WorldWideScience

Sample records for accident exposure

  1. [Occupational noise exposure and work accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Adriano; Cordeiro, Ricardo; Gonçalves, Cláudia Giglio de Oliveira

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify whether occupational noise exposure is a significant risk factor for work accidents in the city of Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. This hospital-based case-control study included 600 workers aged 15-60 who suffered typical occupational accidents between May and October 2004 and were seen at the Piracicaba Orthopedics and Trauma Center. The control group comprised 822 workers, aged 15-60, who were also seen at the Center, and either had a non-occupational accident or were accompanying someone who had suffered an accident. A multiple logistic regression model was adjusted with work accident as an independent variable, controlled by covariables of interest such as noise exposure. The risk of having a work accident was about twice as high among workers exposed to noise, after controlling for several covariables. Occupational noise exposure not only affected auditory health status but was also a risk factor for work accidents.

  2. Chernobyl accident. Exposures and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.; Bouville, A.; Hall, P.; Savkin, M.; Storm, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986 happened during an experimental test of the electrical control system as the reactor was being shut down for routine maintenance. The operators, in violation of safety regulations, had switched off important control systems and allowed the reactor to reach unstable, low-power conditions. A sudden power surge caused a steam explosion that ruptured the reactor vessel and allowed further violent fuel-steam interactions that destroyed the reactor and the reactor building. The Chernobyl accident was the most serious to have ever occurred in the nuclear power industry. The accident caused the early death of 30 power plant employees and fire fighters and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine inhabited by several million people. Radionuclides released from the reactor that caused exposure of individuals were mainly iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Iodine-131 has a short radioactive half-life (8 days), but it can be transferred relatively rapidly through milk and leafy vegetables to humans. Iodine becomes localized in the thyroid gland. For reasons of intake of these foods, size of thyroid gland and metabolism, the thyroid doses are usually greater to infants and children than to adults. The isotopes of caesium have relatively long half-lives (caesium-134: 2 years; caesium-137: 30 years). These radionuclides cause long-term exposures through the ingestion pathway and from external exposure to these radionuclides deposited on the ground. In addition to radiation exposure, the accident caused long-term changes in the lives of people living in the contaminated regions, since measures intended to limit radiation doses included resettlements, changes in food supplies, and restrictions in activities of individuals and families. These changes were accompanied by major economic, social and political changes in the affected countries resulting

  3. Contribution of the Exposure Pathways After a Severe Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joeun; Hwang, Wontae; Han, Moonhee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jae, Moosung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A radiological dose assessment calculates the amount of radiation energy absorbed by a potentially exposed individual as a result of a specific exposure. Public can be exposure from several exposure pathways. External doses occur when the body is exposed to radioactive material outside the body. When making the emergency preparedness for severe accident from NPPs, therefore, we need to have comprehension about those exposure pathways. Thus, in this study, an evaluation of external and internal dose from radioactive materials during severe accident was performed to find out exposure pathway from which the dose has the highest value for several radionuclides. The basic study to make out the relation between exposure pathways and dose from them was performed. In the emergency phase, the most affecting nuclide type on public was noble gas, especially {sup 133}Xe, and the dominant exposure pathway was could shine. Also, in the long term-phase, the most affecting nuclide type on public was fission product, especially {sup 90}Sr, and the dominant exposure pathway was water ingestion. The information of the dose composition from exposure pathway obtained in this study might be basic data for making emergency preparedness plan for severe accident. In the future, assessment of the source term is expected to enhance the reliability of dose assessment during severe accident.

  4. Thyroid doses from external gamma-exposure following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tretyakevich, Sergey; Kukhta, Tatyana; Minenko, Victor; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Gavrilin, Yury; Khrouch, Valeri; Shinkarev, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    Full text: An increase of thyroid cancer incidence among children in Belarus has been observed after the Chernobyl accident. The main contributor to the thyroid dose was caused by 131 I intake with fresh milk in 1986. Other contributions to the thyroid dose (external gamma-exposure, short-lived iodine isotopes, internal radiocesium) were small in comparison to the dose from 131 I intakes soon after the accident. However, exposures to external radiation continued for a number of years after the accident. Thyroid doses from external gamma-exposure following the Chernobyl accident were mainly caused by gamma-exposure to 24 nuclides: 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 99 Mo, 99 mTc, 103 Ru, 103m Rh, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 125m Te, 131m Te, 131 I, 132 Te, 132 I, 133 I, 135 I, 134 Cs, 136 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 Ba, 140 La, 141 Ce, 144 Ce, 144 Pr, 239 Np. Data of personal interview were used to take into account the personal residence history for the time elapsed from the Chernobyl accident until the interview (10 to 15 years later). Cumulative thyroid doses caused by external gamma-exposure during the passage of the radioactive cloud and from the ground contamination following the Chernobyl accident have been reconstructed. The median thyroid dose from external gamma-exposure to ∼11,770 cohort members of an epidemiological study was estimated to be ∼6 mGy. There are ∼3,400 persons with external dose estimates that exceed 20 mGy. Exposure from radionuclides deposited on the ground was the main source of external dose. The contribution from the passing radioactive cloud to external dose was found to be negligible. (author)

  5. Analytical method and result of radiation exposure for depressurization accident of HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawa, K.; Shiozawa, S.; Mikami, H.

    1990-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is now proceeding with the construction design of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Since the HTTR has some characteristics different from LWRs, analytical method of radiation exposure in accidents provided for LWRs can not be applied directly. This paper describes the analytical method of radiation exposure developed by JAERI for the depressurization accident, which is the severest accident in respect to radiation exposure among the design basis accidents of the HTTR. The result is also described in this paper

  6. Lessons learned from radiological accidents at medical exposures in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagundes, J.S.; Ferreira, A.F.; Lima, C.M.A.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    An exposure is considered accidental in radiotherapy when there is a substantial deviation in the prescription of treatment. In this work, an analysis of published radiological accidents, both in Brazil and internationally, was performed during medical exposures in radiotherapy treatments, removing the main lessons learned. Of the research carried out, we highlight Brazil with four radiological accidents and one death in the period between 2011 and 2014; the United States of America with 169 accidents with two deaths from 2000 to 2010 and France from 2001 to 2014 had 569 deaths without patients. Lessons learned have been described, for example, that maintenance personnel training should specify limitations or restrictions on the handling or adjustment of critical parts on the accelerator. It is recommended to apply the 10 main lessons learned due to radiological accidents during medical exposures in radiotherapy treatments to avoid future events

  7. Accidents and incidents with external and/or internal radiation-exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    An individual radiation exposure accident is an unexpected and unintended event which gives rise to an overexposure (external or internal). By overexposure one means all external or internal exposure which could lead to the exceeding of the regulatory norms. Going beyond these limits does not always produce pathological manifestations. The term radiological accident is, in practice, used only when there is an occurrence of some biological or clinical response, or when some therapeutic action is required. A radio-exposure accident can occur: within or from a nuclear power plant or from a center employing ionizing radiation. These are the most frequent; and during the transport of radioactive materials. These are exceptional events. The tanks and containers used in the transport of highly radioactive substances are exhaustively studied for their resistance to accidents, and the conditions of transport determined by very strict national and international regulations. The transport of substances of low radioactivity (labelled molecules, radiopharmaceuticals...) carries only minor risks

  8. Environmental radiation exposure in case of power plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eder, K.

    1977-01-01

    The paper tries to overcome prejudices concerning radiation effects due to power plant accidents as well as to show the radiation exposure that may be expected near the the patient and to indicate ways and means to avoid or reduce this radiation exposure and to avoid contamination. It is a contribution to better information on radiation accidents and radiolesions in nuclear power plants with the aim of close cooperation between power plants, physicians, and hospitals and of helping to overcome erroneous popular assumptions. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Measuring accident risk exposure for pedestrians in different micro-environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassarre, Sylvain; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George; Golias, John

    2007-11-01

    Pedestrians are mainly exposed to the risk of road accident when crossing a road in urban areas. Traditionally in the road safety field, the risk of accident for pedestrian is estimated as a rate of accident involvement per unit of time spent on the road network. The objective of this research is to develop an approach of accident risk based on the concept of risk exposure used in environmental epidemiology, such as in the case of exposure to pollutants. This type of indicator would be useful for comparing the effects of urban transportation policy scenarios on pedestrian safety. The first step is to create an indicator of pedestrians' exposure, which is based on motorised vehicles' "concentration" by lane and also takes account of traffic speed and time spent to cross. This is applied to two specific micro-environments: junctions and mid-block locations. A model of pedestrians' crossing behaviour along a trip is then developed, based on a hierarchical choice between junctions and mid-block locations and taking account of origin and destination, traffic characteristics and pedestrian facilities. Finally, a complete framework is produced for modelling pedestrians' exposure in the light of their crossing behaviour. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated on an artificial network and a first set of results is obtained from the validation of the models in observational studies.

  10. Organizational influence on the occurrence of work accidents involving exposure to biological material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz; Cenzi, Camila Maria; dos Santos, Heloisa Ehmke Cardoso; Trovó, Marli Elisa Mendes

    2013-01-01

    to analyze work accidents involving exposure to biological materials which took place among personnel working in nursing and to evaluate the influence of the organizational culture on the occurrence of these accidents. a retrospective, analytical study, carried out in two stages in a hospital that was part of the Network for the Prevention of Work Accidents. The first stage involved the analysis of the characteristics of the work accidents involving exposure to biological materials as recorded over a seven-year period by the nursing staff in the hospital studied, and registered in the Network databank. The second stage involved the analysis of 122 nursing staff members' perception of the institutional culture, who were allocated to the control group (workers who had not had an accident) and the case group (workers who had had an accident). 386 accidents had been recorded: percutaneous lesions occurred in 79% of the cases, needles were the materials involved in 69.7% of the accidents, and in 81.9% of the accident there was contact with blood. Regarding the influence of the organizational culture on the occurrence of accidents, the results obtained through the analysis of the two groups did not demonstrate significant differences between the average scores attributed by the workers in each organizational value or practice category. It is concluded that accidents involving exposure to biological material need to be avoided, however, it was not possible to confirm the influence of organizational values or practices on workers' behavior concerning the occurrence of these accidents.

  11. Some implications of an event-based definition of exposure to the risk of road accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes a new definition of exposure to the risk of road accident as any event, limited in space and time, representing a potential for an accident to occur by bringing road users close to each other in time or space of by requiring a road user to take action to avoid leaving the roadway. A typology of events representing a potential for an accident is proposed. Each event can be interpreted as a trial as defined in probability theory. Risk is the proportion of events that result in an accident. Defining exposure as events demanding the attention of road users implies that road users will learn from repeated exposure to these events, which in turn implies that there will normally be a negative relationship between exposure and risk. Four hypotheses regarding the relationship between exposure and risk are proposed. Preliminary tests support these hypotheses. Advantages and disadvantages of defining exposure as specific events are discussed. It is argued that developments in vehicle technology are likely to make events both observable and countable, thus ensuring that exposure is an operational concept. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Attributable fraction of work accidents related to occupational noise exposure in a Southeastern city of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Adriano; Cordeiro, Ricardo

    2007-07-01

    Noise is the most frequent type of occupational exposure and can lead to both auditory and extra-auditory dysfunction as well as increasing the risk of work accidents. The purpose of this study was to estimate the attributable fraction of work accidents related to occupational noise exposure in a medium-sized city in Southeast Brazil. In this hospital-based case-control study, including 600 cases and 822 controls, the odds ratio of work accidents (controlled for several covariables) was obtained classifying occupational noise exposure into four levels and determining the prevalence at each level. Based on these data, the calculated attributable fraction was 0.3041 (95%CI: 0.2341-0.3676), i.e., 30% of work accidents in the study area were statistically associated with occupational noise exposure. The authors discuss the causes of this association and the implications for the prevention of work accidents.

  13. Radiation Exposure and Thyroid Cancer Risk After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Comparison with the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, S.; Takamura, N.; Ohtsuru, A.; Suzuki, S.

    2016-01-01

    The actual implementation of the epidemiological study on human health risk from low dose and low-dose rate radiation exposure and the comprehensive long-term radiation health effects survey are important especially after radiological and nuclear accidents because of public fear and concern about the long-term health effects of low-dose radiation exposure have increased considerably. Since the Great East Japan earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan, Fukushima Prefecture has started the Fukushima Health Management Survey Project for the purpose of long-term health care administration and medical early diagnosis/treatment for the prefectural residents. Especially on a basis of the lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident, both thyroid examination and mental health care are critically important irrespective of the level of radiation exposure. There are considerable differences between Chernobyl and Fukushima regarding radiation dose to the public, and it is very difficult to estimate retrospectively internal exposure dose from the short-lived radioactive iodines. Therefore, the necessity of thyroid ultrasound examination in Fukushima and the intermediate results of this survey targeting children will be reviewed and discussed in order to avoid any misunderstanding or misinterpretation of the high detection rate of childhood thyroid cancer. (authors)

  14. Radiation exposure in the West Germany as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident in comparison with the natural and the anthropogenic radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberhausen, E

    1986-01-01

    Taking the natural radiation exposure in West Germany to be between 1 mSv (100 mrem) and 6 mSv (600 mrem), the radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl reactor accident is assessed to be in the range of 10% of natural exposure in the first year after the accident. The dose commitment assessed for the 50-year post-accident period is about 1% of natural exposure. There are no epidemiological studies available that could give information on a possible or probable increase of the individual risk to develop late damage such as cancer or genetic observations due to these very low radiation doses. (orig./HSCH).

  15. Some implications of an event-based definition of exposure to the risk of road accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new definition of exposure to the risk of road accident as any event, limited in space and time, representing a potential for an accident to occur by bringing road users close to each other in time or space of by requiring a road user to take action to avoid leaving the road......This paper proposes a new definition of exposure to the risk of road accident as any event, limited in space and time, representing a potential for an accident to occur by bringing road users close to each other in time or space of by requiring a road user to take action to avoid leaving...

  16. [Study of work accidents related to human body fluids exposure among health workers at a university hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Ana Cristina; Felli, Vanda Elisa Andres

    2006-01-01

    This descriptive and exploratory study from a quantitative approach aimed to characterize workers who were victims of work accidents related to human body fluids exposure and to evaluate the accident victim care protocol. The population consisted of 48 workers who were victims of work accidents involving exposure to human body fluids, from July 2000 to June 2001. Data were collected through a form and interviews. Results showed that nursing workers presented higher accident risk levels and that 87.50% involved piercing and cutting material, such as needles and butterflies (70%). As to the accident-related situation/activity, the workers indicated that 25% were due to an "inadequate act during the procedure"; 19.64% mentioned that "it happened" and 29.17% answered that they did not have any suggestion. This study provided important tools to review and elaborate strategies to prevent accidents involving exposure to human body fluids.

  17. Radiation Exposure and Thyroid Cancer Risk After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Comparison with the Chernobyl Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, S; Takamura, N; Ohtsuru, A; Suzuki, S

    2016-09-01

    The actual implementation of the epidemiological study on human health risk from low dose and low-dose rate radiation exposure and the comprehensive long-term radiation health effects survey are important especially after radiological and nuclear accidents because of public fear and concern about the long-term health effects of low-dose radiation exposure have increased considerably. Since the Great East Japan earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan, Fukushima Prefecture has started the Fukushima Health Management Survey Project for the purpose of long-term health care administration and medical early diagnosis/treatment for the prefectural residents. Especially on a basis of the lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident, both thyroid examination and mental health care are critically important irrespective of the level of radiation exposure. There are considerable differences between Chernobyl and Fukushima regarding radiation dose to the public, and it is very difficult to estimate retrospectively internal exposure dose from the short-lived radioactive iodines. Therefore, the necessity of thyroid ultrasound examination in Fukushima and the intermediate results of this survey targeting children will be reviewed and discussed in order to avoid any misunderstanding or misinterpretation of the high detection rate of childhood thyroid cancer. © World Health Organisation 2016. All rights reserved. The World Health Organization has granted Oxford University Press permission for the reproduction of this article.

  18. Exposure to static magnetic fields and risk of accidents among a cohort of workers from a medical imaging device manufacturing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Suzan; Slottje, Pauline; Portengen, Lützen; Kromhout, Hans

    2016-05-01

    To study the association between occupational MRI-related static magnetic fields (SMF) exposure and the occurrence of accidents. Recent and career SMF exposure was assessed by linking a retrospective job exposure matrix to payroll based job histories, for a cohort of (former) workers of an imaging device manufacturing facility in the Netherlands. Occurrence of accidents was collected through an online questionnaire. Self-reported injuries due to accidents in the past 12 months, and the first (near) traffic accident while commuting to work and from work were analyzed with logistic regression and discrete-time survival analyses, respectively. High recent SMF exposure was associated with an increased risk of accidents leading to injuries [odds ratio (OR) 4.16]. For high recent and career SMF exposure, an increased risk was observed for accidents resulting in physician-treated injuries (OR 5.78 and 2.79, respectively) and an increased lifetime risk of (near) accidents during commute to work (hazard ratios 2.49 and 2.45, respectively), but not from work. We found an association between MRI-related occupational SMF exposure and an increased risk of accidents leading to injury, and for commute-related (near) accidents during the commute from home to work. Further research into health effects of (long-term) SMF exposure is warranted to corroborate our findings. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Report on recent over-exposure accidents with a medical linac in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudoh, Hisaaki

    2003-01-01

    On December 21, 2001, at a hospital in Tokyo, an engineer setting a medical-linac was over-exposed by the equipment due to lack of communication between workers. The exposed dose was initially reported as 1000 mSv (1 Sv), but later revised to 200 mSv at most. The outline of the accident and the statistical data on radiation exposure accidents in Japan and the world are briefly overlooked. (author)

  20. Comparative analysis of the countermeasures taken to mitigate exposure of the public to radioiodine following the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents: lessons from both accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyba, Vladimir; Samoylov, Alexander; Shinkarev, Sergey

    2018-04-01

    In the case of a severe radiation accident at a nuclear power station, the most important radiation hazard for the public is internal exposure of the thyroid to radioiodine. The purposes of this paper were (i) to compare countermeasures conducted (following the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents) aimed at mitigation of exposure to the thyroid for the public, (ii) to present comparative estimates of doses to the thyroid and (iii) to derive lessons from the two accidents. The scale and time of countermeasures applied in the early phase of the accidents (sheltering, evacuation, and intake of stable iodine to block the thyroid) and at a later time (control of 131I concentration in foodstuffs) have been described. After the Chernobyl accident, the estimation of the thyroid doses for the public was mainly based on direct thyroid measurements of ~400 000 residents carried out within the first 2 months. The highest estimates of thyroid doses to children reached 50 Gy. After the Fukushima accident, the estimation of thyroid doses was based on radioecological models due to a lack of direct thyroid measurements (only slightly more than 1000 residents were measured). The highest estimates of thyroid doses to children were a few hundred mGy. Following the Chernobyl accident, ingestion of 131I through cows' milk was the dominant pathway. Following the Fukushima accident, it appears that inhalation of contaminated air was the dominant pathway. Some lessons learned following the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents have been presented in this paper.

  1. Epidemiological profile of work-related accidents with biological exposure among medical students in a surgical emergency room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Phillipe Geraldo Teixeira de Abreu; Driessen, Anna Luiza; da Costa, Ana Claudia Brenner Affonso; Nasr, Adonis; Collaço, Iwan Augusto; Tomasich, Flávio Daniel Saavedra

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the accidents with biological material among medical students interning in a trauma emergency room and identify key related situations, attributed causes and prevention. we conducted a study with a quantitative approach. Data were collected through a questionnaire applied via internet, with closed, multiple-choice questions regarding accidents with biological material. The sample comprised 100 students. thirty-two had accidents with biological material. Higher-risk activities were local anesthesia (39.47%), suture (18.42%) and needle recapping (15.79%). The main routes of exposure to biological material were the eyes or mucosa, with 34%, and syringe needle puncture, with 45%. After contamination, only 52% reported the accident to the responsible department. The main causes of accidents and routes of exposure found may be attributed to several factors, such as lack of training and failure to use personal protective equipment. Educational and preventive actions are extremely important to reduce the incidence of accidents with biological materials and improve the conduct of post-exposure. It is important to understand the main causes attributed and situations related, so as general and effective measures can be applied.

  2. Pathways, levels and trends of population exposure after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.; Jacob, P.; Likhtarev, D.; Minenko, V.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper main regularities of the long-term exposure of the population of former USSR after the Chernobyl accident are described. Influence of some natural, human and social factors on the forming of external and internal dose in the rural and urban population was studied in the most contaminated regions of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine during 1986-1994. Radioecological processes of I, Cs and Sr nuclides migration in biosphere influencing the processes of population dose formation are considered. The model of their intake in human body was developed and validated by large-scaled measurements of the human body content. The model of external exposure of different population groups was developed and confirmed by the series of individual external dose measurements with thermoluminescent dosemeters. General dosimetric characteristics of the population exposure are given along with some samples of accumulated external and internal effective doses in inhabitants of contaminated areas in 1986-1995. Forecast of the external and internal population effective dose is given for the period of 70 years after the accident

  3. Transuranium contamination in BWRs after fuel accidents and its impact on decommissioning exposures and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, K.

    1996-12-01

    The theme of the present study is to quantify the amount of transuranium activity in different parts of the plant after various fuel accidents, and which impact such contamination has on radiation exposure and costs for decommissioning the plant. The consequences of four different accident degrees have been treated: Common fuel failures, e.g. in line with recent experiences from Swedish BWRs; Fuel channel obstruction resulting in partial melting of one fuel assembly; Total loss of electric power resulting in partial meltdown of the core, but with primary circuit intact preventing a massive contamination of the containment; A LOCA followed by a core meltdown and melting and penetration of the reactor pressure vessel. The amount of transuranium activity distributed, the form of this activity and the plant contamination are evaluated for these accidents. The costs and exposures have been split up on cleanup activities after the accident and decommissioning. 75 refs.

  4. Transuranium contamination in BWRs after fuel accidents and its impact on decommissioning exposures and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, K.

    1996-12-01

    The theme of the present study is to quantify the amount of transuranium activity in different parts of the plant after various fuel accidents, and which impact such contamination has on radiation exposure and costs for decommissioning the plant. The consequences of four different accident degrees have been treated: Common fuel failures, e.g. in line with recent experiences from Swedish BWRs; Fuel channel obstruction resulting in partial melting of one fuel assembly; Total loss of electric power resulting in partial meltdown of the core, but with primary circuit intact preventing a massive contamination of the containment; A LOCA followed by a core meltdown and melting and penetration of the reactor pressure vessel. The amount of transuranium activity distributed, the form of this activity and the plant contamination are evaluated for these accidents. The costs and exposures have been split up on cleanup activities after the accident and decommissioning. 75 refs

  5. Acrylonitrile exposure assessment in the emergency responders of a major train accident in Belgium: a human biomonitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nieuwenhuyse, A; Fierens, S; De Smedt, T; De Cremer, K; Vleminckx, C; Mertens, B; Van Overmeire, I; Bader, M; De Paepe, P; Göen, T; Nemery, B; Schettgen, T; Stove, C; Van Oyen, H; Van Loco, J

    2014-12-15

    On May 4, 2013, a train transporting chemicals derailed in Wetteren, Belgium. Several tanks loaded with acrylonitrile (ACN) exploded, resulting in a fire and a leakage of ACN. To determine exposure to ACN and to assess discriminating factors for ACN exposure in the emergency responders involved in the on-site management of the train accident. The study population consisted of 841 emergency responders. Between May 21 and June 28, they gave blood for the determination of N-2-cyanoethylvaline (CEV) hemoglobin adducts and urine for the measurement of cotinine. They also filled in a short questionnaire. 163 (26%) non-smokers and 55 (27%) smokers showed CEV concentrations above the reference values of 10 and 200 pmol/g globin, respectively. The 95th percentile in the non-smokers was 73 pmol/g globin and the maximum was 452 pmol/g globin. ACN exposure among the non-smokers was predicted by (1) the distance to the accident, (2) the duration of exposure, and (3) the occupational function. Emergency responders involved in the on-site management of the train accident were clearly exposed to ACN from the accident. However, the extent of exposure remained relatively moderate with CEV concentrations staying within the ranges described in literature as background for a smoking population. Moreover, the exposure was less pronounced in the emergency responders as compared to that in the local population. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Radiological accidents in medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Different radiological accidents that may occur in medical practice are shown. The following topics are focused: accident statistics for medical exposure, accidental medical exposures, radiotherapy accidents and potential accidental scenarios [es

  7. Contribution of internal exposures to the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balonov, M I; Anspaugh, L R; Bouville, A; Likhtarev, I A

    2007-01-01

    The main pathways leading to exposure of members of the general public due to the Chernobyl accident were external exposure from radionuclides deposited on the ground and ingestion of contaminated terrestrial food products. The collective dose to the thyroid was nearly 1.5 million man Gy in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine with nearly half received by children and adolescents. The collective effective dose received in 1986-2005 by approximately five million residents living in the affected areas of the three countries was approximately 50,000 man Sv with approximately 40% from ingestion. That contribution might have been larger if countermeasures had not been applied. The main radionuclide contributing to both external and internal effective dose is 137Cs with smaller contributions of 134Cs and 90Sr and negligible contribution of transuranic elements. The major demonstrated radiation-caused health effect of the Chernobyl accident has been an elevated incidence of thyroid cancer in children.

  8. Distribution of external exposures in the Russian population after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.; Golikov, V.Yu.; Erkin, V.G.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2000-01-01

    The data of the monitoring of external exposure in the population of the Chernobyl accident area in Russia during seven years are presented. The deterministic model has been developed for estimation of the average dose of external exposure for different groups of urban and rural populations. The model has been verified with the results of over 10 thousand measurements of individual doses in inhabitants by means of thermoluminescent dosimeters. The stochastic model is being developed by forming the dose of external exposure in the population of a contaminated area, which allows to predict the dose distribution in critical groups of a population for the purposes of radiation protection. (author)

  9. Operational accidents and radiation exposures at ERDA facilities, 1975-1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) accident frequency and losses were similar to that of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) from 1970 through 1974. The ERDA incidence rates per 200,000 work hours were 1.05 for lost workday injuries and 17.8 for workdays lost. These rates are about one-third of the national industrial averages reported by the National Safety Council (NSC). Ten fatalities occurred at ERDA facilities resulting in an average annual rate of three deaths per 100,000 workers compared to the national rate of 14 deaths per 100,000 workers. ERDA's total property loss from 1975 to 1977 was $11.9 million; $1.8 million caused by fires. The average annual loss rates, in cents loss per $100 valuation, were 1.15 for non-fire and 0.18 for fire. These rates are higher than the AEC post; Rocky Flats period (1970 through 1974) which were 0.60 non-fire and 0.10 fire; but are lower than the average annual rates which were 2.4 non-fire and 1.7 fire for the entire history of the AEC. Accidents causing more than $50,000 in property damage are tabulated. ERDA continued to make a strong effort to eliminate unnecessary radiation exposure to workers. The number of employees exceeding 1 rem decreased from 2999 in 1975 to 2274 in 1977. The two appendixes include criteria for accident investigations and summaries of accident investigation reports.

  10. Radiological protection from radioactive waste management in existing exposure situations resulting from a nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Daisuke; Hattori, Takatoshi

    2013-01-01

    In environmental remediation after nuclear accidents, radioactive wastes have to be appropriately managed in existing exposure situations with contamination resulting from the emission of radionuclides by such accidents. In this paper, a framework of radiation protection from radioactive waste management in existing exposure situations for application to the practical and reasonable waste management in contaminated areas, referring to related ICRP recommendations was proposed. In the proposed concept, intermediate reference levels for waste management are adopted gradually according to the progress of the reduction in the existing ambient dose in the environment on the basis of the principles of justification and optimisation by taking into account the practicability of the management of radioactive waste and environmental remediation. It is essential to include the participation of relevant stakeholders living in existing exposure situations in the selection of reference levels for the existing ambient dose and waste management.

  11. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Russia: search for effects of radiation exposure in utero using psychometric tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabukhin, Yu.S.; Ryabukhin, V.Yu.

    2001-01-01

    Psychometric indicators for mental development of children in towns distinguished by radioactive contamination resulting from the Chernobyl accident are studied. Using some radiological information obtained after the Chernobyl accident, values of expected intelligence quotient (IQ) reduction have been assessed as a result of brain exposure in utero due to various components of dose. Comparing the results of examinations in Novozybkov, Klintsy and Obninsk, no confident evidence has been obtained that radiation exposure of the developing brain exerts influence on indicators for mental development [ru

  12. [Accidents with exposure to biological material contaminated with HIV in workers at a third level hospital in Madrid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Codes Ilario, Aurelia; de Juanes Pardo, José Ramón; Arrazola Martínez, M del Pilar; Jaén Herreros, Felisa; Sanz Gallardo, M Inmaculada; Lago López, Emilia

    2004-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is an occupational hazard among healthcare professionals accidentally contaminated with HIV-positive blood. This study is aimed at describing the characteristics of the accidents involving blood of HIV-positive patients recorded over a sixteen-year period at a general hospital. Epidemiological study of the accidents reported in 2001 involving biological material from an HIV-positive source by the healthcare personnel of a general hospital throughout the 1986-2001 period entailing the presence of biological material from HIV-positive serology individuals. Individual, time and place-related variables, in addition to the initial serologies and those throughout the protocolized follow-up were studied for those individuals involved in these accidents. A total 550 accidents entailing an HIV-positive source were reported. The average number of accidents was 34.4/year. The accidental exposure rate for the period under study was 7.5/1000 workers/year. The professional group showing the highest accident rate was the nursing staff (54.4%). Percutaneous injuries were the most frequent (80.2%). The mean exposure rate was 2.6/100 beds/year. The anatomical areas involved to the greatest degree were the fingers (75.6%). A total 53.4% of those injured completed the serological follow-up without having shown any seroconversion. Throughout the sixteen-year period under study, the annual incidence of accidents involving an HIV-positive source increased from the 27 accidents reported in 1986 to the 60 accidents reported in 1990, there having been a downward trend as of that point in time, to the point of 12 accidents having been recorded in 2001.

  13. Operational accidents and radiation exposures at DOE facilities. Fiscal year 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The Department of Energy's safety performance in fiscal year 1979 showed improvement in all categories over fiscal year 1978. The loss rates were less than one-half the United States industry average as reported by the National Safety Council. Incidence rates per 200,000 workhours were 1.1 lost workday cases and 17.2 lost workdays compared to 1.2 lost workday cases and 17.6 lost workdays during fiscal year 1978. The recordable occupational illness rate, based on only 80 cases, was 0.06 cases per 200,000 workhours compared to 0.07 cases per 200,000 workhours for fiscal year 1978. Nine fatalities of contractor employees resulted in an annual rate of 6.0 deaths per 100,000 workers compared with 10 fatalities during fiscal year 1978, and an annual rate of 6.7 deaths per 100,000 workers. The total Department of Energy property loss reported during fiscal year 1979 was $3.3 million; $765,400 was caused by fire, and $2.5 million by other causes. A total of 121 million vehicle miles of official travel resulted in 685 accidents with $338,400 in property damage. The loss rates of 5.7 accidents per million vehicle miles and $2.80 per 1000 miles were improvements over the fiscal year 1978 rates of 5.8 accidents per million vehicle miles and $2.97 property damage per 1000 miles. The 104,986 monitored Department of Energy and its contractor employees received a total dose of 9040 rem in calendar year 1979. Both the total dose and the 1748 employees receiving radiation exposures greater than 1 rem in 1979 represent a continuing downward trend from the calendar year 1978 total dose of 9380 rem and the 1826 employees who received radiation exposures greater than 1 rem

  14. ESTIMATED RATE OF FATAL AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS ATTRIBUTABLE TO ACUTE SOLVENT EXPOSURE AT LOW INHALED CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute solvent exposures may contribute to automobile accidents because they increase reaction time and decrease attention, in addition to impairing other behaviors. These effects resemble those of ethanol consumption, both with respect to behavioral effects and neurological mecha...

  15. Re-evaluation of internal exposure from the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malatova, I.; Skrkal, J.

    2006-01-01

    Doses from internal and external exposure due to the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population were estimated early in 1986. Later on, with more experimental results, doses from internal exposure were calculated more precisely. The initial predictions were rather conservative leading thus to higher doses than it appeared one year later. Monitoring of the environment, food chain and monitoring of internal contamination has been performed on the whole territory of the country since 1986 up to present time and has thus enabled reevaluation of the original estimates and also prediction of doses in future. This paper is focused mainly on evaluation of in vivo measurements of people. Use of the sophisticate software I.M.B.A. Professional Plus led to new estimation of committed effective doses and calculated inhalation intakes of radionuclides lead to estimation of content of radionuclides in the air. Ingestion intakes were also evaluated and compared with estimates from the results of measurements of food chain. Generally, the doses from the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population were low; however, as a few radionuclides have been measurable in environment, food chain and human body (137 Cs up to present), it is a unique chance for studying behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere. Experience and conclusions which follow from the monitoring of the Chernobyl accident are unique for running and development of monitoring networks. Re evaluation of internal doses to the Czech population from the Chernobyl accident, using alternative approach, gave generally smaller doses than original estimation; still, the difference was not significant. It was shown that the doses from inhalation of 131 I and 137 Cs were greater than originally estimated, whereas doses from ingestion intake were lower than the originally estimated ones. (authors)

  16. MRI-related magnetic field exposures and risk of commuting accidents - A cross-sectional survey among Dutch imaging technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Anke; Schaap, Kristel; Kromhout, Hans

    2017-07-01

    Imaging technicians working with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may experience acute effects such as vertigo or dizziness when being exposed. A previous study also reported an increased risk of accidents in MRI exposed staff. We aimed at evaluating commuting accident risk in Dutch imaging technicians. Of invited imaging technicians, 490 (29%) filled in a questionnaire pertaining to (near) accidents when driving or riding a bike, health, lifestyle and work practices. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between exposure to MRI-related electromagnetic fields and risk of commuting (near) accidents in the year prior to the survey, adjusted for a range of potential confounders. Our cross-sectional study indicated an increased risk of (near) accidents if imaging technicians had worked with MRI in the year prior to the survey (odds ratio OR 2.13, 95%CI 1.23-3.69). Risks were higher in persons who worked with MRI more often (OR 2.32, 95%CI 1.25-4.31) compared to persons who worked sometimes with MRI (OR 1.91, 95%CI 0.98-3.72), and higher in those who had likely experienced higher peak exposures to static and time-varying magnetic fields (OR 2.18, 95%CI 1.06-4.48). The effect was seen on commuting accidents that had occurred on the commute from home to work as well as accidents from work to home or elsewhere. Imaging technicians working with MRI scanners may be at an increased risk of commuting (near) accidents. This result needs confirmation and potential risks for other groups (volunteers, patients) should be investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Occupational accidents due to exposure to biological material in the multidisciplinary team of the emergency service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Adriana Cristina; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza; Paiva, Maria Henriqueta Rocha Siqueira

    2009-09-01

    This transversal, survey-based research was carried out with a multiprofessional emergency care team in Belo Horizonte, between June and December 2006. The study aimed at estimating the incidence of occupational accidents by exposure to biological material, post-accidents conducts and demographic determinant factors. The study applied a structured questionnaire and descriptive analyses, as well as incidence calculations and logistic regression. The incidence of accidents with biological material reached 20.6%, being 40.8% by sharp materials and 49.0% by body fluids; 35.3% of the accidents took place among physicians and 24.0% among nurses. Post-accidents procedures: no medical assessment, 63.3%; under-notification, 81.6%; no conduct, 55.0%; and no serological follow-up, 61.2%. Factors associated with accidents: working time in the institution (Odds Ratio--OR, 2.84; Credible Interval--CI 95%-1.22-6.62); working in advanced support units (OR = 4.18; CI 95%--1.64-10.64); and interaction between working time in the institution and working in Basic Support Unit (OR 0.27; CI 95%--0.07-1.00). In order to reduce accidents, the implementation of post-accident protocols and follow-up, as well as under-notification norms, are suggested.

  18. Follow-up study of a pregnant woman 16 years after exposure in the Xinzhou radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhaohui; Liang Li; Zhang Shu-lan; Jia Tingzhen; Liu Qingjie; Ma Liwen; Su Xu; Liu Ying; Chen Sen; Qing Bin; Cao Baoshan; Xiao Yu; Ying Wenchen; Zhang Yu; Wang Wenxue; Wang Zuoyuan

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the late effects of radiation on child-bearing women, a follow-up study was performed on a 39-year-old survivor 16 years after a 60 Co radiation accident. The woman, Fang, was 19 weeks pregnant at the time of exposure. Physical examinations, a full range of clinical laboratory and imaging tests, as well as cytogenetic analyses were conducted to evaluate Fang's current health conditions. Fang shows the appearance of premature ageing and has a decreased menstrual period. Laboratory studies and imaging tests suggest nodular goitre disease and osteoporosis. Otherwise, no apparent abnormalities were found in the major organs. No malignant tumours were detected by either tumour markers or imaging tests. However, the existence of chromosome aberrations warrants long-term follow-up for tumour incidence in the future. Fang became pregnant 8 years after the accident, but suffered a miscarriage due to the death of the foetus at 6 months into the pregnancy. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the intrauterine death of the foetus might be associated with the previous exposure. There is no evidence of malignant tumours as of the date of the follow-up study. Non-cancerous diseases, i.e. thyroid disease and osteoporosis, which may be related to radiation exposure, are the major manifestations of the long-term effects of the accident. (note)

  19. MIGRATORY GAME BIRDS AS A SOURCE OF PUBLIC EXPOSURE FROM THE FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines assessments of the impact of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident on exposure of the Russian Federation population related to the seasonal migration of game birds. Intake of artificial radionuclides with meat of migratory game birds is shown to be one of the major pathways for the population exposure in the Far Eastern region of the country.

  20. Determination of gamma-ray exposure rate from short-lived fission products under criticality accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Hiroshi; Ohno, Akio; Aizawa, Eijyu

    2002-01-01

    For the assessment of γ-ray doses from short-lived fission products (FPs) under criticality accident conditions, γ-ray exposure rates varying with time were experimentally determined in the Transient Experiment Critical Facility (TRACY). The data were obtained by reactivity insertion in the range of 1.50 to 2.93$. It was clarified from the experiments that the contribution of γ-ray from short-lived FPs to total exposure during the experiments was evaluated to be 15 to 17%. Hence, the contribution cannot be neglected for the assessment of γ-ray doses under criticality accident conditions. Computational analyses also indicated that γ-ray exposure rates from short-lived FPs calculated with the Monte Carlo code, MCNP4B, and photon sources based on the latest FP decay data, the JENDL FP Decay Data File 2000, well agreed with the experimental results. The exposure rates were, however, extremely underestimated when the photon sources were obtained by the ORIGEN2 code. The underestimation is due to lack of energy-dependent photon emission data for major short-lived FP nuclides in the photon database attached to the ORIGEN2 code. It was also confirmed that the underestimation arose in 1,000 or less of time lapse after an initial power burst. (author)

  1. Exposure to static magnetic fields and risk of accidents among a cohort of workers from a medical imaging device manufacturing facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, Suzan; Slottje, Pauline; Portengen, Lützen; Kromhout, Hans

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the association between occupational MRI-related static magnetic fields (SMF) exposure and the occurrence of accidents. METHODS: Recent and career SMF exposure was assessed by linking a retrospective job exposure matrix to payroll based job histories, for a cohort of (former)

  2. Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for PTSD Symptoms after a Road Accident: An Uncontrolled Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J. Gayle; Palyo, Sarah A.; Winer, Eliot H.; Schwagler, Brad E.; Ang, Eu Jin

    2007-01-01

    This report examined whether Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) could be used in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in the aftermath of a serious motor vehicle accident. Six individuals reporting either full or severe subsyndromal PTSD completed 10 sessions of VRET, which was conducted using software designed to…

  3. Medical care of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Isamu

    1986-02-01

    This monograph, divided into six chapters, focuses on basic knowledge and medical strategies for radiation accidents. Chapters I to V deal with practice in emergency care for radiation exposure, covering 1) medical strategies for radiation accidents, 2) personnel dosimetry and monitoring, 3) nuclear facilities and their surrounding areas with the potential for creating radiation accidents, and emergency medical care for exposed persons, 4) emergency care procedures for radiation exposure and radioactive contamination, and 5) radiation hazards and their treatment. The last chapter provides some references. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Three years after the Chernobyl reactor accident: How high was the radiation exposure really?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, A.

    1989-01-01

    The author is an expert in radiological protection and radiation hygiene and on the basis of the current state of the art briefly answers some of the most frequently raised questions in connection with the reactor accident: (1) Which were the sources of the radiation exposure of the population? (2) How high are the resulting radiation doses? (3) Which radionuclides have entered the food chains, and how high is their contribution to the radiation exposure? (4) What is the long-term dose to children and adults due to the contamination of food? (5) What is the resulting radiation hazard? (MG) [de

  5. Assessment of environmental public exposure from a hypothetical nuclear accident for Unit-1 Bushehr nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohrabi, M.; Ghasemi, M.; Amrollahi, R.; Khamooshi, C.; Parsouzi, Z. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Health Physics and Dosimetry Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Unit-1 of the Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP-1) is a VVER-type reactor with 1,000-MWe power constructed near Bushehr city at the coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran. The reactor has been recently operational to near its full power. The radiological impact of nuclear power plant (NPP) accidents is of public concern, and the assessment of radiological consequences of any hypothetical nuclear accident on public exposure is vital. The hypothetical accident scenario considered in this paper is a design-basis accident, that is, a primary coolant leakage to the secondary circuit. This scenario was selected in order to compare and verify the results obtained in the present paper with those reported in the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR 2007) of the BNPP-1 and to develop a well-proven methodology that can be used to study other and more severe hypothetical accident scenarios for this reactor. In the present study, the version 2.01 of the PC COSYMA code was applied. In the early phase of the accidental releases, effective doses (from external and internal exposures) as well as individual and collective doses (due to the late phase of accidental releases) were evaluated. The surrounding area of the BNPP-1 within a radius of 80 km was subdivided into seven concentric rings and 16 sectors, and distribution of population and agricultural products was calculated for this grid. The results show that during the first year following the modeled hypothetical accident, the effective doses do not exceed the limit of 5 mSv, for the considered distances from the BNPP-1. The results obtained in this study are in good agreement with those in the FSAR-2007 report. The agreement obtained is in light of many inherent uncertainties and variables existing in the two modeling procedures applied and proves that the methodology applied here can also be used to model other severe hypothetical accident scenarios of the BNPP-1 such as a small and large break in the reactor coolant system as well

  6. [Measures against Radiation Exposure Due to Large-Scale Nuclear Accident in Distant Place--Radioactive Materials in Nagasaki from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jun; Sera, Koichiro; Takatsuji, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    To investigate human health effects of radiation exposure due to possible future nuclear accidents in distant places and other various findings of analysis of the radioactive materials contaminating the atmosphere of Nagasaki due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The concentrations of radioactive materials in aerosols in the atmosphere of Nagasaki were measured using a germanium semiconductor detector from March 2011 to March 2013. Internal exposure dose was calculated in accordance with ICRP Publ. 72. Air trajectories were analyzed using NOAA and METEX web-based systems. (134)Cs and (137)Cs were repeatedly detected. The air trajectory analysis showed that (134)Cs and (137)Cs flew directly from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant from March to April 2011. However, the direct air trajectories were rarely detected after this period even when (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected after this period. The activity ratios ((134)Cs/(137)Cs) of almost all the samples converted to those in March 2011 were about unity. This strongly suggests that the (134)Cs and (137)Cs detected mainly originated from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Although the (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations per air volume were very low and the human health effects of internal exposure via inhalation is expected to be negligible, the specific activities (concentrations per aerosol mass) were relatively high. It was found that possible future nuclear accidents may cause severe radioactive contaminations, which may require radiation exposure control of farm goods to more than 1000 km from places of nuclear accidents.

  7. 1976 Hanford americium-exposure incident: accident description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurray, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    An accident is described, involving the explosion of an ion-exchange column containing about 100 g of 241 Am. A chemical operator was injured in this accident, receiving acid burns and superficial cuts on the upper part of his body. From 1 to 5 curies of 241 Am is estimated to have been deposited on the injured worker and on his clothing

  8. Personnel Dosimetry for Radiation Accidents. Proceedings of a Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Accidents involving the exposure of persons to high levels of radiation have been few in number and meticulous precautions are taken in an effort to maintain this good record. When, however, such an accident does occur, a timely estimate of the dose received can be of considerable help to the physician in deciding whether a particular person requires medical treatment, and in selecting the most appropriate treatment. Individual dosimetry provides the physical basis for relating the observed effects to those in other accident cases, to other human data, and to data from animal experiments, thus providing an important aid to rational treatment and to the accumulation of a meaningful body of knowledge on the subject. It is most important therefore that, where there is a possibility of receiving high-level exposure, methods of personnel dosimetry should be available that would provide the dosimetric information most useful to the physician. Provision of good personnel dosimetry for accidental high-level exposure is in many cases an essential part of emergency planning because the information provided may influence emergency and rescue operations, and can lead to improved accident preparedness. Accordingly, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization jointly organized the Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation for the discussion of such methods and for a critical review of the procedures adopted in some of the radiation accidents that have already occurred. The meeting was attended by 179 participants from 34 countries and from five other international organizations. The papers presented and the ensuing discussions are published in these Proceedings. It is hoped that the Proceedings will be of help to those concerned with the organization and development of wide-range personnel monitoring systems, and with the interpretation of the results provided

  9. Exposição ocupacional ao ruído e acidentes do trabalho Occupational noise exposure and work accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Dias

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se a exposição ocupacional ao ruído é um fator de risco relevante para acidentes do trabalho na cidade de Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo caso-controle de base hospitalar. Os casos foram 600 trabalhadores entre 15 e 60 anos que sofreram acidentes ocupacionais típicos entre maio e outubro de 2004, atendidos na Central de Ortopedia e Traumatologia de Piracicaba. Os controles foram 822 trabalhadores entre 15 e 60 anos que sofreram acidente não ocupacional e receberam o primeiro atendimento no serviço ou foram trabalhadores acompanhantes dos acidentados. Foi ajustado um modelo de regressão logística múltipla, tendo como variável independente o acidente do trabalho, controlada por co-variáveis de interesse, entre elas a exposição ao ruído. Estimou-se que o risco de sofrer acidente do trabalho é cerca de duas vezes maior entre trabalhadores expostos ao ruído, controlado para diversas co-variáveis. A exposição ocupacional ao ruído não só deteriora a saúde auditiva do trabalhador, mas também se constitui em fator de risco para acidentes do trabalho.The purpose of this study was to verify whether occupational noise exposure is a significant risk factor for work accidents in the city of Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. This hospital-based case-control study included 600 workers aged 15-60 who suffered typical occupational accidents between May and October 2004 and were seen at the Piracicaba Orthopedics and Trauma Center. The control group comprised 822 workers, aged 15-60, who were also seen at the Center, and either had a non-occupational accident or were accompanying someone who had suffered an accident. A multiple logistic regression model was adjusted with work accident as an independent variable, controlled by covariables of interest such as noise exposure. The risk of having a work accident was about twice as high among workers exposed to noise, after

  10. Occupational accidents involving biological material among public health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodi, Mônica Bonagamba; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz

    2007-01-01

    This descriptive research aimed to recognize the occurrence of work accidents (WA) involving exposure to biological material among health workers at Public Health Units in Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil. A quantitative approach was adopted. In 2004, 155 accidents were notified by means of the Work Accident Communication (WAC). Sixty-two accidents (40%) involved exposure to biological material that could cause infections like Hepatitis and Aids. The highest number of victims (42 accidents) came from the category of nursing aids and technicians. Needles were responsible for 80.6% of accidents and blood was the biological material involved in a majority of occupational exposure cases. This subject needs greater attention, so that prevention measures can be implemented, which consider the peculiarities of the activities carried out by the different professional categories.

  11. Lessons learned from radiological accidents at medical exposures in radiotherapy; Lições aprendidas com acidentes radiológicos nas exposições médicas em radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagundes, J.S.; Ferreira, A.F. [Faculdade Casa Branca, SP (Brazil); Lima, C.M.A. [MAXIM Cursos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, F.C.A. da, E-mail: franciscodasilva13uk@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    An exposure is considered accidental in radiotherapy when there is a substantial deviation in the prescription of treatment. In this work, an analysis of published radiological accidents, both in Brazil and internationally, was performed during medical exposures in radiotherapy treatments, removing the main lessons learned. Of the research carried out, we highlight Brazil with four radiological accidents and one death in the period between 2011 and 2014; the United States of America with 169 accidents with two deaths from 2000 to 2010 and France from 2001 to 2014 had 569 deaths without patients. Lessons learned have been described, for example, that maintenance personnel training should specify limitations or restrictions on the handling or adjustment of critical parts on the accelerator. It is recommended to apply the 10 main lessons learned due to radiological accidents during medical exposures in radiotherapy treatments to avoid future events.

  12. Accidents in family forestry's firewood production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroos, Ola; Aspman, Emma Wilhelmson; Lidestav, Gun; Neely, Gregory

    2008-05-01

    Firewood is commonly used around the world, but little is known about the work involved in its production and associated accidents. The objectives were to identify relationships between accidents and time exposure, workers' age and sex, equipment used and work activities in family forestry's firewood production. Data from a postal survey in Northern Sweden were compared to a database of injuries in the same region. Most accidents occurred to 50-69 year old men, who also worked most hours. No significant differences in sex and age were found between expected and recorded accident frequencies when calculated from total work hours; however, when calculated using numbers of active persons significant differences were found for both age and sex. Frequency of accidents per unit worked time was higher for machine involving activities than for other activities. Accidents that occurred when using wedge splitter machines were responsible for most of this overrepresentation. Fingers were the most commonly injured body parts. Mean accident rate for the equipment used was 87 accidents per million work hours, and the rate was highest for wedge splitters (122 accidents per million work hours). Exposure to elevated risks due to violation of safety procedures is discussed, as well as possible preventative measures.

  13. An Improved Methodology of Monetary Values of the Unit Collective Dose for Intervention Against Long-Term Exposure Following a Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Choi, Young Gil; Han, Moon Hee

    2002-01-01

    A more practice approach for the determination of monetary values of the unit collective dose for intervention against long-term exposure following a nuclear accident was proposed. In addition, the monetary values of the unit collective dose estimated from the proposed approach were compared with those estimated from the previous model, which are derived from assumptions of routine exposure and the same values are applied in a nuclear accident without modification, using Korea economic data. The monetary values based on the proposed approach showed a distinct difference depending on inequity in the distribution of individual doses. The discounting rate was also an important factor in determination of monetary values of the unit collective dose

  14. An Improved Methodology of Monetary Values of the Unit Collective Dose for Intervention Against Long-Term Exposure Following a Nuclear Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Choi, Young Gil; Han, Moon Hee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    A more practice approach for the determination of monetary values of the unit collective dose for intervention against long-term exposure following a nuclear accident was proposed. In addition, the monetary values of the unit collective dose estimated from the proposed approach were compared with those estimated from the previous model, which are derived from assumptions of routine exposure and the same values are applied in a nuclear accident without modification, using Korea economic data. The monetary values based on the proposed approach showed a distinct difference depending on inequity in the distribution of individual doses. The discounting rate was also an important factor in determination of monetary values of the unit collective dose.

  15. The radiological accident in Istanbul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The use of radioactive materials offers a wide range of benefits throughout the world in medicine, research and industry. Precautions are, however, necessary in order to limit the exposure of persons to the radiation that is emitted. Where the amount of radioactive material is substantial, as in the case of radiotherapy sources or industrial radiography sources, extreme care is necessary to prevent accidents which may have severe consequences. Nevertheless, in spite of the precautions taken, accidents with radiation sources continue to occur, albeit infrequently. As part of its subprogramme on the safety of radiation sources, the IAEA conducts follow-up reviews of such serious accidents to give an account of their circumstances and of the medical aspects, from which organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection and the safety of sources may learn. A serious radiological accident occurred in Istanbul, Turkey, in December 1998 and January 1999 when two packages used to transport 60 Co teletherapy sources were sold as scrap metal. The persons who purchased the two packages opened them and broke open the shielded containers, thereby unknowingly exposing themselves and several others to radiation from at least one unshielded 60 Co source. The persons who dismantled the containers suffered from acute radiation syndrome. The accident came to the attention of the relevant national authority when a doctor who had examined the victims reported that he suspected the possibility of radiation exposure. The national authorities identified other individuals who might have undergone acute radiation exposures, and a total of 18 persons (including seven children) were admitted to hospital. Of these, ten adults exhibited clinical signs and symptoms of acute radiation exposure. Under the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, the Turkish authorities requested assistance from the IAEA in terms of advice on the medical

  16. Medical aspects of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerschmidt, O.

    1990-01-01

    Reactor accidents and nuclear bomb explosions are compared including the release of radioactivity in an accident, results of risk studies, emergency measures of nuclear power plants, and evacuation of the population. The medical aspects refer to the prophylaxies of the thyroid gland, contamination and decontamination of body surfaces, recommendations of the ICRP, radiation injury after total body exposure and medical problems after a reactor accident. (DG)

  17. Operational accidents and radiation exposure experience within the United States Atomic Energy Commission, 1943--1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The occupational injury and fatality experience during 32 years of the development of the atomic energy industry under the direction of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and its predecessor, the Manhattan Engineering District, is reviewed. Data are included on the cause of all accidents, including fires and transportation accidents, and the cost of AEC property damage. Fatalities of AEC and contractor personnel from all causes during the 32-year period totaled 321, of which 184 occurred in construction; 121 in AEC operations such as production, research, and services; and 16 in Government functions. There were 19,225 lost-time injuries attributable to all accidental causes, or a 32-year frequency rate of 2.75 based on the number of injuries per million man-hours. There were six deaths attributable to nuclear causes, thee of which were due to blast and flying missiles and three caused by whole-body radiation exposure. Forty-one workers were involved in lost-time radiation accidents, of whom 26 showed clinical manifestations attributable to radiation, resulting in permanent partial-disability of three workers and the loss of a digit by four workers, while the others did not develop evidence of radiation injury

  18. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of early exposure results with the MACCS Reactor Accident Consequence Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; McKay, M.D.; Shiver, A.W.; Sprung, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis are used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the early health effects associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The primary purpose of this study is to provide guidance on the variables to be considered in future review work to reduce the uncertainty in the important variables used in the calculation of reactor accident consequences. The effects of 34 imprecisely known input variables on the following reactor accident consequences are studied: number of early fatalities, number of cases of prodromal vomiting, population dose within 10 mi of the reactor, population dose within 1000 mi of the reactor, individual early fatality probability within 1 mi of the reactor, and maximum early fatality distance. When the predicted variables are considered collectively, the following input variables were found to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty: scaling factor for horizontal dispersion, dry deposition velocity, inhalation protection factor for nonevacuees, groundshine shielding factor for nonevacuees, early fatality hazard function alpha value for bone marrow exposure, and scaling factor for vertical dispersion

  19. Effect of alternative aging and accident simulations on polymer properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustard, L.D.; Chenion, J.; Carlin, F.; Alba, C.; Gaussens, G.; LeMeur, M.

