiments, researchers will vary the temperature and pressure of the helium— along with break size, location, shape, and orientation—to simulate deferent scenarios and to identify potential mitigation strategies. Under support of the Department of Energy, a high-temperature helium test facility has been designed and is currently being constructed at Ohio State University, primarily for high- temperature compact heat exchanger testing for the VHTR program. Once the facility is in operation (expected April 2009), this study will utilize high-temperature helium up to 900°C and 3 MPa for loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) depressurization and air-ingress experiments. The project team will first conduct a scaling study and then design an air-ingress test facility. The major parameter to be measured in the experiments is oxygen (or nitrogen) concentration history at various locations following a LOCA scenario. The team will use two measurement techniques: 1) oxygen (or similar type) sensors employed in the flow field, which will introduce some undesirable intrusiveness, disturbing the flow, and 2) a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging technique, which has no physical intrusiveness to the flow but requires a transparent window or test section that the laser beam can penetrate. The team will construct two test facilities, one for high-temperature helium tests with

  5. International workshop on site investigation and evaluation based on the siting process in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKB's goal is to commence surface based site investigations in 2002. Extensive preparations are now being made for this transition to the next phase in the siting process for the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The purpose of the international workshop on site characterisation held at Aespoe April 2001 was to: present the SKB site investigation and evaluation programme to a group of international experts; discuss whether the available toolbox of investigation methods for surface based site investigations is appropriate and state-of-the-art in an international perspective; and by working group sessions discuss the level of ambition in the programme for site investigation for each discipline. This report summarises the conclusions of the workshop in general terms. Many of the detailed comments and ideas obtained at the workshop have already inspired and will also directly inspire the on-going planning work for site characterisation. The core activity at the workshop was the work performed by working groups. They addressed what should be considered for a site characterisation programme, based on the generic planning made so far by SKB. The working groups also outlined site specific characterisation programmes for the sites suggested by SKB. The tasks were strictly confined to technical and scientific modelling issues. The working group chairmen presented the working group results at the workshop and have also submitted short memos to SKB. The present document is a compilation of these memos. The SKB generic programme as presented in the existing top level documents, 'Requirements and Criteria and Overall Programme', received general endorsement and was appreciated for being comprehensive and systematic. For example, it contains comprehensive lists of parameters to be measured. However, there is need for prioritisation and sequencing. This is actually included in the current planning process at SKB where the generic programme later this year will be adapted to

  6. Integrated account of method, site selection and programme prior to the site investigation phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to dispose of the spent nuclear fuel in a safe manner, SKB plans to site a deep repository and an encapsulation plant with associated canister fabrication and transportation system. After an integrated evaluation of feasibility studies and other material, SKB will proceed with investigations of the rock and studies regarding establishment of the deep disposal system in the municipality of Oskarshamn or in Northern Uppland. The plans also include further study of the prospects for a deep repository in the municipality of Nykoeping. In the municipality of Oskarshamn, SKB plans further studies of a siting of the deep repository at Simpevarp. There SKB wants to initiate site investigations with test drilling. For the encapsulation plant, SKB wants to continue studying a siting at CLAB. In Northern Uppland, SKB plans to study two siting alternatives for the deep repository. One is Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar, where SKB wants to initiate a site investigation with test drilling. The other is Tierp north of Skutskaer, where SKB intends to start test drilling in an area north of Tierp. First, however, a suitable drilling area with possible transport solutions needs to be defined. This alternative requires the participation of the municipalities of both Tierp and Aelvkarleby. A siting of the encapsulation plant in Northern Uppland will also be studied. For the municipality of Nykoeping, SKB plans to conduct a new safety assessment for the Fjaellveden area, based on data from previous investigations as well as additional studies of how a deep repository could be arranged. SKB will thereby gather data from yet another geographic and geological region beyond those that are prioritized. No test drilling is planned in Nykoeping. The goal of the site investigation phase is to obtain all permits needed to build the planned facilities. It will take an estimated 7 - 8 years to assemble the requisite supporting material, carry out consultations, compile siting

  7. Ecological investigations at the Pantex Plant Site, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mazaika, R.R.; Phillips, R.C.

    1993-09-01

    In 1992, Pantex requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conduct a series of ecological surveys to provide baseline information for designing detailed ecological studies on the various ecosystems present at the Pantex plant site near Amarillo, Texas. To this end, PNL scientist and technicians visited the site at different times to conduct investigations and collect samples: July 6--13: birds, small mammals, general habitat assessment; August 10--14: wetland vegetation, birds, small mammals, Playa invertebrates; and September 7--11: birds, small mammals. This report presents the results of these three surveys.

  8. Ecological investigations at the Pantex Plant Site, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992, Pantex requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conduct a series of ecological surveys to provide baseline information for designing detailed ecological studies on the various ecosystems present at the Pantex plant site near Amarillo, Texas. To this end, PNL scientist and technicians visited the site at different times to conduct investigations and collect samples: July 6--13: birds, small mammals, general habitat assessment; August 10--14: wetland vegetation, birds, small mammals, Playa invertebrates; and September 7--11: birds, small mammals. This report presents the results of these three surveys

  9. Site investigations and submarine soil mechanics in polar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, E. J.

    1981-10-01

    Placing oil exploration and production structures offshore in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea will require careful site investigation and evaluation of submarine soil mechanics. Ice-bonded permafrost occurs widely under the Beaufort Sea floor. Its engineering properties are important to the design of offshore structures. Highly overconsolidated clays also occur widely and interfere with access to gravels for constructing artificial islands. Sites should be selected to avoid ice-rich permafrost. Laboratory tests may need to be conducted to determine the potential hazards of thaw consolidation and weakening.

  10. Transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predicting the possible consequences of transportation accidents provides a severe challenge to an analyst who must make a judgment of the likely consequences of a release event at an unpredictable time and place. Since it is impractical to try to obtain detailed knowledge of the meteorology and terrain for every potential accident location on a route or to obtain accurate descriptions of population distributions or sensitive property to be protected (data which are more likely to be more readily available when one deals with fixed-site problems), he is constrained to make conservative assumptions in response to a demanding public audience. These conservative assumptions are frequently offset by very small source terms (relative to a fixed site) created when a transport vehicle is involved in an accident. For radioactive materials, which are the principal interest of the authors, only the most elementary models have been used for assessing the consequences of release of these materials in the transportation setting. Risk analysis and environmental impact statements frequently have used the Pasquill-Gifford/gaussian techniques for releases of short duration, which are both simple and easy to apply and require a minimum amount of detailed information. However, after deciding to use such a model, the problem of selecting what specific parameters to use in specific transportation situations still presents itself. Additional complications arise because source terms are not well characterized, release rates can be variable over short and long time periods, and mechanisms by which source aerosols become entrained in air are not always obvious. Some approaches that have been used to address these problems will be reviewed with emphasis on guidelines to avoid the Worst-Case Scenario Syndrome

  11. A Look at Aircraft Accident Analysis in the Early Days: Do Early 20th Century Accident Investigation Techniques Have Any Lessons for Today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.

    2007-01-01

    In the early years of powered flight, the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics in the United States produced three reports describing a method of analysis of aircraft accidents. The first report was published in 1928; the second, which was a revision of the first, was published in 1930; and the third, which was a revision and update of the second, was published in 1936. This paper describes the contents of these reports, and compares the method of analysis proposed therein to the methods used today.

  12. Prioritization to limit sampling and drilling in site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major goals of the Environmental Research Division of Argonne National Laboratory is to develop and provide governmental agencies with technically sound, cost-effective frameworks for environmental site characterization and remedial programs. An example of the development of such a framework for preremedial site characterization is presented in this paper. Specifically, this paper presents portions of an expanded site investigation program developed for landfills suspected of containing hazardous waste. The work was sponsored by the New Mexico State Office of the US Department of Interior's Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The emphasis of the BLM program was on identifying initial characterization procedures that would decrease the need for sampling and drilling on a random grid

  13. Investigation of tritium in groundwater at Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1985-12-30

    In 1984, landfill monitoring wells at Site 300, a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) explosive test site, revealed the presence of groundwater contaminated with tritium. These tritium levels were in excess of the State of California drinking water standard. A major investigation was initiated that included a search of records concerning tritium use, disposal, and previous analyses, and a survey of tritium levels in soil, vegetation, and water in contaminated and potentially contaminated areas. Over 50 boreholes were drilled for this investigation to characterize the local hydrogeology and tritium distributions, and a network of soil moisture and groundwater monitoring points was installed. This report presents the work completed through the end of September 1985: the records search; records for drilling completed as part of this study; characterization of the geology, hydrology, and tritium distributions in the contaminated area; and an initial assessment of the probable tritium sources, pathways, and migration rates. 19 refs.

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 139 is comprised of the seven corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 03-35-01, Burn Pit; (2) 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; (3) 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; (4) 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; (5) 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; (6) 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and (7) 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives with the exception of CASs 09-23-01 and 09-34-01. Regarding these two CASs, CAS 09-23-01 is a gravel gertie where a zero-yield test was conducted with all contamination confined to below ground within the area of the structure, and CAS 09-34-01 is an underground detection station where no contaminants are present. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for the other five CASs where information is insufficient. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 4, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 139

  15. Forsmark site investigation. Programme for further investigations of geosphere and biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-01-01

    Since the beginning of 2002, SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) has been conducting a site investigation in Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar for siting of the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. An equivalent investigation is also being conducted at Simpevarp and Laxemar in Oskarshamn Municipality. SKB's goal is to submit an application under the Environmental Code and the Nuclear Activities Act for siting of the deep repository at one of these sites by the end of 2008/beginning of 2009. When the application is submitted, everything of importance for the deep repository's safety, constructability and environmental impact shall have been investigated and analyzed. The investigations shall also provide data as a basis for selecting a site and configuring the facility to suit conditions on the site.SKB submitted a programme for the initial site investigation in Forsmark at the end of 2001. The investigations described there have now been completed. This report describes the programme that has now been prepared for the remainder of the site investigation. The points of departure are the general goals for the Deep Repository Project during the site investigation phase, the data needed for evaluation of the site, plus experience and results from the work to date. The programme has been prepared with the support of investigation data as of August 2004. The investigations described here will, as before, be conducted with great consideration given to residents, property owners and natural and cultural values so that they are not unnecessarily exposed to impact or disturbances. Just as before, the programme will be continuously adapted to the knowledge that is gradually accumulated on the site. All important changes will be reported to the authorities and other concerned parties. The investigations that have been conducted (as of August 2004) and their results can be summarized in the following points: The surface characterization

  16. Forsmark site investigation. Programme for further investigations of geosphere and biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the beginning of 2002, SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) has been conducting a site investigation in Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar for siting of the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. An equivalent investigation is also being conducted at Simpevarp and Laxemar in Oskarshamn Municipality. SKB's goal is to submit an application under the Environmental Code and the Nuclear Activities Act for siting of the deep repository at one of these sites by the end of 2008/beginning of 2009. When the application is submitted, everything of importance for the deep repository's safety, constructability and environmental impact shall have been investigated and analyzed. The investigations shall also provide data as a basis for selecting a site and configuring the facility to suit conditions on the site.SKB submitted a programme for the initial site investigation in Forsmark at the end of 2001. The investigations described there have now been completed. This report describes the programme that has now been prepared for the remainder of the site investigation. The points of departure are the general goals for the Deep Repository Project during the site investigation phase, the data needed for evaluation of the site, plus experience and results from the work to date. The programme has been prepared with the support of investigation data as of August 2004. The investigations described here will, as before, be conducted with great consideration given to residents, property owners and natural and cultural values so that they are not unnecessarily exposed to impact or disturbances. Just as before, the programme will be continuously adapted to the knowledge that is gradually accumulated on the site. All important changes will be reported to the authorities and other concerned parties. The investigations that have been conducted (as of August 2004) and their results can be summarized in the following points: The surface characterization of the

  17. A concept of countermeasure against radioactive wastewater generated in disastrous nuclear accident such as Fukushima Daiichi site case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang-Wook; Lee, Keun-Young; Lee, Eil-Hee; Baek, Yeji; So, Ji-Yang; Chung, Dong-Young; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Before the operation of initial wastewater treatment systems supplied by AREVA and Kurion companies, which were installed about 6 months after the accident, the contaminated water was accumulated in reactor and turbine buildings, then was moved and stored in many hurriedly-prepared storage tanks including even mega float barge. The wastewater treatment systems using Cs-adsorption columns and desalination equipment was not properly operated and there were several small and big leakages of contaminated water from the wastewater treatment system and storage tanks, so that tremendous wastewater had been accumulated during those periods. That thereafter led to many secondary problems in management and treatment of the wastewater. Since the disastrous accident at Fukushima, several measures to more enhance safety of nuclear power plants located on coastal area have been asked. As one of them, a countermeasure against generation of tremendous radioactive wastewater in disastrous nuclear accident like the Fukushima Daiichi station was asked to be prepared.

  18. Accidents Preventive Practice for High-Rise Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Kai Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand of high-rise projects continues to grow due to the reducing of usable land area in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The rapidly development of high-rise projects has leaded to the rise of fatalities and accidents. An accident that happened in a construction site can cause serious physical injury. The accidents such as people falling from height and struck by falling object were the most frequent accidents happened in Malaysian construction industry. The continuous growth of high-rise buildings indicates that there is a need of an effective safety and health management. Hence, this research aims to identify the causes of accidents and the ways to prevent accidents that occur at high-rise building construction site. Qualitative method was employed in this research. Interview surveying with safety officers who are involved in highrise building project in Kuala Lumpur were conducted in this research. Accidents were caused by man-made factors, environment factors or machinery factors. The accidents prevention methods were provide sufficient Personal Protective Equipment (PPE, have a good housekeeping, execute safety inspection, provide safety training and execute accidents investigation. In the meanwhile, interviewees have suggested the new prevention methods that were develop a proper site layout planning and de-merit and merit system among sub-contractors, suppliers and even employees regarding safety at workplace matters. This research helps in explaining the causes of accidents and identifying area where prevention action should be implemented, so that workers and top management will increase awareness in preventing site accidents.

  19. Site Safety Plan for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory CERCLA investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bainer, R.; Duarte, J.

    1993-07-01

    The safety policy of LLNL is to take every reasonable precaution in the performance of work to protect the environment and the health and safety of employees and the public, and to prevent property damage. With respect to hazardous agents, this protection is provided by limiting human exposures, releases to the environment, and contamination of property to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). It is the intent of this Plan to supply the broad outline for completing environmental investigations within ALARA guidelines. It may not be possible to determine actual working conditions in advance of the work; therefore, planning must allow the opportunity to provide a range of protection based upon actual working conditions. Requirements will be the least restrictive possible for a given set of circumstances, such that work can be completed in an efficient and timely fashion. Due to the relatively large size of the LLNL Site and the different types of activities underway, site-specific Operational Safety Procedures (OSPs) will be prepared to supplement activities not covered by this Plan. These site-specific OSPs provide the detailed information for each specific activity and act as an addendum to this Plan, which provides the general plan for LLNL Main Site operation.

  20. Good clinical practice regulatory inspections: Lessons for Indian investigator sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Marwah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory inspections are important to evaluate the integrity of the data submitted to health authorities (HAs, protect patient safety, and assess adequacy of site/sponsor quality systems to achieve the same. Inspections generally occur after submission of data for marketing approval of an investigational drug. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in number of inspections by different HAs, including in India. The assessors/inspectors generally do a thorough review of site data before inspections. All aspects of ICH-GCP, site infrastructure, and quality control systems are assessed during the inspection. Findings are discussed during the close out meeting and a detailed inspection report issued afterward, which has to be responded to within 15-30 days with effective Corrective and Preventive Action Plan (CAPA. Protocol noncompliance, inadequate/inaccurate records, inadequate drug accountability, informed consent issues, and adverse event reporting were some of the most common findings observed during recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA inspections. Drug development is being increasingly globalized and an increased number of patients enrolled in studies submitted as part of applications come from all over the world including India. Because of the steep increase in research activity in the country, inexperienced sites, and more stakeholders, increased efforts will be required to ensure continuous quality and compliance. HAs have also made clear that enforcement will be increased and be swift, aggressive, and effective.

  1. Site Investigation for Detection of KIJANG Reactor Core Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, Jeeyoung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    It was planned for the end of March 2017 and extended to April 2018 according to the government budget adjustment. The KJRR project is intended for filling the self-sufficiency of RI demand including Mo-99, increasing the NTD capacity and developing technologies related to the research reactor. In project, site investigation is the first activity that defines seismologic and related geologic aspects of the site. Site investigation was carried out from Oct. 2012 to Jan. 2014 and this study is intended to describe detail procedures in locating the reactor core center. The location of the reactor core center was determined by collectively reviewing not only geological information but also information from architects engineering. EL 50m was selected as ground level by levering construction cost. Four recommended locations (R-1a - R-1d) are displayed for the reactor core center. R-1a was found optimal in consideration of medium rock contour, portion of medium rock covering reactor buildings, construction cost, physical protection and electrical resistivity. It is noted that engineering properties of the medium rock is TCR/RQD 100/53, elastic modulus 7,710 - 8,720MPa, permeability coefficient 2.92E-06cm/s, and S-wave velocity 1,380m/s, sound for foundations of reactor buildings.

  2. Preliminary investigation on the primary heat exchanger lower head rupture accident of forced circulation LBE-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A forced circulation LBE-cooled fast reactor was developed in China. • The steady state of this reactor was simulated by using NTC program. • The HXLHR accident of this reactor was simulated by using NTC program. • Some vapors were dragged into the core by LBE during the HXLHR accident. - Abstract: The problem about the interaction between heavy liquid metal and water is one of the grand challenges in the development of lead or Lead–Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) cooled fast reactor. In this paper, the primary heat exchanger lower head rupture (HXLHR) accident of a forced circulation LBE-cooled fast reactor was simulated with a transient analysis code NTC (Neutronics and Thermal–hydraulics Coupled transient analysis program). The simulation results showed that the water in primary heat exchanger was injected into the primary circuit and vaporized immediately. Then the main vessel was pressurized and the maximum pressure was about 27 bar compared with 0.5 bar in normal condition. During the accident, some of the generated vapors were dragged into the core by LBE, which may cause a reactivity insertion accident. If any positive void coefficient exists in the core, a further study on the HXLHR accident should be performed to evaluate the reactivity insertion accident

  3. The investigation and analysis of an atypical chemical fire accident%一起非典型化工火灾事故的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐少波

    2012-01-01

    结合一起化工火灾事故介绍火灾事故调查的程序.上海化工园区某公司低温罐区乙烯管道发生泄漏,引发爆炸燃烧,未造成人员伤亡.通过多方人证询问,首先排除人为破坏因素.录像分析表明首先发生了可燃物的泄漏,而后瞬间爆炸产生了亮光,发生火灾.由破坏痕迹轻重、可燃气体探测仪DCS分析、平台南侧管廊管道裂口朝向、平台区域管道裂口朝向确定泄漏部位;由录像比对分析阀门阀盖缺失情况,结合鉴定分析,确定泄漏点为超临界乙烯操作平台底层东南侧超临界乙烯计量器旁路阀处.引火源有三种可能,事故定性为设备缺陷引发的安全生产事故.应进一步研究分析新技术的安全风险,制定相关技术标准.应加强对化工设备的监管,细化部分电气设施的控制权限.%The fire accident investigation procedure with a chemical fire accident was put forward. A cryogenic tank farm ethyl-ene pipeline leak of a company in the Shanghai Chemical Industry Park caused the explosion burning without casualties. Through multi-party witnesses asked, the human damage factors were ruled out first. Video analysis showed that first the leakage of combustible occurred and then an instant explosion of light before the fire. Through the damage traces, DCS analysis of combustible gas detector, the orientation of pipe gallery and pipeline gap of the south side of the platform and the orientation of pipeline gap of platform, the leak site was determined. Combined with the identification analysis, the leak point was the bypass valve of the supercritical ethylene meter bypass on the southeast of the bottom of the supercritical ethylene platform by video analysis and the valve bonnet loss situation. There are three possibilities of ignition source. The accident was determined to be a production safety accident caused by equipment defects. It should be further studied to analyze the security risks of new

  4. Site safety plan for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory CERCLA investigations at site 300. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilmer, J.

    1997-08-01

    Various Department of Energy Orders incorporate by reference, health and safety regulations promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). One of the OSHA regulations, 29 CFR 1910.120, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response, requires that site safety plans are written for activities such as those covered by work plans for Site 300 environmental investigations. Based upon available data, this Site Safety Plan (Plan) for environmental restoration has been prepared specifically for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300, located approximately 15 miles east of Livermore, California. As additional facts, monitoring data, or analytical data on hazards are provided, this Plan may need to be modified. It is the responsibility of the Environmental Restoration Program and Division (ERD) Site Safety Officer (SSO), with the assistance of Hazards Control, to evaluate data which may impact health and safety during these activities and to modify the Plan as appropriate. This Plan is not `cast-in-concrete.` The SSO shall have the authority, with the concurrence of Hazards Control, to institute any change to maintain health and safety protection for workers at Site 300.

  5. Medical Response, Search and Recovery during the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepaniak, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during atmospheric re-entry on mission STS-107. After an event such as this, with high visibility and international interest, the operational challenge of recovering the crewmembers could not be underestimated. The Space Shuttle Program is organized to respond to a vehicle mishap using the resources of the Mishap Investigation Team (MIT). On the afternoon of Feb. 1, 2003, the MIT deployed to Barksdale Air Force Base (AFB), Louisiana. This location became the investigative center and interim storage location for crewmembers received from the Lufkin, Texas Disaster Field Office (DFO). The Lufkin DFO served as the primary area for all operations, including staging assets and deploying field teams for search, recovery and security of crewmember remains. More than 2,000 people from numerous organizations were involved with the recovery of the crew. All seven crewmembers of STS-107 were recovered and ceremonial last rights were administered. Astronaut and military personnel escorted the crew with honor to the MIT at Barksdale AFB, Louisiana. At Barksdale AFB a temporary morgue was established in an aircraft hangar and operated for approximately two weeks during which time coordination with the DFO field recovery teams, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) medical personnel, and the crew surgeons was on going. Families of crewmembers and NASA management were notified daily of the current findings. Working under the leadership of the MIT Lead, the medical team developed and executed a short-term plan to identify and relocate the crew with a military honor guard and protocol to the medical examiner at the Armed Forces Port Mortuary, Dover AFB, Delaware. After operations at Barksdale AFB were concluded the medical team transitioned back to Houston and a long-term plan was developed and implemented which involved the Air Force Mortuary Affairs at Randolph AFB, Texas. This plan was coordinated with search teams

  6. Measurement of long-lived radionuclides in surface soil around F1NPP accident site by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yasuto; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Sasa, Kimikazu; Takahashi, Tsutomu

    2015-10-01

    In March 2011, vast amounts of radionuclides were released into the environment due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident. However, very little work has been done concerning accident-derived long-lived nuclides such as 129I (T1/2 = 1.57 × 107 year) and 36Cl (T1/2 = 3.01 × 105 year). 129I and 131I are both produced by 235U fission in nuclear reactors. Being isotopes of iodine, these nuclides are expected to behave similarly in the environment. This makes 129I useful for retrospective reconstruction of 131I distribution during the initial stages of the accident. On the other hand, 36Cl is generated during reactor operation via neutron capture reaction of 35Cl, an impurity in the coolant or reactor component. Resulting 36Cl/Cl ratio within the reactor is thus much higher compared to that in environment. Similar to 129I, 36Cl is expected to have leaked out during the accident and it is important to evaluate its effects. In this study, 129I concentrations were determined in several surface soil samples collected around F1NPP. Average 129I/131I ratio was estimated to be 26.1 ± 5.8 as of March 11, 2011, consistent with calculations using ORIGEN2 code and other published data. 36Cl/Cl ratios in some of the soil samples were likewise measured and ranged from 1.1 × 10-12 to 2.6 × 10-11. These are higher compared to ratios measured around F1NPP before the accident. A positive correlation between 36Cl and 129I concentration was observed.

  7. Geochemical investigations at Maxey Flats radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the NRC efforts to develop a data base on source term characteristics for low level wastes, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has produced and analyzed a large amount of data on trench leachate chemistry at existing shallow land burial sites. In this report, we present the results of our investigations at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky disposal site. In particular, data on trench leachate chemistry are reviewed and discussed in terms of mechanisms and processes controlling the composition of trench solutes. Particular emphasis is placed on identifying both intra- and extra-trench factors and processes contributing to source term characteristics, modifications, and uncertainties. BNL research on the Maxey Flats disposal site has provided important information not only on the source term characteristics and the factors contributing to uncertainties in the source term but also some generic insights into such geochemical processes and controls as the mechanics of leachate formation, microbial degradation and development of anoxia, organic complexation and radionuclide mobility, redox inversion and modification of the source term, solubility constraints on solute chemistry, mineral authigenesis, corrosion products and radionuclide scavenging, and the role of organic complexants in geochemical partitioning of radionuclides. A knowledge of such processes and controls affecting the geochemical cycling of radionuclides as well as an understanding of the important factors that contribute to variability and uncertainties in the source term is essential for evaluating the performance of waste package and the site, making valid predictions of release for dose calculations, and for planning site performance monitoring as well as remedial actions. 43 references, 47 figures, 30 tables

  8. Neutron Imaging Investigations of the Secondary Hydriding of Nuclear Fuel Cladding Alloys during Loss of Coolant Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, M.; Roessger, C.; Stuckert, J.; Steinbrueck, M.; Kaestner, A.; Kardjilov, N.; Schillinger, B.

    The hydrogen concentration and distribution at both sides of the burst opening of cladding tubes used in three QUENCH-LOCA simulation bundle experiments were investigated by means of neutron radiography and tomography. The quantitative correlation between the total macroscopic neutron cross-section and the atomic number density ratio between hydrogen and zirconium was determined by testing calibration specimens with known hydrogen concentrations. Hydrogen enrichments located at the end of the ballooning zone of the tested tubes were detected in the inner rods of the test bundles. Nearly all of the peripheral claddings exposed to lower temperatures do not show such enrichments. This implies that under the conditions investigated a threshold temperature exists below which no hydrogen enrichments can be formed. In order to understand the hydrogen distribution a model was developed describing the processes occurring during loss of coolant accidents after rod burst. The general shape of the hydrogen distributions with a peak each side of the ballooning region is well predicted by this model whereas the absolute concentrations are underestimated compared to the results of the neutron tomography investigations. The model was also used to discuss the influence of the alloy composition on the secondary hydrogenation. Whereas the relations for the maximal hydrogen concentrations agree well for one and the same alloy, the agreement for tests with different alloys is less satisfying, showing that material parameters such as oxidation kinetics, phase transition temperature for the zirconium oxide, and yield strength and ductility at high temperature have to be taken into account to reproduce the results of neutron imaging investigations correctly.

  9. Chemical and biological investigations of a transformer accident at Binghamton, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Patrick W.; Silkworth, Jay B.; Gierthy, John F.; Smith, Robert M.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Turner, James N.; Eadon, George; Hilker, David R.; Aldous, Kenneth M.; Kaminsky, Laurence S.; Collins, Doris N.

    1985-01-01

    A transformer fire occurred in a state office building in Binghamton, NY on February 5, 1981. Particulates from inside surfaces of ceiling panels on 16 of the 17 floors had concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) ranging from < 1 part per million (ppm) to 1200 ppm while polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations varied from 28 ppm to 23,000 ppm. In spite of the wide variations in contaminant concentrations, complete analytical data from 11 floors showed that there was a consistent PCDF/PCB ratio (0.067 ± 0.026) and also consistent PCDF isomer group distributions (tetra-CDFs, 33 ± 5%; penta-CDFs, 40 ± 3%; hexa-CDFs, 18 ± 7%; hepta-CDFs, 6 ± 3%). It was found that the particulate samples could be successfully ranked in order of their degree of chemical contamination by an in vitro bioassay. The bioassay was based on induction of keratinization or changes in morphology in mouse epithelial cells. Animal toxicology experiments were carried out with a soot sample containing a PCDF concentration which approximated the mean value found on the ceiling particulates. The single dose oral LD values of the soot and its benzene extract equivalent, each administered to female guinea pigs in 0.75% methyl cellulose, were 410 and 327 mg/kg, respectively. These results demonstrated that the soot matrix had virtually no effect on the toxicity of the chemical contaminants in the soot. Morphological alterations in liver tissues from animals receiving the soot were found after examination by electron and light microscopy. Rabbits dermally exposed to the soot and its benzene extract at 500 mg/kg showed evidence of hypertrophy of centrilobular hepatocytes. In addition the rabbits exposed to the soot extract had a local inflammatory reaction at the site of application. In a subchronic feeding experiment carried out for 90 days with guinea pigs, the lowest effect level was found with an accumulated dose of 1.2 mg soot/kg. The observed effects included salivary gland

  10. Nondestructive Testing As a Tool in the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDanels, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) played a crucial role in determining the Columbia tragedy's cause. Over 84,000 pieces of debris were recovered; hundreds were subsequently subjected to NDT and materials analysis. Visual NDT of the debris revealed localized areas of damage such as erosion, excessive heating, knife edging and mechanical damage. Three-dimensional reconstructions were made of the left wing leading edge, utilizing a tripod-mounted laser scanning head and focused laser beam, and an advanced topometric optical scanner (ATOS) with digital white light to scan complex-shaped debris, producing monochrome 3-D models. Texture mapping provided a means to capture true colors of the debris and superimpose them on the scanned images. Uniform deposits were found over large portions of debris, obscuring underlying materials. To determine what was beneath, inverse radiography was enlisted. The radiographs guided investigators to where samples should be taken. To ascertain compositions, these samples were subjected to analytical testing, including energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron microprobe analysis. This combination of visual evidence, radiography, virtual reconstruction, and materials analysis allowed the forensic scientists to verify that a breach occurred in the leading edge of the left wing, the path the plasma followed, and the sequence of events that led to the loss.

  11. Investigating Montara platform oil spill accident by implementing RST-OIL approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satriano, Valeria; Ciancia, Emanuele; Coviello, Irina; Di Polito, Carmine; Lacava, Teodosio; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2016-04-01

    Oil Spills represent one of the most harmful events to marine ecosystems and their timely detection is crucial for their mitigation and management. The potential of satellite data for their detection and monitoring has been largely investigated. Traditional satellite techniques usually identify oil spill presence applying a fixed threshold scheme only after the occurrence of an event, which make them not well suited for their prompt identification. The Robust Satellite Technique (RST) approach, in its oil spill detection version (RST-OIL), being based on the comparison of the latest satellite acquisition with its historical value, previously identified, allows the automatic and near real-time detection of events. Such a technique has been already successfully applied on data from different sources (AVHRR-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and MODIS-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) showing excellent performance in detecting oil spills both during day- and night-time conditions, with an high level of sensitivity (detection also of low intensity events) and reliability (no false alarm on scene). In this paper, RST-OIL has been implemented on MODIS thermal infrared data for the analysis of the Montara Platform (Timor Sea - Australia) oil spill disaster occurred in August 2009. Preliminary achievements are presented and discussed in this paper.

  12. Techniques for site investigations for underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report provides a more detailed description of the capabilities and applications of the various earth science investigation techniques outlined in the IAEA Technical Reports Series Nos. 177, 215 and 216. These methods are generally appropriate during at least one of the stages of the assessment or selection of a site for any type of waste disposal facility, in shallow ground or in deep geological formations. This report is addressed to technical authorities responsible for or involved in planning, approving, executing and reviewing national waste disposal programmes. It may also help administrative authorities in this field to select appropriate techniques for obtaining the majority of the required information at minimum cost

  13. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2001, we summarized the circumstances surrounding termination of the JCO criticality accident based on testimony in the Mito District Court on December 17, 2001. JCO was the company for uranium fuels production in Japan. That document was assembled based on actual testimony in the belief that a description of the work involved in termination of the accident would be useful in some way for preventing nuclear disasters in the future. The description focuses on the witness' own behavior, and what he saw and heard, and thus is written from the perspective of action by one individual. This was done simply because it was easier for the witness to write down his memories as he remembers them. Description of the activities of other organizations and people is provided only as necessary, to ensure that consistency in the descriptive approach is not lost. The essentials of this report were rewritten as a third-person objective description in the summary of the report by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). Since then, comments have been received from sources such as former members of the Nuclear Safety Commission (Dr. Kenji Sumita and Dr. Akira Kanagawa), concerned parties from the former Science and Technology Agency, and reports from the JCO Criticality Accident Investigation Committee of the AESJ, and thus this report was rewritten to correct incorrect information, and add material where that was felt to be necessary. This year is the tenth year of the JCO criticality accident. To mark this occasion we have decided to translate the record of what occurred at the accident site into English so that more people can draw lessons from this accident. This report is an English version of JAEA-Technology 2009-073. (author)

  14. Contaminated site investigation using nuclear technique: a case study of temporary transformer storage sites in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent introduction of man-made toxic chemicals, and the massive relocation of natural materials to different environmental compartment like soil, ground water and atmosphere, has resulted in severe pressure on the self- cleansing capacity of recipient ecosystems. Various accomulated pollutants and contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are of much concern relative to both human and ecosystemm exposure and potential health impact. PCBs which are resistant to degradation and bioremediation accumulated in different niches of the biosphere. This significantly affects the ecological balances and cause adverse health effect on both human and the environment. Temporal transformer storage sites at four locations in Ghana (Tema, Temale, Bolgatanga and Wa) were investigated for PCB contamination using nuclear techniques. Analysis of soil samples from four temporal transformer storage sites revealed that the soil samples from Tema, Tamale, Bolgatanga and Wa were generally sandy with pH and EC ranging between 6.24 - 7.29 and 44.60 - 188.30 respectively. The PCB levels detected in the soil samples from the various locations varied considerably with mean ranging between 7.69 and 51.92 mg/kg. The highest mean PCB level was recorded at the Tema temporal transformer storage site (51.92 mg/kg), whilst the least mean level of 7.69 mg/kg was recorded at Wa storage site. At Tamale the individual levels range between 3.57 mg/kg and 38.70 mg/kg while at Bolgatanga it was 6.85 - 16.30 mg/kg and Wa, 6.08 - 14.70mg/kg. About 9% of soil samples from temporal transformer storage sites analysed had total PCBs concentrations above the 25mg/kg and 33 mg/kg level recommended by the Canadian Council of Ministers of environment (CCME) and EPA Ghana respectively for the protection of environment and human health. Generally, the Levels of PCBs in soil samples were found to decrease with increasing depth at all the temporal transformer storage sites. Results obtained using the EPA's L

  15. Investigation of a novel approach for aquaculture site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Lynne; Telfer, Trevor C; Ross, Lindsay G

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the potential use of two "species distribution models" (SDMs), Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent, for aquaculture site selection. SDMs are used in ecological studies to predict the spatial distribution of species based on analysis of conditions at locations of known presence or absence. Here the input points are aquaculture sites, rather than species occurrence, thus the models evaluate the parameters at the sites and identify similar areas across the rest of the study area. This is a novel approach that avoids the need for data reclassification and weighting which can be a source of conflict and uncertainty within the commonly used multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) technique. Using pangasius culture in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, as a case study, Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent SDMs were evaluated against two models developed using the MCE approach. Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent assess suitability based on similarity to existing farms, while the MCE approach assesses suitability using optimal values for culture. Mahalanobis Typicality considers the variables to have equal importance whereas Maxent analyses the variables to determine those which influence the distribution of the input data. All of the models indicate there are suitable areas for culture along the two main channels of the Mekong River which are currently used to farm pangasius and also inland in the north and east of the study area. The results show the Mahalanobis Typicality model had more high scoring areas and greater overall similarity than Maxent to the MCE outputs, suggesting, for this case study, it was the most appropriate SDM for aquaculture site selection. With suitable input data, a combined SDM and MCE model would overcome limitations of the individual approaches, allowing more robust planning and management decisions for aquaculture, other stakeholders and the environment.

