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Sample records for accident dosimetry intercomparison

  1. DRDC Ottawa Participation in the SILENE Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison Exercise. June 10-21, 2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prud'homme-Lalonde, L

    2002-01-01

    .... The SILENE International Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison Exercise at Valduc, France in June 2002 coincided with DRDC Ottawa work designed to refine its proposed criticality dosimetry system...

  2. The program of international intercomparison of accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    The French institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN) has carried out in June 2002 an international intercomparison program for the testing of the physical and biological accident dosimetry techniques. The intercomparison is jointly organized by the IRSN and the OECD-NEA with the sustain of the European commission and the collaboration of the CEA centre of Valduc (France). About 30 countries have participated to this program. Each country has supplied its own dosimeters and biological samples which have been irradiated using the Silene reactor of CEA-Valduc or a 60 Co source. These experiments allow to test the new dosimetric techniques that have been developed since the previous intercomparison program (1993) and to confirm or improve the performances of older techniques. Aside from the intercomparison exercise, this report makes a status of the known radiological accidents and of the effects of high doses of ionizing radiations on human health (symptoms, therapeutics). It explains the phenomenology of criticality accidents, the prevention means, and the history of such accidents up to the Tokai-Mura one in 1999. Finally, the dosimetry of criticality is presented with its physical and biological techniques. (J.S.)

  3. International nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison: results of Czech participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Votockova, I.

    1996-01-01

    An international intercomparison scheme for criticality accident dosimetry systems took place at the SILENE reactor, Valduc, France in June 1993. The dosemeters were exposed both on phantoms and in free air to radiation from the reactor, both shielded by lead and bare. The results obtained during this event by Czech participants are presented and compared with the average values obtained by the complete group of participants and with the reference values. The systems used consisted mostly of Si-diodes and thermoluminescent detectors, some supporting measurements were performed with solid state nuclear track detectors and using the albedo principle. The agreement between the data sets is very good. 7 tabs., 13 refs

  4. Nuclear accident dosimetry, Report on the Third IAEA intercomparison experiment at Vinca, Yugoslavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-15

    The objective of this report is to present the results of the third IAEA intercomparison experiment held at the Boris Kidric Institute, Vinca, in May 1973. These experiments were a part of multi laboratory intercomparison programme sponsored by the IAEA for evaluation of nuclear accident dosimetry systems that ought to provide adequate information in the event of criticality accidents. This report deals with the data concerning the Third intercomparison experiments in which the RB reactor at Vinca was used as a source of mixed radiation.

  5. 1983 international intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimetry systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaja, R.E.; Greene, R.T.; Sims, C.S.

    1985-04-01

    An international intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimetry systems was conducted during September 12-16, 1983, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using the Health Physics Research Reactor operated in the pulse mode to simulate criticality accidents. This study marked the twentieth in a series of annual accident dosimetry intercomparisons conducted at ORNL. Participants from ten organizations attended this intercomparison and measured neutron and gamma doses at area monitoring stations and on phantoms for three different shield conditions. Results of this study indicate that foil activation techniques are the most popular and accurate method of determining accident-level neutron doses at area monitoring stations. For personnel monitoring, foil activation, blood sodium activation, and thermoluminescent (TL) methods are all capable of providing accurate dose estimates in a variety of radiation fields. All participants in this study used TLD's to determine gamma doses with very good results on the average. Chemical dosemeters were also shown to be capable of yielding accurate estimates of total neutron plus gamma doses in a variety of radiation fields. While 83% of all neutron measurements satisfied regulatory standards relative to reference values, only 39% of all gamma results satisfied corresponding guidelines for gamma measurements. These results indicate that continued improvement in accident dosimetry evaluation and measurement techniques is needed

  6. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies at the Health Physics Research Reactor: a summary (1965-1978)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, C.S.; Dickson, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    Fifteen nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast pulsed Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a growing number of participants with a forum for discussing and learning more about accident dosimetry systems and with opportunity to test their systems under simulated nuclear accident conditions and to compare their results with those of others making measurements under identical conditions. Shielded and unshielded measurements of the neutron and the gamma doses to phantoms and at area monitoring stations have been made with a wide variety of dosimeter types. The large amount of data available from these measurements throughout the years is summarized, analyzed and discussed. The information in this summary provides an indication of the status of and trends in nuclear accident dosimetry. (author)

  7. Fifteenth nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison study: August 14--22, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, C.S.

    1979-05-01

    The fifteenth in the continuing series of Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison Studies was held August 14--22, 1978 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The Health Physics Research Reactor, operated in the pulse mode, served as the radiation source. Using different shielding configurations, nuclear accidents with three different neutron and gamma spectra were simulated. Participants from 19 organizations, the most in the history of the studies, exposed dosimeters set up as area monitors as well as dosimeters mounted on phantoms for personnel monitoring. Although many participants performed accurate measurements, the composite dose results, in the majority of cases, failed to meet established nuclear criticality accident dosimetry guidelines which suggest accuracies of +- 25% for neutron dose and +- 20% for gamma dose. This indicates that many participants need to improve their dosimetry systems, their analytical techniques, or both

  8. Twenty-first nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison study, August 6-10, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaja, R.E.; Ragan, G.E.; Sims, C.S.