    1985-05-01

    The influence of accident irradiation, steam, and chemical spray exposures on the behavior of twenty-three age-preconditioned polymer sample sets (twenty-one different materials) has been investigated. The test program varied the following conditions: (1) Accident simulations of irradiation and thermodynamic (steam and chemical spray) conditions were performed both sequentially and simultaneously. (2) Accident thermodynamic (steam and chemical spray) exposures were performed both with and without air present during the exposures. (3) Sequential accident irradiations were performed both at 28 0 C and 70 0 C. (4) Age preconditioning was performed both sequentially and simultaneously. (5) Sequential aging irradiations were performed both at 27 0 C and 70 0 C. (6) Sequential aging exposures were performed using two sequences: (1) thermal followed by irradiation and (2) irradiation followed by thermal. We report both general trends applicable to a majority of the tested materials as well as specific results for each polymer. Our data base consists of ultimate tensile properties at the completion of the accident exposure for three XLPO and XLPE, five EPR and EPDM, two CSPE (HYPALON), one CPE, one VAMAC, one polydiallylphtalate, and one PPS material. We also report bend test results at completion of the accident exposures for two TEFZEL materials and permanent set after compression results for three EPR, one VAMAC, one BUNA N, one SILICONE, and one VITON material

  20. Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) in case of nuclear accident with exposure doses estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrakov, D.; Prodanova, M.; Slavov, K.; Veleva, B.

    2015-07-01

    A PC-oriented Emergency Response System in case of nuclear accident (BERS) is developed and works operationally in the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (NIMH). The creation and development of BERS was highly stimulated by the ETEX (European Tracer Experiment) project. BERS comprises two main parts - the operational and the accidental ones. The operational part, run automatically every 12 hours, prepares the input meteorological file used by both trajectory and dispersion models, runs the trajectory models, visualizes the results and uploads the maps of trajectories to a dedicated web-site. The accidental part is activated manually when a real radioactive releases occur or during emergency exercises. Its core is the Bulgarian dispersion models EMAP. Outputs are concentration, accumulated deposition and selected doses fields. In the paper, the BERS overall structure is described and examples of its products are presented. Key words: nuclear accident, emergency response, early warning system, air dispersion models, radioactive exposure dose. (Author)

  1. Occupational hazards in hospitals: accidents, radiation, exposure to noxious chemicals, drug addiction and psychic problems, and assault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gestal, J.J.

    1987-08-01

    Except for infectious diseases all the main occupational hazards affecting health workers are reviewed: accidents (explosions, fires, electrical accidents, and other sources of injury); radiation (stochastic and non-stochastic effects, protective measures, and personnel most at risk); exposure to noxious chemicals, whose effects may be either local (allergic eczema) or generalised (cancer, mutations), particular attention being paid to the hazards presented by formol, ethylene oxide, cytostatics, and anaesthetic gases; drug addiction (which is more common among health workers than the general population) and psychic problems associated with promotion, shift work, and emotional stress; and assault (various types of assault suffered by health workers, its causes, and the characterisation of the most aggressive patients).

  2. Occupational hazards in hospitals: accidents, radiation, exposure to noxious chemicals, drug addiction and psychic problems, and assault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gestal, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Except for infectious diseases all the main occupational hazards affecting health workers are reviewed: accidents (explosions, fires, electrical accidents, and other sources of injury); radiation (stochastic and non-stochastic effects, protective measures, and personnel most at risk); exposure to noxious chemicals, whose effects may be either local (allergic eczema) or generalised (cancer, mutations), particular attention being paid to the hazards presented by formol, ethylene oxide, cytostatics, and anaesthetic gases; drug addiction (which is more common among health workers than the general population) and psychic problems associated with promotion, shift work, and emotional stress; and assault (various types of assault suffered by health workers, its causes, and the characterisation of the most aggressive patients). (author)

  3. The Chernobyl accident - five years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, K.

    1991-06-01

    At the fifth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident the initial situation at that time, the control of the consequences to Austria in the present light, as well as the knowledge gained from the accident and its consequences are described. A final estimate and appraisal of the total population dose by the accident alloted according to the individual exposure pathways and the dose reductions due to countermeasures by the authorities are given. The dose reduction in the following years is described. Five years later the external exposure was reduced to about 6 % of the values of the first year, the ingestion dose to about 5 % of the first-year-values. Finally, the current radiation situation is described and the dose contribution by foodstuff with elevated activity concentration is estimated. Also the consequences from the experience and knowledge obtained by the accident are described. (author)

  4. [Retrospective survey on epidemiologic monitoring of accidents due to professional exposure to biological agents in A.O.U. "G. Martino" of Messina, Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindoni, L; Calisto, M L; Alfino, D; Cannavò, G; Grillo, C O; Squeri, R; Squeri, L; Spagnolo, E Ventura

    2005-01-01

    The management of healthcare professionals exposed to biological material which may potentially be contaminated with HIV HBVand HCV viruses, is of vital importance in acquiring precise epidemiological data regarding the type and means of exposure, and the efficacy or failure to apply recommended preventive measures. This will make it possible to assess over time which measures need to be implemented or improved. For these reasons we decided to analyze cases of occupational exposure to biological risk occurring in the University Hospital in Messina between 1998 and 2002. Our study highlighted in particular that the most frequently affected category was that of professional nurses (46.74%) and that only 31.72% of the healthcare workers who tested negative for HBsAb were administered vaccine prophylaxis also after the accident. Moreover, it emerged that there is the need to increase the amount and quality of information made available, by changing report forms, with the aim of identifying problems and risky behavior and procedures, and thus make ways to ensure the continued improvement of the accident prevention and management programmes. In fact, in the accident reporting procedure used, it was not possible to specify the precise way in which the accidents happened.

  5. Twenty Two Years after Chernobyl Accident Medical Aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabon, M.

    2009-01-01

    Chernobyl accident is the most serious nuclear catastrophe in the recent era. About 600.000 victims intervene in this disaster. The most fatality was about one month after the accident 31 victims. The main cause was Acute Radiation Syndrome. After few weeks 115.000 persons evacuated from the contaminated areas with exposure dose from 0.07 to 2 Gy. The main Isotope exposure was iodine 131 and Cesium 137 with average exposure dose 7 and 10 mGy respectively

  6. Lessoning of radiation exposure. Radiation effect on humans and points to be noticed learned by Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Described are the process of medical measures taken along with the time after the Accident in the title (Mar. 12, 2011) and the present state (June, 2013) of Fukushima. The author at first presents the fundamental knowledge of radiation like unit, natural/medical doses, and the scale of the Accident compared with Chernobyl Accident (1986) involving observed diseases like thyroid cancer. On the day before the Accident, the Earthquake and Tsunami attacked Fukushima, and the University Hospital built up an anti-disaster medical headquarter. Until 15th, the hospital accepted about 500 persons for their contamination survey and subsequent de-contamination, then played a role for relaying 1,300 patients to other facilities and accepted 125 hospitalizations, during which communication by phone had been scarcely available, leading to complication and confusion. The radioisotope subjected to be noted was radioiodine earlier and then radiocesium. Emergent medical supports were conducted for various evacuation areas involving 20-30 km zone from the Plant by pediatric and infection teams with joint doctors from Thailand. The University had been defined to be the secondary emergent, expertized medical facility since 2001 and began to conduct the long-term project Fukushima Health Management Survey after the Accident for the fundamental and detailed studies of residents. The secondary facility at the emergency was inevitably the center of medicare as the primary hospitals were mostly in the radiological evacuation area and tertiary ones located afar. The University Hospital is now revising the formal manual for medical response to exposure. In Fukushima City, 60 km distant from the Plant, the ambient dose is about 0.5 mc-Sv and external exposure dose is lowering to 2-4 mSv/y. Decrease of medical staff like doctors and nurses is significant in the prefecture. (T.T.)

  7. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident: thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagataki, Shigenobu; Ashizawa, Kiyoto

    1997-01-01

    An International Conference entitled 'One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident' was held at the Vienna from 8 to 12 April 1996. The aim of conference was to seek a common and conclusive understanding of the nature and magnitude of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. It was concluded that a highly significant increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among those persons in the affected areas who were children in 1986 is the only clear evidence to data of a public health impact of radiation exposure as a result of the Chernobyl accident and both temporal and geographical distributions clearly indicate a relationship of the increase in incidence to radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident. To clarify the relationship between thyroid cancer and radioactive fallout more clearly, a long term prospective study (case-control/cohort) should be conducted in the highly risk groups and the analysis of accurate estimation of exposure dose to external and/or internal radiation is needed. (author)

  8. Definition of criteria related to occupational exposure for use in multi-criteria decision making process for nuclear accidents in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Diogo N.G.; Guimaraes, Jean R.D.; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.

    2013-01-01

    After the occurrence of nuclear or radiological accidents, the selection of strategies for remediation of contaminated areas and of protective measures for members of public should be based on previously established criteria. Hence, it becomes possible to reduce the stress of population and to prevent the exposure of workers, especially if an implemented measure is not effective in reducing doses for each particular situation. When an accident with radioactive material causes environmental contamination, decisions about remediation of affected areas are complex because there are many factors associated with decontamination processes. Such complexity is related to technical procedures, public acceptance, the feasibility of implementing the measure, costs and legal aspects. This work is part of a project which aims to develop a multi-criteria tool to provide support for decision making processes in cases of nuclear or radiological accidents in Brazil. Primarily, a database containing information about protective and remediation measures for contaminated areas which can be applied nationally was created. Some criteria have already been defined for the classification of these measures regarding aspects of relevance of pathways to public exposure and of the infrastructure necessary to implement the measure. In this paper, the issues related to the exposure of the workforce are assessed and compared to the dose averted to members of the public resulting from the implementation of each remediation procedure. The procedures described in the database are then ranked according to selected criteria. In the next step, these ratings will be incorporated by the multi-criteria tool. (author)

  9. Definition of criteria related to occupational exposure for use in multi-criteria decision making process for nuclear accidents in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Diogo N.G.; Guimaraes, Jean R.D., E-mail: dneves@biof.ufrj.br, E-mail: jeanrdg@biof.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho; Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    After the occurrence of nuclear or radiological accidents, the selection of strategies for remediation of contaminated areas and of protective measures for members of public should be based on previously established criteria. Hence, it becomes possible to reduce the stress of population and to prevent the exposure of workers, especially if an implemented measure is not effective in reducing doses for each particular situation. When an accident with radioactive material causes environmental contamination, decisions about remediation of affected areas are complex because there are many factors associated with decontamination processes. Such complexity is related to technical procedures, public acceptance, the feasibility of implementing the measure, costs and legal aspects. This work is part of a project which aims to develop a multi-criteria tool to provide support for decision making processes in cases of nuclear or radiological accidents in Brazil. Primarily, a database containing information about protective and remediation measures for contaminated areas which can be applied nationally was created. Some criteria have already been defined for the classification of these measures regarding aspects of relevance of pathways to public exposure and of the infrastructure necessary to implement the measure. In this paper, the issues related to the exposure of the workforce are assessed and compared to the dose averted to members of the public resulting from the implementation of each remediation procedure. The procedures described in the database are then ranked according to selected criteria. In the next step, these ratings will be incorporated by the multi-criteria tool. (author)

  10. Determination of the internal exposure of Greek citizens returning from Japan immediately after the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiriadis, C.; Kehagia, K.; Kolovou, M.; Nikolaki, M.; Xarchoulakos, D.; Mitrakos, D.; Ntalla, E.

    2016-01-01

    Following the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on 11 March 2011, during the period 17 March to 25 October 2011, a total of 22 Greek citizens were measured after their return to Greece. Artificial radionuclides were detected in 5 of the 22 measured individuals by whole body counter measurements conducted 10 and 11 d after the commencement of the accident. Of the 5 contaminated individuals, 3 were adults and 2 children, aged 9 and 5 y, who stayed for a single day in Tokyo. Dose calculations were performed assuming that the sole exposure pathway was through inhalation that occurred on 14 March, according to the information provided by them, using the detected artificial radionuclides in the spectra ( 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 131 I). The estimated total committed effective doses calculated were found to be in the range of 9-280 μSv. (authors)

  11. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of chronic exposure results with the MACCS reactor accident consequence model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; Rollstin, J.A.; Shiver, A.W.; Sprung, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis are used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the chronic exposure pathways associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The primary purpose of this study is to provide guidance on the variables to be considered in future review work to reduce the uncertainty in the important variables used in the calculation of reactor accident consequences. The effects of 75 imprecisely known input variables on the following reactor accident consequences are studied: crop growing season dose, crop long-term dose, water ingestion dose, milk growing season dose, long-term groundshine dose, long-term inhalation dose, total food pathways dose, total ingestion pathways dose, total long-term pathways dose, total latent cancer fatalities, area-dependent cost, crop disposal cost, milk disposal cost, population-dependent cost, total economic cost, condemnation area, condemnation population, crop disposal area and milk disposal area. When the predicted variables are considered collectively, the following input variables were found to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty: dry deposition velocity, transfer of cesium from animal feed to milk, transfer of cesium from animal feed to meat, ground concentration of Cs-134 at which the disposal of milk products will be initiated, transfer of Sr-90 from soil to legumes, maximum allowable ground concentration of Sr-90 for production of crops, fraction of cesium entering surface water that is consumed in drinking water, groundshine shielding factor, scale factor defining resuspension, dose reduction associated with decontamination, and ground concentration of 1-131 at which disposal of crops will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season

  12. Lessons learned from MONJU sodium leak accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Ryodai; Ito, Kazumoto; Nagata, Takashi

    2000-01-01

    MONJU sodium leak accident was a small accident with a large public impact. There was no injures or exposure to radiation, nor was there any loss of safety function such as reactor shutdown or reactor cooling. On the contrary a social impact is considerably large, whereby the plant remains shutdown. This paper describes the lessons learned from the accident, i.e. the impact of the accident and its cause, and the features on risk management in view of social aspect as well as technical aspect. (author)

  13. Biological dosimetry following exposure to neutrons in a criticality accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, C. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, STUK (Finland)); Wojcik, A. (Stockholm Univ. (SU), Stockholm (Sweden)); Jaworska, A. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) (Norway))

    2011-01-15

    The aim of the BIONCA project was to implement cytogenetic techniques for biodosimetry purposes in the Nordic countries. The previous NKS-funded biodosimetry activities (BIODOS and BIOPEX) concentrated on experiments using gamma-irradiation and on developing the PCC ring assay for biodosimetry. Experiments conducted during the present BIONCA project has broadened the biodosimetry capacity of the Nordic countries to include dose estimation of exposure to neutrons for both PCC ring and dicentric chromosome techniques. In 2009, experiments were conducted for establishing both PCC ring and dicentric dose calibration curves. Neutron irradiation of human whole blood obtained from two volunteers was conducted in the Netherlands at the Petten reactor. Cell cultures and analysis of whole blood exposed to eight doses between 0 and 10 Gy were performed for both techniques. For the dicentric assay, excellent uniformity in dose calibration for data from both SU and STUK was observed. For PCC rings, the SU and STUK curves were not equally congruent, probably due to the less uniform scoring criteria. However, both curves displayed strong linearity throughout the dose range. In 2010, an exercise was conducted to simulate a criticality accident and to test the validity of the established dose calibration curves. For accident simulation, 16 blood samples were irradiated in Norway at the Kjeller reactor and analysed for dose estimation with both assays. The results showed that, despite a different com-position of the radiation beams in Petten and Kjeller, good dose estimates were obtained. The activity has provided good experience on collaboration required in radiation emergency situations where the biodosimetry capacity and resources of one laboratory may be inadequate. In this respect, the project has strengthened the informal network between the Nordic countries: STUK, the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, NRPA, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and SU

  14. DETERMINATION OF THE INTERNAL EXPOSURE OF GREEK CITIZENS RETURNING FROM JAPAN IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potiriadis, C; Kehagia, K; Kolovou, M; Nikolaki, M; Xarchoulakos, D; Mitrakos, D; Ntalla, E

    2016-09-01

    Following the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on 11 March 2011, during the period 17 March to 25 October 2011, a total of 22 Greek citizens were measured after their return to Greece. Artificial radionuclides were detected in 5 of the 22 measured individuals by whole body counter measurements conducted 10 and 11 d after the commencement of the accident. Of the 5 contaminated individuals, 3 were adults and 2 children, aged 9 and 5 y, who stayed for a single day in Tokyo. Dose calculations were performed assuming that the sole exposure pathway was through inhalation that occurred on 14 March, according to the information provided by them, using the detected artificial radionuclides in the spectra ((134)Cs, (137)Cs, (131)I). The estimated total committed effective doses calculated were found to be in the range of 9-280 μSv. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident (IPHECA). 'Epidemiological registry' Pilot project. Reconstruction of absorbed doses from external exposure of the population living in areas of Russia contaminated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkevic, V.A.; Duba, V.V.; Ivanov, V.K.; Tsyb, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    In order to carry out epidemiological research on the influence of radiation factors on the health of people living in centres of population areas contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident, a knowledge of the amount of external and internal exposure to the thyroid gland and the whole body is crucial. After seven years of the Chernobyl accident, an attempt was made to reconstruct the complete dynamic picture of radioactive contamination of Russian territory, taking into consideration current data on the temporal behavior of the source of accidental radionuclide emissions from the reactor where the accident occurred, meteorological conditions at the time, detailed measurements of cesium 137 fall-out density on CIS territory, air exposure dose rate measurements. Such an approach will enable to determine absorbed doses in centers of population, where radiation parameters were not measured at all. 17 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs, 1 map

  16. Proposed classification scale for radiological incidents and accidents; Elaboration d'une echelle de classement des incidents et accidents radiologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-15

    The scale proposed in this report is intended to facilitate communication concerning the severity of incidents and accidents involving the exposure of human beings to ionising radiations. Like the INES, it comprises eight levels of severity and uses the same terms (accident, incident, anomaly, serious and major) for keeping the public and the media informed. In a radiological protection context, the severity of an event is considered as being directly proportional to the risk run by an individual (the probability of developing fatal or non-fatal health effects) following exposure to ionising radiation in an incident or accident situation. However for society, other factors have to be taken into account to determine severity. The severity scale proposed is therefore based on assessment of the individual radiological risk. A severity level corresponding to exposure of a member of the public in an incident or accident situation is determined on the basis of risk assessment concepts and methods derived from international consensus on dose/effect relationships for both stochastic and deterministic effects. The severity of all the possible exposure situations - worker exposure, collective exposure, potential exposure - is determined using a system of weighting in relation to situations involving members of the public. In the case of this scale, to indicate the severity of an event, it is proposed to make use of the most penalizing level of severity, comparing: - the severity associated with the probability of occurrence of deterministic effects and the severity associated with the probability of occurrence of stochastic effects, when the event gives rise to both types of risk; - the severity for members of the public and the severity for exposed workers, when both categories of individuals are involved; - the severity on the proposed radiological protection scale and that obtained using the INES, when radiological protection and nuclear safety aspects are associated with

  17. Fallout from the Chernobyl accident and overall cancer incidence in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurttio, Päivi; Seppä, Karri; Pasanen, Kari; Patama, Toni; Auvinen, Anssi; Pukkala, Eero; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Arvela, Hannu; Hakulinen, Timo

    2013-10-01

    We studied whether incidence of all cancer sites combined was associated with the radiation exposure due to fallout from the Chernobyl accident in Finland. An emphasis was on the first decade after the accident to assess the suggested "promotion effect". The segment of Finnish population with a stable residence in the first post-Chernobyl year (2 million people) was studied. The analyses were based on a 250m × 250m grid squares covering all of Finland and all cancer cases except cancers of the breast, prostate and lung. Cancer incidence in four exposure areas (based on first-year dose due to external exposure Chernobyl accident (1981-1985) and after it (1988-2007) taking into account cancer incidence trends for a longer period prior to the accident (since 1966). There were no systematic differences in the cancer incidence in relation to radiation exposure in any calendar period, or any subgroup by sex or age at accident. The current large and comprehensive cohort analysis of the relatively low levels of the Chernobyl fallout in Finland did not observe a cancer promotion effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Character and consequence of nuclear criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinhua; Liu Hua; Wu Deqiang; Li Bing

    2001-01-01

    The author describes some concepts, the process and magnitude of energy release and the destruction of the nuclear criticality accident and also describes the radiation consequence of criticality accidents from three aspects: prompt radiation, contamination in working place and release of fission products to the environment. It shows that the effects of radioactivity release from criticality accidents in the nuclear fuel processing plants on the environment and the public is minor, the main danger is from the external exposure of prompt rays. The paper make as have a correct understanding of the nuclear criticality accident and it would be helpful to take appropriate emergency response to potential criticality accident

  19. Alternative evacuation strategies for nuclear power accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Gregory D.; Bier, Vicki M.

    2015-01-01

    In the U.S., current protective-action strategies to safeguard the public following a nuclear power accident have remained largely unchanged since their implementation in the early 1980s. In the past thirty years, new technologies have been introduced, allowing faster computations, better modeling of predicted radiological consequences, and improved accident mapping using geographic information systems (GIS). Utilizing these new technologies, we evaluate the efficacy of alternative strategies, called adaptive protective action zones (APAZs), that use site-specific and event-specific data to dynamically determine evacuation boundaries with simple heuristics in order to better inform protective action decisions (rather than relying on pre-event regulatory bright lines). Several candidate APAZs were developed and then compared to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s keyhole evacuation strategy (and full evacuation of the emergency planning zone). Two of the APAZs were better on average than existing NRC strategies at reducing either the radiological exposure, the population evacuated, or both. These APAZs are especially effective for larger radioactive plumes and at high population sites; one of them is better at reducing radiation exposure, while the other is better at reducing the size of the population evacuated. - Highlights: • Developed framework to compare nuclear power accident evacuation strategies. • Evacuation strategies were compared on basis of radiological and evacuation risk. • Current strategies are adequate for smaller scale nuclear power accidents. • New strategies reduced radiation exposure and evacuation size for larger accidents

  20. HTGR accident initiation and progression analysis status report. Volume VII. Occupational radiation exposures from gas-borne and plateout activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    As a part of the Accident Initiation and Progression Analysis (AIPA) program, calculations were performed of the occupational dose rates and man-rem exposures from gas-borne and plateout activities in a reference 3000-MW(t) HTGR plant. The study included a preliminary survey to determine the most important contributors by operation or radiation source to the man-rem exposures. This survey was followed by detailed calculations for the most important cases. Median and 95 percent-confidence-level man-rem exposures per year were obtained for the gaseous activity in the containment building, moisture monitor system, analytic instrumentation, helium regeneration system, gas waste system, and reflector-block shipping. Median and 95 percent-confidence-level man-rem exposures per operation were obtained for the main-circulator removal, steam-generator tube plugging, and steam-generator removal and replacement. For each of these cases, the contributions to the man-rem exposures were calculated for the important isotopes

  1. Determination of leukemia-associated gene rearrangements and ultrastructural changes in Chernobyl accident liquidators blood leukocytes long term after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butenko, Z.A.; Smirnova, I.A.; Yanok, E.A.; Kishinskaya, E.G.; Zak, K.P.; Afanas'eva, V.V.; Mikhajlovskaya, Eh.V.

    1997-01-01

    The results of ultrastructural and molecular-genetic investigations of blood cells from 120 liquidators 7-10 years after Chernobyl accident with the total exposure radiation doses ranging from 5.1 to 75.0 cGy are presented. Electron microscopic studies revealed marked changes in ultrastructure of neutrophils nuclei - hyper segmentation, whimsical prominences, loops, swelling and destruction of cytoplasmic granules. There was an increase in the number of 'aberrant' forms of lymphocytes with disturbed structure of chromatin, additional nuclei and changed membrane contour. Structural polymorphism of the leukemia associated bcr and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes were studied using Southern blot hybridization. Allelic polymorphism of bcr gene with characteristic for chronic myeloid leukemia allele distribution and rearrangements of eRNA genes were detected in 11.5% of accident liquidators. This data point out to structure-functional leucocyte changes and possibility of arising leukemia associated gene rearrangements in blood cells of some liquidators many years after the exposure to radiation and serve for determination of group at risk of oncohematological diseases

  2. Proposed classification scale for radiological incidents and accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-04-01

    The scale proposed in this report is intended to facilitate communication concerning the severity of incidents and accidents involving the exposure of human beings to ionising radiations. Like the INES, it comprises eight levels of severity and uses the same terms (accident, incident, anomaly, serious and major) for keeping the public and the media informed. In a radiological protection context, the severity of an event is considered as being directly proportional to the risk run by an individual (the probability of developing fatal or non-fatal health effects) following exposure to ionising radiation in an incident or accident situation. However for society, other factors have to be taken into account to determine severity. The severity scale proposed is therefore based on assessment of the individual radiological risk. A severity level corresponding to exposure of a member of the public in an incident or accident situation is determined on the basis of risk assessment concepts and methods derived from international consensus on dose/effect relationships for both stochastic and deterministic effects. The severity of all the possible exposure situations - worker exposure, collective exposure, potential exposure - is determined using a system of weighting in relation to situations involving members of the public. In the case of this scale, to indicate the severity of an event, it is proposed to make use of the most penalizing level of severity, comparing: - the severity associated with the probability of occurrence of deterministic effects and the severity associated with the probability of occurrence of stochastic effects, when the event gives rise to both types of risk; - the severity for members of the public and the severity for exposed workers, when both categories of individuals are involved; - the severity on the proposed radiological protection scale and that obtained using the INES, when radiological protection and nuclear safety aspects are associated with

  3. Analysis of accidents with organic material in health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Mariana; Padilha, Maria Itayra; Pinheiro, Regina Dal Castel

    2011-01-01

    This retrospective and descriptive study with a quantitative design aimed to evaluate occupational accidents with exposure to biological material, as well as the profile of workers, based on reporting forms sent to the Regional Reference Center of Occupational Health in Florianópolis/SC. Data collection was carried out through a survey of 118 reporting forms in 2007. Data were analyzed electronically. The occurrence of accidents was predominantly among nursing technicians, women and the mean age was 34.5 years. 73% of accidents involved percutaneous exposure, 78% had blood and fluid with blood, 44.91% resulted from invasive procedures. It was concluded that strategies to prevent the occurrence of accidents with biological material should include joint activities between workers and service management and should be directed at improving work conditions and organization.

  4. Analysis of 10 years of accidents with biological material among the nursing staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Xavier de Barros

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were: to identify the profile of accidents with biological material among nursing professionals treated in a reference service; to characterize pre-exposure conducts and to analyze factors associated with percutaneous exposure. An epidemiological, retrospective and analytical study was conducted in records of accidents involving biological material from 2000 to 2010. The number of accidents with the nursing staff was 2,569, representing 44.6% of the total records. There was a prevalence of percutaneous exposure cases involving needles with lumen and blood in upper limbs among female nursing technicians. Being female and working outside the city where the service is located increased about twice the chances of suffering percutaneous accidents. The data found strengthen the importance of biological risk in the nursing practice and point to the fact that workers have to move between cities to be treated when the accident is considered serious, such as the case of percutaneous accidents.

  5. Care of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renz, K.

    1983-01-01

    The small probability of a serious radiation accident happening dispenses neither the plants where radiation exposure occurs nor the employers' liability insurance associations from their obligation to make provision for such cases. On the other hand, the efforts involved in such preventive measures must be kept within reasonable limits. As a result of these considerations a concept for taking care of radiation accidents was developed that is based on already existing institutions. The most attention was demanded by questions of organization, logistics, communication and information. The syndrome appearing after acute whole-body irradiation is known. This syndrome in its different stages and the relative therapeutic measures form the basis for the organization of the care of radiation accidents. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Radiation accident/disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kida, Yoshiko; Hirohashi, Nobuyuki; Tanigawa, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Described are the course of medical measures following Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) Accident after the quake and tsunami (Mar. 11, 2011) and the future task for radiation accident/disaster. By the first hydrogen explosion in FNPP (Mar. 12), evacuation of residents within 20 km zone was instructed, and the primary base for measures of nuclear disaster (Off-site Center) 5 km afar from FNPP had to work as a front base because of damage of communicating ways, of saving of injured persons and of elevation of dose. On Mar. 13, the medical arrangement council consisting from stuff of Fukushima Medical University (FMU), National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Safety Research Association and Prefectural officers was setup in residents' hall of Fukushima City, and worked for correspondence to persons injured or exposed, where communication about radiation and between related organizations was still poor. The Off-site Center's head section moved to Prefectural Office on Mar. 15 as headquarters. Early in the period, all residents evacuated from the 20 km zone, and in-hospital patients and nursed elderly were transported with vehicles, >50 persons of whom reportedly died mainly by their base diseases. The nation system of medicare for emergent exposure had consisted from the network of the primary to third facilities; there were 5 facilities in the Prefecture, 3 of which were localized at 4-9 km distance from FNPP and closed early after the Accident; and the secondary facility of FMU became responsible to all exposed persons. There was no death of workers of FNPP. Medical stuff also measured the ambient dose at various places near FNPP, having had risk of exposure. At the Accident, the important system of command, control and communication was found fragile and measures hereafter should be planned on assumption of the worst scenario of complete damage of the infrastructure and communication. It is desirable for Disaster Medical Assistance Team which

  7. Risk evaluation for protection of the public in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Evaluation of the risk that would be involved in the exposure of the public in the event of a radiation accident requires information on the biological consequences expected of such an exposure. This report defines a range of reference doses of radiation and their corresponding risks to the public in the event of a radiation accident. The reference doses and the considerations on which they were based will be used for assessing the hazards of nuclear installations and for policy decisions by the authorities responsible for measures taken to safeguards the public in the case of a nuclear accident.

  8. Relation between workplace accidents and the levels of carboxyhemoglobin in motorcycle taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luiz Almeida; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz; Terra, Fábio de Souza

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relation between workplace accidents and the levels of carboxyhemoglobin found in motorcycle taxi drivers. Correlational, quantitative study involving 111 workers and data obtained in July 2012 through a questionnaire to characterize the participants and blood collection to measure carboxyhemoglobin levels. 28.8% had suffered workplace accidents; 27.6% had fractured the lower limbs and significant symptoms of carbon monoxide exposure were verified in smokers. The carboxyhemoglobin levels were higher among smokers and victims of workplace accidents. Motorcycle taxi drivers had increased levels of carboxyhemoglobin, possibly due to the exposure to carbon monoxide; these levels are also increased among smokers and victims of workplace accidents. The study provides advances in the knowledge about occupational health and environmental science, and also shows that carboxyhemoglobin can be an indicator of exposure to environmental pollutants for those working outdoors, which can be related to workplace accidents.

  9. Accidents in radiotherapy: Lack of quality assurance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, J.

    1997-01-01

    About 150 radiological accidents, involving more than 3000 patients with adverse effects, 15 patient's fatalities and about 5000 staff and public exposures have been collected and analysed. Out of 67 analysed accidents in external beam therapy 22% has been caused by wrong calculation of the exposure time or monitor units, 13% by inadequate review of patient's chart, 12% by mistakes in the anatomical area to be treated. The remaining 35% can be attributed to 17 different causes. The most common mistakes in brachytherapy were wrong activities of sources used for treatment (20%), inadequate procedures for placement of sources applicators (14%), mistakes in calculating the treatment time (12%), etc. The direct and contributing causes of radiological accidents have been deduced from each event, when it was possible and categorized into 9 categories: mistakes in procedures (30%), professional mistakes (17%), communication mistakes (15%), lack of training (8.5%), interpretation mistakes (7%), lack of supervision (6%), mistakes in judgement (6%), hardware failures (5%), software and other mistakes (5.5%). Three types of direct and contributing causes responsible for almost 62% of all accidents are directly connected to the quality assurance of treatment. The lessons learnt from the accidents are related to frequencies of direct and contributing factors and show that most of the accident are caused by lack, non-application of quality assurance (QA) procedures or by underestimating of QA procedures. The international system for collection of accidents and dissemination of lessons learnt from the different accidents, proposed by IAEA, can contribute to better practice in many radiotherapy departments. Most of the accidents could have been avoided, had a comprehensive QA programme been established and properly applied in all radiotherapy departments, whatever the size. (author)

  10. Effects of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident on goshawk reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kaori; Murase, Joe; Horie, Reiko; Endo, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Although the influence of nuclear accidents on the reproduction of top predators has not been investigated, it is important that we identify the effects of such accidents because humans are also top predators. We conducted field observation for 22 years and analysed the reproductive performance of the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis fujiyamae), a top avian predator in the North Kanto area of Japan, before and after the accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant that occurred in 2011. The reproductive performance declined markedly compared with the pre-accident years and progressively decreased for the three post-accident study years. Moreover, it was suggested that these declines were primarily caused by an increase in the air dose rate of radio-active contaminants measured under the nests caused by the nuclear accidents, rather than by other factors. We consider the trends in the changes of the reproductive success rates and suggest that internal exposure may play an important role in the reproductive performance of the goshawk, as well as external exposure. PMID:25802117

  11. National emergency plan for nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The national emergency plan for nuclear accidents is a plan of action designed to provide a response to accidents involving the release or potential release of radioactive substances into the environment, which could give rise to radiation exposure to the public. The plan outlines the measures which are in place to assess and mitigate the effects of nuclear accidents which might pose a radiological hazard in ireland. It shows how accident management will operate, how technical information and monitoring data will be collected, how public information will be provided and what measures may be taken for the protection of the public in the short and long term. The plan can be integrated with the Department of Defence arrangements for wartime emergencies

  12. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of chronic exposure results with the MACCS reactor accident consequence model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C; Johnson, J.D; Rollstin, J.A; Shiver, A.W; Sprung, J.L

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis are used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the chronic exposure pathways associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The primary purpose of this study is to provide guidance on the variables to be considered in future review work to reduce the uncertainty in the important variables used in the calculation of reactor accident consequences. The effects of 75 imprecisely known input variables on the following reactor accident consequences are studied: crop growing-season dose, crop long-term dose, water ingestion dose, milk growing-season dose, long-term groundshine dose, long-term inhalation dose, total food pathways dose, total ingestion pathways dose, total long-term pathways dose, total latent cancer fatalities, area-dependent cost, crop disposal cost, milk disposal cost, population-dependent cost, total economic cost, condemnation area, condemnation population, crop disposal area and milk disposal area. When the predicted variables are considered collectively, the following input variables were found to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty: dry deposition velocity, transfer of cesium from animal feed to milk, transfer of cesium from animal feed to meet, ground concentration of Cs-134 at which the disposal of milk products will be initiated, transfer of Sr-90 from soil to legumes, maximum allowable ground concentration of Sr-90 for production of crops, fraction of cesium entering surface water that is consumed in drinking water, groundshine shielding factor, scale factor defining resuspension, dose reduction associated with decontamination, and ground concentration of I-131 at which disposal of crops will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season. Reducing the uncertainty in the preceding variables was found to substantially reduce the uncertainty in the

  13. Relation between workplace accidents and the levels of carboxyhemoglobin in motorcycle taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Almeida da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate the relation between workplace accidents and the levels of carboxyhemoglobin found in motorcycle taxi drivers. METHOD: correlational, quantitative study involving 111 workers and data obtained in July 2012 through a questionnaire to characterize the participants and blood collection to measure carboxyhemoglobin levels. RESULT: 28.8% had suffered workplace accidents; 27.6% had fractured the lower limbs and significant symptoms of carbon monoxide exposure were verified in smokers. The carboxyhemoglobin levels were higher among smokers and victims of workplace accidents. CONCLUSION: motorcycle taxi drivers had increased levels of carboxyhemoglobin, possibly due to the exposure to carbon monoxide; these levels are also increased among smokers and victims of workplace accidents. The study provides advances in the knowledge about occupational health and environmental science, and also shows that carboxyhemoglobin can be an indicator of exposure to environmental pollutants for those working outdoors, which can be related to workplace accidents.

  14. Radiation protection measures in the case of incidents and radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzberg, B.

    1976-01-01

    Measures to be taken in the case of radiation accidents connected with an unusually high radiation exposure to persons, the amounts of which exceed the limiting values, with depend on whether there has been an external or an internal exposure. In order to give further treatment in the case of whole-body or partial-body irradiation, it is necessary to estimate the exposure dose. In nuclear medicine the accident doses are generally low, i.e. acute radiation damage does not occur here, and immediate measures are not necessary. Therapeutic measures in the case of incorporation accidents are only necessary when the maximum amounts for the nuclide in question recommended by the ICRP has been reached or exceeded in the organism. However, decorporation measures ought to be carried out only by qualified radiation protection physicians. The type of radiation accident which occurs most frequently in nuclear medicine is radiation exposure as a result of contamination. If in the case of contamination of a person the measurement exceeds the radioactivity limit, the decontamination measures are necessary. In the present contribution, these measures for cases without injuries are described in detail. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Health consequences [of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramoutar, S.

    1996-01-01

    The World Health Organisation Conference on the Health Consequences of the Chernobyl and Other Radiological Accidents, held in Geneva last November, is reported. The lack of representation from the civil nuclear industry led often to one-sided debates instigated by the anti-nuclear lobbies present. Thyroid cancer in children as a result of the Chernobyl accident received particular attention. In Belarus, 400 cases have been noted, 220 in Ukraine and 60 in the Russian Federation. All have been treated with a high degree of success. The incidence of this cancer would be expected to follow the fallout path as the main exposure route was ingestion of contaminated foods and milk products. It was noted that the only way to confirm causality was if those children born since the accident failed to show the same increased incidence. Explanations were offered for the particular susceptibility of children to thyroid cancer following exposure to radiation. Another significant cause of concern was the health consequences to clean-up workers in radiological accidents. The main factor is psychological problems from the stress of knowing that they have received high radiation doses. A dramatic increase in psychological disorders has occurred in the Ukraine over the past ten years and this is attributed to stress generated by the Chernobyl accident, compounded by the inadequacy of the public advice offered at the time and the socio-economic uncertainties accompanying the breakup of the former USSR. (UK)

  16. [Implementation of safety devices: biological accident prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán Gómez, M Teresa; Sol Vidiella, Josep; Castellà Castellà, Manel; Castells Bo, Carolina; Losada Pla, Nuria; Espuny, Javier Lluís

    2010-04-01

    Accidental exposures to blood and biological material were the most frequent and potentially serious accidents in healthcare workers, reported in the Prevention of Occupational Risks Unit within 2002. Evaluate the biological percutaneous accidents decrease after a progressive introduction of safety devices. Biological accidents produced between 2.002 and 2.006 were analyzed and reported by the injured healthcare workers to the Level 2b Hospital Prevention of Occupational Risk Unit with 238 beds and 750 employees. The key of the study was the safety devices (peripheral i.v. catheter, needleless i.v. access device and capillary blood collection lancet). Within 2002, 54 percutaneous biological accidents were registered and 19 in 2006, that represents a 64.8% decreased. There has been no safety devices accident reported involving these material. Accidents registered during the implantation period occurred because safety devices were not used at that time. Safety devices have proven to be effective in reducing needle stick percutaneous accidents, so that they are a good choice in the primary prevention of biological accidents contact.

  17. Dose estimates from protracted external exposure of inhabitants living in contaminated area of Russia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonehara, H.; Sahoo, S.K.; Kurotaki, K.; Uchiyama, M.; Ramzaev, V.P.; Barishkov, N.; Mishin, A.; Barkovski, A.

    2000-01-01

    With respect to the radiation risk assessment, it is important to estimate the accurate doses of inhabitants, due to protracted exposure after the Chernobyl accident as well as the high doses just after the accident. We used a model for estimation of the dose with a long-term temporal change using information of dose rate on the ground and profile of the activity depth distribution in soil. A value C t [μSv h -1 /(MBq m -2 )], which is dose rate in air corresponding to the initial deposition of 137 Cs on the ground just after the accident, was analyzed using the results of the measurements of dose rate in air and activity in soil samples in the contaminated area of Bryansk region in Russia. From the analysis, the value, C 12 at 12 years after the accident can be predicted by categorizing usage of the land. The values obtained from the results of the actual measurement were 1.5 for forest, 1.0 for pasture, 0.6 for yard, and 0.45 for arable or kitchen garden. Temporal change of C t was estimated with a vertical migration model of activity in soil developed by Golikov et al. Annual dose due to 137 Cs and 134 Cs contamination in the period from 1987 to 1999 in farmers, and forest workers were estimated by the model using above values. The results were in good agreement with those obtained by using the personal dose monitoring. The cumulative doses of the inhabitants estimated by the model range from 10 to 60 mSv. (author)

  18. Nuclear ship accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-05-01

    In this report available information on 28 nuclear ship accident and incidents is considered. Of these 5 deals with U.S. ships and 23 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions and sea water leaks into the submarines are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that much of the available information is of a rather dubious nature. consequently some of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  19. The radiological accident in Cochabamba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    In April 2002 an accident involving an industrial radiography source containing 192 Ir occurred in Cochabamba, Bolivia, some 400 km from the capital, La Paz. A faulty radiography source container had been sent back to the headquarters of the company concerned in La Paz together with other equipment as cargo on a passenger bus. This gave rise to a potential for serious exposure for the bus passengers as well as for the company employees who were using and transporting the source. The Government of Bolivia requested the assistance of the IAEA under the terms of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. The IAEA in response assembled and sent to Bolivia a team composed of senior radiation safety experts and radiation pathology experts from Brazil, the United Kingdom and the IAEA to investigate the accident. The IAEA is grateful to the Government of Bolivia for the opportunity to report on this accident in order to disseminate the valuable lessons learned and help prevent similar accidents in the future

  20. Second-generation antipsychotics and risk of cerebrovascular accidents in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percudani, Mauro; Barbui, Corrado; Fortino, Ida; Tansella, Michele; Petrovich, Lorenzo

    2005-10-01

    Concern has been recently raised for risperidone and olanzapine, possibly associated with cerebrovascular events in placebo-controlled trials conducted in elderly subjects with dementia. We investigated the relationship between exposure to second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) and occurrence of cerebrovascular accidents in the elderly. From the regional database of hospital admissions of Lombardy, Italy, we extracted all patients aged 65 or older with cerebrovascular-related outcomes for the year 2002. From the regional database of prescriptions reimbursed by the National Health Service, we extracted all patients aged 65 or older who received antipsychotic prescriptions during 2001. The 2 databases were linked anonymously using the individual patient code. The proportions of cerebrovascular accidents were 3.31% (95% confidence interval, 2.95-3.69) in elderly subjects exclusively exposed to SGAs and 2.37% (95% confidence interval, 2.19-2.57) in elderly subjects exclusively exposed to first-generation antipsychotics. After background group differences were controlled for, exposure to SGAs significantly increased the risk of accidents. The analysis of cerebrovascular events in elderly subjects exposed to each individual SGA, in comparison with exposure to haloperidol, showed a significantly increased risk for risperidone only (adjusted odds ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.93). These data provide preliminary epidemiological evidence that exposure to SGAs, in comparison with exposure to first-generation antipsychotics, significantly increased the risk of cerebrovascular accidents in the elderly.

  1. Consequences of unforeseen cesium 137 exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolev, V.I.

    1991-01-01

    Published data on radition accidents associated with environmental contamination and 137 Cs man irradiation including Chernobyl NPP accident and 137 Cs source accident at gamma-therapeutic facility in Goyaniya (Brazil, 1987) are considered. Process scheme of dose accumulation attributed to external and internal exposure from radioactive fission products causing enviromental contamination are presented according to UNSCEAR data, 1975. 137 Cs input in total dose of external exposure from all radionuclides (2% in the first year after the accident up to 90% after 50 years), as well as bone marrow doses, caused by radionuclide fall-out resulting from Chernobyl NPP accident (1.19-1.64 rem at the Ukrainian territory and 1.63-2.78 rem in the RSFSR) are calculated on the basis of literature data. Attention is paid to consideration of radiation injuries to accident victims in Goyaniya

  2. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  3. Generalities on nuclear accidents and their short-dated and middle-dated management; Generalites sur les accidents nucleaires et leur gestion a court terme et a long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    All the nuclear activities present a radiation risk. The radiation exposure of the employees or the public, may occur during normal activity or during an accident. The IRSN realized a document on this radiation risk and the actions of protection. The sanitary and medical aspects of a radiation accident are detailed. The actions of the population protection during an accident and the post accident management are also discussed. (A.L.B.)

  4. Estimated consequences from severe spent nuclear fuel transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnish, J.J.; Monette, F.; LePoire, D.; Biwer, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    The RISKIND software package is used to estimate radiological consequences of severe accident scenarios involving the transportation of spent nuclear fuel. Radiological risks are estimated for both a collective population and a maximally exposed individual based on representative truck and rail cask designs described in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) modal study. The estimate of collective population risk considers all possible environmental pathways, including acute and long-term exposures, and is presented in terms of the 50-y committed effective dose equivalent. Radiological risks to a maximally exposed individual from acute exposure are estimated and presented in terms of the first year and 50-y committed effective dose equivalent. Consequences are estimated for accidents occurring in rural and urban population areas. The modeled pathways include inhalation during initial passing of the radioactive cloud, external exposure from a reduction of the cask shielding, long-term external exposure. from ground deposition, and ingestion from contaminated food (rural only). The major pathways and contributing radionuclides are identified, and the effects of possible mitigative actions are discussed. The cask accident responses and the radionuclide release fractions are modeled as described in the NRC modal study. Estimates of severe accident probabilities are presented for both truck and rail modes of transport. The assumptions made in this study tend to be conservative; however, a set of multiplicative factors are identified that can be applied to estimate more realistic conditions

  5. Transport of radioactive wastes to the planned final waste repository Konrad: Radiation exposure resulting from normal transport and radiological risks from transport accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, F.; Fett, H.J.; Gruendler, D.; Schwarz, G.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation exposures of members of critical groups of the general population and of transport personnel resulting from normal transport of radioactive wastes to the planned final waste repository Konrad have been evaluated in detail. By applying probabilistic safety assessment techniques radiological risks from transport accidents have been analysed by quantifying potential radiation exposures and contaminations of the biosphere in connection with their expected frequencies of occurrence. The Konrad transport study concentrates on the local region of the waste repository, where all transports converge. (orig.) [de

  6. Medical experience: Chernobyl and other accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Densow, D.; Kindler, H.; Fliedner, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    A radiation accident can be defined as an involuntary relevant exposure of man to ionising radiation or radioactive material. Provided one of the ensuing criteria is met with at least one person involved in an excursion of ionising radiation and or radioactive material, the respective incident can be considered a radiation accident in accordance with ICRP, NCRP (US), and WHO: ≥0.25 Sv total body irradiation with lesions of the rapidly dividing tissues; ≥6 Sv cutaneous and local irradiation; ≥0.4 Sv local irradiation of other organ systems through external sources; incorporation equal to or in excess of more than half of the maximum permissible organ burden; and medical accidents meeting one of the above criteria. Several actions have been taken to categorise radiation accidents in order to learn from previous accidents in terms of both managerial and medical experience. For this presentation three approaches will be discussed concerning their relevance to the individual treatment and risk management. This will be obtained by applying three classification schemes to all known radiation accidents: 1. classification with respect to the accident mechanism, 2. classification concerning the radiation injury, and 3. classification concerning the extent of the accident. In a fourth chapter the efficacy of bone marrow transplantation will briefly be commented on based on the accumulated experience of about 400 radiation accidents world-wide. (author)

  7. Profile of accidents with biological material at a dental school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Aragão de Almeida Sasamoto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.4025/actascihealthsci.v36i1.14976 Current research characterizes the epidemiological profile of accidents with biological material (BM that occurred in a government-run dental school and identifies the post-exposure behavior taken by the injured subjects. The cross-sectional retrospective study comprises professors, students and technical-administration personnel who worked in the laboratory from 2001 to 2008 (n = 566. An electronic questionnaire, prepared by software developed for this purpose, was sent to subjects between May and August 2008 for data collection. Ninety-one (34.2% out of 266 participants reported some type of exposure to BM. There was no difference between the occurrence of accidents according to the subjects’ category (p = 0.496 and sex (p = 0.261. Most of the subjects reported cutaneous exposure (76.9% comprising saliva (68.1% and blood (48.3%. The fingers were the body members most affected. Accidents occurred mostly during clinical (34.1% and surgical (30.8% procedures. Although the use of protection equipments was high (82.9%, only 26.4% of subjects reported the accident and only 28.6% sought immediate help. Most of the injured subjects failed to report the accidents and did not comply with the guidelines. Others trivialized basic behavior such as the interruption of the procedure to seek medical assistance.

  8. Personal nuclear accident dosimetry at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.C.; Mohagheghi, A.H.; Burrows, R.

    1996-09-01

    DOE installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material to potentially constitute a critical mass, such that the excessive exposure of personnel to radiation from a nuclear accident is possible, are required to provide nuclear accident dosimetry services. This document describes the personal nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) used by SNL and prescribes methodologies to initially screen, and to process PNAD results. In addition, this report describes PNAD dosimetry results obtained during the Nuclear Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Study (NAD23), held during 12-16 June 1995, at Los Alamos National Laboratories. Biases for reported neutron doses ranged from -6% to +36% with an average bias of +12%

  9. Risk horoscopes: Predicting the number and type of serious occupational accidents in The Netherlands for sectors and jobs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, Linda J.; Damen, Martin; Jan Manuel, Henk; Aneziris, Olga N.; Papazoglou, Ioannis A.; Oh, Joy I.H.

    2015-01-01

    The risk of a serious occupational accident per hour exposure was calculated in a project to develop an occupational risk model in the Netherlands (WebORCA). To obtain risk rates, the numbers of victims of serious occupational accidents investigated by the Dutch Labour inspectorate 1998–Feb 2004 were divided by the number of hours exposure for each of 64 different types of hazards, such as contact with moving parts of machines and falls from various types of height. The exposures to the occupational accident hazards were calculated from a survey of a panel of 30,000 from the Dutch working population. Sixty risk rates were then used to predict serious accidents for activity sectors and jobs in the Netherlands where exposures to the hazards for sectors or jobs could be estimated from the survey. Such predictions have been called “horoscopes” because the idea is to provide a quick look-up of predicted accidents for a particular sector or job. Predictions compared favourably with actual data. It is concluded that predictive data can help provide information about accidents in cases where there is a lack of data, such as for smaller sub groups of the working population. - Highlights: • Dutch occupational accident risk rates and yearly exposures for 60 hazards are given. • Risks rates are based on the 1% most serious accidents 1998–Feb 2004. • Risk rates are used to predict serious accident risks in jobs and sectors. • Predictions (“risk horoscopes”) give a good match with actual accidents. • Risk horoscopes can help worker groups identify most important accident risks

  10. Public health activities for mitigation of radiation exposures and risk communication challenges after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Terada, Hiroshi; Kunugita, Naoki; Svendsen, Erik Robert

    2015-01-01

    Herein we summarize the public health actions taken to mitigate exposure of the public to radiation after the Fukushima accident that occurred on 11 March 2011 in order to record valuable lessons learned for disaster preparedness. Evacuations from the radiation-affected areas and control of the distribution of various food products contributed to the reduction of external and internal radiation exposure resulting from the Fukushima incident. However, risk communication is also an important issue during the emergency response effort and subsequent phases of dealing with a nuclear disaster. To assist with their healing process, sound, reliable scientific information should continue to be disseminated to the radiation-affected communities via two-way communication. We will describe the essential public health actions following a nuclear disaster for the early, intermediate and late phases that will be useful for radiological preparedness planning in response to other nuclear or radiological disasters. (author)

  11. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P L [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  12. Accidents in nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10 -3 per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  13. The lessons from the radiation accidents in China over the past 40 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Ma, J.; Yang, J.

    1998-01-01

    A brief introduction and analysis of the radiological accidents in China during the past 40 years have been made in this paper. Statistical data provided by the competent authority show that a number of cases of radiological accidents and events happened in China from 1954 to 1994. Quite a few persons received abnormal exposure. Some serious accidents resulted in death of 8 victims. The reasons of these accidents are analyzed and some recommendations for reduction of potential exposure and accidents involving radiation sources and equipment generating ionization radiation have been given, such as perfecting and improving radiation safety infrastructure and system for the control of radiation sources. It is suggested that safety culture shall be fostered, each individual must be suitably trained and qualified and the management of spent sources should be strengthened. (author)

  14. The Chernobyl accident and its consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenko, V; Ivanov, V; Tsyb, A; Bogdanova, T; Tronko, M; Demidchik, Yu; Yamashita, S

    2011-05-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the worst industrial accident of the last century that involved radiation. The unprecedented release of multiple different radioisotopes led to radioactive contamination of large areas surrounding the accident site. The exposure of the residents of these areas was varied and therefore the consequences for health and radioecology could not be reliably estimated quickly. Even though some studies have now been ongoing for 25 years and have provided a better understanding of the situation, these are yet neither complete nor comprehensive enough to determine the long-term risk. A true assessment can only be provided after following the observed population for their natural lifespan. Here we review the technical aspects of the accident and provide relevant information on radioactive releases that resulted in exposure of this large population to radiation. A number of different groups of people were exposed to radiation: workers involved in the initial clean-up response, and members of the general population who were either evacuated from the settlements in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant vicinity shortly after the accident, or continued to live in the affected territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Through domestic efforts and extensive international co-operation, essential information on radiation dose and health status for this population has been collected. This has permitted the identification of high-risk groups and the use of more specialised means of collecting information, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Because radiation-associated thyroid cancer is one of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, a particular emphasis is placed on this malignancy. The initial epidemiological studies are reviewed, as are the most significant studies and/or aid programmes in the three affected countries. Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  15. Review of the chronic exposure pathways models in MACCS [MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System] and several other well-known probabilistic risk assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the work performed by the author in connection with the following task, performed for US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, (USNRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Division of Systems Research: MACCS Chronic Exposure Pathway Models: Review the chronic exposure pathway models implemented in the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS) and compare those models to the chronic exposure pathway models implemented in similar codes developed in countries that are members of the OECD. The chronic exposures concerned are via: the terrestrial food pathways, the water pathways, the long-term groundshine pathway, and the inhalation of resuspended radionuclides pathway. The USNRC has indicated during discussions of the task that the major effort should be spent on the terrestrial food pathways. There is one chapter for each of the categories of chronic exposure pathways listed above

  16. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

  17. Site Specific Analyses of a Spent Nuclear Fuel Transportation Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biwer, B. M.; Chen, S. Y.

    2003-01-01

    The number of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) shipments is expected to increase significantly during the time period that the United States' inventory of SNF is sent to a final disposal site. Prior work estimated that the highest accident risks of a SNF shipping campaign to the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain were in the corridor states, such as Illinois. The largest potential human health impacts would be expected to occur in areas with high population densities such as urban settings. Thus, our current study examined the human health impacts from the most plausible severe SNF transportation accidents in the Chicago metropolitan area. The RISKIND 2.0 program was used to model site-specific data for an area where the largest impacts might occur. The results have shown that the radiological human health consequences of a severe SNF rail transportation accident on average might be similar to one year of exposure to natural background radiation for those persons living a nd working in the most affected areas downwind of the actual accident location. For maximally exposed individuals, an exposure similar to about two years of exposure to natural background radiation was estimated. In addition to the accident probabilities being very low (approximately 1 chance in 10,000 or less during the entire shipping campaign), the actual human health impacts are expected to be lower if any of the accidents considered did occur, because the results are dependent on the specific location and weather conditions, such as wind speed and direction, that were selected to maximize the results. Also, comparison of the results of longer duration accident scenarios against U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines was made to demonstrate the usefulness of this site-specific analysis for emergency planning purposes

  18. Urbapat: External exposure and countermeasures after a radiological accident in the urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.E.; Gallego, E.