  16. Development of a computer code system for selecting off-site protective action in radiological accidents based on the multiobjective optimization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a new method to support selection of off-site protective action in nuclear reactor accidents, and provides a user's manual of a computer code system, PRASMA, developed using the method. The PRASMA code system gives several candidates of protective action zones of evacuation, sheltering and no action based on the multiobjective optimization method, which requires objective functions and decision variables. We have assigned population risks of fatality, injury and cost as the objective functions, and distance from a nuclear power plant characterizing the above three protective action zones as the decision variables. (author)

  17. Geochemical investigation of UMTRAP designated site at Riverton, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the investigation are to characterize the geochemistry, to determine the contaminant distribution resulting from the former milling activities and tailings, and to infer chemical pathways and transport mechanisms from the contaminant distribution. The results will be used to model contaminant migration and to develop criteria for long-term containment media, such as a cover system which is impermeable to contaminant migration. This report assumes a familiarity with the hydrologic conditions of the site and the geochemical concepts underlying the investigation. The results reported are based on a one-time sampling of waters and solid material from the background, the area adjacent to the site, and the site. The solid samples were water extracted to remove easily soluble salts and acid extracted to remove carbonates and hydroxides. The water extracts and solid samples were analyzed for the major and trace elements. A limited number of samples were analyzed for radiological components. The report includes the methods of sampling, sample processing, analysis, land data interpretation. Four major conclusions are: (1) salts containing uranium, vanadium, radium, and other contaminants have migrated to the surface and have activities and concentrations nearly as great as within the tailings; (2) contaminants have migrated about one meter into the soils below the tailings but were retarded by the precipitation as carbonates, hydroxides, and oxides; (3) the soils off the northeast corner of the tailings are contaminated with uranium, nickel, aluminum, and iron which were deposited by a single event of fluid transport; and (4) the surface and shallow subsurface waters adjacent to the tailings are contaminated but the source of contamination can not be conclusively related to the tailings

  18. Noninvasive shallow seismic source comparison for hazardous waste site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many commonly used shallow seismic sources are unacceptable for hazardous waste site investigations because they risk exhumation of contaminants in the soil, they add contaminants (e.g. lead) which are not allowed by regulations, or they add new migration paths for contaminants. Furthermore, recently developed high frequency vibrators for shallow investigations could be more effective at some sites than non-invasive impulsive sources because of their ability to tailor the source spectrum and reduce interference. The authors show preliminary results of a comparison test of eight non-invasive impulsive and swept sources in preparation for seismic reflection profiling on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee. Well log data are used to determine geologic contacts and to generate synthetic seismograms for the site. Common midpoint (CMP) seismic data for each source were collected at 95 geophone groups from 125 shot points along a 400m test line. Hydrophone data were obtained at 1.5m (5 ft) spacing between 61m and 133m depth in a hole near the center of the CMP line. As of March, 1994, brute stacks have been completed for three of the eight sources. Depth penetration is demonstrated in brute stacks and shot gathers, which show a 200ms reflector for all of the sources tested along portions of the line. Source effectiveness will also be evaluated by comparing images of several shallower refractors (40-150ms) which are apparent in many of the record. Imaging of these reflectors appears to depend upon the ability of the source to generate sufficient high frequency energy (> 100 Hz)

  19. Review of data types for the SKB site investigation programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klos, Richard

    2002-11-01

    SKB is currently undertaking a detailed site investigation programme (SIP) to characterise the geology and surface ecosystems in areas around potential sites for a planned repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report reviews site specific and generic data types needed to characterise biosphere processes relevant to the evaluation of long-term radiological safety in the context of assessments of future impacts arising from the deep geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Focus is on the types of data that make up the different elements of radiological assessment models and how the data used relate to site-specific characteristics. The relevance of the SIP to the development of assessment models for long-term assessment is addressed, including the representation of the geosphere-biosphere interface. Reference to SKB's programme is made in order to determine how well the current programme will meet the needs of assessment models that will be developed and used in the assessment of long-term safety. The review also provides SSI with a basis for the planning of further SSI R and D work. The process, by which site-specific information is converted into a form suitable for use in numerical assessment models, can be quite complex. An overview of assessment model concepts is provided and the links between these and real-word site information considered. Focusing on the needs of assessment models, the review provides a summary of the main types of analyses and site-specific models that are needed for safety evaluations. Review of the SIP indicates that information from the programme feeds into a set of detailed site description models. However there is a gap between the descriptive components and the detailed model descriptions needed to configure numerical assessment models. Details of system evolution are not clearly dealt with in the programme. The SIP focuses on a detailed description of the site the present day. However, radiological impacts are not expected to

  20. Preclosure radiological safety analysis for accident conditions of the potential Yucca Mountain Repository: Underground facilities; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, C.W.; Sit, R.C.; Zavoshy, S.J.; Jardine, L.J. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Laub, T.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-06-01

    This preliminary preclosure radiological safety analysis assesses the scenarios, probabilities, and potential radiological consequences associated with postulated accidents in the underground facility of the potential Yucca Mountain repository. The analysis follows a probabilistic-risk-assessment approach. Twenty-one event trees resulting in 129 accident scenarios are developed. Most of the scenarios have estimated annual probabilities ranging from 10{sup {minus}11}/yr to 10{sup {minus}5}/yr. The study identifies 33 scenarios that could result in offsite doses over 50 mrem and that have annual probabilities greater than 10{sup {minus}9}/yr. The largest offsite dose is calculated to be 220 mrem, which is less than the 500 mrem value used to define items important to safety in 10 CFR 60. The study does not address an estimate of uncertainties, therefore conclusions or decisions made as a result of this report should be made with caution.

  1. Geological Site Descriptive Model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munier, Raymond; Stenberg, Leif [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Stanfors, Roy [Roy Stanfors Consulting, Lund (Sweden); Milnes, Allan Geoffrey [GEA Consulting, Uppsala (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden); Triumf, Carl-Axel [Geovista, Luleaa (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is at present conducting site investigations as a preliminary to building an underground nuclear waste disposal facility in Sweden. This report presents a methodology for constructing, visualising and presenting 3-dimensional geological models, based on data from the site investigations. The methodology integrates with the overall work-flow of the site investigations, from the collection of raw data to the complete site description, as proposed in several earlier technical reports. Further, it is specifically designed for interaction with SICADA - SKB's Site Characterisation Database - and RVS - SKB's Rock Visualisation System. This report is one in a series of strategy documents intended to demonstrate how modelling is to be performed within each discipline. However, it also has a wider purpose, since the geological site descriptive model provides the basic geometrical framework for all the other disciplines. Hence, the wider aim is to present a practical and clear methodology for the analysis and interpretation of input data for use in the construction of the geology-based 3D geometrical model. In addition to the various aspects of modelling described above, the methodology presented here should therefore also provide: guidelines and directives on how systematic interpretation and integration of geo-scientific data from the different investigation methods should be carried out; guidelines on how different geometries should be created in the geological models; guidelines on how the assignment of parameters to the different geological units in RVS should be accomplished; guidelines on the handling of uncertainty at different points in the interpretation process. In addition, it should clarify the relation between the geological model and other models used in the processes of site characterisation, repository layout and safety analysis. In particular, integration and transparency should be

  2. A Hypothesis-Driven Approach to Site Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, W.

    2008-12-01

    Variability of subsurface formations and the scarcity of data lead to the notion of aquifer parameters as geostatistical random variables. Given an information need and limited resources for field campaigns, site investigation is often put into the context of optimal design. In optimal design, the types, numbers and positions of samples are optimized under case-specific objectives to meet the information needs. Past studies feature optimal data worth (balancing maximum financial profit in an engineering task versus the cost of additional sampling), or aim at a minimum prediction uncertainty of stochastic models for a prescribed investigation budget. Recent studies also account for other sources of uncertainty outside the hydrogeological range, such as uncertain toxicity, ingestion and behavioral parameters of the affected population when predicting the human health risk from groundwater contaminations. The current study looks at optimal site investigation from a new angle. Answering a yes/no question under uncertainty directly requires recasting the original question as a hypothesis test. Otherwise, false confidence in the resulting answer would be pretended. A straightforward example is whether a recent contaminant spill will cause contaminant concentrations in excess of a legal limit at a nearby drinking water well. This question can only be answered down to a specified chance of error, i.e., based on the significance level used in hypothesis tests. Optimal design is placed into the hypothesis-driven context by using the chance of providing a false yes/no answer as new criterion to be minimized. Different configurations apply for one-sided and two-sided hypothesis tests. If a false answer entails financial liability, the hypothesis-driven context can be re-cast in the context of data worth. The remaining difference is that failure is a hard constraint in the data worth context versus a monetary punishment term in the hypothesis-driven context. The basic principle

  3. Hydrogeochemical investigation of six geothermal sites in Honduras, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.E.; Truesdell, A.H.; Grigsby, C.O.; Janik, C.J.; Shevenell, L.A.; Paredes, J.R.; Gutierrez, J.W.; Trujillo, Jr.; Counce, D.A.

    1987-06-01

    We conducted detailed hydrogeochemical investigations at six geothermal sites in western Honduras: Azacualpa, El Olivar, Pavana, Platanares, Sambo Creek, and San Ignacio. None of the sites is associated with Quaternary silicic volcanism, although El Olivar lies adjacent to a small Quaternary basalt field and Pavana is part of a belt of hot spring activity parallel to and 35 km east of the Central American volcanic arc. None of the sites contains acid-sulfate waters indicative of vapor-dominated conditions. Thermal fluids are characterized by pH between 7 and 10, Cl<125 mg/l, HCO/sub 3/>Cl, SO/sub 4/greater than or equal toCl, Bless than or equal to17 mg/l, Liless than or equal to4 mg/l, and Asless than or equal to1.25 mg/l. Stable isotope analyses of the water show that recharge to the geothermal systems generally occurs from areas of higher elevation adjacent to the sites. Tritium contents of apparently undiluted thermal fluids range from 0 to 0.4 T.U., indicating residence times of fluids in the systems of more than 500 y. Various geochemical indicators show that mixing of hot and cold end-member fluids occurs in the system at Platanares and, to a lesser degree, in the systems at San Ignacio and Azacualpa. No mixing is apparent in the fluids discharging at Pavana, Sambo Creek, or El Olivar. Boiling is the dominant process responsible for subtle geochemical variations at Azacualpa and, possibly, San Ignacio. Our best estimates of subsurface reservoir temperatures are 225/sup 0/C at Platanares, 190/sup 0/C at San Ignacio, 185/sup 0/C at Azacualpa, 155/sup 0/C at Sambo Creek, 150/sup 0/C at Pavana, and 120/sup 0/C at El Olivar. The estimated power output of the three hottest sites is 45 thermal megawatts at Platanares, 14 thermal megawatts at San Ignacio, and 13 thermal megawatts at Azacualpa.

  4. Final work plan : environmental site investigation at Sylvan Grove, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2012-07-15

    In 1998, carbon tetrachloride was found above the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5 {micro}g/L in groundwater from one private livestock well at Sylvan Grove, Kansas, by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The 1998 KDHE sampling was conducted under the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) private well sampling program. The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), a USDA agency, operated a grain storage facility in Sylvan Grove from 1954 to1966. Carbon tetrachloride is the contaminant of primary concern at sites associated with former CCC/USDA grain storage operations. Sylvan Grove is located in western Lincoln County, approximately 60 mi west of Salina (Figure 1.1). To determine whether the former CCC/USDA facility at Sylvan Grove is a potential contaminant source and its possible relationship to the contamination in groundwater, the CCC/USDA has agreed to conduct an investigation, in accordance with the Intergovernmental Agreement between the KDHE and the Farm Service Agency (FSA) of the USDA. This Work Plan presents historical data related to previous investigations, grain storage operations, local private wells and public water supply (PWS) wells, and local geologic and hydrogeologic conditions at Sylvan Grove. The findings from a review of all available documents are discussed in Section 2. On the basis of the analyses of historical data, the following specific technical objectives are proposed for the site investigation at Sylvan Grove: (1) Evaluate the potential source of carbon tetrachloride at the former CCC/USDA facility; (2) Determine the relationship of potential contamination (if present) at the former CCC/USDA facility to contamination identified in 1998 in groundwater samples from one private well to the west; and (3) Delineate the extent of potential contamination associated with the former CCC/USDA facility. The detailed scope of work is outlined in Section 3. The results of the proposed work will provide the basis for determining

  5. Hydrogeochemical site descriptive model - a strategy for the model development during site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, John [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Laaksoharju, Marcus [GeoPoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    In 2002, SKB commenced site characterisation investigations using deep boreholes at different sites. As an integral part of the planning work SKB has prepared a strategy to develop a Hydrogeochemical Site Descriptive Model; similar strategies have been developed for the other major geoscience disciplines. The main objectives of the Hydrogeochemical Site Descriptive Model are to describe the chemistry and distribution of the groundwater in the bedrock and overburden and the hydrogeochemical processes involved in its origin and evolution. This description is based primarily on measurements of the groundwater composition but incorporates the use of available geological and hydrogeological site descriptive models. The SKB hydrogeochemistry programme is planned to fulfil two basic requirements: 1) to provide representative and quality assured data for use as input parameter values in calculating long-term repository safety, and 2) to understand the present undisturbed hydrogeochemical conditions and how these conditions will change in the future. Parameter values for safety analysis include pH, Eh, S, SO{sub 4}, HCO{sub 3}, HPO{sub 4} and TDS (mainly cations), together with colloids, fulvic and humic acids, other organics, bacteria and nitrogen. These values will be used to characterise the groundwater environment at, above and below repository depths. In the hydrogeochemical site investigation programme the number and location of the sampling points will be constrained by: a) geology (e.g. topography, overburden types, bedrock structures etc), b) hydrogeology (e.g. groundwater recharge/discharge areas, residence times), c) reliability (e.g. undisturbed vs disturbed groundwater chemical conditions), and d) resources (e.g. number and type of samples, and also available personnel, may be restricted by budgetary and schedule concerns). Naturally a balance is required between these constraints and the scientific aims of the programme. The constraints should never

  6. Accidents - personal factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaitsev, S.L.; Tsygankov, A.V.

    1982-03-01

    This paper evaluates influence of selected personal factors on accident rate in underground coal mines in the USSR. Investigations show that so-called organizational factors cause from 80 to 85% of all accidents. About 70% of the organizational factors is associated with social, personal and economic features of personnel. Selected results of the investigations carried out in Donbass mines are discussed. Causes of miner dissatisfaction are reviewed: 14% is caused by unsatisfactory working conditions, 21% by repeated machine failures, 16% by forced labor during days off, 14% by unsatisfactory material supply, 16% by hard physical labor, 19% by other reasons. About 25% of miners injured during work accidents are characterized as highly professionally qualified with automatic reactions, and about 41% by medium qualifications. About 60% of accidents is caused by miners with less than a 3 year period of service. About 15% of accidents occurs during the first month after a miner has returned from a leave. More than 30% of accidents occurs on the first work day after a day or days off. Distribution of accidents is also presented: 19% of accidents occurs during the first 2 hours of a shift, 36% from the second to the fourth hour, and 45% occurs after the fourth hour and before the shift ends.

  7. Hydrogeochemical site descriptive model - a strategy for the model development during site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2002, SKB commenced site characterisation investigations using deep boreholes at different sites. As an integral part of the planning work SKB has prepared a strategy to develop a Hydrogeochemical Site Descriptive Model; similar strategies have been developed for the other major geoscience disciplines. The main objectives of the Hydrogeochemical Site Descriptive Model are to describe the chemistry and distribution of the groundwater in the bedrock and overburden and the hydrogeochemical processes involved in its origin and evolution. This description is based primarily on measurements of the groundwater composition but incorporates the use of available geological and hydrogeological site descriptive models. The SKB hydrogeochemistry programme is planned to fulfil two basic requirements: 1) to provide representative and quality assured data for use as input parameter values in calculating long-term repository safety, and 2) to understand the present undisturbed hydrogeochemical conditions and how these conditions will change in the future. Parameter values for safety analysis include pH, Eh, S, SO4, HCO3, HPO4 and TDS (mainly cations), together with colloids, fulvic and humic acids, other organics, bacteria and nitrogen. These values will be used to characterise the groundwater environment at, above and below repository depths. In the hydrogeochemical site investigation programme the number and location of the sampling points will be constrained by: a) geology (e.g. topography, overburden types, bedrock structures etc), b) hydrogeology (e.g. groundwater recharge/discharge areas, residence times), c) reliability (e.g. undisturbed vs disturbed groundwater chemical conditions), and d) resources (e.g. number and type of samples, and also available personnel, may be restricted by budgetary and schedule concerns). Naturally a balance is required between these constraints and the scientific aims of the programme. The constraints should never detrimentally affect the

  8. Investigations of the potential for accident mitigation of the conceptical design for a core retention device developed in SR 209

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for accident mitigation of the conceptual design for the core retention device developed in SR 209, was estimated by core meltdown and containment analyses. Such a device should prevent late fission product release especially due to failure of the containment by overpressurization (according to release categories 5 and 6 of the German Risk Study, Phase A). Assuming ideal operation of the device, the long term course of a meltdown accident can be influenced in a positive sense including the prevention of overpressurization. However, functional operation of the design seems to be highly uncertain for several reasons, i.g. due to uncertainties in the behaviour of the melt in the retention device. The design does not or only insufficiently cover accident scenarios with high pressure in vessel melt, that means for sequences relevant for their high contribution to core melt frequency. The design may have strong negative impacts on the course of meltdown accidents, LOCA's, constructive details and operation of a plant. Implementation of the measure is expected to need extreme effort, without making sense from the technical point of view. The measure at all seems not to be recommendable for accident mitigation. (orig./HP)

  9. Literacies for Surveillance: Social Network Sites and Background Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jackson Young

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In September 2013, civilian contractor Aaron Alexis entered the Washington Navy Yard and murdered twelve people before being fatally shot by police. This incident, together with an incident three months earlier involving Edward Snowden, caused the U.S. government to critically examine their background investigation (BI process; because both Snowden and Alexis had supposedly slipped through the cracks of their investigations, there must be some flaw in the BI procedure. The U.S. Committee on Oversight and Reform concluded that rules forbidding “background checkers from looking at the Internet or social media when performing checks” was one of the main factors contributing to defective BIs (Report, 2014. Since the report’s release, the Director of National Intelligence has been debating and trialing whether information from the Internet should be used to form a data double for BIs (Kopp, 2014; Rockwell, 2014. Using this conversation as a discussion catalyst, I argue that due to the nature of the data double, if the United States were to adopt the use of social networking sites (SNSs for security clearance purposes, neglecting to take into account basic principles of SNSs into the process of BIs may lead to misinformation and unfavorable adjudication. Ultimately, being literate about the social practices involved in SNSs and surveillance would benefit not only investigators, but anyone, including academics, looking at individuals in online spaces.

  10. New geochemical investigations in Platanares and Azacualpa geothermal sites (Honduras)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberi, Franco; Carapezza, Maria Luisa; Cioni, Roberto; Lelli, Matteo; Menichini, Matia; Ranaldi, Massimo; Ricci, Tullio; Tarchini, Luca

    2013-05-01

    Platanares and Azacualpa geothermal sites of Honduras are located in an inner part of the Caribbean Plate far from the active volcanic front of Central America. Here geology indicates that there are not the conditions for the occurrence of shallow magmatic heat sources for high-enthalpy geothermal resources. Geothermal perspectives are related to the possibility of a deep circulation of meteoric water along faults and the storage of the heated fluid in fractured permeable reservoirs. Geochemical geothermometers indicate a temperature for the deeper part of the geothermal reservoir close to 200 °C for Platanares and of 150-170 °C for Azacualpa. Calcite scaling, with subordinate silica deposition has to be expected in both sites. CO2 soil flux investigations have been carried out in both areas and reveal the presence of positive anomalies likely corresponding to the presence at depth of fractured degassing geothermal reservoirs. Compared with the geothermal areas of Central Italy whose reservoirs are hosted in carbonate rocks, e.g. Latera (Chiodini et al., 2007), the CO2 soil flux measured in Honduras is significantly lower (mean of 17 g/m2day at Platanares and of 163 g/m2day at Azacualpa) probably because of the dominant silicate nature of the deep reservoirs.

  11. Forsmark site investigation. Bedrock geology - overview and excursion guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bearing in mind the significance of the bedrock data from the ground surface for the geological 3D modelling work, SKB decided to present excursion guides that serve in the demonstration of the bedrock geology at the ground surface in both the Forsmark (this guide) and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. An excursion guide is also available for the Olkiluoto area in south-western Finland, which has been selected for the construction of a repository for the disposal of highly radioactive, spent nuclear fuel in Finland. The current excursion guide presents the bedrock geology and describes in detail the character of the bedrock at ten representative outcrops or outcrop areas at the ground surface in the site investigation area at Forsmark. All localities are located within or immediately adjacent to the proposed repository volume selected by SKB

  12. Forsmark site investigation. Bedrock geology - overview and excursion guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    Bearing in mind the significance of the bedrock data from the ground surface for the geological 3D modelling work, SKB decided to present excursion guides that serve in the demonstration of the bedrock geology at the ground surface in both the Forsmark (this guide) and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. An excursion guide is also available for the Olkiluoto area in south-western Finland, which has been selected for the construction of a repository for the disposal of highly radioactive, spent nuclear fuel in Finland. The current excursion guide presents the bedrock geology and describes in detail the character of the bedrock at ten representative outcrops or outcrop areas at the ground surface in the site investigation area at Forsmark. All localities are located within or immediately adjacent to the proposed repository volume selected by SKB

  13. Oskarshamn site investigation. Bedrock geology - overview and excursion guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    Bearing in mind the significance of the bedrock data from the ground surface for the geological 3D modelling work, SKB decided to present excursion guides that serve in the demonstration of the bedrock geology at the ground surface in both the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp (this guide) areas. An excursion guide is also available for the Olkiluoto area in south-western Finland, which has been selected for the construction of a repository for the disposal of highly radioactive, spent nuclear fuel. The current excursion guide presents the bedrock geology and describes in detail the character of the bedrock at eight representative outcrops or outcrop areas at the ground surface in the site investigation area at Laxemar-Simpevarp and at one locality north of this area, i.e. at a total of nine localities

  14. Internal Flow Thermal/Fluid Modeling of STS-107 Port Wing in Support of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, John R.; Kittredge, Ken; Schunk, Richard G.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the aero-thermodynamics team supporting the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAB), the Marshall Space Flight Center was asked to perform engineering analyses of internal flows in the port wing. The aero-thermodynamics team was split into internal flow and external flow teams with the support being divided between shorter timeframe engineering methods and more complex computational fluid dynamics. In order to gain a rough order of magnitude type of knowledge of the internal flow in the port wing for various breach locations and sizes (as theorized by the CAB to have caused the Columbia re-entry failure), a bulk venting model was required to input boundary flow rates and pressures to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. This paper summarizes the modeling that was done by MSFC in Thermal Desktop. A venting model of the entire Orbiter was constructed in FloCAD based on Rockwell International s flight substantiation analyses and the STS-107 reentry trajectory. Chemical equilibrium air thermodynamic properties were generated for SINDA/FLUINT s fluid property routines from a code provided by Langley Research Center. In parallel, a simplified thermal mathematical model of the port wing, including the Thermal Protection System (TPS), was based on more detailed Shuttle re-entry modeling previously done by the Dryden Flight Research Center. Once the venting model was coupled with the thermal model of the wing structure with chemical equilibrium air properties, various breach scenarios were assessed in support of the aero-thermodynamics team. The construction of the coupled model and results are presented herein.

  15. The CEA Cadarache site. Additional safety assessment with respect to the accident which occurred in the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of some characteristics of the CEA Cadarache site (internal and external industrial environment, crisis management organization at the CEA level and at the local level), this document reports the identification of structures and equipment concerned by crisis management (site support functions, critical structures and equipment concerned by additional safety assessments). Then, it addresses the different risks: earthquake (sizing of critical structures and equipment, margin assessment), flooding (possible origins, alarm measures), other extreme natural events (extreme meteorological conditions, extreme earthquake with induced flooding, forest fire), and loss of electric supplies and of cooling systems. The last parts address the organization of accident management in situation typically related to additional safety management), and subcontracting conditions and practices

  16. Site investigation SFR. Vegetation in streams in the Forsmark area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Eva (Svensk Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (Sweden)); Aquilonius, Karin; Sivars Becker, Lena (Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden)); Borgiel, Mikael (Sveriges Vattenekologer AB (Sweden))

    2011-09-15

    The streams in the model area of Forsmark have previously been thoroughly investigated regarding water chemistry, hydrology, bottom substrate, flooding, percentage coverage of macrophytes and fish migration. Retention of radionuclides in a stream ecosystem is assumed to occur by sorption to sediments or by uptake of radionuclides by macrophytes and it is therefore of interest to know the biomass and production of macrophytes in the streams included in a safety assessment. The general aim of this study was to examine the relation between biomass and the percentage cover of vegetation in streams in the Forsmark area. In this study streams within and nearby the candidate area in Forsmark was investigated. The somewhat larger streams Forsmarksaan and Olandsaan nearby the candidate area, are assumed to be more similar to future streams developing in Forsmark due to landrise, than the smaller streams present in the candidate area today. In total 22 vegetation samples were gathered in order to estimate the biomass at the sites. Percentage coverage of macrophytes, and dominating species were noted and the above ground macrophytes were sampled for biomass analysis. In the smaller streams, the biomass varied between 6 and almost 358 g dry weight per square metre. In the larger streams, the dry biomass varied between 0 and 247 g dry weight per square meter. There were no significant difference between macrophyte biomass in smaller and the larger stream. In total 13 macrophyte species were found. The biomass dry weight at 100% covering degree varied depending on macrophyte species. Although this was a rather small study, it is evident that the biomasses do vary a wide range between sampling squares in the area. However, although it may be difficult to use this data set to estimate the biomass in a specific square meter in the stream section, the relation between biomass weight and covering degree is sufficient to be used when fitting biomass to macrophyte coverage for entire

  17. Hanford site past practice investigation strategy: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) have negotiated a strategy for performing Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Past Practice investigations in a more streamlined manner with a bias-for-action. This strategy provides new concepts for 1) accelerating decision-making by maximizing the use of existing data consistent with data quality objectives and 2) undertaking expedited response actions and/or interim remedial measures as appropriate to either remove threats to human health and welfare and the environment or to reduce risk by reducing toxicity, mobility or volume of contaminants. Since the goal of the program is cleanup, much more emphasis will be placed on initiating and completing waste site cleanups through interim measures. While investigations and studies are important in meeting long-range goals, there is now agreement by the parties that an appropriate and significant portion of the near-term funding resources can and should be dedicated to remedial work, where there is sufficient information from which to plan and implement interim remedial measures. The initial stages of Hanford clean-up will optimize the use of interim cleanup actions when justified and practicable. Existing data will be evaluated as the initial basis for decision-making. If the data are found to be insufficient, additional essential data will be collected to support the IRM in a limited field investigation (LFI). Only data needed to formulate a conceptual model (source to pathway to receptor) and qualitative risk assessment would be obtained. The data quality objectives of the LFI will be established based on the use of the data in deciding on IRMs. The data might not need to be of the same quality needed to support final RODs, since the IRM itself would yield valuable information for

  18. Hydrogeochemical site descriptive model - a strategy for the model development during site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, John [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Laaksoharju, Marcus [GeoPoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    In 2002, SKB commenced site characterisation investigations using deep boreholes at different sites. As an integral part of the planning work SKB has prepared a strategy to develop a Hydrogeochemical Site Descriptive Model; similar strategies have been developed for the other major geoscience disciplines. The main objectives of the Hydrogeochemical Site Descriptive Model are to describe the chemistry and distribution of the groundwater in the bedrock and overburden and the hydrogeochemical processes involved in its origin and evolution. This description is based primarily on measurements of the groundwater composition but incorporates the use of available geological and hydrogeological site descriptive models. The SKB hydrogeochemistry programme is planned to fulfil two basic requirements: 1) to provide representative and quality assured data for use as input parameter values in calculating long-term repository safety, and 2) to understand the present undisturbed hydrogeochemical conditions and how these conditions will change in the future. Parameter values for safety analysis include pH, Eh, S, SO{sub 4}, HCO{sub 3}, HPO{sub 4} and TDS (mainly cations), together with colloids, fulvic and humic acids, other organics, bacteria and nitrogen. These values will be used to characterise the groundwater environment at, above and below repository depths. In the hydrogeochemical site investigation programme the number and location of the sampling points will be constrained by: a) geology (e.g. topography, overburden types, bedrock structures etc), b) hydrogeology (e.g. groundwater recharge/discharge areas, residence times), c) reliability (e.g. undisturbed vs disturbed groundwater chemical conditions), and d) resources (e.g. number and type of samples, and also available personnel, may be restricted by budgetary and schedule concerns). Naturally a balance is required between these constraints and the scientific aims of the programme. The constraints should never

  19. 关于护理差错事故的调查分析及防范措施%Investigation and analysis of nursing accidents and precaution measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马忠金

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyze the cause of nursing accident errors and propose precaution measures.Methods From the year of 1991 to 2011,109 nurses who made nursing accident errors were analyzed statistically by their education background and occupational tenure and those errors were categorized according to records. Results Nursing accident errors was negatively related to education background and occupational tenure.Nursing accident errors was also relative to the fixed habits.Conclusions Continual learning,learning from lessons,overcoming fixed habits are all effective measures in preventing nursing accident errors.%目的 调查分析护理差错事故发生的原因并提出防范措施.方法 对我院1991年1月1日到2011年1月1日发生109例的护理差错事故的护理人员按学历、护龄足以统计并依据当时的记录描述对护理差错事故归类分析.结果 护理差错事故的发生与学历、工龄(工作半年以上)成相关负性增长,护理差错事故大多与习惯性定势有关.结论 不断学习、吸取经验教训、克服习惯性定势是防范护理差错事故的有效措施.

  20. Nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

  1. Integrating engineering principles into the medico-legal investigation of a rare fatal rollover car accident involving complex dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Vincenzo M; Castagnola, Flaminia; Miscusi, Massimo; De-Giorgio, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    Rollover car accidents can be the result of forceful steering or hitting an obstacle that acts like a ramp. Mortality from this type of car accident is particularly high, especially when occupants are thrown out of the vehicle. We report a case of a 67-year-old man who died after a rollover accident that occurred when he was driving a car equipped with a glass moonroof. He was found inside his car with his safety belt correctly fastened and the roof shattered. At autopsy, a wide avulsion injury of the head was observed, which was associated with an atlanto-axial dislocation and full-thickness fracture of the cervical body and posterior facet joints of the seventh cervical vertebra. The data collected at the scene of the accident were integrated with the autopsy results to yield a forensic engineering reconstruction. This reconstruction elucidated the dynamics of the event and correctly ascribed the lesions observed at autopsy to the phases of the rollover. Afterward, an analysis of the scientific literature concerning rollover crash tests was conducted to understand why the driver sustained fatal injuries even though his seatbelt was properly fastened. PMID:27406628

  2. Integrating engineering principles into the medico-legal investigation of a rare fatal rollover car accident involving complex dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Vincenzo M; Castagnola, Flaminia; Miscusi, Massimo; De-Giorgio, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    Rollover car accidents can be the result of forceful steering or hitting an obstacle that acts like a ramp. Mortality from this type of car accident is particularly high, especially when occupants are thrown out of the vehicle. We report a case of a 67-year-old man who died after a rollover accident that occurred when he was driving a car equipped with a glass moonroof. He was found inside his car with his safety belt correctly fastened and the roof shattered. At autopsy, a wide avulsion injury of the head was observed, which was associated with an atlanto-axial dislocation and full-thickness fracture of the cervical body and posterior facet joints of the seventh cervical vertebra. The data collected at the scene of the accident were integrated with the autopsy results to yield a forensic engineering reconstruction. This reconstruction elucidated the dynamics of the event and correctly ascribed the lesions observed at autopsy to the phases of the rollover. Afterward, an analysis of the scientific literature concerning rollover crash tests was conducted to understand why the driver sustained fatal injuries even though his seatbelt was properly fastened.

  3. Engineering rock mass classification of the Olkiluoto investigation site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeikaes, K. [ed.; Hagros, A.; Johansson, E. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland)] [and others

    2000-06-01

    Olkiluoto in Eurajoki is being investigated as a possible site for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants. The selection of the depth, placement and layout of the repository is affected by the constructability of the bedrock. The constructability, in turn, is influenced by several properties of the host rock, such as its Ethology, the extent of fracturing, its hydrogeological properties and rock engineering characteristics and also by the magnitude and orientation of the in situ stresses and the chemistry of the groundwater. The constructability can be evaluated by the application of a rock classification system in which the properties of the host rock are assessed against common rock engineering judgements associated with underground construction. These judgements are based partly on measurements of in situ stresses and the properties of the bedrock determined from rock samples, but an important aspect is also the practical experience which has been gained during underground excavation in similar conditions and rock types. The aim of the engineering rock mass classification was to determine suitable bedrock volumes for the construction of the repository and has used data from the site characterisation programme carried out at Olkiluoto, which consisted of both surface studies and borehole investigations. The classification specifies three categories of constructability - normal, demanding and very demanding. In addition, rock mass quality has also been classified according to the empirical Q-system to enable a comparison to be made. The rock mass parameters that determine the constructability of the bedrock at Olkiluoto depend primarily on the depth and the Ethology, as well as on whether construction takes place in intact or in fractured rock. The differences in the characteristics of intact rock within a single rock type have been shown to be small. The major lithological unit at Olkiluoto, the mica gneiss, lies in the

  4. Site investigation equipment developed by Teollisuuden Voima Oy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) carries out site investigations in Finland for final disposal of nuclear high level waste during 1987-2000. In order to carry out the investigations some essential equipment have been designed and constructed. The biggest insufficiency among different measuring methods was among water sampling and hydraulic testing. There are some common specifications which all of these equipment has to fulfil. The two most important are that they have to be operatable in deep slim boreholes down to 1000 meters depth with 56 mm in diameter. The main purpose of the Hydraulic Testing Unit is to determine hydraulic conductivity in crystalline rock, where water can flow primarily through fractures. In most commonly used configurations, measurement range is from 10-11 to 10-5 m/s with constant-head method. Although constant-head method is principally used, almost any known hydraulic method is possible with existing hardware. Most functions are controlled by the computer. The whole system is built into an electrically heated trailer. The system consists of inflatable packers, stainless steel rods, pressure transducers and datalogging devices. The maximum number of monitoring sections is seven. In addition to that as many blind sections as is needed to prevent vertical flow in boreholes can be installed. Water sampling is possible either with a double packer method or in conjunction with the hydraulic head monitoring equipment. The first possibility involves using the laboratory trailer and the second one using a separate pumping unit plus the laboratory trailer in a later phase when sampling is to be conducted. In the laboratory trailer there are all the measuring devices needed to control different chemical parameters (pH, Eh, pS, O2, conductivity and temperature) during pumping

  5. Getting ready for inspection of investigational site at short notice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Talele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available India is becoming an attractive destination for drug development and clinical research. This is evidenced by the three fold increment in clinical trial applications in last four years to the office of Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI. This upward trend is collaborative efforts of all stake holders and the quality of Indian data. Therefore to sustain this trend, it is important that stake holders such as Regulators, Sponsor, CRO, Monitor, Investigators and trial subjects required maintaining high standards of data and conduct of clinical trials. Indian regulations and the role of DCGI in quality check for Indian clinical trials is always a topic of discussion in various forums. A recent move by DCGI for conducting random inspections of investigational sites and companies at short notice, checking their compliance in accordance with the guidelines, and taking action against non-complier is welcomed. This will certainly increase over quality of the clinical trials. Quality of clinical trial conduct is measured on essential documents for their appropriateness and its correctness. It is observed that the stakeholders engaged in multitasking often overlook the requirements or appropriateness of the document due to their focused approach on a specific activity which is on priority. This can lead to serious quality problem and issues. Understanding of the process and documents reviewed by auditor is important to maintain such high quality. The proper planning and time management working on essential documents can minimize the quality issues, and we can be always ready for any type of inspection, announced or unannounced, or "short notice".

  6. 49 CFR 801.32 - Accident reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 801.32 Section 801.32... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Accident Investigation Records § 801.32 Accident reports. (a) The NTSB....S. civil transportation accidents, in accordance with 49 U.S.C. 1131(e). (b) These reports may...