    1985-05-01

    The twenty-first in a series of nuclear accident dosimetry (NAD) intercomparison (NAD) studies was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Dosimetry Applications Research Facility during August 6-10, 1984. The Health Physics Research Reactor operated in the pulse mode was used to simulate three criticality accidents with different radiation fields. Participants from five organizations measured neutron doses between 0.53 and 4.36 Gy and gamma doses between 0.19 and 1.01 Gy at area monitoring stations and on phantoms. About 75% of all neutron dose estimates based on foil activation, hair activation, simulated blood sodium activation, and thermoluminescent methods were within +-25% of reference values. Approximately 86% of all gamma results measured using thermoluminescent (TLD-700 or CaSO 4 ) systems were within +-20% of reference doses which represents a significant improvement over previous studies. Improvements observed in the ability of intercomparison participants to estimate neutron and gamma doses under criticality accident conditions can be partly attributed to experience in previous NAD studies which have provided practical tests of dosimetry systems, enabled participants to improve evaluation methods, and standardized dose reporting conventions. 16 refs., 15 tabs

  9. Nineteenth nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison study, August 9-13, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, R.T.; Sims, C.C.; Swaja, R.E.

    1983-11-01

    The Nineteenth Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison Study was held August 9 to 13, 1982, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the Health Physics Research Reactor operated in the pulse mode to simulate nuclear criticality accidents. Participants from eight organizations measured neutron and gamma doses at air stations and on phantoms for three different shielding conditions. Measured results were compared to nuclear industry guidelines for criticality accident dosimeters which suggest accuracies of +-25% for neutron dose and +-20% for gamma dose. Seventy-two percent of the neutron dose measurements using foil activation, sodium activation, hair sulfur activation, and thermoluminescent methods met the guidelines while less than 40% of the gamma dose measurements were within +-20% of reference values. The softest neutron energy spectrum (also lowest neutron/gamma dose ratio) provided the most difficulty in measuring neutron and gamma doses. Results of this study indicate the need for continued intercomparison and testing of nuclear accident dosimetry systems and for training of evaluating personnel. 14 references, 7 figures, 16 tables

  10. Criticality accident dosimetry systems: an international intercomparison at the SILENE reactor in 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Médioni, R; Asselineau, B; Verrey, B; Trompier, F; Itié, C; Texier, C; Muller, H; Pelcot, G; Clairand, I; Jacquet, X; Pochat, J L

    2004-01-01

    In criticality accident dosimetry and more generally for high dose measurements, special techniques are used to measure separately the gamma ray and neutron components of the dose. To improve these techniques and to check their dosimetry systems (physical and/or biological), a total of 60 laboratories from 29 countries (America, Europe, Asia) participated in an international intercomparaison, which took place in France from 9 to 21 June 2002, at the SILENE reactor in Valduc and at a pure gamma source in Fontenay-aux-Roses. This intercomparison was jointly organised by the IRSN and the CEA with the help of the NEA/OCDE and was partly supported by the European Communities. This paper describes the aim of this intercomparison, the techniques used by the participants and the two radiation sources and their characteristics. The experimental arrangements of the dosemeters for the irradiations in free air or on phantoms are given. Then the dosimetric quantities measured and reported by the participants are summarised, analysed and compared with the reference values. The present paper concerns only the physical dosimetry and essentially experiments performed on the SILENE facility. The results obtained with the biological dosimetry are published in two other papers of this issue.

  11. The program of international intercomparison of accident dosimetry; Le programme d'intercomparaison internationale de dosimetrie d'accident 10-12 juin 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    The French institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN) has carried out in June 2002 an international intercomparison program for the testing of the physical and biological accident dosimetry techniques. The intercomparison is jointly organized by the IRSN and the OECD-NEA with the sustain of the European commission and the collaboration of the CEA centre of Valduc (France). About 30 countries have participated to this program. Each country has supplied its own dosimeters and biological samples which have been irradiated using the Silene reactor of CEA-Valduc or a {sup 60}Co source. These experiments allow to test the new dosimetric techniques that have been developed since the previous intercomparison program (1993) and to confirm or improve the performances of older techniques. Aside from the intercomparison exercise, this report makes a status of the known radiological accidents and of the effects of high doses of ionizing radiations on human health (symptoms, therapeutics). It explains the phenomenology of criticality accidents, the prevention means, and the history of such accidents up to the Tokai-Mura one in 1999. Finally, the dosimetry of criticality is presented with its physical and biological techniques. (J.S.)

  12. Nuclear accident dosimetry measurements at third IAEA intercomparison Vinca, Yugoslavia, May 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palfalvi, J.; Makra, S.

    1974-09-01

    Nuclear accident dosimeters from several countries were compared in Vinca, Yugoslavia at an IAEA meeting. The Hungarian Central Research Institute for Physics team performed measurements for the dosimetry of a heavy water assembly which has an escape spectrum significantly differing from the escape spectra of the fast reactors used in previous intercomparisons or from the light water systems used in the Institute. Another problem investigated was the influence of minor spectral differences on the dose determined by activation measurement and spectrum fitting. The importance of sophisticated spectrum calculations was proved. The Vinca irradiations were used for the calibration of the albedo dosimeters of the institute, which are currently applied for personal dosimetry. (K.A.)