    1992-01-01

    URBAPAT (URBAN PATHWAY) is a computer model, written in FORTRAN 77, for the evaluation of the gamma external exposure, and the adequate countermeasures, after a radiological accident involving dispersion and deposition of radioactive material on different urban surfaces. The code estimates the evolution of radioactive material in the urban environment using a dynamic model consisting on 21 compartments, that simulate five different urban surfaces with their particular retention properties. For the assessment of the gamma external exposure in urban areas, one of then main contributors to the long-term individual dose, the model considers the contribution of each surface to the dose rate delivered by five radionuclides (Cs-137, Cs-134, I-131, Te-132, Ba-140) in different locations outside and inside three types of buildings (semi-detached houses, terrace houses and multi-stored buildings). The population is classified in various groups, attending to their stay time in each location. The model can evaluate the dose avoided by the introduction of countermeasures like decontamination of the urban surfaces or relocation. An assessment of their associated costs will permit to perform the needed cost-benefit analysis of the different countermeasures and alternatives, following IAEA and ICRP recommendations. The capability to perform sensitivity and uncertainty assessment of the more important parameters affecting the results obtained will also be included in the model. (Author)

  19. Fraction of work-related accidents attributable to occupational noise in the city of Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Adriano; Cordeiro, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Noise is the most common agent of occupational exposure. It may induce both auditory and extraauditory dysfunction and increase the risk of work accidents. The purpose of this study was to estimate the fraction of accidents attributable to noise occupational exposure in a mid-size city located in southeastern Brazil. In this population case-control study, which included 108 cases and 324 controls, the incidence rate ratio of work accidents controlled for several covariables was obtained by classifying occupational noise exposure into three levels, as well as determining the prevalence in each level. Based on these data, the attributable fraction was estimated as 0.6391 (95% CI = 0.2341-0.3676), i.e., 63% of the work accidents that took place in the study site were statistically associated with occupational noise exposure. The causes of this association as well as its implications in the prevention of work accidents are discussed.

  20. Generalities on nuclear accidents and their short-dated and middle-dated management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    All the nuclear activities present a radiation risk. The radiation exposure of the employees or the public, may occur during normal activity or during an accident. The IRSN realized a document on this radiation risk and the actions of protection. The sanitary and medical aspects of a radiation accident are detailed. The actions of the population protection during an accident and the post accident management are also discussed. (A.L.B.)

  1. Models of hemapoietic changes on the basis of systematically collected case histories of radiation accident victims as well as pathophysiologically evaluated patients after chronic radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    The research project ''Models of Hematopoietic Changes on the Basis of Systematically Collected Case Histories of Radiation Accident Victims as well as Pathophysiologically Evaluated Patients after Chronic Radiation Exposure'' required the investigation of four major research problem areas. First of all, biomathematical models were improved or newly developed allowing the simulation of the radiation induced response patterns of granulocytes, lymphocytes and blood platelets. The compartment model approach allowed the establishment of the correlation of such blood cell changes to the extent of damage at the level of hemopoietic stem cells distributed throughout the skeleton. The utilization of neural-network techniques resulted in a ''synergetic'' model that enables the medical doctor - using blood cell changes within the first 5-6 days after exposure - to predict the further course of illness and to allow a rational approach to clinical management. Secondly, available information on the clinical consequences of radiation exposure on more than 800 accident victims enabled the team to develop an entirely new concept to recognize and treat such persons. For this approach the biomathematical models were used to identify ''response categories'' (rather than dosimetrically defined ''exposure categories'') with an organ specific grading code of the severity of radiation-induced damage. This grading allowed the semi-quantitative damage assessment of the hemopoiesis, the neurovascular system, the gastrointestinal as well as the cutaneous system. It forms the basis for a ''weighted'' prognosis and for the logistics of radiation accident medical management. In the third project domain, models were developed to understand pathophysiological mechanisms of biological consequences of chronic radiation in human beings (former USSR) as well as in a preclinical dog study (USA). From a large group of patients with the diagnosis of ''Chronic Radiation Sickness'' more than 80 were

  2. Analysis of occupational accidents with biological material among professionals in pre-hospital services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Adriana Cristina; Paiva, Maria Henriqueta Rocha Siqueira

    2013-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence of accidents due to biological material exposure, the characteristics and post-accident conduct among professionals of pre-hospital services of the four municipalities of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A cross-sectional study, using a structured questionnaire that was developed to enable the calculation of prevalence, descriptive analysis and analytical analysis using logistic regression. The study included 228 professionals; the prevalence of accidents due to biological material exposure was 29.4%, with 49.2% percutaneous, 10.4% mucousal, 6.0% non-intact skin, and 34.4% intact skin. Among the professionals injured, those that stood out were nursing technicians (41.9%) and drivers (28.3%). Notification of the occurrence of the accident occurred in 29.8% of the cases. Percutaneous exposure was associated with time of work in the organization (OR=2.51, 95% CI: 1.18 to 5.35, paccidents with biological material should be encouraged, along with professional evaluation/monitoring.

  3. Radiological consequence of Chernobyl nuclear power accident in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Masafumi; Nakamura, Yuji; Kankura, Takako; Iwasaki, Tamiko; Fujimoto, Kenzo; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi.

    1988-03-01

    Two years have elapsed since the accident in Chernobyl nuclear power station shocked those concerned with nuclear power generation. The effect that this accident exerted on human environment has still continued directly and indirectly, and the reports on the effect have been made in various countries and by international organizations. In Japan, about the exposure dose of Japanese people due to this accident, the Nuclear Safety Commission and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute issued the reports. In this report, the available data concerning the envrionmental radioactivity level in Japan due to the Chernobyl accident are collected, and the evaluation of exposure dose which seems most appropriate from the present day scientific viewpoint was attempted by the detailed analysis in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The enormous number of the data observed in various parts of Japan were different in sampling, locality, time and measuring method, so difficulty arose frequently. The maximum concentration of I-131 in floating dust was 2.5 Bq/m 3 observed in Fukui, and the same kinds of radioactive nuclides as those in Europe were detected. (Kako, I.)

  4. The relationships between organizational and individual variables to on-the-job driver accidents and accident-free kilometres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caird, J K; Kline, T J

    2004-12-01

    Highway fatalities are the leading cause of fatal work injuries in the US, accounting for approximately 1 in 4 of the 5900 job-related deaths during 2001. The present study focused on the contribution of organizational factors and driver behaviours to on-the-job driving accidents in a large Western Canadian corporation. A structural equation modelling (SEM) approach was used which allows researchers to test a complex set of relationships within a global theoretical framework. A number of scales were used to assess organizational support, driver errors, and driver behaviours. The sample of professional drivers that participated allowed the recording of on-the-job accidents and accident-free kilometres from their personnel files. The pattern of relationships in the fitted model, after controlling for exposure and social desirability, provides insight into the role of organizational support, planning, environment adaptations, fatigue, speed, errors and moving citations to on-the-job accidents and accident-free kilometres. For example, organizational support affected the capacity to plan. Time to plan work-related driving was found to predict accidents, fatigue and adaptations to the environment. Other interesting model paths, SEM limitations, future research and recommendations are elaborated.

  5. Stressful life events and occupational accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Dias, Adriano

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between stressful life events and occupational accidents. This was a population-based case-control study, carried out in the city of Botucatu, in southeast Brazil. The cases consisted of 108 workers who had recently experienced occupational accidents. Each case was matched with three controls. The cases and controls answered a questionnaire about recent exposure to stressful life events. Reporting of "environmental problems", "being a victim of assault", "not having enough food at home" and "nonoccupational fatigue" were found to be risk factors for work-related accidents with estimated incidence rate ratios of 1.4 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1-1.7], 1.3 (95% CI 1.1-1.7), 1.3 (95% CI 1.1-1.6), and 1.4 (95% CI 1.2-1.7) respectively. The findings of the study suggested that nonwork variables contribute to occupational accidents, thus broadening the understanding of these phenomena, which can support new approaches to the prevention of occupational accidents.

  6. Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelieveld, J.; Kunkel, D.; Lawrence, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Major reactor accidents of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by ''rare''? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the cumulative, global risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents (the most severe ones on the International Nuclear Event Scale, INES 7), using particulate "1"3"7Cs and gaseous "1"3"1I as proxies for the fallout. Our results indicate that previously the occurrence of INES 7 major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a major reactor accident of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted "1"3"7Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance before being deposited. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"1I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human exposure due to deposition are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in West Europe and South Asia, where a major reactor accident can subject around 30 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  7. Possible accidents in nuclear power plants and their effect on the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loester, W.

    1981-01-01

    Besides giving a classification of accidents (disturbance, maximum accident considered, uncontrollable superaccident), the paper assesses the activities released, contamination values, dose-limits for first-aid ponnel and for the radiation exposure of the population. (DG) [de

  8. An overview of industrial radiography accidents in India during the period 1987-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Subramanya, M.J.; Raghavendran, C.P.; Murthy, B.K.S.; Vishwakarma, R.R.; Kannan, R.; Sharma, A.; Bhatt, B.C.

    1998-01-01

    Use of gamma radiation sources for non-destructive testing of welds, castings and vital components in several industries in India has recorded a steep rise in the last three decades. There are over 1000 industrial gamma radiography exposure devices (IGRED) in over 400 institutions in the country. Most of these employ Co-60 and Ir-192 gamma sources. In spite of regulatory control and procedures there have been accidents with the IGREDs resulting in significant radiation exposures and in some cases, injuries to members of public and radiography personnel. This paper analyses the accidents which occurred in India during the ten year period of 1987-1997, management of such accidents, steps taken to avoid recurrence of these accidents based on the lessons learnt. (author)

  9. [HIV and the nursing professional in the face of needlestick accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Mariana; Padilha, Maria Itayra Coelho de Souza

    2008-12-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the scientific production about work-related needlestick accidents among nursing professionals involving HIV-contaminated biological material, as well as to characterize the pre-existing factors to such accidents, such as procedures occurring after the exposure to potentially HIV-contaminated needlestick material. This is a literature review, whose bibliographic search for keywords was carried out within the LILACS databases from the year 2000 onward. This study confirms that pre-existing factors for the occurrence of work-related needlestick accidents are related to work conditions as much as to individual conditions. In face of these accidents, the nursing workers need to know the conducts concerning post-exposure to potentially HIV-contaminated needlestick material. We conclude that the adoption of standardized precautions when working in healthcare is a fundamental condition for worker safety, independently of their area of expertise, given the increasing number of HIV cases.

  10. Estimation of internal exposure dose due to Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Naoko; Takamura, Noboru; Kudo, Takashi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Miura, Miwa; Yoshida, Masahiro; Matsuda, Naoki; Ohtsuru, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Detailed analysis of internal exposure dose in 173 people sent for dealing with the Accident and stayed nearby during the period Mar 11-Apr 10, 2011, was reported. They were 156 men and 17 women, 42.2 years old in average and stayed for average 4.8 days. Analysis was done for following 4 groups of people: in group 1, 45 people had stayed during the period of Mar 11-18 for average 4.3 days; group 2, 66 people during Mar 14-22 for 2.0 days; group 3, 31 people during Mar 28-31 for 5.8 days; and group 4, 31 people during Mar 22-Apr 10 for 10.6 days. Internal radioactivity was measured for 20 min in the whole body counter placed in a low-background, iron-surrounded room in Nagasaki University. The detector was a pair of NaI (Tl) scintillator of 8 in. (diameter) x 4 in. (thickness) equipped at upper and lower portions. Nuclides measured were I-131 (at 0.364 MeV and others), Cs-134 (0.605, 0.796 MeV), Cs-137 (0.662 MeV), of which lowest detection limits were 68 Bq for I, and 28 Bq for Cs. Overall average detection rates of the respective nuclide above were found to be 31.8% (55/173 people), 37.6% (65) and 32.4% (56). In group 1, >800 Bq of the nuclides were found in the body, but in later groups, radioactivity was lower. Detection rate and internal radioactivity were thus found to be highest in those stayed immediately after the Accident. (T.T.)

  11. Aspects of accident management in Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dascalu, N.

    1999-01-01

    As a general conclusion, the accident management system as implemented at Cerna voda NPP is expected to be appropriate for handling a severe accident, should it occur, in such a way that the environmental radiological consequences would be insignificant and radiation exposure of the personnel be within recommendations. It is recognized, however, that continued development and verification of the system as well as effective personnel training programs are essential to maintain the safety level achieved. (author)

  12. Criticality accident alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The American National Standard ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986, Criticality Accident Alarm System provides guidance for the establishment and maintenance of an alarm system to initiate personnel evacuation in the event of inadvertent criticality. In addition to identifying the physical features of the components of the system, the characteristics of accidents of concern are carefully delineated. Unfortunately, this ANSI Standard has led to considerable confusion in interpretation, and there is evidence that the ''minimum accident of concern'' may not be appropriate. Furthermore, although intended as a guide, the provisions of the standard are being rigorously applied, sometimes with interpretations that are not consistent. Although the standard is clear in the use of absorbed dose in free air of 20 rad, at least one installation has interpreted the requirement to apply to dose in soft tissue. The standard is also clear in specifying the response to both neutrons and gamma rays. An assembly of uranyl fluoride enriched to 5% 235 U was operated to simulate a potential accident. The dose, delivered in a free run excursion 2 m from the surface of the vessel, was greater than 500 rad, without ever exceeding a rate of 20 rad/min, which is the set point for activating an alarm that meets the standard. The presence of an alarm system would not have prevented any of the five major accidents in chemical operations nor is it absolutely certain that the alarms were solely responsible for reducing personnel exposures following the accident. Nevertheless, criticality alarm systems are now the subject of great effort and expense. 13 refs

  13. Societal and ethical aspects of the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oughton, Deborah

    2016-10-01

    The Fukushima Nuclear Power Station accident in Japan in 2011 was a poignant reminder that radioactive contamination of the environment has consequences that encompass far more than health risks from exposure to radiation. Both the accident and remediation measures have resulted in serious societal impacts and raise questions about the ethical aspects of risk management. This article presents a brief review of some of these issues and compares similarities and differences with the lessons learned from the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in Ukraine. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:651-653. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  14. Occupational accidents in the Netherlands: incidence, mental harm, and their relationship with psychosocial factors at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Klauw, Marloes; Hengel, Karen Oude; Roozeboom, Maartje Bakhuys; Koppes, Lando L; Venema, Anita

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the incidence of mental harm due to occupational accidents and the relation between psychosocial factors at work and the occurrence of occupational accidents in the Netherlands for the construction industry and health and welfare sector. Analyses revealed that occupational accidents in the construction industry more often involved physical harm, whereas accidents in the health and welfare sector relatively more often resulted in mental harm, in comparison to other sectors. Results showed that psychosocial factors were associated with occupational accidents in both sectors. For the construction industry, high time pressure and exposure to violence and harassment by colleagues or supervisors were associated with occupational accidents. For the health and welfare sector, low autonomy and exposure to violence and harassment by colleagues or supervisors or by people outside the organization were associated with occupational accidents. The present paper stresses the importance of also taking psychological consequences and psychosocial factors at work into account in assessing the occurrence of occupational accidents.

  15. Human exposure to radiation following the release of radioactivity from a reactor accident: a quantitative assessment of the biological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.; Stather, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    The objective of this review is to provide a biological basis upon which to assess the consequences of the exposure of a population to radioactivity released after a reactor accident. Depending upon the radiation dose, both early and late somatic damage could occur in the exposed population and hereditary effects may occur in their descendants. The development of dose-effect relationships has been based upon the limited amount of information available on humans, supplemented by data obtained from experiments on animals. (author)

  16. Social aspects concerning the cesium-137 accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, Elza Guedes

    1997-01-01

    The present work aims to understand how social representations constructed upon nuclear energy have influenced on molding and orienting public's behavior in the presence of the accident that occurred in Goiania with the capsule of Cesium-137. As a starting point, it is accepted here that panic caused by that accident could be properly understood only if dimension of subjectivity is taken into consideration. This perspective is required whenever events that put human life and environment in risk happen. Facing the accident, people internalized radioactivity, an unknown element, as certainty of cancer and death despite the fact that cancer and death could only outcome in case there had been excessive exposure to radioactivity. (author)

  17. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l`accident de Tchernobyl en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, Ph; Beaugelin, K; Maubert, H; Ledenvic, Ph

    1998-12-31

    After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 {mu}Sv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

  18. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l`accident de Tchernobyl en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph

    1997-12-31

    After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 {mu}Sv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

  19. Radioactivity measurement for emergency or post-accident situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, D.

    2010-01-01

    Specific objectives have to be achieved by radioactivity measurements during emergency or post-accident situations, which are different from those in normal situation. At the beginning of a nuclear emergency, few radioactivity data will be available, mainly from automatic monitoring systems implemented on the site or in its surrounding. Progressively, measurement programmes will be performed, in priority to get information on dose rate, atmospheric radionuclides and surface activities. In order to avoid excessive exposure of the measure teams, these programmes should be optimized. During early post-accident phase, different types of measurements will be done, following two main objectives: 1) to improve the assessment of the environmental contamination and people exposure; 2) for control purpose, to check the contamination of urban places, foodstuff and other products, compared to specific reference levels. The samples measurement in laboratories would be a challenge: usually, the laboratories involved in routine monitoring have to deal with very low level of radioactivity and a poor diversity of artificial radionuclides; after a reactor accident, the environmental samples to be measured would be more active and with a mixture of radionuclides (mainly with short or middle half-life) difficult to be characterized. So theses laboratories have to be trained and organised before any severe accident. (author)

  20. Review of progress on enhanced accident tolerant fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, K.; Dunn, B.; Kochendarfer, R.

    2015-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima has resulted in renewed interest in understanding the performance of nuclear power plants under accident conditions. Part of that interest is directed toward determining how to improve the performance of fuel during an accident that involves long exposures of the fuel to high temperatures. This paper describes the method being used by AREVA to select and evaluate approaches for improving the accident tolerance of nuclear fuel. The method involves starting with a large number of approaches that might enhance accident tolerance, and reviewing how well each approach satisfies a set of engineering requirements and goals. Among the approaches investigated we have the development of fuel pellets that contain a second phase to improve thermal conductivity, the use of molybdenum alloy tubing as fuel cladding, the use of oxidation-resistant coatings to zirconium cladding, and the use of nanoparticles in the coolant to improve heat transfer

  1. Comparison of the accident process, radioactivity release and ground contamination between Chernobyl and Fukushima-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Hayashi, Gohei; Endo, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we have reviewed the basic features of the accident processes and radioactivity releases that occurred in the Chernobyl accident (1986) and in the Fukushima-1 accident (2011). The Chernobyl accident was a power-surge accident that was caused by a failure of control of a fission chain reaction, which instantaneously destroyed the reactor and building, whereas the Fukushima-1 accident was a loss-of-coolant accident in which the reactor cores of three units were melted by decay heat after losing the electricity supply. Although the quantity of radioactive noble gases released from Fukushima-1 exceeded the amount released from Chernobyl, the size of land area severely contaminated by 137 Cesium ( 137 Cs) was 10 times smaller around Fukushima-1 compared with around Chernobyl. The differences in the accident process are reflected in the composition of the discharged radioactivity as well as in the composition of the ground contamination. Volatile radionuclides (such as 132 Te- 132 I, 131 I, 134 Cs and 137 Cs) contributed to the gamma-ray exposure from the ground contamination around Fukishima-1, whereas a greater variety of radionuclides contributed significantly around Chernobyl. When radioactivity deposition occurred, the radiation exposure rate near Chernobyl is estimated to have been 770 μGy h −1 per initial 137 Cs deposition of 1000 kBq m −2 , whereas it was 100 μGy h −1 around Fukushima-1. Estimates of the cumulative exposure for 30 years are 970 and 570 mGy per initial deposition of 1000 kBq m −2 for Chernobyl and Fukusima-1, respectively. Of these exposures, 49 and 98% were contributed by radiocesiums ( 134 Cs + 137 Cs) around Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively

  2. Dose evaluation for external exposure in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    Abnormal exposures including emergency and accidental are categorized into external exposure and internal contamination, although both of these may be associated with external contamination. From a point of view of lifesaving in the abnormal exposures, it is primarily important to evaluate radiation dose of exposed persons as soon as possible. This report reviews the status of early dosimetry in the accidental exposures and discusses the optimum methodology of the early dose determination for external exposures in abnormal exposures. Personal monitors generally give an indication of dose to an exposed person only at a single part of the body. The data obtained from the personal monitors should be interpreted with care and in the light of information about the circumstances of exposure. In most cases, the records of environmental monitors or the survey with area monitors provide valuable information on the radiation fields. In the some cases, the reconstruction of the abnormal exposure is required for the dose evaluation by means of phantom experiments. In the case of neutron exposures, activation products in the body or its components or personnel possession can be useful for the early dosimetry. If the dose received by the whole body is evaluated as being very high, clinical observations and biological investigations may be more important guide to initial medical treatment than the early dosimetry. For the dose evaluation of general public, depending on the size of abnormal exposure, information that could be valuable in the assessment of abnormal exposures will come from the early dose estimates with environmental monitors and radiation survey meters. (author)

  3. Guidelines for attendance and registration for radiological emergencies of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Today in Brazil the use of nuclear energy is becoming an usual practice in various activities. Thus, must be a matter of great weight, directions for attendance and registration for radiological emergencies or nuclear accidents. This work shows the planning elaborated by the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (Brazilian CNEN) for nuclear plants, aiming avoid the injurious effects from the ionizing radiation exposure, radionuclides release or the direct or indirect exposure of ionizing radiation, that proceeding from a radiological emergencies or a nuclear accidents. (J.A.M.M.)

  4. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  5. Medical and policy considerations for nuclear and radiation accidents, incidents and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert Peter

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to address the increasing medical and public concern regarding the health consequences of radiation exposure, a concern shaped not only by fear of another Chernobyl or Fukushima nuclear power facility accident but also by the intentional use of a nuclear weapon, a radiological dispersion device, a radiological exposure device, or an improved nuclear device by rogue states such as North Korea and terrorist organizations such as Al Qaeda and ISIS. The United States has the medical capacity to respond to a limited nuclear or radiation accident or incident but an effective medical response to a catastrophic nuclear event is impossible. Dealing effectively with nuclear and radiation accidents or incidents requires diverse strategies, including policy decisions, public education, and medical preparedness. I review medical consequences of exposures to ionizing radiations, likely concomitant injuries and potential medical intervention. These data should help haematologists and other healthcare professionals understand the principles of medical consequences of nuclear terrorism. However, the best strategy is prevention.

  6. The Fukushima nuclear accident and the pale grass blue butterfly: evaluating biological effects of long-term low-dose exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, Atsuki; Nohara, Chiyo; Taira, Wataru; Kinjo, Seira; Iwata, Masaki; Otaki, Joji M

    2013-08-12

    On August 9th 2012, we published an original research article in Scientific Reports, concluding that artificial radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant exerted genetically and physiologically adverse effects on the pale grass blue butterfly Zizeeria maha in the Fukushima area. Immediately following publication, many questions and comments were generated from all over the world. Here, we have clarified points made in the original paper and answered questions posed by the readers. The following points were clarified. (1) There are many advantages to using the pale grass blue butterfly as an indicator species. (2) The forewings of the individuals collected in Fukushima were significantly smaller than in the northern and southern localities. (3) We observed growth retardation in the butterflies from the Fukushima area. (4) The aberrant colour patterns in the butterflies obtained in the Fukushima area were different from the colour patterns induced by temperature and sibling crosses but similar to those induced by external and internal exposures to the artificial radionuclides and by a chemical mutagen, suggesting that genetic mutations caused the aberrations. (5) This species of butterfly has been plentiful in Fukushima area for at least half a century. We here present specimens collected from Fukushima Prefecture before the accident. (6) Mutation accumulation was detected by the increase in the abnormality rates from May 2011 to September 2011. (7) The abnormal traits were heritable. (8) Our sampling localities were not affected by the tsunami. (9) We used a high enough number of samples to obtain statistically significant results. (10) The standard rearing method was followed, producing normal adults in the control groups. (11) The exposure experiments successfully reproduced the results of the field work. This species of butterfly is vulnerable to long-term low-dose internal and external exposures; however, insect cells are known to be

  7. Fraction of work-related accidents attributable to occupational noise in the city of Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, A; Cordeiro, R

    2008-01-01

    Background: Noise is the most common agent of occupational exposure. It may induce both auditory and extraauditory dysfunction and increase the risk of work accidents. The purpose of this study was to estimate the fraction of accidents attributable to noise occupational exposure in a mid-size city located in southeastern Brazil. Materials and Methods: In this population case-control study, which included 108 cases and 324 controls, the incidence rate ratio of work accidents controlled for sev...

  8. Three years after the accident at Chernobyl - how much did the radioactivity released really enhance the radiation exposure of the population in the FRG?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, A.

    1989-01-01

    The article presents and summarizes examples taken as a basis for assessing the radiation dose taken up via the three pathways inhalation, environmental exposure, ingestion. The author discusses the issue of the full lifetime dose to children and adults due to ingestion of food contaminated by the reactor accident, and explains the radiation hazard to the population emanating from contaminated food. (DG) [de

  9. Immediate medical consequences of nuclear accidents: lessons from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    The immediate medical response to the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station involved containment of the radioactivity and evacuation of the nearby population. The next step consisted of assessment of the radiation dose received by individuals, based on biological dosimetry, and treatment of those exposed. Medical care involved treatment of skin burns; measures to support bone marrow failure, gastrointestinal tract injury, and other organ damage (i.e., infection prophylaxis and transfusions) for those with lower radiation dose exposure; and bone marrow transplantation for those exposed to a high dose of radiation. At Chernobyl, two victims died immediately and 29 died of radiation or thermal injuries in the next three months. The remaining victims of the accident are currently well. A nuclear accident anywhere is a nuclear accident everywhere. Prevention and cooperation in response to these accidents are essential goals

  10. HIV surveillance in needlestick accidents with health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Lane Amadei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the occurrence of needlestick accidents with health professionals submitted to rapid HIV tests. Methods: A descriptive, epidemiological study, carried out by notification of the occurrence of needlestick accidents in the Epidemiology Sector of the State Health Secretariat, in 2008. The following variables were assessed: gender, age, exposed biological material, type of exposure, source patient, and injured patient, progression of the case, accident situation, and use of personal protective equipment (PPE, 180 days serology and occupational area. Results: There have been reports of 143 accidents, prevailing in nursing, female, 20 to 30 years, involving the blood and biological material by percutaneous puncture. We found no standardization in the use of PPE. The HIV test revealed no positive cases. Conclusion: This study helped to characterize the occurrence of accidents reported in health care professionals and evaluate the protocol of care given. It also revealed non-contamination by HIV.

  11. Radiation risk due to occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kargbo, A.A

    2012-04-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation occurs in many occupations. Workers can be exposed to both natural and artificial sources of radiation. Any exposure to ionizing radiation incurs some risk, either to the individual or to the individual's progeny. This dissertation investigated the radiation risk due to occupational exposure in industrial radiography. Analysis of the reported risk estimates to occupational exposure contained in the UNSCEAR report of 2008 in industrial radiography practice was done. The causes of accidents in industrial radiography include: Lack of or inadequate regulatory control, inadequate training, failure to follow operational procedures, human error, equipment malfunction or defect, inadequate maintenance and wilful violation have been identified as primary causes of accidents. To minimise radiation risks in industrial radiography exposure devices and facilities should be designed such that there is intrinsic safety and operational safety ensured by establishing a quality assurance programme, safety culture fostered and maintained among all workers, industrial radiography is performed in compliance with approved local rules, workers engaged have appropriate qualifications and training, available safe operational procedures are followed, a means is provided for detecting incidents and accidents and an analysis of the causes and lessons learned. (author)

  12. Chromosome aberrations in Norwegian reindeer following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Røed, K.H.; Jacobsen, M.

    1995-01-01

    Chromosome analyses were carried out on peripheral blood lymphocytes of semi-domestic reindeer in Norway which had been exposed to varying amounts of radiocesium emanating from the Chernobyl accident. The sampling was done in the period 1987-1990. The material included 192 reindeer, originating from four herds in central Norway, an area considerably affected by fallout from the Chernobyl accident, and from three herds in northern Norway which was unaffected by fallout from the accident. Significant heterogeneity in the distribution of chromosome aberrations between herds was observed. The pattern of chromosome aberration frequencies between herds was not related to the variation in radiocesium exposure from the Chernobyl accident. Other factors than the Chernobyl accident appear therefore to be of importance for the distribution of aberration frequencies found among present herds. Within the most contaminated area the reindeer born in 1986 showed significantly more chromosome aberrations than those born both before and after 1986. This could suggest that the Chernobyl accident fallout created an effect particularly among calves, during the immediate post-accident period in the most exposed areas

  13. Radiological protection issues arising during and after the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Abel J; Akashi, Makoto; Sakai, Kazuo; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Boice Jr, John D; Chino, Masamichi; Homma, Toshimitsu; Ishigure, Nobuhito; Kai, Michiaki; Kusumi, Shizuyo; Lee, Jai-Ki; Menzel, Hans-Georg; Niwa, Ohtsura; Yamashita, Shunichi; Weiss, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Following the Fukushima accident, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) convened a task group to compile lessons learned from the nuclear reactor accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, with respect to the ICRP system of radiological protection. In this memorandum the members of the task group express their personal views on issues arising during and after the accident, without explicit endorsement of or approval by the ICRP. While the affected people were largely protected against radiation exposure and no one incurred a lethal dose of radiation (or a dose sufficiently large to cause radiation sickness), many radiological protection questions were raised. The following issues were identified: inferring radiation risks (and the misunderstanding of nominal risk coefficients); attributing radiation effects from low dose exposures; quantifying radiation exposure; assessing the importance of internal exposures; managing emergency crises; protecting rescuers and volunteers; responding with medical aid; justifying necessary but disruptive protective actions; transiting from an emergency to an existing situation; rehabilitating evacuated areas; restricting individual doses of members of the public; caring for infants and children; categorising public exposures due to an accident; considering pregnant women and their foetuses and embryos; monitoring public protection; dealing with ‘contamination’ of territories, rubble and residues and consumer products; recognising the importance of psychological consequences; and fostering the sharing of information. Relevant ICRP Recommendations were scrutinised, lessons were collected and suggestions were compiled. It was concluded that the radiological protection community has an ethical duty to learn from the lessons of Fukushima and resolve any identified challenges. Before another large accident occurs, it should be ensured that inter alia: radiation risk coefficients of

  14. Radiological protection issues arising during and after the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Abel J; Akashi, Makoto; Boice, John D; Chino, Masamichi; Homma, Toshimitsu; Ishigure, Nobuhito; Kai, Michiaki; Kusumi, Shizuyo; Lee, Jai-Ki; Menzel, Hans-Georg; Niwa, Ohtsura; Sakai, Kazuo; Weiss, Wolfgang; Yamashita, Shunichi; Yonekura, Yoshiharu

    2013-09-01

    Following the Fukushima accident, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) convened a task group to compile lessons learned from the nuclear reactor accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, with respect to the ICRP system of radiological protection. In this memorandum the members of the task group express their personal views on issues arising during and after the accident, without explicit endorsement of or approval by the ICRP. While the affected people were largely protected against radiation exposure and no one incurred a lethal dose of radiation (or a dose sufficiently large to cause radiation sickness), many radiological protection questions were raised. The following issues were identified: inferring radiation risks (and the misunderstanding of nominal risk coefficients); attributing radiation effects from low dose exposures; quantifying radiation exposure; assessing the importance of internal exposures; managing emergency crises; protecting rescuers and volunteers; responding with medical aid; justifying necessary but disruptive protective actions; transiting from an emergency to an existing situation; rehabilitating evacuated areas; restricting individual doses of members of the public; caring for infants and children; categorising public exposures due to an accident; considering pregnant women and their foetuses and embryos; monitoring public protection; dealing with 'contamination' of territories, rubble and residues and consumer products; recognising the importance of psychological consequences; and fostering the sharing of information. Relevant ICRP Recommendations were scrutinised, lessons were collected and suggestions were compiled. It was concluded that the radiological protection community has an ethical duty to learn from the lessons of Fukushima and resolve any identified challenges. Before another large accident occurs, it should be ensured that inter alia: radiation risk coefficients of potential

  15. Credible accident analyses for TRIGA and TRIGA-fueled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, S.C.; Kathren, R.L.

    1982-04-01

    Credible accidents were developed and analyzed for TRIGA and TRIGA-fueled reactors. The only potential for offsite exposure appears to be from a fuel-handling accident that, based on highly conservative assumptions, would result in dose equivalents of less than or equal to 1 mrem to the total body from noble gases and less than or equal to 1.2 rem to the thyroid from radioiodines. Credible accidents from excess reactivity insertions, metal-water reactions, lost, misplaced, or inadvertent experiments, core rearrangements, and changes in fuel morphology and ZrH/sub x/ composition are also evaluated, and suggestions for further study provided

  16. Occupational Blood Exposure among Health Care Personnel and Hospital Trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hajjaji Darouiche

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood and body fluid Exposure is a major occupational safety problems for health care workers. Therefore, we conducted a descriptive and retrospective study to identify the characteristics of blood exposure accidents in health care settings which lasted five years (2005-2009 at the two university hospitals of Sfax. We have 593 blood exposure accidents in health care settings 152 (25.6% health personnel and 441 (74.4% trainees' doctors, nurses and health technicians. The mechanism of blood and body fluid exposure was accidental needle-stick injury in 78.9% of health staff, and 81% of trainees, accidental cut in 14.7% of health workers and 10.2% of trainees. The increasing severity of blood exposure accidents is linked to the lack of safe behavior against this risk.

  17. Key risk indicators for accident assessment conditioned on pre-crash vehicle trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X; Wong, Y D; Li, M Z F; Chai, C

    2018-08-01

    Accident events are generally unexpected and occur rarely. Pre-accident risk assessment by surrogate indicators is an effective way to identify risk levels and thus boost accident prediction. Herein, the concept of Key Risk Indicator (KRI) is proposed, which assesses risk exposures using hybrid indicators. Seven metrics are shortlisted as the basic indicators in KRI, with evaluation in terms of risk behaviour, risk avoidance, and risk margin. A typical real-world chain-collision accident and its antecedent (pre-crash) road traffic movements are retrieved from surveillance video footage, and a grid remapping method is proposed for data extraction and coordinates transformation. To investigate the feasibility of each indicator in risk assessment, a temporal-spatial case-control is designed. By comparison, Time Integrated Time-to-collision (TIT) performs better in identifying pre-accident risk conditions; while Crash Potential Index (CPI) is helpful in further picking out the severest ones (the near-accident). Based on TIT and CPI, the expressions of KRIs are developed, which enable us to evaluate risk severity with three levels, as well as the likelihood. KRI-based risk assessment also reveals predictive insights about a potential accident, including at-risk vehicles, locations and time. Furthermore, straightforward thresholds are defined flexibly in KRIs, since the impact of different threshold values is found not to be very critical. For better validation, another independent real-world accident sample is examined, and the two results are in close agreement. Hierarchical indicators such as KRIs offer new insights about pre-accident risk exposures, which is helpful for accident assessment and prediction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lessons drawn from the accidents occurred in the framework of conventional external radiotherapy;Lecons tirees des accidents survenus dans le cadre de la radiotherapie externe conventionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, O. [Agence Internationale de l' Energie Atomique, Unite de Radioprotection des Patients, Section Securite et Controle, Vienna (Austria); Czarwinski, R. [Agence Internationale de l' Energie Atomique, Unite de Radioprotection des Patients, Vienna (Austria)

    2009-12-15

    This study examines some radiation accidents occurred in the past. This information has been systematically assessed to get global lessons. The experience feedback shows that the most of accidents happened in certain conditions. These conditions can be distributed in four categories: 1- perception and vigilance in occupation: accidental exposure happened by lack of vigilance in details and lack of vigilance and perception; 2- procedures: accidental exposure happened following a lack of procedures or control that were not enough complete, not enough documented or not completely implemented; 3- training and understanding: accidental exposures happened because the personnel was not enough qualified and educated, did not get the general training nor the the necessary specialized training; 4- liabilities: accidental exposures happened following lacks and ambiguity in the definition of functions of the personnel and in the hierarchy liabilities. In these precise cases the safety tasks have not been enough covered. (N.C.)

  19. A review of accidents, prevention and mitigation options related to hazardous gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fthenakis, V.M.

    1993-05-01

    Statistics on industrial accidents are incomplete due to lack of specific criteria on what constitutes a release or accident. In this country, most major industrial accidents were related to explosions and fires of flammable materials, not to releases of chemicals into the environment. The EPA in a study of 6,928 accidental releases of toxic chemicals revealed that accidents at stationary facilities accounted for 75% of the total number of releases, and transportation accidents for the other 25%. About 7% of all reported accidents (468 cases) resulted in 138 deaths and 4,717 injuries ranging from temporary respiratory problems to critical injuries. In-plant accidents accounted for 65% of the casualties. The most efficient strategy to reduce hazards is to choose technologies which do not require the use of large quantities of hazardous gases. For new technologies this approach can be implemented early in development, before large financial resources and efforts are committed to specific options. Once specific materials and options have been selected, strategies to prevent accident initiating events need to be evaluated and implemented. The next step is to implement safety options which suppress a hazard when an accident initiating event occurs. Releases can be prevented or reduced with fail-safe equipment and valves, adequate warning systems and controls to reduce and interrupt gas leakage. If an accident occurs and safety systems fail to contain a hazardous gas release, then engineering control systems will be relied on to reduce/minimize environmental releases. As a final defensive barrier, the prevention of human exposure is needed if a hazardous gas is released, in spite of previous strategies. Prevention of consequences forms the final defensive barrier. Medical facilities close by that can accommodate victims of the worst accident can reduce the consequences of personnel exposure to hazardous gases

  20. Emergency response plan for accidents in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Solaiman, K.M.; Al-Arfaj, A.M.; Farouk, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a brief description of the general emergency plan for accidents involving radioactive materials in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Uses of radioactive materials and radiation sources and their associated potential accident are specified. Most general accident scenarios of various levels have been determined. Protective measures have been specified to reduce individual and collective doses arising during accident situations. Intervention levels for temporary exposure situations, as established in the IAEA's basic safety standards for protection against ionising radiation and for the safety of radiation sources, are adopted as national intervention levels. General procedures for implementation of the response plan, including notification and radiological monitoring instrumentation and equipment, are described and radiation monitoring teams are nominated. Training programs for the different parties which may be called upon to respond are studied and will be started. (author)

  1. [The meaning of accidents with biological material to nursing professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magagnini, Maristela Aparecida Magri; Rocha, Suelen Alves; Ayres, Jairo Aparecido

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study is to understand what meaning work accidents with exposure to biological material has to nurses. This is an exploratory study with a qualitative approach, and it used Bardin's content analysis. 87 accidents with biological material occurred in the period between 2001 and 2006; among them, eight were seropositive for Hepatitis B and C and HIV/AIDS. An interview with guiding questions was used to collect data. When inquiring these professionals about the meaning of these accidents, four categories emerged: risk situation, danger perception, fatality, and feelings. Although it is not a strategy of clarification, it is a fact that work organization and educative actions have considerable impact in reducing this type of accident, also reducing damage to the life of nurses involved in these accidents.

  2. Planning for the Handling of Radiation Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    The developing atomic energy programmes and the widespread use of radiation sources in medicine, agriculture, industry and research have had admirable safety records. Throughout the world the number of known accidents in which persons have been exposed to harmful am ounts of ionizing radiation is relatively small, and only a few deaths have occurred. Meticulous precautions are being taken to maintain this good record in all work with radiation sources and to keep the exposure of persons as low as practicable. In spite of all the precautions that are taken, accidents may occur and they may be accompanied by the injury or death of persons and damage to property. It is only prudent to take those steps that are practicable to prevent accidents and to plan in advance the emergency action that would limit the injuries and damage caused by those accidents that do occur. Emergency plans should be sufficiently broad to cover unforeseen or very improbable accidents as well as those that are considered credible. Some accidents may involve only the workers in an establishment, those working directly with the source and possibly their colleagues. Other accidents may have consequences, notably in the form of radioactive contamination of the environment, that affect the general public, possibly far from the site of the accident. The preparation of plans for dealing with radiation accidents is therefore obligatory both for the various authorities that are responsible for protecting the health and the food and water supplies of the public, and for the operator of an installation containing radiation sources.

  3. The Radiological Accident in Lia, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-12-15

    The use of radioactive material offers a wide range of benefits to medicine, research and industry throughout the world. Precautions are necessary, however, to limit the exposure of people to the radiation emitted. Where the amount of radioactive material is substantial, as in the case of radiotherapy or industrial radiography sources, great care is required to prevent accidents which could have severe consequences. Nevertheless, in spite of the precautions taken, serious accidents involving radiation sources continue to occur, albeit infrequently. The IAEA conducts follow-up reviews of such serious accidents to provide an account of their circumstances and consequences, from which organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection, safety of sources and emergency preparedness and response may learn. A serious radiological accident occurred in Georgia on 2 December 2001, when three inhabitants of the village of Lia found two metal objects in the forest while collecting firewood. These objects were {sup 90}Sr sources with an activity of 1295 TBq. The three inhabitants used the objects as heaters when spending the night in the forest. The major cause of the accident was the improper and unauthorized abandonment of radiation sources in Georgia and the absence of clear labels or radiation signs on the sources warning of the potential radiation hazard. Under the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), the Georgian authorities requested assistance from the IAEA to advise on the dose assessment, source recovery and medical management of those involved in the accident. This publication describes the circumstances and events surrounding the accident, its management and the medical treatment of the people exposed. It also describes the dose reconstruction calculations and biodosimetry assessments conducted. A number of uncertainties remain relating to some details of the accident. However

  4. The Radiological Accident in Lia, Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The use of radioactive material offers a wide range of benefits to medicine, research and industry throughout the world. Precautions are necessary, however, to limit the exposure of people to the radiation emitted. Where the amount of radioactive material is substantial, as in the case of radiotherapy or industrial radiography sources, great care is required to prevent accidents which could have severe consequences. Nevertheless, in spite of the precautions taken, serious accidents involving radiation sources continue to occur, albeit infrequently. The IAEA conducts follow-up reviews of such serious accidents to provide an account of their circumstances and consequences, from which organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection, safety of sources and emergency preparedness and response may learn. A serious radiological accident occurred in Georgia on 2 December 2001, when three inhabitants of the village of Lia found two metal objects in the forest while collecting firewood. These objects were 90 Sr sources with an activity of 1295 TBq. The three inhabitants used the objects as heaters when spending the night in the forest. The major cause of the accident was the improper and unauthorized abandonment of radiation sources in Georgia and the absence of clear labels or radiation signs on the sources warning of the potential radiation hazard. Under the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), the Georgian authorities requested assistance from the IAEA to advise on the dose assessment, source recovery and medical management of those involved in the accident. This publication describes the circumstances and events surrounding the accident, its management and the medical treatment of the people exposed. It also describes the dose reconstruction calculations and biodosimetry assessments conducted. A number of uncertainties remain relating to some details of the accident. However, sufficient

  5. Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenigsberg, Jacov

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The

  6. Assessment of population radiation exposure after a nuclear reactor accident. Field studies in Russia and Sweden after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallstroem, E.

    1998-10-01

    Since May 1986 a number of studies connecting to the Chernobyl accident have been performed in Western Sweden and in the Brjansk region in Russia. The total deposition of 137 Cs in the investigated area in Sweden was 0.001 - 0.002 MBq/m 2 , mainly deposited as wet deposition on May 8, and in the Brjansk region 0.9 - 2.7 MBq/m 2 . In Sweden, studies of the transfer of 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 131 I in soil, grass, cow's milk, cow and man are presented for 1986-1987. Whole-body measurements of 134 Cs and 137 Cs in 1986-1989 as well as measurements of 131 I in thyroids have been made with stationary whole-body counters. External exposure of persons in villages in the Brjansk region are given for the years 1990 - 1994. The method of estimating the body burden of 137 Cs from individual urine samples taken in the Brjansk region 1991-1997 has been investigated from samples and whole-body measurements performed by 'lap-geometry'. In the investigated farms in Western Sweden the transfer values of 131 l and 134 Cs, 137 Cs from grass to cow's milk in 1986 were similar to values found in the period of deposition from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in the 1960s. In 1987 the values of transfer of 134 Cs and 137 Cs were more similar to studies with artificially added cesium in the form of e.g. CsCI. Whole-body measurements in Goeteborg and Malmoe showed an increase of the whole-body content of 134 Cs and 137 Cs up to one year after the accident followed by a slow decrease. Maximum mean value of 137 Cs was 400 - 450 Bq or around 6 Bq/kg in adults. The content of 131 I in the thyroids showed already before the wet main deposition measurable values which decreased fast. The internal contamination of 131 I was due to inhalation, but also to ingestion. The total effective dose was estimated, based on calculations and measurements, to be 37 μSv to 13 μSv year one to four after the accident. The external exposure in villages in the Brjansk region was estimated by measurements of

  7. Source term and radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourad, R.

    1987-09-01

    This report presents the results of a study of the source term and radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The results two parts. The first part was performed during the first 2 months following the accident and dealt with the evaluation of the source term and an estimate of individual doses in the European countries outside the Soviet Union. The second part was performed after August 25-29, 1986 when the Soviets presented in a IAEA Conference in Vienna detailed information about the accident, including source term and radiological consequences in the Soviet Union. The second part of the study reconfirms the source term evaluated in the first part and in addition deals with the radiological consequences in the Soviet Union. Source term and individual doses are calculated from measured post-accident data, reported by the Soviet Union and European countries, microcomputer program PEAR (Public Exposure from Accident Releases). 22 refs

  8. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, Ph; Beaugelin, K; Maubert, H; Ledenvic, Ph [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1997-11-01

    This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m{sup -2}), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at presentthe dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 {mu}Sv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded

  9. Program for rapid dose assessment in criticality accident, RADAPAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki

    2006-09-01

    In a criticality accident, a person near fissile material can receive extremely high dose which can cause acute health effect. For such a case, medical treatment should be carried out for the exposed person, according to severity of the exposure. Then, radiation dose should be rapidly assessed soon after an outbreak of an accident. Dose assessment based upon the quantity of induced 24 Na in human body through neutron exposure is expected as one of useful dosimetry techniques in a criticality accident. A dose assessment program, called RADAPAS (RApid Dose Assessment Program from Activated Sodium in Criticality Accidents), was therefore developed to assess rapidly radiation dose to exposed persons from activity of induced 24 Na. RADAPAS consists of two parts; one is a database part and the other is a part for execution of dose calculation. The database contains data compendiums of energy spectra and dose conversion coefficients from specific activity of 24 Na induced in human body, which had been derived in a previous analysis using Monte Carlo calculation code. Information for criticality configuration or characteristics of radiation in the accident field is to be interactively given with interface displays in the dose calculation. RADAPAS can rapidly derive radiation dose to the exposed person from the given information and measured 24 Na specific activity by using the conversion coefficient in database. This report describes data for dose conversions and dose calculation in RADAPAS and explains how to use the program. (author)

  10. Societal representations on the accident with caesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, E.G.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of societal representations on the theme of nuclear energy are reviewed in the light of the public's reactions to the accident with the capsule of 137 Cs in Goiania. As a starting point, it is accepted that the panic caused by the accident can be properly understood only if human subjectivity is taken into consideration. This perspective is required whenever events unfold which put human life and the environment at risk. Faced with the accident, the public internalized radioactivity - an element unknown to them - as a certainty of contracting cancer and ultimately death, despite the fact that such outcomes can only be the result of excessive exposure to radioactivity. (author)

  11. Radiological effects of Chernobyl reactor accident on the lakes of Southern Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laschka, D.; Hermann, H.; Huebel, K.; Luensmann, W.

    1988-03-01

    In order to detect the radiological effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident to the large lakes of Southern Bavaria and to assess the radiation exposure of man on the different aquatic pathways, the radioactive contamination of the surface water, the sediments and the fishes was investigated. The dependence of time of the activity concentrations in the tested medias is shown and an outlook is made on the expected further evolution. The radiation exposure of man by swimming, boating and fish consumption in the fast year after the reactor accident is calculated [fr

  12. Nuclear accident: dosimetric and medical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.R. de.

    The conservation aspect of the treatment of patients who received whole-body exposure is presented. Such treatment to be started during the first hours after the accident (prodomal phase), as well as the nonconventional measures to be adopted when the critical phase of acute irradiation syndrome is reached. (E.G.) [pt

  13. Treatment of whole-body radiation accident victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drum, D.E.; Rappeport, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses how whole-body radiation exposure incidents present a number of unique challenges. The acute, nonstochastic effects of high doses of radiation over 25 rads (0.25 Gy) delivered to humans is generally manifest in rather categorical fashion; depending on the dose, either the patient is largely unharmed functionally or he is seriously injured. Radiation initiates microchemical changes within a nanosecond time frame; there exists no specific therapy to stop or reverse the sequence of events that follow. Thus, the range for effective therapeutic intervention is rather small, between 150 to 1500 rad (1.5 to 15 Gy) for humans. Nevertheless, it is likely that a large uncomplicated exposure to as much as 750 rad (7.5 Gy) might be survivable without dramatic measures such as bone marrow transplantation. Review of the available information about past accidents shows that the majority of radiation accidents are mixed injuries

  14. Explaining the road accident risk: weather effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergel-Hayat, Ruth; Debbarh, Mohammed; Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George

    2013-11-01

    This research aims to highlight the link between weather conditions and road accident risk at an aggregate level and on a monthly basis, in order to improve road safety monitoring at a national level. It is based on some case studies carried out in Work Package 7 on "Data analysis and synthesis" of the EU-FP6 project "SafetyNet-Building the European Road Safety Observatory", which illustrate the use of weather variables for analysing changes in the number of road injury accidents. Time series analysis models with explanatory variables that measure the weather quantitatively were used and applied to aggregate datasets of injury accidents for France, the Netherlands and the Athens region, over periods of more than 20 years. The main results reveal significant correlations on a monthly basis between weather variables and the aggregate number of injury accidents, but the magnitude and even the sign of these correlations vary according to the type of road (motorways, rural roads or urban roads). Moreover, in the case of the interurban network in France, it appears that the rainfall effect is mainly direct on motorways--exposure being unchanged, and partly indirect on main roads--as a result of changes in exposure. Additional results obtained on a daily basis for the Athens region indicate that capturing the within-the-month variability of the weather variables and including it in a monthly model highlights the effects of extreme weather. Such findings are consistent with previous results obtained for France using a similar approach, with the exception of the negative correlation between precipitation and the number of injury accidents found for the Athens region, which is further investigated. The outlook for the approach and its added value are discussed in the conclusion. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph.

    1997-01-01

    After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 μSv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

  16. The Chernobyl accident, a catastrophe or an eye-opener?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baarli, J.

    1989-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident is reviewed as to its cause, the way it was handled locally and the consequenses from released radioactivity. It is emphasized that the exposure from the released radioactivity, as to the effective dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent is small and comparable with the dose equivalent from natural ionizing radiation near the accident, and only a few per cent of this value at more remote distances. It is concluded that the accident probably has been one of the greatest psychological catastrophes that we so far has experienced, but not so when referring to early deaths or radiation damage directly to individuals

  17. Analysis of occupational accidents with biological material among professionals in pre-hospital services

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Adriana Cristina de; Paiva,Maria Henriqueta Rocha Siqueira

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of accidents due to biological material exposure, the characteristics and post-accident conduct among professionals of pre-hospital services of the four municipalities of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHOD: A cross-sectional study, using a structured questionnaire that was developed to enable the calculation of prevalence, descriptive analysis and analytical analysis using logistic regression. The study included 228 professionals; the prevalence of accidents du...

  18. Technical basis for nuclear accident dosimetry at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Mei, G.T.

    1993-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental, Safety, and Health Emergency Response Organization has the responsibility of providing analyses of personnel exposures to neutrons and gamma rays from a nuclear accident. This report presents the technical and philosophical basis for the dose assessment aspects of the nuclear accident dosimetry (NAD) system at ORNL. The issues addressed are regulatory guidelines, ORNL NAD system components and performance, and the interpretation of dosimetric information that would be gathered following a nuclear accident

  19. Radiation protection lessons learned from the TEPCO Fukushima No.1 NPS accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urabe, Itsumasa; Hattori, Takatoshi; Iimoto, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Sumi

    2014-01-01

    Lessons learned from the TEPCO Fukushima No.1 NPS accident are discussed from the viewpoint of radiation protection in the situation of nuclear emergency. It became clear from the discussion that the protective measures should be practiced by taking into account the time profiles of the radiological disaster after the nuclear accident and that the land and coastal sea areas monitoring had to be practiced immediately after the nuclear accident and the communication methods to tell the public about the radiation information and the meaning of protective measures should be developed for mitigation of the sociological aspects of disaster impacts. And it was pointed out from the view point of practicing countermeasures that application of the reference levels, above which it was judged to be inappropriate to plan to allow exposure to occur, played an important role for practicing protective measures in an optimized way and that the quantities and units used for quantifying radiation exposure of individuals in terms of radiation doses have caused considerable communication problems. Finally, the occupational exposures and the public exposures that have been reported so far are shown, and it is concluded that there is no conclusive evidence on low dose exposures that would justify a modification of the radiation risk recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  20. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1997-11-01

    This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m{sup -2}), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at presentthe dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 {mu}Sv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded

  1. SESAME: a software tool for the numerical dosimetric reconstruction of radiological accidents involving external sources and its application to the accident in Chile in December 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, C; Lemosquet, A; Clairand, I; Rioual, J B; Franck, D; de Carlan, L; Aubineau-Lanièce, I; Bottollier-Depois, J F

    2009-01-01

    Estimating the dose distribution in a victim's body is a relevant indicator in assessing biological damage from exposure in the event of a radiological accident caused by an external source. This dose distribution can be assessed by physical dosimetric reconstruction methods. Physical dosimetric reconstruction can be achieved using experimental or numerical techniques. This article presents the laboratory-developed SESAME--Simulation of External Source Accident with MEdical images--tool specific to dosimetric reconstruction of radiological accidents through numerical simulations which combine voxel geometry and the radiation-material interaction MCNP(X) Monte Carlo computer code. The experimental validation of the tool using a photon field and its application to a radiological accident in Chile in December 2005 are also described.

  2. [Injury rate and incidence of accidents with biological risk among infirmary students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, A; Novalbos Ruiz, J P; Costa Alonso, M J; Zafra Mezcua, J A

    2000-09-09

    A study of the incidence and characteristics of biological accidents among infirmary students during their practicals at the hospital. A retrospective study carried out at five centres by means of two questionnaires, one on the duration of the training and the rate of accidents and the other on the characteristics, precautions and ports exposure behaviour. Out of 397 students, 70,5% had accidents at a rate of 64% (CI 95%, 59-68). Of these, 15% were accidents with biological risk, the majority being jabs (39%) and splashes (32,5%). It is worth note that 49,2% occurred while putting away the material and 58% in the absence of any individual protective measures. One out of 8 accidents implied a biological risk. A very high rate of accidents was observed with important deficiencies in security.