  7. Status of the Real-time On-line Decision Support (RODOS) system for off-site emergency management after nuclear and radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the auspices of its EURATOM Research Framework Programmes, the European Commission (EC) has supported the development of the comprehensive decision support system RODOS (Real-time On-line Decision Support) for off-site emergency management after nuclear accidents for more than a decade. Many national research programmes, research institutes and industrial collaborators contributed to the project, in particular the German Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (B MU). The RODOS system can be applied to accidental releases into the atmosphere and various aquatic environments within and across Europe. It provides coherent support before, during and after such a release to assist analysis of the situation and decision making about short and long-term countermeasures for mitigating the consequences with respect to health, the environment, and the economy. Appropriate interfaces exist with local and national radiological monitoring data systems, meteorological measurements and forecasts, and for the adaptation to local, regional and national conditions in Europe. Within the European Integrated Project EURANOS of the sixth Framework Programme, the RODOS system is being enhanced, among others, for radiological emergencies such as dirty bombs attacks, transport accidents and satellite crashes by extensions of the nuclide list, the source term characteristics and the atmospheric dispersion model

  8. Waste site grouping for 200 Areas soil investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to identify logical waste site groups for characterization based on criteria established in the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy (DOE-RL 1996a). Specific objectives of the document include the following: finalize waste site groups based on the approach and preliminary groupings identified in the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy; prioritize the waste site groups based on criteria developed in the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy; select representative site(s) that best represents typical and worse-case conditions for each waste group; develop conceptual models for each waste group. This document will serve as a technical baseline for implementing the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy. The intent of the document is to provide a framework, based on waste site groups, for organizing soil characterization efforts in the 200 Areas and to present initial conceptual models

  9. Geophysical investigations of the Olonium Roman site (Northern Como Lake)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlsan, Ermanno; Biella, Giancarlo; Boniolo, Graziano; Caporusso, Donatella; de Franco, Roberto; Lozej, Alfredo; Veronese, Luigi

    1999-03-01

    The study area is located at S. Agata (Gera Lario), a small center at the northern end of Como Lake, near the junction of Valchiavenna and Valtellina Valleys. This site played a strategic role since ancient times, providing the control on the communications routes to both the Como Lake and the Spluga and Septimer alpine passes. Since the end of the last century archaeological findings are reported in literature, also supported, from the early XI century, by archival documents confirming the existence of the `Olonium' settlement, an administrative and fiscal center of primary importance, as well as a parish amongst the most influential in the Como Lake area. Within an area of 45,000 m 2 an electrical survey has been carried out in conjunction with magnetic and GPR investigations. These studies have indicated the presence of a number of sub-areas characterized by significant anomalies defined by the overlapping of the results obtained from two or more geophysical methods. In two of such sub-areas, excavation tests have been conducted, which have brought to light a number of archaeological findings of interest. In one of the two sub-areas, which is characterized by the superimposition of electrical and radar anomalies, a deposit of large pebbles has been found. The origin of this deposit has not been ascertained, whether it is of fluvial origin, related to the deviation of the Adda river in the Pian di Spagna region in Roman times, or it is part of reclamation works, still of Roman times, of paleolacustrine marshes. The overlapping stratigraphy, however, suggests the development of fluvial channels between Roman and Low-Medieval times. In the other sub-area, excavations were carried out on sites defined by electrical and radar anomalies, and confirmed by the results from magnetic survey. The excavations brought to light, below the fluvial deposits, a large medieval edifice, which could be identified as the S. Stefano church abandoned in 1444. The church is built on

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 573: Alpha Contaminated Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 573 is located in Area 5 of the Nevada National Security Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 573 is a grouping of sites where there has been a suspected release of contamination associated with non-nuclear experiments and nuclear testing. This document describes the planned investigation of CAU 573, which comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 05-23-02, GMX Alpha Contaminated Area • 05-45-01, Atmospheric Test Site - Hamilton These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives.

  11. Investigation of Sleep Quality in Flight Crew after Flight Accidents%飞行事故后飞行人员睡眠质量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王真真; 冀虎圣; 逯向娜; 汪粲; 杨璇

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解飞行事故后飞行人员的睡眠质量,为事故后飞行人员睡眠干预提供理论依据.方法 采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index,PSQl)量表,对事故后15名飞行教员、28名飞行学员和34名对照组进行调查.结果 事故后1周,飞行人员PSQI均分(8.55±2.66)分,67.44%的飞行人员出现睡眠问题;飞行事故后教员和学员的睡眠质量存在明显差异;Logistic回归分析表明,年龄、职别和婚姻状况是事故后飞行人员睡眠质量的独立危险因素.结论 飞行事故后飞行人员出现严重睡眠问题,应予以重视,进行针对性睡眠干预.%Objective To investigate the sleep quality in flight crew after flight accidents, so as to provide the theoretical basis for sleeping intervention after accidents. Methods The sleep quality of 43 flight crew (15 flight instructors and 28 flight cadtes) after accident and 34 controls were evaluated by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Results The average PSQI score of the flight crew was (8. 55 ± 2. 66) ,67.44% had sleep problem (PSQI>7) after one week accidents. The flight instructors' sleep problem was more serious than the cadets'. The Logistic regression analysis indicated that the age, official rank and marital status was independently associated with the sleep quality in flight crew after accidents. Conclusion The flight crew have severe sleep problem after accidents and sleep intervention should carry out.

  12. Developing and implementing a computer assisted emergency facility for assessing off-site consequences due to accidents in UK nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines considerations in the development of the RAD computer code as used in the Emergency Room at HM NII for assessing off-site consequences of accidents in UK civil nuclear power reactors. A wide range of requirements have been accommodated within the facility, particularly the need of HM NII to meet its responsibilities by producing realistic and timely estimates of a suitably high quality for propagating advice. The development of the computer code has required the balancing of many competing factors. Valuable experience has been gained by using the code during emergency exercises. Importance is laid on the feedback of field measurements to enhance the accuracy of estimated radiological consequences. (author)

  13. Study and development of accident off-site consequence assesment system TW-NAOCAS for Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant in Jiangsu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of accident off-site consequence assessment system TW-NAOCAS for Tianwan nuclear power plant in Jiangsu is introduced. This software system includes: operation subsystem; data-transport, meteorological data pre-processing and wind field diagnosis module; wind field prediction module, atmospheric dispersion module, dose estimation and intervention measure module. TW-NAOCAS could give the following information within 30 minutes: wind field in assessed area (near area: 20 x 10 km2, space resolution 500 m; far area: 80 x 80 km2, space resolution 4 km); concentration, prediction dose, evitable dose of sheltering and evacuation, etc. for various released nuclides in each reseau. The calculating mode of main physical modules is outlined. Finally, three modules estimation, measuring results of examples of wind field, atmospheric dispersion and dose are presented. (authors)

  14. Utilization of the IAIA (Investigation and Analysis of Incidents and Accidents) method in the investigation of the P-36 platform accident; Utilizacao do metodo IAIA (Investigacao e Analise de Acidentes e Incidentes) na investigacao do acidente ocorrido na plataforma P-36

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, Marcus de Barros [ARCE - Agencia Reguladora de Servicos Publicos Delegados do Estado do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In the beginning of XXI century the Brazilian oil industry report a big accident involving that which was the biggest petroleum platform of the world. With capacity production of 180.000 barrels a day and capacity compression of 7,2 million cubic meter a day of natural gas, the off-shore platform P-36 was situated on Roncador field, in Campos basin, operating in 1360 meters of water. As consequences, eleven deaths with irreparable traumas to the families, friends and worker partners, one billion dollars in prejudices to brazilian country, environmental damages by oil leak and injuries to PETROBRAS reputation in Brazil and in the world. The method of investigation and analysis of incidents and accidents - IAIA is very wide and its philosophy contain a lot of topics, since basic concepts, investigation actions, analysis action and diagnosis by the general kind of fail. Using this method and taking advantage from the report elaborated by the commission organized by ANP - Agencia Nacional do Petroleo and DPC - Diretoria de Portos e Costas, responsible for the investigation and analysis of the accident occurred with P-36, this paper identify the direct and indirect causes of the accident, in attempt to avoid new similar situations. (author)

  15. Site investigations in Sweden. Investigation methods and general execution programme (Translated document)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of key issues in the safety assessment of a deep geological disposal system for high-level nuclear waste is to evaluate uncertainties of models used and data collected. Therefore, it is crucial to develop an integrated cooperation between the analysis and the data acquisition sides to evaluate and enhance appropriateness of a model and the reliability of data. In this technical material, the SKB's TR01-29, technical report on site investigations prepared in 2001 by the SKB with which JNC has been carrying out many joint researches, has been translated into Japanese. The purpose of the material preparation was to make the translated version a useful reference as regard to the design and construction of deep underground laboratories to be built in Tono and in Horonobe. SKB's original report deals with an overall philosophy of site investigations and execution methodologies in each discipline-specific area of geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrology, geochemistry, material transport, and surface ecosystems, as well as a detailed description of drilling programme. This technical material is a complete translation of the original report. (author)

  16. Final report : Hanover environmental site investigation, 2009-2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-06-07

    The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), operated a grain storage facility at the northeastern edge of the city of Hanover, Kansas, from 1950 until the early 1970s. During this time, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were in common use by the grain storage industry to preserve grain in their facilities. In February 1998, trace to low levels of carbon tetrachloride were detected in two private lawn and garden wells near the former grain storage facility at Hanover, as part of a statewide USDA private well sampling program that was implemented by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) near former CCC/USDA facilities. In July 2007, the CCC/USDA sampled indoor air at nine residences on or adjacent to its former facility to address the residents concerns. Low levels of carbon tetrachloride were detected at four of the nine homes. Consequently, the CCC/USDA has conducted investigations, under the direction of the KDHE, to determine the source and extent of the carbon tetrachloride contamination that might be associated with the former facility. In July 2007, the CCC/USDA sampled indoor air at nine residences on or adjacent to its former facility to address the residents concerns regarding vapor intrusion (VI). Low levels of carbon tetrachloride were detected at four of the nine homes. Because carbon tetrachloride found in private wells and indoor air at Hanover might be linked to historical use of fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride at its former grain storage facility, the CCC/USDA has conducted investigations to determine the source and extent of the carbon tetrachloride contamination that may be associated with the former facility. The results of the comprehensive investigation at Hanover indicate that no unacceptable risk to human health currently exists from exposure to surface and subsurface soils by either ingestion, inhalation or dermal contact. No risk is

  17. 《核事故场内医学应急响应程序》解读%Explanation of Procedure on Site Medical Emergency Response for Nuclear Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉龙; 姜忠

    2012-01-01

    国家职业卫生标准——《核事故场内医学应急响应程序》已经卫生部批准并发布.此标准根据《中华人民共和国突发事件应对法》、《中华人民共和国职业病防治法》、《核电厂核事故应急管理条例》和《卫生部核事故与辐射事故卫生应急预案》制定,与《核事故场内医学应急计划与准备》及《核事故场外医学应急计划与准备》配套使用.《核事故场内医学应急响应程序》是场内应急计划的一部分,此标准规定了核设施营运单位核事故场内医学应急响应程序的基本内容和要求,用于指导和规范核设施营运单位的核事故场内医学应急响应工作.该文对此标准的相关内容进行解读.%National occupational health standard-Procedure on Site Medical Emergency Response for Nuclear Accident has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health.This standard is formulated according to the Emergency Response Law of the People’s Republic of China,Law of the People 's Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Occupational Diseases,Regulations on Emergency Measures for Nuclear Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants,and Health Emergency Plans for Nuclear and Radiological Accidents of Ministry of Health,supporting the use of On-site Medical Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Nuclear Accidents and Off-site Medical Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Nuclear Accidents.Nuclear accident on-site medical response procedure is a part of the on-site emergency plan.The standard specifies the basic content and requirements of the nuclear accident on-site medical emergency response procedures of nuclear facilities operating units to guide and regulate the work of nuclear accident on-site medical emergency response of nuclear facilities operating units.The criteria-related contents were interpreted in this article.

  18. Investigation of a fatal airplane crash: autopsy, computed tomography, and injury pattern analysis used to determine who was steering the plane at time of accident. A case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Christian Bjerre; Nielsen, Trine Skov; Nagel, Lise Loft;

    2012-01-01

    A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior to the au......A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior...... to the autopsy. The autopsies showed massive destruction to the bodies of the two victims but did not identify any signs of acute or chronic medical conditions that could explain loss of control of the airplane. PMCT, histological examination, and forensic chemical analysis also failed to identify an explanation...... for the crash. A detailed review of an airplane identical to the crashed airplane was performed in collaboration with the Danish Accident Investigation Board and the Danish National Police, National Centre of Forensic Services. The injuries were described using the abbreviated injury scale, the injury severity...

  19. Thermal site descriptive model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations - version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, Paer-Erik; Sundberg, Jan [Geo Innova AB (Sweden)

    2007-09-15

    This report presents a strategy for describing, predicting and visualising the thermal aspects of the site descriptive model. The strategy is an updated version of an earlier strategy applied in all SDM versions during the initial site investigation phase at the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The previous methodology for thermal modelling did not take the spatial correlation fully into account during simulation. The result was that the variability of thermal conductivity in the rock mass was not sufficiently well described. Experience from earlier thermal SDMs indicated that development of the methodology was required in order describe the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity in the rock mass in a sufficiently reliable way, taking both variability within rock types and between rock types into account. A good description of the thermal conductivity distribution is especially important for the lower tail. This tail is important for the design of a repository because it affects the canister spacing. The presented approach is developed to be used for final SDM regarding thermal properties, primarily thermal conductivity. Specific objectives for the strategy of thermal stochastic modelling are: Description: statistical description of the thermal conductivity of a rock domain. Prediction: prediction of thermal conductivity in a specific rock volume. Visualisation: visualisation of the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity. The thermal site descriptive model should include the temperature distribution and thermal properties of the rock mass. The temperature is the result of the thermal processes in the repository area. Determination of thermal transport properties can be made using different methods, such as laboratory investigations, field measurements, modelling from mineralogical composition and distribution, modelling from density logging and modelling from temperature logging. The different types of data represent different scales, which has to be

  20. Preliminary site investigation for LL and IL radwaste disposal for Qinshan NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of selecting a disposal site for the low- and intermediate-level radwastes arising from Qinshan NPP, site investigations were carried out in several districts of Zhejiang Province. Investigation objectives included the circumstances of geology, hydrogeology, environmental ecology, and social economy. On the basis of collected data, five possible sites were recommended for policy-making reference and further investigation

  1. Investigation of the emergency nursing for patients with acute cerebrovascular accident%急性脑血管意外患者的急救护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金燕

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate and summarize the key points of nursing for acute cerebrovascular accident,and provide scientific basis for clinical nursing work in the future.Methods:84 cases of acute cerebral vascular accident patients were selected, and we the analyzed the emergency care and clinical datas of them retrospectively.Results:84 cases of acute cerebral vascular accident patients were improved in 73 cases(86.9%) through the emergency treatment,the disease aggravated 11 cases(13.1%). Conclusion:Timely and effective emergency care can reduce the mortality and morbidity of cerebrovascular accident patients,and reduce the incidence of complications.It plays an important role in the prognosis of patients.%目的:探讨总结急性脑血管意外的护理要点,为今后临床护理工作提供科学的依据。方法:收治急性脑血管意外患者84例,回顾性分析其急救护理及临床资料。结果:84例急性脑血管意外患者经抢救治疗,病情好转73例(86.9%),病情加重11例(13.1%)。结论:及时、有效的急救护理能够降低脑血管意外患者的病死率及致残率,同时有效降低并发症的发生率,对患者预后发挥重要的作用。

  2. Contaminant distributions near Chernobyl: Cesium, lead and mercury in fish and sediments from ponds upwind and downwind of the accident site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of contaminants near Chernobyl is extremely patchy, and was highly influenced by prevailing wind direction after the accident. In data from Soviet agencies and their successors, regions to the south and southeast or the reactor reportedly received much less radioactivity than regions in the north and northwest. We visited sites to the south of Chernobyl in 1992, and to the north in 1993; all sites were within 35 km of the power plant. Sediments and fish samples from about 20 ponds were analyzed for radiocesium; Pb and Hg were also determined in fish muscle. Lake sediments in the south contained 0.02 to 11 Bq/g 137Cs, while those to the north contained up to 2000 Bq/g 137Cs. Fish muscle also contained much less radioactivity in southern areas (≤ 8.2 Bq/g vs. ≤ 212 Bq/g at northern sites). Pb and Hg were elevated in some samples, but the distribution of radioactive and non-radioactive contaminants were not highly correlated. Low ionic strength waters typically favor contaminant uptake; waters in the area were soft (sp. cond < 450 μS/cm) and low in Ca and K. In these regions, water chemistry was a poor predictor of fish contaminant burden, possibly due to the extreme patchiness of the contaminant distribution. Human habitation is presently permitted in the southern regions we visited, but the northern ones. A companion poster has been submitted detailing measurements of genetic anomalies in these fish

  3. Alternative DFN model based on initial site investigations at Simpevarp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darcel, C. [Itasca Consultants, Ecully (France); Davy, S.A.P.; Bour, O.; Dreuzy, J.R. de [Geosciences, Rennes (France)

    2004-12-01

    In this report, we provide a first-order analysis of the fracture network at the Simpevarp site. The first order model is the fracture distribution function, noted, fdf, which provides the number of fractures having a given orientation and length, and belonging to a given volume of observation. The first-order distribution model does not describe higher-order correlation between fracture parameters, such as a possible dependency of fracture length distribution with orientations. We also check that most of the information is contained in this 1st-order distribution model, and that dividing the fracture networks into different sets do not bring a better statistical description. The fracture distribution function contains 3 main distributions: the probability distribution of fracture orientations, the dependency on the size of the sampling domain that may exhibit non-trivial scaling in case of fractal correlations, and the fracture-length density distribution, which appears to be well fitted by a power law. The main scaling parameters are the fractal dimension and the power-law exponent of the fracture length distribution. The former was found to be about equal to the embedding dimension, meaning that fractal correlations are weak and can be neglected in the DFN model. The latter depends on geology, that is either lithology or grain size, with values that ranges from 3.2 for granite-like outcrops to 4 for diorite or monzodiorite outcrops, as well as for the large-scale lineament maps. When analyzing the consistency of the different datasets (boreholes, outcrops, lineament maps), we found that two different DFNs can be described: the first one is derived from the fdf of the outcrop with fine-grained size lithology, and is valid across all scales investigated in this study, from the highly-fractured cores to large-scale maps; the second one is derived from the fdf of the outcrops with coarse-grained size lithology, and is found consistent with cores that present the

  4. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.:0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 137: Waste Disposal Sites. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 137 contains sites that are located in Areas 1, 3, 7, 9, and 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 137 is comprised of the eight corrective action sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) CAS 01-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; (2) CAS 03-23-01, Waste Disposal Site; (3) CAS 03-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (4) CAS 03-99-15, Waste Disposal Site; (5) CAS 07-23-02, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (6) CAS 09-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (7) CAS 12-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; and (8) CAS 12-23-07, Waste Disposal Site. The Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, sampling of environmental media, analysis of samples, and assessment of investigation results, where appropriate. Data will be obtained to support corrective action alternative evaluations and waste management decisions. The CASs in CAU 137 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting

  5. Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  6. Sports Accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    Kiebel

    1972-01-01

    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  7. Investigation of anatomical anomalies in Hanford Site mule deer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), common residents of the Hanford Site, are an important part of the shrub-steppe ecosystem as well as being valued for aesthetics and hunting. Because mule deer have been protected from hunting on the Site for 50 years, the herd has developed unique population characteristics, including a large number of old animals and males with either large or atypically developed antlers, in contrast to other herds in the semi-arid regions of the Northwest. Hanford Site mule deer have been studied since 1991 because of the herd's unique nature and high degree of public interest. A special study of the mule deer herd was initiated in 1993 after observations were made of a relatively large number of male deer with atypical, velvet-covered antlers. This report specifically describes our analyses of adult male deer found on the Site with atypical antlers. The report includes estimates of population densities and composition; home ranges, habitat uses, and dietary habits; natural and human-induced causes of mortality; and the herd's overall health and reproductive status

  8. Geochemical investigation of UMTRAP designated site at Canonsburg, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UMTRAP is an acronym for Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. The Canonsburg, Pennsylvania site was utilized from 1911 to 1922 and from 1930 to 1942, first to remove radium from sedimentary uranium ore, and later to remove uranium from ore as well as process various materials, ceasing operations in 1957. Of the three areas, Area A is the former mill site and is occupied in part by present industrial activities. Area B is comprised of mill residues mixed with sediment dredged from Chartiers Creek, a disturbed terrace along Chartiers Creek, and a ditch on the north side. The ditch contains water with the highest concentrations of contaminants measured in the Canonsburg site. It is believed that unprocessed ore is deposited here and effluent from leaks in a sewer line across the north edge of Areas A and B carry contaminants from heavily contaminated drains in the buildings of Area A. Area C contains the former liquid disposal lagoon, and the central part of the area is highly contaminated to a depth of about 3 meters. Area C contains the most concentrated waste material with maximum levels (except for the ditch on the north side of Area B) of all the contaminants distributed throughout the area. Contamination outside the site is limited. The presence of contaminants in the ditches, in the soils on the river bank, and below the tailings pile is not attributed to migration processes, but rather to the presence of ore materials and concentrated wastes mechanically dispersed throughout the area

  9. Investigation of anatomical anomalies in Hanford Site mule deer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiller, B.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Poston, T.M. [and others

    1997-03-01

    Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), common residents of the Hanford Site, are an important part of the shrub-steppe ecosystem as well as being valued for aesthetics and hunting. Because mule deer have been protected from hunting on the Site for 50 years, the herd has developed unique population characteristics, including a large number of old animals and males with either large or atypically developed antlers, in contrast to other herds in the semi-arid regions of the Northwest. Hanford Site mule deer have been studied since 1991 because of the herd`s unique nature and high degree of public interest. A special study of the mule deer herd was initiated in 1993 after observations were made of a relatively large number of male deer with atypical, velvet-covered antlers. This report specifically describes our analyses of adult male deer found on the Site with atypical antlers. The report includes estimates of population densities and composition; home ranges, habitat uses, and dietary habits; natural and human-induced causes of mortality; and the herd`s overall health and reproductive status.

  10. Thermal site descriptive model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations - version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, Paer-Erik; Sundberg, Jan [Geo Innova AB (Sweden)

    2007-09-15

    This report presents a strategy for describing, predicting and visualising the thermal aspects of the site descriptive model. The strategy is an updated version of an earlier strategy applied in all SDM versions during the initial site investigation phase at the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The previous methodology for thermal modelling did not take the spatial correlation fully into account during simulation. The result was that the variability of thermal conductivity in the rock mass was not sufficiently well described. Experience from earlier thermal SDMs indicated that development of the methodology was required in order describe the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity in the rock mass in a sufficiently reliable way, taking both variability within rock types and between rock types into account. A good description of the thermal conductivity distribution is especially important for the lower tail. This tail is important for the design of a repository because it affects the canister spacing. The presented approach is developed to be used for final SDM regarding thermal properties, primarily thermal conductivity. Specific objectives for the strategy of thermal stochastic modelling are: Description: statistical description of the thermal conductivity of a rock domain. Prediction: prediction of thermal conductivity in a specific rock volume. Visualisation: visualisation of the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity. The thermal site descriptive model should include the temperature distribution and thermal properties of the rock mass. The temperature is the result of the thermal processes in the repository area. Determination of thermal transport properties can be made using different methods, such as laboratory investigations, field measurements, modelling from mineralogical composition and distribution, modelling from density logging and modelling from temperature logging. The different types of data represent different scales, which has to be

  11. Summary report of the experiences from TVO`s site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehberg, A. [Saanio and Reikkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland); Saksa, P.; Ahokas, H.; Ruotsalainen, P. [Fintact Ky, Helsinki (Finland); Snellman, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1994-05-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) has completed preliminary site investigations at five sites in Finland. At the end of 1992 TVO presented the final report to the authorities. The preliminary site investigation phase 1986-1992 was conducted according to the investigation programme compiled by TVO. The aim of this report was to compile a report on experiences from TVOs site investigations. The main interest was focused on investigation strategies and the most important investigation methods for the conceptual modelling. The objective of the preliminary site investigations was to obtain data on the bedrock properties in order to evaluate the areas. The programme was divided into four stages, each stage having its own sub-objective. The site-specific investigation programme for each site included a large common part and a small site-specific part. The strategies (objectives) and experiences from different disciplines, geology, hydrogeochemistry, geophysics and geohydrology, are presented in the report. The conceptual modelling work procedure including both bedrock and groundwater modelling is described briefly using the Olkiluoto site as an example. Each of the other areas has undergone similar phases of work. The uncertainties associated with conceptual modelling are also discussed. The usefulness of the investigation strategy and the investigation methods for conceptual modelling is discussed in the report. Some new equipment, methods or enhancements that have not yet been used in TVOs site investigations have become new tools in site characterisation and are briefly presented in the report. 52 refs, 35 figs, 1 tab.

  12. Ultrafast solvation dynamics at internal site of staphylococcal nuclease investigated by site-directed mutagenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Guang-yu, Gao; Wei, Wang; Shu-feng, Wang; Zhong, Dongping; Qi-huang, Gong

    2014-01-01

    Solvation is essential for protein activities. To study internal solvation of protein, site-directed mutagenesis is applied. Intrinsic fluorescent probe, tryptophan, is inserted into desired position inside protein molecule for ultrafast spectroscopic study. Here we review this unique method for protein dynamics researches. We introduce the frontiers of protein solvation, site-directed mutagenesis, protein stability and characteristics, and the spectroscopic methods. Then we present time-resolved spectroscopic dynamics of solvation dynamics inside caves of active sites. The studies are carried out on a globular protein, staphylococcal nuclease. The solvation at internal sites of the caves indicate clear characteristics of local environment. These solvation behaviors correlated to the enzyme activity directly.

  13. Forsmark site investigation. Investigation of marine and lacustrine sediment in lakes. Field data 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this activity is to describe the aerial and stratigraphical distribution of marine and lacustrine sediment i.e. sediment overlaying the glacial till and/or bedrock surface, in lakes in the Forsmark area. The investigation is carried out within areas where mapping of unconsolidated Quaternary deposits is presently carried out. Since small and shallow lakes cover a large part of the region, this work will give important information on the distribution and stratigraphy of sedimentary deposits not included in the regular mapping of unconsolidated Quaternary deposits within the site investigation programme. Samples were also collected for laboratory analyses of grain size distribution, mineralogical composition as well as the total content of C, N and S and calcium carbonate. The analyses will be carried out on selected samples of representative sedimentary units in order to characterise the chemical and physical properties of the unconsolidated deposits. The analytical data will be useful for the hydrogeological modelling and for models of the Quaternary evolution of the area. The mineralogical analyses of clay may provide information on the origin of the clay particles. One stratigraphic sequence from Lake Eckarfjaerden will be stored for later analyses, e.g. pollen analysis. This report includes field data from spring 2003. Together, the field data and the forthcoming results from the laboratory analyses will form the basis for construction of stratigraphical profiles to be presented in a following report in the fall 2003

  14. Forsmark site investigation. Investigation of marine and lacustrine sediment in lakes. Field data 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedenstroem, Anna [SGU, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this activity is to describe the aerial and stratigraphical distribution of marine and lacustrine sediment i.e. sediment overlaying the glacial till and/or bedrock surface, in lakes in the Forsmark area. The investigation is carried out within areas where mapping of unconsolidated Quaternary deposits is presently carried out. Since small and shallow lakes cover a large part of the region, this work will give important information on the distribution and stratigraphy of sedimentary deposits not included in the regular mapping of unconsolidated Quaternary deposits within the site investigation programme. Samples were also collected for laboratory analyses of grain size distribution, mineralogical composition as well as the total content of C, N and S and calcium carbonate. The analyses will be carried out on selected samples of representative sedimentary units in order to characterise the chemical and physical properties of the unconsolidated deposits. The analytical data will be useful for the hydrogeological modelling and for models of the Quaternary evolution of the area. The mineralogical analyses of clay may provide information on the origin of the clay particles. One stratigraphic sequence from Lake Eckarfjaerden will be stored for later analyses, e.g. pollen analysis. This report includes field data from spring 2003. Together, the field data and the forthcoming results from the laboratory analyses will form the basis for construction of stratigraphical profiles to be presented in a following report in the fall 2003.

  15. Skidding accidents : considerations on road surface and vehicle characteristics : summary of the present situation. Provisional recommendation concerning skidding resistance of road surfaces investigation programme. Interim report of the SWOV Working Group "Tyres, road surfaces and skidding accidents"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SWOV Working Group "Tyres, road surfaces and skidding accidents"

    1970-01-01

    This is the first report of SWOV Working Group "Tyres, road surfaces and skidding accidents". Skidding is considered to be an important contributory factor in traffic accidents. Skidding can in principle be prevented in two ways, viz: (1) reduction of the minimum necessary friction, and (2) increasi

  16. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-08-11

    This report summarizes field sampling activities conducted in support of WCH’s Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River. This work was conducted form 2008 through 2010. The work included preliminary mapping and measurement of Hanford Site contaminants in sediment, pore water, and surface water located in areas where groundwater upwelling were found.

  17. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Coumbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-11-10

    This report summarizes field sampling activities conducted in support of WCH’s Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River. This work was conducted form 2008 through 2010. The work included preliminary mapping and measurement of Hanford Site contaminants in sediment, pore water, and surface water located in areas where groundwater upwelling were found.

  18. Site description of the SFR area at Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-PSU Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    The site descriptive model (SDM) presented in this report is an integrated model for bedrock geology, rock mechanics, bedrock hydrogeology and bedrock hydrogeochemistry of the site investigated in the SFR extension project (PSU). A description of the surface system is also included in the report. However, the surface system is not integrated with the other disciplines as new data regarding the surface system will not be available until after the completion of SDM-PSU. It is noted that SDM-PSU does not include all disciplines handled in SDM-Site Forsmark (SKB 2008b), the focus is to produce a site description that meets the needs of the SFR extension project. The overall objective of the SFR extension project is to have the application for the extension ready by 2013. This report presents an integrated site model incorporating the historic data acquired from the investigations for and construction of the existing SFR facility (1980-1986), as well as from the recent investigations for the planned extension of SFR (2008-2009). It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the integrated site model. The description relies heavily on background reports concerning detailed data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. It is noteworthy that the investigations conducted during the SFR extension project were guided by the choice of site prior to the investigations, which was based on the experience gained during the construction of the existing SFR facility.

  19. Site description of the SFR area at Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-PSU Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The site descriptive model (SDM) presented in this report is an integrated model for bedrock geology, rock mechanics, bedrock hydrogeology and bedrock hydrogeochemistry of the site investigated in the SFR extension project (PSU). A description of the surface system is also included in the report. However, the surface system is not integrated with the other disciplines as new data regarding the surface system will not be available until after the completion of SDM-PSU. It is noted that SDM-PSU does not include all disciplines handled in SDM-Site Forsmark (SKB 2008b), the focus is to produce a site description that meets the needs of the SFR extension project. The overall objective of the SFR extension project is to have the application for the extension ready by 2013. This report presents an integrated site model incorporating the historic data acquired from the investigations for and construction of the existing SFR facility (1980-1986), as well as from the recent investigations for the planned extension of SFR (2008-2009). It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the integrated site model. The description relies heavily on background reports concerning detailed data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. It is noteworthy that the investigations conducted during the SFR extension project were guided by the choice of site prior to the investigations, which was based on the experience gained during the construction of the existing SFR facility

  20. 一起道路交通事故引发重大火灾的调查与分析%Fire investigation and analysis of a road traffic accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴华

    2013-01-01

    通过调查和重建一起道路交通事故引发重大火灾的过程,分析引起事故的原因,提出预防和应对此类安全事故处理的措施和意见.%Through investigation and reconstruction a great fire caused by a road traffic accident, analyze the cause of the accident reason, put forward measures and opinions to prevent similar accident.

  1. Accident management insights after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, that took place on 11 March 2011, initiated a significant number of activities at the national and international levels to reassess the safety of existing NPPs, evaluate the sufficiency of technical means and administrative measures available for emergency response, and develop recommendations for increasing the robustness of NPPs to withstand extreme external events and beyond design basis accidents. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is working closely with its member and partner countries to examine the causes of the accident and to identify lessons learnt with a view to the appropriate follow-up actions to be taken by the nuclear safety community. Accident management is a priority area of work for the NEA to address lessons being learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP following the recommendations of Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), and Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH). Considering the importance of these issues, the CNRA authorised the formation of a task group on accident management (TGAM) in June 2012 to review the regulatory framework for accident management following the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The task group was requested to assess the NEA member countries needs and challenges in light of the accident from a regulatory point of view. The general objectives of the TGAM review were to consider: - enhancements of on-site accident management procedures and guidelines based on lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident; - decision-making and guiding principles in emergency situations; - guidance for instrumentation, equipment and supplies for addressing long-term aspects of accident management; - guidance and implementation when taking extreme measures for accident management. The report is built on the existing bases for capabilities to respond to design basis

  2. WAG 2 remedial investigation and site investigation site-specific work plan/health and safety checklist for the sediment transport modeling task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This site-specific Work Plan/Health and Safety Checklist (WP/HSC) is a supplement to the general health and safety plan (HASP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 remedial investigation and site investigation (WAG 2 RI ampersand SI) activities [Health and Safety Plan for the Remedial Investigation and Site Investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (ORNL/ER-169)] and provides specific details and requirements for the WAG 2 RI ampersand SI Sediment Transport Modeling Task. This WP/HSC identifies specific site operations, site hazards, and any recommendations by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) health and safety organizations [i.e., Industrial Hygiene (IH), Health Physics (HP), and/or Industrial Safety] that would contribute to the safe completion of the WAG 2 RI ampersand SI. Together, the general HASP for the WAG 2 RI ampersand SI (ORNL/ER-169) and the completed site-specific WP/HSC meet the health and safety planning requirements specified by 29 CFR 1910.120 and the ORNL Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) Program Manual. In addition to the health and safety information provided in the general HASP for the WAG 2 RI ampersand SI, details concerning the site-specific task are elaborated in this site-specific WP/HSC, and both documents, as well as all pertinent procedures referenced therein, will be reviewed by all field personnel prior to beginning operations

  3. Carson Lake Pasture : Mercury Superfund Site : Soil investigation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this investigation is to determine whether the soil in the CLkP exceeds the EPA's hazardous waste level criterion for mercury and whether there is...

  4. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Strand

    2004-10-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 554: Area 23 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Information presented in this CAIP includes facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for the selection and evaluation of environmental samples. Corrective Action Unit 554 is located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 554 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), which is: 23-02-08, USTs 23-115-1, 2, 3/Spill 530-90-002. This site consists of soil contamination resulting from a fuel release from underground storage tanks (USTs). Corrective Action Site 23-02-08 is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation prior to evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document for CAU 554. Corrective Action Site 23-02-08 will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on July 15, 2004, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; and contractor personnel. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 554.

  5. Investigations of avian populations and wetland habitats at Square Lake study site: 1978 final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document covers the investigations of avian populations and wetland habitats at Square Lake study site. Study sites, methods, physical conditions, wetland...

  6. Current state of the technology measures of accident from contamination by the radioactive substance. 2. Overall management of radioactive material contaminated waste in the off-site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the disposal standards of the Act on Special Measures Concerning the Handling of Environmental Pollution by Radioactive Materials by the NPS Accident Associated with the Tohoku District - off the Pacific Ocean Earthquake that Occurred on March 11, 2011, which was promulgated on August 30, 2011 as a framework for the management of radioactively contaminated waste and removed soil. It stipulated that the byproducts of water/sewage treatment, major ash, and fly ash up to the radiation of 8,000 Bq/kg can be reclaimed in land. However, fly ash has a limit in landfill conditions, due to very high leaching rate of radioactive cesium. Later, incineration ash with between 8,000 Bq/kg and 100,000 Bq/kg became possible to be buried at disposal sites corresponding to leachate-controlled type. The specified waste with 100,000 Bq/kg or above is reclaimed in land with specified method at a site provided with outer peripheral partition facilities and cut off from the public water and groundwater. In Fukushima Prefecture, the specified waste with 100,000 Bq/kg or above is to be stored in provisional storage facilities, and later sent to final disposal sites outside the prefecture after the volume has been reduced. The decontaminated waste composed of vegetation is covered totally with a breathable waterproof sheet, and stored at a provisional yard. According to the characteristics of each provisional storage yard, there are needs for patrol and management. (A.O.)

  7. De l'investigation d'accident à l'évaluation de la sécurité industrielle : proposition d'un cadre interdisciplinaire (concepts, méthode, modèle)

    OpenAIRE

    Le Coze, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes an interdisciplinary industrial safety framework. It is explained and illustrated through several steps. The first one, empirical, introduces a major accident investigation. It is shown on the one hand that this accident can be approached in the light of different disciplines (engineering, ergonomics, sociology, management, law) looking into technological, working, organisation, managerial and regulatory issues. The outcome does not belong to any institutionalised discip...

  8. Unsaturated zone investigation at the radioactive waste storage facility site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuratovic, Zana; Mazeika, Jonas; Petrosius, Rimantas; Jakimaviciute-Maseliene, Vaidote [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos St. 2, LT-08412, Vilnius (Lithuania); Klizas, Petras; Mokrik, Robert [Vilnius University, M.K. Ciurlionio St. 21/27, LT-03101 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2014-07-01

    Unsaturated zone is an important part of water circulation cycle and an integral part of many hydrological and hydrogeological factors and processes. The soils of unsaturated zone are regarded as the first natural barrier to a large extent able to limit the spread of contaminants. Nuclear waste disposal site (Maisiagala radioactive waste storage facility site) was analysed in terms of the moisture movement through the unsaturated zone. Extensive data sets of the hydraulic properties, water content and isotope composition have been collected and summarized. The main experimental and observational tasks included the collection of soil samples; determination of the physical properties and the hydraulic conductivity values of soil samples, moisture extraction from the soil sample for isotopic studies; observation of the groundwater dynamics at the Maisiagala piezometer; groundwater sampling for isotopic analysis ({sup 3}H, {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O, {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H ); and monthly precipitation isotopic analysis. Distribution features of globally widespread radionuclide tritium ({sup 3}H) and the water molecule tracer isotopes in precipitation, unsaturated zone soil moisture profiles and groundwater were determined. It was used the well-known unsaturated flow and transport model of HYDRUS-1D (Simunek et al., 2008). In this study, van Genuchten equations for the retention and conductivity estimations have been used. The retention characteristics and van Genuchten model parameters were estimated internally by HYDRUS based on the empirical equations involved in the program. Basic inputs of the tritium transport simulation are the tritium input function and meteorological variables (precipitation and potential evapotranspiration). In order to validate the representativeness of the hydraulic parameters, the model has been used to estimate the tritium distribution in the unsaturated zone, which properly represents the dynamics of the unsaturated zone. The uniformity of the daily

  9. Ecological investigation of a hazardous waste site, Warner Robins, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Billig, P. [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Landfill No. 4 and the sludge lagoon at Robins Air Force Base, Warner Robins, Georgia, were added to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Priorities List in 1987 because of highpotential for contaminant migration. Warner Robins is located approximately 90 miles southeast of Atlanta. In 1990 CH2M HILL conducted a Remedial Investigation at the base that recommended that further ecological assessment investigations be conducted (CH2M HILL 1990). The subject paper is the result of this recommendation. The ecological study was carried out by the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP)Division of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., working jointly with its subcontractor CDM (CDM 1992a). The primary area of investigation (Zone 1) included the sludge lagoon, Landfill No. 4, the wetland area east of the landfill and west of Hannah Road (including two sewage treatment ponds), and the area between Hannah Road and Horse Creek (Fig. 1). The bottomland forest wetlands of Zone 1 extend from the landfill east to Horse Creek. Surface water and groundwater flow across Zone 1 is generally in an easterly direction toward Horse Creek. Horse Creek is a south-flowing tributary of the Ocmulgee River Floodplain. The objective of the study was to perform a quantitative analysis of ecological risk associated with the ecosystems present in Zone 1. This investigation was unique because the assessment was to be based upon many measurement endpoints resulting in both location-specific data and data that would assess the condition of the overall ecosystem. The study was segregated into five distinct field investigations: hydrology, surface water and sediment, aquatic biology, wetlands ecology, and wildlife biology.