  13. The ENEA criticality accident dosimetry system: a contribution to the 2002 international intercomparison at the SILENE reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdrini, G; Bedogni, R; Fantuzzi, E; Mariotti, F

    2004-01-01

    The present paper summarises the activity carried out at the ENEA Radiation Protection Institute for updating the methodologies employed for the evaluation of the neutron and photon dose to the exposed workers in case of a criticality accident, in the framework of the 'International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems' (Silène reactor, IRSN-CEA-Valduc June 2002). The evaluation of the neutron spectra and the neutron dosimetric quantities relies on activation detectors and on unfolding algorithms. Thermoluminescent detectors are employed for the gamma dose measurement. The work is aimed at accurately characterising the measurement system and, at the same time, testing the algorithms. Useful spectral information were included, based on Monte Carlo simulations, to take into account the potential accident scenarios of practical interest. All along this exercise intercomparison a particular attention was devoted to the 'traceability' of all the experimental and computational parameters and therefore, aimed at an easy treatment by the user.

  14. Nuclear accident dosimetry measurements at the fourth IAEA intercomparison, Harwell, United Kingdom, April 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majborn, B.

    1975-11-01

    During the fourth IAEA intercomparison at Harwell, teams from several countries compared their systems for assessing doses in criticality accidents. The dosimeters were exposed to mixed pulses of neutron and gamma radiation produced by the VIPER reactor at AWRE, Aldermaston. Risoe participated in this intercomparison with the routine personnel dosimeters employed in 'criticality areas' at Risoe. These include the UKAEA criticality dosimeter for the measurement of neutron doses and the Risoe TLD badge for the measurement of gamma doses. The final results of the Risoe measurements are presented in this report in a form designed for ease of comparison with results of other pparticipants. (author)

  15. Participation of IRD/CNEN-Br in International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at Silene reactor, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauricio, Claudia Lucia P.; Fonseca, Evaldo S. da

    1996-01-01

    IRD has participated in an International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE reactor, France on June 1993. The dosemeters were irradiated on phantoms and free in air, in bare and lead shield reactor pulses, simulating different irradiation fields that can be found in criticality accidents. Comparing with the reference measurements, the calculated mean neutron kerma found by IRD was only 2% greater for lead shield and 14% greater for bare reactor. For gamma absorbed dose, the differences were, respectively + 22% and -9% for the dosemeters free in air and -19% and -9% for dosemeters on phantoms. IRD results are closer to the real values than the mean values measured by the participants. IRD results show a good performance if its simple criticality accident system. (author)

  16. Results from 2010 Caliban Criticality Dosimetry Intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veinot, K. G.

    2011-10-12

    The external dosimetry program participated in a criticality dosimetry intercomparison conducted at the Caliban facility in Valduc, France in 2010. Representatives from the dosimetry and instrumentation groups were present during testing which included irradiations of whole-body beta/gamma (HBGT) and neutron thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), a fixed nuclear accident dosimeter (FNAD), electronic alarming dosimeters, and a humanoid phantom filled with reference man concentrations of sodium. This report reviews the testing procedures, preparations, irradiations, and presents results of the tests.

  17. International Intercomparison Exercise for Nuclear Accident Dosimetry at the DAF Using GODIVA-IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, David [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hudson, Becka [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Program operated under the direction of Dr. Jerry McKamy completed the first NNSA Nuclear Accident Dosimetry exercise on May 27, 2016. Participants in the exercise were from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), Savanah River Site (SRS), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), US Navy, the Atomic Weapons Establishment (United Kingdom) under the auspices of JOWOG 30, and the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (France) by special invitation and NCSP memorandum of understanding. This exercise was the culmination of a series of Integral Experiment Requests (IER) that included the establishment of the Nuclear Criticality Experimental Research Center, (NCERC) the startup of the Godiva Reactor (IER-194), the establishment of a the Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Laboratory (NAD LAB) in Mercury, NV, and the determination of reference dosimetry values for the mixed neutron and photon radiation field of Godiva within NCERC.

  18. Nuclear accident dosimetry systems: U.K. measurements at the sixteenth intercomparison at O.R.N.L. August 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafield, H.J.; Gibson, J.A.B.; Holt, P.D.; Harrison, K.G.

    1980-04-01

    The results are presented of the measurements made by the A.E.R.E., Harwell participants at the Intercomparison of Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Systems held at the Dosimetry Applications Research Facility (DOSAR) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA from 13 - 17 August 1979. The source of pulsed radiation used was the Health Physics Research Reactor which was operated bare for pulse 1, and shielded by concrete (20cm thickness) and steel (5cm thickness) for pulses 2 and 3 respectively. Measurements are reported which were made using personnel dosimeters (both in free-air and on phantoms) and a threshold detector system and compared with the provisional results given by the DOSAR group at the meeting. (U.K.)

  19. Biological dosimetry after criticality accidents. Intercomparison exercise in the Silene Reactor - France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Vallerga, Maria B.; Taja, Maria R.