  3. Noble gas control room accident filtration system for severe accident conditions N-CRAFT. System design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Severe accidents might cause the release of airborne radioactive substances to the environment of the NPP. This can either be due to leakages of the containment or due to a filtered containment venting in order to ensure the overall integrity of the containment. During the containment venting process aerosols and iodine can be retained by the FCVS which prevents long term ground contamination. Noble gases are not retainable by the FCVS. From this it follows that a large amount of radioactive noble gases (e.g. xenon, krypton) might be present in the nearby environment of the plant dominating the activity release, depending on the venting procedure and the weather conditions. Accident management measures are necessary in case of severe accidents and the prolonged stay of staff inside the main control room (MCR) or emergency response center (ERC) is essential. Therefore, the in leakage and contamination of the MRC and ERC with airborne activity has to be prevented. The radiation exposure of the crises team needs to be minimized. The entrance of noble gases cannot be sufficiently prevented by the conventional air filtration systems such as HEPA filters and iodine absorbers. With the objective to prevent an unacceptable contamination of the MCR/ERC atmosphere by noble gases AREVA GmbH has developed a noble gas retention system. The noble gas control room accident filtration system CRAFT is designed for this case and provides supply of fresh air to the MCR/ERC without time limitation. The retention process of the system is based on the dynamic adsorption of noble gases on activated carbon. The system consists of delay lines (carbon columns) which are operated by a continuous and simultaneous adsorption and desorption process. These cycles ensure a periodic load and flushing of the delay lines retaining the noble gases from entering the MCR. CRAFT allows a minimization of the dose rate inside MCR/ERC and ensures a low radiation exposure to the staff on shift maintaining

  4. Assessment of potential doses to workers during postulated accident conditions at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, M.D.; Newton, G.J.; Farrell, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    This qualitative hazard evaluation systematically assessed potential doses to workers during postulated accident conditions at the U.S. Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Postulated accidents included the spontaneous ignition of a waste drum, puncture of a waste drum by a forklift, dropping of a waste drum from a forklift, and simultaneous dropping of seven drums during a crane failure. The descriptions and estimated frequencies of occurrence for these accidents were developed by the Hazard and Operability Study for CH TRU Waste Handling System (WCAP 14312). The estimated materials at risk, damage ratios, airborne release fractions and respirable fractions for these accidents were taken from the 1995 Safety Analysis Report (SAR) update and from the DOE handbook Airborne Release Fractions/Rates and Respirable Fractions for Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities (DOE-HDBK-3010-94). A Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the range of worker exposures that could result from each accident. Guidelines for evaluating the adequacy of defense-in-depth for worker protection at WIPP were adopted from a scheme presented by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in its publication on Protection from Potential Exposure: A Conceptual Framework (ICRP Publication 64). Probabilities of exposures greater than 5, 50, and 300 rem were less than 10 -2 , 10 -4 , and 10 -6 per year, respectively. In conformance with the guidance of DOE standard 3009-94, Appendix A (draft), we emphasize that use of these evaluation guidelines is not intended to imply that these numbers constitute acceptable limits for worker exposure under accident conditions. However, in conjunction with the extensive safety assessment in the 1995 SAR update, these results indicate that the Carlsbad Area Office strategy for the assessment of hazards and accidents assures the protection of workers, as well as members of the public and the environment

  5. Noble gas control room accident filtration system for severe accident conditions (N-CRAFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Axel; Stiepani, Cristoph; Drechsler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Severe accidents might cause the release of airborne radioactive substances to the environment of the NPP either due to containment leakages or due to intentional filtered containment venting. In the latter case aerosols and iodine are retained, however noble gases are not retainable by the FCVS or by conventional air filtration systems like HEPA filters and iodine absorbers. Radioactive noble gases nevertheless dominate the activity release depending on the venting procedure and the weather conditions. To prevent unacceptable contamination of the control room atmosphere by noble gases, AREVA GmbH has developed a noble gas control room accident filtration system (CRAFT) which can supply purified fresh air to the control room without time limitation. The retention process is based on dynamic adsorption of noble gases on activated carbon. The system consists of delay lines (carbon columns) which are operated by a continuous and simultaneous adsorption and desorption process. CRAFT allows minimization of the dose rate inside the control room and ensures low radiation exposure to the staff by maintaining the control room environment suitable for prolonged occupancy throughout the duration of the accident. CRAFT consists of a proven modular design either transportable or permanently installed. (author)

  6. Utilization technique of 'radiation management manual in medical field (2012).' What should be learnt from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Toru

    2014-01-01

    From the abstract of contents of the 'Radiation management manual in medical field (2012),' the utilization technique of the manual is introduced. Introduced items are as follows: (1) Exposure management; exposure management for radiation medical workers, patients, and citizens in the medical field, and exposure management for radiation workers and citizens involved in the emergency work related to the Fukushima nuclear accident, (2) Health management; health management for radiation medical workers, (3) Radiation education: Education/training for radiation medical workers, and radiation education for health care workers, (4) Accident and emergency measures; emergency actions involved in the radiation accidents and radiation medicine at medical facilities

  7. Accident management for severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.; Pratt, W.T.; Lehner, J.; Leonard, M.; Disalvo, R.; Sheron, B.

    1988-01-01

    The management of severe accidents in light water reactors is receiving much attention in several countries. The reduction of risk by measures and/or actions that would affect the behavior of a severe accident is discussed. The research program that is being conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission focuses on both in-vessel accident management and containment and release accident management. The key issues and approaches taken in this program are summarized. 6 refs

  8. Operational accidents and radiation exposures at DOE facilities. Fiscal year 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Comprehensive safety programs are maintained at DOE facilities in order to protect both personnel and property from accidents. To ensure compliance with safety standards and regulations and maximize effectiveness of the safety programs, an extensive inspection and appraisal program is conducted at the contractor and field office levels by both DOE field and Headquarters safety personnel. When accidents do occur, investigations are conducted to identify causes and determine managerial or safety actions needed to prevent similar occurrences. DOE safety requirements include the reporting of personnel injury, property and motor vehicle losses on a quarterly basis, and radiation doses on an annual basis. The radiation dose data for CY 1978 are presented and reviewed in this report. All other data in this report are for FY 1978

  9. Rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident: Radiation exposure and remediation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P., E-mail: Jacob@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Fesenko, S. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Bogdevitch, I. [Scientific Research State Enterprise ' Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry' , Minsk (Belarus); Kashparov, V. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, Chabany (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Radioecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Grebenshikova, N. [Institute of Radiology, Gomel (Belarus); Isamov, N. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Radioecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Lazarev, N. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, Chabany (Ukraine); Panov, A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Radioecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Ulanovsky, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Zhuchenko, Y. [Institute of Radiology, Gomel (Belarus); Zhurba, M. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, Chabany (Ukraine)

    2009-12-15

    inhabitants in Belarusian and Russian settlements with annual doses exceeding 1 mSv remains large. Compared to international values for the cost-effectiveness of actions to reduce occupational exposures, the recommended remediation strategies for rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident are quite cost-effective (about 20 k Euro /person-Sv).

  10. Occupational exposures. Annex H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Annex focuses on significant changes in the pattern of occupational exposure which have appeared since the 1972 and 1962 reports, and presents information on trends or particular causes of high exposures. A further objective is to clarify the reasons for which the Committee requires data on occupational exposure, and to suggest areas in which better data collection or analysis may be performed. Data are also reviewed on accidents involving the exposure of workers to substantial radiation doses.

  11. Air transport pilot involvement in general aviation accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    General aviation (GA) fatal accident records of airport transport pilots (ATPs) : were : compared to those of private pilots (PVTs). : ATPs are safer GA pilots than the PVTs. : They have comparable exposure in GA airplanes and account for 7.5% of all...

  12. Steam Oxidation Testing in the Severe Accident Test Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pint, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    After the March 2011 accident at Fukushima Daiichi, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began conducting high temperature steam oxidation testing of candidate materials for accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding in August 2011 [1-11]. The ATF concept is to enhance safety margins in light water reactors (LWR) during severe accident scenarios by identifying materials with 100× slower steam oxidation rates compared to current Zr-based alloys. In 2012, the ORNL laboratory equipment was expanded and made available to the entire ATF community as the Severe Accident Test Station (SATS) [4,12]. Compared to the current UO2/Zr-based alloy fuel system, an ATF alternative would significantly reduce the rate of heat and hydrogen generation in the core during a coolant-limited severe accident [13-14]. The steam oxidation behavior of candidate materials is a key metric in the evaluation of ATF concepts and also an important input into models [15-17]. However, initial modeling work of FeCrAl cladding has used incomplete information on the physical properties of FeCrAl. Also, the steam oxidation data being collected at 1200°-1700°C is unique as no prior work has considered steam oxidation of alloys at such high temperatures. Also, because many accident scenarios include steadily increasing temperatures, the required data are not traditional isothermal exposures but exposures with varying “ramp” rates. In some cases, the steam oxidation behavior has been surprising and difficult to interpret. Thus, more fundamental information continues to be collected. In addition, more work continues to focus on commercially-manufactured tube material. This report summarizes recent work to characterize the behavior of candidate alloys exposed to high temperature steam, evaluate steam oxidation behavior in various ramp scenarios and continue to collect integral data on FeCrAl compared to conventional Zr-based cladding.

  13. Overview of the radiological accidents in the world, updated December 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenot, J.C. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection Sanitaire)

    1990-06-01

    This outline historical review discusses radiological accidents of two categories: those involving large groups of the population with relatively low doses, or a few individuals with high doses resulting in acute health effects. Comments on the following accidents are made: (a) the Marshallese population and the Japanese Fisherman, Pacific Ocean 1954 (b) South East Urals USSR 1957 (c) Juarez, Mexico 1983/84 (d) Chernobyl 1986 (e) Goiania, Brazil 1987. Registration of accidents resulting in high doses to few individuals is also discussed:-criticality accidents, those resulting in high whole-body doses from sealed sources, nuclear power reactor incidents leading to acute doses among workers, those resulting in localized radiation injury and those resulting in severe internal exposure. (UK).

  14. Using operational equipment to read accident dosemeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, R T; Vigil, M M; Martinez, W A

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of accident dosemeters usually involves the use of laboratory-based counting equipment. Gamma spectrometers are used for indium, copper and gold, and alpha-beta detectors for sulphur. This equipment is usually not easily transported due to the shielding required and the weight and delicacy of the counters. For intercomparison studies that require reading the dosemeters on site, a transportable system is required unless the site operating the study can count samples for all the participants. In the case of an actual accident these systems would have a difficulty in counting a large number of accident dosemeters. In an accident, personnel are usually subdivided according to their level of exposure. Those exposed to higher doses are treated immediately. An alternate system should be made available to handle the dosemeters worn by those personnel are likely to receive lower doses. Improvements in portable operational equipment for gamma and beta monitoring allow their use as spectrometers. Such a system was used for the SILENE intercomparison conducted at IRSN Valduc on 12 June and 19, 2002, and the preliminary results compared well with the other participants.

  15. Response of neutrophils in peripheral blood of participants in the liquidation of Chernobyl NPP accident consequences to an additional radiation exposure in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timoshevskij, A.A.; Grebenyuk, A.N.; Kalinina, N.A.

    2001-01-01

    Specific effect of radiation exposure in vitro on morphobiochemical characteristics of leukocytes in peripheral blood of the participants in the liquidation of Chernobyl NPP consequences are investigated. Samples of peripheral blood taken from 49 participants in the liquidation of Chernobyl NPP consequences were irradiated in vitro in doses 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 Gy. Cytochemical analysis of neutrophils was used for estimating the contents of lipids and cationic proteins, and also the activity of alkaline phosphatase and myeloperoxidase. The irradiation of samples of peripheral blood taken from the participants in the liquidation of Chernobyl NPP consequences has the same effects on functional and metabolic somatic status but with no history of exposure to the complex of radiation accident factors [ru

  16. Individual dosimetry in planned, existing and accidental exposure situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.M; El Deen, T.S.; Morsy, T.; Shabon, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    There are three types of radiation exposure which include Planned exposure situations, Existing exposure situations and Emergency exposure situations which are defined as Situations that may occur during the operation of a planned situation, or from a malicious act, or from any other unexpected situation, and require urgent action in order to avoid or reduce undesirable consequences. A given individual may be exposed as a worker, and/or as a member of the public, and/or as a patient. Workers in medical professions involving radiation are occupationally exposed. For individual monitoring of exposed workers, Film badges or thermo luminescence dosimeters are in use. In cases where individual may be suspected to be contaminated internally, contamination monitors are used to monitor the site and whole body counters to monitor individuals. Members of the public are exposure to cosmic rays during air flights. Film badges were used to exposure of workers to NORM during maintenance work in old oil field. TLD is used for exposure workers in nuclear medicine department. Any radiation accident will add knowledge and experience. Accidents from lost, stolen or neglected sources are particularly special because the radiation exposure patterns of the individuals involved and the scenario of the accident are always different

  17. The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire as accident predictor; A methodological re-meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Af Wåhlberg, A E; Barraclough, P; Freeman, J

    2015-12-01

    The Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) is the most commonly used self-report tool in traffic safety research and applied settings. It has been claimed that the violation factor of this instrument predicts accident involvement, which was supported by a previous meta-analysis. However, that analysis did not test for methodological effects, or include unpublished results. The present study re-analysed studies on prediction of accident involvement from DBQ factors, including lapses, and many unpublished effects. Tests of various types of dissemination bias and common method variance were undertaken. Outlier analysis showed that some effects were probably not reliable data, but excluding them did not change the results. For correlations between violations and crashes, tendencies for published effects to be larger than unpublished ones and for effects to decrease over time were observed, but were not significant. Also, using the mean of accidents as proxy for effect indicated that studies where effects for violations are not reported have smaller effect sizes. These differences indicate dissemination bias. Studies using self-reported accidents as dependent variables had much larger effects than those using recorded accident data. Also, zero-order correlations were larger than partial correlations controlled for exposure. Similarly, violations/accidents effects were strong only when there was also a strong correlation between accidents and exposure. Overall, the true effect is probably very close to zero (rresearch. Also, validation of self-reports should be more comprehensive in the future, taking into account the possibility of common method variance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  18. Iodine Prophylaxis and Nuclear Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Iodine is a highly volatile element therefore being very mobile in the environment. It enters the metabolism of living organisms and is selectively taken up and concentrated in the thyroid gland. The plume (cloud-like formation) of radioactive material that might be released in the environment in the case of a serious nuclear accident, primarily consists of the radioactive isotopes of iodine. Among those, due to its decay properties, is the most important 131 I. The effective means of protecting the thyroid gland against exposure to radioactive iodine is an intake of stable iodine. Therefore, one of the central issues in the emergency planning is to determine whether and at which projected thyroid radiation dose stable iodine should be given to the population. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) set the generic optimized intervention value for iodine prophylaxis to 100 mGy of avertable committed dose to a thyroid.The prophylaxis is implemented by utilizing the pills of pills of potassium iodine (KI). The efficacy of KI in protecting the thyroid gland depends upon the time of intake relative to the start of exposure to radioactive iodine. The best results are obtained if KI is taken 1-2 hours before or immediately after the start of exposure. The recommended dosage, based upon the study performed by Il'in et.al. is 130 mg/day. KI should be taken at least three days after the acute exposure to radioiodine, to prevent accumulation in a thyroid gland of radioiodine excreted from the other compartments of the body. The largest epidemiological study on the effects of KI prophylaxis ever performed was the one in Poland after the Chernobyl accident. Stable iodine was given as single dose of KI solution to 10.5 million of children and 7 millions of adults. Among children no serious side effects were seen while only two adults (with previously recorded iodine sensitivity) had severe respiratory distresses. Polish experiences showed that rapid response to such

  19. Radiation accidents: occurrence, types, consequences, medical management, and the lessons to be learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turai, I.; Veress, K.

    2001-01-01

    The paper reviews the frequency, causes and occurrence of radiation accidents with some significant exposure to human. More detailed information is provided in tabulated form on the health consequences of those twenty severe radiation accidents that occurred in 1986-2000, world-wide. Reference is given to the very low cumulative incidence of significant radiation accidents, as during the last 57 years there were, in average, seven registered accidents annually in all countries of the world. Thus, the chance for most of the physicians to meet a patient with symptoms of acute radiation injury during their professional career is very low

  20. The radiological accident in Lilo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The use of radioactive materials offers a wide range of benefits throughout the world in medicine, research and industry. Precautions are, however, necessary in order to limit the exposure of persons to the radiation that is emitted. Where the amount of radioactive material is substantial, such as with sources used in radiotherapy or industrial radiography, extreme care is necessary to prevent accidents that may result in severe consequences for the affected individuals. Nevertheless, in spite of the precautions taken, accidents with radiation sources continue to occur, albeit infrequently. As part of its activities dealing with the safety of radiation sources, the IAEA follows up severe accidents with a view to providing an account of their circumstances and the medical aspects from which those organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection and the safety of sources may learn. A serious radiological accident occurred in Peru in February 1999 when a welder picked up an 192 Ir industrial radiography source and put it in his pocket for several hours. This resulted in his receiving a high radiation dose that necessitated the amputation of one leg. His wife and children were also exposed, but to a much lesser extent. The Peruvian authorities requested assistance from the IAEA in obtaining advice on medical treatment. They also agreed to assist the IAEA with the subsequent review of the circumstances surrounding the accident. The IAEA is grateful to the Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear for its willingness to assist in the reparation of this report and, thereby, share its experience with other Member States

  1. Characteristics of young adults of Belarus with post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinoma: a long-term follow-up of patients with early exposure to radiation at the 30th anniversary of the accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Mikhail; Lam, Alfred King-Yin; Krasko, Olga

    2016-12-01

    Studies of thyroid cancer related to the Chernobyl accident have focused on children as they are the most vulnerable group with the highest risk of developing radiation-associated cancer. In contrast, our research aimed to look at the clinical and pathological features of patients with post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinoma that were 2 years old or less at the time of the Chernobyl accident. The study subjects were patients (n = 359) aged 0 to 2 at the time of the Chernobyl accident and aged ≥19 years at presentation/surgery who were treated in Belarus for papillary thyroid carcinoma during the period 2003-2013. In conventional or oncocytic variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, the prevalence of extra-thyroidal extension, nodal disease, infiltrative growth or lymphatic vessel invasion was above 50%. These features were less pronounced when compared to tall cell or diffuse sclerosing variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The highest frequency of central lymph node metastases was found in patients aged 1-2 years at exposure (P = 0·004). Subjects exposed in utero were characterized by absent/insignificant lymphocytic infiltration around the carcinoma (P = 0·025), predominance of conventional papillary architecture and an association with lymphocytic thyroiditis. A number of features were associated with this group of patients that were very young at the time of radiation exposure. In addition, the incidence and basic characteristics of adult papillary thyroid carcinoma varied depending on the types of exposure conditions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The prevention of the local nuclear accidents in the Republic of Moldova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahnarel, I.

    1998-01-01

    Although there are no nuclear reactors in Moldova, there are numerous radiation sources situated in a few waste disposal sites as well as the sources applied in medicine, science, education, industry, agriculture, which demand serious concern from safety and radiation protection point of view. Under cooperation with IAEA national Regulatory Control in the Field of Nuclear Protection and Safety was established since 1993. A number of governmental regulatory bodies supervise the following activities: radiation standardization; radiological supervision of sources storage, exploitation and disposal; radiological monitoring of radioactive substances, food products, building materials; supervision of personnel exposure and environmental exposure; investigation of radiological accidents; etc. In 1998, Moldova has joined The International Convention for early Notification of Nuclear Accidents; The Convention on Nuclear Safety; The Convention on Assistance in Case of Nuclear Accident of Radiological Emergency and The Convention on the Physical protection of Nuclear Material

  3. Management of a radiological emergency. Experience feedback and post-accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubiau, Ph.

    2007-01-01

    In France, the organization of crisis situations and the management of radiological emergency situations are regularly tested through simulation exercises for a continuous improvement. Past severe accidents represent experience feedback resources of prime importance which have led to deep changes in crisis organizations. However, the management of the post-accident phase is still the object of considerations and reflections between the public authorities and the intervening parties. This document presents, first, the nuclear crisis exercises organized in France, then, the experience feedback of past accidents and exercises, and finally, the main aspects to consider for the post-accident management of such events: 1 - Crisis exercises: objectives, types (local, national and international exercises), principles and progress, limits; 2 - Experience feedback: real crises (major accidents, other recent accidental situations or incidents), crisis exercises (experience feedback organization, improvements); 3 - post-accident management: environmental contamination and people exposure, management of contaminated territories, management of populations (additional protection, living conditions, medical-psychological follow up), indemnification, organization during the post-accident phase; 4 - conclusion and perspectives. (J.S.)

  4. 1976 Hanford americium exposure incident: psychological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Accidents involving exposure to radiation or radioactive materials may involve an unusual degree of emotional trauma. Methods that may be employed in dealing with such trauma are discussed in relation to a specific accident in which a radiation worker was injured and seriously contaminated with americium-241

  5. Medical management of radiation accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-12-31

    The film gives advice on actions to be taken in case of a radiation accident. It addresses involving external irradiation of the whole and partial body, very localized exposure, uptake of radioiodine, inhalation of transuranium elements and a wound of a finger. The film is intended to illustrate the Agency`s Safety Series No. 47 entitled ``Manual on Early Medical Treatment of Possible Radiation Injury`` published in 1978

  6. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Hille, R.

    2003-01-01

    The reactor accident at unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine has deeply affected the living conditions of millions of people. Especially the health consequences have been of public concern up to the present and also been the subject of sometimes absurd claims. The current knowledge on the radiological consequences of the accident is reviewed. Though an increased hazard for some risk groups with high radiation exposure, e.g., liquidators, still cannot be totally excluded for the future, the majority of the population shows no statistically significant indication of radiation-induced illnesses. The contribution of the Research Center Juelich to the assessment of the post-accidental situation and psychological relief of the population is reported. The population groups still requiring special attention include, in particular, children growing up in highly contaminated regions and the liquidators of the years 1986 and 1987 deployed immediately after the accident. (author)

  7. Nuclear-station post-accident liquid-sampling system: developed by Duke Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, D.A.; Birch, M.L.; Orth, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island showed that means must be provided to determine the radioactivity levels in high activity liquid and gaseous systems of a nuclear power plant without undue radiation exposure to personnel. The Duke Power Post Accident Liquid Sampling System provides the means for obtaining diluted liquid samples and diluted dissolved gas samples following a reactor accident involving substantial core damage. Their approach yields a straightforward engineering solution at a fraction of the cost of other systems. A description of the system, general design criteria, and color coded flow diagrams are included

  8. Remediation strategies after nuclear or radiological accidents: part 2 - accident scenarios for assessing effectiveness of cleanup procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.

    2009-01-01

    The selection of protective measures and remediation strategies after an accident needs to be based on previously established criteria, to minimize unnecessary stress and the exposures involved in cleanup operations that are not effective in reducing doses to the public. In a first stage, a database describing the countermeasures has been developed including their efficiency on removing contamination from surfaces. However, to assess the effectiveness of cleanup procedures in reducing doses to members of the public, it was necessary to derive specific scenarios in order to simulate the long term behavior of the material in the environment, since the contribution of different surfaces to doses changes with time after contamination. A basic release and exposure scenario was developed to assess the dose reduction due to the mostly used procedures. Exposure scenarios were selected to fit the surroundings of the Brazilian nuclear power plants in Angra dos Reis. Simulations were performed using SIEM, the integrated system for dose assessment after contamination events, developed at IRD. The contamination of urban environments was assessed for Cs-137, as this was found to be the most relevant long term radionuclide to contribute to doses to member of the public. The effects on reducing external exposures were assessed for periods up to 50 years after the contamination. For agricultural areas, the focus was on ingestion doses from contamination with I-131 for periods up to 1 year after contamination. Results will be complemented on the database in order to support multi-criteria decision making processes after accidents. (author)

  9. Remediation strategies after nuclear or radiological accidents: part 2 - accident scenarios for assessing effectiveness of cleanup procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Instalacoes Nucleares], e-mail: erochedo@cnen.gov.br; Silva, Diogo N.G.; Wasserman, Maria A.V.; Conti, Luiz F.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: dneves@ird.gov.br, e-mail: angelica@ird.gov.br, e-mail: lfcconti@ird.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The selection of protective measures and remediation strategies after an accident needs to be based on previously established criteria, to minimize unnecessary stress and the exposures involved in cleanup operations that are not effective in reducing doses to the public. In a first stage, a database describing the countermeasures has been developed including their efficiency on removing contamination from surfaces. However, to assess the effectiveness of cleanup procedures in reducing doses to members of the public, it was necessary to derive specific scenarios in order to simulate the long term behavior of the material in the environment, since the contribution of different surfaces to doses changes with time after contamination. A basic release and exposure scenario was developed to assess the dose reduction due to the mostly used procedures. Exposure scenarios were selected to fit the surroundings of the Brazilian nuclear power plants in Angra dos Reis. Simulations were performed using SIEM, the integrated system for dose assessment after contamination events, developed at IRD. The contamination of urban environments was assessed for Cs-137, as this was found to be the most relevant long term radionuclide to contribute to doses to member of the public. The effects on reducing external exposures were assessed for periods up to 50 years after the contamination. For agricultural areas, the focus was on ingestion doses from contamination with I-131 for periods up to 1 year after contamination. Results will be complemented on the database in order to support multi-criteria decision making processes after accidents. (author)

  10. Safety assessments for potential exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.I.

    2012-04-01

    Safety Assessment of potential exposures have been carried out in major practices, namely: industrial radiography, gamma irradiators and electron accelerators used in industry and research, and radiotherapy. This paper focuses on reviewing safety assessment methodologies and using developed software to analyse radiological accidents, also review, and discuss these past accidents.The primary objective of the assessment is to assess the adequacy of planned or existing measures for protection and safety and to identify any additional measures that should be put in place. As such, both routine use of the source and the probability and magnitude of potential exposures arising from accidents or incidents should be considered. Where the assessment indicates that there is a realistic possibility of an accident affecting workers or members of the public or having consequences for the environment, the registrant or licensee should prepare a suitable emergency plan. A safety assessment for normal operation addresses all the conditions under which the radiation source operates as expected, including all phases of the lifetime of the source. Due account needs to be taken of the different factors and conditions that will apply during non-operational phases, such as installation, commissioning and maintenance. (author)

  11. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassow, J.

    1986-01-01

    The documentation aims at giving a clearly arranged account of facts, interrelations and comparative evaluations of general interest. It deals with the course of events, atmospheric dispersion and fallout of the substances released and discusses the basic principles of the metering of radioactive radiation, the calculation of body doses and comparative evaluations with the radioactive exposure and risks involved by other sources. The author intends to contribute to an objective discussion about the Chernobyl reactor accident and nuclear energy as such. (DG) [de

  12. Severe Accident Test Station Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL

    2015-06-01

    Enhancing safety margins in light water reactor (LWR) severe accidents is currently the focus of a number of international R&D programs. The current UO2/Zr-based alloy fuel system is particularly susceptible since the Zr-based cladding experiences rapid oxidation kinetics in steam at elevated temperatures. Therefore, alternative cladding materials that offer slower oxidation kinetics and a smaller enthalpy of oxidation can significantly reduce the rate of heat and hydrogen generation in the core during a coolant-limited severe accident. In the U.S. program, the high temperature steam oxidation performance of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding solutions has been evaluated in the Severe Accident Test Station (SATS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 2012. This report summarizes the capabilities of the SATS and provides an overview of the oxidation kinetics of several candidate cladding materials. A suggested baseline for evaluating ATF candidates is a two order of magnitude reduction in the steam oxidation resistance above 1000ºC compared to Zr-based alloys. The ATF candidates are categorized based on the protective external oxide or scale that forms during exposure to steam at high temperature: chromia, alumina, and silica. Comparisons are made to literature and SATS data for Zr-based alloys and other less-protective materials.

  13. Soviet medical response to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnemann, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear accident at Chernobyl was the worst in the history of nuclear power. It tested the organized medical response to mass radiation casualties. This article reviews the Soviet response as reported at the 1986 postaccident review meeting in Vienna and as determined from interviews. The Soviets used three levels of care: rescue and first aid at the plant site; emergency treatment at regional hospitals; and definitive evaluation and treatment in Moscow. Diagnosis, triage, patient disposition, attendant exposure, and preventive actions are detailed. The United States would be well advised to organize its resources definitively to cope with future nonmilitary nuclear accidents

  14. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2015; Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung im Jahr 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-07-20

    The information of the German Federal Government on the environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2015 covers the following issues: selected topics of radiation protection, natural radiation exposure; civilizing (artificial) radiation exposure: nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, uranium mine recultivation, radioactive materials in industry and households, fallout from nuclear weapon testing and reactor accidents; occupational radiation exposure: exposed personnel in nuclear facilities, aviation personnel, radiation accidents; medical radiation exposure: nuclear medical diagnostics and therapy; non-ionizing radiation: electromagnetic fields, UV radiation, optical radiation.

  15. Evaluation of environmental radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Kazuhiko

    1974-01-01

    The environmental radiation exposure due to radioactive rare gases is most important both at the time of reactor accidents and also in the long-term normal operation of reactor plants. The exposure dose is usually calculated by means of computers. The procedure of the calculation on environmental exposure dose is divided in several consecutive steps. The calculational formulae frequently used and those proposed recently are given with the explanation on released radionuclides, release to the atmosphere, concentration in the atmosphere, β-ray exposure, γ-ray exposure, and calculation of long-term exposure dose. (Mori, K.)

  16. Occupational Radiation Protection in Severe Accident Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    As an early response to the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident, the Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) Bureau decided to focus on the following issues as an initial response of the joint program after having direct communications with the Japanese official participants in April 2011: - Management of high radiation area worker doses: It has been decided to make available the experience and information from the Chernobyl accident in terms of how emergency worker / responder doses were legally and practically managed, - Personal protective equipment for highly-contaminated areas: It was agreed to collect information about the types of personnel protective equipment and other equipment (e.g. air bottles, respirators, air-hoods or plastic suits, etc.), as well as high-radiation area worker dosimetry use (e.g. type, number and placement of dosimetry) for different types of emergency and high-radiation work situations. Detailed information was collected on dose criteria which are used for emergency workers /responders and their basis, dose management criteria for high dose/dose rate areas, protective equipment which is recommended for emergency workers / responders, recommended individual monitoring procedures, and any special requirement for assessment from the ISOE participating nuclear utilities and regulatory authorities and made available for Japanese utilities. With this positive response of the ISOE official participants and interest in the situation in Fukushima, the Expert Group on Occupational Radiation Protection in Severe Accident Management (EG-SAM) was established by the ISOE Management Board in May 2011. The overall objective of the EG-SAM is to contribute to occupational exposure management (providing a view on management of high radiation area worker doses) within the Fukushima plant boundary with the ISOE participants and to develop a state-of-the-art ISOE report on best radiation protection management practices for proper radiation

  17. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph.

    1997-11-01

    This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m -2 ), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at present the dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 μSv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded before

  18. Documentation of Occupational Accidents and Diseases caused by Ionising Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehringer, F.; Seitz, G.

    2004-01-01

    . One of the major goals of the institutions for statutory accident insurance is the prevention of occupational diseases. To perform a successful prevention work it is necessary not only to count the number of accidents or diseases in the various working fields but to look for details of the conditions of work and the human response to those conditions. The institutions for statutory accident insurance have engaged the institution for statutory accident insurance in the precision engineering and electrical industry to carry out documentation, in form of a data bank, for all cases of occupational diseases which could be caused by ionising radiation. Those are not only the cases which are accepted as occupational disease but also the cases where a suspicion of an occupational disease is announced but finally rejected. At the moment about 1700 cases are included in the data bank. For preserving the anonymity information to name and residence are deleted. Various data to one single case are linked by a case-specific key-number. Information to occupation and field of working, to details of a possible exposure to ionising radiation like kind of radiation, time and duration of radiation, exposure of the whole body or of parts of the body and whole body or organ doses are collected. Additional information refers to medical aspects like diagnosis and date of diagnosis. (Author)

  19. Shipping container response to severe highway and railway accident conditions: Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Gerhard, M.A.; Kimura, C.Y.; Martin, R.W.; Mensing, R.W.; Mount, M.E.; Witte, M.C.

    1987-02-01

    This report describes a study performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to evaluate the level of safety provided under severe accident conditions during the shipment of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors. The evaluation is performed using data from real accident histories and using representative truck and rail cask models that likely meet 10 CFR 71 regulations. The responses of the representative casks are calculated for structural and thermal loads generated by severe highway and railway accident conditions. The cask responses are compared with those responses calculated for the 10 CFR 71 hypothetical accident conditions. By comparing the responses it is determined that most highway and railway accident conditions fall within the 10 CFR 71 hypothetical accident conditions. For those accidents that have higher responses, the probabilities anf potential radiation exposures of the accidents are compared with those identified by the assessments made in the ''Final Environmental Statement on the Transportation of Radioactive Material by Air and other Modes,'' NUREG-0170. Based on this comparison, it is concluded that the radiological risks from spent fuel under severe highway and railway accident conditions as derived in this study are less than risks previously estimated in the NUREG-0170 document

  20. Thyroid blocking after nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendl, J.; Reiners, C.

    1999-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident a marked increase in thyroid cancer incidence among the children in Belarus, the Ukraine and Russia has been detected, strongly suggesting a causal relationship to the large amounts of radioactive iodine isotopes in the resulting fallout. Taking into account the Chernobyl experience the German Committee on Radiation Protection decided to reduce the intervention levels on the basis of the 1989 WHO recommendations and adopted a new concept concerning thyroid blocking in response to nuclear power plant accidents. Experimental animal studies and theoretical considerations show that thyroid blocking with potassium iodide (KI) in a dose of about 1.4 mg per kg body weight is most effective in reducing irradiation to the thyroid from the intake of radioiodine nuclides, provided KI is given within 2 hours after exposure. According to the new concept, persons over 45 years of age should not take iodine tablets because the drug could cause a greater health risk due to prevalent functional thyroid autonomy in this age group than the radioactive iodine averted by KI. On the basis of accident analysis and the new philosophy suitable distribution strategies and logistics are proposed and discussed. (orig.) [de

  1. A virtual environment for simulation of radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Tadeu Augusto de Almeida; Farias, Oscar Luiz Monteiro de

    2013-01-01

    A virtual environment is a computer environment, representative of a subset of the real world, and where models of the real world entities, process and events are included in a virtual (three-dimensional) space. Virtual environments are ideal tools for simulation of certain critical processes, such as radiological accidents, where human beings or properties can suffer irreversible or long term damages. Radiological accidents are characterized by the significant exposure to radiation of specialized workers and general public. The early detection of a radiological accident and the determination of its possible extension are essential factors for the planning of prompt answers and emergency actions. This paper proposes the integration of georeferenced representation of the three-dimensional space and agent-based models, with the objective to construct virtual environments that have the capacity to simulate radiological accidents. The three-dimensional georeferenced representations of space candidates are: 1) the spatial representation of traditional geographical information systems (GIS); 2) the representation adopted by Google Maps®. Adding agents to these spatial representations allow us to simulate radiological accidents, quantify the doses received by members of the public, obtain a possible spatial distribution of people contaminated, estimate the number of contaminated individuals, estimate the impact on the health-network, estimate environmental impacts, generate exclusion zones, build alternative scenarios and train staff to deal with radiological accidents. (author)

  2. A virtual environment for simulation of radiological accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tadeu Augusto de Almeida, E-mail: tedsilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Farias, Oscar Luiz Monteiro de, E-mail: fariasol@eng.uerj.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A virtual environment is a computer environment, representative of a subset of the real world, and where models of the real world entities, process and events are included in a virtual (three-dimensional) space. Virtual environments are ideal tools for simulation of certain critical processes, such as radiological accidents, where human beings or properties can suffer irreversible or long term damages. Radiological accidents are characterized by the significant exposure to radiation of specialized workers and general public. The early detection of a radiological accident and the determination of its possible extension are essential factors for the planning of prompt answers and emergency actions. This paper proposes the integration of georeferenced representation of the three-dimensional space and agent-based models, with the objective to construct virtual environments that have the capacity to simulate radiological accidents. The three-dimensional georeferenced representations of space candidates are: 1) the spatial representation of traditional geographical information systems (GIS); 2) the representation adopted by Google Maps®. Adding agents to these spatial representations allow us to simulate radiological accidents, quantify the doses received by members of the public, obtain a possible spatial distribution of people contaminated, estimate the number of contaminated individuals, estimate the impact on the health-network, estimate environmental impacts, generate exclusion zones, build alternative scenarios and train staff to deal with radiological accidents. (author)

  3. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörr Harald

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  4. Clinical observation of cerebrovascular diseases current in Chernobyl accident liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovchenko, Yu.Yi.; Usatenko, O.G.; Romanenko, N.Yi.

    1999-01-01

    The results of the clinical follow up study (1993-1997) of cerebrovascular diseases development in the Chernobyl accident liquidators are presented. The syndrome of autonomous nervous system dysfunction following to an exposure to the Chernobyl accident consequences factors promotes to fast development of atherosclerosis and arterial hypertension. On the base of an analysis of the data obtained it was established that the primary diencephalic structures damage resulted in severe changes of different metabolic system, particularly in the cerebrovascular disorders development

  5. Postulated accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, W.

    1980-01-01

    This lecture on 'Postulated Accidents' is the first of a series of lectures on the dynamic and transient behaviour of nuclear power plants, especially pressurized water reactors. The main points covered will be: Reactivity Accidents, Transients (Intact Loop) and Loss of Cooland Accidents (LOCA) including small leak. This lecture will discuss the accident analysis in general, the definition of the various operational phases, the accident classification, and, as an example, an accident sequence analysis on the basis of 'Postulated Accidents'. (orig./RW)

  6. Screening survey on thyroid exposure for children after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eunjoo; Kurihara, Osamu; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Matsumoto, Masaki; Fukutsu, Kumiko; Yamada, Yuji; Sugiura, Nobuyuki; Akashi, Makoto [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, Chiba, Chiba (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    In response to a serious accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) established a protocol for a screening survey of thyroid exposure for children living in areas where thyroid doses were predicted to be high. The aim of the screening survey was to implement measurements for a large number of subjects with conventional NaI(Tl) scintillation survey meters. This protocol was applied to the screening survey of 1,149 children at five locations in three municipalities (Kawamata Town, Iitate Village and Iwaki City). Among 1,080 children (excluding 69 subjects from evaluation), there were no subjects who exceeded a screening level (0.2 {mu}Sv h{sup -1}) corresponding to a thyroid equivalent dose of 100 mSv (for the age group of 1-y-old as of March 24). No significant signals were detected in 55.4% of these subjects and the maximum dose was found to be 43 mSv. This paper presents details on the protocol as well as results of the screening survey. (author)

  7. Antenatal exposure following the Chernobyl accident: neuropsychiatric aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igumnov, S.A.; Drozdovitch, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    Ten years follow-up investigation of intellectual development of 250 persons from Belarus exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident and a control group of 250 persons from non- and slightly contaminated regions has been conducted. Neuropsychiatry and psychological examinations were performed among persons of both groups at the age of 6-7, 0-12, and 15-16 years. Mean antenatal external dose among persons of exposed group is 10 ± 13 mGy, maximal dose - 91 mGy. No statistically significant correlation was found in exposed group between individual thyroid dose as well as individual antenatal external dose and IQ at the age of 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years

  8. Prevalence of Occupational Accidents/Injuries among Health Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Health care workers (HCWs) are prone to occupational accidents and injuries such as needle pricks in the course of their day to day activities in the health care setting. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of needle sticks and other occupational exposures among HCWs in a Nigerian tertiary hospital.

  9. Noise and neurotoxic chemical exposure relationship to workplace traumatic injuries: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estill, Cheryl Fairfield; Rice, Carol H; Morata, Thais; Bhattacharya, Amit

    2017-02-01

    More than 5,000 fatalities and eight million injuries occurred in the workplace in 2007 at a cost of $6 billion and $186 billion, respectively. Neurotoxic chemicals are known to affect central nervous system functions among workers, which include balance and hearing disorders. However, it is not known if there is an association between exposure to noise and solvents and acute injuries. A thorough review was conducted of the literature on the relationship between noise or solvent exposures and hearing loss with various health outcomes. The search resulted in 41 studies. Health outcomes included: hearing loss, workplace injuries, absence from work due to sickness, fatalities, hospital admissions due to workplace accidents, traffic accidents, hypertension, balance, slip, trips, or falls, cognitive measures, or disability retirement. Important covariates in these studies were age of employee, type of industry or occupation, or length of employment. Most authors that evaluated noise exposure concluded that higher exposure to noise resulted in more of the chosen health effect but the relationship is not well understood. Studies that evaluated hearing loss found that hearing loss was related to occupational injury, disability retirement, or traffic accidents. Studies that assessed both noise exposure and hearing loss as risk factors for occupational injuries reported that hearing loss was related to occupational injuries as much or more than noise exposure. Evidence suggests that solvent exposure is likely to be related to accidents or other health consequences such balance disorders. Many authors reported that noise exposures and hearing loss, respectively, are likely to be related to occupational accidents. Practical applications: The potential significance of the study is that findings could be used by managers to reduce injuries and the costs associated with those injures. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Environmental radioactivity and dose evaluation in Taiwan after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    A substantial increase in fission product activity was observed in various environmental samples taken in Taiwan after the Chernobyl accident. The concentration of long-lived fission products in air above ground, precipitation, grass, vegetation and milk were monitored in the next 7 wk. The individual effective dose equivalent committed by the first year of exposure and intake following the accident were evaluated. Average individual doses for the population in Taiwan are estimated at 0.9 microSv due to global fallout from the Chernobyl accident. This value is lower than that reported in neighboring countries in the Far East and poses no increased health impact to the public in Taiwan

  11. Initial medical management of criticality accident victim; Conduite a tenir aux victimes d'un accident de criticite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miele, A; Bebaron-Jacobs, L

    2005-07-01

    The extremely severe criticality accidents known to this day, and the subsequent deaths recorded (Sarov 1997 and Tokai Mura 1999), demonstrate the need for sustained surveillance and constant adapted training for the teams in charge of irradiated and/or contaminated victims. The aim of this work group, composed of occupational health services and associated medical biology laboratories, is to present, in leaflet format, the essential data on the documentation and the conduct to be held when facing the victims of a criticality accident. The studies of this work group confirm the difficulties involved in managing this type of accident, both from the dosimetric evaluation point of view and from the therapeutic management point of view. That is why several research themes and perspectives are developed. During the different phases of victim triage, the recommendations given on these leaflets describe the operational conducts to be held. This work will have to be updated according to the evolution in knowledge and means: short and long term effects of exposure to neutrons, multi-competence hospital cooperation, expertise networks related to dosimetric reconstitution. (authors)

  12. [Determinant factors and conduct in post-accident with biological material among pre-hospital professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Maria Henriqueta Rocha Siqueira; Oliveira, Adriana Cristina

    2011-01-01

    This transversal study was carried out with a multiprofessional team in the pre-hospital care in Minas Gerais, Brazil. It aimed to estimate the incidence of occupational accidents by exposure to biological material and post-accidents conductsta. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were used. Incidence of accidents was 19.8%: 39,1% perforating-cutting materials and 56.5% body fluids. Doctors (33.3%) and drivers (24.0%) were most involved. Inadequate subsequent measures were highly prevalent: no medical assessment (69.6%), no work accident communication issued (91.3%), no measures (52.2%) and no serological follow-up (52.2%). Variables associated with accidents were: age >31 years old (OR = 3,02; IC95%: 1,25 - 7,33; p = 0,014) and working in basic support units (OR = 5,36; IC95%: 1,51 19,08; p = 0,010). The implementation of post-accidents protocols is suggested in order to reduce accidents and under-notification, and increase post-accident follow-up.

  13. Accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, R.J.; Monty, B.S.; Liparulo, N.J.; Desaedeleer, G.

    1989-01-01

    The foundation of the framework for a Severe Accident Management Program is the contained in the Probabilistic Safety Study (PSS) or the Individual Plant Evaluations (IPE) for a specific plant. The development of a Severe Accident Management Program at a plant is based on the use of the information, in conjunction with other applicable information. A Severe Accident Management Program must address both accident prevention and accident mitigation. The overall Severe Accident Management framework must address these two facets, as a living program in terms of gathering the evaluating information, the readiness to respond to an event. Significant international experience in the development of severe accident management programs exist which should provide some direction for the development of Severe Accident Management in the U.S. This paper reports that the two most important elements of a Severe Accident Management Program are the Emergency Consultation process and the standards for measuring the effectiveness of individual Severe Accident Management Programs at utilities

  14. Potential exposures and health effects from spent fuel transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.; Rogers, V.C.

    1986-01-01

    The radiation exposures and consequent health effects associated with normal operations and accidents during transportation of spent fuel have been analyzed and evaluated. This study was performed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as contributory data for response to specific public inquires regarding the Draft Environmental Assessments issued by DOE in 1984. Large quantities of spent fuel from power reactors will be shipped by truck and/or rail from the site of generation or temporary storage to nuclear waste repositories. This transportation activity has the potential for increasing radiation exposures and risks above normal background levels in the vicinity of the transportation route. For normal, accident-free transport of spent fuel, radiation exposures arise from both gamma and neutron sources within the spent fuel cask. U.S. regulations limit the radiation dose equivalent rate to 10 millirem per hour at any point 2 meters from the outer lateral surfaces of the transport vehicle. Computer program PATHRAE-T was developed and employed to determine the total, combined dose field. PATHRAE-T was used to estimate the maximum individual doses from rail cask accidents. The maximum individual exposure, primarily due to inhalation, is about 10 rem and occurs about 70 meters downwind. Ground deposited nuclides account for 99 percent of the population dose. The maximum population dose accident could result in about 22 latent health effects for the urban population. The same case rail cask accidents were also evaluated for a maximum water pathway contamination scenario. The nuclide contaminated plume was assumed to be transported over a large reservoir used for domestic and agricultural water. This accident could result in a 63,000 person-rem dose causing about 13 latent health effects in the absence of any natural and industrial processes for nuclide removal from the water

  15. A longitudinal study of health effects of in utero radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dardynskaya, I.; Hryhorczuk, D.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Khrouch, V.T.; Gavrilin, Y.I.; Shinkarev, S.M.; Dardynskiy, O.

    2002-01-01

    bias, standard interviewing principles and techniques, and survey logistics. Preliminary estimation of the thyroid dose to the fetus was calculated using the model developed by Johnson. This model presents thyroid-dose calculations per unit intake of radioiodine by the mother as a function of fetal age. The dosimetry calculations include the age dependence of the uptake and retention of iodine in the fetal thyroid. Future work. Although I 131 intake was responsible for most of thyroid doses in the majority of children exposed in utero after the Chernobyl accident, exposures from other radionuclides also contributed. These exposures are internal exposure from intake of short-lived radioiodine and of Te 132; internal exposure from the intake of long-lived Cs 137; external exposure from radionuclides deposited on the ground. Short-lived radionuclides from Chernobyl fallout can possibly affect the induction of thyroid cancer and other thyroid abnormalities among children exposed to radiation in utero. Due to this fact, we plan to perform an in utero thyroid-dose reconstruction from short-lived radioiodine for those children whose mothers during pregnancy were exposed through inhalation within one week following the accident. A dose reconstruction will also be performed for all children from Study Groups 1 and 2. At the conclusion of these tasks, the epidemiological data obtained during examination of in utero exposed children will be analyzed in relation with reconstructed individual thyroid doses (authors)

  16. Optimization guidance to post-accident intervention: a specific case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Ramirez, J.E.; Reyes-Sanchez, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    ICRP recommends the application of the system of protection to intervention situations, i.e. those in which exposure pathways are already present; e.g the public exposure following an accident. This implies that intervention must be justified and optimized, being the optimization the process of deciding the nature of protective action in order to obtain the maximum net benefit. This paper provides an example of one optimization model to guide a decision making process in a specific case of post-accident intervention. The involved scenario postulates the contamination of big quantities of reinforcing steel bars used in construction industry, and a lot of them present in the structure of several dwellings. Inhabitants of these dwellings must be protected and the proposed action is to demolish those homes exceeding some intervention criterion. The objective of this study is to reach such intervention level trough an optimization process economically focused. (author)

  17. Negative trends for in utero Chernobyl exposure and early childhood leukaemia in Western Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, W.; Steiner, M.; Grosche, B.; Kaletsch, U.; Michaelis, J.

    1997-01-01

    A recent report in Nature linked increased incidence of early infant leukaemia in Greece with 137 Cs fallout density, attributing the effect to an increased in utero exposure to ionizing radiation from the Chernobyl accident. As a validation exercise in a similarly affected region, we performed an analysis based on the data of the Childhood Cancer Registry for Western Germany. Using the same definitions as Petridou et al. we also observed an increased incidence of infant leukaemia in a cohort of children who were born after the Chernobyl accident. More detailed analyses of embryonic/foetal doses regarding areas of different contamination levels and dose rate gradients with time since the accident showed non-significant negative trends with exposure. Therefore, we conclude that the observed effect was not caused by exposure to ionizing radiation due to the Chernobyl accident. Dosimetric considerations per se, based on careful assessment of in utero doses in three different exposure categories, show doses much too small relative to natural radiation exposures to account for a significant effect on leukaemia rates. (author)

  18. Analysis of the radiation accident in El Salvador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melara, N.E.

    1998-01-01

    On 5 February 1989 at 2 a.m. local time in a cobalt-60 industrial irradiation facility, a series of events started leading to one of the most serious radiation accidents in this type of installation. It took place in Soyapango, a city situated 5 km from San Salvador, the capital of the Republic of El Salvador. In this accident, three workers were involved in the first event and a further four in the second. When the accident took place, the activity level was approximately 0.66 PBq (18,000 Ci). The source became blocked when being lowered to its safe position, where upon the technician responsible for the irradiator entered the chamber in breach of the few inadequate safety procedures, accompanied by two colleagues from an adjacent department; the three workers suffered acute radiation exposure, with the result that one of them died six-and-a-half months later, the second had both his legs amputated at mid-thigh, while the third recovered completely. This article describes the irradiator, outlines the causes of the accident and analyses the economic and social repercussions, with the aim of helping teams responsible for radiation protection and safety in industrial irradiation facilities to identify potentially hazardous circumstances and avoid accidents. (author)

  19. Elevated dioxin levels in chloracne cases twenty years after the Seveso, Italy accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccarelli, A.; Pesatori, A.C.; Consonni, D.; Bonzini, M.; Giacomini, S.M.; Bertazzi, P.A. [EPOCA Research Center, Univ. of Milan (Italy); Mocarelli, P. [Dept. of Lab. Medicine, Univ. of Milan-Bicocca, Desio (Italy); Patterson, D.G. Jr. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Caporaso, N.E.; Landi, M.T. [Div. of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Inst., NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2004-09-15

    In July 1976, an industrial accident contaminated a residential area surrounding Seveso, Italy, with high levels of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The exposure was acute, relatively pure, and affected more than 45,000 men, women, and children. By February 1978, 193 chloracne cases, mostly children, had been identified in the exposed population. Twenty years after, we conducted a case-control study on subjects diagnosed with chloracne and control subjects, who had not developed chloracne after the accident, to evaluate their TCDD plasma levels, as well as the exposure-response relationship and possible determinants of susceptibility to TCDD effects in this population.

  20. Studded and unstudded winter tires in fatal road accidents in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivuo, Mikko; Luoma, Juha; Porthin, Markus

    2017-07-04

    The aim of the study was to compare the safety effects of studded and unstudded winter tires based on fatal road accidents. The data included 958 road accidents involving a passenger car or van that occurred in Finland from November to March between 1997 and 2012. Comparing the proportions of winter tire type in accidents and in general traffic showed that the overall effect of tire type on the number of accidents was not significant, although studded tires reduced fatal accidents by 10-15%. Compared to unstudded tires, studded tires reduced accidents significantly only on bald ice in 2005-2012. Drivers using unstudded tires were more experienced and their profession was more frequently related to driving. In addition, the vehicle age was lower for vehicles with unstudded tires. On the other hand, the state of repair was less pertinent for unstudded than for studded tires. These confounding factors offset their effects to some degree. The risk of fatal road accidents in winter between studded and unstudded tires does not differ significantly. However, the accident risk has recently been substantially higher on bald ice for unstudded than for studded tires. The magnitude of this risk difference is difficult to determine without specific information on exposure by road surface.

  1. Psychiatric disorders after radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokai, Masahiro [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Soejima, Toshinori; Wang, Shangdong; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2001-04-01

    This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)

  2. Psychiatric disorders after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokai, Masahiro; Soejima, Toshinori; Wang, Shangdong; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2001-01-01

    This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)

  3. Keynote on lessons from major radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, P.; Oresegun, M.; Wheatley, J.

    2000-01-01

    Generic lessons have been learned from a relatively large number of accidents in the most relevant practices (a set of analysis have been made on about 90 radiotherapy events, 43 industrial radiography and nine from industrial irradiations); more specific lessons have been drawn from in-depth investigations of individual accidents. The body of knowledge is grouped as follows: a) radiotherapy is very unique in that humans (patients) are purposely given very high radiation doses (20-75 Gy) by placing them in the radiation beam or by placing radioactive sources in contact with tissues. Intended deterministic effects are the essence of the normal radiotherapy practice and relatively small deviation from the intended doses, i.e,, slightly higher or lower than intended may cause increased rate of severe complication or reduce probability of cure. Consequences of major accidents have been devastating, affecting tens, even hundreds of patients and causing death (directly or indirectly) to a large number of them; b) accidents involving industrial radiography are the most frequent cause of overexposure to workers (radiographers); c) accidents with industrial irradiators have lower probability of occurrence, however, they are deemed to be fatal, especially when whole body exposure to panoramic gamma irradiators occur; partial body irradiation from industrial or research accelerator beams has led to amputation of hands and legs; d) when control of sources was relinquished ('orphan' sources) this has resulted in severe injuries, in some cases death and widespread contamination of the environment. A tool for further dissemination of lessons will be an international reporting system of unusual radiation events (RADEV), being introduced world-wide. Accidents were rarely due to a single human error or isolated equipment failure. In most cases there was a combination of elements such as: a) unawareness of the potential for an accident, b) poor education, which usually did not

  4. 10 years after Chernobyl, radiation exposure, health effects, safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, K.

    1996-11-01

    This report sums up the various conferences and symposia which were prompted by the tenth anniversary of the accident in the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl. It was shown that by the accident up to now 31 casualties among the emergency and rescue personal at the site. Offsite no increased number of casualties caused by the accident was observed up to now. In the countries with the highest impact Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, however, an increased number of infant thyroid cancer is observed which is substantially higher than after the nuclear detonations over Japanese cities. Contrary to often published media reports, however, up to now no increases in leukemia or other malignant deceases were observed, neither in the population of the concerned regions nor among the liquidators. The high 137 Cs activity concentration in the environment close to the power plant result in exclusion zone even today. The deposition values in Kiev, however, amount to only 30 kBq/m 2 , in large areas of Ukraine they are below the average values in Austria of 22 kBq/m 2 . For these areas as well as those outside the former Soviet Union the average doses were less than 1 mSv in the first year, a value which is less than one third of natural annual radiation exposure. Since the reactor accident the activity concentration has significally decreased resulting in an exposure as consequence of the reactor accident of less than 0,8 % of the exposure in the first year. In Austria the exposure in 1996 amounts to less than 0,3 % of natural radiation exposure. (author)

  5. Nuclear accident dosimetry. Revision of emergency data sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafield, H.J.

    1976-09-01

    The Emergency Data Sheets on Nuclear Accident Dosimetry have been revealed following the publication of a three part manual on this subject (Delafield, Dennis and Gibson, AERE-R 7485/6/7, 1973). This memo provides an explanation of the action levels adopted for the initial segregation of irradiated persons following a criticality accident, by monitoring the activity of indium foils contained in personnel dosimeters and the induced body sodium activity. The data sheets are given as an Appendix. They provide basic information on; the segregation of irradiated persons, the estimation of radiation exposure, and the assessment of personnel γ-ray and neutron doses. (author)

  6. Approach to treatment of a patient with burns from a radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, Maria Angelica

    2009-01-01

    Lesions by exposure to ionizing radiation can result from an atomic bomb blast, an industrial accident such as Chernobyl, or from cancer therapy. The gravity of lesions depends on the exposure time and on the deposited energy. A short review is made on the approach to treatment in the Hospital Sao Jose, Lisbon. (author)

  7. Organizational aspects of the handling of radiation accidents in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.