  10. Available climatological and oceanographical data for site investigation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindell, S.; Ambjoern, C.; Juhlin, B.; Larsson-McCann, S.; Lindquist, K. [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2000-03-15

    Information on available data, measurements and models for climate, meteorology, hydrology and oceanography for six communities have been analysed and studied. The six communities are Nykoeping, Oesthammar, Oskarshamn, Tierp, Hultsfred and Aelvkarleby all of them selected by Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, SKB, for a pre-study on possibilities for deep disposal of used nuclear fuel. For each of them a thorough and detailed register of available climatological data together with appropriate statistical properties are listed. The purpose is to compare the six communities concerning climatological and oceanographical data available and analyse the extent of new measurements or model applications needed for all of the selected sites. Statistical information on precipitation, temperature and runoff has good coverage in all of the six communities. If new information concerning any of these variables is needed in sites where no data collection exist today new installation can be made. Data on precipitation in form of snow and days with snow coverage is also available but to a lesser extent. This concerns also days with ground frost and average ground frost level where there is no fully representation of data. If more information is wanted concerning these variables new measurements or model calculations must be initiated. Data on freeze and break-up of ice on lakes is also insufficient but this variable can be calculated with good result by use of one-dimensional models. Data describing air pressure tendency and wind velocity and direction is available for all communities and this information should be sufficient for the purpose of SKB. This is also valid for the variables global radiation and duration of sunshine where no new data should be needed. Measured data on evaporation is normally not available in Sweden more than in special research basins. Actual evaporation is though a variable that easily can be calculated by use of models. There are many lakes in the six

  11. Approaches and algorithms for groundwater flow modeling in support of site investigations and safety assessment of the Forsmark site, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Lee; Joyce, Steven

    2013-09-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has in 2011 finalized a safety assessment project, SR-Site, with the objective to assess the long term safety of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Northern Uppland of Sweden. Prior to the safety assessment, comprehensive site investigations were conducted at the Forsmark site to build understanding and characterize the site. An essential part of the site investigations were to describe hydrological properties and characteristics of the site and use this to assess the groundwater pathway. The geological structural context of the crystalline bedrock at Forsmark implied a fracture network concept was the natural description for interpreting site data and assessing the groundwater pathway. Of primary importance to the description of the fracture system was the assignment of down-borehole flow-logging measurements to individual fractures identified by imaging techniques, providing the basis to relate hydrogeological characteristics such as anisotropy and heterogeneity to the geological structural framework. Also, the key input quantities to the assessment of long-term safety can be closely related to the derived fracture flow-rate distributions. Key success factors for this project were to develop and test strategies for modeling methodologies, as described in this paper, from an early stage, hand-in-hand with the planning and phased acquisition of site data as well as successive safety assessments.

  12. Investigation of Acute Poisoning Accident Caused by Hydrogen Sulfide%一起急性硫化氢中毒事故的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小涛; 熊田甜

    2013-01-01

      目的介绍一起因硫氢化钠与外环境酸性污水反应导致的硫化氢中毒死亡事件的调查处理情况。方法2006年11月29日, J 市 G 区发生一起以双眼及上呼吸道刺激为主要症状,伴有胸闷、憋气、头晕、恶心干呕等全身症状的中毒事故,造成1人死亡,一人昏迷,一人头晕。对患者进行临床诊断,对外环境相关有毒物质进行检测,模拟有毒气体的化学反应。结果三名患者临床表现符合硫化氢中毒后症状;事发后2h,现场空气硫化氢浓度为0.87mg/m3,现场含酸污水与原料硫化钠模拟试验可以检测到反应产物硫化氢气体。结论中毒主要原因是硫氢化钠被外环境酸性污水浸泡,分解后释放出硫化氢,加上作业工人防护不到位,导致吸入高浓度硫化氢中毒。%  Objective: To introduce an Accident Caused by Hydrogen Sulfide.   Methods: In some factory happened a poisoning accident,which resulted in death and casualty,the folowing measures such as Medical treatment, field investigation, laboratory detection were carried out immediately.   Results: Three victims were diagnosed as hydrogen sulfide poisoning; 2 hours after the accident, the concentration of hydrogen sulfide in spot was 0.87mg/m3, and hydrogen sulfide was detected positive in Simulation test.   Conclusion: The acute poisoning accident was caused by Hydrogen sulfide, which was released when sodium hydrosulfide mixed with hydrochloric acid. When the victims were lack of enough safeguard, high concentrations of Hydrogen sulfide were inhaled and resulted poisoning.

  13. Preventing accidents at intake towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villegas, F. (INTEGRAL S.A., Medellin, CO (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Strong air blow-outs occurring in the intake tower of Guatape Hydroelectric Power Plant in Colombia have caused two serious accidents recently. The causes of the accidents were investigated and recommendations are made here to prevent future repetitions of these dangerous events. (UK)

  14. Simulating Experimental Investigation on the Safety of Nuclear Heating Reactor in Loss—of —Coolant Accidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhanjieXu

    1996-01-01

    The 5MW low temperature nuclear heating reactor (NHR-5) is a new and advanced type of nuclear reactor developed by Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology(INET) of Tisinghuan University of CHina in 1989,Its main loop is a thermal-hydraulic system with natural circulation.This paper studies the safety of NHR under the condition of loss-of -coolant accidents(LOCAs) by means of simulant experiments.First,the Background and necessity of the experiments are presented.then the experimental system,including the thermal-hydraulic system and the data collection system,and similarity criteria are introduced.Up to now ,the discharge experiments with the residual heating power(20% rated heating power)have been carried out on the experimental system,The system prameters including circulation flow rate,system pressure,system temperature,void fraction,discharge mass and so on have been recorded and analyzed.Based on the results of the experiments,the conclusionas are shown as follos:on the whole,the reactor is safe under the condition of LOCAs,but the thermal vacillations resulting from the vibration of the circulation flow rate are disadvantageous to the internal parts of the reactor core.

  15. Hindsight Bias in Cause Analysis of Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atsuo Murata; Yasunari Matsushita

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that hindsight becomes an obstacle to the objective investigation of an accident, and that the proper countermeasures for the prevention of such an accident is impossible if we view the accident with hindsight. Therefore, it is important for organizational managers to prevent hindsight from occurring so that hindsight does not hinder objective and proper measures to be taken and this does not lead to a serious accident. In this study, a basic phenomenon potentially related to accidents, that is, hindsight was taken up, and an attempt was made to explore the phenomenon in order to get basically insights into the prevention of accidents caused by such a cognitive bias.

  16. Estimation of absorbed radiation dose rates in wild rodents inhabiting a site severely contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose rates of radiation absorbed by wild rodents inhabiting a site severely contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident were estimated. The large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus), also called the wood mouse, was the major rodent species captured in the sampling area, although other species of rodents, such as small field mice (Apodemus argenteus) and Japanese grass voles (Microtus montebelli), were also collected. The external exposure of rodents calculated from the activity concentrations of radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs) in litter and soil samples using the ERICA (Environmental Risk from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessment and Management) tool under the assumption that radionuclides existed as the infinite plane isotropic source was almost the same as those measured directly with glass dosimeters embedded in rodent abdomens. Our findings suggest that the ERICA tool is useful for estimating external dose rates to small animals inhabiting forest floors; however, the estimated dose rates showed large standard deviations. This could be an indication of the inhomogeneous distribution of radionuclides in the sampled litter and soil. There was a 50-fold difference between minimum and maximum whole-body activity concentrations measured in rodents at the time of capture. The radionuclides retained in rodents after capture decreased exponentially over time. Regression equations indicated that the biological half-life of radiocesium after capture was 3.31 d. At the time of capture, the lowest activity concentration was measured in the lung and was approximately half of the highest concentration measured in the mixture of muscle and bone. The average internal absorbed dose rate was markedly smaller than the average external dose rate (<10% of the total absorbed dose rate). The average total absorbed dose rate to wild rodents inhabiting the sampling area was estimated to be approximately 52 μGy h−1 (1.2 mGy d−1), even 3 years after

  17. Field site investigation: Effect of mine seismicity on groundwater hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a field investigation on the groundwater-hydrologic effect of mining-induced earthquakes are presented in this report. The investigation was conducted at the Lucky Friday Mine, a silver-lead-zinc mine in the Coeur d'Alene Mining District of Idaho. The groundwater pressure in sections of three fracture zones beneath the water table was monitored over a 24-mo period. The fracture zones were accessed through a 360-m-long inclined borehole, drilled from the 5,700 level station of the mine. The magnitude, source location, and associated ground motions of mining-induced seismic events were also monitored during the same period, using an existing seismic instrumentation network for the mine, augmented with additional instruments installed specifically for the project by the center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA). More than 50 seismic events of Richter magnitude 1.0 or larger occurred during the monitoring period. Several of these events caused the groundwater pressure to increase, whereas a few caused it to decrease. Generally, the groundwater pressure increased as the magnitude of seismic event increased; for an event of a given magnitude, the groundwater pressure increased by a smaller amount as the distance of the observation point from the source of the event increased. The data was examined using regression analysis. Based on these results, it is suggested that the effect of earthquakes on groundwater flow may be better understood through mechanistic modeling. The mechanical processes and material behavior that would need to be incorporated in such a model are examined. They include a description of the effect of stress change on the permeability and water storage capacity of a fracture rock mass; transient fluid flow; and the generation and transmission of seismic waves through the rock mass

  18. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 554: Area 23 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Information presented in this CAIP includes facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for the selection and evaluation of environmental samples. Corrective Action Unit 554 is located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 554 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), which is: 23-02-08, USTs 23-115-1, 2, 3/Spill 530-90-002. This site consists of soil contamination resulting from a fuel release from underground storage tanks (USTs). Corrective Action Site 23-02-08 is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation prior to evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document for CAU 554. Corrective Action Site 23-02-08 will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on July 15, 2004, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; and contractor personnel. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 554. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to CAS 23-02-08. The scope of the corrective action investigation

  19. Consequences of radioactive releases into the sea resulting from the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant - Evolution of expert investigation according to the data available

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in March 2011 led to an unprecedented direct input of artificial radioactivity into the marine environment. The Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety was requested by the French authorities to investigate the radioecological impact of this input, in particular the potential contamination of products of marine origin used for human consumption. This article describes the close link between the responses provided and the availability of the data, as well as their nature and ability to meet the requirements of expert investigation. These responses were needed: (i) to evaluate the inputs of radionuclides into the marine environment, (ii) to understand their dispersion in seawater, and (iii) to estimate their transfer to the biota and sediments. Three phases can be distinguished which characterise these processes during the accident and post-accident periods. The first phase corresponds to an emergency phase during which no measurements were available on samples from the marine environment. It involved the formulation of hypotheses based solely on the expertise of the Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety. The second phase started when the Japanese authorities provided measurements of the concentrations of radionuclides in seawater. Although these data were not yet adapted to addressing the problems of radioecology, the scenarios could then be refined and the estimates developed in more detail. During the third phase, the accumulation of data over the course of time made it possible to study the phenomena in an appropriate way. The chronology of the events shows that it is essential to have (i) significant measurements of concentration from samples collected in the various matrices of the marine environment, regularly updated and sufficiently well-documented, (ii) samples of seawater collected at the earliest opportunity as close as possible to the damaged site to characterise the

  20. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit 340, Pesticide Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense. As required by the FFACO (1996), this document provides or references all of the specific information for planning investigation activities associated with three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These CASs are collectively known as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 340, Pesticide Release Sites. According to the FFACO, CASs are sites that may require corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. These sites are CAS 23-21-01, Area 23 Quonset Hut 800 (Q800) Pesticide Release Ditch; CAS 23-18-03, Area 23 Skid Huts Pesticide Storage; and CAS 15-18-02, Area 15 Quonset Hut 15-11 Pesticide Storage (Q15-11). The purpose of this CAIP for CAU 340 is to direct and guide the investigation for the evaluation of the nature and extent of pesticides, herbicides, and other contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) that were stored, mixed, and/or disposed of at each of the CASs.

  1. Touch DNA Testing in Car Accident Investigation%交通事故中汗潜指印DNA检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪中华

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces analysis of fingerprint DNA collected from accidental vehicles. Fingerprint on the steering wheel and gear lever was developed with 502 glue, and EZ-tape was used to collect the shed cells. DNA was extracted with Chelex-100 and magnetic bead-based method, and DNA purification and quantification were performed. PCR reaction was optimized by properly adding 4μL of DNA template and increasing PCR cycle number to 32. PCR products were run in ABI3130 with 10s extension of the injection time, and STR profiles were determined. This method had been successfully applied in 2 car accidents and the drivers were identified.%为成功提取交通事故中的指印 DNA,用502胶熏显指印,用 EZ-tape 胶带采集车辆方向盘及变速杆等处的脱落细胞,然后 Chelex-100法与磁珠法结合提取 DNA,延长保温时间。DNA 定量,根据 DNA 浓度调整PCR 反应体系,通过适当增加 PCR 循环数、增加 PCR 产物量及延长进样时间等方法,成功地对指印 DNA 做了 STR 分型,确定了两起交通事故中的驾驶人。

  2. 交通事故中汗潜指印DNA检验%Touch DNA Testing in Car Accident Investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪中华

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces analysis of fingerprint DNA collected from accidental vehicles. Fingerprint on the steering wheel and gear lever was developed with 502 glue, and EZ-tape was used to collect the shed cells. DNA was extracted with Chelex-100 and magnetic bead-based method, and DNA purification and quantification were performed. PCR reaction was optimized by properly adding 4μL of DNA template and increasing PCR cycle number to 32. PCR products were run in ABI3130 with 10s extension of the injection time, and STR profiles were determined. This method had been successfully applied in 2 car accidents and the drivers were identified.%为成功提取交通事故中的指印 DNA,用502胶熏显指印,用 EZ-tape 胶带采集车辆方向盘及变速杆等处的脱落细胞,然后 Chelex-100法与磁珠法结合提取 DNA,延长保温时间。DNA 定量,根据 DNA 浓度调整PCR 反应体系,通过适当增加 PCR 循环数、增加 PCR 产物量及延长进样时间等方法,成功地对指印 DNA 做了 STR 分型,确定了两起交通事故中的驾驶人。

  3. Dementia and Traffic Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jindong Ding; Siersma, Volkert; Nielsen, Connie Thurøe;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic...... Central Research Register, and/or (2) at least one dementia diagnosis-related drug prescription registration in the Danish National Prescription Registry. Police-, hospital-, and emergency room-reported road traffic-related accidents occurred within the study follow-up are defined as the study outcome...... selection bias due to nonparticipation and loss to follow-up. Furthermore, this ensures that the study results are reliable and generalizable. However, underreporting of traffic-related accidents may occur, which will limit estimation of absolute risks....

  4. Integration of Electrical and Electromagnetic Investigation for Contaminated Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Godio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The environmental assessment of industrial areas is required to minimize the risk of soil and groundwater contamination. The survey of wide areas (e.g., some hectares provides a high economical and complex logistical impact when random strategies of soil sampling are adopted. Recently, geophysical methods had been successfully adopted to drive the process of the spatial sampling of the soil. Approach: The main goal was to verify the reliability of the geophysics for the detection of buried wastes in an industrial area previously involved in the vehicle demolition. Two geophysical methods were applied (1 the electromagnetic frequency domain, using a multi-frequency broadband system with a fixed spacing between the transmitter and receiver coils (2 m to observe the soil electrical conductivity and in-phase response (2 the electrical resistivity and chargeability tomographies, performed along several transects. We applied the Kriging method to map the conductivity and the in-phase response. Standard inversion procedure was adopted to interpret the resistivity and chargeability data. Results: We found a very similar response of the electromagnetic survey in range between 2000 and 40.000 Hz: The investigation depth (3-4 m was mainly related to the coil spacing. The survey pointed out some anomalies caused by bio-geochemical activity in the active waste deposits. The resistivity and chargeability sections confirmed that the electromagnetic anomalies were related to the waste. The high chargeability values (up to 100 mV/V were associated to the leakages of metals of the wastes. Conclusion: The electromagnetic survey, even if sensitive to the presence of cultural noise (fence, metallic object on the ground, permitted to detect the industrial waste; the electrical resistivity and chargeability data pointed out the main contaminated zones with good accuracy. The further development may focus on the relationship between the nature of

  5. Sorption of iodine on rocks from Posiva investigation sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulmala, S.; Hakanen, M. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland). Lab. of Radiochemistry; Lindberg, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-05-01

    Posiva Oy intends to dispose of the spent nuclear fuel produced in Finnish nuclear power plants in a repository deep in the Finnish bedrock. For the purpose, Posiva Oy has selected four areas in Finland for detailed investigation. These areas are Kivetty in Aeaenekoski, Romuvaara in Kuhmo, Olkiluoto in Eurajoki and Haestholmen in Loviisa. In the Finnish safety analysis (TILA-96), a K{sub d} value of 2x10{sup -4} m{sup 3}/kg is used for iodine in far-field conditions. The K{sub d} value is based on experiments performed in Sweden and at the Department of Radiochemistry, University of Helsinki. The purpose of this study was to verify the values in new experiments. The sorption of iodine was studied in batch experiments and retardation in column experiments. The batch experiments with non-saline Allard water gave R{sub d} values of 0.11-1.7 ml/g for Olkiluoto rocks, 0.13-0.55 ml/g for Romuvaara rocks, 0.23-2.3 ml/g for Kivetty rocks and 0.13-0.71 ml/g for Hastholmen rock. With saline OLSO water, the R{sub d} values were {<=} 0.03 ml/g for both OLkiluoto and Hastholmen rock. The R{sub d} values for non-saline water are almost the same as in earlier studies, but the R{sub d} values for saline water are about one decade lower than the values for rapakivi granite and brackish water measured earlier. The column studies on iodine with relatively high flow rates showed no significant difference between the retardation of iodine and the retardation of tritiated water. (orig.) 23 refs.

  6. Sorption of iodine on rocks from Posiva investigation sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posiva Oy intends to dispose of the spent nuclear fuel produced in Finnish nuclear power plants in a repository deep in the Finnish bedrock. For the purpose, Posiva Oy has selected four areas in Finland for detailed investigation. These areas are Kivetty in Aeaenekoski, Romuvaara in Kuhmo, Olkiluoto in Eurajoki and Haestholmen in Loviisa. In the Finnish safety analysis (TILA-96), a Kd value of 2x10-4 m3/kg is used for iodine in far-field conditions. The Kd value is based on experiments performed in Sweden and at the Department of Radiochemistry, University of Helsinki. The purpose of this study was to verify the values in new experiments. The sorption of iodine was studied in batch experiments and retardation in column experiments. The batch experiments with non-saline Allard water gave Rd values of 0.11-1.7 ml/g for Olkiluoto rocks, 0.13-0.55 ml/g for Romuvaara rocks, 0.23-2.3 ml/g for Kivetty rocks and 0.13-0.71 ml/g for Hastholmen rock. With saline OLSO water, the Rd values were ≤ 0.03 ml/g for both OLkiluoto and Hastholmen rock. The Rd values for non-saline water are almost the same as in earlier studies, but the Rd values for saline water are about one decade lower than the values for rapakivi granite and brackish water measured earlier. The column studies on iodine with relatively high flow rates showed no significant difference between the retardation of iodine and the retardation of tritiated water. (orig.)

  7. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Laxemar subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Laxemar subarea have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in 2000. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The latter is eventually done in coming Safety Assessments. This preliminary safety evaluation shows that, according to existing data, the Laxemar subarea meets all safety requirements. The evaluation also shows that the Laxemar subarea meets most of the safety preferences, but for some aspects of the site description further reduction of the uncertainties would enhance the safety case. Despite the stated concerns, there is no reason, from a safety point of view, not to continue the Site Investigations at the Laxemar subarea. There are uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a proper safety assessment. Only some of the uncertainties noted in the Site Descriptive Model have safety implications and need further resolution for this reason. Furthermore, uncertainties may need resolving for other reasons, such as giving an adequate assurance of site understanding or assisting in optimising design. Notably, there are questions about the

  8. Investigation of radionuclides and anthropic tracer migration in groundwater at the Chernobyl site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal La Salle, Corinnne; Simonucci, Caroline; Roux, Céline; Bugai, Dmitry; Aquilina, Luc; Fourré, Elise; Jean-Baptiste, Philippe; Labasque, Thierry; Michelot, Jean-Luc; Fifield, Keith; Team Aster Team; Van Meir, Nathalie; Kashparov, Valeriy; Diez, Olivier; Bassot, Sylvain; Lancelot, Joel

    2013-04-01

    Following the reactor 4 explosion of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP), at least 1019 Bq of radionuclides (RN) were released in the environment. In order to protect workers and prevent further atmospheric RN dispersion in the area adjacent to the ChNPP, contaminated wastes including fuel particles, topsoil layer and forest remains were buried in approximately 800 shallow trenches in the sand formation in the Red Forest waste dump site [1]. No containment measures were taken, and since then RN have leaked to the unsaturated zone and to the groundwater. Since 1999, migration of RN in the vicinity of the trench 22 at Red Forest site has been investigated within the frame of the EPIC program carried out by IRSN in collaboration with UIAR and IGS [2, 3]. A plume of 90Sr was shown downgradient from the trench 22 with activites reaching 3750 Bq/L [2]. In 2008, further studies were initiated through the TRASSE research group, based on a collaboration between IRSN and CNRS. These programs aim at combining groundwater dating with RN migration monitoring studies in order to constrain RN transport models [3]. Groundwater residence time was investigated based on 3H/He and CFC. Both tracers led to ages ranging from modern (1-3 y) at 2 m depth below the groundwater table to significantly higher apparent ages of 50-60 y at 27 m below the groundwater table [3]. 36Cl/Cl ratios 2 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than the theoretical natural ratio are measured in groundwater. Similarly, SF6 shows concentrations as high as 1200 pptv while natural concentrations are in the order of 6-7 pptv. Based on apparent groundwater ages, both contaminations are linked to the Chernobyl explosion. Hence those tracers show excellent potential to constrain conservative and reactive transport, respectively. In contrast, 238U/235U ratio down gradient from trench 22 remains similar to the natural ratio. This suggests that either most of the U contained in the trench is in a non soluble form

  9. The management of accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Ward

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This author’s experiences in investigating well over a hundred accident occurrences has led to questioning how such events can be managed - - - while immediately recognising that the idea of managing accidents is an oxymoron, we don’t want to manage them, we don’t want not to manage them, what we desire is not to have to manage not-them, that is, manage matters so they don’t happen and then we don’t have to manage the consequences.Design/methodology/approach: The research will begin by defining some common classes of accidents in manufacturing industry, with examples taken from cases investigated, and by working backwards (too late, of course show how those involved could have managed these sample events so they didn’t happen, finishing with the question whether any of that can be applied to other situations.Findings: As shown that the management actions needed to prevent accidents are control of design and application of technology, and control and integration of people.Research limitations/implications: This paper has shown in some of the examples provided, management actions have been know to lead to accidents being committed by others, lower in the organization.Originality/value: Today’s management activities involve, generally, the use of technology in many forms, varying from simple tools (such as knives to the use of heavy equipment, electric power, and explosives. Against these we commit, in control of those items, the comparatively frail human mind and body, which, again generally, does succeed in controlling these resources, with (another generality by appropriate management. However, sometimes the control slips and an accident occurs.

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2006-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 139 is comprised of the seven corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 03-35-01, Burn Pit; (2) 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; (3) 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; (4) 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; (5) 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; (6) 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and (7) 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives with the exception of CASs 09-23-01 and 09-34-01. Regarding these two CASs, CAS 09-23-01 is a gravel gertie where a zero-yield test was conducted with all contamination confined to below ground within the area of the structure, and CAS 09-34-01 is an underground detection station where no contaminants are present. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for the other five CASs where information is insufficient. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 4, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 139.

  11. WAG 2 remedial investigation and site investigation site-specific work plan/health and safety checklist for the soil and sediment task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a site-specific work plan/health and safety checklist (WP/HSC) for a task of the Waste Area Grouping 2 Remedial Investigation and Site Investigation (WAG 2 RI ampersand SI). Title 29 CFR Part 1910.120 requires that a health and safety program plan that includes site- and task-specific information be completed to ensure conformance with health- and safety-related requirements. To meet this requirement, the health and safety program plan for each WAG 2 RI ampersand SI field task must include (1) the general health and safety program plan for all WAG 2 RI ampersand SI field activities and (2) a WP/HSC for that particular field task. These two components, along with all applicable referenced procedures, must be kept together at the work site and distributed to field personnel as required. The general health and safety program plan is the Health and Safety Plan for the Remedial Investigation and Site Investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (ORNL/ER-169). The WP/HSCs are being issued as supplements to ORNL/ER-169

  12. Development of the web-based site investigation flow diagram in repository development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In siting a repository for high level radioactive wastes (HLW), it is essential for consensus building intelligibly and visually present why and how the area is selected as a suitable site. However 'information asymmetry' exists especially between society and an implementation body because various types of investigation, analysis and assessment are implemented in site characterization on the basis of a wide variety of advanced science and technology. Communication between experts (e.g. surveyors and modelers) is also important for efficient and reliable site investigation/ characterization. The Web-based Site Investigation Flow Diagram (SIFD) has been developed as a tool for information sharing among stake holders and society-jointed decision making. To test applicability of the SIFD, virtual site characterization ('dry run') is performed using the existing site investigation data. It is concluded that the web-based SIFD enhance traceability and transparency of the site investigation/ characterization, and therefore it would be a powerful communication tool among experts for efficient and reliable site investigation/characterization and among stake holders for consensus building

  13. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in shallow ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an overview and technical guidelines for investigations on a national level for the selection and confirmation of a repository site that will provide adequately safe performance for disposal of solid radioactive wastes that are low- or intermediate-level and short-lived. It also provides basic information on technical activities to be undertaken and on techniques that are available for such investigations in the various steps in selecting suitable sites. The report supplements the information given in Shallow Ground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes: A Guidebook, IAEA Safety Series No. 53 (1981). This report focuses mainly on different aspects of earth sciences and the various investigative techniques relative to earth sciences that may be necessary for site investigations. Some major related studies in other fields are discussed briefly. It is assumed that no previous investigations have been undertaken, and the report proceeds through area site selection to the stage when the site is confirmed as suitable for a waste repository

  14. Accident: Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

  15. Investigation and analysis of the intoxication accident of sodium nitrite%一起亚硝酸钠中毒事故的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王滨; 周东升

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the causes of food-poisoning, to prevent and eliminate the similar accident. METHODS Used scene hygienic investigation, epidemiological analysis, laboratory detection and so on. RESULTS The food- poisoning event was caused by the polluted water with sodium nitrite from the reservior. The sodium nitrite water was siphoned from supply water pipe to drinking water pipe by temporary stop water. CONCLUSION More propagandas should be strengthened, the all population should improve the knowledge of the sodium nitrite intoxication. The health supervision department should strength training and inspection works. The enterprise should strength the management of sodium nitrite, the same water source should be forbidden to be used as industry water and drinking water in order to eliminate the accident and the similar accident of hazarding wokers' health.%目的 对一起食物中毒的原因进行分析,防止和杜绝事故的再次发生.方法 采用现场卫生学调查、流行病学分析、实验室检测等方法.结果 该事故为一起因暂时停水,引起的车间除锈用亚硝酸钠蓄水池水,由进水管虹吸返流至饮用水管,污染饮用水所致的食物中毒.结论 应加强多渠道宣传,提高各类人员对亚硝酸盐中毒的认识,卫生监督部门要加强培训和监督工作,企业要加强对亚硝酸盐规范管理,严禁工业用水与生活饮用水共用同一水源,以消除这类事件或其他危害职工身体健康的事件发生.

  16. Expert meeting with the Belgoprocess Inc. on the fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility. Search and investigation on cause elucidation and reoccurrence control for the fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility. A visiting report on abroad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funasaka, Hideyuki; Fujita, Hideto; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Koyama, Tomozo

    1997-11-01

    In order to investigate in detail on fire cause materials, test results of thermal analysis on waste liquids, and flow of affairs relating to the fire accident (15th December, 1981) of the Euro Bitum Plant (an asphalt solidification facility of the middle level wastes) settled at the Eurochemic reprocessing work in the Kingdom of Belgium, resemble to the present accident, 4 members of the Cause Elucidation Group and Mr. Kaneko, director of the Paris Office of PNC visited to Belgium to hold a meeting with experts of the Belgoprocess Inc. for 4 days. In this meeting, after exchanging mutual detail informations on accident occurred at the Euro Bitum Plant and fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility, some discussions on cause supposition of the present accident. For cause of the fire, mutual differences were found. As a state at occurring fires was much resemble, their followed states seemed to be extremely different on responses of operators to fire-extinguishing action, filter exchanging and so forth. As finishing to recover the plant after 1 month passed from the accident to restart its operation, the Belgoprocess, Inc. has conducted some improvements of the facility such as sufficiency of fire extinguishing apparatus, addition and improvements of fire detecting means, direct measurement of solid temperature and so on, as well as reinforcement of thermal analysis procedure and renewal to new apparatus. Although no special supposition on cause of the fire at this meeting, a lot of items to learn such as operation system, responses after accident, and so forth were acquired. (G.K.)

  17. WAG 2 remedial investigation and site investigation site-specific work plan/health and safety checklist for the ecological assessment task, Kingfisher Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, V.L.; Baron, L.A.

    1994-05-01

    This report provides specific details and requirements for the WAG 2 remedial investigation and site investigation Ecological Assessment Task, Kingfisher Study, including information that will contribute to safe completion of the project. The report includes historical background; a site map; project organization; task descriptions and hazard evaluations; controls; and monitoring, personal protective equipment, decontamination, and medical surveillance program requirements. The report also includes descriptions of site personnel and their certifications as well as suspected WAG 2 contaminants and their characteristics. The primary objective of the WAG 2 Kingfisher Study is to assess the feasibility of using kingfishers as biological monitors of contaminants on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Kingfisher sample collection will be used to determine the levels of contaminants and degree of bioaccumulation within a common piscivorous bird feeding on contaminated fish from streams on the ORR.

  18. WAG 2 remedial investigation and site investigation site-specific work plan/health and safety checklist for the ecological assessment task, Kingfisher Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides specific details and requirements for the WAG 2 remedial investigation and site investigation Ecological Assessment Task, Kingfisher Study, including information that will contribute to safe completion of the project. The report includes historical background; a site map; project organization; task descriptions and hazard evaluations; controls; and monitoring, personal protective equipment, decontamination, and medical surveillance program requirements. The report also includes descriptions of site personnel and their certifications as well as suspected WAG 2 contaminants and their characteristics. The primary objective of the WAG 2 Kingfisher Study is to assess the feasibility of using kingfishers as biological monitors of contaminants on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Kingfisher sample collection will be used to determine the levels of contaminants and degree of bioaccumulation within a common piscivorous bird feeding on contaminated fish from streams on the ORR

  19. WSSRAP chemical plant geotechnical investigations for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    This document has been prepared for the United states Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which consists of MK-Ferguson Company (MKF) and Morrison Knudsen Corporation Environmental Services Group (MKES) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as MKF's predesignated subcontractor. This report presents the results of site geotechnical investigations conducted by the PMC in the vicinity of the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pits (WSCP/RP) and in potential on-site and off-site clayey material borrow sources. The WSCP/RP is the proposed disposal cell (DC) site. 39 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. How to reduce the number of accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Among the safety objectives that the Director-General has established for CERN in 2012 is a reduction in the number of workplace accidents.   The best way to prevent workplace accidents is to learn from experience. This is why any accident, fire, instance of pollution, or even a near-miss, should be reported using the EDH form that can be found here. All accident reports are followed up. The departments investigate all accidents that result in sick leave, as well as all the more common categories of accidents at CERN, essentially falls (slipping, falling on stairs, etc.), regardless of whether or not they lead to sick leave. By studying the accident causes that come to light in this way, it is possible to take preventive action to avoid such accidents in the future. If you have any questions, the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. HSE Unit

  1. Use of knowledge and experience gained from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident to establish the technical basis for strategic off-site response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a concise overview of knowledge and experience gained from the activities for environmental remediation after the Fukushima Daiichi (1F) accident. It is specifically tailored for international use, to establish or refine the technical basis for strategic, off-site response to nuclear incidents. It reflects JAEA's key role in the research associated with both remediation of contaminated areas and also the natural contamination migration processes in non-remediated areas, in collaboration with other Japanese and international organisations and research institutes. Environmental monitoring and mapping to define boundary conditions in terms of the distribution of radioactivity and resultant doses, guides the resultant response. Radiation protection considerations set constraints, with approaches developed to estimate doses to different critical groups and set appropriate dose reduction targets. Decontamination activities, with special emphasis on associated waste management, provide experience in evaluation of the effectiveness of decontamination and the pros and cons of different approaches / technologies. The assessment of the natural behaviour of contaminant radionuclides and their mobility in the environment is now focused almost entirely on radiocaesium. Here, the impact of natural mobility in terms of self-cleaning / re-concentration in cleaned areas is discussed, along with possible actions to modify such transport or manage potential areas of radiocaesium accumulation. Many of the conditions in Fukushima are similar to those following past contamination events in other countries, where natural self-cleaning alone has allowed recovery to such an extent that the original incident is now largely forgotten. Decontamination efforts in Japan will certainly accelerate this process. On-going remediation work is based on a good technical understanding of the movement of radiocaesium in the environment and this understanding is being translated

  2. Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)

  3. Potential behavior of depleted uranium penetrators under shipping and bulk storage accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of the potential hazard from airborne releases of depleted uranium (DU) from the Army's M829 munitions was conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The study included: (1) assessing the characteristics of DU oxide from an April 1983 burn test, (2) postulating conditions of specific accident situations, and (3) reviewing laboratory and theoretical studies of oxidation and airborne transport of DU from accidents. Results of the experimental measurements of the DU oxides were combined with atmospheric transport models and lung and kidney exposure data to help establish reasonable exclusion boundaries to protect personnel and the public at an accident site. 121 references, 44 figures, 30 tables

  4. ITER SAFETY TASK NID-5D: Operational tritium loss and accident investigation for heat transport and water detritiation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The task objectives are to: a) determine major pathways for tritium loss during normal operation of the cooling systems and water detritiation system, b) estimate operational losses and environmental tritium releases from the heat transport and water detritiation systems of ITER, and c) prepare a preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) for the ITER Water Detritiation System. The analysis will be used to estimate chronic environmental tritium releases (airborne and waterborne) for the ITER Cooling Systems and Water Detritiation System. The assessment will form the basis for demonstrating the acceptability of ITER for siting in the Early Safety and Environmental Characterization Study (ESECS), to be issued in early 1995. (author). 7 refs., 10 tabs., 11 figs

  5. On Goal-Oriented, Hydrogeological Site Investigation: A Holistic Approach (Henry Darcy Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Yoram

    2016-04-01

    UQ (for Uncertainty Quantification) is a critical element of groundwater management and by extension, of hydrological site investigation. While it is clear that UQ is an important goal, there is ambiguity as to what the target of the UQ should be, and how to make UQ relevant in the context of public policy. Planning for UQ (meaning what measurements to take, where, how many, what frequency, etc.), one could consider environmental performance parameters (EPMs, such as concentrations or travel time) as the targets of site investigation. But there is a need to go beyond EPMs, and to consider the uncertainty related to impacts such as enhanced cancer-risk due to groundwater contamination or, more generally, to decisions facing regulators. In any case, UQ requires site investigation, and decision-makers, who end up paying for it, are not really interested in EPMs: they care about making operational decisions that are defensible legally and justified from the perspective of public good. The key to UQ, whether considering EPMS or operational decisions concerning the public good, is defining a suitable strategy for site investigation. There is a body of published works on relating site investigations with EPMs, but much less is known on how to support operational decisions with strategies for site characterization. In this lecture, I will address this issue and I will outline a comprehensive approach for addressing it using a statistical formalism that couples hypothesis testing with Bayesian statistics. I refer to this approach as goal-oriented site investigation. I will show how site investigation strategies, with specifics such as which measurements to take and where, could be related to goals lined with operational decisions. This includes (1) defining the relevant goals; (2) formulating hypotheses; (3) defining alternative strategies for site investigation and (4) evaluating them in terms of probabilities for making errors in accepting or rejecting the hypotheses.