    2004-01-01

    The Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute (IRSN) organized an international biological dosimetry intercomparison, at the SILENE experimental reactor (Valduc, France), simulating different criticality scenarios: bare source 4 Gy, lead shield source 1 and 2 Gy and gamma pure 60 Co source 2 Gy. Fifteen laboratories were involved in this exercise, including the Argentine Biological Dosimetry Laboratory. The purposes of the intercomparison were: 1) To compare the unstable chromosome aberration (UCA) frequency observed by the different laboratories; and 2) To compare the dose estimation for gamma rays and neutrons. The objects of the present work were: I) To compare the mean frequency of UCA observed by the Argentine laboratory with the mean frequency observed by the participant laboratories as a whole. II) To compare the dose estimates performed by the Argentine lab with those estimated by the other laboratories involved in the second stage of the intercomparison. Overall, the mean frequencies of UCA and the correspondent 95% confidence limits obtained by the Argentine lab were consistent with the results obtained by the laboratories as a whole. For the gamma pure scenario, smaller variations were observed among laboratories in terms of dose (CV=18,2%) than in terms of frequency (CV=30,1%). For the mixed field scenarios, only four laboratories, including the Argentine lab, estimated gamma and neutron components of the total dose and just two (Argentine lab and lab 12) were in agreement with the given physical doses. The 1 Gy experiment presented lesser variations both in terms of frequency and dose than the other two scenarios. For the 4 and 2 Gy experiments, variations in neutron dose were more significant than variations in gamma dose, related to the magnitude of the dose. The results suggest that intercomparison exercises jointly with the accreditation of biological dosimetry by cytogenetic service laboratories, in compliance with ISO

  20. Third IAEA nuclear accident intercomparison experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miric, I; Ubovic, Z

    1974-05-15

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of the International Atomic Energy Agency intercomparison experiments held at the 'Boris Kidric' Institute, Vinca, in May 1973. The experiments are parts of a multilaboratory intercomparison programme sponsored by the IAEA for the evaluation of nuclear accident dosimetry systems and eventually recommendation of dosimetry systems that will provide adequate informations in the event of a criticality accident. The previous two studies were held at the Valduc Centre near Dijon (France) in June 1970 and at the ORNL in Oak Ridge (USA), in May 1971. Parts of the intercomparison studies were coordination meetings. The topics and conclusions of the Third coordination meeting are given in the Chairman's Report of F.F. Haywood. This paper will deal, therefore, only with data concerning the Third intercomparison experiments in which the RB reactor at Vinca was used as a source of mixed radiation. (author)

  1. Third IAEA nuclear accident intercomparison experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miric, I.; Ubovic, Z.

    1974-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of the International Atomic Energy Agency intercomparison experiments held at the 'Boris Kidric' Institute, Vinca, in May 1973. The experiments are parts of a multilaboratory intercomparison programme sponsored by the IAEA for the evaluation of nuclear accident dosimetry systems and eventually recommendation of dosimetry systems that will provide adequate informations in the event of a criticality accident. The previous two studies were held at the Valduc Centre near Dijon (France) in June 1970 and at the ORNL in Oak Ridge (USA), in May 1971. Parts of the intercomparison studies were coordination meetings. The topics and conclusions of the Third coordination meeting are given in the Chairman's Report of F.F. Haywood. This paper will deal, therefore, only with data concerning the Third intercomparison experiments in which the RB reactor at Vinca was used as a source of mixed radiation. (author)

  2. Final Design for an International Intercomparison Exercise for Nuclear Accident Dosimetry at the DAF Using Godiva-IV: IER-148 CED-2 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrichs, Dave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Beller, Tim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Burch, Jennifer [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cummings, Rick [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States) Nevada National Security Site; Duluc, Matthieu [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Sûrete Nucleaire (ISRN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Gadd, Milan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goda, Joetta [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hickman, David [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McAvoy, Doug [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rathbone, Bruce [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sullivan, Randy [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Trompier, Francois [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Sûrete Nucleaire (ISRN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Veinot, Ken [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ward, Dann [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Will, Rashelle [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States) Nevada National Security Site; Wilson, Chris [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom); Zieziulewicz, Thomas [Knolls Atomic Power Lab. (KAPL), Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2014-09-30

    This document is the Final Design (CED-2) Report for IER-148, “International Inter-comparison Exercise for Nuclear Accident Dosimetry at the DAF Using Godiva-IV.” The report describes the structure of the exercise consisting of three irradiations; identifies the participating laboratories and their points of contact; provides the details of all dosimetry elements and their placement in proximity to Godiva-IV on support stands or phantoms ; and lists the counting and spectroscopy equipment each laboratory will utilize in the Mercury NAD Lab. The exercise is tentatively scheduled for one week in August 2015.