    1977-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany it is a legal requirement that persons exposed to ionizing radiation as a consequence of their employment in radiation facilities should be monitored. Some 90000 persons constitute the population 'at risk' for occupational radiation exposure. The actual radiation accident rate has been very low indeed. Nevertheless, precautions must be taken. Four radiation accident categories may be distinguished: uncomplicated, complicated, contamination and incorporation accidents. In the Federal Republic, the 'Berufsgenossenschaften' (BGS) are required to organize radiation accident care if necessary and take all measures to prevent them. The BGS has issued a pamphlet 'First Aid in case of Increased Exposure to Ionizing Radiation' as a guide to all personnel concerned. The BGS has also organized 5 'Regional Radiation Protection Centres' available to give advice 7 days a week, 24 hours a day in Hamburg, Homburg (Saar), Juelich, Karlsruhe und Munich. These centres are all equipped to provide first aid and decontamination and to cater for a short term stay until a decision is reached as to how to handle a particular accident. The special burns hospital of the BGS in Ludwigshafen is equipped with sterile rooms to handle 'complicated accidents', in particular when skin burns are involved. Two mobile 'radiation protection units' are available in Karlsruhe and Munich to provide help in all problems of dosimetry and health physics. A medical advisory team has been formed to supplement local physicians in dealing with special problems in the handling of radiation accident victims. (author)

  8. Application and inspiration of risk control in dose control in Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shaoqing; Chen Yan; Chai Jianshe; Zhang Chunming

    2013-01-01

    The article introduced the basic concept of risk and risk control methods. Using the risk control methods, we analyzed and evaluated the actions to control dose of public and occupational radiation exposure in the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident, especially found out the weak points of these actions, and finally discussed the application of the risk control methods in dose management during nuclear accidents. (authors)

  9. [Work accidents with biological material occurred in municipalities of Minas Gerais].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julio, Renata Siqueira; Filardi, Monique Borsato Silva; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the profile accidents involving exposure to biological material occurring in Minas Gerais. A descriptive study carried out by querying the Information System for Notifiable Diseases, 50 cities in south of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in the period of 2007-2011. Were recorded 460 accidents, and about half occurred among nursing assistants and technicians, followed by nurses and physicians. There were more accidents due to improper disposal of sharps. Among the source patients, there was a 8.0% prevalence of positive serology for HIV, 1.0% for HBsAg, 6.0% for anti-HBc and 3% for anti-HCV. Among the injured 14.0% were not immunized to hepatitis B; however, the vaccine and immunoglobulin prescription was lower than necessary. The results will subsidize the plan preventive measures and new approach towards the occurrence of such accidents.

  10. Multiple parameter biodosimetry of exposed workers from the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, William F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Full text: On 30 September 1999, three workers at the JCO (Japan Nuclear Fuel Conversion Corporation) uranium fuel processing facility in Tokai-mura, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, were severely exposed to neutrons and gamma rays. In this issue of the journal, Nishimura et al report the measurement of {sup 32}P in urine from the three victims for early estimation of neutron exposure levels. This is one of several reports that estimate doses received by the exposed workers and residents, based on biological responses, radiation monitoring/transport codes, and other opportunistic dosimetric approaches. The higher relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons for life-threatening radiation injury justifies efforts to establish a neutron biodosimetry capability. Accurate estimation of the exposure dose by cytogenetic-based chromosome aberration assays, however, requires knowledge of the neutron component in the mixed neutron and gamma radiation scenario. Dose responses for dicentric and ring type chromosome aberration yields measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes are responsive to radiation quality. Protocols for dose assessment by cytogenetic-chromosome aberration assays are internationally accepted. Analytic approaches using cytogenetic chromosome aberrations are established for dose assessment in mixed neutron and gamma radiation accidents. Use of the premature chromosome condensation, or PCC, assay now permits these measurements even at unusually high doses of gamma and neutron radiation. Hayata and colleagues measured ring-type chromosome aberrations in interphase cells by use of the PCC-ring assay to estimate dose for the three severely exposed patients in this accident. Ring-type aberrations are formed in higher yields after neutron versus gamma radiation but these ring-aberrations do not provide a unique signature response specific for neutron exposures. Intense research efforts are currently underway to identify more specific chromosome aberration and

  11. Initial medical management of criticality accident victim; Conduite a tenir aux victimes d'un accident de criticite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miele, A.; Bebaron-Jacobs, L

    2005-07-01

    The extremely severe criticality accidents known to this day, and the subsequent deaths recorded (Sarov 1997 and Tokai Mura 1999), demonstrate the need for sustained surveillance and constant adapted training for the teams in charge of irradiated and/or contaminated victims. The aim of this work group, composed of occupational health services and associated medical biology laboratories, is to present, in leaflet format, the essential data on the documentation and the conduct to be held when facing the victims of a criticality accident. The studies of this work group confirm the difficulties involved in managing this type of accident, both from the dosimetric evaluation point of view and from the therapeutic management point of view. That is why several research themes and perspectives are developed. During the different phases of victim triage, the recommendations given on these leaflets describe the operational conducts to be held. This work will have to be updated according to the evolution in knowledge and means: short and long term effects of exposure to neutrons, multi-competence hospital cooperation, expertise networks related to dosimetric reconstitution. (authors)

  12. Observations on health outcome studies of exposure of the worker and the general population during the nuclear reactor accident at three mile island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear reactor accident at Three Mile Island in March 1979 resulted in the release of radioactivity to the environment. Radiation exposure of the workers and the general population living in the vicinity of the damaged nuclear reactor was estimated based on dose measurements, meteorological conditions, demographic characteristics, reconstruction of the source term, and a number of other factors. The projected estimates of potential delayed health effects in the worker and general population, notable cancer, developmental abnormalities of the newborn, and genetic ill-health, were carefully estimated based on then-current knowledge of radiation risks and statistical techniques of analysis. Almost a decade later, we now have epidemiological and statistical data on certain of these health outcomes in the exposed populations at risk. Discussion includes the reliability of the initial radiation risk estimates, the major illnesses of concern, the mental stress and behavioral effects at the time of and following the accident, and the current findings of the ongoing studies of the health outcomes of the vulnerable populations at risk

  13. Thyroid doses for evacuees from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokonami, Shinji; Hosoda, Masahiro; Akiba, Suminori; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Kashiwakura, Ikuo; Balonov, Mikhail

    2012-07-01

    A primary health concern among residents and evacuees in affected areas immediately after a nuclear accident is the internal exposure of the thyroid to radioiodine, particularly I-131, and subsequent thyroid cancer risk. In Japan, the natural disasters of the earthquake and tsunami in March 2011 destroyed an important function of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1-NPP) and a large amount of radioactive material was released to the environment. Here we report for the first time extensive measurements of the exposure to I-131 revealing I-131 activity in the thyroid of 46 out of the 62 residents and evacuees measured. The median thyroid equivalent dose was estimated to be 4.2 mSv and 3.5 mSv for children and adults, respectively, much smaller than the mean thyroid dose in the Chernobyl accident (490 mSv in evacuees). Maximum thyroid doses for children and adults were 23 mSv and 33 mSv, respectively.

  14. The prevention of radiological accidents (how to avoid or minimize potential exposures)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, Rodolfo E.

    2006-01-01

    A detailed analysis of 7 major accidents occurred in radiotherapy services in different countries is performed. Then a generic analysis of the causes is realized and finally the methodology used to prevent them effectively is described [es

  15. K Basins floor sludge retrieval system knockout pot basket fuel burn accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HUNT, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The K Basins Sludge Retrieval System Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report (HNF-2676) identified and categorized a series of potential accidents associated with K Basins Sludge Retrieval System design and operation. The fuel burn accident was of concern with respect to the potential release of contamination resulting from a runaway chemical reaction of the uranium fuel in a knockout pot basket suspended in the air. The unmitigated radiological dose to an offsite receptor from this fuel burn accident is calculated to be much less than the offsite risk evaluation guidelines for anticipated events. However, because of potential radiation exposure to the facility worker, this accident is precluded with a safety significant lifting device that will prevent the monorail hoist from lifting the knockout pot basket out of the K Basin water pool

  16. Accident management insights after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degueldre, Didier; Viktorov, Alexandre; Tuomainen, Minna; Ducamp, Francois; Chevalier, Sophie; Guigueno, Yves; Tasset, Daniel; Heinrich, Marcus; Schneider, Matthias; Funahashi, Toshihiro; Hotta, Akitoshi; Kajimoto, Mitsuhiro; Chung, Dae-Wook; Kuriene, Laima; Kozlova, Nadezhda; Zivko, Tomi; Aleza, Santiago; Jones, John; McHale, Jack; Nieh, Ho; Pascal, Ghislain; ); Nakoski, John; Neretin, Victor; Nezuka, Takayoshi; )

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, that took place on 11 March 2011, initiated a significant number of activities at the national and international levels to reassess the safety of existing NPPs, evaluate the sufficiency of technical means and administrative measures available for emergency response, and develop recommendations for increasing the robustness of NPPs to withstand extreme external events and beyond design basis accidents. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is working closely with its member and partner countries to examine the causes of the accident and to identify lessons learnt with a view to the appropriate follow-up actions to be taken by the nuclear safety community. Accident management is a priority area of work for the NEA to address lessons being learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP following the recommendations of Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), and Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH). Considering the importance of these issues, the CNRA authorised the formation of a task group on accident management (TGAM) in June 2012 to review the regulatory framework for accident management following the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The task group was requested to assess the NEA member countries needs and challenges in light of the accident from a regulatory point of view. The general objectives of the TGAM review were to consider: - enhancements of on-site accident management procedures and guidelines based on lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident; - decision-making and guiding principles in emergency situations; - guidance for instrumentation, equipment and supplies for addressing long-term aspects of accident management; - guidance and implementation when taking extreme measures for accident management. The report is built on the existing bases for capabilities to respond to design basis

  17. Have the consequences of reactor accidents for the population been well assessed? Six questions to the experts in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, Peter

    2016-07-15

    Six questions to the experts in the field are posed: (1) Why is the assessment of accident consequences not separated in long-term and peak exposure? (2) Why is the exposure due to I-131 seen critical mainly in regard to the thyroid? (3) Do you have any reliable relations of health risk versus peak exposure? (4) Why do you not abolish the LNT assumption and replace it with a threshold model? (5) Why do you include indirect, psycho-somatic effects in assessing the consequences of reactor accidents when this is not customary with accidents with often more casualties? (6) How can the number of Chernobyl-assigned thyroid cancers have risen from some 600 about to some 4,000 today, when the latency period is in the range of 4 to 5 years?.

  18. Consequences of unforeseen cesium 137 exposure. O posledstviyakh nepredvidennogo oblucheniya za schet tseziya-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolev, V I

    1991-01-01

    Published data on radition accidents associated with environmental contamination and {sup 137}Cs man irradiation including Chernobyl NPP accident and {sup 137}Cs source accident at gamma-therapeutic facility in Goyaniya (Brazil, 1987) are considered. Process scheme of dose accumulation attributed to external and internal exposure from radioactive fission products causing enviromental contamination are presented according to UNSCEAR data, 1975. {sup 137}Cs input in total dose of external exposure from all radionuclides (2% in the first year after the accident up to 90% after 50 years), as well as bone marrow doses, caused by radionuclide fall-out resulting from Chernobyl NPP accident (1.19-1.64 rem at the Ukrainian territory and 1.63-2.78 rem in the RSFSR) are calculated on the basis of literature data. Attention is paid to consideration of radiation injuries to accident victims in Goyaniya.

  19. The Chernobyl reactor accident. Pt. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    The report first summarizes the available information on the various incidents of the whole accident scenario, and combines the information to present a first general outline and a basis for appraisal. The most significant incidents reported, namely power excursion, core meltdown, and fire, are discussed with a view to the reactor design and safety of reactors installed in the FRG. The main differences and advantages of German reactor designs are shown, as e.g.: Power excursions are mastered by inherent physical conditions; far better redundancy of engineered safety systems; enclosure of the complete reactor cooling system in a pressure-retaining steel containment; reactor buildings being made of reinforced concrete. The second part of the report deals with the radiological effects to be expected for our country. Data are given on the varying radiological exposure of the different regions. The fate and uptake of radioactivity in the human body are discussed. The conclusion drawn from the data presented is that the individual exposure due to the reactor accident will remain within the variations and limits of natural radioactivity and effects. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Development of Accident Scenarios and Quantification Methodology for RAON Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yongjin; Jae, Moosung

    2014-01-01

    The RIsp (Rare Isotope Science Project) plans to provide neutron-rich isotopes (RIs) and stable heavy ion beams. The accelerator is defined as radiation production system according to Nuclear Safety Law. Therefore, it needs strict operate procedures and safety assurance to prevent radiation exposure. In order to satisfy this condition, there is a need for evaluating potential risk of accelerator from the design stage itself. Though some of PSA researches have been conducted for accelerator, most of them focus on not general accident sequence but simple explanation of accident. In this paper, general accident scenarios are developed by Event Tree and deduce new quantification methodology of Event Tree. In this study, some initial events, which may occur in the accelerator, are selected. Using selected initial events, the accident scenarios of accelerator facility are developed with Event Tree. These results can be used as basic data of the accelerator for future risk assessments. After analyzing the probability of each heading, it is possible to conduct quantification and evaluate the significance of the accident result. If there is a development of the accident scenario for external events, risk assessment of entire accelerator facility will be completed. To reduce the uncertainty of the Event Tree, it is possible to produce a reliable data via the presented quantification techniques

  1. Another 60Co hot cell accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steidley, K.D.; Zeik, G.S.; Ouellette, R.

    1979-01-01

    An accident at a commercial irradiation facility is described. Because of inadequate safety arrangements a worker entered the irradiation cell while the 500,000 Ci 60 Co source was exposed. The duration of the exposure was established by re-enactment of the worker's movements, and dose rates at various locations at the accident site were measured. From the results a total absorbed dose of 210 rad to the surface of the victim was calculated. This and results of chromosomal aberration studies (200 rad) and the worker's film badge reading (126 rad) lead to the assignment of a nominal 200 rad absorbed dose. The worker was taken to two local hospital emergency departments, both of which examined and discharged him. Eventually he was admitted to a medical centre with experience of radiation effects. His symptoms and treatment during his 7 week stay in hospital are described and his blood counts vs time are shown graphically. As a result of the unsatisfactory response of the emergency departments the NRC has modified its licensing procedures to include specific arrangements with a local hospital. It is stressed that accident dosage estimates should always be supplied to the patient or his personal physician. (author)

  2. Cerebrovascular Accident Incidence in the NASA Astronaut Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPelusa, Michael B.; Charvat, Jacqueline M.; Lee, Lesley R.; Wear, Mary L.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The development of atherosclerosis is strongly associated with an increased risk for cerebrovascular accidents (CVA), including stroke and transient ischemic attacks (TIA). Certain unique occupational exposures that individuals in the NASA astronaut corps face, specifically high-performance aircraft training, SCUBA training, and spaceflight, are hypothesized to cause changes to the cardiovascular system. These changes, which include (but are not limited to) oxidative damage as a result of radiation exposure and circadian rhythm disturbance, increased arterial stiffness, and increased carotid-intima-media thickness (CIMT), may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and subsequent CVA. The purpose of this study was to review cases of CVA in the NASA astronaut corps and describe the comorbidities and occupational exposures associated with CVA.

  3. Road accident rates: strategies and programmes for improving road traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, K; Goniewicz, M; Pawłowski, W; Fiedor, P

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the problem of road accident rates is one of the most important health and social policy issues concerning the countries in all continents. Each year, nearly 1.3 million people worldwide lose their life on roads, and 20-50 million sustain severe injuries, the majority of which require long-term treatment. The objective of the study was to identify the most frequent, constantly occurring causes of road accidents, as well as outline actions constituting a basis for the strategies and programmes aiming at improving traffic safety on local and global levels. Comparative analysis of literature concerning road safety was performed, confirming that although road accidents had a varied and frequently complex background, their causes have changed only to a small degree over the years. The causes include: lack of control and enforcement concerning implementation of traffic regulation (primarily driving at excessive speed, driving under the influence of alcohol, and not respecting the rights of other road users (mainly pedestrians and cyclists), lack of appropriate infrastructure and unroadworthy vehicles. The number of fatal accidents and severe injuries, resulting from road accidents, may be reduced through applying an integrated approach to safety on roads. The strategies and programmes for improving road traffic should include the following measures: reducing the risk of exposure to an accident, prevention of accidents, reduction in bodily injuries sustained in accidents, and reduction of the effects of injuries by improvement of post-accident medical care.

  4. Hygienic evaluation of radiation consequences after the Chernobyl accident in highly populated areas of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachev, I.I.; Tkachenko, N.V.; Markelova, L.K.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses radiation exposure to the people in the Ukraine as a result of the Chernobyl accident. As a result of this accident all Ukrainian regions have been heavily contaminated, even though the contamination density obtained in different regions are considerably different. Soils have become contaminated and plants grown in the soils transfer radionuclides to people

  5. Technical bases for estimating fission product behavior during LWR accidents. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The objective of this report is to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the public with a description of the best technical information currently available for estimating the release of radioactive material during postulated reactor accidents, and to identify where gaps exist in our knowledge. This report focuses on those low probability-high consequence accidents involving severe damage to the reactor core and core meltdown that dominate the risk to the public. Furthermore, in this report particular emphasis is placed on the accident behavior of radioactive iodine, as (1) radioiodine is predicted to be a major contributor to public exposure, (2) current regulatory accident analysis procedures focus on iodine, and (3) several technical issues have been raised recently about the magnitude of iodine release. The generation, transport, and attenuation of aerosols were also investigated in some detail to assess their effect on fission product release estimates and to determine the performance of engineered safety features under accident conditions exceeding their design bases

  6. Formulating accident occurrence as a survival process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H L; Jovanis, P P

    1990-10-01

    A conceptual framework for accident occurrence is developed based on the principle of the driver as an information processor. The framework underlies the development of a modeling approach that is consistent with the definition of exposure to risk as a repeated trial. Survival theory is proposed as a statistical technique that is consistent with the conceptual structure and allows the exploration of a wide range of factors that contribute to highway operating risk. This survival model of accident occurrence is developed at a disaggregate level, allowing safety researchers to broaden the scope of studies which may be limited by the use of traditional aggregate approaches. An application of the approach to motor carrier safety is discussed as are potential applications to a variety of transportation industries. Lastly, a typology of highway safety research methodologies is developed to compare the properties of four safety methodologies: laboratory experiments, on-the-road studies, multidisciplinary accident investigations, and correlational studies. The survival theory formulation has a mathematical structure that is compatible with each safety methodology, so it may facilitate the integration of findings across methodologies.

  7. Unavoidable Accident

    OpenAIRE

    Grady, Mark F.

    2009-01-01

    In negligence law, "unavoidable accident" is the risk that remains when an actor has used due care. The counterpart of unavoidable accident is "negligent harm." Negligence law makes parties immune for unavoidable accident even when they have used less than due care. Courts have developed a number of methods by which they "sort" accidents to unavoidable accident or to negligent harm, holding parties liable only for the latter. These sorting techniques are interesting in their own right and als...

  8. Chernobyl dose for population of areas radiocontaminated after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    The parameters and consequences of the Chernobyl accident that took place on 26 April 1986 are of special interest, because it was an extremely serious accident of an operating power nuclear reactor, one of over four hundred in the world. The basic specific feature of this accident determining the complex character of radiation impact on man was the explosive destruction and subsequent high-temperature burning of the reactor, which caused not only the release of inert radioactive gases and radioisotopes of volatile elements (iodine, cesium, tellurium, etc.), but also the evaporation of refractory fission products (barium, strontium, etc.), and the dispersion of fuel particles. Another important feature of the radioactive contamination of the area as compared with that of the global fallout from nuclear weapons testing is a single or short-term deposition which nevertheless leads to long-term exposure of man by long-lived radionuclides. The third specific feature is the combined and strong influence of natural soil and climate factors, on the one hand, and of anthropogenic factors, basically, of wide-scale countermeasures. on the other hand, on the level of exposure of man. 20 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs

  9. Validation of a mathematical phantom for dose assessment of radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Joana D' Arc R.L.; Gomes, Rogerio S.; Costa, Mara Lucia L.

    2013-01-01

    Sealed radioactive sources are widely used in the industry with the purpose of well logging, non-destructive testing, food irradiation, process control systems, elemental analysis and others. Among the most used sources, it can mention: 137 Cs, 60 Co, 192 Ir, 85 Kr and Americium-Beryllium with radiation activities ranging between a few MegaBecquerels (MBq) to million of GBq, as the case of food irradiation. In general, these sources present sufficient activity to represent a significant health hazard when inadequately shielded or not handled according to proper safety procedures, producing radiation exposures to workers and to members of public. In cases of overexposure to ionizing radiation, an estimative of the dose received by victims of radiation accidents, as well as its distribution within the organism, can be provided by use an anthropomorphic phantom associates with a theoretical simulation Monte Carlo method to simulate the radioactive source and its interactions with the phantom. In this work is presented the validation results of application of a mathematical phantom modeled in Geant4, as a tool to reconstruct dose of radiological accidents due to external exposure. The results are compared with the dosimetry of real accidents. (author)

  10. Manual on the medical management of individuals involved in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindon, T.N.

    1991-09-01

    This manual is concerned with accidents or emergencies which involve sources of ionizing radiation. It does not cover other forms of radiation such as non-ionizing radiation (ultra-violet, light, radiofrequency radiations), heat, etc. Most radiation accidents have involved individuals either at the workplace or with medical misadministrations; they have received external exposure from X-ray or gamma-ray sources or have been contaminated with radioactive material. A few members of the public have also been involved through misadventures with radioactive sources although these may not be thought of as accidents; more commonly, they are referred to as 'incidents'. For the purpose of this manual, there is not differentiation between an accident and an incident, as the medical care required is the same in both situations. Some of the reference papers are reprinted at the back of the manual. 17 refs., 12 tabs., 9 figs

  11. Organisational factors of occupational accidents with movement disturbance (OAMD) and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Workplace design and upkeep, or human factors, are frequently advanced for explaining so-called Occupational Slip, Trip and Fall Accidents (OSTFAs). Despite scientific progress, these accidents, and more broadly Occupational Accidents with Movement Disturbance (OAMDs), are also commonly considered to be "simple". This paper aims to stimulate changes in such perceptions by focusing on organisational factors that often combine with other accident factors to cause movement disturbance and injury in work situations. These factors frequently lead to arbitration between production and safety, which involves implementation of controls by workers. These controls can lead to greater worker exposure to OAMD risk. We propose a model that focuses on such controls to account specifically for the need to confront production and safety logics within a company and to enhance the potential for appropriate prevention action. These are then integrated into the set of controls highlighted by work organisation model developed by the NIOSH.

  12. Road Accidents and Road Fatalities in Denmark from 1968 to 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the road accidents and road fatalities in Denmark in the period 1968-2004. Only accidents registered by the police were used. Crude and gender & age specific fatality rates (counts per 1,000,000 inhabitants) were estimated for all road users...... and for bicyclists. The accident and fatality rates have decreased by around 70% from 1968 to 2004, while the motorisation rate has increased by approximately 90%. The sharpest decrease in the fatality rate was observed among the youngest (below 18 years old) and the older (above 64) road users. Gender related...... and actions targeted to improve road safety have indeed led to a significant reduction in injury accidents and fatalities. Further research and more detailed data, especially on traffic volume and individual exposure are necessary in order to investigate properly a causal relation between the number...

  13. Historical update of past and recent skin damage radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.C.; Fry, S.A.; Ricks, R.C.; Hubner, K.F.; Burr, W.W.

    1986-01-01

    Records of radiation accidents worldwide since 1944 are maintained at the Radiation Accident Registry of the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) in Oak Ridge. These records show that in 263 major radiation accidents there have been 150 severe local radiation injuries, of which 117 have been exposure to sealed radioactive sources. Most lesions resulted from the unsafe handling of 192 Ir radiography sources. Recent redesign of these devices, used for testing the integrity of welds, promises to eliminate these accidents. However, many other kinds of irradiators used in industry and scientific research still remain in the public domain, capable of causing irreparable dermal damage. Registry records reveal many unsolved physical and medical problems whose solution is urgently needed to improve the prognosis and therapy of such lesions. Pathologically, radiation-induced skin lesions are well described and an approximate dose-response relationship is univerally accepted even though the actual 'dose' is rarely known at first. Radiation dose is estimated biologically after the lesion has run its pathological course or after a medical physicist has prepared a retrospective 'mock-up' of the accident. (author)

  14. Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardis, E. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)

    1996-07-01

    Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed as children, there is no evidence to date of a major public health impact as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident in the three most affected countries (Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine). Although some increases in the frequency of cancer in exposed populations have been reported ,these results are difficult to interpret, mainly because of differences in the intensity and method of follow-up between exposed populations and the general population with which they are compared. If the experience of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan and of other exposed populations is applicable, the major radiological impact of the accident will be cases of cancer. The total lifetime numbers of excess cancers will be greatest among the `liquidators` (emergency and recovery workers) and among the residents of `contaminated` territories, of the order of 2000 to 2500 among each group (the size of the exposed populations is 200,000 liquidators and 3,700,000 residents of `contaminated` areas). These increases would be difficult to detect epidemiologically against an expected background number of 41500 and 433000 cases of cancer respectively among the two groups. The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different in type and pattern from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan. Thus predictions derived from studies of these populations are uncertain. The extent of the incidence of thyroid cancer was not envisaged. Since only ten years have lapsed since the accident, continued monitoring of the health of the population is essential to assess the public health impact.

  15. Domino effect in chemical accidents: main features and accident sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Casal Fàbrega, Joaquim; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria

    2010-01-01

    The main features of domino accidents in process/storage plants and in the transportation of hazardous materials were studied through an analysis of 225 accidents involving this effect. Data on these accidents, which occurred after 1961, were taken from several sources. Aspects analyzed included the accident scenario, the type of accident, the materials involved, the causes and consequences and the most common accident sequences. The analysis showed that the most frequent causes a...

  16. PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Jovanovic

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical services, physicians and nurses play an essential role in the plant safety program through primary treatment of injured workers and by helping to identify workplace hazards. The physician and nurse should participate in the worksite investigations to identify specific hazard or stresses potentially causing the occupational accidents and injuries and in planning the subsequent hazard control program. Physicians and nurses must work closely and cooperatively with supervisors to ensure the prompt reporting and treatment of all work related health and safety problems. Occupational accidents, work related injuries and fatalities result from multiple causes, affect different segments of the working population, and occur in a myriad of occupations and industrial settings. Multiple factors and risks contribute to traumatic injuries, such as hazardous exposures, workplace and process design, work organization and environment, economics, and other social factors. With such a diversity of theories, it will not be difficult to understand that there does not exist one single theory that is considered right or correct and is universally accepted. These theories are nonetheless necessary, but not sufficient, for developing a frame of reference for understanding accident occurrences. Prevention strategies are also varied, and multiple strategies may be applicable to many settings, including engineering controls, protective equipment and technologies, management commitment to and investment in safety, regulatory controls, and education and training. Research needs are thus broad, and the development and application of interventions involve many disciplines and organizations.

  17. Effectiveness of electronic stability control on single-vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of electronic stability control (ESC) on single-vehicle injury accidents while controlling for a number of confounders influencing the accident risk. Using police-registered injury accidents from 2004 to 2011 in Denmark with cars manufactured in the period 1998 to 2011 and the principle of induced exposure, 2 measures of the effectiveness of ESC were calculated: The crude odds ratio and the adjusted odds ratio, the latter by means of logistic regression. The logistic regression controlled for a number of confounding factors, of which the following were significant. For the driver: Age, gender, driving experience, valid driving license, and seat belt use. For the vehicle: Year of registration, weight, and ESC. For the accident surroundings: Visibility, light, and location. Finally, for the road: Speed limit, surface, and section characteristics. The present study calculated the crude odds ratio for ESC-equipped cars of getting in a single-vehicle injury accident as 0.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.47) and the adjusted odds ratio as 0.69 (95% CI, 0.54-0.88). No difference was found in the effectiveness of ESC across the injury severity categories (slight, severe, and fatal). In line with previous results, this study concludes that ESC reduces the risk for single-vehicle injury accidents by 31% when controlling for various confounding factors related to the driver, the car, and the accident surroundings. Furthermore, it is concluded that it is important to control for human factors (at a minimum age and gender) in analyses where evaluations of this type are performed.

  18. Stress in accident and post-accident management at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, P.; Dubreuil, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the psychology of the affected population have been much discussed. The psychological dimension has been advanced as a factor explaining the emergence, from 1990 onwards, of a post-accident crisis in the main CIS countries affected. This article presents the conclusions of a series of European studies, which focused on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. These studies show that the psychological and social effects associated with the post-accident situation arise from the interdependency of a number of complex factors exerting a deleterious effect on the population. We shall first attempt to characterise the stress phenomena observed among the population affected by the accident. Secondly, we will be presenting an anlysis of the various factors that have contributed to the emerging psychological and social features of population reaction to the accident and in post-accident phases, while not neglecting the effects of the pre-accident situation on the target population. Thirdly, we shall devote some initial consideration to the conditions that might be conducive to better management of post-accident stress. In conclusion, we shall emphasise the need to restore confidence among the population generally. (Author)

  19. Thyroid side effects prophylaxis in front of nuclear power plant accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopiantz, Mikaël; Elhanbali, Ouifak; Demore, Béatrice; Cuny, Thomas; Demarquet, Léa; Ndiaye, Cumba; Barbe, Françoise; Brunaud, Laurent; Weryha, Georges; Klein, Marc

    2016-02-01

    The better knowledge of the mechanisms of nuclear incidents and lessons learned from accidents in the recent past to improve the effectiveness of measures taken following a nuclear accident exposure to fallout of radioactive iodine isotopes. Thus, immediate, passive measures, such as containment, and stopping consumption of contaminated products are paramount. The earliest possible administration of stable iodine as potassium iodide (KI) reduces significantly (up to 90% if taken at the same time of the accident) thyroid radioactive contamination. These tablets should be given in priority to children and pregnant women. The side effects are minor. KI is not recommended for persons aged over 60 years, or for adults suffering from cardiovascular disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Testing of an accident consequence assessment model using field data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Toshimitsu; Matsubara, Takeshi; Tomita, Kenichi

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from the application of an accident consequence assessment model, OSCAAR to the Iput dose reconstruction scenario of BIOMASS and also to the Chernobyl 131 I fallout scenario of EMRAS, both organized by International Atomic Energy Agency. The Iput Scenario deals with 137 Cs contamination of the catchment basin and agricultural area in the Bryansk Region of Russia, which was heavily contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. This exercise was used to test the chronic exposure pathway models in OSCAAR with actual measurements and to identify the most important sources of uncertainty with respect to each part of the assessment. The OSCAAR chronic exposure pathway models had some limitations but the refined model, COLINA almost successfully reconstructed the whole 10-year time course of 137 Cs activity concentrations in most requested types of agricultural products and natural foodstuffs. The Plavsk scenario provides a good opportunity to test not only the food chain transfer model of 131 I but also the method of assessing 131 I thyroid burden. OSCAAR showed in general good capabilities for assessing the important 131 I exposure pathways. (author)

  1. [Multi-causality in nursing work accidents with biological material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Leticia Gramazio; Sarquis, Leila Maria Mansano; Kirchhof, Ana Lúcia Cardoso; Felli, Vanda Elisa Andres

    2013-12-01

    In order to analyze the multiple causes of occupational accidents with biological exposure among nursing staff was carried out a descriptive and exploratory research in a medium-sized hospital in the State of Paraná, in the period between January 2008 and January 2009. The population was 26 nursing staff of the medical clinic. Data collection was performed by semi-structured interviews with five of the eight injured in the period and its contents were analyzed by Causes and Effects Diagram. The categories of causes material, organizational, institutional and worker's behavior, showed the inappropriate disposal of sharps, work overload, no use of bio-security standards and poor supervision and training of workers, as factors for the occurrence of these accidents. The adoption of the tool of Causes and Effects Diagram provided an analysis of accidents in its multiple causes, showing the interaction between them.

  2. Doses of emergency exposure to the USSR Navy personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaletskiy, Yuriy

    2013-01-01

    Radiological consequences of the Soviet Navy accidents are significant and the number of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) cases is comparable to the number of ARS cases to Chernobyl catastrophe witness and clean-up workers in 1986. Results of a careful clinical-epidemiological examination of the personnel overexposed in the Navy accidents not only have value of radiobiology and radiation medicine specialists but can become a basis for the evaluation of the effectiveness of social protection strategy for the Chernobyl catastrophe clean-up workers. The officially registered exposure doses to persons affected by the Navy radiation accidents in some cases differ from the actual ones due to the imperfections of radiation monitoring facilities at the time of accidents. There was a tendency of clinical overstatement of the exposure doses resulting in diagnosis of 1st degree of ARS to persons who received external doses lower than 0.75. In some cases even 0.2 Gy was overstated as ARS severity for 2nd, 3rd, and 4th degrees. Exposure doses to the affected by the Navy accidents and their ARS severity degrees were evaluated with rather good accuracy. The use of modern method and approaches to the retrospective dose assessment allows more accurate evaluation of the submarine personnel exposure doses as well as verification of every ARS case, thus creating a necessary dosimetric basis for the organization of a correct radiation epidemiological investigation for persons of this contingent. Regretfully, tragic experience of nuclear power plants operation at the Navy vessels was not subject to analysis of specialists in order to improve nuclear safety, radiation protection, and emergency response organization in order to nuclear energy use in the USSR. (N.T.)

  3. Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Appendix VI. Calculation of reactor accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    Information is presented concerning the radioactive releases from the containment following accidents; radioactive inventory of the reactor core; atmospheric dispersion; reactor sites and meteorological data; radioactive decay and deposition from plumes; finite distance of plume travel; dosimetric models; health effects; demographic data; mitigation of radiation exposure; economic model; and calculated results with consequence model

  4. Additional investigations on the consequences of accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, J.; Bayer, A.; Burkart, K.

    1982-01-01

    As a first step to improve the accident consequence model of the German Risk Study within the Phase B, additional investigations on special problems and questions were performed. In detail attention is given to the following topics: emergency protective actions in the vicinity of the site; latent cancer fatalities - allocated to the population living during the nuclear accident and to persons born afterwards, within and beyond a distance of 540 km from the site, caused by radiation doses below the dose limits of the German radiation protection regulations estimated assuming a nonlinear dose response function; risk assessments of nuclear power plants with lower capacities; loss of life expectancy after accidental radiation exposure. All results are presented separately for the 8 release categories of the German Risk Study. (orig.) [de

  5. Applying of Reliability Techniques and Expert Systems in Management of Radioactive Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldaihan, S.; Alhbaib, A.; Alrushudi, S.; Karazaitri, C.

    1998-01-01

    Accidents including radioactive exposure have variety of nature and size. This makes such accidents complex situations to be handled by radiation protection agencies or any responsible authority. The situations becomes worse with introducing advanced technology with high complexity that provide operator huge information about system working on. This paper discusses the application of reliability techniques in radioactive risk management. Event tree technique from nuclear field is described as well as two other techniques from nonnuclear fields, Hazard and Operability and Quality Function Deployment. The objective is to show the importance and the applicability of these techniques in radiation risk management. Finally, Expert Systems in the field of accidents management are explored and classified upon their applications

  6. Analysis and decision making method for radiation accident situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.; Hamard, J.

    1975-01-01

    Decisions on the application of countermeasures for accident situations must take into account the cost of these countermeasures and the feasibility of reducing the exposure. A contribution to the solution of this problem, rested on the application of the principle of choice rationalization and optimization of decision making method, is presented [fr

  7. Integrating radiation protection criteria for radioactive waste management into remediation procedures in existing exposure situations after a nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Daisuke; Kimura, Hideo; Tachikawa, Hirokazu; Iimoto, Takeshi; Kawata, Yosuke; Ogino, Haruyuki; Okoshi, Minoru

    2018-03-01

    Experience after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station has shown that there is a need to establish radiation protection criteria for radioactive waste management consistent with the criteria adopted for the remediation of existing exposure situations. A stepwise approach to setting such criteria is proposed. Initially, a reference level for the annual effective dose from waste management activities in the range 1-10 mSv should be set, with the reference level being less than the reference level for the ambient dose. Subsequently, the reference level for the annual effective dose from waste management activities should be reduced in one or more steps to achieve a final target value of 1 mSv. The dose criteria at each stage should be determined with relevant stakeholder involvement. Illustrative case studies show how this stepwise approach might be applied in practice.

  8. Potential behavior of depleted uranium penetrators under shipping and bulk storage accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishima, J.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Scherpelz, R.I.

    1985-03-01

    An investigation of the potential hazard from airborne releases of depleted uranium (DU) from the Army's M829 munitions was conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The study included: (1) assessing the characteristics of DU oxide from an April 1983 burn test, (2) postulating conditions of specific accident situations, and (3) reviewing laboratory and theoretical studies of oxidation and airborne transport of DU from accidents. Results of the experimental measurements of the DU oxides were combined with atmospheric transport models and lung and kidney exposure data to help establish reasonable exclusion boundaries to protect personnel and the public at an accident site. 121 references, 44 figures, 30 tables.

  9. Self-reported accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2016-01-01

    The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....

  10. Results of in vivo monitoring of the witnesses of the Chernobyl accident (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutkov, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    About 1500 people were involved in emergency operations on 26-27 April 1986 at the site of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. They worked in different working conditions and were exposed to aerosols of different characteristics. The Chernobyl accident was the first accident in which, when the reactor core was destroyed, aerosol of the dispersed spent nuclear fuel became a significant source of internal and external exposure for a large group of people. Detailed information on the properties of the Chernobyl aerosol for the first post-accident period is absent. Therefore, results of in vivo monitoring of the witnesses of the Chernobyl accident can be an important source of information for assessing the radiological properties of the Chernobyl aerosol. (author)

  11. Optimum modellings of atmospheric diffusion of radioactive effluents and exposure doses in the accident consequence assessment (Level 3 PSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Woo; Lee, Young Bok; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae

    1992-12-01

    Atmospheric diffusion and exposure strongly dependent on the environment were firstly considered in the full spectrum of accident consequence assessment to establish based on Korean conditions. An optimum weather category based on Korean climate and site-specific meteorology of Kori region was established by statistical analysis of measured data for 10 years. And a trajectory model was selected as the optimal one in the ACA by reviewing several existing diffusion models. Following aspects were considered in this selection as availability of meteorological data, ability to treat the change to wind direction, easy applicability of the model, and restriction of CPU time and core memory in current computers. Numerical integration method of our own was selected as the optimal dose assessment tool of external exposure. Unit dose rate was firstly computed with this method as the function of energy level of radionuclide, size of lattice, and distance between source and receptor, and then the results were rearranged as the data library for the rapid access to the ACA run. Dynamic ecosystem modelling has been done in order to estimate the seasonal variation of radioactivity for the assessment of ingestion exposure, considering Korean ingestion behavior, agricultural practice and the transportation. There is a lot of uncertainty in a countermeasure model due to the assumed values of parameters such as fraction of population with different shielding factor and driving speed. A new countermeasure model was developed using the concept of fuzzy set theory, since it provided the mathematical tools which could characterize the uncertainty involved in countermeasure modelling. (Author)

  12. Assessment of risk of potential exposures on facilities industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leocadio, Joao Carlos

    2007-03-01

    This work develops a model to evaluate potential exposures on open facilities of industrial radiography in Brazil. This model will decisively contribute to optimize operational, radiological protection and safety procedures, to prevent radiation accidents and to reduce human errors in industrial radiography. The probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology was very useful to assess potential exposures. The open facilities of industrial radiography were identified as the scenario to be analyzed in what concerns the evaluation of potential exposures, due to their high accidents indices. The results of the assessment of potential exposures confirm that the industrial radiography in Brazil is a high-risk practice as classified by the IAEA. The risk of potential exposure was estimated to be 40,5 x 10 -2 per year in Brazil, having as main consequences injuries to the workers' hands and arms. In the world scene, the consequences are worst, leading to fatalities of people, thus emphasizing the high risk of industrial radiography. (author)

  13. Accidents, disasters and crisis: contribution of epidemiology in the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verger, P.; Bard, D.; Hubert, P.

    1995-01-01

    The experience of the Chernobyl accident has shown the necessity of being prepared for epidemiological assessment of the health consequences of a nuclear or a radiological accident. We discuss the contribution of epidemiology in such situations, in addition to the existing tools designed to assess or manage radiological risks. From a decisional point of view, three issues are distinguished: the protection of the different population groups against ionizing radiations, the achievement of health care and the communication with the public and media. We discuss the input of epidemiological tools in both perspectives. Epidemiology may also contribute to the analysis of health events that may be observed after an accident, i.e. to assess whether these events are not statistical artifacts, whether they are an effect of the exposure to ionizing radiations or a non specific consequence of any accident. Finally, epidemiological studies should be carried out to improve our knowledge on ionizing radiations effects with a special consideration given to the dose-effect relationships. Examples of past nuclear accidents are used to discuss these issues. The last part of this paper is focused on different research issues that should be developed for preparing epidemiological plans for nuclear accidents. (Author). 48 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  14. Severe accidents risk assessment as a basis for emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinka, D.; Mikulicic, V.

    2000-01-01

    The paper demonstrates, by example of the Republic of Croatia, the possibilities of implementing risk assessment as basis for nuclear accident emergency preparedness development. Individual risks of severe accidents for citizens of the biggest Croatian population centers, as well as collective risk for entire population have been assessed using the PRONEL method. The assessment covered 90 power reactors located at a distance up to 1.000 km. The conducted assessment shows the risks for various regions of the Republic of Croatia, and comparison between them. If risk would be taken as basic criterion in nuclear emergency planning, the results of assessment would directly indicate the necessary preparation level for each region. Furthermore, the assessment of risks from individual power plants and power plant types indicates to which facilities the greatest attention should be paid in nuclear accidents preparedness development. Risks from groups of power plants formed in accordance with their respective distance from exposure location shows what kind of tools for determining consequences and protective actions during a nuclear accident should be made available. (author)

  15. Cancer consequences of the Chernobyl accident: 20 years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardis, Elisabeth; Howe, Geoffrey; Ron, Elaine

    2006-01-01

    26 April 2006 marks the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. On this occasion, the World Health Organization (WHO), within the UN Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened an Expert Group to evaluate the health impacts of Chernobyl. This paper summarises the findings relating to cancer. A dramatic increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed among those exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated territories. Iodine deficiency may have increased the risk of developing thyroid cancer following exposure to radioactive iodines, while prolonged stable iodine supplementation in the years after exposure may reduce this risk. Although increases in rates of other cancers have been reported, much of these increases appear to be due to other factors, including improvements in registration, reporting and diagnosis. Studies are few, however, and have methodological limitations. Further, because most radiation-related solid cancers continue to occur decades after exposure and because only 20 years have passed since the accident, it is too early to evaluate the full radiological impact of the accident. Apart from the large increase in thyroid cancer incidence in young people, there are at present no clearly demonstrated radiation-related increases in cancer risk. This should not, however, be interpreted to mean that no increase has in fact occurred: based on the experience of other populations exposed to ionising radiation, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Although it is expected that epidemiological studies will have difficulty identifying such a risk, it may nevertheless translate into a substantial number of radiation-related cancer cases in the future, given the very large number of individuals exposed. (review)

  16. Cancer consequences of the Chernobyl accident: 20 years on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardis, Elisabeth [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon CEDEX 08 (France); Howe, Geoffrey [Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th Street, Room 1104, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Ron, Elaine [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Building EPS, MS 7238, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)] (and others)

    2006-06-15

    26 April 2006 marks the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. On this occasion, the World Health Organization (WHO), within the UN Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened an Expert Group to evaluate the health impacts of Chernobyl. This paper summarises the findings relating to cancer. A dramatic increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed among those exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated territories. Iodine deficiency may have increased the risk of developing thyroid cancer following exposure to radioactive iodines, while prolonged stable iodine supplementation in the years after exposure may reduce this risk. Although increases in rates of other cancers have been reported, much of these increases appear to be due to other factors, including improvements in registration, reporting and diagnosis. Studies are few, however, and have methodological limitations. Further, because most radiation-related solid cancers continue to occur decades after exposure and because only 20 years have passed since the accident, it is too early to evaluate the full radiological impact of the accident. Apart from the large increase in thyroid cancer incidence in young people, there are at present no clearly demonstrated radiation-related increases in cancer risk. This should not, however, be interpreted to mean that no increase has in fact occurred: based on the experience of other populations exposed to ionising radiation, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Although it is expected that epidemiological studies will have difficulty identifying such a risk, it may nevertheless translate into a substantial number of radiation-related cancer cases in the future, given the very large number of individuals exposed. (rev0009i.

  17. Improvement of the following accident dose assessment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Enn Han; Han, Moon Hee; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae; Choi, Young Gil [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-15

    The FADAS has been updates for calculating the real-time wind fields continuously at the nuclear sites in Korea. The system has been constructed to compute the wind fields using its own process for the dummy meteorological data, and dose not effect on the overall wind field module. If the radioactive materials are released into the atmosphere in real situation, the calculations of wind fields and exposure dose in the previous FADAS are performed in the case of the recognition of the above situation in the source term evaluation module. The current version of FADAS includes the program for evaluating the effect of the predicted accident and the assumed scenario together. The dose assessment module is separated into the real-time and the supposed accident respectively.

  18. Theories of radiation effects and reactor accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.M.; Ball, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    Muckerheide's paper was a public breakthrough on how one might assess the public health effects of low-level radiation. By the organization of a wealth of data, including the consequences of Hiroshima and Nagasaki but not including Chernobyl, he was able to conclude that present radioactive waste disposal and cleanup efforts need to be much less arduous than forecast by the U.S. Department of Energy, which, together with regulators, uses the linear hypothesis of radiation damage to humans. While the linear hypothesis is strongly defended and even recommended for extension to noncarcinogenic pollutants, exploration of a conservative threshold for very low level exposures could save billions of dollars in disposing of radioactive waste, enhance the understanding of reactor accident consequences, and assist in the development of design and operating criteria pertaining to severe accidents. In this context, the authors discuss the major differences between design-basis and severe accidents. The authors propose that what should ultimately be done is to develop a regulatory formula for severe-accident analysis that relates the public health effects to the amount and type of radionuclides released and distributed by the Chernobyl accident. Answers to the following important questions should provide the basis of this study: (1) What should be the criteria for distinguishing between design-basis and severe accidents, and what should be the basis for these criteria? (2) How do, and should, these criteria differ for older plants, newer operating plants, type of plant (i.e., gas cooled, water cooled, and liquid metal), advanced designs, and plants of the former Soviet Union? (3) How safe is safe enough?

  19. Approaches for occupational exposures during the decontamination of urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D.N.G da.; Guimarães, J.R.D.; Rochedo, E.R.R.

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of various accidents involving radioactive material and the performance of the staff responsible for the radiological protection of the public have highlighted the need for prior planning for the assessment of public exposure and pre-defined guidelines for the application of more appropriate protective and remediation measures. This work is part of a project that aims to develop a multi-criteria tool to support decision-making processes in cases of nuclear or radiological accidents in Brazil. It describes the development of a model to assess occupational exposure related to decontamination procedures for the remediation of urban areas. Numerical values for model parameters were mainly based on previous developed works within the same project that includes a database describing main features of different procedures that may be used during the remediation phase after accidents and the definition of standard scenarios to perform simulations of accident consequences focusing members of the public doses. The model defined for estimation of occupational doses due to decontamination procedures shall be included in the multi-criteria tool under development in order to assess the effects of application of decontamination procedures in occupational exposure as compared to the averted doses to members of the public due to the same procedure. (authors)

  20. Major Accidents (Gray Swans) Likelihood Modeling Using Accident Precursors and Approximate Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakzad, Nima; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul

    2015-07-01

    Compared to the remarkable progress in risk analysis of normal accidents, the risk analysis of major accidents has not been so well-established, partly due to the complexity of such accidents and partly due to low probabilities involved. The issue of low probabilities normally arises from the scarcity of major accidents' relevant data since such accidents are few and far between. In this work, knowing that major accidents are frequently preceded by accident precursors, a novel precursor-based methodology has been developed for likelihood modeling of major accidents in critical infrastructures based on a unique combination of accident precursor data, information theory, and approximate reasoning. For this purpose, we have introduced an innovative application of information analysis to identify the most informative near accident of a major accident. The observed data of the near accident were then used to establish predictive scenarios to foresee the occurrence of the major accident. We verified the methodology using offshore blowouts in the Gulf of Mexico, and then demonstrated its application to dam breaches in the United Sates. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Non-medical exposure to radioiodines and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindie, Elif; Leenhardt, Laurence; Aurengo, Andre; Vitaux, Francoise; Colas-Linhart, Nicole; Bok, B.; Grosclaude, Pascale; Galle, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred 32 years after the accidental exposure of Marshall islanders, resulted in the exposure of neighbouring populations to a mixture of iodine isotopes and in an increased incidence of thyroid cancer. The highest thyroid doses were received by the youngest age groups. This review describes the existing evidence, and examines factors that may have increased the risk. It also stresses problems with contemporary thyroid measurements, and the lack of information on the sensitivity of the thyroid to short-lived iodine isotopes and iodine-131. Practical considerations for nuclear physicians, epidemiologists and thyroidologists are discussed in the light of this major accident. (orig.)

  2. Non-medical exposure to radioiodines and thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindie, Elif [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital Saint-Antoine, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (France); Leenhardt, Laurence; Aurengo, Andre [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital de la Pitie-Salpetriere, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (France); Vitaux, Francoise [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, CHI Le Raincy-Montfermeil (France); Colas-Linhart, Nicole; Bok, B. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital Beaujon, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, 100 avenue du General Leclerc, 92110 Clichy (France); Grosclaude, Pascale [Reseau Francais des Registres de Cancers, Toulouse (France); Galle, Pierre [Service de Physique et Chimie Biologiques, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire d' Alfort (France)

    2002-08-01

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred 32 years after the accidental exposure of Marshall islanders, resulted in the exposure of neighbouring populations to a mixture of iodine isotopes and in an increased incidence of thyroid cancer. The highest thyroid doses were received by the youngest age groups. This review describes the existing evidence, and examines factors that may have increased the risk. It also stresses problems with contemporary thyroid measurements, and the lack of information on the sensitivity of the thyroid to short-lived iodine isotopes and iodine-131. Practical considerations for nuclear physicians, epidemiologists and thyroidologists are discussed in the light of this major accident. (orig.)

  3. Chemical and nuclear emergencies: Interchanging lessons learned from planning and accident experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, V.; Sorensen, J.H.; Rogers, G.O.

    1989-01-01

    Because the goal of emergency preparedness for both chemical and nuclear hazards is to reduce human exposure to hazardous materials, this paper examines the interchange of lessons learned from emergency planning and accident experience in both industries. While the concerns are slightly different, sufficient similarity is found for each to draw implications from the others experience. Principally the chemical industry can learn from the dominant planning experience associated with nuclear power plants, while the nuclear industry can chiefly learn from the chemical industry's accident experience. 23 refs

  4. Procedure on reconstruction of external dose to evacuees at Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, T.; Likhtariov, I.; Repin, V.S.

    1992-01-01

    An external dose estimation on the Chernobyl accident was carried out using sugar left in two houses at Pripyat-city from before the accident. The external dose to the people evacuated from Pripyat-city after the Chernobyl accident has been estimated using both a data from the sugar-electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimeter and information on the type of buildings and the exposure rates there. In this work, the procedure of the dose estimation for the evacuees in Pripyat-city be reported. Furthermore, the sugar-ESR method will be discussed. The present result good agree with one reported from USSR to IAEA. It has been certified that small crystalline sugar such as granulated sugar is one of the most useful dosimeter in the emergency for the public. (author)

  5. Domino effect in chemical accidents: main features and accident sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbra, R M; Palacios, Adriana; Casal, Joaquim

    2010-11-15

    The main features of domino accidents in process/storage plants and in the transportation of hazardous materials were studied through an analysis of 225 accidents involving this effect. Data on these accidents, which occurred after 1961, were taken from several sources. Aspects analyzed included the accident scenario, the type of accident, the materials involved, the causes and consequences and the most common accident sequences. The analysis showed that the most frequent causes are external events (31%) and mechanical failure (29%). Storage areas (35%) and process plants (28%) are by far the most common settings for domino accidents. Eighty-nine per cent of the accidents involved flammable materials, the most frequent of which was LPG. The domino effect sequences were analyzed using relative probability event trees. The most frequent sequences were explosion→fire (27.6%), fire→explosion (27.5%) and fire→fire (17.8%). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Off-site protective action selection for nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weerakkody, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    A computer program based upon a model using a rational theoretical basis was developed to select appropriate off-site protective actions during nuclear reactor accidents. The special features of this program include (a) introduction of a precursor concept that uses the history of the accident progression to determine the spectrum of potential accident scenarios and estimates of the likelihoods of each accident scenario; (b) use of statistical decision theory and the concept of entropy of a spectrum to select the appropriate protective actions using either the minimax principle or the Bayes action method; and (c) introduction of methods to quantify evacuation travel risks. In order to illustrate the usefulness of the computer program, it was applied at three stages of the Three Mile Island accident scenario. Quantified non-radiological risks of evaluation have been used to establish dose thresholds below which evacuations are not justified. Using the Poisson analysis for evacuation risks and the absolute L-L BEIR model for radiation risk suggests 330 mrems as a reasonable value for this threshold. The usefulness of the program in developing a technical basis to select the size of the plume exposure pathway emergency planning zone (EPZ) is discussed. Quantified evacuation risks, cost, and the current rationale upon which the EPZ is based, justify an EPZ between 5-10 miles for WASH-1400 source-terms

  7. Severe accident management at nuclear power plants - emergency preparedness and response actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, S.K.; Krishnamurthy, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the current level of emergency planning and preparedness and also improvement in the emergency management programme over the years including lessons learned from Fukushima accident, hazard analysis and categorization of nuclear facilities into hazard category for establishing the emergency preparedness class, classification of emergencies based on the Emergency Action Levels (EAL), development of EAL’s for PHWR, Generic Criteria in terms of projected dose for initiating protective actions (precautionary urgent protective actions, urgent protective actions, early protective actions), operational intervention levels (OIL), Emergency planning zones and distances, protection strategy and reference levels, use of residual dose for establishing reference levels for optimization of protection strategy, criteria for termination of emergency, transition of emergency exposure situation to existing exposure situation or planned exposure situation, criteria for medical managements of exposed persons and guidance for controlling the dose of emergency workers. This paper also highlights the EALs for typical PHWR type reactors for all types of emergencies (plant, site and offsite), transition from emergency operating procedures (EOP) to accident management guidelines (AMG) to emergency response actions and proposed implementation of guidelines

  8. Intervention levels for protective measures in nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.

    1992-12-01

    A radiation protection philosophy for exposure situations following an accident has been developed by international organisations such as the ICRP, IAEA, NES/OECD, FAO/WHO, and the CEC during the last decade. After the Chernobyl accident, the application of radiation protection principles for intervention situations such as exposure from accidental contamination or radon in dwellings were further developed and this work is still in progress. The present intervention policy recommended by the international organisations as well as by the Nordic radiation protection authorities is reviewed. The Nordic Intervention levels for foodstuff restrictions, both for the Chernobyl and post-Chernobyl periods, have been based on dose limits and they are therefore in conflict with international intervention policy. Illustrative examples on intervention level setting for relocation and foodstuff restrictions are derived for Nordic conditions from the optimisation principle recommended by the international organisations. Optimised Generic Intervention Levels have been determined to be about 10 mSv x month -1 for relocation/return and 5,000-30,000 Bqxkg -1 for restrictions on various foodstuffs contaminated with 137 Cs and 131 I. (au) (14 tabs., 1 ill., 16 refs.)