  6. Geological Investigation Program for the Site of a New Nuclear Power Plant in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstenkorn, András; Trosits, Dalma; Chikán, Géza; János Katona, Tamás

    2015-04-01

    Comprehensive site evalaution program is implemented for the new Nuclear Power Plant to be constructed at Paks site in Hungary with the aim of confirmation of acceptability of the site and definition of site-related design basis data. Most extensive part of this program is to investigate geological-tectonical features of the site with particular aim on the assessment of the capability of faults at and around the site, characterization of site seismic hazard, and definition of the design basis earthquake. A brief description of the scope and methodology of the geological, seismological, geophysical, geotechnical and hydrogeological investigations will be given on the poster. Main focus of the presentation is to show the graded structure and extent of the geological investigations that follow the needs and scale of the geological modeling, starting with the site and its vicinity, as well as on the near regional and the regional scale. Geological inverstigations includes several boreholes up-to the base-rock, plenty of boreholes discovering the Pannonian and large number of shallow boreholes for investigation of more recent development. The planning of the geological investigations is based on the 3D seismic survey performed around the site, that is complemented by shallow-seimic survey at and in the vicinity of the site. The 3D geophysical imaging provides essential geodynamic information to assess the capability of near site faults and for the seismic hazard analysis, as well as for the hydrogeological modeling. The planned seismic survey gives a unique dataset for understanding the spatial relationship between individual fault segments. Planning of the research (trenching, etc.) for paleoseismic manifestations is also based on the 3D seismic survey. The seismic survey and other geophysical data (including data of space geodesy) allow the amendment of the understanding and the model of the tectonic evolution of the area and geological events. As it is known from

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 557: Spills and Tank Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 557 is located in Areas 1, 3, 6, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and is comprised of the four corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: • 01-25-02, Fuel Spill • 03-02-02, Area 3 Subdock UST • 06-99-10, Tar Spills • 25-25-18, Train Maintenance Bldg 3901 Spill Site These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 3, 2008, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 557. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the corrective action investigation for CAU 557 includes the following activities: • Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. • Conduct radiological survey at CAS 25-25-18. • Perform field screening. • Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine whether contaminants of concern are present. • If contaminants of concern are present, collect additional step

  8. CARNSORE: Hypothetical reactor accident study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of design-basis accident and a series of hypothetical core-melt accidents to a 600 MWe reactor are described and their consequences assessed. The PLUCON 2 model was used to calculate the consequences which are presented in terms of individual and collective doses, as well as early and late health consequences. The site proposed for the nucelar power station is Carnsore Point, County Wexford, south-east Ireland. The release fractions for the accidents described are those given in WASH-1400. The analyses are based on the resident population as given in the 1979 census and on 20 years of data from the meteorological stations at Rosslare Harbour, 8.5 km north of the site. The consequences of one of the hypothetical core-melt accidents are described in detail in a meteorological parametric study. Likewise the consequences of the worst conceivable combination of situations are described. Finally, the release fraction in one accident is varied and the consequences of a proposed, more probable ''Class 9 accident'' are presented. (author)

  9. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Forsmark area. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Forsmark area have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that, even considering remaining uncertainties, the Forsmark area meets all stated safety requirements and preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Forsmark area. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Nevertheless, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry inside the target area would be needed to more firmly define locations of the suitable deposition volumes. There is substantial uncertainty in the Discrete Fracture Network model. Further reduction of the uncertainties, if needed, would probably only be possible from the underground, detailed investigation phase. Efforts need also be spent on improving the DFN-modelling. There are assumptions made in current models that could be challenged and there seems to be room for better use of the borehole information. It is particularly important to

  10. Scoping accident(s) for emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the Conference of State Radiation Control Program Director's (CRCPD), in November 1976 the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission formed a joint Task Force with representatives of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to answer a number of questions posed by the States regarding emergency planning. This Task Force held monthly meetings through November 1977. In December 1977 a draft report was prepared for limited distribution for review and comment by selected State and local organizations. The NRC/EPA Task Force deliberations centered on the CRCPD request for '... a determination of the most severe accident basis for which radiological emergency response plans should be developed by offsite agencies...' in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. Federal Interagency guidance to the States in this regard has been that the scoping accident should be the most serious conservatively analyzed accident considered for siting purposes, as exemplified in the Commission's Regulations at 10 CFR Part 100 and the NRC staffs Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4, and as presented in license applicant's Safety Analysis Reports and the USNRC Staffs Safety Evaluation Reports. The draft report of the Task Force amplifies on this recommendation: to present a clearer picture of its import and introduces the concept of protective action zones (PAZs) within which detailed emergency plans should be developed; one zone for the plume exposure pathway and a second, larger zone for contamination pathways. The time dependence of potential releases and atmospheric transport, and important radionuclide groups of possible import are also discussed in the draft Task Force report. A status report regarding this effort, as of June 1978, will be presented. (author)

  11. Sutton: Archaeological Investigations at the Owl Canyon Site (CA-SBR-3801), Mojave Desert, California

    OpenAIRE

    Basgall, Mark E

    1987-01-01

    Archaeological Investigations at the Owl Canyon Site (CA-SBR-3801), Mojave Desert, California Mark Q. Sutton. Salinas: Coyote Press Archives of California Prehistory No. 9, 1986, 72 pp., 17 figures, 3 Appendices, $3.95 (paper).

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 366: Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrective Action Unit 366 comprises the six corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 11-08-01, Contaminated Waste Dump No.1; (2) 11-08-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2; (3) 11-23-01, Radioactively Contaminated Area A; (4) 11-23-02, Radioactively Contaminated Area B; (5) 11-23-03, Radioactively Contaminated Area C; and (6) 11-23-04, Radioactively Contaminated Area D. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed July 6, 2011, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 366. The presence and nature of contamination at CAU 366 will be evaluated based on information collected from a field investigation. Radiological contamination will be evaluated based on a comparison of the total effective dose (TED) at sample locations to the dose-based final action level (FAL). The TED will be calculated by summing the estimates of internal and external dose. Results from the analysis of soil samples collected from sample plots will be used to calculate internal radiological dose. Thermoluminescent dosimeters placed at each sample location will be used to measure external radiological dose. Based on historical documentation of the releases

  13. Investigation of nonlinear dynamic soil property at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.C.

    2000-01-17

    This document summarizes laboratory dynamic soil testing investigations conducted by the University of Texas at Austin (UTA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) (Stokoe et al., 1995a, Stokoe et al., 1995b, Sponseller and Stokoe, 1995). The purpose of the investigation is to provide an evaluation of past testing results in the context of new test data and the development of consistent site wide models of material strain dependencies based upon geologic formation, depth, and relevant index properties.

  14. Data Summary Report for teh Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulstrom, L.

    2011-02-07

    This data summary report summarizes the investigation results to evaluate the nature and distribution of Hanford Site-related contaminants present in the Columbia River. As detailed in DOE/RL-2008-11, more than 2,000 environmental samples were collected from the Columbia River between 2008 and 2010. These samples consisted of island soil, sediment, surface water, groundwater upwelling (pore water, surface water, and sediment), and fish tissue.

  15. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident means— (a) Any casualty or accident involving any vessel other than a public vessel that— (1) Occurs...

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 190: Contaminated Waste Sites Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2006-12-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 190 is located in Areas 11 and 14 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 190 is comprised of the four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 11-02-01, Underground Centrifuge; (2) 11-02-02, Drain Lines and Outfall; (3) 11-59-01, Tweezer Facility Septic System; and (4) 14-23-01, LTU-6 Test Area. These sites are being investigated because existing information is insufficient on the nature and extent of potential contamination to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI). The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on August 24, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture, and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 190. The scope of the CAU 190 CAI includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling; (2) Conduct radiological and geophysical surveys; (3) Perform field screening; (4) Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present; (5) If COCs are present, collect additional step-out samples to define the lateral and vertical extent of the contamination; (6) Collect samples of source material, if present

  17. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 190: Contaminated Waste Sites Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 190 is located in Areas 11 and 14 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 190 is comprised of the four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 11-02-01, Underground Centrifuge; (2) 11-02-02, Drain Lines and Outfall; (3) 11-59-01, Tweezer Facility Septic System; and (4) 14-23-01, LTU-6 Test Area. These sites are being investigated because existing information is insufficient on the nature and extent of potential contamination to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI). The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on August 24, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture, and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 190. The scope of the CAU 190 CAI includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling; (2) Conduct radiological and geophysical surveys; (3) Perform field screening; (4) Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present; (5) If COCs are present, collect additional step-out samples to define the lateral and vertical extent of the contamination; (6) Collect samples of source material, if present

  18. Geoscientific programme for investigation and evaluation of sites for the deep repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    SKB's goal is to be able to commence site investigations in 2002. Extensive preparations are now being made for this transition to the next phase in the siting process for the deep repository. This report describes the investigation and evaluation programme, which is focused on a deep repository in accordance with the KBS-3 method for spent nuclear fuel. When areas for site investigations have been chosen, the programmes will be adapted to the site-specific conditions. The geoscientific work during the site investigation phase is supposed to provide the broad knowledge base that is required to evaluate the suitability of investigated sites for a deep repository. The material must be comprehensive enough to: show whether the selected site satisfies fundamental safety requirements; permit comparisons with other investigated sites; and serve as a basis for adaptation of the deep repository to the properties and characteristics of the site with an acceptable impact on society and the environment. The work is being carried out in consultation with municipalities, regulatory authorities and nearby residents. The main product of the investigations is a site description, which presents collected data and interpreted parameters that are of importance both for the overall scientific understanding of the site and for the analyses and assessments that are made of design and safety assessment with respect to the deep repository's layout and construction as well as its long-term performance and radiological safety. The site description should furthermore present an integrated description of the site (geosphere and biosphere) and its regional environs with respect to current state and naturally ongoing processes. A technical risk evaluation is carried out, by which is meant a description of uncertainties in calculations and the environmental impact of the civil engineering work. The main product of the safety assessment is a safety report, which analyzes whether long

  19. Geoscientific programme for investigation and evaluation of sites for the deep repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKB's goal is to be able to commence site investigations in 2002. Extensive preparations are now being made for this transition to the next phase in the siting process for the deep repository. This report describes the investigation and evaluation programme, which is focused on a deep repository in accordance with the KBS-3 method for spent nuclear fuel. When areas for site investigations have been chosen, the programmes will be adapted to the site-specific conditions. The geoscientific work during the site investigation phase is supposed to provide the broad knowledge base that is required to evaluate the suitability of investigated sites for a deep repository. The material must be comprehensive enough to: show whether the selected site satisfies fundamental safety requirements; permit comparisons with other investigated sites; and serve as a basis for adaptation of the deep repository to the properties and characteristics of the site with an acceptable impact on society and the environment. The work is being carried out in consultation with municipalities, regulatory authorities and nearby residents. The main product of the investigations is a site description, which presents collected data and interpreted parameters that are of importance both for the overall scientific understanding of the site and for the analyses and assessments that are made of design and safety assessment with respect to the deep repository's layout and construction as well as its long-term performance and radiological safety. The site description should furthermore present an integrated description of the site (geosphere and biosphere) and its regional environs with respect to current state and naturally ongoing processes. A technical risk evaluation is carried out, by which is meant a description of uncertainties in calculations and the environmental impact of the civil engineering work. The main product of the safety assessment is a safety report, which analyzes whether long-term safety

  20. Remedial investigation for the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for management of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. Major goals include eliminating potential public and environmental hazards due to site contamination and releasing the property for alternate uses to the maximum extent practicable. The purpose of the remedial investigation described in this report was to determine the extent of contamination associated with the portion of the Weldon Spring site known as the chemical plant and raffinate pit area. The DOE has assumed responsibility for investigating and remediating all on-site soil contamination and off-site soil which is radiologically contaminated as a result of uranium and thorium processing operations. The DOE has also assumed the responsibility for radiologically contaminated groundwater on and off site. The Weldon Spring site remedial investigation also involved the evaluation of the sources, nature and extent, and environmental fate and transport of contaminants to provide a basis for defining the risks that the contaminants may pose to human health and the environment. Data are included in this report to support the screening of remedial technologies and to permit the development and detailed analysis of alternatives for remedial action at the site during the feasibility study process

  1. Investigation on the Ancient Site Location in the Mesopotamian Region Based on ALOS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ken; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Ushiki, Hisao; Goto, Tomoya

    2008-11-01

    This project aims to investigate the location of ancient Mesopotamian sites in Iraq and to create a distribution map using ALOS data. Iraq is a centre of the ancient Mesopotamian civilization. A distribution map is essential to conduct a prompt investigation and preservation of ancient sites and cultural heritage in Iraq which are at risk of looting and robbery due to the recent Iraqi condition. Firstly this project enables to create Satellite Image Map of Iraq, where the acquisition of detailed map is not possible, based on ALOS Data. The ancient site of Mesopotamia is called "Tell" which is swelled up from the alluvial plain and forms like a hill with the bare land on the surface. Secondly, the estimation of locating ancient site has been undertaken by using the Satellite Image Interpretation method. Finally the locations of the ancient sites and the Satellite Image map are layered to produce the Distribution Map.

  2. Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in north Croatia after the Chernobyl accident

    CERN Document Server

    Franic, Z

    2007-01-01

    Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carps decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs in carps was estimated to be about 1 year for 1987-2002 period and 5 years for 1993-2005 period. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carps has been found to be similar to the ratio that has been observed in other environmental samples. Concentration factor for carps (wet weight) was roughly estimated to be 128 +/- 74 Lkg-1, which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K+ concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective doses received by 134Cs and 137Cs intake due to consumption of carps for an adult member of Croatian population are small, per caput dose for the 1987 - 2005 estimated to be 0.5 +/- 0.2 microSv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps, it can be concluded that carps consumption was no...

  3. Investigations of Aluminum-Doped Self-Healing Zircaloy Surfaces in Context of Accident-Tolerant Fuel Cladding Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, James; Vasudevamurthy, Gokul; Snead, Lance; Hinderliter, Brian; Massey, Caleb

    2016-06-01

    We present here some important results investigating aluminum as an effective surface dopant for increased oxidation resistance of zircaloy nuclear fuel cladding. At first, the transport behavior of aluminum into reactor grade zircaloy was studied using simple diffusion couples at temperatures greater than 770 K. The experiments revealed the formation of tens of microns thick graded Zr-Al layers. The activation energy of aluminum in zircaloy was found to be ~175 kJ/mol (~1.8 eV), indicating the high mobility of aluminum in zircaloy. Subsequently, aluminum sputter-coated zircaloy coupons were heat-treated to achieve surface doping and form compositionally graded layers. These coupons were then tested in steam environments at 1073 and 1273 K. The microstructure of the as-fabricated and steam-corroded specimens was compared to those of pure zircaloy control specimens. Analysis of data revealed that aluminum effectively competed with zircaloy for oxygen up until 1073 K blocking oxygen penetration, with no traces of large scale spalling, indicating mechanically stable interfaces and surfaces. At the highest steam test temperatures, aluminum was observed to segregate from the Zr-Al alloy under layers and migrate to the surface forming discrete clusters. Although this is perceived as an extremely desirable phenomenon, in the current experiments, oxygen was observed to penetrate into the zirconium-rich under layers, which could be attributed to formation of surface defects such as cracks in the surface alumina layers.

  4. Estimating the Influence of Accident Related Factors on Motorcycle Fatal Accidents using Logistic Regression (Case Study: Denpasar-Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedagama D.M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Denpasar the capital of Bali Province, motorcycle accident contributes to about 80% of total road accidents. Out of those motorcycle accidents, 32% are fatal accidents. This study investigates the influence of accident related factors on motorcycle fatal accidents in the city of Denpasar during period 2006-2008 using a logistic regression model. The study found that the fatality of collision with pedestrians and right angle accidents were respectively about 0.44 and 0.40 times lower than collision with other vehicles and accidents due to other factors. In contrast, the odds that a motorcycle accident will be fatal due to collision with heavy and light vehicles were 1.67 times more likely than with other motorcycles. Collision with pedestrians, right angle accidents, and heavy and light vehicles were respectively accounted for 31%, 29%, and 63% of motorcycle fatal accidents.

  5. The Role of Countermeasures in Mitigating the Radiological Consequences of Nuclear Power Plant Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the Fukushima accident the mitigation actions played an important role to decrease the consequences of the accident. The countermeasures are the actions that should be taken after the occurrence of a nuclear accident to protect the public against the associated risk. The actions may be represented by sheltering, evacuation, distribution of stable iodine tablets and/or relocation. This study represents a comprehensive probabilistic study to investigate the role of the adoption of the countermeasures in case of a hypothetical accident of type LOCA for a nuclear power plant of PWR (1000 Mw) type. This work was achieved through running of the PC COSYMA(1) code. The effective doses in different organs, short and long term health effects, and the associated risks were calculated with and without countermeasures. In addition, the overall costs of the accident and the costs of countermeasures are estimated which represent our first trials to know how much the postulated accident costs. The source term of a hypothetical accident is determined by knowing the activity of the core inventory. The meteorological conditions around the site in addition to the population distribution were utilized as input parameters. The stability conditions and the height of atmospheric boundary layers ABL of the concerned site were determined by developing a computer program utilizing Pasquill-Gifford atmospheric stability conditions. The results showed that, the area around the site requires early and late countermeasures actions after the accident especially in the downwind sectors. For late countermeasures, the duration of relocation ranged from about two to 10 years. The adoption of the countermeasures increases the costs of emergency planning by 40% but reduces the risk associated with the accident. (author)

  6. Computational investigation of stoichiometric effects, binding site heterogeneities, and selectivities of molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracina, Jacob J; Bergkvist, Magnus; Sharfstein, Susan T

    2016-06-01

    A series of quantum mechanical (QM) computational optimizations of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) systems were used to determine optimal monomer-to-target ratios. Imidazole- and xanthine-derived target molecules were studied. The investigation included both small-scale models (3-7 molecules) and larger-scale models (15-35 molecules). The optimal ratios differed between the small and larger scales. For the larger models containing multiple targets, binding-site surface area analysis was used to quantify the heterogeneity of these sites. The more fully surrounded sites had greater binding energies. No discretization of binding modes was seen, furthering arguments for continuous affinity distribution models. Molecular mechanical (MM) docking was then used to measure the selectivities of the QM-optimized binding sites. Selectivity was also shown to improve as binding sites become more fully encased by the monomers. For internal sites, docking consistently showed selectivity favoring the molecules that had been imprinted via QM geometry optimizations. The computationally imprinted sites were shown to exhibit size-, shape-, and polarity-based selectivity. Here we present a novel approach to investigate the selectivity and heterogeneity of imprinted polymer binding sites, by applying the rapid orientation screening of MM docking to the highly accurate QM-optimized geometries. Modeling schemes were designed such that no computing clusters or other specialized modeling equipment would be required. Improving the in silico analysis of MIP system properties will ultimately allow for the production of more sensitive and selective polymers. PMID:27207254

  7. Radiation accident/disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described are the course of medical measures following Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) Accident after the quake and tsunami (Mar. 11, 2011) and the future task for radiation accident/disaster. By the first hydrogen explosion in FNPP (Mar. 12), evacuation of residents within 20 km zone was instructed, and the primary base for measures of nuclear disaster (Off-site Center) 5 km afar from FNPP had to work as a front base because of damage of communicating ways, of saving of injured persons and of elevation of dose. On Mar. 13, the medical arrangement council consisting from stuff of Fukushima Medical University (FMU), National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Safety Research Association and Prefectural officers was setup in residents' hall of Fukushima City, and worked for correspondence to persons injured or exposed, where communication about radiation and between related organizations was still poor. The Off-site Center's head section moved to Prefectural Office on Mar. 15 as headquarters. Early in the period, all residents evacuated from the 20 km zone, and in-hospital patients and nursed elderly were transported with vehicles, >50 persons of whom reportedly died mainly by their base diseases. The nation system of medicare for emergent exposure had consisted from the network of the primary to third facilities; there were 5 facilities in the Prefecture, 3 of which were localized at 4-9 km distance from FNPP and closed early after the Accident; and the secondary facility of FMU became responsible to all exposed persons. There was no death of workers of FNPP. Medical stuff also measured the ambient dose at various places near FNPP, having had risk of exposure. At the Accident, the important system of command, control and communication was found fragile and measures hereafter should be planned on assumption of the worst scenario of complete damage of the infrastructure and communication. It is desirable for Disaster Medical Assistance Team which

  8. The accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed

  9. Serious accident in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A peruvian man, victim of an important accidental irradiation arrived on the Saturday twenty ninth of may 1999 to the centre of treatment of serious burns at the Percy military hospital (Clamart -France). The accident spent on the twentieth of February 1999, on the site of a hydroelectric power plant, in construction at 300 km at the East of Lima. The victim has picked up an industrial source of iridium devoted to gamma-graphy operations and put it in his back pocket; of trousers. The workman has serious radiation burns. (N.C.)

  10. Dementia and Traffic Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jindong Ding; Siersma, Volkert; Nielsen, Connie Thurøe;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic......-related accidents for people aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of dementia in Denmark. METHODS: We will conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study consisting of Danish people aged 65 or older living in Denmark as of January 1, 2008. The cohort is followed for 7 years (2008-2014). Individual's personal...... data are available in Danish registers and can be linked using a unique personal identification number. A person is identified with dementia if the person meets at least one of the following criteria: (1) a diagnosis of the disease in the Danish National Patient Register or in the Danish Psychiatric...

  11. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site, Knoxville, Tennessee: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This remedial investigation (RI)/feasibility study (FS) supports the selection of remedial actions for the David Witherspoon, Inc. 901 Maryville Pike Site in Knoxville, Tennessee. Operations at the site, used as a recycling center, have resulted in past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances in to the environment. This Site is a Tennessee Superfund site. A phased approach was planned to (1) gather existing data from previous investigations managed by the Tenn. Dept. of Environment and Conservation; (2) perform a preliminary RI, including risk assessments, and an FS with existing data to identify areas where remedial action may be necessary; (3) gather additional field data to adequately define the nature and extent of risk-based contaminants that present identifiable threats to human and/or ecological receptors; and (4) develop remedial action alternatives to reduce risks to acceptable levels

  12. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site, Knoxville, Tennessee: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This remedial investigation (RI)/feasibility study (FS) supports the selection of remedial actions for the David Witherspoon, Inc. 901 Maryville Pike Site in Knoxville, Tennessee. Operations at the site, used as a recycling center, have resulted in past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances in to the environment. This Site is a Tennessee Superfund site. A phased approach was planned to (1) gather existing data from previous investigations managed by the Tenn. Dept. of Environment and Conservation; (2) perform a preliminary RI, including risk assessments, and an FS with existing data to identify areas where remedial action may be necessary; (3) gather additional field data to adequately define the nature and extent of risk-based contaminants that present identifiable threats to human and/or ecological receptors; and (4) develop remedial action alternatives to reduce risks to acceptable levels.

  13. Trend of Elevator-Related Accidents in Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Khaji; Syyed Mohammad Ghodsi

    2014-01-01

    Background:   Elevator-related accidents are uncommon, but can cause significant injury. However, little data exist on these types of accidents. To compile and analyze accident data involving elevators in an effort to eliminate or at least significantly reduce such accidents. Methods: In this retrospective study we investigated 1,819 cases of elevator-related accidents during a four-year period (1999-2003) in Tehran. The data were obtained from the Tehran Safety Services & Fire Fighting Organ...

  14. A trial product of a new safety belt for a wheelchair user and its evaluation based on the actual investigation of fall accidents related to wheelchairs in a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Teuko; Matsuoka, Megumi; Toyoda, Mitsuko; Maie, Kazuo

    2009-12-01

    Old-aged patients, especially when they cannot keep stable sitting postures on wheelchairs, may get hurts seriously by falls. Preventing fall accidents is one of the most important subjects for keeping ADL of old-aged persons. We investigated the fall accidents related to from wheelchairs that occurred in a hospital (Asao General Hospital of Rehabilitation), and tried to make a new type of safety belts for old-aged wheelchair users based on the investigation. The results of trials using the product was evaluated by the care givers. The number of fall accidents in the hospital amounted to 226 cases within a year. It is noticed that the patients removed their belts by themselves intentionally or unintentionally, which is the most important point of the accidents. The evaluators of new belts were 91 care givers. The evaluation items were (1) the convenience for caregivers to fasten and remove the belts, (2) the ability of holding the patient on the wheelchair, (3) the safeness to prevent the fall from wheelchair (including the disability of removing a belt by the user), (4) the appearance when the usually used belts and the new belts were used, and only for the new belts, (5) the hygienic aspect and (6) the utility of the pocket. The new belts got better marks than the usually used belts. We intend to further improve the trial product (new belt) to be safer, more effective and more comfortable, based on the evaluation.

  15. Investigation regarding the long-term security developments in the Swedish nuclear power and the response to the accident at Fukushima; Utredning avseende den laangsiktiga saekerhetsutvecklingen i den svenska kaernkraften och aatgaerder med anledning av olyckan i Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaanberg, Lars

    2012-07-01

    Swedish nuclear plants need to continue to work on analysis and actions in the plants, partly to meet the demands of legislation and agreed action plans, and partly due to additional security requirements on account of experiences from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, stress tests, security investigations and investigations relating to physical protection. It is also essential to continue with safety improvements to gradually increase margins against unforeseen events in aging plants during long-term operation.

  16. An investigation of site diversity and comparison with ITU-R recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, S. A.; Boyes, B.; Couchman, A.; Waight, J.; Walden, C. J.; Ventouras, S.

    2008-08-01

    Earth-space radio systems operating at frequencies of 10 GHz and above are badly attenuated by rain, cloud, and atmospheric gases. As the frequencies of operational systems increase, it becomes increasingly uneconomic to compensate for the effects of fading through the use of a fixed fade margin, hence the implementation of fade mitigation techniques (FMT). The spatial and temporal variation of rain provides the justification for the use of site diversity as an FMT. Site diversity employs two or more ground stations receiving the same satellite signal with a separation distance such that the sites encounter intense rainfall at different times, and switching to the site experiencing the least fading improves system performance considerably. Measurements of the 20.7 GHz beacon carried as part of the Global Broadcast Service (GBS) payload on the U.S. Department of Defense satellite UFO-9 have been made at three sites: two are located in the South of England (˜8 km apart), and the third receiver was located in Scotland. These beacon measurements have produced long term attenuation exceedance and site diversity gain and improvement statistics. This attenuation time series data can simulate the performance of an Earth-space system using site diversity, indicating the optimum method of implementing this FMT. In this paper, unbalanced site diversity is investigated, as this is a more likely scenario than the balanced site diversity modeled by the ITU-R recommendations. This paper also investigates the implementation of site diversity from a commercial context, including cost-benefit analysis and technical feasibility.

  17. Radioactive materials transport accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSweeney, T.I.; Maheras, S.J.; Ross, S.B. [Battelle Memorial Inst. (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Over the last 25 years, one of the major issues raised regarding radioactive material transportation has been the risk of severe accidents. While numerous studies have shown that traffic fatalities dominate the risk, modeling the risk of severe accidents has remained one of the most difficult analysis problems. This paper will show how models that were developed for nuclear spent fuel transport accident analysis can be adopted to obtain estimates of release fractions for other types of radioactive material such as vitrified highlevel radioactive waste. The paper will also show how some experimental results from fire experiments involving low level waste packaging can be used in modeling transport accident analysis with this waste form. The results of the analysis enable an analyst to clearly show the differences in the release fractions as a function of accident severity. The paper will also show that by placing the data in a database such as ACCESS trademark, it is possible to obtain risk measures for transporting the waste forms along proposed routes from the generator site to potential final disposal sites.

  18. Investigation of the metal binding site in methionine aminopeptidase by density functional theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne Techau; Norrby, Per-Ola; Liljefors, Tommy

    2002-01-01

    All methionine aminopeptidases exhibit the same conserved metal binding site. The structure of this site with either Co2+ ions or Zn2+ ions was investigated using density functional theory. The calculations showed that the structure of the site was not influenced by the identity of the metal ions....... This was the case for both of the systems studied; one based on the X-ray structure of the human methionine aminopeptidase type 2 (hMetAP-2) and the other based on the X-ray structure of the E. coli methionine aminopeptidase type 1 (eMetAP-1). Another important structural issue is the identity of the bridging...

  19. Accident consequence assessment code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the new computer code system, OSCAAR developed for off-site consequence assessment of a potential nuclear accident. OSCAAR consists of several modules which have modeling capabilities in atmospheric transport, foodchain transport, dosimetry, emergency response and radiological health effects. The major modules of the consequence assessment code are described, highlighting the validation and verification of the models. (author)

  20. Single-Site Palladium(II) Catalyst for Oxidative Heck Reaction: Catalytic Performance and Kinetic Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Hui; Li, Mengyang; Zhang, Guanghui; Gallagher, James R.; Huang, Zhiliang; Sun, Yu; Luo, Zhong; Chen, Hongzhong; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Zou, Ruqiang; Lei, Aiwen; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The development of organometallic single-site catalysts (SSCs) has inspired the designs of new heterogeneous catalysts with high efficiency. Nevertheless, the application of SSCs in certain modern organic reactions, such as C-C bond formation reactions, has still been less investigated. In this study, a single-site Pd(II) catalyst was developed, where 2,2'-bipyridine-grafted periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) was employed as the support of a Pd(II) complex. The overall performance of the single-site Pd(II) catalyst in the oxidative Heck reaction was then investigated. The investigation results show that the catalyst displays over 99% selectivity for the product formation with high reaction yield. Kinetic profiles further confirm its high catalytic efficiency, showing that the rate constant is nearly 40 times higher than that for the free Pd(II) salt. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals that the catalyst has remarkable lifetime and recyclability.

  1. Application of a waste disposal site investigation programme based on safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented is the procedure which led to the definition of a site investigation programme for a low and intermediate level waste repository in Switzerland. The potential site at Oberbauenstock is used as an example. On the basis of site specific data collected for past tunnelling projects, a respository safety analysis was carried out for the feasibility study, Projekt Gewaehr 1985. The input data were chosen from the conservative ends of the possible ranges. The effect of using the total ranges was qualitatively estimated. With the results from the long term safety analysis, the most relevant parameters were defined: the lower boundary of the host rock, the hydraulic properties of the host rock (shear zones and rock matrix) and the hydraulic properties of the decompressed zone around the caverns and tunnels. The requirements for measuring these parameters were compared with the available techniques for site investigations. The needs of safety/performance analyses, logistic aspects, and political and administrative boundary conditions determined the sequence of investigations. This formed the basis of the formulation of a site investigation programme. For Oberbauenstock most investigations into the host rock will be carried out from underground workings, i.e. motorway and annex tunnels. The investigations comprise surface geology and hydrogeology, geophysics in existing tunnels, a deep borehole to investigate the lower boundary of the host rock, and short boreholes for hydraulic and geophysical measurements of the hydraulic properties of both host rock and decompressed zone. In Phase 2, a pilot tunnel and more in situ experiments are planned; the detailed programme will be specified according to the results of the Phase 1 investigations. (author)

  2. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in deep continental geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the earth-science investigations and associated scientific studies that may be needed to select a repository site and confirm that its characteristics are such that it will provide a safe confinement for solidified high-level and alpha-bearing and certain other solid radioactive wastes. Site investigations, as used in this report, cover earth sciences and associated safety analyses. Other site-investigation activities are identified but not otherwise considered here. The repositories under consideration are those consisting of mined cavities in deep continental rocks for accepting wastes in the solid and packaged form. The term deep as used in this report is used solely to emphasize the distinction between the repositories discussed in this report and those for shallow-ground disposal. In general, depths under consideration here are greater than 200 metres. The term continental refers to those geological formations that occur either beneath present-day land masses and adjoining islands or beneath the shallow seas. One of the objectives of site investigations is to collect the site-specific data necessary for the different evaluations, such as modelling required to assess the long-term safety of an underground repository

  3. AECL strategy for surface-based investigations of potential disposal sites and the development of a geosphere model for a site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to summarize AECL's strategy for surface-based geotechnical site investigations used in screening and evaluating candidate areas and candidate sites for a nuclear fuel waste repository and for the development of geosphere models of sites. The report is one of several prepared by national nuclear fuel waste management programs for the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) to provide international background on site investigations for SKB's R and D programme on siting.The scope of the report is limited to surface-based investigations of the geosphere, those done at surface or in boreholes drilled from surface. The report discusses AECL's investigation strategy and the methods proposed for use in surface-based reconnaissance and detailed site investigations at potential repository sites. Site investigations done for AECL's Underground Research Laboratory are used to illustrate the approach. The report also discusses AECL's strategy for developing conceptual and mathematical models of geological conditions at sites and the use of these models in developing a model (Geosphere Model) for use in assessing the performance of the disposal system after a repository is closed. Models based on the site data obtained at the URL are used to illustrate the approach. Finally, the report summarizes the lessons learned from AECL's R and D program on site investigations and mentions some recent developments in the R and D program. 120 refs, 33 figs, 7 tabs

  4. Risk and protection factors in fatal accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Emmanuelle; Martensen, Heike; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2010-03-01

    This paper aims at addressing the interest and appropriateness of performing accident severity analyses that are limited to fatal accident data. Two methodological issues are specifically discussed, namely the accident-size factors (the number of vehicles in the accident and their level of occupancy) and the comparability of the baseline risk. It is argued that - although these two issues are generally at play in accident severity analyses - their effects on, e.g., the estimation of survival probability, are exacerbated if the analysis is limited to fatal accident data. As a solution, it is recommended to control for these effects by (1) including accident-size indicators in the model, (2) focusing on different sub-groups of road-users while specifying the type of opponent in the model, so as to ensure that comparable baseline risks are worked with. These recommendations are applied in order to investigate risk and protection factors of car occupants involved in fatal accidents using data from a recently set up European Fatal Accident Investigation database (Reed and Morris, 2009). The results confirm that the estimated survival probability is affected by accident-size factors and by type of opponent. The car occupants' survival chances are negatively associated with their own age and that of their vehicle. The survival chances are also lower when seatbelt is not used. Front damage, as compared to other damaged car areas, appears to be associated with increased survival probability, but mostly in the case in which the accident opponent was another car. The interest of further investigating accident-size factors and opponent effects in fatal accidents is discussed. PMID:20159090

  5. Effects on accidents of changes in the use of studded tyres in major cities in Norway: a long-term investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvik, Rune; Fridstrøm, Lasse; Kaminska, Joanna; Meyer, Sunniva Frislid

    2013-05-01

    This paper reports the findings of two studies made eleven years apart in Norway (Fridstrøm, 2000; Elvik and Kaminska, 2011) to evaluate effects on accidents of changes in the use of studded tyres in major cities in Norway. The first study covered the period from 1991 to 2000, the second study covered the period from 2002 to 2009. In both these periods, large changes in the percentage of cars using studded tyres were found in the cities that were included in the study. There was, in most cities, a tendency for the use of studded tyres to go down. Effects of these changes on injury accidents were evaluated by means of negative binomial regression models, using city and day as the unit of analysis, and including more than twenty explanatory variables in order to control for confounding factors. The effects of changes in the percentage of cars using studded tyres were well described by an accident modification function (dose-response curve), relating the size of changes in the number of accident to the size of the change in the use of studded tyres. Accidents during the season when the use of studded tyres is permitted were found to increase by about 5 percent if the use of studded tyres was reduced by 25 percentage points (e.g. from 50 to 25 percent) and to decline by about 2 percent when the use of studded tyres increased by 20 percentage points. PMID:23474233

  6. Work plan addendum for the remedial investigation and feasibility study of the Salmon Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document is intended as an addendum to the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work Plan for the Salmon Site (SS) (formerly the Tatum Dome Test Site) Lamar County, Mississippi. The original work plan - Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study of the Tatum Dome Test Site, Lamar County, Mississippi (herein after called the Work Plan) was approved by the state of Mississippi in 1992 and was intended as the operative document for investigative activities at the Tatum Dome Test Site. Subsequent to the approval of the document a series of activities were undertaken under the auspices of the work plan. This document is organized in the same manner as the original work plan: (1) Introduction; (2) Site Background and History; (3) Initial Evaluation; (4) Data Quality Objectives; (5) RI/FS Tasks; (6) Project Schedule; (7) Project Management; and (8) Reference. This addendum will identify changes to the original work plan that are necessary because of additional information acquired at the SS. This document is not intended to replace the work plan, rather, it is intended to focus the remaining work in the context of additional site knowledge gained since the development of the original work plan. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a focused and phased site characterization as a part, of the RI/FS. The RI/FS is the methodology under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) for evaluating hazardous waste sites on the National Priorities List (NPL). The SS is not listed on the NPL, but DOE has voluntarily elected to conduct the evaluation of the SS in accordance with CERCLA.