  3. Results of the dosimetry intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dure, Elsa S.

    2000-07-01

    The appropriate way to verify the accuracy of the results of dose reported by the laboratories that offer lend personal dosimetry service is in the periodic participation of round of intercomparison dosimetry, undertaken by laboratories whose standards are trace (Secondary Laboratory). The Laboratory of External Personal Dosimetry of the CNEA-PY has participated in three rounds of intercomparison. The first two were organized in the framework of the Model Project RLA/9/030 RADIOLOGICAL WASTE SECURITY, and the irradiations were carried out in the Laboratory of Regional Calibration of the Center of Nuclear Technology Development, Belo Horizonte-Brazil (1998) and in the National Laboratory of Metrology of the ionizing radiations of the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry, Rio de Janeiro-Brazil (1999). The third was organized by the IAEA and the irradiations were made in the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt PTB, Braunschweig - Federal Republic of Germany (1999-2000) [es

  4. Czech results at criticality dosimetry intercomparison 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantisek, Spurný; Jaroslav, Trousil

    2004-01-01

    Two criticality dosimetry systems were tested by Czech participants during the intercomparison held in Valduc, France, June 2002. The first consisted of the thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) (Al-P glasses) and Si-diodes as passive neutron dosemeters. Second, it was studied to what extent the individual dosemeters used in the Czech routine personal dosimetry service can give a reliable estimation of criticality accident exposure. It was found that the first system furnishes quite reliable estimation of accidental doses. For routine individual dosimetry system, no important problems were encountered in the case of photon dosemeters (TLDs, film badge). For etched track detectors in contact with the 232Th or 235U-Al alloy, the track density saturation for the spark counting method limits the upper dose at approximately 1 Gy for neutrons with the energy >1 MeV.

  5. 'Hot particle' intercomparison dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaurin, D.G.L.; Baum, J.W.; Charles, M.W.; Darley, D.P.J.; Durham, J.S.; Scannell, M.J.; Soares, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    Dosimetry measurements of four 'hot particles' were made at different density thickness values using five different methods. The hot particles had maximum dimensions of 650 μm and maximum beta energies of 0.97, 046, 0.36, and 0.32 MeV. Absorbers were used to obtain the dose at different depths for each dosimeter. Measurements were made using exoelectron dosimeters, an extrapolation chamber, NE Extremity Tape Dosimeters (tm), Eberline RO-2 and RO-2A survey meters, and two sets of GafChromic (tm) dye film with each set read out at a different institution. From these results the dose was calculated averaged over 1 cm 2 of tissue at 18, 70, 125, and 400 μm depth. Comparisons of tissue-dose averaged over 1 cm 2 for 18, 70, and 125 μm depth based on interpolated measured values, were within 30% for the GafChromic (tm) dye film, extrapolation chamber, NE Extremity Tape Dosimeters (tm), and Eberline RO-2 and 2A (tm) survey meters except for the hot particle with 0.46 MeV maximum beta energy. The results for this source showed differences of up to 60%. The extrapolation chamber and NE Extremity Tape dosimeters under-responded for measurements at 400 μm by about a factor of 2 compared with the GafChromic dye films for two hot particles with maximum beta energy of 0.32 and 0.36 MeV which each emitted two 100% 1 MeV photons per disintegration. Tissue doses determined using exoelectron dosimeters were a factor of 2 to 5 less than those determined using other dosimeters, possibly due to failures of the equipment. (author)

  6. Nuclear accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The film presents statistical data on criticality accidents. It outlines past IAEA activities on criticality accident dosimetry and the technical documents that resulted from this work. The film furthermore illustrates an international comparison study on nuclear accident dosimetry conducted at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, United Kingdom

  7. Nuclear accident dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-12-31

    The film presents statistical data on criticality accidents. It outlines past IAEA activities on criticality accident dosimetry and the technical documents that resulted from this work. The film furthermore illustrates an international comparison study on nuclear accident dosimetry conducted at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, United Kingdom

  8. Dosimetry intercomparisons between fast neutron radiotherapy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almond, P.R.; Smith, A.R.; Smathers, J.B.; Otte, V.A.

    1975-01-01

    Neutron dosimetry intercomparisons have been made between M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute, Naval Research Laboratory, University of Washington Hospital, and Hammersmith Hospital. The parameters that are measured during these visits are: tissue kerma in air, tissue dose at depth of dose maximum, depth dose, beam profiles, neutron/gamma ratios and photon calibrations of ionization chambers. A preliminary report of these intercomparisons will be given including a comparison of the calculation and statement of tumor doses for each institution

  9. Biological dosimetry after criticality accidents. Intercomparison exercise in the Silene Reactor - France; Dosimetria biologica en accidentes de criticidad. Ejercicio de intercomparacion en el Reactor Silene - Francia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Vallerga, Maria B; Taja, Maria R [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina); arn gov ar, E-mail: mdigiorg@cae