  9. Accident information needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

    1992-01-01

    A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information

  10. Accident information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

    1992-12-31

    A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information.

  11. Accident information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

    1992-01-01

    A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information.

  12. Mercury exposure in children: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counter, S. Allen; Buchanan, Leo H.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to toxic mercury (Hg) is a growing health hazard throughout the world today. Recent studies show that mercury exposure may occur in the environment, and increasingly in occupational and domestic settings. Children are particularly vulnerable to Hg intoxication, which may lead to impairment of the developing central nervous system, as well as pulmonary and nephrotic damage. Several sources of toxic Hg exposure in children have been reported in biomedical literature: (1) methylmercury, the most widespread source of Hg exposure, is most commonly the result of consumption of contaminated foods, primarily fish; (2) ethylmercury, which has been the subject of recent scientific inquiry in relation to the controversial pediatric vaccine preservative thimerosal; (3) elemental Hg vapor exposure through accidents and occupational and ritualistic practices; (4) inorganic Hg through the use of topical Hg-based skin creams and in infant teething powders; (5) metallic Hg in dental amalgams, which release Hg vapors, and Hg 2+ in tissues. This review examines recent epidemiological studies of methylmercury exposure in children. Reports of elemental Hg vapor exposure in children through accidents and occupational practices, and the more recent observations of the increasing use of elemental Hg for magico-religious purposes in urban communities are also discussed. Studies of inorganic Hg exposure from the widespread use of topical beauty creams and teething powders, and fetal/neonatal Hg exposure from maternal dental amalgam fillings are reviewed. Considerable attention was given in this review to pediatric methylmercury exposure and neurodevelopment because it is the most thoroughly investigated Hg species. Each source of Hg exposure is reviewed in relation to specific pediatric health effects, particularly subtle neurodevelopmental disorders

  13. Learning lessons from Natech accidents - the eNATECH accident database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausmann, Elisabeth; Girgin, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    When natural hazards impact industrial facilities that house or process hazardous materials, fires, explosions and toxic releases can occur. This type of accident is commonly referred to as Natech accident. In order to prevent the recurrence of accidents or to better mitigate their consequences, lessons-learned type studies using available accident data are usually carried out. Through post-accident analysis, conclusions can be drawn on the most common damage and failure modes and hazmat release paths, particularly vulnerable storage and process equipment, and the hazardous materials most commonly involved in these types of accidents. These analyses also lend themselves to identifying technical and organisational risk-reduction measures that require improvement or are missing. Industrial accident databases are commonly used for retrieving sets of Natech accident case histories for further analysis. These databases contain accident data from the open literature, government authorities or in-company sources. The quality of reported information is not uniform and exhibits different levels of detail and accuracy. This is due to the difficulty of finding qualified information sources, especially in situations where accident reporting by the industry or by authorities is not compulsory, e.g. when spill quantities are below the reporting threshold. Data collection has then to rely on voluntary record keeping often by non-experts. The level of detail is particularly non-uniform for Natech accident data depending on whether the consequences of the Natech event were major or minor, and whether comprehensive information was available for reporting. In addition to the reporting bias towards high-consequence events, industrial accident databases frequently lack information on the severity of the triggering natural hazard, as well as on failure modes that led to the hazmat release. This makes it difficult to reconstruct the dynamics of the accident and renders the development of

  14. Criticality accident in uranium fuel processing plant. Emergency medical care and dose estimation for the severely overexposed patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akashi, Makoto; Ishigure, Nobuhito [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    A criticality accident occurred in JCO, a plant for nuclear fuel production in 1999 and three workers were exposed to extremely high-level radiation (neutron and {gamma}-ray). This report describes outlines of the clinical courses and the medical cares for the patients of this accident and the emergent medical system for radiation accident in Japan. One (A) of the three workers of JCO had vomiting and diarrhea within several minutes after the accident and another one (B) had also vomiting within one hour after. Based on these evidences, the exposure dose of A and B were estimated to be more than 8 and 4 GyEq, respectively. Generally, acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is assigned into three phases; prodromal phase, critical or manifestation phase and recovery phase or death. In the prodromal phase, anorexia, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea often develop, whereas the second phase is asymptotic. In the third phase, various syndromes including infection, hemorrhage, dehydration shock and neurotic syndromes are apt to occur. It is known that radiation exposure at 1 Gy or more might induce such acute radiation syndromes. Based on the clinical findings of Chernobyl accident, it has been thought that exposure at 0.5 Gy or more causes a lowering of lymphocyte level and a decrease in immunological activities within 48 hours. Lymphocyte count is available as an indicator for the evaluation of exposure dose in early phase, but not in later phase The three workers of JCO underwent chemical analysis of blood components, chromosomal analysis and analysis of blood {sup 24}Na immediately after the arrival at National Institute of Radiological Sciences via National Mito Hospital specified as the third and the second facility for the emergency medical care system in Japan, respectively. (M.N.)

  15. Accidents with biological material and immunization against hepatitis B among students from the health area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gir, Elucir; Netto, Jeniffer Caffer; Malaguti, Silmara Elaine; Canini, Silvia Rita Marin da Silva; Hayashida, Miyeko; Machado, Alcyone Artioli

    2008-01-01

    Undergraduate students from the health area often handle piercing-cutting instruments in their academic activities, which exposes them to the risk of contracting infections. This study aimed to analyze accidents with biological material among these students. Out of 170 accidents registered, 83 (48.8%) occurred with Dentistry students, 69 (40.6%) with Medical students, 11 (6.5%) with Nursing students and in 06 (3.5%) of the cases there was no such information in the files. Most accidents, 106 (62.4%), occurred with students from private schools and 55 (32.3%) with those from public schools. Percutaneous accidents occurred in 133 (78.2%) exposures and there was immediate search for specialized health care in only 38 (21.3%) accidents. In 127 (74.7%) accidents, the immunization schedule against hepatitis B was complete. Therefore, schools need to offer courses and specific class subjects regarding biosafety measures, including aspects related to immunization, especially the vaccine against hepatitis B.

  16. Nursering assistance to the radiological accident patients in Goias-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graciotti, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    A report of a personal experience, during two months of nursering care to the radiological accident victims, due to the disruption of a caesium-137 source, is presented. The biological radiation effects, the radiation hazards due to the doses received and the Kind of exposure, are studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  17. Three Mile Island epidemiologic radiation dose assessment revisited: 25 years after the accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R William

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, public health concerns following the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident prompted several epidemiologic investigations in the vicinity of TMI. One of these studies is ongoing. This commentary suggests that the major source of radiation exposure to the population has been ignored as a potential confounding factor or effect modifying factor in previous and ongoing TMI epidemiologic studies that explore whether or not TMI accidental plant radiation releases caused an increase in lung cancer in the community around TMI. The commentary also documents the observation that the counties around TMI have the highest regional radon potential in the United States and concludes that radon progeny exposure should be included as part of the overall radiation dose assessment in future studies of radiation-induced lung cancer resulting from the TMI accident.

  18. Three Mile Island epidemiologic radiation dose assessment revisited: 25 years after the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R. W.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, public health concerns following the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident prompted several epidemiologic investigations in the vicinity of TMI. One of these studies is ongoing. This commentary suggests that the major source of radiation exposure to the population has been ignored as a potential confounding factor or effect modifying factor in previous and ongoing TMI epidemiologic studies that explore whether or not TMI accidental plant radiation releases caused an increase in lung cancer in the community around TMI. The commentary also documents the observation that the counties around TMI have the highest regional radon potential in the United States and concludes that radon progeny exposure should be included as part of the overall radiation dose assessment in future studies of radiation-induced lung cancer resulting from the TMI accident. (authors)

  19. Dose assessment on natural radiation, natural radionuclide, and artificial radionuclide released by Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Furukawa, Masahide

    2012-01-01

    Various radionuclides are distributed in environmental materials such as soil, rock, and water. People are exposed every day to natural radiation. According to the UNSCEAR 2008 report, Sources of Ionizing Radiation, natural radiation sources are categorized as terrestrial gamma-rays, radon, cosmic rays and food. The effective dose from radon, thoron and its decay products is about 50% of all natural radiation exposure. Consciousness of the Japanese public toward radiation exposure has significantly increased since the start of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident. In this paper, the nationwide survey and dose estimation for terrestrial gamma-rays and radon are summarized. External dose from artificial radionuclides released by the Fukushima accident are also reported. (author)

  20. Working group on psychological effects of nuclear accidents, Kiev, USSR, 28 May - 1 June 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The population in the areas affected by the Chernobyl accident is experiencing serious worries about possible health effects. The level of concern appears to be increasing, and the psychological context of the accident should receive detailed consideration. Surveys conducted by Soviet researchers have shown that anxiety has spread for beyond the population of the more heavily contaminated areas. People's awareness of their health status has increased enormously since the accident, and they now attribute many subjective and objective symptoms to radiation exposure. Medical personnel and lay people should be trained in counselling, to enable them to allay the fears people have

  1. Potential health risks from postulated accidents involving the Pu-238 RTG on the Ulysses solar exploration mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.; Nelson, R.C.; Bollinger, L.; Hoover, M.D.; Templeton, W.; Anspaugh, L.

    1991-01-01

    Potential radiation impacts from launch of the Ulysses solar exploration experiment were evaluated using eight postulated accident scenarios. Lifetime individual dose estimates rarely exceeded 1 mrem. Most of the potential health effects would come from inhalation exposures immediately after an accident, rather than from ingestion of contaminated food or water, or from inhalation of resuspended plutonium from contaminated ground. For local Florida accidents (that is, during the first minute after launch), an average source term accident was estimated to cause a total added cancer risk of up to 0.2 deaths. For accidents at later times after launch, a worldwide cancer risk of up to three cases was calculated (with a four in a million probability). Upper bound estimates were calculated to be about 10 times higher

  2. Activities concentration of radiocesium in wild mushroom collected in Ukraine 30 years after the Chernobyl power plant accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Orita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are recognized as one of the main contributors to internal radiation exposure from the activity concentration of radiocesium released by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNNP. We evaluated the activity concentrations of the artificial radionuclides (radiocesium in wild mushrooms collected in 2015 from Korosten and Lugine, Zhitomir region, Ukraine, located 120 km away from the CNPP. Cesium-137 was detected in 110 of 127 mushroom samples (86.6%. Based on the average mushroom consumption (5 kg per year, we calculated committed effective doses ranging from 0.001–0.12 mSv. Cesium-137 remains in the wild mushrooms even 30 years after the accident, but the committed effective doses are limited by the amount of contaminated mushrooms consumed. However, evaluation of internal radiation exposure and assessment of environmental radioactivity in the surrounding area affected by the nuclear accident are still necessary in order to relieve anxiety about internal radiation exposure, as long as the possibility of consumption of contaminated mushrooms remains.

  3. Chernobyl - what can natural scientists or physicians say to that accident?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The public discussion meeting was intended to offer to the general public a platform for discussion of questions evoked by the Chernobyl reactor accident, and scientific information on what has happened there. The brief lectures therefore deal with the accident scenario as far as assessable at the time, and with the consequences to be expected for the Federal Republic of Germany, with the fallout situation in the Mainz area, and the atmospheric dispersion and transfer of air masses from Chernobyl to the FRG. The medical experts presented information on the radiation exposure of the population and the possible genetic risk. (DG) [de

  4. Using Immersive Virtual Reality to Reduce Work Accidents in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedel, Luciana; de Souza, Vinicius Costa; Menin, Aline; Sebben, Lucia; Oliveira, Jackson; Faria, Frederico; Maciel, Anderson

    2016-01-01

    Thousands of people die or are injured in work accidents every year. Although the lack of safety equipment is one of the causes, especially in developing countries, behavioral issues caused by psychosocial factors are also to blame. This article introduces the use of immersive VR simulators to preventively reduce accidents in the workplace by detecting behavioral patterns that may lead to an increased predisposition to risk exposure. The system simulates day-to-day situations, analyzes user reactions, and classifies the behaviors according to four psychosocial groups. The results of a user study support the effectiveness of this approach.

  5. Medical aspects of the nuclear accident in the Chernobylsk-4 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, D.; Schmidt, W.

    1989-01-01

    The Kiev conference on the Chernobylsk reactor accident was concerned with the following items: (1) Medical consequences and organization of medical assistance as well as aftercare of radiation-exposed persons. (2) Analysis of the postirradiation situation and judgement of the consequences of the accident as to the USSR population. (3) Peculiarities of external and internal radiation exposure of the population in the area controlled. (4) Organization and efficiency of the epidemiological register of the USSR. (5) Organization and judgement of educational work and public relations concerning the sanitary conditions in populations exposed to an increased contamination

  6. Development and application of a radioactivity evaluation technique the to obtain radiation exposure dose of radioactivity evaluation technique when a severe accident occurs in the a power station of a severe accident. Accident management guidelines of knowledge-based maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Ikuo; Yoshida, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    As a One of the lessons learned from the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company, the was the need for improvement of accident management guidelines is required. In this report study, we developed and applied a dose evaluation technique to evaluated the radiation dose in a nuclear power plant assuming three conditions: employees were evacuation evacuated at the time of a severe accident occurrence; operators carried out the accident management operation; of the operators, and the repair work was carried out for of the trouble damaged apparatuses in a the nuclear power plant using a dose evaluation system. The following knowledge findings were obtained and should to be reflected to in the knowledge base of the guidelines was obtained. (1) By making clearly identifying an areas beforehand becoming the that would receive high radiation doses at the time of a severe accident definitely beforehand, we can employees can be moved to the evacuation places through an areas having of low dose rate and it is also known it how much we long employees can safely stay in the evacuation places. (2) When they circulate CV containment vessel recirculation sump water is recirculated by for the accident management operation and the restoration of safety in the facilities, because the plumbing piping and the apparatuses become radioactive radioactivity sources, the dose evaluation of the shortest access route and detour access routes with should be made for effective the accident management operation is effective. Because the area where a dose rate rises changes which as safety apparatuses are restored, in consideration of a plant state, it is necessary to judge the rightness or wrongness of the work continuation from the spot radioactive dose of the actual apparatus area, with based on precedence of the need to restore with precedence, and to choose a system to be used for accident management. (author)

  7. Estimation of radiation exposed area by the nuclear accident occurred at Tokai village using ESR measurements of household sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzuya, Masayuki; Kondo, Shinichi; Ito, Kousuke; Sawa, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    The area of radiation exposure by the nuclear accident occurred at Tokai village in 1999 was estimated by the ESR measurement of 95 household sugar samples collected from the accident area. These samples were roughly classified into three types of sugar, fine white sugar, fine brown sugar and coarse brown sugar. The control fine white sugar showed no radical in the ESR spectrum, while those of fine brown sugar and coarse brown sugar showed the presence of a small amount of radicals. It was also shown that, among these three kinds of sugar, the radical concentration of fine white sugar sampled from wooden houses at the area similar to each other did not vary much with the samples, while those of fine brown sugar and coarse brown sugar varied to a considerable extent. Thus, the fine white sugar is considered to be more suitable for the estimation of the level of radiation exposure. The radical concentration of each fine white sugar sample was plotted against the distance from the site of the nuclear accident with a correction of the difference in the shielding effect between concrete houses and wooden houses. The samples obtained at more than 2 km north of the site of nuclear accident showed no ESR spectral signal to a detectable extent. On the other hand, the ESR spectra were observed from the samples obtained within 10 km south and 4 km west of the accident site. These results suggest that the radiation exposure by the contaminant blown by the northeast wind blowing on the day of the accident may occur at the south and west areas. (author)

  8. Key Characteristics of Combined Accident including TLOFW accident for PSA Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-05-15

    The conventional PSA techniques cannot adequately evaluate all events. The conventional PSA models usually focus on single internal events such as DBAs, the external hazards such as fire, seismic. However, the Fukushima accident of Japan in 2011 reveals that very rare event is necessary to be considered in the PSA model to prevent the radioactive release to environment caused by poor treatment based on lack of the information, and to improve the emergency operation procedure. Especially, the results from PSA can be used to decision making for regulators. Moreover, designers can consider the weakness of plant safety based on the quantified results and understand accident sequence based on human actions and system availability. This study is for PSA modeling of combined accidents including total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident. The TLOFW accident is a representative accident involving the failure of cooling through secondary side. If the amount of heat transfer is not enough due to the failure of secondary side, the heat will be accumulated to the primary side by continuous core decay heat. Transients with loss of feedwater include total loss of feedwater accident, loss of condenser vacuum accident, and closure of all MSIVs. When residual heat removal by the secondary side is terminated, the safety injection into the RCS with direct primary depressurization would provide alternative heat removal. This operation is called feed and bleed (F and B) operation. Combined accidents including TLOFW accident are very rare event and partially considered in conventional PSA model. Since the necessity of F and B operation is related to plant conditions, the PSA modeling for combined accidents including TLOFW accident is necessary to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities.The PSA is significant to assess the risk of NPPs, and to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities. Even though the combined accident is very rare event, the consequence of combined

  9. Early clinical consequences of victims in JCO criticality accident in Tokaimura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Gen

    2000-01-01

    The JCO criticality accident occurred at 10:35 on September 30, 1999 when two workers (O and S) poured the solution of uranyl nitrate into the precipitation tank and one (Y) worked at desk in the neighboring room. O's symptoms were unconsciousness, rigidity and emesis, and S's, numbness. The three were moved to Mito National Hospital by an ambulance car at 12:07 and then to the Hospital of National Institute of Radiological Sciences by the helicopter and car at 15:25, where contamination of their cloths by Na-24, suggesting the exposure to neutron, was found. O exhibited emesis within 10 min after the accident and diarrhea, unconsciousness and severe pyrexia within 1 hr, suggesting he had undergone the lethal exposure of >8 Gy. S showed emesis, light unconsciousness and numbness within 1 hr, suggesting >6 Gy and Y did not show even emesis, less dose exposure than the two. They underwent firstly the drip of sodium hydrogen carbonate (due to possible internal exposure of uranium), oxygen inhalation and then corticoid injection as well as the drip of antibiotics. At that day, they had the special therapy with pentoxyphylline and L-glutamine+elementary diet. Later, in the Hospital of Tokyo University, O and S had the heamopoietic stem cell transplantation. At present, O passed away, S is still in hospital and Y is discharged. (K.H.)

  10. Severe accidents at nuclear power plants. Their risk assessment and accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Kiyoharu.

    1995-05-01

    This document is to explain the severe accident issues. Severe Accidents are defined as accidents which are far beyond the design basis and result in severe damage of the core. Accidents at Three Mild Island in USA and at Chernobyl in former Soviet Union are examples of severe accidents. The causes and progressions of the accidents as well as the actions taken are described. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is a method to estimate the risk of severe accidents at nuclear reactors. The methodology for PSA is briefly described and current status on its application to safety related issues is introduced. The acceptability of the risks which inherently accompany every technology is then discussed. Finally, provision of accident management in Japan is introduced, including the description of accident management measures proposed for BWRs and PWRs. (author)

  11. OSL and TL of Resistors of Mobile Phones for Retrospective Accident Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L.; Pradhan, A. S.; Chang, I.; Kim, B. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) of ubiquitous materials continue to draw wider attention for individual dosimetry in nuclear and radiation accidents. Use of ubiquitous objects for radiation dosimetry is preferred because the affected persons in such unexpected events are usually not covered by personal dosimetry services and do not carry personal dosimeters. Often accident sites do not have area monitoring system in place. As the main concern of the dosimetry is health effects, a quick distinction of level of exposures of the affected persons for the required medical care becomes important in all accidents involving radiation. Both in large scale nuclear accidents such Fukushima, Chernobyl or Hiroshima and Nagasaki where large population around the accident site get exposed to radiation (evacuation is based on doses) and in smaller but panicky events, such as misuse of radiological exposure device (RED), radiological dispersive device (RDD: 'Dirty Bomb'), improvised nuclear device (IND) and deliberate dispersal of radioactive contaminants, a need for an ubiquitous personal dosimeter is well recognized. As biological dosimetry systems are yet to become viable for measurements of doses with required accuracy and speed, use of physical dosimeters is often explored. Among the various types of physical dosimetry systems, use of TL and OSL by processing common material such as bricks or tiles and measuring the doses cumulated for long periods of time has already become an accepted tool for large scale nuclear accidents such as Hiroshima and Nagasaki or Chernobyl involving higher doses. In the other potential cases of unexpected situations where the doses encountered could be much lower (even to escape the range of remotely installed area monitors), the need to measure even the low doses in shortest possible time becomes important. It is often realized that in such situations, the main problem could become the panic at the

  12. OSL and TL of Resistors of Mobile Phones for Retrospective Accident Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L.; Pradhan, A. S.; Chang, I.; Kim, B. H.

    2012-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) of ubiquitous materials continue to draw wider attention for individual dosimetry in nuclear and radiation accidents. Use of ubiquitous objects for radiation dosimetry is preferred because the affected persons in such unexpected events are usually not covered by personal dosimetry services and do not carry personal dosimeters. Often accident sites do not have area monitoring system in place. As the main concern of the dosimetry is health effects, a quick distinction of level of exposures of the affected persons for the required medical care becomes important in all accidents involving radiation. Both in large scale nuclear accidents such Fukushima, Chernobyl or Hiroshima and Nagasaki where large population around the accident site get exposed to radiation (evacuation is based on doses) and in smaller but panicky events, such as misuse of radiological exposure device (RED), radiological dispersive device (RDD: 'Dirty Bomb'), improvised nuclear device (IND) and deliberate dispersal of radioactive contaminants, a need for an ubiquitous personal dosimeter is well recognized. As biological dosimetry systems are yet to become viable for measurements of doses with required accuracy and speed, use of physical dosimeters is often explored. Among the various types of physical dosimetry systems, use of TL and OSL by processing common material such as bricks or tiles and measuring the doses cumulated for long periods of time has already become an accepted tool for large scale nuclear accidents such as Hiroshima and Nagasaki or Chernobyl involving higher doses. In the other potential cases of unexpected situations where the doses encountered could be much lower (even to escape the range of remotely installed area monitors), the need to measure even the low doses in shortest possible time becomes important. It is often realized that in such situations, the main problem could become the panic at the work place

  13. Driving behaviors and on-duty road accidents: a French case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Emmanuel; Chiron, Mireille; Davezies, Philippe; Bergeret, Alain; Charbotel, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    A case-control study was carried out to identify driving behaviors associated with the risk of on-duty road accident and to compare driving behaviors according to the type of journey (on duty, commuting, and private) for on-duty road accident victims. Cases were recruited from the Rhône Road Trauma Registry between January 2004 and October 2005 and were on duty at the time of the accident. Control subjects were recruited from the electoral rolls of the case subjects' constituencies of residence. Cases' and controls' driving behavior data were collected by self-administered questionnaire. A logistic regression was performed to identify behavioral risk factors for on-duty road accidents, taking into account age, sex, place of residence, road accident risk exposure, socio-occupational category, and type of road user. A second analysis focused specifically on the case subjects, comparing their self-assessed usual behaviors according to the type of journey. Significant factors for multivariate analysis of on-duty road accidents were female gender, history of on-duty road accidents during the previous 10 years, severe time pressure at work, and driving a vehicle not belonging to the driver. On-duty road accident victims reported behavioral risk factors more frequently in relation to driving for work than driving for private reasons or commuting: nonsystematic seat belt use, cell phone use at least once daily while driving, and history of accidents with injury during the previous 10 years. This study provides knowledge on behavioral risk factors for on-duty road accidents and differences in behavior according to the type of journey for subjects who have been on-duty road accident victims. These results will be useful for the design of on-duty road risk prevention.

  14. State of reaction on news media for JCO criticality accident on abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Takeshi

    1999-01-01

    The criticality accident, which occurred in JCO Tokai on September 30th 1999, was the first accident accompanied with serious radiation exposure to persons at Japanese nuclear facilities. As an evacuation order for local residents was issued, it caused uneasiness to the public. It also gave great impact to the foreign countries. In this report we have investigated the reactions in such countries, as U.S., France, Germany and U.K. by means of news media like TV, newspapers and magazines. Finding are as follows: They were all surprised to know the cause of the accident, which was by improper procedure of JCO workers. Because they couldn't imagine that such an accident might happen in such a high-tech country as Japan. The Japanese regulator was criticized for their insufficient criticality facility surveillance. There arose some questions for Japanese nuclear reliabilities. Because of the delayed announcement of the accident by Japanese public sector, anti-nuclear groups, like Greenpeace, NCI, etc., have a chance to carry on their campaign. The information from Japanese public sector was not enough to satisfy the foreign news media. We concluded that it is also necessary to develop effective information dissemination to overseas in case of a nuclear accident. (author)

  15. Reevaluation of nasal swab method for dose estimation at nuclear emergency accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yuji; Fukutsu, Kumiko; Kurihara, Osamu; Akashi, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    ICRP Publication 66 human respiratory tract model has been used extensively over in exposure dose assessment. It is well known that respiratory deposition efficiency of inhaled aerosol and its deposition region strongly depend on the particle size. In most of exposure accidents, however, nobody knows a size of inhaled aerosol. And thus two default aerosol sizes of 5μ in AMAD for the workers and 1μ in AMAD for the public are given as being representative in the ICRP model, but both sizes are not linked directly to the maximum dose. In this study, the most hazardous size to our health effects and how to estimate an intake activity was discussed from a viewpoint of emergency medicine. In exposure accident of alpha emitter such as Pu-239, lung monitor and bioassay measurements are not the best methods for rapid estimation with high sensitivity, so that an applicability of nasal swab method has been investigated. A computer software, LUDEP, was used in the calculation of respiratory deposition. It showed that the effective dose per unit intake activity strongly depended on the inhaled aerosol size. In case of Pu-239 dioxide aerosols, it was confirmed that the maximum of dose conversion factor was observed around 0.01μ. It means that this 0.01μ is the most hazardous size at exposure accident of Pu-239. From analysis of the relationship between AI and ET l deposition, it was found that the dose conversion factor from the activity deposited in ET l region also was affected by the aerosol size. The usage of the ICRP's default size in nasal swab method might cause obvious underestimation of the intake activity. Dose estimation based on nasal swab method is possible from safety side at nuclear emergency, and the availability in quantity should be reevaluated for emergency medicine considering of chelating agent administration. (author)

  16. A preliminary assessment of the consequences for inhabitants of the UK of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baverstock, K.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident resulted in the release of substantial quantities of radioactive material and subsequent increases in environmental radioactivity in many countries. This paper considers the U.K. situation, and from preliminary monitoring measurements, major routes of population exposure are identified and quantified. U.K. exposures are mostly within variations in natural background radiation levels to be found in Europe, except for the thyroid dose likely to have been received by young people in the north of the U.K. From reported measurements of 131 I in milk, it is predicted that thyroid doses up to 10-20 times the annual doses received from 'normal' natural background radiation might have affected young children drinking fresh cows' milk. Ways in which this exposure component could have been reduced and criteria governing decisions as to whether or not to implement counter-measures are discussed. The importance of 131 I in milk as a population exposure route is a common feature with Chernobyl and the 1957 Windscale accident and underlines the importance of milk-producing regions in relation to reactor-siting policy. (UK)

  17. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis of boar and inobuta testes after the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashiro, Hideaki; Abe, Yasuyuki; Hayashi, Gohei; Urushihara, Yusuke; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Jin; Kino, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Tong, Bin; Takino, Sachio; Sugano, Yukou; Sugimura, Satoshi; Yamada, Takahisa; Isogai, Emiko; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of chronic radiation exposure associated with the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident on the testes of boar and inobuta (a hybrid of Sus scrofa and Sus scrofa domestica). This study examined the contamination levels of radioactive caesium (Cs), especially 134 Cs and 137 Cs, in the testis of both boar and inobuta during 2012, after the Fukushima accident. Morphological analysis and electron-probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) were also undertaken on the testes. The 134 Cs and 137 Cs levels were 6430 ± 23 and 6820 ± 32 Bq/kg in the boar testes, and 755 ± 13 and 747 ± 17 Bq/kg in the inobuta testes, respectively. The internal and external exposure of total 134 Cs and 137 Cs in the boar testes were 47.1 mGy and 176.2 mGy, respectively, whereas in the inobuta testes, these levels were 6.09 mGy and 59.8 mGy, respectively. Defective spermatogenesis was not detected by the histochemical analysis of radiation-exposed testes for either animal. In neither animal were Cs molecules detected, using EPMA. In conclusion, we showed that adverse radiation-induced effects were not detected in the examined boar and inobuta testes following the chronic radiation exposure associated with the FNPP accident

  18. Severe accident phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokiniemi, J.; Kilpi, K.; Lindholm, I.; Maekynen, J.; Pekkarinen, E.; Sairanen, R.; Silde, A.

    1995-02-01

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  19. Accidents in industrial radiography and lessons to be learned. A review of IAEA Safety Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modupe, M.S.; Oresegun, O.

    1998-01-01

    This IAEA Safety Report Series publication is the result of a review of a large selection of accidents in industrial radiography which Regulatory Authorities, professional associations and scientific journals have reported. The review's objective was to draw lessons from the initiating events of the accidents, contributing factors and the consequences. A small, representative selection of accident descriptions is used to illustrate the primary causes of radiography accidents and a set of recommendations to prevent recurrence of such accidents or to mitigate the consequences of those that do occur is provided. By far the most common primary cause of over-exposure was 'Failure to follow operational procedures' and specifically failure to perform radiation monitoring to locate the position of the source. The information in the Safety Report is intended for use by Regulatory Authorities, operating organizations, workers manufacturers and client organizations having responsibilities for radiation protection and safety in industrial radiography. (author)

  20. A synthesis of studies of access point density as a risk factor for road accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvik, Rune

    2017-10-01

    Studies of the relationship between access point density (number of access points, or driveways, per kilometre of road) and accident frequency or rate (number of accidents per unit of exposure) have consistently found that accident rate increases when access point density increases. This paper presents a formal synthesis of the findings of these studies. It was found that the addition of one access point per kilometre of road is associated with an increase of 4% in the expected number of accidents, controlling for traffic volume. Although studies consistently indicate an increase in accident rate as access point density increases, the size of the increase varies substantially between studies. In addition to reviewing studies of access point density as a risk factor, the paper discusses some issues related to formally synthesising regression coefficients by applying the inverse-variance method of meta-analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Criticality accident of nuclear fuel facility. Think back on JCO criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Keiji

    2003-09-01

    This book is written in order to understand the fundamental knowledge of criticality safety or criticality accident of nuclear fuel facility by the citizens. It consists of four chapters such as critical conditions and criticality accident of nuclear facility, risk of criticality accident, prevention of criticality accident and a measure at an occurrence of criticality accident. A definition of criticality, control of critical conditions, an aspect of accident, a rate of incident, damage, three sufferers, safety control method of criticality, engineering and administrative control, safety design of criticality, investigation of failure of safety control of JCO criticality accident, safety culture are explained. JCO criticality accident was caused with intention of disregarding regulation. It is important that we recognize the correct risk of criticality accident of nuclear fuel facility and prevent disasters. On the basis of them, we should establish safety culture. (S.Y.)

  2. Professional experience and traffic accidents/near-miss accidents among truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Edmarlon; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; González, Alberto Durán; Mesas, Arthur Eumann

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between the time working as a truck driver and the report of involvement in traffic accidents or near-miss accidents. A cross-sectional study was performed with truck drivers transporting products from the Brazilian grain harvest to the Port of Paranaguá, Paraná, Brazil. The drivers were interviewed regarding sociodemographic characteristics, working conditions, behavior in traffic and involvement in accidents or near-miss accidents in the previous 12 months. Subsequently, the participants answered a self-applied questionnaire on substance use. The time of professional experience as drivers was categorized in tertiles. Statistical analyses were performed through the construction of models adjusted by multinomial regression to assess the relationship between the length of experience as a truck driver and the involvement in accidents or near-miss accidents. This study included 665 male drivers with an average age of 42.2 (±11.1) years. Among them, 7.2% and 41.7% of the drivers reported involvement in accidents and near-miss accidents, respectively. In fully adjusted analysis, the 3rd tertile of professional experience (>22years) was shown to be inversely associated with involvement in accidents (odds ratio [OR] 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.52) and near-miss accidents (OR 0.17; 95% CI 0.05-0.53). The 2nd tertile of professional experience (11-22 years) was inversely associated with involvement in accidents (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.40-0.98). An evident relationship was observed between longer professional experience and a reduction in reporting involvement in accidents and near-miss accidents, regardless of age, substance use, working conditions and behavior in traffic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Health effects of the Chernobyl accidents on the children around the vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Yoshisada

    2011-01-01

    The title subject is described for correctly understanding the child health risk in Fukushima under the Nuclear Power Plant Disaster. Pediatric examination conducted by Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Corporation Project gave the most large-scaled, precise results among studies of those similar projects. The examination after Chernobyl Accident (1986) was performed in May, 1991-Apr., 1996 for children around its vicinity born during the period Apr. 26, 1976-Apr. 26, 1986 by 5 medical facilities located in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, using the same protocol and similar equipments and reagents. Total number of examinations was 160 thousands and results in 120 thousands subject children were published. In relation to iodine metabolism and possibly to Cs-137, the high incidence (34.66%) of goiter was found and highest incidence of thyroidal node (1.74%) and cancer (0.20%) was found in children in Homyel City in Belarus, particularly of the age 0-5 y. Further detailed studies by authors in the Project revealed that the effect of I-131 exposure on thyroid cancer morbidity was significant with odds ratio 5.5-8.4/Gy. As for leukemia, reported were no strong evidence for the relation between in utero exposure and its incidence, and no supporting data of its relationship with exposure, etc. For non-cancerous diseases, the increased cataract may be related with exposure in children and in the accident-dealing workers, and mental problems may exist in children. Following facts should be taken in consideration when discussing about Fukushima, that 4 kBq of K-40 is contained in human body; it is only pediatric thyroid cancer that increased after the Accident in 270 and 500 thousands residents living in the region with Cs-137 >555 and >37 kBq/m 2 ground, respectively; and internal exposure exceeded 50 Bq/kg in 22% of children examined in the Project. (T.T.)

  4. Dosimetric reconstruction of radiological accident by numerical simulations by means associating an anthropomorphic model and a Monte Carlo computation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courageot, Estelle

    2010-01-01

    After a description of the context of radiological accidents (definition, history, context, exposure types, associated clinic symptoms of irradiation and contamination, medical treatment, return on experience) and a presentation of dose assessment in the case of external exposure (clinic, biological and physical dosimetry), this research thesis describes the principles of numerical reconstruction of a radiological accident, presents some computation codes (Monte Carlo code, MCNPX code) and the SESAME tool, and reports an application to an actual case (an accident which occurred in Equator in April 2009). The next part reports the developments performed to modify the posture of voxelized phantoms and the experimental and numerical validations. The last part reports a feasibility study for the reconstruction of radiological accidents occurring in external radiotherapy. This work is based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a linear accelerator, with the aim of identifying the most relevant parameters to be implemented in SESAME in the case of external radiotherapy

  5. Radiological consequences of the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    The findings of the Ad Hoc Population Dose Assessment Group are reviewed and summarized (Population Dose and Health Impact of the Accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station. A preliminary assessment for the period March 28 through April 7, 1979; May 10, 1979. Washington DC, US Government Printing Office, 1979). The principal radionuclides released were xenon-133 and xenon-135, with some iodine-131. External exposure to gamma radiation was estimated from TLDs positioned at various on-site and off-site locations. Lung exposure from inhaled xenon-133 was calculated and air and milk monitoring results gave potential dose equivalents to a child's thyroid. These numerical estimates will be further refined, but only minor corrections to the present values are anticipated. The findings of this preliminary assessment have indicated that the radiological consequences to the public of the reactor accident are minimal. (UK)

  6. Assessment Of Source Term And Radiological Consequences For Design Basis Accident And Beyond Design Basis Accident Of The Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luong Ba Vien; Le Vinh Vinh; Huynh Ton Nghiem; Nguyen Kien Cuong; Tran Tri Vien

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents results of the assessment of source terms and radiological consequences for the Design Basis Accident (DBA) and Beyond Design Basis Accident (BDBA) of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor. The dropping of one fuel assembly during fuel handling operation leading to the failure of fuel cladding and the release of fission products into the environment was selected as a DBA for the analysis. For the BDBA, the introduction of a step positive reactivity due to the falling of a heavy block from the rotating bridge crane in the reactor hall onto a part of the platform where are disposed the control rod drives is postulated. The result of the radiological consequence analyses shows that doses to members of the public are below annual dose limit for both DBA and BDBA events. However, doses from exposure to operating staff and experimenters working inside the reactor hall are predicted to be very high in case of BDBA and therefore the protective actions should be taken when the accident occurs. (author)

  7. Influence of nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl' on the environmental radioactivity in Toyama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Miyuki; Shoji, Miki; Honda, Takashi; Sakanoue, Masanobu.

    1987-01-01

    The environmental radioactivity caused by the reactor accident at Chernobyl' was investigated from May 7 to May 31 of 1986 in Toyama. Measurement of radioactivities in airborne particles, rain water, drinking water, milk, and mugwort are carried out by gamma-ray spectrometry (pure Ge detector; ORTEC GMX-23195). Ten different nuclides ( 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 131 I, 132 Te-I, 134 Cs, 136 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 Ba-La) are identified from samples of airborne particles. In the air samples, a maximum radioactivity concentration of each nuclide is observed on 13th May 1986. The time of the reactor shut-down and the flux of thermal neutron at the reactor were calculated from 131 I/ 132 I and 137 Cs/ 134 Cs ratio. The exposure dose in Toyama by this accident is given as follows: internal exposure; [thyroid] adult-59 μSv, child-140 μSv, baby-130 μSv, [total body] adult-0.2 μSv, child, baby-0.4 μSv, external exposure; 7 μSv, effective dose equivalent; adult-9 μSv, child-12 Sv, baby-11 μSv. (author)

  8. Analyses of non-fatal accidents in an opencast mine by logistic regression model - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, Seyhan; Mutlu, Mert

    2017-09-01

    Accidents cause major damage for both workers and enterprises in the mining industry. To reduce the number of occupational accidents, these incidents should be properly registered and carefully analysed. This study efficiently examines the Aegean Lignite Enterprise (ELI) of Turkish Coal Enterprises (TKI) in Soma between 2006 and 2011, and opencast coal mine occupational accident records were used for statistical analyses. A total of 231 occupational accidents were analysed for this study. The accident records were categorized into seven groups: area, reason, occupation, part of body, age, shift hour and lost days. The SPSS package program was used in this study for logistic regression analyses, which predicted the probability of accidents resulting in greater or less than 3 lost workdays for non-fatal injuries. Social facilities-area of surface installations, workshops and opencast mining areas are the areas with the highest probability for accidents with greater than 3 lost workdays for non-fatal injuries, while the reasons with the highest probability for these types of accidents are transporting and manual handling. Additionally, the model was tested for such reported accidents that occurred in 2012 for the ELI in Soma and estimated the probability of exposure to accidents with lost workdays correctly by 70%.

  9. PERSPECTIVES ON A DOE CONSEQUENCE INPUTS FOR ACCIDENT ANALYSIS APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kula, K.R.; Thoman, D.C.; Lowrie, J.; Keller, A.

    2008-01-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) accident analysis for establishing the required control sets for nuclear facility safety applies a series of simplifying, reasonably conservative assumptions regarding inputs and methodologies for quantifying dose consequences. Most of the analytical practices are conservative, have a technical basis, and are based on regulatory precedent. However, others are judgmental and based on older understanding of phenomenology. The latter type of practices can be found in modeling hypothetical releases into the atmosphere and the subsequent exposure. Often the judgments applied are not based on current technical understanding but on work that has been superseded. The objective of this paper is to review the technical basis for the major inputs and assumptions in the quantification of consequence estimates supporting DOE accident analysis, and to identify those that could be reassessed in light of current understanding of atmospheric dispersion and radiological exposure. Inputs and assumptions of interest include: Meteorological data basis; Breathing rate; and Inhalation dose conversion factor. A simple dose calculation is provided to show the relative difference achieved by improving the technical bases

  10. Freshwater exposure pathways in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1984-06-01

    The report relates to a subproject under a Nordic project called ''Large reactor accidents - consequences and mitigating actions''. The report summarizes information available, primarily in the Nordic countries, on freshwater exposure pathways. Experimental and theoretical data concerning the deposition and run-off of the nuclides *sp90*Sr and*Sp137*Cs is presented. Internal exposure via drinking water and freshwater fish is dealt with, as well as external exposure due to swimming, boating, contact with fishing utensils and use of beach areas. In addition is exposure via irrigated agricultural products considered. (RF)

  11. Antenatal Exposure of Persons from Belarus Following the Chernobyl Accidents: Neuropsychiatric Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igumnov, S.; Drozdovitch, V.

    2004-01-01

    Ten years follow-up investigation of intellectual development of 250 persons from Belarus exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident has been conducted. Exposed cohort was compared with a control group of 250 persons in the same age from non and slightly contaminated regions. For each study subject, individual antenatal doses were reconstructed for the following pathways of exposure: (1) internal doses to thyroid gland arising from the intake of ''131 I via inhalation or ingestion; and (2) external doses from radionuclides deposited on the ground. Neuropsychiatry and psychological examinations were performed among persons of both groups at the age 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years. At the age of 6-7 years the persons in the exposed group had a mean full-scale intelligent quotient (IQ) lower than the control group. At the age of 10-12 and 15-16 years there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Positive dynamics of intellectual development in persons of both groups has been observed up to age of 15-16 years. No statiscally significant correlation was found in exposed group between individual thyroid dose as well as individual antenatal external dose and IQ at the different ages. In both groups we notice a positive moderate correlation between IQ of persons and the educational level of their parents. We conclude that probably a significant role in the genesis of borderline intellectual functioning and emotional disorders in the exposed group of persons was played by unfavorable factors such as a low educational level of parents, the break of micro social contacts and adaptation difficulties, which appear following the evacuation and relocation from the contaminated areas. (Author) 10 refs-

  12. The impact of major transformations of a production process on age-related accident risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, V L; Laflamme, L; Diderichsen, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a study of whether accident risks were equally distributed across age categories among a population of mining workers whose work activities were suspected to be age-impaired. The impairment factors in focus are the transformation of production technology during the 80s...... and consequent changes in job content. It was hypothesized that the combined effect of these factors might lead accident risks, both non-specific (aggregated) and specific (by kind), to increase with age. Accident risk ratios (ARRs), however, proved to be higher for younger workers than older ones, in both...... the non-specific and the specific cases. However, two accident patterns (specific risks) also show relatively high ARRs among workers in their 40s (and even 30s), results that might be explained by particular exposures and/or age-related performance problems. The findings suggest that technological...

  13. Real and mythical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmachkin, V.S.

    1999-01-01

    not a most hazardous ones. Such psychological effects of the Chernobyl accident resulted from the lack of public information, the stress of relocation and the fear that any radiation exposures are damaging. Those affected people are believing that illnesses of all kinds are due to radiation. The spreading of such mistaken did influence on general public disapproval of Nuclear Power. This presentation includes also the data of real consequences for the health of concerned population

  14. Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U. S. commercial nuclear power plants. Appendix VI. Calculation of reactor accident consequences. [PWR and BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-10-01

    Information is presented concerning the radioactive releases from the containment following accidents; radioactive inventory of the reactor core; atmospheric dispersion; reactor sites and meteorological data; radioactive decay and deposition from plumes; finite distance of plume travel; dosimetric models; health effects; demographic data; mitigation of radiation exposure; economic model; and calculated results with consequence model.

  15. Global levels of radiation exposure: Latest international findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    The radiation exposure of the world's population has recently been reviewed by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). UNSCEAR has reconfirmed that the normal operation of all peaceful nuclear installations contributes insignificantly to the global exposure to radiation. Even taking into account all the nuclear accidents to date (including Chernobyl), the additional exposure would be equivalent to only about 20 days of natural exposure. Military uses of nuclear energy have committed the world to most of the radiation exposure caused by human activities

  16. Mechanical injuries, burns and combination damage caused by reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koslowski, L.

    1981-01-01

    In cases of combination damage the initial treatment of wounds is the same as with injuries without accompanying radiation exposure. In the beginning the general principles of surgical treatment apply. In case of a mass accident, the examination of the injured to decide on the necessary kind of treatment has priority. A common problem to all the decisions is that the extent of a radiation exposure that may have been sustained cannot be established at once. Whether the radiation exposure has been so heavy as to require the modification of the surgical measures can be seen only from the blood count, the bone marrow biopsy, the reticulocyte count or from a chromosome analysis. (DG) [de

  17. Prevention of pedestrian accidents.

    OpenAIRE

    Kendrick, D

    1993-01-01

    Child pedestrian accidents are the most common road traffic accident resulting in injury. Much of the existing work on road traffic accidents is based on analysing clusters of accidents despite evidence that child pedestrian accidents tend to be more dispersed than this. This paper analyses pedestrian accidents in 573 children aged 0-11 years by a locally derived deprivation score for the years 1988-90. The analysis shows a significantly higher accident rate in deprived areas and a dose respo...

  18. PNNL Results from 2010 CALIBAN Criticality Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Robin L.; Conrady, Matthew M.

    2011-01-01

    This document reports the results of the Hanford personnel nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) and fixed nuclear accident dosimeter (FNAD) during a criticality accident dosimeter intercomparison exercise at the CEA Valduc Center on September 20-23, 2010. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) participated in a criticality accident dosimeter intercomparison exercise at the Commissariat a Energie Atomique (CEA) Valduc Center near Dijon, France on September 20-23, 2010. The intercomparison exercise was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as the lead Laboratory. PNNL was one of six invited DOE Laboratory participants. The other participating Laboratories were: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Savannah River Site (SRS), the Y-12 National Security Complex at Oak Ridge, and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). The goals of PNNL's participation in the intercomparison exercise were to test and validate the procedures and algorithm currently used for the Hanford personnel nuclear accident dosimeters (PNADs) on the metallic reactor, CALIBAN, to test exposures to PNADs from the side and from behind a phantom, and to test PNADs that were taken from a historical batch of Hanford PNADs that had varying degrees of degradation of the bare indium foil. Similar testing of the PNADs was done on the Valduc SILENE test reactor in 2009 (Hill and Conrady, 2010). The CALIBAN results are reported here.

  19. A calculational methodology for comparing the accident, occupational, and waste-disposal hazards of fusion reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetter, S.

    1985-01-01

    A methodology has been developed for calculating indices of three classes of radiological hazards: reactor accidents, occupational exposures, and waste-disposal hazards. Radionuclide inventories, biological hazard potentials (BHP), and various dose-related indices are calculated. In the case of reactor accidents, the critical, 50-year and chronic dose are computed, as well as the number of early deaths and illnesses and late cancer fatalities. For occupational exposure, the contact dose rate is calculated for several times after reactor shutdown. In the case of waste-disposal hazards, the intruder dose and the intruder hazard potential (IHP) are calculated. Sample calculations for the MARS reactor design show the usefulness of the methodology in exploring design improvements

  20. Accident Locations, MDTA Accidents, Accidents on MDTA locations, Accidents on I 95, US 50, I 695, Accident on John F Kennedy Highway, Nice Bridge, Bay Bridge locations, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Maryland Transportation Authority.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Accident Locations dataset current as of 2011. MDTA Accidents, Accidents on MDTA locations, Accidents on I 95, US 50, I 695, Accident on John F Kennedy Highway, Nice...

  1. Posture control and the risk of industrial accident: a stabilographic investigation in a naval shipyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll van Charante, A W; Snijders, C J; Mulder, P G

    1991-10-01

    In a previous case-control study on the effect of impaired perceptual acuity on the risk of industrial injuries at a naval shipyard, three factors which might influence the perception and processing of sensory impressions--alcohol consumption, hearing loss exceeding 20 decibels (dB) and exposure to noise exceeding 82 dB(A)--were found to contribute to the risk of injury. According to recent reports, these factors can all lead to impaired posture control. Because in general about 40% of all accidents are associated with falling, tripping, slipping and the like, a supplementary study has been carried out to unravel possible confounding effects of posture control on these three risk factors. Cases (who had suffered two or more accidents during the preceding 4 years) and controls (who had been accident-free in the same period) were compared as regards posture control measured during silence or noise. No significant difference in posture control was found between cases and controls, either in silence or during exposure to heavy noise.

  2. Specific requirements for public exposure in medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2012-01-01

    The cause of radiation sources, by exposure to the public, has excluded all those medical and occupational exposures and exposure to natural background radiation normal, in the area. The main sources of public exposure that have found are: practices, discharges or spills, food or merchandise contaminated, chronic exposure scenarios (radon, NORM), waste management (predisposal management, storage, disposal). Public exposure can occur in two forms. One has been by procedure: transport, storage, handling of sources, radioactive waste, radioactive patient. The second has been per incident: transportation accidents, loss of sources, spread of contamination, unchecked pollution. (author) [es

  3. RADIATION HYGIENIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACCIDENT AT THE CHERNOBYL NPP AND THE TASKS OF THEIR MINIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the role and results of activities of Rospotrebnadzor bodies and institutions in the field of ensuring population radiation protection during various periods since accident at the Chernobyl NPP. Radiation hygienic characterization of territories affected by radioactive contamination from the accident, population exposure dose range, issues of ensuring radiological well-being of population and ways of their solution are being presented in the paper.

  4. 137Cs uptake with cafeteria food after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, G.; Paretzke, H.G.

    1992-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the activity concentrations of radiocesium were measured in both the meals served at the cafeteria of a research center and in the employees eating there. The time-dependent means of monthly 137Cs activities in meals and people show a similar distribution pattern with highest values between March and July 1987, i.e., only 1 y after the accident. In meals, the highest activities were found when the menu consisted of pork, milk, or milk products. The 50-y cumulative effective dose calculated from the whole-body measurements is 0.21 mSv for male and 0.15 mSv for female employees. Cafeteria food contributed only a small share to this exposure

  5. Early mortality estimates for different nuclear accidents. Final Phase I report, October 1977-April 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, F.F.

    1979-08-01

    Several studies have previously been made of the number of early deaths which might be expected in a population exposed to a cloud of radionuclides which could result from a nuclear accident. These analyses, however, have been limited to one accident scenario or to exposures involving limited numbers of radionuclides. The purpose of this Phase I study was to examine the existing data on the early health effects of inhaled radioactive materials and determined what, if any, new studies were needed to make reasonable estimates of early mortality after exposure of a population to a cloud of radionuclides of any type. The approach used in the Phase I project was to analyze the data bases available on the health effects of inhaled radioactive materials and document those which were adequate and useful. Using these data, a computer based simulation model was developed depicting exposure to a radioactive aerosol, the dose to an individual exposed to the aerosol and the probability of dying from early effects.

  6. Early mortality estimates for different nuclear accidents. Final Phase I report, October 1977-April 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.

    1979-08-01

    Several studies have previously been made of the number of early deaths which might be expected in a population exposed to a cloud of radionuclides which could result from a nuclear accident. These analyses, however, have been limited to one accident scenario or to exposures involving limited numbers of radionuclides. The purpose of this Phase I study was to examine the existing data on the early health effects of inhaled radioactive materials and determined what, if any, new studies were needed to make reasonable estimates of early mortality after exposure of a population to a cloud of radionuclides of any type. The approach used in the Phase I project was to analyze the data bases available on the health effects of inhaled radioactive materials and document those which were adequate and useful. Using these data, a computer based simulation model was developed depicting exposure to a radioactive aerosol, the dose to an individual exposed to the aerosol and the probability of dying from early effects

  7. Under-reporting of accidents involving biological material by nursing professionals at a Brazilian emergency hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchin, Luiza Tayar; Gir, Elucir; Pazin-Filho, Antonio; Hayashida, Miyeko; da Silva Canini, Silvia Rita Marin

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens can be transmitted to health professionals after contact with biological material. The exact number of infections deriving from these events is still unknown, due to the lack of systematic surveillance data and under-reporting. A cross-sectional study was carried out, involving 451 nursing professionals from a Brazilian tertiary emergency hospital between April and July 2009. Through an active search, cases of under-reporting of occupational accidents with biological material by the nursing team were identified by means of individual interviews. The Institutional Review Board approved the research project. Over half of the professionals (237) had been victims of one or more accidents (425 in total) involving biological material, and 23.76% of the accidents had not been officially reported using an occupational accident report. Among the underreported accidents, 53.47% were percutaneous and 67.33% were bloodborne. The main reason for nonreporting was that the accident had been considered low risk. The under-reporting rate (23.76%) was low in comparison with other studies, but most cases of exposure were high risk.

  8. Radiation accident at Mayapuri scrap market, Delhi, 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, A. B.; Mohanan, S.; Damodaran, D.; Soneja, M.; Jain, N.; Mohan, A.; Vikram, N. K.; Sood, R.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the accidental public radiation exposure in a scrap market in Delhi (India)), on March 2010. The source, a gamma unit containing Cobalt-60 pencils, was improperly disposed of by a research institution in violation of national regulations for radiation protection and safety of radioactive sources. The unit was sold off to unsuspecting scrap dealers who dismantled the equipment. This event subsequently caused the most severe radiation accident reported in India to date, resulting in seven radiation injuries and one death. The clinical course of five of the patients treated at the All India Inst. of Medical Sciences hospital, New Delhi, is summarised in this report. All five patients suffered from the haematological form of the acute radiation syndrome and local cutaneous radiation injury as well. While four patients exposed to doses between 0.6 and 2.8 Gy survived with intensive or supportive treatment, the patient with the highest exposure of 3.1 Gy died due to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure on Day 16 after hospitalisation. The incident highlights the current gaps in the knowledge, infrastructure and legislation in handling radioactive materials. Medical institutions need to formulate individualised triage and management guidelines to immediately respond to future public radiological accidents. (authors)

  9. Job safety analysis and hazard identification for work accident prevention in para rubber wood sawmills in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepaksorn, Phayong; Thongjerm, Supawan; Incharoen, Salee; Siriwong, Wattasit; Harada, Kouji; Koizumi, Akio

    2017-11-25

    We utilized job safety analysis (JSA) and hazard identification for work accident prevention in Para rubber wood sawmills, which aimed to investigate occupational health risk exposures and assess the health hazards at sawmills in the Trang Province, located in southern Thailand. We conducted a cross-sectional study which included a walk-through survey, JSA, occupational risk assessment, and environmental samplings from March through September 2015 at four Para rubber wood sawmills. We identified potential occupational safety and health hazards associated with six main processes, including: 1) logging and cutting, 2) sawing the lumber into sheets, 3) planing and re-arranging, 4) vacuuming and wood preservation, 5) drying and planks re-arranging, and 6) grading, packing, and storing. Working in sawmills was associated with high risk of wood dust and noise exposure, occupational accidents injuring hands and feet, chemicals and fungicide exposure, and injury due to poor ergonomics or repetitive work. Several high-risk areas were identified from JSA and hazard identification of the working processes, especially high wood dust and noise exposure when sawing lumber into sheets and risk of occupational accidents of the hands and feet when struck by lumber. All workers were strongly recommended to use personal protective equipment in any working processes. Exposures should be controlled using local ventilation systems and reducing noise transmission. We recommend that the results from the risk assessment performed in this study be used to create an action plan for reducing occupational health hazards in Para rubber sawmills.

  10. Linking road accident data to other files : an integrated road accident recordkeeping system. Contribution in Proceedings of Seminar P 'Road Safety' held at the 14th PTHC Summer Annual Meeting, University of Sussex, England, from 14-17 July 1986. Volume P 284, p. 55-86.