  7. Modeling secondary accidents identified by traffic shock waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junhua, Wang; Boya, Liu; Lanfang, Zhang; Ragland, David R

    2016-02-01

    The high potential for occurrence and the negative consequences of secondary accidents make them an issue of great concern affecting freeway safety. Using accident records from a three-year period together with California interstate freeway loop data, a dynamic method for more accurate classification based on the traffic shock wave detecting method was used to identify secondary accidents. Spatio-temporal gaps between the primary and secondary accident were proven be fit via a mixture of Weibull and normal distribution. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate major factors contributing to secondary accident occurrence. Traffic shock wave speed and volume at the occurrence of a primary accident were explicitly considered in the model, as a secondary accident is defined as an accident that occurs within the spatio-temporal impact scope of the primary accident. Results show that the shock waves originating in the wake of a primary accident have a more significant impact on the likelihood of a secondary accident occurrence than the effects of traffic volume. Primary accidents with long durations can significantly increase the possibility of secondary accidents. Unsafe speed and weather are other factors contributing to secondary crash occurrence. It is strongly suggested that when police or rescue personnel arrive at the scene of an accident, they should not suddenly block, decrease, or unblock the traffic flow, but instead endeavor to control traffic in a smooth and controlled manner. Also it is important to reduce accident processing time to reduce the risk of secondary accident. PMID:26687540

  8. ASTEC investigations of severe core damage behaviour of VVER-1000 in case of loss of coolant accident along with Station-Black-Out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groudev, Pavlin, E-mail: pavlinpg@inrne.bas.bg [INRNE – BAS, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Atanasova, Boryana [INRNE – BAS, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Chatterjee, Barun; Lele, Hemant G. [BARC, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Reactor Safety Division, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2014-06-01

    Severe accident analysis of a reactor is an important aspect for evaluation of source term. Analyses have been carried out for VVER-1000 V320 reactor following LOCA along with Station-Black-Out using the severe accident code ASTEC. The predictions of different severe accident parameters like vessel rupture time, hydrogen and corium production and radioactivity release to containment have been compared for three break sizes. Since these predictions are dependent on different core degradation parameters and models, a sensitivity analysis is also carried out to study the effect of different core degradation parameters and models on severe core damage progression. LOCA analyses show a variation of degradation parameters which is a consequence of steam-rich and steam-starved conditions. All these calculations of VVER-1000 scenarios show that the ASTEC V2 code gives reliable and consistent results on this type of reactor, including its specifics like Zr1%Nb clad material and horizontal steam generators.

  9. The Chernobyl accident consequences; Consequences de l'accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  10. Argonne's Expedited Site Characterization: An integrated approach to cost- and time-effective remedial investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a methodology for remedial site investigation that has proven to be both technically superior to and more cost- and time-effective than traditional methods. This methodology is referred to as the Argonne Expedited Site Characterization (ESC). Quality is the driving force within the process. The Argonne ESC process is abbreviated only in time and cost and never in terms of quality. More usable data are produced with the Argonne ESC process than with traditional site characterization methods that are based on statistical-grid sampling and multiple monitoring wells. This paper given an overview of the Argonne ESC process and compares it with traditional methods for site characterization. Two examples of implementation of the Argonne ESC process are discussed to illustrate the effectiveness of the process in CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) and RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) programs

  11. Savannah River Site RCRA Facility Investigation plan: Road A Chemical Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of wastes disposed of at the Road A Chemical Basin (RACB) is such that some degree of soil contamination is probable. Lead has also been detected in site monitoring wells at concentrations above SRS background levels. A RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI) is proposed for the RACB and will include a ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey, collection and chemical and radiological analyses of soil cores, installation of groundwater monitoring wells, collection and chemical and radiological analyses of groundwater samples, and collection of chemical and radiological analyses of surface water and sediment samples. Upon completion of the proposed RFI field work and chemical and radiological analyses, and RFI report should be prepared to present conclusions on the nature and extent of contamination at the site, and to make recommendations for site remediation. If contamination is detected at concentrations above SRS background levels, a receptor analysis should be done to evaluate potential impacts of site contamination on nearby populations

  12. Investigation of the geology of the low-level radioactive waste burial site at Drigg, Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geology of the low-level solid radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg, Cumbria has been investigated on the basis of a number of shallow excavations and 35 boreholes. The glacial sequence varies from 10 to 42 m in thickness and ranges from coarse sands and gravels to compact boulder clays. These overlie an irregular surface of St Bees Sandstone which probably contains a deep-erosion channel. The site is underlain by at least one boulder clay horizon. Clays restrict the direct downward movement of surface infiltration into the deeper permeable sands and gravels considered to be in hydraulic continuity with the St Bees Sandstone, but give rise to perched water tables in which lateral flow may occur. The streams which traverse the site are potentially influent throughout their length and may lose water to sand and peat deposits where these exist in the south-western part of the site. (author)

  13. Investigation into the feasibility of wind as an alternate energy resource at selected North Georgia sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, D.L.

    1982-10-26

    Anemometers were placed at four selected sites in North Georgia during the period July, 1980, to June, 1982. Regular wind speed readings were taken using accumulating recorders and average daily wind speeds calculated for each location. Three wind speed categories were determined: (a) average below 7 mph; (b) average between 7 and 25 mph; (c) average above 25 mph. One site was abandoned after seven months due to lack of expected wind; another site was closed after 4.5 months due to continuing excessive and damaging winds. Two sites were determined, after 12 to 20 months of data collecting respectively, to have sufficient wind resources in a usable time pattern to merit further investigation.

  14. Liuzhou city from 2006 to 2014 epidemiological characteristics of serious road traffic accident investigation%2006~2014年柳州市重大道路交通事故流行病学特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华; 李兵; 黄福文; 杨家有; 汤中飞; 邓旺生; 陆菊; 阮海林

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查分析柳州市重大道路交通事故发生的特点及规律,为控制和预防道路交通创伤提供科学依据。方法回顾性分析2006~2014年柳州市重大道路交通事故监测统计资料。结果(1)2006~2014年柳州市重大道路交通事故发生例数、死亡人数、受伤人数呈总体下降趋势。以1月份发生事故最多,占事故总数的11.5%;6月份发生事故最少,为6.8%。夜间19:00~23:00时事故发生最多,凌晨3:00~6:00时发生最少。(2)重大道路交通事故多数发生在平直道路上。(3)白天发生事故最多,夜间无路灯照明的路段事故伤亡和受伤人数明显高于夜间有路灯照明的路段。(4)重大道路交通事故发生的主要原因为人为因素,占总数的96.7%。结论减少重大道路交通事故发生,必须加强交通安全宣传、教育,提高全民安全意识;交管部门严格执法,尤其要加强交通事故高发时段、路段的管理;加强道路安全设施建设,改善交通环境。%Objective Investigation and analysis of Liuzhou significant characteristics and law of road traffic acci‐dents ,which will provide a scientific basis for control and prevention of road traffic trauma . Methods From 2006 to 2014 were retrospectively analyzed to collect statistics of serious road traffic accidents monitoring . Results (1)Liuzhou serious road traffic accident cases ,the number of deaths ,injury in the overall downward trend ,most ac‐cidents in January ,accounted for 11.5% of total number of accidents ,accidents in June at least (6 .8% ) .Most clearly 19 :00~23 :00 when the accident happened at night ,there was at least 3 :00~6:00 in the morning .(2)The most serious road traffic accident happened on the straight path .(3)Accidents occur most often during the day and night with no street lamp lighting significantly better than the number of road accident casualties and injuries have

  15. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory - feasibility and usefulness of site investigation methods. Experiences from the pre-investigation phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almen, K.E. [ed.] [KEA GEO-Konsult (Sweden); Olsson, Paer [SKANSKA, (Sweden); Rhen, I. [VBB VIAK AB, Malmoe (Sweden); Stanfors, R. [RS Consulting, (Sweden); Wikberg, P. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1994-08-01

    One of the main goals set up by SKB for the Aespoe HRL project is to `test the quality and appropriateness of different methods for characterizing the bedrock with respect to conditions of importance for a final repository`. An extensive investigation programme was carried out during the projects pre-investigation phase that in part was based in experience from SKBs previous site investigations and in part entailed the testing of new or other unestablished methods. Previous technical reports have described the methods that have been used and the results, models and predictions that have been produced. All the methods used are discussed in the present report in terms of how they have contributed in different analysis stages to the total geoscientific characterization of the rock at Aespoe. The usefulness of each method for modelling and prediction in different scales is evaluated, and aspects of the practical execution of the methods under different conditions are discussed. The report sheds light on the importance of dividing large investigation programmes such as this one into suitable stages to get an opportunity to evaluate the results obtained and plan in detail the investigations in the next stage. Furthermore, the way in which the characterization/modelling work in different geometric scales has been done for the different investigation stages is discussed, along with whether this has been found to be a suitable approach. The importance of pursuing an interdisciplinary strategy throughout the pre-investigation process cannot be overemphasized. For the planning, execution, analysis and reporting of the results of the pre-investigations, this has been guaranteed by an organization in which an interdisciplinary group has been in charge of the investigations, together with the project manager. 52 refs, numerous tabs and figs.

  16. Learning of the subject: Methodology of investigation by means of a Site Web.

    OpenAIRE

    Yolanda Margarita Carbonell Cabarga; Elizabeth Iparraguirre Carbonell; Irán Modesto Iparraguirre Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Results of an investigation are presented having as an objective: the design of a Web Site for the learning of Methodology of Investigation subject in Psychology Bachelor of the Municipal University of Sancti Spíritus. This study was carried out in students of psychology career who were facing first year. Methods of the theoretical and empiric level were applied as well as the Mathematical Statistic. In the diagnosis was possible to appreciate the ignorance regarding the use of the methodo...

  17. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 551: Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 551, Area 12 muckpiles, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the 'Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 551 is located in Area 12 of the NTS, which is approximately 110 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Area 12 is approximately 40 miles beyond the main gate to the NTS. Corrective Action Unit 551 is comprised of the four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) 12-01-09, Aboveground Storage Tank and Stain; (2) 12-06-05, Muckpile; (3) 12-06-07, Muckpile; and (4) 12-06-08, Muckpile. Corrective Action Site 12-01-09 is located in Area 12 and consists of an above ground storage tank (AST) and associated stain. Corrective Action Site 12-06-05 is located in Area 12 and consists of a muckpile associated with the U12 B-Tunnel. Corrective Action Site 12-06-07 is located in Area 12 and consists of a muckpile associated with the U12 C-, D-, and F-Tunnels. Corrective Action Site 12-06-08 is located in Area 12 and consists of a muckpile associated with the U12 B-Tunnel. In keeping with common convention, the U12B-, C-, D-, and F-Tunnels will be referred to as the B-, C-, D-, and F-Tunnels. The corrective action investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, and sampling of media, where appropriate. Data will also be obtained to support waste management decisions

  18. Accidents Preventive Practice for High-Rise Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Goh Kai Chen; Goh Hui Hwang; Omar Mohd Faizal; Toh Tien Choon; Mohd Zin Abdullah Asuhaimi

    2016-01-01

    The demand of high-rise projects continues to grow due to the reducing of usable land area in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The rapidly development of high-rise projects has leaded to the rise of fatalities and accidents. An accident that happened in a construction site can cause serious physical injury. The accidents such as people falling from height and struck by falling object were the most frequent accidents happened in Malaysian construction industry. The continuous growth of high-rise buildi...

  19. Remedial investigation and feasibility study for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 Pit 7 Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taffet, M.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Oberdorfer, J.A. (San Jose State Univ., CA (USA)); McIlvride, W.A. (Weiss Associates, Oakland, CA (USA))

    1989-10-01

    This report summarizes the results and conclusions of the investigation of tritium and other compounds in ground water in the vicinity of landfills at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 Pit 7 Complex. 91 refs., 110 figs., 43 tabs.

  20. ERDA test facilities, East Mesa Test Site. Geothermal resource investigations, Imperial Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Detailed specifications which must be complied with in the construction of the ERDA Test Facilities at the East Mesa Site for geothermal resource investigations in Imperial Valley, California are presented for use by prospective bidders for the construction contract. The principle construction work includes a 700 gpm cooling tower with its associated supports and equipment, pipelines from wells, electrical equipment, and all earthwork. (LCL)

  1. Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River - 13603

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In south-central Washington State, the Columbia River flows through the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. A primary objective of the Hanford Site cleanup mission is protection of the Columbia River, through remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater that resulted from its weapons production mission. Within the Columbia River system, surface water, sediment, and biota samples related to potential Hanford Site hazardous substance releases have been collected since the start of Hanford operations. The impacts from release of Hanford Site radioactive substances to the Columbia River in areas upstream, within, and downstream of the Hanford Site boundary have been previously investigated as mandated by the U.S. Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act. The Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River [1] was issued in 2008 to initiate assessment of the impacts under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 [2]. The work plan established a phased approach to characterize contaminants, assess current risks, and determine whether or not there is a need for any cleanup actions. Field investigation activities over a 120-mile stretch of the Columbia River began in October 2008 and were completed in 2010. Sampled media included surface water, pore water, surface and core sediment, island soil, and fish (carp, walleye, whitefish, sucker, small-mouth bass, and sturgeon). Information and sample results from the field investigation were used to characterize current conditions within the Columbia River and assess whether current conditions posed a risk to ecological or human receptors that would merit additional study or response actions under CERCLA. The human health and ecological risk assessments are documented in reports that were published in 2012 [3, 4]. Conclusions from the risk assessment reports are being summarized and integrated with remedial investigation

  2. Consequences of radioactive releases into the sea resulting from the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant - Evolution of expert investigation according to the data available

    OpenAIRE

    Laguionie, Philippe; Bailly du Bois, Pascal; Boust, D.; Fievet, B.; Garreau, Pierre; Connan, O.; Charmasson, Sabine; Arnaud, M; Duffa, Celine; Champion, D.

    2012-01-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in March 2011 led to an unprecedented direct input of artificial radioactivity into the marine environment. The Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety was requested by the French authorities to investigate the radioecological impact of this input, in particular the potential contamination of products of marine origin used for human consumption. This article describes the close link between the responses provided and ...

  3. Investigation of rations of food of population and content of cesium radionuclides in foodstuffs and organism of farmers in Bryansk region after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on dynamic content of cesium radionuclide in different foodstuffs and in organism of mature inhabitants were presented. Right after Chernobyl accident content of 137Cs in organism correlated with consumption of milk and meet products. For some time past content of 137Cs in organism correlated with levels of consumption of natural foodstuffs (mushrooms, berries, fishes, wilderness)

  4. 矿用重型汽车作业现场碰撞事故模糊故障树分析%Fuzzy fault tree analysis on operating on-site collision accident of mine heavy vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟爱国; 庄红军; 王池

    2011-01-01

    矿用重型汽车作业现场碰撞事故属于安全生产重大事故,本文根据现场的事故案例运用事故树分析方法,解析出69个导致碰撞事故发生的最小割集.借助于故障树结构重要度,找出对运输碰撞事故系统里底事件中的主要诱发因素,识别出系统关键节点的危险性,寻求预防同类碰撞事故发生的各种有效措施.由于构成割集的底事件本身就带就有一定的模糊性,所以运用模糊数学方法克服了传统的故障树分析方法中确定底事件发生概率的困难,为解决故障树种的模糊性问题提供了一种研究思路,在管理资源有限的条件下,为矿用重型汽车运行安全评价和安全管理提供可靠的保障.%Operating on-site collision accident of mine heavy vehicles is a serious production safety accident. despite such incidents are not frequent but still occur in production. According to the on-site accident case FTA was applied to, parse out 69 minimum cut set in the collision accident. Using structure importance of FTA, main inducing factors were found out, the system can identify the risk of key nodes, seek various effective measures to prevent similar crashes. Due to the event constituting cut set itself is a certain fuzziness, So the fuzzy method overcomes the difficulty in the traditional method of FTA in the determination of the occurrence probability of bottom event provides a kind of research, idea to solve the difficult problem of the fuzzy fault tree. Thus, under conditions of limited management resources, it provides a reliable support for the mine safety assessment and safety management of heavy-duty vehicles in operation.

  5. Baseline public health assessment for CERCLA investigations at the LLNL Livermore Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, D.W.; Daniels, J.I.; Isherwood, W.I. (eds.); Bogen, K.T.; Cederwall, R.T.; Daniels, J.I.; Goyal, K.; Hall, C.H.; Hall, L.C.; Johnson, V.M.; Layton, D.W.; Mallon, B.J.; McKone, T.E.; Rice, D.W. Jr.; Thorpe, R.K.; Tompson, A.F.B. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Dresen, M.D.; McKereghan, P.F.; Nichols, E.M.; Small, M.C.; Yukic, F.S. (Weiss Associates, Emeryville, CA (United States))

    1990-09-30

    In 1987, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) added the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Livermore site to the National Priorities List (NPL) due to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found by LLNL in ground water onsite and offsite. One key component of the site cleanup effort at a NPL or Superfund site is the Remedial Investigation (RI), which includes studies and monitoring programs to acquire and analyze pertinent site-related data, such as the nature and extent of contamination and the characteristics of the local hydrogeology. An important part of the RI is the Baseline Public Health Assessment (BPHA), which addresses the potential future public health risks that could exist if no cleanup is attempted. This BPHA material was included in the RI for the LLNL Livermore site, which was submitted to regulatory agencies in May 1990. The BPHA is published here as a stand-alone document for the convenience of those interested only in this material. Because of the US Department of Energy (DOE), LLNL and environmental regulatory agencies are dedicated to the remediation of contaminated soils, sediments, and ground water at the Livermore site, the potential risks described herein are unlikely to occur. This BPHA provides the information needed to evaluate the benefits of cleanup alternatives. 166 refs., 49 figs., 35 tabs.

  6. Supplemental site inspection for Air Force Plant 59, Johnson City, New York, Volume 1: Investigation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashold, B.; Rosenblatt, D.; Hau, J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This summary describes a Supplemental Site Inspection (SSI) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at Air Force Plant 59 (AFP 59) in Johnson City, New York. All required data pertaining to this project were entered by ANL into the Air Force-wide Installation Restoration Program Information System (IRPIMS) computer format and submitted to an appropriate authority. The work was sponsored by the United States Air Force as part of its Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Previous studies had revealed the presence of contaminants at the site and identified several potential contaminant sources. Argonne`s study was conducted to answer questions raised by earlier investigations.

  7. Investigation of a shallow aquifer near the Fenton Hill hot dry rock site using DC resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, C.F.

    1981-10-01

    A shallow aquifer in the base of the Tertiary volcanic sequence was investigated using a series of 9 DC Schlumberger soundings taken within 10 km of the Fenton Hill hot dry rock geothermal site. The aquifer dips to the southwest following the top of the Abo formation, which acts as an aquiclude. Depth increases from 130 m in the eastern part of the study area to 260 m at 1.5 km west of the Fenton Hill site. Aquifer resistivities varied from 13..cap omega..-m to 126..cap omega..-m, which could be caused by variable permeability in the aquifer. Using results from empirical studies permeabilities ranging from 40 darcies to less than 0.3 darcies were estimated with the highest values occurring nearest to the Fenton Hill site.

  8. Coordination Environment of Copper Sites in Cu-CHA Zeolite Investigated by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godiksen, Anita; Stappen, Frederick N.; Vennestrøm, Peter N. R.;

    2014-01-01

    the zeolite framework is very simple with only one crystallographically independent tetrahedral site (T-site). In this study the results of an X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) investigation of ion-exchanged Cu-CHA zeolite with a Si/Al ratio of 14 ± 1 is presented. Different dehydration......Cu-CHA combines high activity for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reaction with better hydrothermal stability and selectivity compared to other copper-substituted zeolites. At the same time Cu-CHA offers an opportunity for unraveling the coordination environment of the copper centers since...... is obtained for the different copper positions in dehydrated Cu-CHA. The well-defined copper sites in the six-membered ring of the CHA structure are found to be EPR active, to give two distinct sets of signals in an approximate 1:1 ratio, and to add up to 19 ± 2% of the total copper in the material...

  9. Experimental investigation of void distribution in Suppression Pool during the initial blowdown period of a Loss of Coolant Accident using air–water two-phase mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Basic understanding of the venting phenomena in the SP during a LOCA was obtained. • A series of experiment is carried out using the PUMA-E test facility. • Two phases of experiments, namely, an initial and a quasi-steady phase were observed. • The maximum void penetration depth was experienced during the initial phase. - Abstract: During the initial blowdown period of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), the non-condensable gas initially contained in the BWR containment is discharged to the pressure suppression chamber through the blowdown pipes. The performance of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) can be degraded due to the released gas ingestion into the suction intakes of the ECCS pumps. The understanding of the relevant phenomena in the pressure suppression chamber is important in analyzing potential gas intrusion into the suction intakes of ECCS pumps. To obtain the basic understanding of the relevant phenomena and the generic data of void distribution in the pressure suppression chamber during the initial blowdown period of a LOCA, tests with various blowdown conditions were conducted using the existing Suppression Pool (SP) tank of the integral test facility, called Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly for ESBWR applications (PUMA-E) facility, a scaled downcomer pipe installed in the PUMA-E SP, and air discharge pipe system. Two different diameter sizes of air injection pipe (0.076 and 0.102 m), a range of air volumetric flux (7.9–24.7 m/s), initial void conditions in an air injection pipe (fully void, partially void, and fully filled with water) and different air velocity ramp rates (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 s) are used to investigate the impact of the blowdown conditions to the void distribution in the SP. Two distinct phases of experiments, namely, an initial and a quasi-steady phase were observed. The maximum void penetration depth was experienced during the initial phase. The quasi-steady phase provided less void

  10. Life cycle framework for assessment of site remediation options: Investigation of six remedial options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, M.L.; Page, C.A. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Campbell, M. [Metro Toronto Teaching Health Units, North York, Ontario (Canada); McKenna, S. [City of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Public Health

    1997-12-31

    A Life Cycle Framework (LCF), incorporating Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Management (LCM) methodologies, has been developed to investigate environmental and human health burdens associated with contaminated sites and issuing from site remediation activities. The objective is to provide a tool that can guide decisions on the choice of methods that minimize environmental burden and/or to identify particular activities or processes within a remediation method that contribute most to that burden. The LCF approach is useful because it provides a systematic means of encompassing most activities within a remediation method, including those occurring beyond the contaminated site per se, and over the long term. The LCA component is used for in-depth, quantitative study of remediation options, while the more streamlined LCM is used where qualitative information and analysis is sought. The following generic remedial options were investigated using the LCM approach: no action, encapsulation, excavation and disposal, vapor extraction, in-site bioremediation, and soil washing. The analysis highlighted potential impacts for no-action, encapsulation, and excavation and disposal that involve land use and land consumption; no-action and encapsulation also effect ecosystem and human health through contaminants remaining on-site; and excavation and disposal potentially contribute to acid rain, global warming, air pollution and depletion of primary energy sources through transportation. Important potential impacts, associated with in-situ bioremediation and vapor extraction relate to contaminants remaining on-site. In addition, for in-situ bioremediation and soil washing there is concern for potential discharge of process chemicals, while for soil washing there is potential for airborne transport of contaminants to other media.

  11. Supplemental Investigation Plan for FFACO Use Restrictions, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-02-01

    This document is part of an effort to re-evaluate all FFACO URs against the current RBCA criteria (referred to in this document as the Industrial Sites [IS] RBCA process) as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006a). After reviewing all of the existing FFACO URs, the 12 URs addressed in this Supplemental Investigation Plan (SIP) could not be evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as sufficient information about the contamination at each site was not available. This document presents the plan for conducting field investigations to obtain the needed information. This SIP includes URs from Corrective Action Units (CAUs) 326, 339, 358, 452, 454, 464, and 1010, located in Areas 2, 6, 12, 19, 25, and 29 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada; and CAU 403, located in Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range, which is approximately 165 miles north of Las Vegas, Nevada.

  12. Occupational Accidents: A Perspective of Pakistan Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauha Hussain Ali

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been observed that the construction industry is one of the notorious industry having higher rate of fatalities and injuries. Resulting in higher financial losses and work hour losses, which are normally faced by this industry due to occuptional accidents. Construction industry has the highest occupational accidents rate recorded throughout the world after agriculture industry. The construction work site is often a busy place having an incredibly high account of activities taking place, where everyone is moving in frenzy having particular task assigned. In such an environment, occupational accidents do occur. This paper gives information about different types of occupational accidents & their causes in the construction industry of Pakistan. A survey has been carried out to identify the types of occupational accidents often occur at construction site. The impact of each occupational accident has also been identified. The input from the different stakeholders involved on the work site was analyzed using RIW (Relative Importance Weight method. The findings of this research show that ?fall from elevation, electrocution from building power and snake bite? are the frequent occupational accidents occur within the work site where as ?fall from elevation, struck by, snake bite and electrocution from faulty tool? are the occupational accident with high impact within the construction industry of Pakistan. The results also shows the final ranking of the accidents based on higher frequency and higher impact. Poor Management, Human Element and Poor Site Condition are found as the root causes leading to such occupational accidents. Hence, this paper

  13. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident. Technical Volume 1/5. Description and Context of the Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume presents the key events that happened before, during and after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP), operated by the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The description of the event in this volume is based on objective and factual information, and is presented largely in a chronological manner. The volume also describes the Fukushima Daiichi NPP site, the reactor designs, the structure of the nuclear industry in Japan and the Japanese regulatory framework at the time of the accident. It describes in detail the earthquake, the tsunami, the events at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP and the actions taken there and elsewhere for post-accident management up to December 2014. The description of the events is largely based on information provided by the Government of Japan to the IAEA; reports of the investigation committees established by the Japanese Government, the National Diet of Japan and TEPCO, including updates and supplements by TEPCO; the regulatory body; and the IAEA missions listed in Section 1.6.5. Information is provided without judgement and evaluation, unless it is necessary to clarify a certain occurrence assessments are contained in Technical Volumes 2 to 5

  14. Investigating Revisit Intentions for the Boutique Hotels of Penang-A UNESCO World Heritage Site

    OpenAIRE

    Yen-Nee Goh

    2015-01-01

    The growth in the number and variety of boutique hotels in tourist destinations has stimulated a wide range of research studies. Nevertheless, within Malaysia, the area remains under studied. In 2008, George Town, a popular heritage destination in Malaysia, was listed as a UNESCO world heritage site, and since then the number of boutique hotels and tourist arrivals have steadily grown. But, to date, there has been no investigation of the determinants of tourists’ revisit intention to boutique...

  15. Modelling of water-rock interaction at TVO investigation sites. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, P. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Road, Traffic and Geotechnical Lab.; Snellman, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Leino-Forsman, H. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Reactor Lab.

    1992-12-01

    The geochemistry of the groundwater at the Kivetty, Syyry and Olkiluoto site investigation areas in Finland for nuclear waste disposal is evaluated. The hydrogeological data is collected from boreholes drilled down to 100-m depth into crystalline bedrock. The interpretation is based on groundwater chemistry and isotope data, mineralogical data, and the structure and hydrology of the bedrock, using correlation diagrams and the thermodynamic calculations (PHREEQE,EQ3NR). The hydrogeochemistry and major processes controlling the groundwater chemistry are discussed.

  16. Learning of the subject: Methodology of investigation by means of a Site Web.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Margarita Carbonell Cabarga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of an investigation are presented having as an objective: the design of a Web Site for the learning of Methodology of Investigation subject in Psychology Bachelor of the Municipal University of Sancti Spíritus. This study was carried out in students of psychology career who were facing first year. Methods of the theoretical and empiric level were applied as well as the Mathematical Statistic. In the diagnosis was possible to appreciate the ignorance regarding the use of the methodology in the therorical methodological design of an investigation, also the difficulties in the study of the subject and violations in the application of orientations from the professors at the time of doing the research papers, so an interactive Web Site was obtained and applied which allow the teaching of the subject. The site was validated by means of a quasi-experiment, the obtained information was processed with the use of the statistical inferentia, results were in general highly significant for the feasibility of the proposal.

  17. Investigation of a landslide in the new site of Badong County by integrated geophysical survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An integrated geophysical survey which combines vertical seismicprofile method, shallow reflection seismic method, electric sounding, soil temperature measurement and radioactive gas measurement was used to investigate Zhaoshuling landslide in the new site of Badong County and to assess the stability of the landslide. By rational use of these methods together with borehole geological profile and other geological information, the spatial distribution of the landslide body, the formations and structures within and without the landslide body were determined and the stability of the landslide was also assessed, thus making great contribution to the successful and rational investigation and assessment of the landslide.

  18. 园内儿童意外伤害对托幼园所影响的调查分析%Investigation on the influence of children's accident on kindergartens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁全莲; 马迎华

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解海淀区园内儿童意外伤害对托幼园所影响的现状,为制定减少园内意外伤害发生及其对园所影响的有效干预措施提供依据.方法 针对海淀区2007至2009年发生的306例园内意外伤害对托幼园所的影响进行调查分析.结果 随着园所级别升高,发生意外伤害的园所数逐渐减少,各类园所间发生意外伤害的比例差异有统计学意义(χ2=29.49,P<0.05).3年中园所因意外伤害导致直接经济损失约22万元,占园所支付伤害处置费用的76.1%.意外伤害的发生对园所的正常工作、教师情绪及经济损失等的不良影响程度随园所级别的降低而升高.结论 加强托幼园所与家长的信息沟通,使家长充分理解托幼园所的工作,推广全面覆盖儿童的意外伤害保险,减少儿童意外伤害对园所的影响.%Objective To understand the current status of the influence of children' s accident in kindergartens of Haidian District on kindergartens, so as to provide scientific guideline for effective measures to decrease children' s accident in kindergartens and the influence on kindergartens. Methods Three hundred and six cases of children s accident happened from 2007 to 2009 and the influence on the kindergartens of Haidian District were investigated. Results The children s accident was less with the highering of kindergartens rank, and the difference in rate of accident in different kindergartens was statistically significant ( χ2 - 29. 49,P < 0. 05 ). In these three years about 220 thousands yuan was lost because of accident in kindergartens, which occupied 76. 1% of expense of injury. The negative effects of accident on normal work of kindergarten, teachers' mood and economic loss increased with the lowering of kindergartens' rank. Conclusion Enhancing communication between parents and kindergartens promotes parents full understanding of kindergartens daily work. Accident insurance for children needs to be promoted so

  19. An Investigation of Forensic Epidemiology on 83 Road Traffic Accident Death Cases%83例道路交通事故死亡案例法医流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈仁辉; 杨建平; 张勇; 陈伟毅; 林海; 林建聪

    2011-01-01

    目的分析道路交通事故死亡案例特点,为预防事故的发生提供可靠消息和参考数据。方法将83例交通事故死亡的案例资料,按照死者性别、年龄、死亡原因、事故发生时间及地点、事故车辆类型等相关参数,进行法医流行病学分析。结果男性死者明显多于女性死者;死者年龄多见于30~60岁;案发时间以12~14时、18~20时最多,以秋、冬季节较多;死者主要交通行为方式分别为驾乘摩托车占39.5%,步行占23.6%,骑自行车占13.1%;肇事车辆主要为小轿车、货车、摩托车,分别占27.6%、26.2%、25.0%;案发地点以主干公路为主;死亡原因83.1%为颅脑损伤死亡。结论有关部门应加强城乡道路建设,加强机动车管理,降低交通事故死亡率。%Objective By analyzing the characteristics of road traffic accident death cases,this thesis offers reliable information and reference data for accident prevention.Methods The analysis was made on data of 83 road traffic accident death cases,from aspects of gender,age,death cause,time and site of accident,and vehicle types.Results There were much more males than females.The age was between 30 and 60.Most of the accidents took place in autumn and winter,during periods from 12 to 14 o'clock,and from 18 to 20 o' clock.Among the chief transportation means adopted by the death,motorcycle accounted for 39.5%,walking 23.6% and bicycle 13.1%.The ratio of accident vehicles of car,truck and motorcycle was 27.6%,26.2%,25% respectively.Most of the accidents happened on main road and 83.1% death were caused by brain injury.Conclusion Related government departments should enhance road construction and vehicle management to reduce the death rate caused by traffic accident.

  20. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, B.; Groenberg, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs.

  1. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs

  2. Privacy disclosure in Chinese social networking sites:An investigation of Renren users

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenju; ZHU; Qi; HUANG; Qinghua; ZHU

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:This study was conducted to investigate the current situation of privacy disclosure(in the Chinese social networking sites.Design/methodology/approach:Data analysis was based on profiles of 240 college students on Renren.com,a popular college-oriented social networking site in China.Users’ privacy disclosure behaviors were studied and gender difference was analyzed particularly.Correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationships among evaluation indicators involving user name,image,page visibility,message board visibility,completeness of education information and provision of personal information.Findings:A large amount of personal information was disclosed via social networking sites in China.Greater percentage of male users than female users disclosed their personal information.Furthermore,significantly positive relationships were found among page visibility,message board visibility,completeness of education information and provision of personal information.Research limitations:Subjects were collected from only one social networking website.Meanwhile,our survey involves subjective judgments of user name reliability,category of profile images and completeness of information.Practical implications:This study will be of benefit for college administrators,teachers and librarians to design courses for college students on how to use social networking sites safely.Originality /value:This empirical study is one of the first studies to reveal the current situation of privacy disclosure in the Chinese social networking sites and will help the research community gain a deeper understanding of privacy disclosure in the Chinese social networking sites.

  3. A descriptive ecosystem model - a strategy for model development during site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Anders [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany; Lindborg, Tobias [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-09-01

    This report describes a strategy for the development of a site descriptive model for the surface ecosystem on the potential deep repository sites. The surface ecosystem embraces many disciplines, and these have to be identified, described and integrated in order to construct a descriptive ecosystem model that describes and quantifies biotic and abiotic patterns and processes of importance for the ecosystem on the site. The descriptive model includes both present day conditions and historical information. The descriptive ecosystem model will be used to supply input data for the safety assessment and to serve as the baseline model for devising a monitoring program to detect short-term disturbances caused first by the site investigations and later by the construction of the deep repository. Furthermore, it will serve as a reference for future comparisons to determine more long-term effects or changes caused by the deep repository. The report adopts a non-site-specific approach focusing on the following aims: 1. To present and define the properties that will constitute the descriptive ecosystem model. 2. To present a methodology for determining those properties. 3. To describe and develop the framework for the descriptive ecosystem model by integrating the different properties. 4. To present vital data from other site descriptive models such as those for geology or hydrogeology that interacts with and affects the descriptive ecosystem model. The properties are described under four different sections: general physical properties of the landscape, the terrestrial system, the limnic system and the marine system. These headings are further subdivided into entities that integrate properties in relation to processes.