    2004-07-01

    The Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute (IRSN) organized an international biological dosimetry intercomparison, at the SILENE experimental reactor (Valduc, France), simulating different criticality scenarios: bare source 4 Gy, lead shield source 1 and 2 Gy and gamma pure {sup 60}Co source 2 Gy. Fifteen laboratories were involved in this exercise, including the Argentine Biological Dosimetry Laboratory. The purposes of the intercomparison were: 1) To compare the unstable chromosome aberration (UCA) frequency observed by the different laboratories; and 2) To compare the dose estimation for gamma rays and neutrons. The objects of the present work were: I) To compare the mean frequency of UCA observed by the Argentine laboratory with the mean frequency observed by the participant laboratories as a whole. II) To compare the dose estimates performed by the Argentine lab with those estimated by the other laboratories involved in the second stage of the intercomparison. Overall, the mean frequencies of UCA and the correspondent 95% confidence limits obtained by the Argentine lab were consistent with the results obtained by the laboratories as a whole. For the gamma pure scenario, smaller variations were observed among laboratories in terms of dose (CV=18,2%) than in terms of frequency (CV=30,1%). For the mixed field scenarios, only four laboratories, including the Argentine lab, estimated gamma and neutron components of the total dose and just two (Argentine lab and lab 12) were in agreement with the given physical doses. The 1 Gy experiment presented lesser variations both in terms of frequency and dose than the other two scenarios. For the 4 and 2 Gy experiments, variations in neutron dose were more significant than variations in gamma dose, related to the magnitude of the dose. The results suggest that intercomparison exercises jointly with the accreditation of biological dosimetry by cytogenetic service laboratories, in compliance with ISO

  10. Dosimetry intercomparisons in European medical device sterilization plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.; Sharpe, P.H.G.

    2000-01-01

    Dosimetry intercomparisons have been carried out involving two-thirds of all European radiation sterilization facilities. Dosimeters for the intercomparisons were supplied by two accredited calibration laboratories. The results show good agreement, and indicate overall dosimetry accuracy of the o...... of the order of +/-5% (1 sigma) for both Co-60 and electron beam plants. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  11. Performance of dichromate dosimetry systems in calibration and dose intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bof, E.S.; Smolko, E.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of the High Dose Dosimetry Laboratory of Argentina during ten years of international intercomparisons for high dose with the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) of the IAEA, using the standard high dose dichromate dosimetry system, and the results of a high dose intercomparison regional exercise in which our Laboratory acted as a reference laboratory, using the standard high dose and low dose dichromate dosimetry system. (author)

  12. Criticality accident dosimetry with ESR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Errico, F; Fattibene, P; Onori, S; Pantaloni, M

    1996-01-01

    The suitability of the ESR alanine and sugar detectors for criticality accident dosimetry was experimentally investigated during an intercomparison of dosimetry techniques. Tests were performed irradiating detectors both free-in-air and on-phantom during controlled critcality excursions at the SILENE reactor in Valduc, France. Several grays of absorbed dose were imparted in neutron gamma-ray fields of various relative intensities and spectral distributions. Analysed results confirmed the potential of these systems which can immediately provide an acute dose assessment with an average underestimate of 30%in the various fields. This performance allows for the screening of severely exposed individuals and meets the IAEA recommendations on the early estimate of accident absorbed doses.

  13. Personal nuclear accident dosimetry at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.C.; Mohagheghi, A.H.; Burrows, R.

    1996-09-01

    DOE installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material to potentially constitute a critical mass, such that the excessive exposure of personnel to radiation from a nuclear accident is possible, are required to provide nuclear accident dosimetry services. This document describes the personal nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) used by SNL and prescribes methodologies to initially screen, and to process PNAD results. In addition, this report describes PNAD dosimetry results obtained during the Nuclear Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Study (NAD23), held during 12-16 June 1995, at Los Alamos National Laboratories. Biases for reported neutron doses ranged from -6% to +36% with an average bias of +12%

  14. Argentine intercomparison programme for personal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregori, B.N.; Papadopulos, S.B.; Cruzate, J.; Kunst, J.J.; Saravi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In 1997 began in Argentine, sponsored by Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) the intercomparison program for personal dosimetry laboratories, on a voluntary basis. Up to know 6 exercises have been done. The program began with a workshop to present the quantities, personal dose equivalent, Hp(10) and extremities dose equivalent, Hs(d). The first aim of this program was to know the true sate of personal dosimetry laboratories in the country, and then introduce the personal dose equivalent, Hp(10) into the dose measurements. The Regional Reference Center for Dosimetry (CCR), belonging to CNEA and the Physical Dosimetry Laboratory of ARN performed the irradiation. Those were done air free and on ICRU phantom, using x-ray, quality ISO: W60, W110 and W200; and 137 Cs and 60 Co gamma rays. The irradiation was made following ISO 4037 (2) recommendations. There are studied the dose, energy and angular response of the different measuring system. The range of the dose analyzed was from 0.2 mSv up to 80 mSv. The beam incidence was normal and also 20 o and 60 o . The dosimeters irradiation's were performed kerma in free in air and in phantom in order to study the availability of the service to evaluate the behavior as a function of kerma free in air or Hp(10). At the same time several items have been asked to each participant referring to the action range, the detectors characteristics, the laboratory procedures, the existence of an algorithm and its use for the dosimeter evaluation and the wish to participate in a quality assurance program. The program worked in writing a standard of personal dosimetry laboratories, that was published in 2001. In this work the results of each laboratory and its performance based on the ICRP-60 and ICRP-35 acceptance criteria are shown. Also the laboratory evolution and inquiry analyses have been included. (author)

  15. Chemical dosimetry system for criticality accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljanić, Saveta; Ilijas, Boris

    2004-01-01

    Ruder Bosković Institute (RBI) criticality dosimetry system consists of a chemical dosimetry system for measuring the total (neutron + gamma) dose, and a thermoluminescent (TL) dosimetry system for a separate determination of the gamma ray component. The use of the chemical dosemeter solution chlorobenzene-ethanol-trimethylpentane (CET) is based on the radiolytic formation of hydrochloric acid, which protonates a pH indicator, thymolsulphonphthalein. The high molar absorptivity of its red form at 552 nm is responsible for a high sensitivity of the system: doses in the range 0.2-15 Gy can be measured. The dosemeter has been designed as a glass ampoule filled with the CET solution and inserted into a pen-shaped plastic holder. For dose determinations, a newly constructed optoelectronic reader has been used. The RBI team took part in the International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE Reactor, Valduc, June 2002, with the CET dosimetry system. For gamma ray dose determination TLD-700 TL detectors were used. The results obtained with CET dosemeter show very good agreement with the reference values.