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, S.

    1986-01-01

    The road accident data which the police collect is of great value to road safety research and is used extensively. This data increases greatly in value if it can be linked to other files which contain more detailed information on exposure. Linking road accident data to other files results in what we call an Integrated Road Accident Recordkeeping System in -which the combined value of the linked files is greater than that of the sum of their individual values.

  11. Cost analysis and financial risk profile for severe reactor accidents at Waterford-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutbush, J.D.; Abbott, E.C.; Carpenter, W.L. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    To support Louisiana Power and Light Company (LP and L) in determining an appropriate level of nuclear property insurance for Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit 3 (Waterford-3), ABZ, Incorporated, performed a series of cost analyses and developed a financial risk profile. This five-month study, conducted in 1991, identified the potential Waterford-3 severe reactor accidents and described each from a cleanup perspective, estimated the cost and schedule to cleanup from each accident, developed a probability distribution of associated financial exposure, and developed a profile of financial risk as a function of insurance coverage

  12. HIV surveillance in needlestick accidents with health workers - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2010.p325

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Lane Amadei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the occurrence of needlestick accidents with health professionals submitted to rapid HIV tests. Methods: A descriptive, epidemiological study, carried out by notification of the occurrence of needlestick accidents in the Epidemiology Sector of the State Health Secretariat, in 2008. The following variables were assessed: gender, age, exposed biological material, type of exposure, source patient, and injured patient, progression of the case, accident situation, and use of personal protective equipment (PPE, 180 days serology and occupational area. Results: There have been reports of 143 accidents, prevailing in nursing, female, 20 to 30 years, involving the blood and biological material by percutaneous puncture. We found no standardization in the use of PPE. The HIV test revealed no positive cases. Conclusion: This study helped to characterize the occurrence of accidents reported in health care professionals and evaluate the protocol of care given. It also revealed non-contamination by HIV.

  13. Natural and anthropogenic radiation exposure of humans in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, Winfried

    2016-12-01

    The contribution on natural and anthropogenic radiation exposure in Germany covers the following issues: (1) natural radiation exposure: external radiation exposure - cosmic and terrestric radiation, internal radiation exposure - primordial and cosmogenic radionuclides; radiation exposure due to sola neutrinos and geo-neutrinos. (2) Anthropogenic radiation exposure: radiation exposure in medicine, radioactivity in industrial products, radiation exposure during flights, radiation exposure due to nuclear facilities, radiation exposure due to fossil energy carriers in power generation, radiation exposure due to nuclear explosions, radiation exposure due to nuclear accidents. (3) Occupational radiation exposure in Germany: radiation monitoring with personal dosimeters in medicine and industry, dose surveillance of the aviation personal, working places with increases radiation exposure by natural radiation sources.

  14. ReSCA: decision support tool for remediation planning after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanovsky, A; Jacob, P; Fesenko, S; Bogdevitch, I; Kashparov, V; Sanzharova, N

    2011-03-01

    Radioactive contamination of the environment following the Chernobyl accident still provide a substantial impact on the population of affected territories in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. Reduction of population exposure can be achieved by performing remediation activities in these areas. Resulting from the IAEA Technical Co-operation Projects with these countries, the program ReSCA (Remediation Strategies after the Chernobyl Accident) has been developed to provide assistance to decision makers and to facilitate a selection of an optimized remediation strategy in rural settlements. The paper provides in-depth description of the program, its algorithm, and structure. © Springer-Verlag 2010

  15. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S V; Alexakhin, R M; Balonov, M I; Bogdevich, I M; Howard, B J; Kashparov, V A; Sanzharova, N I; Panov, A V; Voigt, G; Zhuchenka, Yu M

    2006-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  16. Questionnaire survey report about the criticality accident at a nuclear fuel processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Section of the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology conducted a questionnaire survey on the criticality accident at the nuclear fuel processing facility in Tokai village on September 30, 1999 in order to identify factors related to the accident and consider countermeasures to deal with such accidents. The questionnaire was distributed to 347 members (122 facilities) of the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology who were working or living in Ibaraki Prefecture, and replies were obtained from 104 members (75 facilities). Questions to elicit the opinions of individuals were as following: method of obtaining information about the accident, knowledge about radiation, opinions about the accident, and requests directed to the Society. Questions regarding facilities concerned the following: communication after the accident, requests for dispatch to the accident site, and possession of radiometry devices. In regard to acquisition of information, 91 of the 104 members (87.5%) answered 'television or radios' followed by newspapers. Forty-five of 101 members were questioned about radiation exposure and radiation effects by the public. There were many opinions that accurate news should be provided rapidly, by the mass media. Many members (75%) felt that they lacked knowledge about radiation, reconfirming the importance of education and instruction concerning radiation. Dispatch was requested of 36 of the 75 facilities (48%), and 44 of 83 facilities (53%) owned radiometry instruments. (K.H.)

  17. Linking road accident data to other files : an integrated road accident recordkeeping system. Contribution in Proceedings of Seminar P 'Road Safety' held at the 14th PTHC Summer Annual Meeting, University of Sussex, England, from 14-17 July 1986. Volume P 284, p. 55-86.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, S.

    1986-01-01

    The road accident data which the police collect is of great value to road safety research and is used extensively. This data increases greatly in value if it can be linked to other files which contain more detailed information on exposure. Linking road accident data to other files results in what we

  18. Factors associated with occupational exposure to biological material among nursing professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrinho, Nádia Bruna da Silva; Malaguti-Toffano, Silmara Elaine; Reis, Renata Karina; Pereira, Fernanda Maria Vieira; Gir, Elucir

    2017-01-01

    to identify factors associated with occupational exposure to biological material among nursing professionals. a cross-sectional study was conducted in a high complexity hospital of a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Nursing professionals were interviewed from March to November 2015. All ethical aspects were observed. among the 226 professionals interviewed, 17.3% suffered occupational exposure to potentially contaminated biological material, with 61.5% being percutaneous. Factors such as age (p=0.003), professional experience in nursing (p=0.015), and experience at the institution (p=0.032) were associated with the accidents with biological material. most accidents with biological material among nursing professionals were percutaneous. Age, professional experience, and experience at the institution were considered factors associated with occupational exposure.

  19. Nuclear power plant safety - the risk of accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, D.; Crancher, D.W.

    1975-08-01

    Although it is physically impossible for any nuclear plant to explode like an atom bomb, an accidental release of radioactive material into the environment is conceivable. Three factors reduce the probability of such releases, in dangerous quantities, to an extremely low level. Firstly, there are many safety features built into the plant including a leaktight containment building to prevent the escape of such material. Secondly, the quality of engineering and standards used are far more demanding than in conventional power engineering. Thirdly, strict government licensing and regulatory control is enforced at all phases from design through construction to operation. No member of the general public is known to have been injured or died as a result of any accident to a commercial nuclear power plant. Ten workers have died as a result of over-exposure to radiation from experimental reactors and laboratory work connected with the development of nuclear plant since 1945. Because of this excellent safety record the risk of serious accidents can only be estimated. On the basis of such estimates, the chance of an accident in a nuclear power reactor which could cause a detectable increase in the incidence of radiation-induced illnesses would be less than one chance in a million per year. In a typical highly industrialised society, such as the USA, the estimated risk of an individual being killed by such accidents, from one hundred operating reactors, is no greater than one chance in sixteen million per year. There are undoubtedly risks from reactor accidents but estimates of these risks show that they are considerably less than from other activities which are accepted by society. (author)

  20. Use of PSA and severe accident assessment results for the accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, S. H.; Kim, H. G.; Jang, H. S.; Moon, S. K.; Park, J. U.

    1993-12-01

    The objectives for this study are to investigate the basic principle or methodology which is applicable to accident management, by using the results of PSA and severe accident research, and also facilitate the preparation of accidents management program in the future. This study was performed as follows: derivation of measures for core damage prevention, derivation of measures for accident mitigation, application of computerized tool to assess severe accident management

  1. Use of PSA and severe accident assessment results for the accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, S H; Kim, H G; Jang, H S; Moon, S K; Park, J U [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    The objectives for this study are to investigate the basic principle or methodology which is applicable to accident management, by using the results of PSA and severe accident research, and also facilitate the preparation of accidents management program in the future. This study was performed as follows: derivation of measures for core damage prevention, derivation of measures for accident mitigation, application of computerized tool to assess severe accident management.

  2. Thyroid neoplasia risk is increased nearly 30 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronko, Mykola; Brenner, Alina V; Bogdanova, Tetiana; Shpak, Victor; Oliynyk, Valeriy; Cahoon, Elizabeth K; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Little, Mark P; Tereshchenko, Valeriy; Zamotayeva, Galyna; Terekhova, Galyna; Zurnadzhi, Lyudmila; Hatch, Maureen; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2017-10-15

    To evaluate risk of thyroid neoplasia nearly 30 years following exposure to radioactive iodine (I-131) from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident, we conducted a fifth cycle of thyroid screening of the Ukrainian-American cohort during 2012-2015, following four previous screening cycles started in 1998. We identified 47 thyroid cancers (TC) and 33 follicular adenomas (FA) among 10,073 individuals who were <18 years at the time of the accident and had a mean I-131 dose of 0.62 Gy. We found a significant I-131 dose response for both TC and FA, with an excess odd ratio per Gy of 1.36 (95% CI: 0.39-4.15) and 2.03 (95% CI: 0.55-6.69), respectively. The excess risk of malignant and benign thyroid neoplasia persists nearly three decades after exposure and underscores the importance of continued follow-up of this cohort to characterize long-term pattern of I-131 risk. © 2017 UICC.

  3. Estimation of radiation dose received by the victims in a Chinese radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liangan; Xu, Zhiyong; Jia, Delin; Dai, Guangfu

    2002-01-01

    In April 1999, a radiation accident happened in Henan province, China. In this accident, A 60 Co ex-service therapy radiation source was purchased by a waster purchase company, then some persons break the lead pot and taken out the stainless steel drawer with the radiation source, then sell the drawer to another small company, and the buyer reserved the drawer in his bed room until all of his family members shoot their cookies. During the event, seven persons received overdose exposure, the dose rang is about 1.0 - 6.0Gy, especially, all of the buyer family members meet with bad radiation damage. In order to assess the accident consequences and cure the patients of the bad radiation damage, it is necessary to estimate the doses of the Victims in the accident. In the dose reconstruction of the accident victims, we adopted biologic dose method, experiment-simulating method with an anthropomorphic phantom, and theory simulating method with Monte Carlo to estimate the doses of the victims. In this paper, the frame of the accident and the Monte Carlo method in our work will be described, the main dose results of the three methods mentioned above will be reported and a comparison analysis will be presented

  4. Analysis of the experience in participation of army medical service in medical arrangement in case of radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhilyaev, E.G.; Goncharov, S.F.; Vorontsov, I.V.; Legeza, V.I.; Berzin, I.A.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presented calculations of manpower and money funds for rendering aid to the injured persons in case of radiation accident. The authors offered a scheme of using medical anti-radial aids on various stages of radiation accident; immediately after the accident in case of non-predicted and controlled radiation exposure. Army Medical Service is capable of solving promptly the tasks of medical aid with the help of highly mobile specialized medical units, the use of which is stipulated in the system of the Russian Service of disaster medicine. 10 refs.; 1 tab

  5. Guidelines on radiation exposure levels for emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    This document provides guidelines for establishing occupational exposure levels for undertaking actions in emergency situations resulting from a nuclear accident. There are three categories of exposed persons identifiable in relation to the circumstances under which they receive exposures resulting from an accident: (i) emergency workers exposed while undertaking urgent corrective actions; (ii) workers exposed while undertaking subsequent remedial actions, including countermeasures to protect the public; (iii) persons living in an environment contaminated by a nuclear accident. Although no dose limit can be easily stated for the first category, doses should be kept below 0.5 Sv. For the second category, normal dose limits would apply with a maximum of 0.05 Sv in a given year; however, in some circumstances where a few key experts are required doses up to 0.1 Sv could be permitted. For the third category the approach to be taken is to apply the ICRP's concept of dose constraint - a fraction of the worker's dose limit, but above the public dose limit. (L.L.) (6 refs., tab.)

  6. [Accidents and injuries at work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standke, W

    2014-06-01

    In the case of an accident at work, the person concerned is insured by law according to the guidelines of the Sozialgesetzbuch VII as far as the injuries have been caused by this accident. The most important source of information on the incident in question is the accident report that has to be sent to the responsible institution for statutory accident insurance and prevention by the employer, if the accident of the injured person is fatal or leads to an incapacity to work for more than 3 days (= reportable accident). Data concerning accidents like these are sent to the Deutsche Gesetzliche Unfallversicherung (DGUV) as part of a random sample survey by the institutions for statutory accident insurance and prevention and are analyzed statistically. Thus the key issues of accidents can be established and used for effective prevention. Although the success of effective accident prevention is undisputed, there were still 919,025 occupational accidents in 2011, with clear gender-related differences. Most occupational accidents involve the upper and lower extremities. Accidents are analyzed comprehensively and the results are published and made available to all interested parties in an effort to improve public awareness of possible accidents. Apart from reportable accidents, data on the new occupational accident pensions are also gathered and analyzed statistically. Thus, additional information is gained on accidents with extremely serious consequences and partly permanent injuries for the accident victims.

  7. Severe accident analysis methodology in support of accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesmans, B.; Auglaire, M.; Snoeck, J.

    1997-01-01

    The author addresses the implementation at BELGATOM of a generic severe accident analysis methodology, which is intended to support strategic decisions and to provide quantitative information in support of severe accident management. The analysis methodology is based on a combination of severe accident code calculations, generic phenomenological information (experimental evidence from various test facilities regarding issues beyond present code capabilities) and detailed plant-specific technical information

  8. Accident Causal Factors on the Building Construction Sites: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opeyemi Samuel Williams

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The concerns for cost, quality and timely delivery of projects have been in existence from time immemorial, whereas the passion for these should be extended to safe execution of site works by the construction participants, as safety of life is very paramount. However, high level of commitment that is essential for the safe execution of site works has become a taboo. Hence, a plethora of accidents takes place on the site ranging from falls from height, contact with working tools, vehicle-related, slip and trip, collapse, exposure to harmful substances, to lifting and handling object accidents. It is pertinent to know that, responsibility for accidents on site cuts across all project participants (clients, consultants, contractors, workers, as well as the construction site environment. Recognition of the construction participants and site environmental factors as agents of accident is the focus of this research. Through extensive review of literature, a copious number of factors were identified and subsequently grouped under five factors as client-related, consultant-related, contractor-related, construction workers-related, and construction site-related. However, there has been a dearth of research in the grouping of accident contributing factors. The identification and understanding of these factors will go a long way in mitigating construction accidents, coupled with proven measures taken in positively addressing them. Efforts to prevent these causative factors include inter alia elimination of hazards from design, effective safety management, adequate planning of activities and employment of seasoned professionals by the client. The contractors are to embark on staff safety auditing, set up safety committees, conduct regular training for staff, use innovative technology, uphold housekeeping and report accident occurrence, while strict adherence to safety regulations must be adopted by all construction operatives.

  9. Molecular alterations in childhood thyroid cancer after Chernobyl accident and low-dose radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Keiji; Mitsutake, Norisato; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2012-01-01

    The linear no-threshold (LNT) model of radiation carcinogenesis has been used for evaluating the risk from radiation exposure. While the epidemiological studies have supported the LNT model at doses above 100 mGy, more uncertainties are still existed in the LNT model at low doses below 100 mGy. Thus, it is urged to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying radiation carcinogenesis. After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, significant amount of childhood thyroid cancer has emerged in the children living in the contaminated area. As the incidence of sporadic childhood thyroid cancer is very low, it is quite evident that those cancer cases have been induced by radiation exposure caused mainly by the intake of contaminated foods, such as milk. Because genetic alterations in childhood thyroid cancers have extensively been studied, it should provide a unique chance to understand the molecular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. In a current review, molecular signatures obtained from the molecular studies of childhood thyroid cancer after Chernobyl accident have been overviewed, and new roles of radiation exposure in thyroid carcinogenesis will be discussed. (author)

  10. Medical treatment of radiation damages and medical emergency planning in case of nuclear power plant incidents and accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlenschlaeger, L.

    1981-03-01

    Medical measures in case of radiation damages are discussed on the basis of five potential categories of radiation incidents and accidents, respectively, viz. contaminations, incorporations, external local and general radiation over-exposures, contaminated wounds, and combinations of radiation damages and conventional injuries. Considerations are made for diagnostic and therapeutic initial measures especially in case of minor and moderate radiation accidents. The medical emergency planning is reviewed by means of definations used in the practical handling of incidents or accidents. The parameters are: extent of the incident or accident, number of persons involved, severity of radiation damage. Based on guiding symptoms the criteria for the classification into minor, moderate or severe radiation accidents are discussed. Reference is made to the Medical Radiation Protection Centers existing in the Federal Republic of Germany and the possibility of getting advices in case of radiation incidents and accidents. (orig.) [de

  11. Biomass accident investigations – missed opportunities for learning and accident prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2017-01-01

    The past decade has seen a major increase in the production of energy from biomass. The growth has been mirrored in an increase of serious biomass related accidents involving fires, gas explosions, combustible dust explosions and the release of toxic gasses. There are indications that the number...... of bioenergy related accidents is growing faster than the energy production. This paper argues that biomass accidents, if properly investigated and lessons shared widely, provide ample opportunities for improving general hazard awareness and safety performance of the biomass industry. The paper examines...... selected serious accidents involving biogas and wood pellets in Denmark and argues that such opportunities for learning were missed because accident investigations were superficial, follow-up incomplete and information sharing absent. In one particularly distressing case, a facility saw a repeat accident...

  12. Probabilistic risk assessment for the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility worst-case design-basis accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharirli, M.; Butner, J.M.; Rand, J.L.; Macek, R.J.; McKinney, S.J.; Roush, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents results from a Los Alamos National Laboratory Engineering and Safety Analysis Group assessment of the worse-case design-basis accident associated with the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF)/Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) Facility. The primary goal of the analysis was to quantify the accident sequences that result in personnel radiation exposure in the WNR Experimental Hall following the worst-case design-basis accident, a complete spill of the LAMPF accelerator 1L beam. This study also provides information regarding the roles of hardware systems and operators in these sequences, and insights regarding the areas where improvements can increase facility-operation safety. Results also include confidence ranges to incorporate combined effects of uncertainties in probability estimates and importance measures to determine how variations in individual events affect the frequencies in accident sequences

  13. Biological effects of radiation accidents on humans. September 1970-February 1990 (a Bibliography from the NTIS data base). Report for September 1970-February 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the impact of radiation accidents on humans. Radiation exposure assessment for determining appropriate medical treatment is discussed. The effects of ingesting food or inhaling air irradiated by accident fallout are considered. Follow-up studies of the survivors of specific nuclear accidents are included in an attempt to evaluate long and short term health effects of accidents. (This updated bibliography contains 224 citations, 62 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  14. Thyroid Cancer Induction: Nitrates as Independent Risk Factors or Risk Modulators after Radiation Exposure, with a Focus on the Chernobyl Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Valentina M; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2018-03-01

    In recent decades, differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) incidence has been increasing worldwide. The important contributions to this phenomenon of "overdiagnosis" driven by wider use of improved ultrasound systems are amply documented, notwithstanding the "real" carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, e.g., from the Chernobyl accident or health care interventions. Less well understood is the role of nitrates - as environmental pollutants, in diet, and in medication - in thyroid carcinogenesis. Increasing exposure to nitrates is associated with rising incidence of esophageal, stomach, bladder, and colon cancers. Recent data suggest that in agricultural areas with higher mean nitrate levels in groundwater, DTC risk is also elevated. Our work in Belarus after Chernobyl has shown that children in districts with high nitrate concentrations in drinking water had significantly higher thyroid cancer incidence after irradiation than did their counterparts in areas with lower nitrate concentrations. Notwithstanding thyroid shielding, increasing use of computed tomography and dental X-rays heightens radiation exposure of the salivary glands in the general population, especially in children and adolescents. When nitrate intake is increased, salivary gland irradiation may potentially result in carcinogenic elevations in plasma nitric oxide concentrations. In conclusion, excess nitrate intake seems to be an independent risk factor for DTC. Additionally, we hypothesize from our data that high nitrate levels modulate the carcinogenic effect of radiation on the thyroid. Cohort studies, case-control studies, or both, are needed to quantify the effects of nitrates on DTC risk in the presence or absence of radiation exposure, e.g., that associated with diagnostic or therapeutic health care interventions.

  15. The radiological accident in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The report is based on a meeting held in Brazil, 19-27 July 1988. It describes how the accident occurred, examines how it was managed and how its consequences were contained, and sets out observations and recommendations based upon lessons learned. Many people received large doses of radiation, due to both external and internal exposure. Four of the casualties ultimately died and 28 people suffered radiation burns. Residences and public places were contaminated. The decontamination necessitated the demolition of seven residences and various other buildings, and the removal of the topsoil from large areas. In total 3,500 m 3 of radioactive waste was generated. Refs, figs, tabs and photographs

  16. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures

  17. Regulation Plans on Severe Accidents developed by KINS Severe Accident Regulation Preparation TFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyun Tae; Chung, Ku Young; Na, Han Bee

    2016-01-01

    Some nuclear power plants in Fukushima Daiichi site had lost their emergency reactor cooling function for long-time so the fuels inside the reactors were molten, and the integrity of containment was damaged. Therefore, large amount of radioactive material was released to environment. Because the social and economic effects of severe accidents are enormous, Korean Government already issued 'Severe Accident Policy' in 2001 which requires nuclear power plant operators to set up 'Quantitative Safety Goal', to do 'Probabilistic Safety Analysis', to install 'Severe Accident Countermeasures' and to make 'Severe Accident Management Plan'. After the Fukushima disaster, a Special Safety Inspection was performed for all operating nuclear power plants of Korea. The inspection team from industry, academia, and research institutes assessed Korean NPPs capabilities to cope with or respond to severe accidents and emergency situation caused by natural disasters such as a large earthquake or tsunami. As a result of the special inspection, about 50 action items were identified to increase the capability to cope with natural disaster and severe accidents. Nuclear Safety Act has been amended to require NPP operators to submit Accident Management Plant as part of operating license application. The KINS Severe Accident Regulation Preparation TFT had first investigated oversea severe accident regulation trend before and after the Fukushima accident. Then, the TFT has developed regulation draft for severe accidents such as Severe accident Management Plans, the required design features for new NPPs to prevent severe accident against multiple failures and beyond-design external events, countermeasures to mitigate severe accident and to keep the integrity of containment, and assessment methodology on safety assessment plan and probabilistic safety assessment

  18. Underreporting of maritime accidents to vessel accident databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Martin; Asbjørnslett, Bjørn Egil; Hole, Lars Petter

    2011-11-01

    Underreporting of maritime accidents is a problem not only for authorities trying to improve maritime safety through legislation, but also to risk management companies and other entities using maritime casualty statistics in risk and accident analysis. This study collected and compared casualty data from 01.01.2005 to 31.12.2009, from IHS Fairplay and the maritime authorities from a set of nations. The data was compared to find common records, and estimation of the true number of occurred accidents was performed using conditional probability given positive dependency between data sources, several variations of the capture-recapture method, calculation of best case scenario assuming perfect reporting, and scaling up a subset of casualty information from a marine insurance statistics database. The estimated upper limit reporting performance for the selected flag states ranged from 14% to 74%, while the corresponding estimated coverage of IHS Fairplay ranges from 4% to 62%. On average the study results document that the number of unreported accidents makes up roughly 50% of all occurred accidents. Even in a best case scenario, only a few flag states come close to perfect reporting (94%). The considerable scope of underreporting uncovered in the study, indicates that users of statistical vessel accident data should assume a certain degree of underreporting, and adjust their analyses accordingly. Whether to use correction factors, a safety margin, or rely on expert judgment, should be decided on a case by case basis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Research on classification of nuclear and radiological accident from IAEA threat category with estimation of INES scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Seok Ki; Kim, Siu

    2017-01-01

    As there is increasing use of nuclear energy and radiation while information on nuclear related accidents are accumulated, international interest in nuclear and radiation incidents is increasing rapidly. Because of the specificity of nuclear energy and radiation, the damage caused by such accidents will be spread to the larger area around the accident point due to the radiation and cause biological damage and mental-psychological damage. The purpose of this study is to categorize historical incidents using the Threat Category concept described in the publication of IAEA Safety Guide GS-G-2.1. In addition to categorizing actual events and accidents into Threat Categories, causes of occurrences, the type of radioactive source which leads to the main threats, the type of radiation exposure, and the type of patient are organized in detail. As a result of the analysis of representative historical cases, most accident cases caused by 'Nuclear Energy-Related Business Operator' correspond to 1 (Anomaly) ~ 4 (Accident with Local Consequences) in the INES Scale by IAEA. From the some accident cases, while the radiological damage can be seen to be local, but it can be seen that the possibility of 6 (Serious Accident) can not be absolutely excluded.

  20. Protective measures adopted in OECD member countries in response to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yoshikazu

    1988-01-01

    The report outlines the measures for exposure prevention taken in West European countries following the Chernobyl power plant accident. In particular, the radioactivity regulation levels for foods (derived intervention levels) adopted in these countries are described in detail, citing from the reports of the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health of OECD/NEA (The Radiological Impact of the Chernobyl Accident in OECD Countries) and an scientific seminar held by EC (International Scientific Seminar on Foodstuffs Intervention Levels Following a Nuclear Accident). It is pointed out that these countries rather largely vary in measures taken and the derived intervention levels adopted although the principles for radiation protection which provide the basis for emergency protection measures must be nearly the same in all of the countries. It is necessary to establish consistent standards in each country in consideration of an accident, like the one at Chernobyl, that may have global effects. The ICRP recommendations and IAEA safety guidelines so far are centered on ''near-field'' measures to be taken in areas near an accident site. Thus, studies should be made to establish measures to be taken in areas far from the site. (Nogami, K.)

  1. Physical reconstruction of the radiological accident of Chilca (Lima - Peru)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachos, A.; Marquez, J. F.

    2014-08-01

    The radiological accident happened in the Chilca District, the Canete County at 60 km to the south of Lima-Peru, during the night of January 11 to 12, 2012. The physical reconstruction of the accident was carried out in January 21, 2012, by means of the information gathering administrative and technical of the radioactive source as well as of the installation, the personnel and the involved procedures in the accidental event, information of the space geometry where the event took place. The preliminary information indicates that the source could have been locked in the guide tube of the equipment, next to the collimator in the first takes radiographic. The radiation monitors were not activated on the procedure, impeding this way, not to realize the flaw and causing that the personnel were exposed to the radiation during the whole work period. Their hands and especially their fingers would have been only to some millimeters of the source. With the obtained information and the measurements of the exposure rates of the radioactive source, was carried out the dose calculation to total body, the dose received in the hands and the dose received in the index finger of the left hand. The accident happened by operative procedure breach, by lack of training of the operators. The physical reconstruction of the accident contributes fundamental information for the decisions taking in the medical management of the accidents by radiation. (author)

  2. High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter performance following service and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    Small HEPA filters were exposed to a 60 Co source with a radiation strength of 3 x 10 7 rads per hour and then exposed to steam--air mixtures at several times filter design flow, followed by extended exposure to steam and air at reduced flow. Additional filters were exposed to air flow in a reactor confinement system and then similarly tested with steam--air mixture flows. The test data and calculated effects of filter pluggage with moisture on confinement system performance following potential reactor accidents are described. Gamma radiation exposure impaired the performance of new filters only slightly and temporarily improved performance of service aged filters. Normal confinement system service significantly impaired filter performance although not sufficiently to prevent adequate performance of the SRP confinement system following an unlikely reactor accident. Calculations based on measured filter pluggage indicate that during an accident air flow could be reduced approximately 50 percent with service-degraded HEPA filters present, or approximately 10 percent with new filters damaged by the radiation exposure. (U.S.)

  3. Overview of UNSCEAR re-evaluation of public exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.

    2009-01-01

    The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has re-evaluated the levels of public radiation exposure for four broad categories of sources: natural sources of radiation, enhanced exposure to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), man-made sources used for peaceful purposes and man-made sources used for military purposes. Regarding natural radiation sources, recent data confirmed former results from 2000 Report, but with a more wide range. Very few information is available for public exposure from NORM. Most works describes concentration levels but dose assessments are usually restricted to occupational exposures. The use of source and by-product materials may however lead to doses up to a few milisieverts to members of the public. The nuclear fuel cycle and electric energy generation have very small contributions to public exposure. Uranium mining contributes with the largest individual doses, mainly due to radon from tailings. Most relevant military use of nuclear energy were the atmospheric nuclear tests, interrupted in the 60's. Residual radioactivity deposited worldwide is now responsible for a very small contribution to worldwide exposures. However, they left a legacy of several contaminated sites. The use of depleted uranium in munitions in Kuwait, Kosovo, Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia-Herzegovina, has led to great public concern, although not usually associated to any major consequence regarding public exposure. Some accidents resulted in environmental contamination and exposures of members of the public. Except for the Chernobyl accident, the areas affected were usually small and the exposure restricted to small number of persons, up to a few hundred, without any significant contribution to worldwide exposures. The exposure to natural sources of radiation is still the major component of worldwide exposure to ionizing radiation although for some highly developed countries, medical exposure has surpassed the

  4. Radiological health risks from accidents during transportation of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Yuan, Y.C.

    1988-01-01

    Potential radiological health risks from severe accident scenarios during the transportation of spent nuclear fuels are estimated. These extremely low probability, but potentially credible, scenarios are characterized by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Modal Study in terms of the maximum credible structural responses and/or the maximum credible cask temperature responses. In some accident scenarios, the spent nuclear fuel casks are assumed to be breached, resulting in the release of radioactivity to the atmosphere. Models have been developed to estimate radiological health consequences, including potential short-term exposures and health effects to individuals and potential long-term environmental dose commitments and health effects to the population. The population risks are calculated using state-level data, and the resulting overall health risks are compared for several levels of cleanup effort to determine the relative effects on long-term risks to the population in the event of an accident. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  5. [Accidents with biological material in health care workers in 2 primary health care areas (1990-1999)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Navarrete, M J; Montes Villameriel, F J; Solano Bernad, V M; Sánchez Matienzo, D; del Val García, J L; Gil Montalbán, E; Arribas Llorente, J L

    2001-09-15

    To find out the exposures with biological material in health care workers in primary health care, registered in the biological accidents database from Preventive Medicine Service in Miguel Servet Universitary Hospital of Zaragoza. Descriptive study of a retrospective cohort. SITE: Primary health care, Areas II and V of Zaragoza.Participants. Workers in this areas, distributed by: physician, nursing staff, auxiliary, orderly, housekeeping staff, others. Data of: workers, accident, serologic source, worker protection and vaccinal status of hepatitis B. The incidence of accidents was 26 (period 1997-1999). Most proportion of accidents were declared by nursing (78%). The highest occupational incidence was in auxiliary (63 ). In 90,1% of the cases, the accident was needlestick injury. The source was known in 67,7% of cases. The accidents occurred in hands in 96,8% of cases, and only one third of workers carried gloves. Results obtained are similar with previous studies about this event. We must insist on the need to declare these accidents, providing more information and accessibility for the declaration to worker. Moreover, we must insist on the correct application in the health care field of the standard precautions, because almost 50% of accidents are evitable, and to increase hepatitis B vaccination covertures.

  6. Females do not have more injury road accidents on Friday the 13th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summala Heikki

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study reinvestigated the recent finding that females – but not males – die in traffic accidents on Friday the 13th more often than on other Fridays (Näyhä S: Traffic deaths and superstition on Friday the 13th. Am J Psychiatry 2002, 159: 2110–2111. The current study used matched setting and injury accident data base that is more numerous than fatality data. If such an effect would be caused by impaired psychic and psychomotor functioning due to more frequent anxiety among women, it should also appear in injury crashes. Methods We used the national Finnish road accident database for 1989–2002. To control seasonal variation, 21 Fridays the 13th were compared in a matched design to previous and following Fridays, excluding all holidays, on number of accidents, male/female responsibility for accidents, and the number of dead, injured and overall number of active participants (drivers, pedestrians and bicyclists as a consequence of the accident. Results There were no significant differences in any examined aspect of road injury accidents among the three Fridays, either in females or males. Women were not overrepresented in crashes that occurred on Fridays 13th. Conclusion There is no consistent evidence for females having more road traffic crashes on Fridays the 13th, based on deaths or road accident statistics. However, this does not imply a non-existent effect of superstition related anxiety on accident risk as no exposure-to-risk data are available. People who are anxious of "Black Friday" may stay home, or at least avoid driving a car.

  7. Regulation Plans on Severe Accidents developed by KINS Severe Accident Regulation Preparation TFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyun Tae; Chung, Ku Young; Na, Han Bee [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Some nuclear power plants in Fukushima Daiichi site had lost their emergency reactor cooling function for long-time so the fuels inside the reactors were molten, and the integrity of containment was damaged. Therefore, large amount of radioactive material was released to environment. Because the social and economic effects of severe accidents are enormous, Korean Government already issued 'Severe Accident Policy' in 2001 which requires nuclear power plant operators to set up 'Quantitative Safety Goal', to do 'Probabilistic Safety Analysis', to install 'Severe Accident Countermeasures' and to make 'Severe Accident Management Plan'. After the Fukushima disaster, a Special Safety Inspection was performed for all operating nuclear power plants of Korea. The inspection team from industry, academia, and research institutes assessed Korean NPPs capabilities to cope with or respond to severe accidents and emergency situation caused by natural disasters such as a large earthquake or tsunami. As a result of the special inspection, about 50 action items were identified to increase the capability to cope with natural disaster and severe accidents. Nuclear Safety Act has been amended to require NPP operators to submit Accident Management Plant as part of operating license application. The KINS Severe Accident Regulation Preparation TFT had first investigated oversea severe accident regulation trend before and after the Fukushima accident. Then, the TFT has developed regulation draft for severe accidents such as Severe accident Management Plans, the required design features for new NPPs to prevent severe accident against multiple failures and beyond-design external events, countermeasures to mitigate severe accident and to keep the integrity of containment, and assessment methodology on safety assessment plan and probabilistic safety assessment.

  8. Specific features of RBMK severe accidents progression and approach to the accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilevskij, V.P.; Nikitin, Yu.M.; Petrov, A.A.; Potapov, A.A.; Cherkashov, Yu.M.

    2001-01-01

    Fundamental construction features of the LWGR facilities (absence of common external containment shell, disintegrated circulation circuit and multichannel reactor core, positive vapor reactivity coefficient, high mass of thermally capacious graphite moderator) predetermining development of assumed heavy non-projected accidents and handling them are treated. Rating the categories of the reactor core damages for non-projected accidents and accident types producing specific grope of damages is given. Passing standard non-projected accidents, possible methods of attack accident consequences, as well as methods of calculated analysis of non-projected accidents are demonstrated [ru

  9. Cancer effects of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardis, E.

    2005-01-01

    The WHO Expert Groups on Health reviewed a UNSCEAR 2000 report, more recent peer-reviewed scientific literature and scientific meeting presentations, reports and statistics prepared by National authorities. The outcome of this study are scientific consensus on health impact from radiation to date and identification of research gaps. Recommendations for health care programmes 20 years after: No clearly demonstrated increase in the incidence of cancers (other than thyroid) that can be attributed to radiation from the accident. Increases in incidence of cancers have been reported, but no association with radiation dose much of the increase appears to be due to other factors, including improvements in diagnosis, reporting and registration. Recent findings indicate a possible doubling of leukaemia risk among Chernobyl liquidators above 100 mGy and an increase in the incidence of pre-menopausal breast cancer in the very most contaminated districts, which appear to be related to radiation dose. These need to be further investigated

  10. Large Break LOCA Accident Management Strategies for Accidents With Large Containment Leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sdouz, Gert

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this work is the investigation of the influence of different accident management strategies on the thermal-hydraulics in the containment during a Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident with a large containment leak from the beginning of the accident. The increasing relevance of terrorism suggests a closer look at this kind of severe accidents. Normally the course of severe accidents and their associated phenomena are investigated with the assumption of an intact containment from the beginning of the accident. This intact containment has the ability to retain a large part of the radioactive inventory. In these cases there is only a release via a very small leakage due to the un-tightness of the containment up to cavity bottom melt through. This paper represents the last part of a comprehensive study on the influence of accident management strategies on the source term of VVER-1000 reactors. Basically two different accident sequences were investigated: the 'Station Blackout'- sequence and the 'Large Break LOCA'. In a first step the source term calculations were performed assuming an intact containment from the beginning of the accident and no accident management action. In a further step the influence of different accident management strategies was studied. The last part of the project was a repetition of the calculations with the assumption of a damaged containment from the beginning of the accident. This paper concentrates on the last step in the case of a Large Break LOCA. To be able to compare the results with calculations performed years ago the calculations were performed using the Source Term Code Package (STCP), hydrogen explosions are not considered. In this study four different scenarios have been investigated. The main parameter was the switch on time of the spray systems. One of the results is the influence of different accident management strategies on the source term. In the comparison with the sequence with intact containment it was

  11. The Chernobyl accident: Thyroid exposure among the population due to radioiodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilin, Yu I; Shinkarev, S M [Biophysics Inst., Russian Federation State Science Centre, Moscow (Russian Federation); Stepanenko, V F [Medical Radiological Research Centre, Academy of Medical Sciences, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Domaratskij, V P; Moroz, G L [Scientific Research Inst. for Industrial and Marine Medicine, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Hrushtch, V T [State Scientific Centre, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    Different aspects of internal and external exposure to thyroid of inhabitants from the contaminated areas of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine are discussed in the paper. In the case of consumption of contaminated foods contribution to total absorbed dose from internal radioiodine exposure was more than 90%, otherwise (in the case of only inhalation radioiodine intake), not lesser than 85%. {sup 131}I exposure to thyroid was the main contribution to internal exposure, and exposure to thyroid from short-lived radioiodines was significant only for the inhabitants who did not consume contaminated foods. Peculiarities of formation of ``measured`` doses are considered. Semiempirical model of relationships between the average internal thyroid dose received by people in the rural settlements and the ground-deposition density of radionuclides in these settlements is presented. It has been indicated the necessity of intensification of {sup 129}I measurements in soil. Practical efficiency of used countermeasures for majority people to reduce radioiodine intake is estimated as high as approximately 2 times and caused mainly by removing people from contaminated areas. 11 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  12. SEVERE ACCIDENT ISSUES RAISED BY THE FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT AND IMPROVEMENTS SUGGESTED

    OpenAIRE

    SONG, JIN HO; KIM, TAE WOON

    2014-01-01

    This paper revisits the Fukushima accident to draw lessons in the aspect of nuclear safety considering the fact that the Fukushima accident resulted in core damage for three nuclear power plants simultaneously and that there is a high possibility of a failure of the integrity of reactor vessel and primary containment vessel. A brief review on the accident progression at Fukushima nuclear power plants is discussed to highlight the nature and characteristic of the event. As the severe accide...

  13. Examination of off-site emergency protective measures for core melt accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, D.C.; Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Jones, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Results from the Reactor Safety Study (RSS) have shown that to cause significant impacts off-site, i.e., sufficient quantities of biologically important radionuclides released, it is necessary to have a core melt accident. To mitigate the impact of such potential accidents, the design of appropriate emergency response actions requires information as to the relative merit of publicly available protective measures. In order to provide this information, a study using the consequence model developed for the RSS is being conducted to evaluate (in terms of reduced public health effects and dose exposure) potential off-site protective strategies. The paper describes the methods being used in the study as well as the results and conclusions obtained

  14. Nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

  15. The sources of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.G.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation protection of workers and of members of the public requires an assessment of the various sources of exposure, their variations in time or under specific conditions or circumstances, and the possibilities for control or limitation. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has evaluated the various components of natural and man-made sources in some detail. Natural exposures form the largest component of radiation exposure of man. Variability in exposures depends on elevation, the concentrations of radionuclides in soil, food and water, the composition of building materials and the susceptibility of indoor spaces to radon build-up. Man-made sources have included exposures to fallout from atmospheric nuclear testing and discharged from nuclear fuel cycle installations in routine operations or in accidents. The other main source of radiation exposures of individuals is in medical diagnostic examinations and therapeutic treatments. (author)

  16. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S V [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Alexakhin, R M [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Balonov, M I [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Bogdevich, I M [Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Minsk (Belarus); Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Kashparov, V A [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Street 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N I [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Panov, A V [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Voigt, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Zhuchenka, Yu M [Research Institute of Radiology, 246000 Gomel (Belarus)

    2006-12-15

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  17. Radiation hazard to children as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoer, G; Maul, F D; Buell, U; Kriegel, H; Manegold, K H

    1986-01-01

    A flight in a modern jet across the Atlantic Ocean brings about a whole-body radiation dose of 2-5 mrem (Hall, Niklas). The average exposure of the population in West Germany as a result of the Chernobyl accident corresponds therefore to 100 trans-Atlantic flights. The article in hand is not intended to minimize the hazards emanating from radiation accidents - or nuclear weapons tests - but rather as a means of reducing fear that results from not knowing the real facts. Doctors seeking unbiased information will find a number of references and citations that will help them to pass on this information to patients. (orig./HSCH).

  18. Nuclear accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The film presents statistical data on criticality accidents. It outlines past IAEA activities on criticality accident dosimetry and the technical documents that resulted from this work. The film furthermore illustrates an international comparison study on nuclear accident dosimetry conducted at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, United Kingdom

  19. Nuclear accident dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-12-31

    The film presents statistical data on criticality accidents. It outlines past IAEA activities on criticality accident dosimetry and the technical documents that resulted from this work. The film furthermore illustrates an international comparison study on nuclear accident dosimetry conducted at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, United Kingdom

  20. Planning for large-scale accidents: learning from the Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Decision-making issues raised at the Three Mile Island nuclear accident in Pennsylvania are explored. The organizations involved, their interconnections, and decisions are described. The underlying issues bearing on allocation of effort to pre-accident planning and actual accident responses are also noted. Finally, a framework from this effort is used for guiding the planning of operations for future accidents. (author)

  1. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of radiation accidents over a 50 year period shows that simple cases, where the initiating events were immediately recognised, the source identified and under control, the medical input confined to current handling, were exceptional. In many cases, the accidents were only diagnosed when some injuries presented by the victims suggested the radiological nature of the cause. After large-scale accidents, the situation becomes more complicated, either because of management or medical problems, or both. The review of selected accidents which resulted in severe consequences shows that most of them could have been avoided; lack of regulations, contempt for rules, human failure and insufficient training have been identified as frequent initiating parameters. In addition, the situation was worsened because of unpreparedness, insufficient planning, unadapted resources, and underestimation of psychosociological aspects. (author)

  2. Lessons learned from accidents in radiotherapy. An IAEA Safety Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, P.

    1998-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a very special application from the view point of protection because humans are deliberately exposed to high doses of radiation, and no physical barrier can be placed between the source and the patient. It deserves, therefore, special considerations from the point of view of potential exposure. An IAEA's Safety Report (in preparation) reviews a large collection of accident information, their initiating events and contributing factors, followed by a set of lessons learned and measures for prevention. The most important causes were: deficiencies in education and training, lack of procedures and protocols for essential tasks (such as commissioning, calibration, commissioning and treatment delivery), deficient communication and information transfer, absence of defence in depth and deficiencies in design, manufacture, testing and maintenance of equipment. Often a combination of more than one of these causes was present in an accident, thus pointing to a problem of management. Arrangements for a comprehensive quality assurance and accident prevention should be required by regulations and compliance be monitored by a Regulatory Authority. (author)

  3. Gestations and parturitions after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeltz, J.; Hoeltz, A.; Potthoff, P.; Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.; Hinz, G.; Kaul, A.; Martignoni, K.; Roedler, H.D.; Schwarz, E.; Tsavachidis, C.

    1991-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating courses of gestation and parturitions in the light of the Chernobyl reactor accident and at comparing the results obtained with those from a study carried out in 1981/82 on factors assumed to have a role in pre-term deliveries. In this connection, attempts were made to find out whether regional increases in radiation caused by the accident and the general uneasiness arising from this fact could be linked to higher rates of infants being born prematurely. A three-step procedure was followed for the survey, in which Step One hat the purpose of compiling basic data on the gestations and parturitions examined using information from patient records. In Step Two a biogramme was established on the basis of questionnaires filled in by pregnant women. Step Three was included for a post-partum ascertainment of material risk factors and data of paturition in women participating in the Step Two investigations. The information obtained from patient records pointed to no differences in the percentage shares of premature deliveries between the individual exposure regions examined, nor could any such discrepancies be revealed on the basis of the biogramme and post-partum survey. In areas showing elevated levels of radioactivity as a result of the Chernobyl fallout the proportion of women claiming to have fears about ecological afflictions invariably was 4 to 9% larger than that determined for areas, where radiation exposure remained within the range generally accepted as normal. Statistically significant increases in the percentage shares of premature deliveries could, however, be proven for groups of women showing additional risk factors other than radiation exposure. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Risks and management of radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Loren G

    2013-09-01

    High-energy ionizing radiation is harmful. Low-level exposure sources include background, occupational, and medical diagnostics. Radiation disaster incidents include radioactive substance accidents and nuclear power plant accidents. Terrorism and international conflict could trigger intentional radiation disasters that include radiation dispersion devices (RDD) (a radioactive dirty bomb), deliberate exposure to industrial radioactive substances, nuclear power plant sabotage, and nuclear weapon detonation. Nuclear fissioning events such as nuclear power plant incidents and nuclear weapon detonation release radioactive fallout that include radioactive iodine 131, cesium 137, strontium 90, uranium, plutonium, and many other radioactive isotopes. An RDD dirty bomb is likely to spread only one radioactive substance, with the most likely substance being cesium 137. Cobalt 60 and strontium 90 are other RDD dirty bomb possibilities. In a radiation disaster, stable patients should be decontaminated to minimize further radiation exposure. Potassium iodide (KI) is useful for iodine 131 exposure. Prussian blue (ferric hexacyanoferrate) enhances the fecal excretion of cesium via ion exchange. Ca-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) and Zn-DTPA form stable ionic complexes with plutonium, americium, and curium, which are excreted in the urine. Amifostine enhances chemical and enzymatic repair of damaged DNA. Acute radiation sickness ranges in severity from mild to lethal, which can be assessed by the nausea/vomiting onset/duration, complete blood cell count findings, and neurologic symptoms.

  5. Medical response for radiological accidents from Regional cooperation : Latin-American radiopathology networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde, Nelson; Cardenas, Juan; Perez, Maria del Rosario; Trano, Jose Luiz Di; Gisone, Pablo

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this program is to have a system, in order to assure an appropriate medical response in the case of radiological accidents and to offer medical advice in aspects related to the biological effects of ionizing radiations in risk assessment of radiation workers, medical exposures, potential effects of prenatal irradiation

  6. Managing severe reactor accidents. A review and evaluation of our knowledge on reactor accidents and accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, Veine

    2002-11-01

    The report gives a review of the results from the last years research on severe reactor accidents, and an opinion on the possibilities to refine the present strategies for accident management in Swedish and Finnish BWRs. The following aspect of reactor accidents are the major themes of the study: 1. Early pressure relief from hydrogen production; 2. Recriticality in re-flooded, degraded core; 3. Melt-through; 4. Steam explosion after melt-through; 5. Coolability of the melt after after melt-through; 6. Hydrogen fire in the reactor containment; 7. Leaking containment; 8. Hydrogen fire in the reactor building; 9. Long-time developments after a severe accident; 10. Accidents during shutdown for overhaul; 11. Information need for remedial actions. Possibilities for improving the strategies in each of these areas are discussed. The review shows that our knowledge is sufficient in the areas 1, 2, 4, 6, 8. For the other areas, more research is needed

  7. Principles for establishing intervention levels for the protection of the public in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This Safety Guide is based on the report of an Advisory Group which met in Vienna in October 1984 in order to develop guidance on the radiation protection principles concerning emergency response planning and the establishment of intervention levels to be applied for the protection of the public in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency. It considers the relationship between emergency response planning and various accident sequences, examines the pathways for radiation exposure and the sources of advice to decision makers during each of the three main accident phases, and specifies the dosimetric quantities that apply. The relevant pathological effects that must be protected against are summarized and the measures that may need to be implemented to provide protection with respect to each of the exposure pathways are discussed. It sets out the principles which underline decisions on intervention planning for each of the accident phases, gives guidance on dose values for the introduction of relevant protective measures and considers the application of cost-benefit analysis and the determination of the optimum dose level at which to withdraw protective measures

  8. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Masahide; Koriyama, Tamio

    2012-09-01

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating

  9. Status of food and raw milk supply and problem just after the reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakawa, Sachiko; Murakami, Kana; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Takizawa, Mari; Kawai, Masaki; Sato, Osamu; Takagi, Syunji; Nakamura, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Iodine 131 was detected in the environment and the food such as vegetables, raw milk and tap water just after the reactor accident following the East Japan Great Earthquake occurred in March 11, 2011. This article investigated status of refuge of Fukushima residents, their dietary life and food distribution from March 11 to 31 just after the accident so as to reevaluate internal exposure dose with Iodine 131. Investigation results showed most of food taken by refugees was confirmed food stock or relief supplies outside from the disaster area and suggested food contaminated with Iodine 131 was not widely consumed and distributed due to limit to send designated vegetables, restriction of tap water intake, damaged distribution facilities and closing down of retail stores. Restriction of tap water intake was only applied partly, so this might cause internal exposure dose due to tap water. (T. Tanaka)

  10. Follow-up of pregnant woman 16 years after exposure in Xinzhou radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhaohui; Zhang Shulan; Jia Tingzhen; Liu Qingjie; Liang Li; Su Xu; Ma Liwen; Qin Bin; Chen Sen; Wang Wenxue

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the late effect of radiation on child-bearing women, through observing 'Fang', a 19-week-pregnant woman at age of 23, who was exposed to 60 Co radiation in Shanxi Xinzhou radiation accident in November, 1992 and diagnosed as moderate bone marrow type acute radiation sickness and recovered after 16 year of follow-up treatment. Methods: Clinical data including medical history, physical examination, laboratory data, imaging findings and consulting relevant departments were reviewed. Results: The followed-up woman 'Fang' often felt weak and caught cold after recovery. When she was 32 years old (9 years after radiation), her hair turned grey, but without hair loss. Her menstrual quantitiy was lessened since 31 years old (8 years after radiation). She was remarried and pregnant twice in the same year. At the first time she underwent artificial abortion and the second child suffered from intrauterine death after 6 months of pregnancy. The physical examination found bilateral degree I thyroid enlargement and sparse armpit hair. The laboratory test showed the increased levels of triiodothyronine, thyroxine and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TMAb) and the decreased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Unstable chromosome aberrations were totally lost and stable aberrations in chromosomes were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The dose estimated with the residue chromosome aberration was 0.76 Gy. Other laboratory results were normal. Ultrasonic test showed diffuse lesion in bilateral thyroid and multiple cystic nodules in right lobe of thyroid, which was considered to be nodular goiter. The examination of bone mineral density (BMD) showed osteoporosis from the second to the fourth lumber vertebra. There were no diseases associated with radiation based on the consultation from related departments. Conclusions: Intrauterine death after 6 months of pregnancy might be associated with the previous exposure. There is no evidence of

  11. Early measurements in urban areas after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhtarev, I.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarises the experience on the radioactive monitoring of the environment and population dose assessment provided in urban areas, mainly in Kiev, after the Chernobyl accident. It emphasises the need of several radiological teams, of the support from several institutions and of preparedness for a consistent database, dose assessment and criteria for decision making. Main results of measurements of gamma exposure rates, air, grass and food radioactive contamination are presented. (author)

  12. Study on the effect of removal of milk consumption for infants and adults after accidents involving radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, D.N.G.; Rochedo, E.R.R.; Wasserman, M.AV.; Conti, L.F.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, it was observed that milk had a relevant contribution to ingestion doses after the contamination of rural areas. Three nuclides were very significant for the ingestion exposure for members of the public after this accident: {sup 131}I, which had great significance in the initial phase and considered responsible for the cases of thyroid cancer seen in children living at the contaminated areas of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus; and {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, considered as relevant radionuclides contributing also to long-term doses to the public. Although this accident led to an extensive knowledge on the environmental behavior of these radionuclides, there are few studies reporting data for tropical areas. This work aims to assess the contribution of these three radionuclides to the dose due to milk ingested by babies and adults, and to evaluate the effect of milk removal from consumption as a countermeasure to reduce public exposure, as a function of the season of the year when the accident occurs and on the time after the deposition when the removal from diet is implemented. The effects on reducing exposures were assessed for short, medium and long term doses considering the deposition of 1 kBq/m{sup 2} of each radionuclide individually. The results show that this countermeasure leads to a larger percentage on dose reduction, despite the significant effect of seasonality. Regarding the {sup 131}I, the countermeasure is to be seen as urgent and should be implemented shortly after deposition to be effective. (author)

  13. Study on the effect of removal of milk consumption for infants and adults after accidents involving radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D.N.G.; Rochedo, E.R.R.; Wasserman, M.AV.; Conti, L.F.C.

    2011-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, it was observed that milk had a relevant contribution to ingestion doses after the contamination of rural areas. Three nuclides were very significant for the ingestion exposure for members of the public after this accident: 131 I, which had great significance in the initial phase and considered responsible for the cases of thyroid cancer seen in children living at the contaminated areas of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus; and 137 Cs and 90 Sr, considered as relevant radionuclides contributing also to long-term doses to the public. Although this accident led to an extensive knowledge on the environmental behavior of these radionuclides, there are few studies reporting data for tropical areas. This work aims to assess the contribution of these three radionuclides to the dose due to milk ingested by babies and adults, and to evaluate the effect of milk removal from consumption as a countermeasure to reduce public exposure, as a function of the season of the year when the accident occurs and on the time after the deposition when the removal from diet is implemented. The effects on reducing exposures were assessed for short, medium and long term doses considering the deposition of 1 kBq/m 2 of each radionuclide individually. The results show that this countermeasure leads to a larger percentage on dose reduction, despite the significant effect of seasonality. Regarding the 131 I, the countermeasure is to be seen as urgent and should be implemented shortly after deposition to be effective. (author)

  14. 10 years after Chernobyl, radiation exposure, health effects, safety aspects; 10 Jahre nach Tschernobyl, Strahlenbelastung, Gesundheitseffekte, Sicherheitsaspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueck, K

    1996-11-01

    This report sums up the various conferences and symposia which were prompted by the tenth anniversary of the accident in the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl. It was shown that by the accident up to now 31 casualties among the emergency and rescue personal at the site. Offsite no increased number of casualties caused by the accident was observed up to now. In the countries with the highest impact Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, however, an increased number of infant thyroid cancer is observed which is substantially higher than after the nuclear detonations over Japanese cities. Contrary to often published media reports, however, up to now no increases in leukemia or other malignant deceases were observed, neither in the population of the concerned regions nor among the liquidators. The high {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in the environment close to the power plant result in exclusion zone even today. The deposition values in Kiev, however, amount to only 30 kBq/m{sup 2}, in large areas of Ukraine they are below the average values in Austria of 22 kBq/m{sup 2}. For these areas as well as those outside the former Soviet Union the average doses were less than 1 mSv in the first year, a value which is less than one third of natural annual radiation exposure. Since the reactor accident the activity concentration has significally decreased resulting in an exposure as consequence of the reactor accident of less than 0,8 % of the exposure in the first year. In Austria the exposure in 1996 amounts to less than 0,3 % of natural radiation exposure. (author).