  4. A descriptive ecosystem model - a strategy for model development during site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a strategy for the development of a site descriptive model for the surface ecosystem on the potential deep repository sites. The surface ecosystem embraces many disciplines, and these have to be identified, described and integrated in order to construct a descriptive ecosystem model that describes and quantifies biotic and abiotic patterns and processes of importance for the ecosystem on the site. The descriptive model includes both present day conditions and historical information. The descriptive ecosystem model will be used to supply input data for the safety assessment and to serve as the baseline model for devising a monitoring program to detect short-term disturbances caused first by the site investigations and later by the construction of the deep repository. Furthermore, it will serve as a reference for future comparisons to determine more long-term effects or changes caused by the deep repository. The report adopts a non-site-specific approach focusing on the following aims: 1. To present and define the properties that will constitute the descriptive ecosystem model. 2. To present a methodology for determining those properties. 3. To describe and develop the framework for the descriptive ecosystem model by integrating the different properties. 4. To present vital data from other site descriptive models such as those for geology or hydrogeology that interacts with and affects the descriptive ecosystem model. The properties are described under four different sections: general physical properties of the landscape, the terrestrial system, the limnic system and the marine system. These headings are further subdivided into entities that integrate properties in relation to processes

  5. Consequences of severe nuclear accidents in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Petra; Arnold, Delia; Mraz, Gabriele; Arnold, Nikolaus; Gufler, Klaus; Kromp-Kolb, Helga; Kromp, Wolfgang; Sutter, Philipp

    2013-04-01

    A first part of the presentation is devoted to the consequences of the severe accident in the 1986 Chernobyl NPP. It lead to a substantial radioactive contaminated of large parts of Europe and thus raised the awareness for off-site nuclear accident consequences. Spatial patterns of the (transient) contamination of the air and (persistent) contamination of the ground were studied by both measurements and model simulations. For a variety of reasons, ground contamination measurements have variability at a range of spatial scales. Results will be reviewed and discussed. Model simulations, including inverse modelling, have shown that the standard source term as defined in the ATMES study (1990) needs to be updated. Sensitive measurements of airborne activities still reveal the presence of low levels of airborne radiocaesium over the northern hemisphere which stems from resuspension. Over time scales of months and years, the distribution of radionuclides in the Earth system is constantly changing, for example relocated within plants, between plants and soil, in the soil, and into water bodies. Motivated by the permanent risk of transboundary impacts from potential major nuclear accidents, the multidisciplinary project flexRISK (see http://flexRISK.boku.ac.at) has been carried out from 2009 to 2012 in Austria to quantify such risks and hazards. An overview of methods and results of flexRISK is given as a second part of the presentation. For each of the 228 NPPs, severe accidents were identified together with relevant inventories, release fractions, and release frequencies. Then, Europe-wide dispersion and dose calculations were performed for 2788 cases, using the Lagrangian particle model FLEXPART. Maps of single-case results as well as various aggregated risk parameters were produced. It was found that substantial consequences (intervention measures) are possible for distances up to 500-1000 km, and occur more frequently for a distance range up to 100-300 km, which is in

  6. Groundwater flow modelling in the region of the repository site of the radioactive wastes from Goiania accident-Brazil; Modelamento do fluxo de agua subterranea na regiao do repositorio dos rejeitos decorrentes do acidente radiologico de Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino Branco, Otavio Eurico de; Carvalho Filho, Carlos Alberto [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1996-08-01

    The radioactive wastes from Goiania`s accident, with be deposited at the repository site of Abadia de Goias, located 20 km away from the city of Goiania. This paper presents a groundwater flow in confined or unconfined, heterogeneous and anisotropic porous media with variable layer thicknesses. The necessary parameters to simulate the flow were taken from technical reports and from specific studies about the region. The geological and hydrogeological studies evidence that in this area there is one aquifer type water table. The permeability coefficient evaluated for aquifer formation was 1.88x10{sup -4}cm/s and for the porosity 0.47. The average annual rate of recharge was evaluated in 0.22 m. The potentiometric map generated using the MODFLOW code showed a good a agreement between the hydraulic head simulated and that measured in the field. (author) 8 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Collecting Fire Evidence to Ensure the Work of Investigating Fire Accident Normally%收集火灾证据做好火灾事故调查工作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邰锋

    2011-01-01

    火灾发生后,只有查明引起火灾的真实原因,才能依法处理事故责任者和弥补事故损失.而怎样收集证据查明火灾发生的原因是摆在消防工作者面前的一大难题.本文作者结合自己多年的工作经验,对火灾事故调查中证据的收集相关问题进行分析,并就如何对搜集的证据进行验证提出了自己的看法,供同行参考.%Only finding out the real reason for fire, can we dealt with the person who has responsible for the accident according to law and offset loss of accident after fire.But, how to collect evidence to ascertain the fire is an arduous problem to fire workers.Combined with own many years' work experience, the author analyzed related problems of collecting evidence in investigating fire accident, and put forwards own view on how to collect evidence so as to provide discussion on colleagues.

  8. River and river-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a determination of the function of running waters as transport channels for material from the continents to the sea are presented. We have assumed that retention mechanisms of material in the river and in the riparian zone will be covered by special investigations but tried to create a platform for such investigations by quantification of the extension of different main habitats. The choice of parameters has been made so that also the nature conservation value of the river can be preliminary established, and includes a general description of the river type and the inherent ecosystem. The material links directly to that presented in a previous report concerning site investigation programmes for lakes. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The river catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The river morphometry; 4) The river ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the river ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area, represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the system, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the river morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the river, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, nutrient status, distribution of different habitats, and presence of fish in the system. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and

  9. Investigation into Waste Management on Construction Sites in South Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Akinkurolere

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to report investigation into the problem of waste management on construction sites in South Western Nigeria and to unveil inherent dangers material wastage poses to the construction Industry. In the construction industries, materials are very vital in building sites, but not all the materials delivered are used for the purposes for which they have been ordered and the subsequent disappearance of these materials constitutes part of the waste. The primary research instruments used was the questionnaire which contained varied questions on material wastage and management. The investigation revealed that material wastage brings about additional cost to the construction project as well as a reduction in the profit of the contractor, considering the cost of storing and transporting construction waste along with the loss of revenue from not reclaiming waste. Also, most waste that occurs at construction sites is due to poor management and lack of awareness of effective waste management. The study finally recommends that recycling and reusing of construction waste is a viable option in construction waste management and that material wastage can be reduced by giving incentives to the workers for better handling of materials and by having trained personals to supervise the works.

  10. Prioritization of Lesson learned from Fukushima Accident using AHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubair, Muhammad; Park, Sujina; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Zubair, Muhammad [Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2013-05-15

    Using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) the present research signifies the technical and nontechnical issues of Fukushima accident. The study exposed that besides technical fixes such as enhanced engineering safety features and better siting choices, the critical ingredient for safe operation of nuclear reactors lie in the quality of human training and transparency of the nuclear regulatory process that keeps public interest at the forefront. In this paper a strategy to increase Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) safety has been developed. By using AHP, best alternative to improve safety and to allocate budget for all technical and non-technical factors related with nuclear safety has been investigated. By using AHP a methodology to increase NPP safety has been proposed. With the help of this technique the qualitative aspect of Fukushima accident has been examined by considering experts judgment. The results showed that a lack of regulatory authorities was one of the main causes of accident. So, more budget allocation in this area would be helpful to reduce accidents and to improve nuclear safety. Even if AHP only addresses the qualitative aspect of safety factors, this study can be extended to quantitative evaluation with other tools such as fault trees or crisis trees so that the final results enable data-driven decision-making process, which is on-going project at Kyung Hee University.

  11. Framework for accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accident management is an essential element of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Integration Plan for the closure of severe accident issues. This element will consolidate the results from other key elements; such as the Individual Plant Examination (IPE), the Containment Performance Improvement, and the Severe Accident Research Programs, in a form that can be used to enhance the safety programs for nuclear power plants. The NRC is currently conducting an Accident Management Program that is intended to aid in defining the scope and attributes of an accident management program for nuclear power plants. The accident management plan will ensure that a plant specific program is developed and implemented to promote the most effective use of available utility resources (people and hardware) to prevent and mitigate severe accidents. Hardware changes or other plant modifications to reduce the frequency of severe accidents are not a central aim of this program. To accomplish the outlined objectives, the NRC has developed an accident management framework that is comprised of five elements: (1) accident management strategies, (2) training, (3) guidance and computational aids, (4) instrumentation, and (5) delineation of decision making responsibilities. A process for the development of an accident management program has been identified using these NRC framework elements

  12. Chernobylsk accident (Causes and Consequences)- Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The causes and consequences of the nuclear accident at Chernobylsk-4 reactor are shortly described. The informations were provided by Russian during the specialist meeting, carried out at seat of IAEA. The Russian nuclear panorama; the site, nuclear power plant characteristics and sequence of events; the immediate measurements after accident; monitoring/radioactive releases; environmental contamination and ecological consequences; measurements of emergency; recommendations to increase the nuclear safety; and recommendations of work groups, are presented. (M.C.K.)

  13. Surface radiological investigations at the proposed SWSA 7 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, S.P.; Murray, M.E.; Uziel, M.S.

    1995-08-01

    A surface radiological investigation was conducted intermittently from June 1994 to June 1995 at the proposed site for Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 7. The stimulus for this survey was the observation in June 1992 of a man`s trousers became contaminated with {sup 9O}Sr while he was reviewing work on top of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) cooling tower. Radiation surveys identified {sup 9O}Sr on the roofs of older buildings at the HFIR site. Since no {sup 9O}Sr was found on buildings built between 1988 and 1990, the {sup 9O}Sr was thought to have been deposited prior to 1988. Later in 1992, beta particles were identified on a bulldozer that had been used in a wooded area southwest of the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) Access Road. More recently in April 1995, {sup 9O}Sr particles were identified on the top side of ceiling tiles in the overhead area of a building in the HFIR Complex. Considering that the proposed SWSA 7 site was located between the HFIR complex and the HPRR Access Road, it was deemed prudent to investigate the possibility that beta particles might also be present at the SWSA 7 site. A possible explanation for the presence of these particles has been provided by long-time ORNL employees and retirees. Strontium-90 as the titanate was developed in the early 1960s as part of the Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) Program. Strontium titanate ({sup 90}SrTiO{sub 3}) was produced at the Fission Product Development Laboratory (Building 3517) in the ORNL main plant area. Waste from the process was loaded into a 1-in. lead-lined dumpster, which was transferred to SWSA 5 where it was dumped into a trench. Dumping allowed some articles to become airborne.

  14. Review of the ANSTO submission on the site geological investigations for the RRR at Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) and ANSTO's Consolidated Seismic Report were reviewed by ARPANSA's Regulatory Branch, and by an IAEA consultant to ARPANSA. It included a recommendation by the IAEA Peer Review Team (June 2001) that an additional study be undertaken for the Lucas Heights site in accordance with IAEA Safety Guide 50-SG-S1. In particular this related to regional and local investigations to determine whether there exists a potential for surface faulting at the site area, to formulate the investigations that should be used to determine whether or not any faults in the area should be considered capable. The CEO of ARPANSA requested ANSTO to undertake such a task. The reviews that have been undertaken by experts from Geoscience Australia and the IAEA expert contracted by ARPANSA give confidence that the seismic design of the reactor structures, systems, and components important for safety should not be affected by the fault through the excavations for the foundations of the reactor building. The basis is the conclusions reached by these experts that the fault discovered is very old and not capable under either the USNRC Criteria or the IAEA Criteria. It is not now active, has not been active in the geologically recent past and is unlikely to re-activate within the foreseeable lifespan of the proposed facility. Consequently, this pre-existing fault presents no greater risk than the surrounding unfaulted material. Thus, the replacement reactor need not be designed for such displacement. The existence of this 'incapable' fault does not impact on the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment from which the seismic design basis for the reactor was derived. Therefore, the existing design response spectrum accepted in the Regulatory Assessment Report as the basis for seismic design of structures, systems and components, and approved in the Construction Licence, has not changed and remains adequately conservative with regard to vibratory motion at the site

  15. Modified power law equations for vertical wind profiles. [in investigation of windpower plant siting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, D. A.; Richards, T. R.

    1979-01-01

    In an investigation of windpower plant siting, equations are presented and evaluated for a wind profile model which incorporates both roughness and wind speed effects, while retaining the basic simplicity of the Hellman power law. These equations recognize the statistical nature of wind profiles and are compatible with existing analytical models and recent wind profile data. Predictions of energy output based on the proposed profile equations are 10% to 20% higher than those made with the 1/7 power law. In addition, correlation between calculated and observed blade loads is significantly better at higher wind speeds when the proposed wind profile model is used than when a constant power model is used.

  16. Occupational accidents: a perspective of pakistan construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been observed that the construction industry is one of the notorious industry having higher rate of facilities and injuries. Resulting in higher financial losses and work hour losses, which are normally faced by this industry due to occupational accidents. Construction industry has the highest occupational accidents rate recorded throughout the world after agriculture industry. The construction work site is often a busy place having an incredibly high account of activities taking place, where everyone is moving in frenzy having particular task assigned. In such an environment, occupational accidents do occur. This paper gives information about different types of occupational accidents and their causes in the construction industry of Pakistan. A survey has been carried out to identify the types of occupational accidents often occur at construction site. The impact of each occupational accident has also been identified. The input from the different stakeholders involved on the work site was analyzed using RIW (Relative Importance Weight) method. The findings of this research show that fall from elevation, electrocution from building power and snake bite are the frequent occupational accidents occur within the work site where as fall from elevation, struck by, snake bite and electrocution from faulty tool are the occupational accident with high impact within the construction industry of Pakistan. The results also shows the final ranking of the accidents based on higher frequency and higher impact. Poor Management, Human Element and Poor Site Condition are found as the root causes leading to such occupational accidents. Hence, this paper identify that what type of occupational accidents occur at the work place in construction industry of pakistan, in order to develop the corrective actions which should be adequate enough to prevent the re-occurrence of such accidents at work site. (author)

  17. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 542: Disposal Holes, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 542 is located in Areas 3, 8, 9, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 542 is comprised of eight corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 03-20-07, ''UD-3a Disposal Hole''; (2) 03-20-09, ''UD-3b Disposal Hole''; (3) 03-20-10, ''UD-3c Disposal Hole''; (4) 03-20-11, ''UD-3d Disposal Hole''; (5) 06-20-03, ''UD-6 and UD-6s Disposal Holes''; (6) 08-20-01, ''U-8d PS No.1A Injection Well Surface Release''; (7) 09-20-03, ''U-9itsy30 PS No.1A Injection Well Surface Release''; and (8) 20-20-02, ''U-20av PS No.1A Injection Well Surface Release''. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 30, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 542. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the CAI for CAU 542 includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. (2) Conduct radiological surveys. (3) Conduct geophysical surveys to

  18. Severe Accident Research Program plan update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August 1989, the staff published NUREG-1365, ''Revised Severe Accident Research Program Plan.'' Since 1989, significant progress has been made in severe accident research to warrant an update to NUREG-1365. The staff has prepared this SARP Plan Update to: (1) Identify those issues that have been closed or are near completion, (2) Describe the progress in our understanding of important severe accident phenomena, (3) Define the long-term research that is directed at improving our understanding of severe accident phenomena and developing improved methods for assessing core melt progression, direct containment heating, and fuel-coolant interactions, and (4) Reflect the growing emphasis in two additional areas--advanced light water reactors, and support for the assessment of criteria for containment performance during severe accidents. The report describes recent major accomplishments in understanding the underlying phenomena that can occur during a severe accident. These include Mark I liner failure, severe accident scaling methodology, source term issues, core-concrete interactions, hydrogen transport and combustion, TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project, and direct containment heating. The report also describes the major planned activities under the SARP over the next several years. These activities will focus on two phenomenological issues (core melt progression, and fuel-coolant interactions and debris coolability) that have significant uncertainties that impact our understanding and ability to predict severe accident phenomena and their effect on containment performance SARP will also focus on severe accident code development, assessment and validation. As the staff completes the research on severe accident issues that relate to current generation reactors, continued research will focus on efforts to independently evaluate the capability of new advanced light water reactor designs to withstand severe accidents

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 104: Area 7 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-08-01

    CAU 104 comprises the 15 CASs listed below: (1) 07-23-03, Atmospheric Test Site T-7C; (2) 07-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site T7-1; (3) 07-23-05, Atmospheric Test Site; (4) 07-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site T7-5a; (5) 07-23-07, Atmospheric Test Site - Dog (T-S); (6) 07-23-08, Atmospheric Test Site - Baker (T-S); (7) 07-23-09, Atmospheric Test Site - Charlie (T-S); (8) 07-23-10, Atmospheric Test Site - Dixie; (9) 07-23-11, Atmospheric Test Site - Dixie; (10) 07-23-12, Atmospheric Test Site - Charlie (Bus); (11) 07-23-13, Atmospheric Test Site - Baker (Buster); (12) 07-23-14, Atmospheric Test Site - Ruth; (13) 07-23-15, Atmospheric Test Site T7-4; (14) 07-23-16, Atmospheric Test Site B7-b; (15) 07-23-17, Atmospheric Test Site - Climax These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 28, 2011, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 104. The releases at CAU 104 consist of surface-deposited radionuclides from 30 atmospheric nuclear tests. The presence and nature of contamination at CAU 104 will be evaluated based on information collected from a field investigation. Radiological contamination will be evaluated based on a comparison

  20. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 568: Area 3 Plutonium Dispersion Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    CAU 568 is a grouping of sites where there has been a suspected release of contamination associated with nuclear testing. This document describes the planned investigation of CAU 568, which comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 03-23-17, S-3I Contamination Area • 03-23-19, T-3U Contamination Area • 03-23-20, Otero Contamination Area • 03-23-22, Platypus Contamination Area • 03-23-23, San Juan Contamination Area • 03-23-26, Shrew/Wolverine Contamination Area These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the investigation report.

  1. Framework for accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program is being conducted to establish those attributes of a severe accident management plan which are necessary to assure effective response to all credible severe accidents and to develop guidance for their incorporation in a plant's Accident Management Plan. This program is one part of the Accident Management Research Program being conducted by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The approach used in establishing attributes and developing guidance includes three steps. In the first step the general attributes of an accident management plan were identified based on: (1) the objectives established for the NRC accident management program, (2) the elements of an accident management framework identified by the NRC, and (3) a review of the processes used in developing the currently used approach for classifying and analyzing accidents. For the second step, a process was defined that uses the general attributes identified from the first step to develop an accident management plan. The third step applied the process defined in the second step at a nuclear power plant to refine and develop it into a benchmark accident management plan. Step one is completed, step two is underway and step three has not yet begun

  2. General Aspects of the JCO Criticality Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A criticality accident occurred on September 30, 1999, at a uranium processing plant of JCO Company in Tokaimura. Delayed criticality continued for approximately 20 hours after the first few prompt critical peaks. Two employees subsequently died. Nearby residents were evacuated or told to remain indoors. This accident was at Level 4 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. A table of radiation exposures resulting from the accident is given. Besides dealing with health physics, the investigation committee's final report covered technical observations and the nature of the accident. The direct causes of the accident were found to be violation of rules and technical specifications and deviation from licensing conditions; some of these were permitted by the company itself, and fatal mistakes were made by employees on the job without consulting with authorized persons. Many recommendations to revise government regulations on licensing of nuclear fuel handling were discussed in the report

  3. A summary of ecological investigations at the burial ground complex, Savannah River Site - 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friday, G.P.; Hartman, G.D.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.; Roach, J.L.; Specht, W.L.; Westbury, H.M.; Wike, L.D.

    1994-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of three ecological investigations that were conducted in 1994 at the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The three topics of study included remote sensing, aquatic toxicity testing, and qualitative surveys of herpetofauna and small mammals. Interim reports from each investigation are included in the appendices (A, B, and C). The objectives of the remote sensing effort were to compile historical aerial photography of the BGC and to develop a land use/cover map of the complex using recent aerial imagery. The goal of the aquatic toxicity testing was to determine if surface waters were toxic to aquatic biota whereas the objectives of the vertebrate surveys were to identify the species diversity and relative abundances of amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals inhabiting the study area.

  4. Radionuclide migration in fractured rock: hydrological investigations at an experimental site in the Carnmennellis granite, Cornwall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives, methods and results of hydrological investigation of the granite at an experimental site in Cornwall are described and discussed. Constant head injection tests and radioactive tracer experiments have revealed a fracture permeability in which water movement is confined to discrete fractures separated by rock of very low permeability. Data on flow path frequency, orientation and effective hydraulic aperture, required for network modelling, are presented for a 700 m borehole, with additional hydraulic data from three other boreholes. In addition to fractures of average hydraulic conductivity a small number of major hydraulic features (''main drains'') with major implications for radionuclide migration have been identified. A mean hydraulic conductivity for the granite investigated of 1.57x10-7ms-1 has been obtained, 2.11x10-8ms-1 if the major hydraulic features are excluded

  5. Borehole geophysical investigation of a formerly used defense site, Machiasport, Maine, 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carole D.; Mondazzi, Remo A.; Joesten, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, collected borehole geophysical logs in 18 boreholes and interpreted the data along with logs from 19 additional boreholes as part of an ongoing, collaborative investigation at three environmental restoration sites in Machiasport, Maine. These sites, located on hilltops overlooking the seacoast, formerly were used for military defense. At each of the sites, chlorinated solvents, used as part of defense-site operations, have contaminated the fractured-rock aquifer. Borehole geophysical techniques and hydraulic methods were used to characterize bedrock lithology, fractures, and hydraulic properties. In addition, each geophysical method was evaluated for effectiveness for site characterization and for potential application for further aquifer characterization and (or) evaluation of remediation efforts. Results of borehole geophysical logging indicate the subsurface is highly fractured, metavolcanic, intrusive, metasedimentary bedrock. Selected geophysical logs were cross-plotted to assess correlations between rock properties. These plots included combinations of gamma, acoustic reflectivity, electromagnetic induction conductivity, normal resistivity, and single-point resistance. The combined use of acoustic televiewer (ATV) imaging and natural gamma logs proved to be effective for delineating rock types. Each of the rock units in the study area could be mapped in the boreholes, on the basis of the gamma and ATV reflectivity signatures. The gamma and mean ATV reflectivity data were used along with the other geophysical logs for an integrated interpretation, yielding a determination of quartz monzonite, rhyolite, metasedimentary units, or diabase/gabbro rock types. The interpretation of rock types on the basis of the geophysical logs compared well to drilling logs and geologic mapping. These results may be helpful for refining the geologic framework at depth. A stereoplot of all fractures

  6. Investigation into the optimal hydrologic design of porous concrete sites using mathematical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrrakou, C.; Fitch, J.; Eliassen, T.; Ahearn, W.; Pinder, G. F.

    2011-12-01

    being conducted in conjunction with the field investigation in order to acquire the soil-water characteristic curve of the site materials and quantify the evaporation processes taking place inside the porous concrete slab. The combined parametric and simulation information provides valuable knowledge on the interaction of a porous concrete system and the local site hydrology.

  7. Preliminary Geotechnical Investigation of Two Basaltic Landslide Sites in Mauritius, Offshore Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabycharun, Bhoopendra; Kuwano, Takeshi; Ichikawa, Kensuke; Fukuoka, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Landslide hazards in developing areas in Mauritius became a great challenge as well as a fundamental concern for the government and the citizen of the country. In recent years, landslide disasters have caused losses of both public and private properties. In 2005, a large-scale landslide at Chitrakoot affected 54 houses and infrastructures, and it was reactivated in 2006, damaging another 14 houses. Vallee Pitot landslide is frequently reactivated in these years and threatening several houses in densely-populated zone. Although the long-term annual precipitation show slightly decreasing trend, number of tropical cyclone over Mauritius is clearly increasing at least in the past 3 decades. Being of volcanic origin, Mauritius has observed dramatic and quick weathering of the soil which may partly contributes to creating landslide-prone geo-environment. This study focuses on the preliminary geotechnical investigation of the above-mentioned two basaltic landslide areas in Mauritius. Recent investigation was conducted jointly by JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) and Ministry of Public Infrastructure and Land Transport of Government of Mauritius on both sites from 2012 to 2015 to survey the landslide surface and to implement countermeasures works. In the field investigation, aerial photo interpretation was used to investigate the zone of cracks and scarps for both sites. The landslide areas for Chitrakoot and Vallee Pitot were estimated to 1.8 km2 and 5,000 m2 respectively. Both sites are located in the highly populated area in the capital city of Mauritius. The geological features of the sites were studied with the borehole core logging data obtained from 6 boreholes and it was found that possible sliding surface was observed in the colluvium layer consisting of gravels and stiff silty-clays, at depths from 6 to 10 m below the ground surface. The rate of landslide movement during heavy rainfall amount exceeding 100 mm/hr was elaborated with past records of

  8. Biologic overview for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations project study area includes five major vegetation associations characteristic of the transition between the northern extent of the Mojave Desert and the southern extent of the Great Basin Desert. A total of 32 species of reptiles, 66 species of birds, and 46 species of mammals are known to occur within these associations elsewhere on the Nevada Test Site. Ten species of plants, and the mule deer, wild horse, feral burro, and desert tortoise were defined as possible sensitive species because they are protected by federal and state regulations, or are being considered for such protection. The major agricultural resources of southern Nye County included 737,000 acres of public grazing land managed by the Bureau of Land Management, and 9500 acres of irrigated crop land located in the Beatty/Oasis valleys, the Amargosa Valley, and Ash Meadows. Range lands are of poor quality. Alfalfa and cotton are the major crops along with small amounts of grains, Sudan grass, turf, fruits, and melons. The largest impacts to known ecosystems are expected to result from: extensive disturbances associated with construction of roads, seismic lines, drilling pads, and surface facilities; storage and leaching of mined spoils; disposal of water; off-road vehicle travel; and, over several hundred years, elevated soil temperatures. Significant impacts to off-site areas such as Ash Meadows are anticipated if new residential developments are built there to accommodate an increased work force. Several species of concern and their essential habitats are located at Ash Meadows. Available literature contained sufficient baseline information to assess potential impacts of the proposed project on an area-wide basis. It was inadequate to support analysis of potential impacts on specific locations selected for site characterization studies, mining an exploratory shaft, or the siting and operation of a repository

  9. Investigations of adsorption sites on oxide surfaces using solid-state NMR and TPD-IGC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombeck, Rebecca A.

    The number and chemical identity of reactive sites on surfaces of glass affects the processing, reliability, and lifetime of a number of important commercial products. Surface site densities, distributions, and structural identities are closely tied to the formation and processing of the glass surface, and exert a direct influence on strength and coating performance. The surface of a glass sample may vary markedly from the composition and chemistry of the bulk glass. We are taking a physicochemical approach to understanding adsorption sites on pristine multicomponent glass fibers surfaces, directly addressing the effect of processing on surface reactivity. This project aimed to understand the energy distributions of surface adsorption sites, the chemical/structural identity of those sites, and the relationship of these glasses to glass composition, thermal history, and in future work, surface coatings. We have studied the bulk and surface structure as well as the surface reactivity of the glass fibers with solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, inverse gas chromatography (IGC), and computational chemistry methods. These methods, solid-state NMR and IGC, typically require high surface area materials; however, by using probe molecules for NMR experiments or packing a column at high density for IGC measurements, lower surface area materials, such as glass fibers, can be investigated. The glasses used within this study were chosen as representative specimens of fibers with potentially different reactive sites on their surfaces. The two glass compositions were centered around a nominal E-glass, which contains very little alkali cations and mainly alkaline earth cations, and wool glass, which contains an abundance of alkali cations. The concentration of boron was varied from 0 to 8 mole % in both fiber compositions. Fibers were drawn from each composition at a variety of temperatures and draw speeds to provide a range of glass samples with varying

  10. Cavola experiment site: geophysical investigations and deployment of a dense seismic array on a landslide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Martelli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical site investigations have been performed in association with deployment of a dense array of 95 3-component seismometers on the Cavola landslide in the Northern Apennines. The aim of the array is to study propagation of seismic waves in the heterogeneous medium through comparison of observation and modelling. The small-aperture array (130 m×56 m operated continuously for three months in 2004. Cavola landslide consists of a clay body sliding over mudstone-shale basement, and has a record of historical activity, including destruction of a small village in 1960. The site investigations include down-hole logging of P- and S-wave travel times at a new borehole drilled within the array, two seismic refraction lines with both P-wave profiling and surface-wave analyses, geo-electrical profiles and seismic noise measurements. From the different approaches a consistent picture of the depths and seismic velocities for the landslide has emerged. Their estimates agree with resonance frequencies of seismic noise, and also with the logged depths to basement of 25 m at a new borehole and of 44 m at a pre-existing borehole. Velocities for S waves increase with depth, from 230 m/s at the surface to 625 m/s in basement immediately below the landslide.

  11. Different integrated geophysical approaches to investigate archaeological sites in urban and suburban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Salvatore; Papale, Enrico; Zamuner, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Geophysical methods are frequently used in archaeological prospection in order to provide detailed information about the presence of structures in the subsurface as well as their position and their geometrical reconstruction, by measuring variations of some physical properties. Often, due to the limited size and depth of an archaeological structure, it may be rather difficult to single out its position and extent because of the generally low signal-to-noise ratio. This problem can be overcome by improving data acquisition, processing techniques and by integrating different geophysical methods. In this work, two sites of archaeological interest, were investigated employing several methods (Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Fluxgate Differential Magnetic) to obtain precise and detailed maps of subsurface bodies. The first site, situated in a suburban area between Itri and Fondi, in the Aurunci Natural Regional Park (Central Italy), is characterized by the presence of remains of past human activity dating from the third century B.C. The second site, is instead situated in an urban area in the city of Rome (Basilica di Santa Balbina), where historical evidence is also present. The methods employed, allowed to determine the position and the geometry of some structures in the subsurface related to this past human activity. To have a better understanding of the subsurface, we then performed a qualitative and quantitative integration of this data, which consists in fusing the data from all the methods used, to have a complete visualization of the investigated area. Qualitative integration consists in graphically overlaying the maps obtained by the single methods; this method yields only images, not new data that may be subsequently analyzed. Quantitative integration is instead performed by mathematical and statistical solutions, which allows to have a more accurate reconstruction of the subsurface and generates new data with high

  12. Non-invasive shallow seismic source comparison for hazardous waste site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many commonly used shallow seismic sources are unacceptable for hazardous waste site investigations because they risk exhumation of contaminants in the soil, they add contaminants (e.g. lead) which are not allowed by regulations, or they add new migration paths for contaminants. Furthermore, recently developed high frequency vibrators for shallow investigations could be more effective at some sites than non-invasive impulsive sources because of their ability to tailor the source spectrum and reduce interference. The authors show preliminary results of a comparison test of eight non-invasive impulsive and swept sources in preparation for seismic reflection profiling on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee. Well log data are used to determine geologic contacts and to generate synthetic seismograms for the site. Common midpoint (CMP) seismic data for each source were collected at 95 geophone groups from 125 shot points along a 400m test line. Hydrophone data were obtained at 1.5m spacing between 61m and 133m depth in a hole near the center of the CMP line. As of March, 1994, brute stacks have been completed for three of the eight sources. Depth penetration is demonstrated in brute stacks and shot gathers, which show a 200ms reflector for all of the sources tested along portions of the line. Source effectiveness will also be evaluated by comparing images of several shallower reflectors (40--150ms) which are apparent in many of the records. Imaging of these reflectors appears to depend upon the ability of the source to generate sufficient high frequency energy (>100 Hz)

  13. Radiological accident 'The Citadel' medical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work exposes the medical actions carried out in the mitigation of the consequences of the accident and its main results. In a facility of storage of radioactive waste in Caracas, Venezuela, it was happened a radiological accident. This event caused radioactive contamination of the environment, as well as the irradiation and radioactive contamination of at least 10 people involved in the fact, in its majority children. Cuban institutions participated in response to the accident. Among the decisions adopted by the team of combined work Cuban-Venezuelan, we find the one of transferring affected people to Cuba, for their dosimetric and medical evaluation. Being designed a work strategy to develop the investigations to people affected by the radiological accident, in correspondence with the circumstances, magnitude and consequences of the accident. The obtained main results are: 100% presented affectations in its health, not associate directly to the accident, although the accident influenced in its psychological state. In 3 of studied people they were detected radioactive contamination with Cesium -137 with dose among 2.01 X 10-4 Sv up to 2.78 X 10-4 Sv. This accident demonstrated the necessity to have technical capacities to face these events and the importance of the international solidarity. (author)

  14. Medical basis for radiation accident preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Conference on The Medical Basis for Radiation Accident Preparedness was organized by the staff of the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) of the Medical and Health Sciences Division of Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU). The philosophical importance of relating, through investigation and education, the intellectual resources of higher education to the important social problems associated with energy, health, and the environment was the foundation of the meeting. The symposium, held under the auspices of the US Department of Energy, was the ninth since 1960 of a series of international conferences addressing the various aspects of radiation accidents. The approach of this most recent conference differed somewhat from that of those preceding it, in that it sought an international review of the gamut of the medical aspects of radiation injury, not only for the experts in the field, but also for other physicians and scientists who, in view of current events, have had the need to know thrust upon them. Individual entries were made for the separate papers

  15. Radiological investigations at the 'Taiga' nuclear explosion site: Site description and in situ measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramzaev, V., E-mail: V.Ramzaev@mail.ru [Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Mira str. 8, 197101 St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Repin, V.; Medvedev, A.; Khramtsov, E.; Timofeeva, M.; Yakovlev, V. [Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Mira str. 8, 197101 St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-15

    In the summer of 2009, we performed a field survey of the 'Taiga' peaceful underground nuclear explosion site, the Perm region, Russia (61.30{sup o} N, 56.60{sup o} E). The explosion was carried out by the USSR in 1971. This paper provides an extended summary of the available published data on the 'Taiga' experiment. A detailed description of the site is illustrated by original aerial and ground-level photos. A large artificial lake (700 m long and 350 m wide) currently occupies the central area of the experimental site. The ground lip surrounding the lake is covered by a newly grown mixed forest. In situ measurements, performed in August 2009, revealed elevated levels of the {gamma}-ray dose rate in air on the banks of the lake 'Taiga'. Two hot spots were detected on the eastern bank of the lake. The excess of the {gamma}-ray radiation is attributable to the man-made radionuclides {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. The current external {gamma}-ray dose rate to a human from the contaminations associated with the 'Taiga' experiment was between 9 and 70 {mu}Sv per week. Periodic monitoring the site is recommended. - Highlights: > We studied a radiation anomaly at the 'Taiga' underground nuclear explosion site. > The anomaly currently has an area of approximately 1 km{sup 2}. > The excess of {gamma}-ray radiation at the site is mainly attributable to {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. > The external effective dose may currently exceed the negligible value of 10 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}.

  16. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  17. Communication and industrial accidents

    OpenAIRE

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the concept of role distance, which emphasizes the organizational characteristics. The general hypothesis is that communication failures are a main cause of role distance and accident-proneness within orga...

  18. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 571: Area 9 Yucca Flat Plutonium Dispersion Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Bernadine; Matthews, Patrick

    2013-07-01

    CAU 571 is a grouping of sites where there has been a suspected release of contamination associated with nuclear testing. This document describes the planned investigation of CAU 571, which comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 09-23-03, Atmospheric Test Site S-9F • 09-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site T9-C • 09-23-12, Atmospheric Test Site S-9E • 09-23-13, Atmospheric Test Site T-9D • 09-45-01, Windrows Crater These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the investigation report. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on March 6, 2013, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (now the Nevada Field Office). The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 571. The site investigation process will also be conducted in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices to be applied to this activity. The potential contamination sources associated with CAU 571 CASs are from nuclear testing activities. The DQO process resulted in an assumption that total effective dose (TED) within a default contamination boundary exceeds the final action level (FAL) and requires corrective action. The presence and nature of contamination outside the default

  19. Nuclear accidents and epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consultation on epidemiology related to the Chernobyl accident was held in Copenhagen in May 1987 as a basis for concerted action. This was followed by a joint IAEA/WHO workshop in Vienna, which reviewed appropriate methodologies for possible long-term effects of radiation following nuclear accidents. The reports of these two meetings are included in this volume, and cover the subjects: 1) Epidemiology related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident. 2) Appropriate methodologies for studying possible long-term effects of radiation on individuals exposed in a nuclear accident. Figs and tabs

  20. Integrated account of method, site selection and programme prior to the site investigation phase[Planning for a Swedish repository for spent nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    In order to dispose of the spent nuclear fuel in a safe manner, SKB plans to site a deep repository and an encapsulation plant with associated canister fabrication and transportation system. After an integrated evaluation of feasibility studies and other material, SKB will proceed with investigations of the rock and studies regarding establishment of the deep disposal system in the municipality of Oskarshamn or in Northern Uppland. The plans also include further study of the prospects for a deep repository in the municipality of Nykoeping. In the municipality of Oskarshamn, SKB plans further studies of a siting of the deep repository at Simpevarp. There SKB wants to initiate site investigations with test drilling. For the encapsulation plant, SKB wants to continue studying a siting at CLAB. In Northern Uppland, SKB plans to study two siting alternatives for the deep repository. One is Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar, where SKB wants to initiate a site investigation with test drilling. The other is Tierp north of Skutskaer, where SKB intends to start test drilling in an area north of Tierp. First, however, a suitable drilling area with possible transport solutions needs to be defined. This alternative requires the participation of the municipalities of both Tierp and Aelvkarleby. A siting of the encapsulation plant in Northern Uppland will also be studied. For the municipality of Nykoeping, SKB plans to conduct a new safety assessment for the Fjaellveden area, based on data from previous investigations as well as additional studies of how a deep repository could be arranged. SKB will thereby gather data from yet another geographic and geological region beyond those that are prioritized. No test drilling is planned in Nykoeping. The goal of the site investigation phase is to obtain all permits needed to build the planned facilities. It will take an estimated 7 - 8 years to assemble the requisite supporting material, carry out consultations, compile siting

  1. GPR Surveys for Archaeological Investigation in a Bronze Age site from NW Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, L.; Sampaio, H. A.; Bettencourt, A. M. S.; Alves, M. I. C.