  16. Tenth ORNL Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaja, R.E.; Chou, T.L.; Sims, C.S.; Greene, R.T.

    1985-03-01

    The Tenth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory during April 9-11, 1984. Dosemeter badges from 31 participating organizations were mounted on 40cm Lucite phantoms and exposed to a range of dose equivalents which could be encountered during routine personnel monitoring in mixed radiation fields. The Health Physics Research Reactor served as the only source of radiation for eight of the ten irradiations which included a low (approx. 0.50 mSv) and high (approx. 10.00 mSv) neutron dose equivalent run for each of four shield conditions. Two irradiations were also conducted for which concrete- and Lucite-shield reactor irradiations were gamma-enhanced using a 137 Cs source. Results indicated that some participants had difficulty obtaining measurable indication of neutron and gamma exposures at dose equivalents less than about 0.50 mSv and 0.20 mSv, respectively. Albedo dosemeters provided the best overall accuracy and precision for the neutron measurements. Direct interaction TLD systems showed significant variation in accuracy with incident spectrum, and threshold neutron dosemeters (film and recoil track) underestimated reference values by more than 50%. Gamma dose equivalents estimated in the mixed fields were higher than reference values with TL gamma dosemeters generally yielding more accurate results than film. Under the conditions of this study in which participants had information concerning exposure conditions and radiation field characteristics prior to dosemeter evaluation, only slightly more than half of all reported results met regulatory standards for neutron and gamma accuracy. 19 refs., 2 figs., 29 tabs

  17. Photon dosimetry intercomparisons at Tygerberg and Groote Schuur hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.T.L.; Symons, J.E.; Schreuder, A.N.; Van der Merwe, E.J.; Rossouw, A.; Hough, J.K.; Lazarus, G.L.

    1994-08-01

    A national photon dosimetry intercomparison was undertaken at 8 hospitals at the beginning of 1989 prior to the commencement of randomised clinical trials involving neutron therapy at the National Accelerator Centre. The results obtained were in agreement at all but two hospitals. Following these studies it was agreed that a uniform photon dosimetry protocol, the AAPM TG2 protocol, be adopted countrywide. The clinical program at the National Accelerator Centre is now far advanced and it was deemed appropriate to undertake a new photon dosimetry intercomparison at two local hospitals, through which all patients are referred. The procedure involved was to compare the doses measured at each hospital under specified conditions by National Accelerator staff with the doses measured by the hospital physicists using their own equipment and protocols. The results obtained were in good agreement, confirming the validity of the dosimetry techniques used. 8 refs., 8 tabs

  18. EURADOS intercomparison 2006 to harmonise European early warning dosimetry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombrowski, H.; Neumaier, S.; Thompson, I. M. G.; Wissmann, F.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, the European Radiation Dosimetry (EURADOS) Working Group on Environmental Radiation Monitoring (WG3) organised a third European intercomparison of dosimetry systems operated in national early warning networks. Similar to the intercomparisons in 1999 and 2002, the main aim of this exercise was to support the process of harmonisation of area monitoring in Europe by providing the network operators with basic information on the calibration and performance of their dosimetry systems. In order to characterise these systems, their following basic parameters were investigated: the response to terrestrial and cosmic radiation, the detectors' inherent background, the response at low dose rates, the energy dependence of the response as well as the sensitivity of the detector systems to small changes of the dose rate in a natural environmental radiation field. In the 2006 EURADOS intercomparison, scientists from seven countries participated to study the characteristics of 11 detector systems. All results are presented in terms of the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent, H * (10). The advent of this quantity has caused the development of new detector systems for area monitoring. Some of these new systems participated in a EURADOS intercomparison for the first time. The results are consistently presented together with uncertainties so that statistical effects can be distinguished from real detector features, which improves the interpretation of the results. By using the results of this intercomparison, some detectors were re-calibrated. The achievable improvements concerning harmonisation in dose-rate measurements in the natural environment are discussed. (authors)

  19. Radiation accidents and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagstuen, E.; Theisen, H.; Henriksten, T.

    1982-12-01

    On September 2nd 1982 one of the employees of the gamma-irradiation facility at Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway entered the irradiation cell with a 65.7 kCi *sp60*Co- source in unshielded position. The victim received an unknown radiation dose and died after 13 days. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy, the radiation dose in this accident was subsequently determined based on the production of longlived free radicals in nitroglycerol tablets borne by the operator during the accident. He used nitroglycerol for heart problems and free radical are easily formed and trapped in sugar which is the main component of the tablets. Calibration experiments were carried out and the dose given to the tablets during the accident was determined to 37.2 +- 0.5 Gy. The general use of free radicals for dose determinations is discussed. (Auth.)