  15. Evaluation of skin and ingestion exposure pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaberg, Rosanne [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Logsdon, Joe E [United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Radiation Programs, Washington, DC (United States)

    1989-06-01

    After a nuclear accident when there has been a release of radionuclides into the atmosphere with consequential deposition on the ground, decisions are necessary on whether protective action guides should be implemented. In order to do this, several pathways for radiation exposure must be evaluated to determine the projected dose to individuals. The objective of this study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratories for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is to provide background information on exposure pathways for use in the development of Protective Action Guides. The relative importance of three exposure pathways that are usually considered to be unimportant compared to other pathways expected to control relocation decisions following a nuclear power plant accident is evaluated. The three pathways are the skin dose from contact with radionuclides transferred from the ground, the skin dose from radionuclides on the ground surface, and ingestion of radionuclides transferred directly to the mouth from the hands or other contaminated surfaces. Ingestion of contaminated food is not included in this evaluation, except for situations where the food is contaminated as a result of actions by the person who consumes the food (e.g., transfer of contamination from hands to food). Estimates of skin and ingestion doses are based on a source term with a radionuclide mix predicted for an SST2-type nuclear accident in an area where the first year reference whole-body dose equivalent from whole body external exposure to gamma radiation plus the committed effective dose equivalent from inhalation of resuspended radionuclides is 1 rem. Appendixes have been included to allow the reader to examine dose factor calculations, source-term data, and quantification of contact and ingestion parameters in more detail.

  16. Evaluation of skin and ingestion exposure pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaberg, Rosanne; Logsdon, Joe E.

    1989-06-01

    After a nuclear accident when there has been a release of radionuclides into the atmosphere with consequential deposition on the ground, decisions are necessary on whether protective action guides should be implemented. In order to do this, several pathways for radiation exposure must be evaluated to determine the projected dose to individuals. The objective of this study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratories for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is to provide background information on exposure pathways for use in the development of Protective Action Guides. The relative importance of three exposure pathways that are usually considered to be unimportant compared to other pathways expected to control relocation decisions following a nuclear power plant accident is evaluated. The three pathways are the skin dose from contact with radionuclides transferred from the ground, the skin dose from radionuclides on the ground surface, and ingestion of radionuclides transferred directly to the mouth from the hands or other contaminated surfaces. Ingestion of contaminated food is not included in this evaluation, except for situations where the food is contaminated as a result of actions by the person who consumes the food (e.g., transfer of contamination from hands to food). Estimates of skin and ingestion doses are based on a source term with a radionuclide mix predicted for an SST2-type nuclear accident in an area where the first year reference whole-body dose equivalent from whole body external exposure to gamma radiation plus the committed effective dose equivalent from inhalation of resuspended radionuclides is 1 rem. Appendixes have been included to allow the reader to examine dose factor calculations, source-term data, and quantification of contact and ingestion parameters in more detail

  17. Preventing accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    As the most effective strategy for improving safety is to prevent accidents from occurring at all, the Volpe Center applies a broad range of research techniques and capabilities to determine causes and consequences of accidents and to identify, asses...

  18. Some lessons on radiological protection learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, M

    2012-01-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant released a large quantity of radioactive iodine and caesium into the environment. In terms of radiological protection, the evacuation and food restrictions that were adopted in a timely manner by the authorities effectively reduced the dose received by people living in the affected area. Since late March, the transition from an emergency to an existing exposure situation has been in progress. In selecting the reference exposure levels in some areas under an existing exposure situation, the authorities tried to follow the situation-based approach recommended by the ICRP. However, a mixture of emergency and post-emergency approaches confused the people living in the contaminated areas because the reactor conditions continued to be not completely stable. In deriving the criteria in an existing exposure situation, the regulatory authority selected 20 mSv y −1 . The mothers in the affected area believed that a dose of 20 mSv y −1 was unacceptably high for children since 1 mSv y −1 is the dose limit for the public under normal conditions. Internet information accelerated concern about the internal exposure to children and the related health effects. From some experiences after the accident the following lessons could be learned. The selection of reference doses in existing exposure situations after an accident must be openly communicated with the public using a risk-informed approach. The detriment-adjusted nominal risk coefficient was misused for calculating the hypothetical number of cancer deaths by some non-radiation experts. It would not be possible to resolve this problem unless the ICRP addressed an alternative risk assessment to convey the meaning and associated uncertainty of the risk to an exposed population. A situation-based approach in addition to a risk-informed approach needs to be disseminated properly in order to select the level of protection that would be the best possible under the

  19. MELCOR assessment of sequential severe accident mitigation actions under SGTR accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Wonjun; Jeon, Joongoo; Kim, Nam Kyung; Kim, Sung Joong

    2017-01-01

    The representative example of the severe accident studies using the severe accident code is investigation of effectiveness of developed severe accident management (SAM) strategy considering the positive and adverse effects. In Korea, some numerical studies were performed to investigate the SAM strategy using various severe accident codes. Seo et.al performed validation of RCS depressurization strategy and investigated the effect of severe accident management guidance (SAMG) entry condition under small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) without safety injection (SI), station blackout (SBO), and total loss of feed water (TLOFW) scenarios. The SGTR accident with the sequential mitigation actions according to the flow chart of SAMG was simulated by the MELCOR 1.8.6 code. Three scenariospreventing the RPV failure were investigated in terms of fission product release, hydrogen risk, and the containment pressure. Major conclusions can be summarized as follows: (1) According to the flow chart of SAMG, RPV failure can be prevented depending on the method of RCS depressurization. (2) To reduce the release of fission product during the injecting into SGs, a temporary opening of SDS before the injecting into SGs was suggested. These modified sequences of mitigation actions can reduce the release of fission product and the adverse effect of SDS.

  20. Chairperson's Summary, International Expert Meeting on Decommissioning and Remediation after a Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Carl Magnus

    2013-01-01

    History has clearly demonstrated, and it has repeated itself in the events and aftermath of March 2011, that a major nuclear accident, just as any other major accident, not only affects public and environmental health, but in addition causes a wide range of direct and indirect effects. These include evacuation and relocation; social unrest; indirect health effects related to anxiety, radiological stigma and symptoms of a post-traumatic nature; as well as effects on property, the economy, public policy and politics. All of these factors influence the setting of targets for decommissioning and remediation; this is often an iterative process involving consideration of the legal framework, finances, processes and methodology and technology. Importantly, decommissioning and remediation is carried out in close interaction with stakeholders, of which the public (affected by both the accident and the recovery from its consequences) form an important part. Today, we have substantial knowledge about the impact of major nuclear accidents as well as a wealth of experience - good and sometimes less so - from a range of decommissioning and remediation projects following nuclear accidents. There are also a number of lessons to be learned from decommissioning and remediation of other legacy sites that have not originated from nuclear accidents but where the problems encountered are of similar nature. Experiences have over the years been discussed in many fora, including a number of IAEA initiatives and UNSCEAR reviews of scientific information on health and environmental effects of accidents and legacies of comparable nature. It is timely to discuss this knowledge in relation to the Fukushima Daiichi accident, to provide guidance to future actions aimed at strengthening our understanding of the exposure situation, and our ability to successfully carry out decommissioning of facilities and environmental remediation after a nuclear accident. (author)

  1. Research on classification of nuclear and radiological accident from IAEA threat category with estimation of INES scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seok Ki [Dept. of Nuclear engineering, Univ of SeJong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Siu [Korea Nuclear International Cooperation Foundation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    As there is increasing use of nuclear energy and radiation while information on nuclear related accidents are accumulated, international interest in nuclear and radiation incidents is increasing rapidly. Because of the specificity of nuclear energy and radiation, the damage caused by such accidents will be spread to the larger area around the accident point due to the radiation and cause biological damage and mental-psychological damage. The purpose of this study is to categorize historical incidents using the Threat Category concept described in the publication of IAEA Safety Guide GS-G-2.1. In addition to categorizing actual events and accidents into Threat Categories, causes of occurrences, the type of radioactive source which leads to the main threats, the type of radiation exposure, and the type of patient are organized in detail. As a result of the analysis of representative historical cases, most accident cases caused by 'Nuclear Energy-Related Business Operator' correspond to 1 (Anomaly) ~ 4 (Accident with Local Consequences) in the INES Scale by IAEA. From the some accident cases, while the radiological damage can be seen to be local, but it can be seen that the possibility of 6 (Serious Accident) can not be absolutely excluded.

  2. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Occupational accidents among nursing professionals in a home care service in the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Fernanda Corrêa Cordeiro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a cross-sectional study whose objective is to identify and describe accidents with biological material as told by nursing professionals in a home care service in a city in the state of São Paulo. Of the 30 subjects who provided that service in the data collection period, 28 agreed to participate and 12 (42.8% claimed to have suffered at least one accident with biological material while carrying out professional procedures for that service. Most of the exposures were percutaneous (91.7% and blood was the most often involved fluid (75%. Regarding procedures, 75% of the individuals were administering drugs when the accident happened and 50% admitted that they were recapping hollow needles. The current study enabled the identification of situations described by the professionals and which led to the occurrence of accidents with biological material during home care. These findings can support preventive measures and guide future studies that involve this type of accident at homes.

  4. Nature of activities and natural, artificial, accidental exposures. Magnitude of these exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurengo, A.

    2009-01-01

    The exposure to ionizing radiation (I.R.) is linked to radioelements of organism (9%), earth (12%), cosmic radiation (10%), radon (37%), atmospheric fallout ( nuclear tests 2.5% and industry 0.5%) and to medical procedures (29%). The natural exposure varies in France from 2.5 to 5 mSv by year. In some areas in the world it reaches several tens of mSv by year. The medical exposure is very heterogeneous and concerns particularly old people. For a same examination, the patients exposure varies in an important way ( sometimes from 1 to 10) according to the country, even in France. In France, 250 000 persons are occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. Among these ones, the most of cases exceeded regulatory limits for exposure to IR concern the health sector. The accidental exposures are in relation with industrial activities (51%) research (20%) civil nuclear (13%) or military (5%) and medical activities (11%). The exposures and then the consequences are very variable, ranging from death to unapparent consequences. in the most of cases a human error is involved and these accidents could have been avoided through measures of prevention and training. (N.C.)

  5. The Human Aspect of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anegawa, T.; Kawano, A.

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing itself as the main party involved in the nuclear accident triggered by the Tohoku-Chihou-Taiheiyo-Oki Earthquake on March 11, 2011, Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) has performed accident investigation from various aspects. Results of the investigation are reported mainly in two reports; (1) Fukushima Nuclear Accident Analysis Report (June 20, 2012), which identified the timeline and the proximate causes of the accident, and (2) Summary of Fukushima Nuclear Accident and Nuclear Safety Reform Plan (March 29, 2013) to set forth the results of the investigation and provide an analysis of the background factors surrounding the accident and countermeasures taken. This presentation will first provide overview of the accident response at Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Stations. Voices from the first responders at the sites will be introduced in order to share thoughts of individuals involved in the emergency response. Summary of retrospective study of the accident by one of the shift supervisors at the time of the accident will be presented in order to share the facts that happened at main control rooms. The shift supervisor and his crew had to manage the situation for extended period of time that exceeded the scenarios that they had been trained, in a situation with no lightning and high radiation condition. During the accident response, shift supervisors had to decide to dispatch some of his crew members to the field to open valves, check the status of equipment etc., in the situation where the high radiation exposure is foreseen. The presentation will include conflict of shift supervisors and crew focusing on the human aspects. In addition, actions being taken at the Emergency Response Centers (ERC) set up at the seismic-isolated building on-site and the Headquarters in Tokyo will be shared focusing on the human aspects related to the accident progress. This includes difficult decisions to dispatch first responders to the field, in the

  6. Supervisor's accident investigation handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    This pamphlet was prepared by the Environmental Health and Safety Department (EH and S) of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to provide LBL supervisors with a handy reference to LBL's accident investigation program. The publication supplements the Accident and Emergencies section of LBL's Regulations and Procedures Manual, Pub. 201. The present guide discusses only accidents that are to be investigated by the supervisor. These accidents are classified as Type C by the Department of Energy (DOE) and include most occupational injuries and illnesses, government motor-vehicle accidents, and property damages of less than $50,000

  7. Cost per severe accident as an index for severe accident consequence assessment and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Kampanart; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Takahara, Shogo

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima Accident emphasizes the need to integrate the assessments of health effects, economic impacts, social impacts and environmental impacts, in order to perform a comprehensive consequence assessment of severe accidents in nuclear power plants. “Cost per severe accident” is introduced as an index for that purpose. The calculation methodology, including the consequence analysis using level 3 probabilistic risk assessment code OSCAAR and the calculation method of the cost per severe accident, is proposed. This methodology was applied to a virtual 1,100 MWe boiling water reactor. The breakdown of the cost per severe accident was provided. The radiation effect cost, the relocation cost and the decontamination cost were the three largest components. Sensitivity analyses were carried out, and parameters sensitive to cost per severe accident were specified. The cost per severe accident was compared with the amount of source terms, to demonstrate the performance of the cost per severe accident as an index to evaluate severe accident consequences. The ways to use the cost per severe accident for optimization of radiation protection countermeasures and for estimation of the effects of accident management strategies are discussed as its applications. - Highlights: • Cost per severe accident is used for severe accident consequence assessment. • Assessments of health, economic, social and environmental impacts are included. • Radiation effect, relocation and decontamination costs are important cost components. • Cost per severe accident can be used to optimize radiation protection measures. • Effects of accident management can be estimated using the cost per severe accident

  8. Replacement of the criticality accident alarm system in the Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Yukihisa; Momose, Takumaro; Suzuki, Kei; Kawai, Keiichi

    2008-01-01

    A Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) was installed as part of criticality safety management for use in reducing the radiation workers could be exposed to in the rare case of a criticality accident. The initial CAAS version was installed the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) in the 1980s. It includes units that can detect gamma-rays or neutron-rays released in criticality accidents (CADs), one of which consists of three plastic scintillation gamma detectors and three solid state neutron detectors with fissile material, and in being highly reliable utilizes the 2 out of 3 voting system. The purpose of this study is to give the design principles and procedures for determining the adequate relocation of the CADs within the TRP. The optimal places for the CADs to be relocated to were determined using a conservative evaluation method. Firstly, equipment needing to be monitored for criticality accidents was selected with consideration given to the risk of excessive exposure to workers. Secondly, the detection threshold of a minimum accident was set to be an increase in power of 10 15 fissions/s occurring within a rise-time of between 0.5 ms and 1 s. The sum of neutron and gamma doses of a minimum accident (10 15 fissions) was 0.3 Gy at an unshielded distance of 1 m. Finally, doses at where the CADs were installed were evaluated using parameters calculated with MCNP and ANISN. As a result, the alarm trip level of both the gamma detector and the neutron detector being set at 2.0 mGy/h enabled minimum criticality accidents to be conservatively detected. These results were then applied to the new CAD positions. (author)

  9. Analysis and prognosis of radiation exposure following the accident at the Siberian chemical combine Tomsk-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakulovski, S.M.; Shershakov, V.M.; Borodin, R.V.; Vozzhennikov, O.I.; gaziev, Y.I.; Kosykh, V.S.; Makhon'ko, K.P.; Chumichev, V.B.

    1994-10-01

    On the basis of the work (ground investigations and gamma aerial surveys) carried out jointly by the Rosgidromet organizations and Berezovgeologiya, data on the radiation exposure in Russia were obtained shortly after the accident of April 6, 1993 already. These data were transmitted to interested institutions. The measurements performed on April 11 and 12, 1993 indicated that within the isolines of 10 μR/h a contaminated area of up to 25 km in length and up to 6 km in width extended towards the northeastern direction. Thus, the contaminated area outside of the premises of the combine covered about 100 km 2 . The total amount of radioactive substances in this area was 530 - 590 Ci. Isotope composition of the radioactive trace was determined by ruthenium-103 (1%), ruthenium-106 (31%), zirconium-95 (22%), niobium-95 (45%) and plutonium-239 (0.02%). Contamination heterogeneity is caused by the existence of 'hot' particles with an activity of up to 10-11 Ci/particle. In the contaminated area the gamma exposure rate varied between 14 and 42 μR/h at 1 m height, yielding the maximum external radiation dose 100 mrem/year for the population of Georgievka. The Pu-239 inhalation dose of the population of Georgievka when passing the radioactive cloud did not exceed 1.5 mrem. A prognosis was made with regard to water contamination of the rivers Samuska and Tom during the flood in spring. Furthermore, contamination of the air layer adjacent to the ground resulting from the wind transport of radionuclides in the summer months at Georgievka was predicted. The values were far below the limits fixed according to the valid radiation protection regulations. However, that radionuclide concentration of the snow water may exceed the limits specified for drinking water. According to the data measured by the meteorological stations, the radioactive products were not entrained beyond the borders of the country. Source estimation was successfully obtained using RIMPUFF, the Risoe on

  10. Safety related studies on the accident behaviour of the HTR-100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, J.; Mertens, J.; Altes, J.; Bongartz, R.; Breitbach, G.; David, P.H.; Degen, G.; Ehrlich, H.G.; Escherich, K.H.; Frank, E.; Hennings, W.; Jahn, W.; Koschmieder, R.; Marx, J.; Meister, G.; Moormann, R.; Rehm, W.; Verfondern, K.

    1991-10-01

    The aim of investigations was to verify the safety concept of the plant for balance and to quantify the radiological risk to be expected in operating an HTR-100 double unit system. Moreover, aspects of the investment risk were considered. The spectrum of initiating events ranged from so-called transients to leaks in the primary circuit and steam generator and even included earthquakes. Some of the event trees derived were highly complex and extensive due to the situation of the steam generator above the core and with regard to the double unit plant concept with increased possibilities of accident control, but also with respect to potential accident propagation. Correspondingly sophisticated analyses were required to identify risk-relevant event sequences. Environmental exposure for all risk-relevant accidents is so low that accident consequence calculations do not reveal any lethal radiation doses and practically no stochastic fatal injuries. These calculations neither assumed acute protective measures nor long-term resettlement or decontamination. The radiological risk caused by an HTR-100 plant is therefore to be classified as very low. The initiating events selected as representative and the event sequences studied in detail cover the risk-relevant event spectrum well into the hypothetical range. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Application of the accident management information needs methodology to a severe accident sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, L.W.; Hanson, D.J.; Nelson, W.R.; Solberg, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is conducting an accident management research program that emphasizes the use of severe accident research to enhance the ability of plant operating personnel to effectively manage severe accidents. Hence, it is necessary to ensure that the plant instrumentation and information systems adequately provide this information to the operating staff during accident conditions. A methodology to identify and assess the information needs of the operating staff of a nuclear power plant during a severe accident has been developed. The methodology identifies (a) the information needs of the plant personnel during a wide range of accident conditions, (b) the existing plant measurements capable of supplying these information needs and minor additions to instrument and display systems that would enhance management capabilities, (c) measurement capabilities and limitations during severe accident conditions, and (d) areas in which the information systems could mislead plant personnel

  12. Application of the accident management information needs methodology to a severe accident sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, L.W.; Hanson, D.J.; Nelson, W.R. (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls (USA)); Solberg, D.E. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (USA))

    1989-11-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is conducting an accident management research program that emphasizes the use of severe accident research to enhance the ability of plant operating personnel to effectively manage severe accidents. Hence, it is necessary to ensure that the plant instrumentation and information systems adequately provide this information to the operating staff during accident conditions. A methodology to identify and assess the information needs of the operating staff of a nuclear power plant during a severe accident has been developed. The methodology identifies (a) the information needs of the plant personnel during a wide range of accident conditions, (b) the existing plant measurements capable of supplying these information needs and minor additions to instrument and display systems that would enhance management capabilities, (c) measurement capabilities and limitations during severe accident conditions, and (d) areas in which the information systems could mislead plant personnel.

  13. NIRS report of the criticality accident in a uranium conversion test plant in Tokai-mura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This report is a detailed account of the roles that National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) played at the criticality accident in the title, which occurred at around 10:35, on Sep. 30, 1999 and resulted in death of two workers after all, and is published to discharge NIRS responsibilities in regards to the accident. The accident caused many residents concern on their health and rumors had both social and economic consequences. The report involves chapters of detailed outline of the accident; demand for acceptance of the victims and communications until the identification of the criticality'' accident; the acceptance and initial treatment; the exposure dose estimation (based on acute symptoms, on physics, on chromosomal analyses and on neutron-activated dental metals, and detailed analyses for dose distribution); decision made for therapeutic strategies; cooperation with the Network Council for Radiation Emergency and with other medical facilities; the urgent import of medicine; treatment and processes (patients, nursing system and radiation injuries); radiation protection in medical facilities; response to nearby residents of the Plant; international response; press release; Uranium Processing Plant Criticality Accident Investigation Committee and the Health Management Committee organized by the Nuclear Safety Commission; handling of information; and radiation emergency medical preparedness at the NIRS (future issues and prospect). The report is hopefully useful in preventing the occurrence of future accidents. (N.I.)

  14. The Chernobyl reactor accident and its consequences. 3. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The report presents a comprehensive survey of measured data explaining the radiation exposure in the Land Hessen, and a chronological survey of the decisions and measures taken by the Hessian regional government in response to the Chernobyl reactor accident. The measures for instance included selection of appropriate measuring methods and sites, checking of various environmental material, waste disposal surveillance, and dose assessments, and a range of monitoring programmes. (PW) [de

  15. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Falls incidence underestimates the risk of fall-related injuries in older age groups : a comparison with the FARE (Falls risk by Exposure)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etman, Astrid; Wijlhuizen, Gert Jan; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Chorus, Astrid; Hopman-Rock, Marijke

    Background: up till now, the risk of falls has been expressed as falls incidence (i.e. the number of falls or fallers per 100 person-years). However, the risk of an accident or injury is the probability of having an accident or injury per unit of exposure. The FARE ( Falls risk by Exposure) is a

  17. Falls incidence underestimates the risk of fall-related injuries in older age groups: a comparison with the FARE (Falls risk by Exposure)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etman, A.; Wijlhuizen, G.J.; van Heuvelen, M.J.G.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: up till now, the risk of falls has been expressed as falls incidence (i.e. the number of falls or fallers per 100 person-years). However, the risk of an accident or injury is the probability of having an accident or injury per unit of exposure. The FARE (Falls risk by Exposure) is a

  18. Falls incidence underestimates the risk of fall-related injuries in older age groups: A comparison with the FARE (Falls risk by exposure)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etman, A.; Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Heuvelen, M.J.G. van; Chorus, A.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: up till now, the risk of falls has been expressed as falls incidence (i.e. the number of falls or fallers per 100 person-years). However, the risk of an accident or injury is the probability of having an accident or injury per unit of exposure. The FARE (Falls risk by Exposure) is a

  19. Accident analysis. A review of the various accidents classifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Martin, L.; Figueras, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the accident analysis, in relation with the safety evaluation, environmental impact and emergency planning, should be to identify the total risk to the population and workers from potential accidents in the facility, analizing it over full spectrum of severity. (auth.)

  20. The radiation hazard to children as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoer, G.; Maul, F.D.; Buell, U.; Kriegel, H.; Manegold, K.H.

    1986-01-01

    A flight in a modern jet across the Atlantic Ocean brings about a whole-body radiation dose of 2-5 mrem (Hall, Niklas). The average exposure of the population in West Germany as a result of the Chernobyl accident corresponds therefore to 100 trans-Atlantic flights. The article in hand is not intended to minimize the hazards emanating from radiation accidents - or nuclear weapons tests - but rather as a means of reducing fear that results from not knowing the real facts. Doctors seeking unbiased information will find a number of references and citations that will help them to pass on this information to patients. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. Could driving safety be compromised by noise exposure at work and noise-induced hearing loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Michel; Girard, Serge André; Courteau, Marilène; Leroux, Tony; Larocque, Richard; Turcotte, Fernand; Lavoie, Michel; Simard, Marc

    2008-10-01

    A study was conducted to verify if there is an association between occupational noise exposure, noise-induced hearing loss and driving safety expanding on previous findings by Picard, et al. (2008) that the two factors did increase accident risk in the workplace. This study was made possible when driving records of all Quebec drivers were made available by the Societe de l'assurance automobile du Quebec (SAAQ is the state monopoly responsible for the provision of motor vehicle insurance and the compensation of victims of traffic accidents). These records were linked with personal records maintained by the Quebec National Institute of Public Health as part of its mission to prevent noise induced hearing loss in the workplace. Individualized information on occupational noise exposure and hearing sensitivity was available for 46,030 male workers employed in noisy industries who also held a valid driver's permit. The observation period is of five years duration, starting with the most recent audiometric examination. The associations between occupational noise exposure levels, hearing status, and personal driving record were examined by log-binomial regression on data adjusted for age and duration of exposure. Daily noise exposures and bilateral average hearing threshold levels at 3, 4, and 6 kHz were used as independent variables while the dependent variables were 1) the number of motor vehicle accidents experienced by participants during the study period and 2) participants' records of registered traffic violations of the highway safety code. The findings are reported as prevalence ratios (PRs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Attributable numbers of events were computed with the relevant PRs, lesser-noise, exposed workers and those with normal hearing levels making the group of reference. Adjusting for age confirmed that experienced workers had fewer traffic accidents. The data show that occupational noise exposure and hearing loss have the same effect on

  2. Cancer incidence among residents of the Three Mile Island accident area: 1982-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Youk, Ada O; Sasser, Howell; Talbott, Evelyn O

    2011-11-01

    The Pennsylvania Department of Health established a registry of the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant accident in 1979. Over 93% of the population present on the day of the accident within a 5-mile radius was enrolled and interviewed. We used the registry to investigate the potential cancer risk from low-dose radiation exposure among the TMI population. Cancer incidence data among the TMI cohort were available from 1982 to 1995. Because more than 97% of the population were white and few cancer cases were reported for those younger than 18 years of age, we included whites of age 18 years and older (10,446 men and 11,048 women) for further analyses. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relative risk (RR) per 0.1 mSv and 95% confident interval (CI) of cancer by radiation-related exposures. The cancers of interest were all malignant neoplasms, cancer of bronchus, trachea, and lung, cancer of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissues, leukemia, and female breast. Among men and women, there was no evidence of an increased risk for all malignant neoplasms among the TMI cohort exposed to higher maximum and likely γ radiation (RR=1.00, 95% CI=0.97, 1.01 and RR=0.99, 95% CI=0.94, 1.03, respectively) after adjusting for age, gender, education, smoking, and background radiation. Elevation in risk was noted for cancer of the bronchus, trachea, and lung in relation to higher background radiation exposure (RR=1.45, 95% CI=1.02-2.05 at 8.0-8.8 μR/h compared to 5.2-7.2 μR/h). An increased risk of leukemia was found among men exposed to higher maximum and likely γ radiation related to TMI exposure during the ten days following the accident (RR=1.15, 95% CI=1.04, 1.29 and RR=1.36, 95% CI=1.08, 1.71, respectively). This relationship was not found in women. Increased cancer risks from low-level radiation exposure within the TMI cohort were small and mostly statistically non-significant. However, additional follow-up on this population is warranted, especially to

  3. Populations protection and territories management in nuclear emergency and post-accident situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrel, M.; Calmon, Ph.; Calvez, M.; Chambrette, V.; Champion, D.; Devin, P.; Godino, O.; Lombard, J.; Rzepka, J.P.; Schneider, Th.; Verhaeghe, B.; Cogez, E.; Kayser, O.; Guenon, C.; Jourdain, J.R.; Bouchot, E.; Murith, Ch.; Lochard, J.; Cluchier, A.; Vandecasteele, Ch.; Pectorin, X.; Dubiau, Ph.; Gerphagnon, O.; Roche, H.; Cessac, B.; Cochard, A.; Machenaud, G.; Jourdain, J.R.; Pirard, Ph.; Leger, M.; Bouchot, E.; Demet, M.; Charre, J.P.; Poumadere, M.; Cogez, E.

    2010-01-01

    for the management of post-accident consequences: agricultural activities and exit of the emergency stage (B. Cessac); 18 - presentation of the operational means of the GIE Groupe Intra (A. Cochard); 19 - synthetical presentation of the studies of post-accident management conditions in the milk industry (G. Machenaud); 20 - reconstruction of doses received by exposed populations (J.R. Jourdain); 21 - organisation of the health monitoring of populations after a radiological accident - presentation taken from the recommendations of the Codirpa's working group 'health stakes' (P. Pirard); 22 - losses indemnification in case of nuclear accident (M. Leger); 23 - post nuclear accident communication - reflections of the Codirpa's working group 'communication' (E. Bouchot); 24 - the ANCCLI's permanent group 'territories - post-accident' (M. Demet); 25 - experience feedback from the local information commission (CLI) 'Marcoule-Gard' in the management of a post-accident situation (J.P. Charre); 26 - commitment of intervening parties in the preparation to accident and post-accident situations: European experiences (T. Schneider); 27 - socio-cognitive exposure and risk assessment - the radio waves case (M. Poumadere). (J.S.)

  4. French policy for managing the post-accident phase of a nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallay, F; Godet, J L; Niel, J C

    2015-06-01

    In 2005, at the request of the French Government, the Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) established a Steering Committee for the Management of the Post-Accident Phase of a Nuclear Accident or a Radiological Emergency, with the objective of establishing a policy framework. Under the supervision of ASN, this Committee, involving several tens of experts from different backgrounds (e.g. relevant ministerial offices, expert agencies, local information commissions around nuclear installations, non-governmental organisations, elected officials, licensees, and international experts), developed a number of recommendations over a 7-year period. First published in November 2012, these recommendations cover the immediate post-emergency situation, and the transition and longer-term periods of the post-accident phase in the case of medium-scale nuclear accidents causing short-term radioactive release (less than 24 h) that might occur at French nuclear facilities. They also apply to actions to be undertaken in the event of accidents during the transportation of radioactive materials. These recommendations are an important first step in preparation for the management of a post-accident situation in France in the case of a nuclear accident. © The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers 2014.

  5. Accident progression event tree analysis for postulated severe accidents at N Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyss, G.D.; Camp, A.L.; Miller, L.A.; Dingman, S.E.; Kunsman, D.M.; Medford, G.T.

    1990-06-01

    A Level II/III probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been performed for N Reactor, a Department of Energy (DOE) production reactor located on the Hanford reservation in Washington. The accident progression analysis documented in this report determines how core damage accidents identified in the Level I PRA progress from fuel damage to confinement response and potential releases the environment. The objectives of the study are to generate accident progression data for the Level II/III PRA source term model and to identify changes that could improve plant response under accident conditions. The scope of the analysis is comprehensive, excluding only sabotage and operator errors of commission. State-of-the-art methodology is employed based largely on the methods developed by Sandia for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in support of the NUREG-1150 study. The accident progression model allows complex interactions and dependencies between systems to be explicitly considered. Latin Hypecube sampling was used to assess the phenomenological and systemic uncertainties associated with the primary and confinement system responses to the core damage accident. The results of the analysis show that the N Reactor confinement concept provides significant radiological protection for most of the accident progression pathways studied

  6. Occupational radiation exposure history of Idaho Field Office Operations at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horan, J.R.; Braun, J.B.

    1993-10-01

    An extensive review has been made of the occupational radiation exposure records of workers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) over the period of 1951 through 1990. The focus has been on workers employed by contractors and employees of the Idaho Field Operations Office (ID) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and does not include the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF), the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), or other operations field offices at the INEL. The radiation protection guides have decreased from 15 rem/year to 5 rem/year in 1990 for whole body penetrating radiation exposure. During these 40 years of nuclear operations (in excess of 200,000 man-years of work), a total of twelve individuals involved in four accidents exceeded the annual guidelines for exposure; nine of these exposures were received during life saving efforts on January 3, 1961 following the SL-1 reactor accident which killed three military personnel. These exposures ranged from 8 to 27 rem. Only one individual has exceeded the annual whole body penetrating radiation protection guidelines in the last 29 years

  7. Occupational radiation exposure history of Idaho Field Office Operations at the INEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horan, J.R.; Braun, J.B.

    1993-10-01

    An extensive review has been made of the occupational radiation exposure records of workers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) over the period of 1951 through 1990. The focus has been on workers employed by contractors and employees of the Idaho Field Operations Office (ID) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and does not include the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF), the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), or other operations field offices at the INEL. The radiation protection guides have decreased from 15 rem/year to 5 rem/year in 1990 for whole body penetrating radiation exposure. During these 40 years of nuclear operations (in excess of 200,000 man-years of work), a total of twelve individuals involved in four accidents exceeded the annual guidelines for exposure; nine of these exposures were received during life saving efforts on January 3, 1961 following the SL-1 reactor accident which killed three military personnel. These exposures ranged from 8 to 27 rem. Only one individual has exceeded the annual whole body penetrating radiation protection guidelines in the last 29 years.

  8. Probability of spent fuel transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.

    1981-07-01

    The transported volume of spent fuel, incident/accident experience and accident environment probabilities were reviewed in order to provide an estimate of spent fuel accident probabilities. In particular, the accident review assessed the accident experience for large casks of the type that could transport spent (irradiated) nuclear fuel. This review determined that since 1971, the beginning of official US Department of Transportation record keeping for accidents/incidents, there has been one spent fuel transportation accident. This information, coupled with estimated annual shipping volumes for spent fuel, indicated an estimated annual probability of a spent fuel transport accident of 5 x 10 -7 spent fuel accidents per mile. This is consistent with ordinary truck accident rates. A comparison of accident environments and regulatory test environments suggests that the probability of truck accidents exceeding regulatory test for impact is approximately 10 -9 /mile

  9. Application of the accident management information needs methodology to a severe accident sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, L.W.; Hanson, D.J.; Nelson, W.R.; Solberg, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is conducting an Accident Management Research Program that emphasizes the application of severe accident research results to enhance the capability of plant operating personnel to effectively manage severe accidents. A methodology to identify and assess the information needs of the operating staff of a nuclear power plant during a severe accident has been developed as part of the research program designed to resolve this issue. The methodology identifies the information needs of the plant personnel during a wide range of accident conditions, the existing plant measurements capable of supplying these information needs and what, if any minor additions to instrument and display systems would enhance the capability to manage accidents, known limitations on the capability of these measurements to function properly under the conditions that will be present during a wide range of severe accidents, and areas in which the information systems could mislead plant personnel. This paper presents an application of this methodology to a severe accident sequence to demonstrate its use in identifying the information which is available for management of the event. The methodology has been applied to a severe accident sequence in a Pressurized Water Reactor with a large dry containment. An examination of the capability of the existing measurements was then performed to determine whether the information needs can be supplied

  10. Road accidents and tourism: the case of the Balearic Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselló, Jaume; Saenz-de-Miera, Oscar

    2011-05-01

    The increase in the number of tourists for many destinations and their increased mobility within host countries or regions has implied a rise in tourism-associated externalities, with vehicle crashes as the most common cause of injury for tourists. Within the transport literature, the number and variation in the amount of accidents has been related to a large set of determining variables, including weather conditions, socio-economic characteristics, exposure, physical characteristics of the road and a variety of dummies that try to capture effects such as safety laws and seasonal variations. However, the presence of tourism has been neglected. Using the case study of the Balearic Islands, the present study estimates the role of tourism in determining the number of accidents in a daily context, using the set of variables suggested by the literature and incorporating a daily measure for the stock of tourists at a host destination. Results show how tourism can be associated with a significant amount of the accidents that take place in the Balearics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Thyroid cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident: Incidence, prognosis of progress, risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buglova, E.; Kenigsberg, J.; Golovneva, A.; Demidchik, E.

    1997-01-01

    Starting from 1990, an increasing number of persons, suffering from thyroid cancer was diagnosed in Belarus. These persons were exposed to radiation in 1986 due to the Chernobyl Accident and were children and adolescents at the time of the accident. This paper gives an overview of the total number of thyroid cancer cases observed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident among the persons exposed to radiation under 18 years of age. Duration of the latent period and background incidence rate are under discussion. Based on the most reliable data about thyroid doses and incidence rate among the persons exposed to radiation under 6 years of age, the estimation of risk coefficient for radiation induced thyroid cancer was carried out. For childhood exposure from I-131, the excess absolute risk per 10,0000 PYGy was 4.5 (author)

  12. Analysis of chromosome translocation in the residents of Namie Town after the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Mitsuaki A.; Nakata, Akifumi; Miura, Tomisato; Nishimura, Miya; Takamagi, Shizuka; Kasai, Kosuke; Konno, Norio; Yoshida, Ryoko; Sekine, Shunji

    2014-01-01

    The dose estimation by behavior survey of the residents carried out by Fukushima Prefecture after the accident reported that there are no residents who were exposed by over 1 mSv radiation. However, a lot of the parents are worrying about the health condition of their children in future. Our Hirosaki University accepted the request of the local government of this Namie-Town in Fukushima which wants to know whether children were exposed by radiological substances or not and started the inspection about the contamination and exposure level and dose estimation at an accident using chromosomal translocation analysis for 855 out of 3700 children whose age was under 18 years old at the time of accident. In order to estimate radiation dose using chromosome aberration in the accidents, there are four kinds of cytogenetic method; dicentric assay, a translocation assay, the PCC-ring assay and micronucleus test. A dicentric assay is used for the dose estimation in acute and external exposure cases, the chromosomal translocation method for dose assessment in chronic and old exposure and the PCC method for high dose exposure, respectively. In the case of the residents in Namie-Town, since about one year and ten months had already passed after the accident when implementation of this inspection was determined, the chromosomal translocation method was applied for the dose estimation of the initial exposure level. The main purpose of this translocation analysis using their own cells is to take away affairs of the residents including parents and children and also to reduce the uneasiness which is not wiped away by the health check due to a behavioral survey. In this inspection, after the contents and process of this analysis were explained in the Tsushima, Namie-Town temporarily constructed clinic, 3∼4 ml of whole 5 blood were taken from each children whose parents agreed with this analysis. The lymphocytic cells are isolated from the whole blood using CPT (Cell Preparation Tube

  13. The role of mushrooms and berries in the formation of internal exposure doses to the population of Russia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shutov, V.N.; Bruk, G.Ya.; Basalaeva, L.N.; Vasilevitskiy, V.A.; Ivanova, N.P.; Kaplun, I.S.

    1996-01-01

    The present work is devoted to an analysis of the data on the dynamics of 137 Cs transfer factors in the current most critical (for the population of Russia) links of food chain: 'soil mushrooms' and 'soil berries'. Data were obtained during 1986-1994 in the most contaminated region of Russia - the Bryansk region -and then were used for assessing the contribution of forest products consumed by the population of contaminated territories to internal exposure doses. It was shown in contrast to agricultural food products (where natural decontamination took place quickly) that radioactive decontamination of mushrooms and berries during the eight years after the Chernobyl accident was very slow. Use is made of aggregated radioecological data together with broad assumptions about the consumption of forest products to predict the doses that might arise from consumption of such foodstuffs. These predictions are then compared with values derived from whole-body measurements. (Author)

  14. Reactor Safety Gap Evaluation of Accident Tolerant Components and Severe Accident Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, Mitchell T.; Bunt, R.; Corradini, M.; Ellison, Paul B.; Francis, M.; Gabor, John D.; Gauntt, R.; Henry, C.; Linthicum, R.; Luangdilok, W.; Lutz, R.; Paik, C.; Plys, M.; Rabiti, Cristian; Rempe, J.; Robb, K.; Wachowiak, R.

    2015-01-01

    The overall objective of this study was to conduct a technology gap evaluation on accident tolerant components and severe accident analysis methodologies with the goal of identifying any data and/or knowledge gaps that may exist, given the current state of light water reactor (LWR) severe accident research, and additionally augmented by insights obtained from the Fukushima accident. The ultimate benefit of this activity is that the results can be used to refine the Department of Energy's (DOE) Reactor Safety Technology (RST) research and development (R&D) program plan to address key knowledge gaps in severe accident phenomena and analyses that affect reactor safety and that are not currently being addressed by the industry or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  15. Reactor Safety Gap Evaluation of Accident Tolerant Components and Severe Accident Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Mitchell T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bunt, R. [Southern Nuclear, Atlanta, GA (United States); Corradini, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ellison, Paul B. [GE Power and Water, Duluth, GA (United States); Francis, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gabor, John D. [Erin Engineering, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Gauntt, R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Henry, C. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Linthicum, R. [Exelon Corp., Chicago, IL (United States); Luangdilok, W. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Lutz, R. [PWR Owners Group (PWROG); Paik, C. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Plys, M. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rempe, J. [Rempe and Associates LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Robb, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wachowiak, R. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States)

    2015-01-31

    The overall objective of this study was to conduct a technology gap evaluation on accident tolerant components and severe accident analysis methodologies with the goal of identifying any data and/or knowledge gaps that may exist, given the current state of light water reactor (LWR) severe accident research, and additionally augmented by insights obtained from the Fukushima accident. The ultimate benefit of this activity is that the results can be used to refine the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Reactor Safety Technology (RST) research and development (R&D) program plan to address key knowledge gaps in severe accident phenomena and analyses that affect reactor safety and that are not currently being addressed by the industry or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  16. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  17. Social aspects concerning the cesium-137 accident; Representacoes sociais sobre o acidente com o cesio-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Elza Guedes [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The present work aims to understand how social representations constructed upon nuclear energy have influenced on molding and orienting public`s behavior in the presence of the accident that occurred in Goiania with the capsule of Cesium-137. As a starting point, it is accepted here that panic caused by that accident could be properly understood only if dimension of subjectivity is taken into consideration. This perspective is required whenever events that put human life and environment in risk happen. Facing the accident, people internalized radioactivity, an unknown element, as certainty of cancer and death despite the fact that cancer and death could only outcome in case there had been excessive exposure to radioactivity. (author) 16 refs; e-mail: mariliag at netline.com.br

  18. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R.

    1993-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled open-quotes Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysisclose quotes, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled open-quotes Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,close quotes was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model

  19. Evaluation of severe accident environmental conditions taking accident management strategy into account for equipment survivability assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Chul; Jeong, Ji Hwan; Na, Man Gyun; Kim, Soong Pyung

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology utilizing accident management strategy in order to determine accident environmental conditions in equipment survivability assessments. In case that there is well-established accident management strategy for specific nuclear power plant, an application of this tool can provide a technical rationale on equipment survivability assessment so that plant-specific and time-dependent accident environmental conditions could be practically and realistically defined in accordance with the equipment and instrumentation required for accident management strategy or action appropriately taken. For this work, three different tools are introduced; Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) outcomes, major accident management strategy actions, and Accident Environmental Stages (AESs). In order to quantitatively investigate an applicability of accident management strategy to equipment survivability, the accident simulation for a most likely scenario in Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants (KSNPs) is performed with MAAP4 code. The Accident Management Guidance (AMG) actions such as the Reactor Control System (RCS) depressurization, water injection into the RCS, the containment pressure and temperature control, and hydrogen concentration control in containment are applied. The effects of these AMG actions on the accident environmental conditions are investigated by comparing with those from previous normal accident simulation, especially focused on equipment survivability assessment. As a result, the AMG-involved case shows the higher accident consequences along the accident environmental stages

  20. Review of nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connelly, J.W.; Storr, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    Two types of severe reactor accidents - loss of coolant or coolant flow and transient overpower (TOP) accidents - are described and compared. Accidents in research reactors are discussed. The 1961 SL1 accident in the US is used as an illustration as it incorporates the three features usually combined in a severe accident - a design flaw or flaws in the system, a circumvention of safety circuits or procedures, and gross operator error. The SL1 reactor, the reactivity accident and the following fuel-coolant interaction and steam explosion are reviewed. 3 figs

  1. Historical aspects of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Ricks, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation accidents are extremely rare events; however, the last two years have witnessed the largest radiation accidents in both the eastern and western hemispheres. It is the purpose of this chapter to review how radiation accidents are categorized, examine the temporal changes in frequency and severity, give illustrative examples of several types of radiation accidents, and finally, to describe the various registries for radiation accidents

  2. The radiological accident in Tammiku

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    On 21 October 1994, three brothers entered a waste repository at Tammiku, Estonia, without authorization and removed a metal container enclosing a caesium-137 source. During the removal the source was dislodged and fell to the ground. One of the men picked up the source, placed it in his pocket and took it to his home in the nearby village of Kiisa. Very soon after entry into the repository he began to feel ill, and few hours later he began to vomit. The man was subsequently admitted to hospital with severe injuries to his leg and hip and died on 2 November 1994. The injury and subsequent death were not attributed to radiation exposure, and the source remained in the man's house with his wife and stepson and the boy's great-grandmother. The boy was hospitalized on 17 November with severe burns on his hands, and these were identified by a doctor as radiation induced. The authorities were alerted, and the Estonian Rescue Board recovered the source from the house. The source was returned to the Tammiku repository on 18 November. The occupants of the house and one of the two surviving brothers were hospitalized and diagnosed as suffering from radiation induced injuries of varying severity. All were subsequently released from hospital, but, at the time of writing this report the treatment to the most exposed individuals is still continuing. The objective of this report is to provide information to national authorities and regulatory organizations so that they can take steps to minimize the risks of similar accidents in the future, and also put in place arrangements to deal with such accidents if they do occur. It is hoped that this report will be of general interest in the radiation protection community, although it si aimed primarily at managers of waste disposal facilities, and legislators and regulators, both in developing countries and in all countries reviewing their radiation protection legislation. This report describes the events leading up to the accident, the

  3. Applicability of simplified methods to evaluate consequences of criticality accident using past accident data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Ken

    2003-01-01

    Applicability of four simplified methods to evaluate the consequences of criticality accident was investigated. Fissions in the initial burst and total fissions were evaluated using the simplified methods and those results were compared with the past accident data. The simplified methods give the number of fissions in the initial burst as a function of solution volume; however the accident data did not show such tendency. This would be caused by the lack of accident data for the initial burst with high accuracy. For total fissions, simplified almost reproduced the upper envelope of the accidents. However several accidents, which were beyond the applicable conditions, resulted in the larger total fissions than the evaluations. In particular, the Tokai-mura accident in 1999 gave in the largest total specific fissions, because the activation of cooling system brought the relatively high power for a long time. (author)

  4. Multicomponent risk inherent to nuclear or radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poyarkov, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    A nuclear or radiation emergency response planning is based on expected avertable doses for a short (4 hours, 2 days, 1 week) and a long (50 or 70 years) periods of time. On calculating the doses one should take into account not only the sources of ionizing radiation with their foreseen characteristics, e.g. a half-life, but also the possibility of their probabilistic transformations. It can be illustrated by the chronicle of Chernobyl accident, where for nine days it was impossible to envisage with reliability the quantities of released radionuclides due to many uncontrolled factors related to the scope and character of the zone wreckage. Any other developments of the accident, such as destruction of the under reactor support plate, sinking of the melted zone into a highly radioactive water down at the reactor cavity or changing of the wind could have resulted in a substantial contamination of 3 mln. Kiev and other densely populated area of Ukraine. Another factor to be taken into account in the emergency response is a way of an actual risk perception by the population. The article suggests an approach to take into account the time-dependent secondary sources of exposure and the disparity in accepting the hazard of real risk of an accident by the trained workers and population. (author)

  5. Enhancing AP1000 reactor accident management capabilities for long term accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Pingting; Liu Mengying; Duan Chengjie; Liao Yehong

    2015-01-01

    Passive safety actions are considered as main measures under severe accident in AP1000 power plant. However, risk is still existed. According to PSA, several probable scenarios for AP1000 nuclear power plant are analyzed in this paper with MAAP the severe accident analysis code. According to the analysis results, several deficiencies of AP1000 severe accident management are found. The long term cooling and containment depressurization capability for AP1000 power plant appear to be most important factors under such accidents. Then, several temporary strategies for AP1000 power plant are suggested, including PCCWST temporary water supply strategy after 72h, temporary injection strategy for IRWST, hydrogen relief action in fuel building, which would improve the safety of AP1000 power plant. At last, assessments of effectiveness for these strategies are performed, and the results are compared with analysis without these strategies. The comparisons showed that correct actions of these strategies would effectively prevent the accident process of AP1000 power plant. (author)

  6. Guidelines for calculating radiation doses to the public from a release of airborne radioactive material under hypothetical accident conditions in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This standard provides guidelines and a methodology for calculating effective doses and thyroid doses to people (either individually or collectively) in the path of airborne radioactive material released from a nuclear facility following a hypothetical accident. The radionuclides considered are those associated with substances having the greatest potential for becoming airborne in reactor accidents: tritium (HTO), noble gases and their daughters, radioiodines, and certain radioactive particulates (Cs, Ru, Sr, Te). The standard focuses on the calculation of radiation doses for external exposures from radioactive material in the cloud; internal exposures for inhalation of radioactive material in the cloud and skin penetration of tritium; and external exposures from radionuclides deposited on the ground. It uses as modified Gaussian plume model to evaluate the time-integrated concentration downwind. (52 refs., 12 tabs., 21 figs.)

  7. The Chernobyl accident consequences; Consequences de l'accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  8. NIF: Impacts of chemical accidents and comparison of chemical/radiological accident approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Policastro, A.J.; Rhodes, M.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and operate the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The goals of the NIF are to (1) achieve fusion ignition in the laboratory for the first time by using inertial confinement fusion (ICF) technology based on an advanced-design neodymium glass solid-state laser, and (2) conduct high-energy-density experiments in support of national security and civilian applications. The primary focus of this paper is worker-public health and safety issues associated with postulated chemical accidents during the operation of NIF. The key findings from the accident analysis will be presented. Although NIF chemical accidents will be emphasized, the important differences between chemical and radiological accident analysis approaches and the metrics for reporting results will be highlighted. These differences are common EIS facility and transportation accident assessments

  9. CFD investigating the air ingress accident for a HTGR simulation of graphite corrosion oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferng, Y.M.; Chi, C.W.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A CFD model is proposed to investigate graphite oxidation corrosion in the HTR-10. ► A postulated air ingress accident is assumed in this paper. ► Air ingress flowrate is the predicted result, instead of the preset one. ► O 2 would react with graphite on pebble surface, causing the graphite corrosion. ► No fuel exposure is predicted to be occurred under the air ingress accident. - Abstract: Through a compressible multi-component CFD model, this paper investigates the characteristics of graphite oxidation corrosion in the HTR-10 core under the postulated accident of gas duct rupture. In this accident, air in the steam generator cavity would enter into the core after pressure equilibrium is achieved between the core and the cavity, which is also called as the air ingress accident. Oxygen in the air would react with graphite on pebble surface, subsequently resulting in oxidation corrosion and challenging fuel integrity. In this paper, characteristics of graphite oxidation corrosion during the air ingress accident can be reasonably captured, including distributions of graphite corrosion amount on the different cross-sections, time histories of local corrosion amount at the monitoring points and overall corrosion amount in the core, respectively. Based on the transient simulation results, the corrosion pattern and its corrosion rate would approach to the steady-state conditions as the accident continuously progresses. The total amount of graphite corrosion during a 3-day accident time is predicted to be about 31 kg with the predicted asymptotic corrosion rate. This predicted value is less than that from the previous work of Gao and Shi.

  10. Prioritizing Roads Safety Based on the Quasi-Induced Exposure Method and Utilization of the Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad rezaei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Safety analysis of the roads through the accident rates which is one of the widely used tools has been resulted from the direct exposure method which is based on the ratio of the vehicle-kilometers traveled and vehicle-travel time. However, due to some fundamental flaws in its theories and difficulties in gaining access to the data required such as traffic volume, distance and duration of the trip, and various problems in determining the exposure in a specific time, place, and individual categories, there is a need for an algorithm for prioritizing the road safety so that with a new exposure method, the problems of the previous approaches would be resolved. In this way, an efficient application may lead to have more realistic comparisons and the new method would be applicable to a wider range of time, place, and individual categories. Therefore, an algorithm was introduced to prioritize the safety of roads using the quasi-induced exposure method and utilizing the analytical hierarchy process. For this research, 11 provinces of Iran were chosen as case study locations. A rural accidents database was created for these provinces, the validity of quasi-induced exposure method for Iran’s accidents database was explored, and the involvement ratio for different characteristics of the drivers and the vehicles was measured. Results showed that the quasi-induced exposure method was valid in determining the real exposure in the provinces under study. Results also showed a significant difference in the prioritization based on the new and traditional approaches. This difference mostly would stem from the perspective of the quasi-induced exposure method in determining the exposure, opinion of experts, and the quantity of accidents data. Overall, the results for this research showed that prioritization based on the new approach is more comprehensive and reliable compared to the prioritization in the traditional approach which is dependent on various

  11. Teaching of severe accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants of Tokyo Electric Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shinzo

    2011-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and accompanied tsunami brought about the severe accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. For 'No more Fukushima', twelve teaching of the accident was pointed out as follows: 1) natural disasters and external events shall be taken into consideration, 2) severe accident shall be included into safety regulation, 3) all possibility of hydrogen explosion shall be excluded, 4) diversity of safety important component and equipment shall be added with sufficient period of outage, 5) siting of multiple units at the same site shall be avoided at quake-prone country like Japan, 6) accident response environment for operators shall be improved, 7) accident convergence termination system shall be established so as to concentrate technical experience and knowledge, 8) off-site center shall be improved, 9) resident evacuation, consumption limit of food, radiation exposure and soil contamination limit shall be decided openly, 10) nuclear regulation and prevention of disaster shall be conducted by unitary organization to gain public trust, 11) fostering of safety culture among relevant enterprises shall be more encouraged and 12) nuclear industry shall develop reactor such as with no core meltdown or no evacuation and environmental contamination even if reactor core would be meltdown. (T. Tanaka)

  12. Radiological and dosimetric consequences in case of nuclear accident: taking them into account within the security approach and protection challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogez, E.; Herviou, K.; Isnard, O.; Cessac, B.; Reales, N.; Quentric, E.; Quelo, D.

    2010-01-01

    This report first proposes a presentation of the 'defence in depth' concept which comprises five as much as possible independent levels: preventing operation anomalies and system failures, maintaining the installation within the authorized domain, controlling accidents within design hypotheses, preventing the degradation of accidental conditions and limiting consequences of severe accidents, limiting radiological consequences for population in case of important releases. Then, after a description of a release atmospheric dispersion and of its consequences, this report describes the consequences of two accident scenarios. The first accident is a failure of steam generator tubes, and the second a loss of primary coolant. It notably indicates the main released radionuclides, exposure levels at different distance for a given set of dispersion conditions

  13. Thyroid cancer and nuclear accident: where do we stand 30 years after Chernobyl, and 5 years after Fukushima?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdillon, Francois; Repussard, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    This editorial presents the content of a publication which addresses the issue of thyroid cancer within the context of the 30. anniversary of the Chernobyl accident, and which proposes an overview of epidemiological knowledge on the evolution of the incidence of this pathology during these 30 years, and on the associated public health issues. The authors notice that this cancer was relatively rare 25 or 30 years ago, and has notably increased everywhere in the world. This increase is due to diagnosis practices but also to the exposure to ionizing radiations during childhood. They also notice that the regional distribution of thyroid cancers in France seems to invalidate an actual influence of the Chernobyl accident. When considering territories directly concerned by the accident (Belarus, Russia and Ukraine), studies clearly demonstrated the role of iodine 131. In France, due to a very low annual incidence, it is not possible to draw any conclusion from statistical data. The case of Japan after the Fukushima accident is also addressed as a systematic thyroidal screening has been implemented for 300.000 children living in the Fukushima region. It also appeared that the exposure to iodine 131 has been notably lower than in Chernobyl. However the incidence of thyroid cancer in the Fukushima region is several times higher than in other Japanese regions. Issues related to the occurrence of an accident in Europe are finally addressed, particularly for the definition of a strategy of intervention: radiological measurements, screening, diagnosis, monitoring on the long term

  14. Management of severe accidents