    2012-04-01

    This work describes the use of Ground-penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys in the identification and mapping of subtle cultural remains, from Pego Late Bronze Age settlement, located near the city of Braga, in NW Portugal. Bronze Age settlements from NW Portugal are characterized by the presence archaeological structures such as storage pits, postholes and trenches. These subtle structures have a very low dielectric contrast, making them quite difficult to detect in GPR surveys. In the case of Pego Site, previous investigations using conventional archaeological techniques, during a rescue excavation, partially revealed a residential area, a necropolis, and a stockade foundation trench that encircle the whole settlement. Different GPR prospection approaches were performed using GSSI Sir 3000 System, with 400 MHz antennae, with the objective of identify and define the borders between the different areas of human occupation inside the settlement. For the GPR survey, a grid-based approach with closely spaced parallels transects was defined, covering different areas inside the site. A first survey was conducted with a pseudo-3D methodology, with 50 cm profile separation, followed by a second survey with a dense data acquisition methodology, with 10 cm profile separation. Processed two-dimensional GPR profiles and constructed amplituded-slice maps were produced and analysed. Wave velocities were determined by reflected wave methods and by Hyperbola-Fitting method. The background analysis of the archaeological and geological features of the site, integrated with the preliminary interpretation of GPR data (profiles and amplitude slice-maps) suggest the presence of flat graves, in the west part of the site, and storage pits, post holes and some small trenches, in the centre and north area of the settlement. This interpretation indicates that the settlement is individualized in two different areas, a necropolis and a residential area, such as the first archaeological study

  2. Preliminary site characterization radiological monitoring plan for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project, Yucca Mountain Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities described in this plan occur in the early phases of site characterization. This document presents the Preliminary Site Characterization Radiological Monitoring Plan (PSCRMP) for collecting and evaluating data in support of the NNWSI Project. The PSCRMP defines and identifies control procedures for the monitoring activities. The PSCRMP activity will utilize integrating radon monitoring devices, a continuous radon monitor, and a particulate air sampler. These instruments will be used to establish the baseline radioactivity and/or radioactivity released due to early site characterization activities. The sections that follow provide a general project description, the specifics of the monitoring program, and the practices that will be employed to ensure the validity of the collected data by integrating quality assurance into all activities. Section 2 of this document describes the regulatory base of this document. Section 3 describes the site characterization activities which may lead to release of radioactivity. Section 4 provides a description of the potential sources of radioactivity that site characterization could generate. Section 5 summarizes the sampling and monitoring methodology, which will be used to monitor the potential sources of radioactivity. The network of sampling and monitoring equipment is described in Section 6, and Section 7 summarizes the systems operation activities. The data reporting activities are described in Section 8. Finally, a description of the Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) activities is provided in Section 9. Appendix A contains a summary of the procedures to be used in this program, and Appendix B contains technical specification on equipment and services. 20 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  3. A summary of INSITE activities in tracking SKB's spent fuel repository site investigations from 2002-2009 and of advice provided to the regulatory authorities on the status of site understanding at the end of the surface-based investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SSM and its predecessor SKI employed a team of earth scientists who followed and reviewed SKB's investigations of the potential spent nuclear fuel repository sites at Forsmark and Laxemar. This group was named INSITE (INdependent Site Investigation Tracking and Evaluation) and began its work in 2002 and completed its task with the review of the final versions SKB's site descriptive models, SDM-Site, in 2009. This report is a summary of INSITE's work over the eight-and-a-half year period of the site investigations and the lead-in and the wind-down to the work. It is intended to provide an outline and a record of how INSITE has worked and how its advice was generated and provided to SKI and, latterly, to SSM. Together with all the other documentation generated by INSITE, this report is intended to support the regulatory review of SKB's licence application for a spent nuclear fuel repository

  4. Lake and lake-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology; Brydsten, L [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    2000-09-01

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a preliminary determination of the ecological function of lakes are presented. The choice of parameters have been made with respect to a model for the determination of the nature conservation values of lakes which is currently being developed by the authors of this report, but is also well suited for a general description of the lake type and the functioning of the inherent ecosystem. The parameters have been divided into five groups: (1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; (2) The lake catchment area and its major constituents; (3) The lake morphometry; (4) The lake ecosystem; (5) Human-induced damages to the lake ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the lake, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the lake morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of different key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the lake, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the stratification pattern, light climate, influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, trophic status, distribution of key habitats, and presence of fish and rare fauna and flora in the lake. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and material in the system. The fifth group, finally, describes the degree on anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem and will in the context of site investigation programmes be used to judge eventual malfunctioning within the entire, or parts of, the lake

  5. Investigating sources of gaseous oxidized mercury in dry deposition at three sites across Florida, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sexauer Gustin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During 2009–2010, the State of Florida established a series of air quality monitoring stations to collect data for development of a statewide total maximum daily load (TMDL for mercury (Hg. At three of these sites, located near Ft. Lauderdale (DVE, Pensacola (OLF, and Tampa Bay (TPA, passive samplers for the measurement of air Hg concentrations and surrogate surfaces for measurement of Hg dry deposition were deployed. While it is known that Hg in wet deposition in Florida is high compared to the rest of the United States, there is little information on Hg dry deposition. The objectives of the work were to: (1 investigate the utility of passive sampling systems for Hg in an area with low and consistent air concentrations as measured by the Tekran® mercury measurement system, (2 estimate dry deposition of gaseous oxidized Hg, and (3 investigate potential sources. This paper focuses on Objective 3. All sites were situated within 15 km of 1000 MW electricity generating plants (EGPs and major highways. Bi-weekly dry deposition and passive sampler Hg uptake were not directly correlated with the automated Tekran® system measurements, and there was limited agreement between these systems for periods of high deposition. Using diel, biweekly, and seasonal Hg observations, and ancillary data collected at each site, the potential sources of Hg deposited to surrogate surfaces were investigated. With this information, we conclude that there are three major processes/sources contributing to Hg dry deposition in Florida, with these varying as a function of location and time of year. These include: (1 in situ oxidation of locally and regionally derived Hg facilitated by mobile source emissions, (2 indirect and direct inputs of Hg from local EGPs, and (3 direct input of Hg associated with long range transport of air from the Northeastern United States. We also suggest based on the data collected with the Tekran® and passive sampling systems that different

  6. Detailed imaging of flowing structures at depth using microseismicity: a tool for site investigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytharouli, S.; Lunn, R. J.; Shipton, Z. K.

    2011-12-01

    Field evidence shows that faults and fractures can act as focused pathways or barriers for fluid migration. This is an important property for modern engineering problems, e.g., CO2 sequestration, geological radioactive waste disposal, geothermal energy exploitation, land reclamation and remediation. For such applications the detailed characterization of the location, orientation and hydraulic properties of existing fractures is necessary. These investigations are expensive, requiring the hire of expensive equipment (excavator or drill rigs), which incur standing charges when not in use. In addition, they only provide information for discrete sample 'windows'. Non-intrusive methods have the ability to gather information across an entire area. Methods including electrical resistivity/conductivity and ground penetrating radar (GRP), have been used as tools for site investigations. Their imaging ability is often restricted due to unfavourable on-site conditions e.g. GRP is not useful in cases where a layer of clay or reinforced concrete is present. Our research has shown that high quality seismic data can be successfully used in the detailed imaging of sub-surface structures at depth; using induced microseismicity data recorded beneath the Açu reservoir in Brazil we identified orientations and values of average permeability of open shear fractures at depths up to 2.5km. Could microseismicity also provide information on the fracture width in terms of stress drops? First results from numerical simulations showed that higher stress drop values correspond to narrower fractures. These results were consistent with geological field observations. This study highlights the great potential of using microseismicity data as a supplementary tool for site investigation. Individual large-scale shear fractures in large rock volumes cannot currently be identified by any other geophysical dataset. The resolution of the method is restricted by the detection threshold of the local

  7. Lake and lake-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a preliminary determination of the ecological function of lakes are presented. The choice of parameters have been made with respect to a model for the determination of the nature conservation values of lakes which is currently being developed by the authors of this report, but is also well suited for a general description of the lake type and the functioning of the inherent ecosystem. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The lake catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The lake morphometry; 4) The lake ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the lake ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the lake, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the lake morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of different key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the lake, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the stratification pattern, light climate, influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, trophic status, distribution of key habitats, and presence of fish and rare fauna and flora in the lake. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and material in the system. The fifth group, finally, describes the degree on anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem and will in the context of site investigation programmes be used to judge eventual malfunctioning within the entire, or parts of, the lake ecosystem

  8. Interpretation and Modelling of Data from Site Investigations for a Geological Disposal facility located in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, H.; Bailey, L.; Parkes, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Directorate (RWMD) of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has been given the responsibility for implementing geological disposal in the United Kingdom. The implementation process envisaged is that once a candidate site or sites for a geological disposal facility have been identified, NDA-RWMD will undertake surface-based investigations at the site or sites. The information acquired through these investigations would be used as an input to the development of the safety case, for engineering design of the disposal facility and to demonstrate confidence to the key stakeholders that the potential disposal facility site is adequately understood. NDA-RWMD proposes to develop and present the information derived from site characterisation activities in the form of a single integrated Site Descriptive Model, i.e. a description of the geometry, properties of the bedrock and water, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms, which will be used to address the information requirements of all the end users (including the safety case). It is anticipated that, in a similar way to the approach adopted by international radioactive waste programmes led by SKB (Sweden) and Posiva (Finland), the integrated Site Descriptive Model will be divided into parts comprising clearly defined disciplines which may form either chapters or discipline-based models such as: • Geology; • Hydrogeology; • Hydrochemistry; • Geotechnical; • Radionuclide Transport Properties; • Thermal Properties; and • Biosphere. The integrated Site Descriptive Model will evolve as understanding of the particular site advances and will describe the current understanding of a specific site and, where relevant, the historical development of conditions at the site where this supports the conceptual understanding. The Site Descriptive Model will not include prediction of the future evolution of the conditions at the site: this will be an important component

  9. Analysis of Critical Issues in Biosphere Assessment Modelling and Site Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, M.J.; Thorne, M.C.; Little, R.H.; Pasco, R.F. [Quintessa Limited, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this document is to present a critical review of issues concerned with the treatment of the biosphere and geosphere-biosphere interface in long-term performance assessment studies for nuclear waste disposal in Sweden. The review covers three main areas of investigation: a review of SKB's plans for undertaking site investigations at candidate locations for the development of a deep geological repository for spent fuel; identification of critical uncertainties associated with SKB's treatment of the geosphere-biosphere interface in recent performance assessments; and a preliminary modelling investigation of the significance of features, events and processes in the near-surface environment in terms of their effect on the accumulation and redistribution of radionuclides at the geosphere-biosphere interface. Overall, SKB's proposals for site investigations are considered to be comprehensive and, if they can be carried out to the specification presented, will constitute a benchmark that other waste management organisations will have to work hard to emulate. The main concern is that expertise for undertaking the investigations and reporting the results could be stretched very thin. The authors have also identified weaknesses in the documentation concerning the collection of evidence for environmental change and on developing scenarios for future environmental change. A fundamental assumption adopted in the renewed assessment of the SFR 1 repository, which is not discussed or justified in any of the documentation that has been reviewed, is that radionuclides enter the water column of the coastal and lake models directly, without passing first through the bed sediments. The modelling study reported herein suggests that SKB's models are robust to range of alternative conceptual descriptions relating to the geosphere-biosphere interface. There are however situations, in which contaminated groundwater is released via sediment rather than directly

  10. Analysis of Critical Issues in Biosphere Assessment Modelling and Site Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this document is to present a critical review of issues concerned with the treatment of the biosphere and geosphere-biosphere interface in long-term performance assessment studies for nuclear waste disposal in Sweden. The review covers three main areas of investigation: a review of SKB's plans for undertaking site investigations at candidate locations for the development of a deep geological repository for spent fuel; identification of critical uncertainties associated with SKB's treatment of the geosphere-biosphere interface in recent performance assessments; and a preliminary modelling investigation of the significance of features, events and processes in the near-surface environment in terms of their effect on the accumulation and redistribution of radionuclides at the geosphere-biosphere interface. Overall, SKB's proposals for site investigations are considered to be comprehensive and, if they can be carried out to the specification presented, will constitute a benchmark that other waste management organisations will have to work hard to emulate. The main concern is that expertise for undertaking the investigations and reporting the results could be stretched very thin. The authors have also identified weaknesses in the documentation concerning the collection of evidence for environmental change and on developing scenarios for future environmental change. A fundamental assumption adopted in the renewed assessment of the SFR 1 repository, which is not discussed or justified in any of the documentation that has been reviewed, is that radionuclides enter the water column of the coastal and lake models directly, without passing first through the bed sediments. The modelling study reported herein suggests that SKB's models are robust to range of alternative conceptual descriptions relating to the geosphere-biosphere interface. There are however situations, in which contaminated groundwater is released via sediment rather than directly to the water column

  11. The role of quantitative uncertainty in the safety analysis of flammable gas accidents in Hanford waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a 1990 investigation into flammable gas generation, retention, and release mechanisms within the Hanford Site high-level waste tanks, personnel concluded that the existing Authorization Basis documentation did not adequately evaluate flammable gas hazards. The US Department of Energy Headquarters subsequently declared the flammable gas hazard as an unresolved safety issue. Although work scope has been focused on resolution of the issue, it has yet to be resolved due to considerable uncertainty regarding essential technical parameters and associated risk. Resolution of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue will include the identification of a set of controls for the Authorization Basis for the tanks which will require a safety analysis of flammable gas accidents. A traditional nuclear facility safety analysis is based primarily on the analysis of a set of bounding accidents to represent the risks of the possible accidents and hazardous conditions at a facility. While this approach may provide some indication of the bounding consequences of accidents for facilities, it does not provide a satisfactory basis for identification of facility risk or safety controls when there is considerable uncertainty associated with accident phenomena and/or data as is the case with potential flammable gas accidents at the Hanford Site. This is due to the difficulties in identifying the bounding case and reaching consensus among safety analysts, facility operations and engineering, and the regulator on the implications of the safety analysis results. In addition, the bounding cases are frequently based on simplifying assumptions that make the analysis results insensitive to variations among facilities or the impact of alternative safety control strategies. The existing safety analysis of flammable gas accidents for the Tank Waste Remediation system (TWRS) at the Hanford Site has these difficulties. However, Hanford Site personnel are developing a refined safety analysis approach

  12. Investigation and simulation on fate and transport of leachate from a livestock mortality burial site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J.-W.; Lee, S.; Kaown, D.; Lee, K.-K.

    2012-04-01

    Leachate released from livestock mortality burial during decomposition of carcasses can be a threat to groundwater quality. Monitoring study of groundwater quality in the vicinity of livestock burial reported that a caution is needed to prevent contamination of both groundwater and soil, especially in case of mortality burial (Glanville, 2000; Ritter and Chirnside, 1995). The average concentration of ammonium-N and chloride is reported to be 12,600 mg/l and 2,600 mg/l respectively, which is 2-4 times higher than leachate from earthen manure storages and landfills (Pratt, 2009). To assess the potential threat of burial leachate to groundwater quality, simulation of leachate transport is performed based on a hydrogeologic model of an actual mortality burial site. At the burial site of this study located at a hill slope, two mortality pits have been constructed along the slope to bury swine during the outbreak of nationwide foot and mouth disease(FMD) in 2011. Though the pits were partially lined with impermeable material, potential threat of leachate leakage is still in concern. Electrical resistivity survey has been performed several times at the burial site and abnormal resistivity zones have been detected which are supposed as leachate leakage from the burial. Subsurface model including unsaturated zone is built since the leakage is supposed to occur mainly in lateral of the burial pits which is in unsaturated zone. When examining leachate transport, main focus is given to a nitrogenous compound and colloidal character of FMD virus. Nitrifying of denitrifying characters of nitrogenous compound and transport of colloidal particles are affected mainly by soil water content in unsaturated zone. Thus, the fate and transport of burial leachate affected by seasonal variation in recharge pattern is investigated.

  13. Investigation of well redevelopment techniques for the MWD Well Field, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemson University, in cooperation with the Savannah River Site (SRS) is investigating well treatment techniques at the Mixed Waste Disposal (MWD) Well Field at SRS. This well field consists of fifteen wells screened in three aquifers with a downward trending head gradient. Based on aquifer performance tests of the MWD wells, it has been determined that many of the wells exhibit low well efficiencies and high skin factors, indicative of damaged wells. Bacterial investigations show that the biological activity in these wells is low, probably due to a high pH environment. Evaluation of the Calcite Saturation Index for each well indicates that nearly all of the MWD wells have the potential for precipitating calcite and calcite deposits have been observed on downhole equipment. The calcite deposits may occur due to the dissolution of the grout mixtures by waters infiltrating down the well annulus driven by the downward head gradient with subsequent precipitation of calcite in the higher pH sand pack. Well rehabilitation techniques currently under investigation include acidification, hydraulic fracturing and traditional physical methods. In addition to treating the wells at MWD, the authors plan to perform aquifer performance tests and evaluate post-treatment skin factors. Further research into the long term effects of well treatment will be conducted, focusing on long term chemical changes brought about by the treatments

  14. Analysis of Fukushima Daiichi Accident Using HFACS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Saeed Almheiri [Korea Advanced Institue of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The shadow of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident is still too big and will last long. On the other hand, it could still teach us lots of lessons to better design and operate nuclear power plants. In this paper, we will be focusing on the Fukushima Daiichi accident, especially on human organizational factors. We will analyze the accident using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in order to better understand the organizational climate of TEPCO{sup 1} and NISA{sup 2} that led to Fukushima Daiichi Accident. HFACS was developed for the U. S. aviation industry and has been used at many industries like the rail and mining industries. We found that the HFACS to be greatly beneficial in investigating the latent and organizational causes for the accident. The application results show that the causes of Fukushima Daiichi accident were spread out from sharp end (i.e. Unsafe Act) to blunt end (i. e. Organizational Influences). This means that the corresponding countermeasures should cover from front line staff to management. Thus, we managed to develop a better understanding on how to prevent similar errors or violations. The incident and near-miss have a lot of helpful information because it may show the actual and latent deficiencies of complex systems. We applied the HFACS into Fukushima Daiichi accident to better locate the causes related to both sharp and blunt ends of operation of NPP. In order to derive useful lessons from the accident analysis, the analyst should try to find the similarities not differences from the incident. It is imperative that whatever accident/incident analysis systems we use, we should fully utilize the disastrous Fukushima accident.

  15. Planning for the Handling of Radiation Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The developing atomic energy programmes and the widespread use of radiation sources in medicine, agriculture, industry and research have had admirable safety records. Throughout the world the number of known accidents in which persons have been exposed to harmful am ounts of ionizing radiation is relatively small, and only a few deaths have occurred. Meticulous precautions are being taken to maintain this good record in all work with radiation sources and to keep the exposure of persons as low as practicable. In spite of all the precautions that are taken, accidents may occur and they may be accompanied by the injury or death of persons and damage to property. It is only prudent to take those steps that are practicable to prevent accidents and to plan in advance the emergency action that would limit the injuries and damage caused by those accidents that do occur. Emergency plans should be sufficiently broad to cover unforeseen or very improbable accidents as well as those that are considered credible. Some accidents may involve only the workers in an establishment, those working directly with the source and possibly their colleagues. Other accidents may have consequences, notably in the form of radioactive contamination of the environment, that affect the general public, possibly far from the site of the accident. The preparation of plans for dealing with radiation accidents is therefore obligatory both for the various authorities that are responsible for protecting the health and the food and water supplies of the public, and for the operator of an installation containing radiation sources.

  16. Investigations of fungal diversity in wooden structures and soils at historic sites on the Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenz, Brett E; Blanchette, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Investigations of microbial diversity in Antarctic are important to begin to understand ecosystem functioning and decomposition processes. This study documents fungi at 9 historic sites on the Antarctic Peninsula collected from wooden structures, other organic materials, and soils during a joint National Science Foundation and British Antarctic Survey expedition in 2007. Many of these sites had wooden structures built by the British during the World War II Operation Tabarin, but others visited included the American "East Base" on Stonington Island and the Swedish hut on Snow Hill Island. Fungi were cultured on several different media and pure cultures were obtained and identified by DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region. Cadophora species previously found to attack historic wooden structures on Ross Island, Antarctica, were found at all but 1 location sampled in the Peninsula region. Fungi causing decay in the historic wooden structures and artifacts and those causing mold problems inside the structures are of great concern, and conservation efforts are urgently needed to help preserve these important polar heritage structures. The results presented also expand our knowledge on the identity of fungi present throughout the Antarctic Peninsula region and provide insights into the organisms responsible for decomposition and nutrient recycling.

  17. Animal Investigation Program: Nevada Test Site and Vicinity. Annual report, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are presented from the radioanalyses of tissues collected from cattle, mule deer, desert bighorn sheep, rabbits, chukar, golden eagles, and other wildlife that resided on or near the Nevada Test Site during 1979. Routine and special activities of the Animal Investigation Program are also discussed. Other than the naturally occurring potassium-40, gamma-emitting radionuclides were detected infrequently. Strontium-90 concentrations in bones from deer, cattle, and desert bighorn sheep were lower than those of recent years. Tritium concentrations were generally within expected environmental limits with the exception of animals exposed to known sources of contamination; e.g., drainage ponds from Area 12 tunnels or the Sedan Crater. Plutonium levels in all tissues from all species showed little variation to those levels in samples collected in recent years. Radionuclide tissue concentrations were generally higher in the tissues of animals residing in Area 15 than in similar animals collected from other Nevada Test Site areas. Hypothetical annual dose estimates to man were calculated on the basis of the daily consumption of 0.5 kilogra of liver or muscle from animals that contained peak radionuclide levels. The movements of 25 mule deer outfitted with collars containing a radio transmitter unit were monitored on a weekly basis. No gross or microscopic lesions were found in necropsied animals that could be directly attributed to the effects of ionizing radiation

  18. The remedial investigation of marine sediment at the United Heckathorn Superfund site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, P.J.; Kohn, N.P.; Gardiner, W.W.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1994-02-01

    The former United Heckathom site in Richmond, California, was used to process and package chlorinated pesticides from the 1940s to the mid-1960s. These activities resulted in the contamination of upland soils and marine sediment in the adjacent waterways. Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) was requested by USEPA to conduct a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS). of the marine portion of the site. The objectives of this RI are to determine the extent of pesticide contamination in inner Richmond Harbor, estimate the total volume of contaminated sediment, characterize the subsurface geology; characterize the biological effects of contaminated sediment; and characterize the quality of effluent derived from dewatered sediment through treatability testing. Sediment cores were collected from 53 stations. Vertical subsamples from each sediment core were analyzed for chlorinated pesticides. Sediment from selected cores was also analyzed for other contaminants. Younger Bay Mud (YBM) sediment from multiple stations was mixed to form composite samples representing various segments of the study area. These composites were used for solid-phase toxicity and bioaccumulation tests, and the preparation of liquid-phase samples for treatability testing. The probable quality of effluent produced by dewatering sediment was evaluated by chemical and toxicological testing of suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) and elutriate samples.

  19. Recent drilling program to investigate radionuclide migration at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent drilling affords new opportunities to investigate the occurrence, distribution and transport of radionuclides in the unsaturated and saturated zone at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. This program is unique becmise of the elevated activities of radionuclides encountered during drilling (> 3.7E+6 Bq/L 3H), extreme completion depths (> 950 m), the expense of constructing new wells (> $IE+6/borehole), and collaboration of government, academic, and industrial partners in the planning and execution of the program. The recent chilling is significant because it substantively augments earlier field of radionuclide migration at NTS, most notably the 1974 CAMBRIC RNM experiment Sites of five nuclear tests fired below or adjacent to the saturated zone have been drilled. Three of the events were fired in Yucca Flat which is a hydrologically closed basin and two were fired in fractured volcanics of Pahute Mesa. Results from Yucca Flat indicate that volatile and refractory radionuclides, fractionated at zero time, we not highly mobile under sawmted conditions. In contrast, borcholes completed on Pahute Mesa indicate Wgh concentrations of tritium (> 3.7E+6 Bq/L 3H) and other radionuclides may be rted more than 300 m from event cavities as dissolved species or as colloids

  20. The management of individuals involved in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author defines the objectives and the coverage of two radiation accident courses presented in 1990 by the US Radiation Emergency Assistance Centre and Training Site of the Oak Ridge Associated Universities together with some Australian Medical institutions. It is estimated that the courses, directed towards physicians, radiotherapists and nurses gave plenty practical advices and details on how to go about radiation accident managements. A manual on handling radiation accidents is also to be prepared after the courses

  1. Site study plan for Playa investigations, Deaf Smith County, Texas: Salt Repository Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-02

    This plan defines the purpose and objectives of the Playa Investigation Study, presents a plan of work to provide the information necessary to resolve issues, and discusses the rationale for test method selection. The required information will be obtained from existing well drilling records, describing and testing of soil and rock samples recovered from project test holes, geophysical well logs, seismic surveys, and shallow test pits excavated at ground surface. There have been numerous, often conflicting, theories presented to explain the origin(s) of the playas of the Texas High Plains. The primary purpose of this study is to establish if existing playas and playa alignments are related to deeper subsurface structure, such as faulting or salt dissolution, the potential for future playa development, and the significance of existing and/or future playas on siting a repository in Deaf Smith County, Texas. 11 refs.

  2. Improved GPR interpretation through resolution of lateral velocity heterogeneity: Example from an archaeological site investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joel; Nichols, Josh; Steinbronn, Leah; Bradford, John

    2009-05-01

    In a typical common-offset ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey, lateral velocity contrasts may go undetected leading to misinterpretation. Resolution of lateral velocity heterogeneity requires multi-fold acquisition and analysis. Further, pre-stack depth migration (PSDM) is required to produce accurate images in the presence of large lateral velocity gradients. In an archaeological investigation conducted near Boise, Idaho, we delineated a portion of what we interpret to be an abandoned dump site. Using multi-fold acquisition with reflection tomography, we identified an abrupt lateral velocity increase of ˜ 40% resulting in a substantial velocity pull-up in the time domain. PSDM corrected for the velocity pull-up enabling a more accurate interpretation and identification of additional structures of potential historical significance. The migration velocity model provided additional constraints on materials which enhanced our understanding of the subsurface.

  3. A SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION OF THE ANCIENT JEWELS FOUND IN THE IBIDA SITE, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica VASILACHE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A scientific investigation of objects discovered in archaeological dig sites involves a high interdisciplinary intake of methods and techniques of related disciplines, such as chemistry, physics, archeology, art history, geology, biology, etc. The present paper presents the results of the analysis, carried out by corroborating SEM-EDX and micro-FTIR techniques, of jewels discovered during the archaeological excavations from Ibida in the village Slava Rusa, the city of Tulcea, Romania. These studies helped establish the characteristics of the materials the jewelry were made of, to identify the type of alloy, in order to determine the area of origin of the raw materials and the processing technology, based on which one can evaluate the economic and social changes over time, with their integration into the cultural space.

  4. Remedial investigation of the High-Explosives (HE) Process Area, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crow, N.B.; Lamarre, A.L.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the results of a Remedial Investigation (RI) to define the extent of high explosives (HE) compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in the soil, rocks, and ground water of the HE Process Area of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300 Facility. The report evaluates potential public health environmental risks associated with these compounds. Hydrogeologic information available before February 15, 1990, is included; however, chemical analyses and water-level data are reported through March 1990. This report is intended to assist the California Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB)--Central Valley Region and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating the extent of environmental contamination of the LLNL HE Process Area and ultimately in designing remedial actions. 90 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 570: Area 9 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2012-08-01

    CAU 570 comprises the following six corrective action sites (CASs): • 02-23-07, Atmospheric Test Site - Tesla • 09-23-10, Atmospheric Test Site T-9 • 09-23-11, Atmospheric Test Site S-9G • 09-23-14, Atmospheric Test Site - Rushmore • 09-23-15, Eagle Contamination Area • 09-99-01, Atmospheric Test Site B-9A These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 30, 2012, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 570. The site investigation process will also be conducted in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices to be applied to this activity. The presence and nature of contamination at CAU 570 will be evaluated based on information collected from a field investigation. Radiological contamination will be evaluated based on a comparison of the total effective dose at sample locations to the dose-based final action level. The total effective dose will be calculated as the total of separate estimates of internal and external dose. Results from the analysis of soil samples will be used to calculate internal radiological

  6. Development of preliminary Nevada transportation accident characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US DOE, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office (YMSCPO) has been given the responsibility for characterization of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the analysis of repository-related impacts in the State of Nevada. In support of these responsibilities, the YMSCPO initiated a preliminary study to develop background information on the character of the transportation accidents occurring on the highways and raillines in the State of Nevada. The results of this preliminary study shows that while the transportation accidents in Nevada follow national trends, there are some distinct differences between Nevada and the rest of the Nation. This paper summarizes those results

  7. Site investigation SFR. Hydrogeological modelling of SFR. Model version 0.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has conducted site investigations for a planned extension of the existing final repository for short-lived radioactive waste (SFR). A hydrogeological model is developed in three model versions, which will be used for safety assessment and design analyses. This report presents a data analysis of the currently available hydrogeological data from the ongoing Site Investigation SFR (KFR27, KFR101, KFR102A, KFR102B, KFR103, KFR104, and KFR105). The purpose of this work is to develop a preliminary hydrogeological Discrete Fracture Network model (hydro-DFN) parameterisation that can be applied in regional-scale modelling. During this work, the Geologic model had not yet been updated for the new data set. Therefore, all analyses were made to the rock mass outside Possible Deformation Zones, according to Single Hole Interpretation. Owing to this circumstance, it was decided not to perform a complete hydro-DFN calibration at this stage. Instead focus was re-directed to preparatory test cases and conceptual questions with the aim to provide a sound strategy for developing the hydrogeological model SFR v. 1.0. The presented preliminary hydro-DFN consists of five fracture sets and three depth domains. A statistical/geometrical approach (connectivity analysis /Follin et al. 2005/) was performed to estimate the size (i.e. fracture radius) distribution of fractures that are interpreted as Open in geologic mapping of core data. Transmissivity relations were established based on an assumption of a correlation between the size and evaluated specific capacity of geologic features coupled to inflows measured by the Posiva Flow Log device (PFL-f data). The preliminary hydro-DFN was applied in flow simulations in order to test its performance and to explore the role of PFL-f data. Several insights were gained and a few model technical issues were raised. These are summarised in Table 5-1

  8. Stocks and energy shocks : the impact of energy accidents on stock market value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.; Boersen, A.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate how financial market participants value energy accidents. We employ an event study to look into the response of stock markets to 209 accidents. These accidents were derived from Sovacool's (2008) database on major energy accidents from 1907 to 2007. It appears that the stock market in

  9. Investigation of processes controlling summertime gaseous elemental mercury oxidation at midlatitudinal marine, coastal, and inland sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhuyun; Mao, Huiting; Lin, Che-Jen; Kim, Su Youn

    2016-07-01

    A box model incorporating a state-of-the-art chemical mechanism for atmospheric mercury (Hg) cycling was developed to investigate the oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) at three locations in the northeastern United States: Appledore Island (AI; marine), Thompson Farm (TF; coastal, rural), and Pack Monadnock (PM; inland, rural, elevated). The chemical mechanism in this box model included the most up-to-date Hg and halogen chemistry. As a result, the box model was able to simulate reasonably the observed diurnal cycles of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and chemical speciation bearing distinct differences between the three sites. In agreement with observations, simulated GOM diurnal cycles at AI and TF showed significant daytime peaks in the afternoon and nighttime minimums compared to flat GOM diurnal cycles at PM. Moreover, significant differences in the magnitude of GOM diurnal amplitude (AI > TF > PM) were captured in modeled results. At the coastal and inland sites, GEM oxidation was predominated by O3 and OH, contributing 80-99 % of total GOM production during daytime. H2O2-initiated GEM oxidation was significant (˜ 33 % of the total GOM) at the inland site during nighttime. In the marine boundary layer (MBL) atmosphere, Br and BrO became dominant GEM oxidants, with mixing ratios reaching 0.1 and 1 pptv, respectively, and contributing ˜ 70 % of the total GOM production during midday, while O3 dominated GEM oxidation (50-90 % of GOM production) over the remaining day when Br and BrO mixing ratios were diminished. The majority of HgBr produced from GEM+Br was oxidized by NO2 and HO2 to form brominated GOM species. Relative humidity and products of the CH3O2+BrO reaction possibly significantly affected the mixing ratios of Br or BrO radicals and subsequently GOM formation. Gas-particle partitioning could potentially be important in the production of GOM as well as Br and BrO at the marine site.

  10. Preliminary site description Laxemar stage 2.1. Feedback for completion of the site investigation including input from safety assessment and repository engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-15

    The Laxemar subarea is the focus for the complete site investigations in the Simpevarp area. The south and southwestern parts of the subarea (the so-called 'focused area') have been designated for focused studies during the remainder of the site investigations. This area, some 5.3 square kilometres in size, is characterised on the surface by an arc shaped body of quartz monzodiorite gently dipping to the north, flanked in the north and south by Aevroe granite. The current report documents work conducted during stage 2.1 of the site-descriptive modelling of the Laxemar subarea. The primary objective of the work performed is to provide feedback to the site investigations at Laxemar to ensure that adequate and timely data and information are obtained during the remaining investigation stage. The work has been conducted in cooperation with the site investigation team at Laxemar and representatives from safety assessment and repository engineering. The principal aim of this joint effort has been to safeguard that adequate data are collected that resolve the remaining issues/uncertainties which are of importance for repository layout and long-term safety. The proposed additional works presented in this report should be regarded as recommended additions and/or modifications in relation to the CSI programme published early 2006. The overall conclusion of the discipline-wise review of critical issues is that the CSI programme overall satisfies the demands to resolve the remaining uncertainties. This is interpreted to be partly a result of the close interaction between the site modelling team, site investigation team and the repository engineering teams, which has been in operation since early 2005. In summary, the performed interpretations and modelling have overall confirmed the version 1.2 results. The exception being Hydrogeology where the new Laxemar 2.1 borehole data suggest more favourable conditions in the south and west parts of the focused area compared

  11. Developing techniques for cause-responsibility analysis of occupational accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Mousa; Ghorbani, Roghayeh

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to specify the causes of occupational accidents, determine social responsibility and the role of groups involved in work-related accidents. This study develops occupational accidents causes tree, occupational accidents responsibility tree, and occupational accidents component-responsibility analysis worksheet; based on these methods, it develops cause-responsibility analysis (CRA) techniques, and for testing them, analyzes 100 fatal/disabling occupational accidents in the construction setting that were randomly selected from all the work-related accidents in Tehran, Iran, over a 5-year period (2010-2014). The main result of this study involves two techniques for CRA: occupational accidents tree analysis (OATA) and occupational accidents components analysis (OACA), used in parallel for determination of responsible groups and responsibilities rate. From the results, we find that the management group of construction projects has 74.65% responsibility of work-related accidents. The developed techniques are purposeful for occupational accidents investigation/analysis, especially for the determination of detailed list of tasks, responsibilities, and their rates. Therefore, it is useful for preventing work-related accidents by focusing on the responsible group's duties.

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0 / June 2003), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-06-27

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 536 consists of a single Corrective Action Site (CAS): 03-44-02, Steam Jenny Discharge. The CAU 536 site is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of possible contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for CAS 03-44-02. The additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) prior to evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of this field investigation are to be used to support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3-2004.

  13. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 370: T-4 Atmospheric Test Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with ROTC-1, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pat Matthews

    2008-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 370 is located in Area 4 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 370 is comprised of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 04-23-01, Atmospheric Test Site T-4. This site is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and/or implement a corrective action. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The investigation results may also be used to evaluate improvements in the Soils Project strategy to be implemented. The site will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on December 10, 2007, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Desert Research Institute; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 370. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to the CAS. The scope of the CAI for CAU 370 includes the following activities: • Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. • Conduct radiological surveys. • Perform field screening. • Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine whether contaminants of concern are present. • If contaminants of concern are present, collect samples to define the extent of the

  14. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site, Knoxville, Tennessee: Volume 2, Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This document contains the appendixes for the remedial investigation and feasibility study for the David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 site in Knoxville, Tennessee. The following topics are covered in the appendixes: (A) David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site Historical Data, (B) Fieldwork Plans for the David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site, (C) Risk Assessment, (D) Remediation Technology Discussion, (E) Engineering Support Documentation, (F) Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements, and (G) Cost Estimate Documentation.

  15. An interdisciplinary geoscientific investigation of a proposed site for radioactive waste disposal in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geological reconnaissance of potentially suitable formations for long-term storage of highly active radioactive waste in Austria showed that such formations could be expected within the Bohemian Massif. Careful interpretation of LANDSAT imagery and available air-photo coverage led to the selection of an unfaulted area, approximately in the centre of a large body of granodiorite. Field geology confirmed the homogeneity of granodiorite; hydrologic investigations revealed the absence of a groundwater table except for small amounts of surface water in the soil cover and weathering zone. A morphological analysis showed that erosional processes are minimal at present and will remain so in the foreseeable geological future. Geophysical investigations included, amongst others, magnetic measurements (vertical intensity). The area chosen for further investigation is situated in a region of positive measurements of vertical intensity. Some minor flat anomalies are due to higher magnetite content of the granodiorite, which has magnetic susceptibilities of (4.0-5.8)x10-4 (SI) or (32-46)x10-6 (CGS). Well-logging demonstrated high electric resistivities (some 1000 ohm.m) in fresh rock; these values are reduced to about 100 ohm.m in weathered and fractured rock. Temperature logs reveal undisturbed increase with depth; the average temperature gradient (to 90 m depth) is 0.0180C/m. There is no microscopic evidence of tectonism or fracturing. In conclusion, the large-scale regional features which indicate stability and lack of tectonism, and geophysical data, are supported by a detailed petrological investigation of the granodiorite. The chosen area and site seem to be well suited to meet the containment and isolation requirements for disposal of all sorts of radioactive waste to be expected. (author)

  16. Communication and industrial accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the conc

  17. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-BC-2 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This work plan and attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-BC-2 oper