  20. RCA/IAEA third external dosimetry intercomparison in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Cruz Suarez, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Several intercomparison exercises were organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the determination of operational quantities at the regional or interregional basis. These exercises revealed significant differences in the approach, methods and assumptions, and consequently in the measurement results obtained by participating laboratories. In the East Asia region, the third phase of the Hp(10) intercomparison, organized within the frame of the Regional Cooperation Agreement (RCA) as a follow-up to previous exercises during 1990-92 and 1995-96, was completed mid-2004. The first phase grouped 25 laboratories from 16 member states, and 4 Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories irradiated dosimeters in 6 different qualities for photon and beta radiations. In the second phase, 23 laboratories from 16 member states participated, and 3 Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories provided irradiation in 5 different radiation qualities simulating workplace fields. The results of the second phase for the determination of operational quantities Hp(d) were satisfactory for all participating Member States, with marked improvement from the first phase; the laboratories demonstrated good performance in both quantities tested. These results underline the importance of such an intercomparison programme as a key element towards the harmonization of quantities and units on an international level. This paper presents the results of this RCA/IAEA intercomparison, and also the forthcoming RCA activities supporting intercomparison runs for the assessment of occupational exposure. Member states strongly recommend that the IAEA continue acting as a focal point for, inter alia, training in all forms, particularly in measurements and dosimetry techniques. This exercise also stressed the importance for the IAEA to take an active role in establishing a network of monitoring laboratories for radiation protection purposes, as it would provide for better information

  1. Development of a transfer instrument for neutron dosimetry intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, D.; Miles, J.

    1974-01-01

    Comparisons are reported for fast neutron dosemeters which were designed to be transportable so as to enable intercomparisons between institutions using neutrons for radiotherapy or radiobiology. The systems considered are : 1) the ferrous sulphate dosemeter, 2) the lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosemeter, 3) ionization chambers with various walls and gases. Work on photographic film dosimetry indicated that the system was not suitable and was not pursued. The sources used were 60 Co, the cyclotron at Hammersmith Hospital in London and 252 Cf

  2. Recommendations about criticality accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    The aims of criticality accident dosimetry and the characteristics peculiar to a critical burst being defined, the requirements to be fulfilled by a dosimetric system applied to this type of measurements are presented. The devices chosen by the C.E.A. Radiation Survey Divisions, simple and cheap, are described along with the main processes to be carried out in order to evaluate doses after an accident. The apparatus necessary for detector counting and the directions for use are presented in detail, allowing standardization of measurements. A set of linear formula enables to obtain, from these measurements, all required informations about neutron fluences and spectra, along with the suitable components of the dose at the irradiated people locations [fr

  3. Dosimetry audits and intercomparisons in radiotherapy: A Malaysian profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor, Noramaliza M.; Nisbet, A.; Hussein, M.; Chu S, Sarene; Kadni, T.; Abdullah, N.; Bradley, D.A.

    2017-01-01

    Quality audits and intercomparisons are important in ensuring control of processes in any system of endeavour. Present interest is in control of dosimetry in teletherapy, there being a need to assess the extent to which there is consistent radiation dose delivery to the patient. In this study we review significant factors that impact upon radiotherapy dosimetry, focusing upon the example situation of radiotherapy delivery in Malaysia, examining existing literature in support of such efforts. A number of recommendations are made to provide for increased quality assurance and control. In addition to this study, the first level of intercomparison audit i.e. measuring beam output under reference conditions at eight selected Malaysian radiotherapy centres is checked; use being made of 9 µm core diameter Ge-doped silica fibres (Ge-9 µm). The results of Malaysian Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) participation in the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit services during the period between 2011 and 2015 will also been discussed. In conclusion, following review of the development of dosimetry audits and the conduct of one such exercise in Malaysia, it is apparent that regular periodic radiotherapy audits and intercomparison programmes should be strongly supported and implemented worldwide. The programmes to-date demonstrate these to be a good indicator of errors and of consistency between centres. A total of ei+ght beams have been checked in eight Malaysian radiotherapy centres. One out of the eight beams checked produced an unacceptable deviation; this was found to be due to unfamiliarity with the irradiation procedures. Prior to a repeat measurement, the mean ratio of measured to quoted dose was found to be 0.99 with standard deviation of 3%. Subsequent to the repeat measurement, the mean distribution was 1.00, and the standard deviation was 1.3%. - Highlights: • We review significant factors that impact upon radiotherapy dosimetry, • We carried out the

  4. UK laboratory intercomparison on internal dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, J.; Birchall, A.; Bull, R.; Cockerill, R.; Jarvis, N.S.; Marsh, J.W.; Peace, M.S.; Roberts, G.; Scarlett, C.; Spencer, D.; Stewart, P

    2003-07-01

    A laboratory intercomparison for internal dose assessment from a variety of intake scenarios is described. This is the first UK intercomparison using the revised ICRP Human Respiratory Tract and biokinetic models. Four United Kingdom laboratories participated and six cases were assessed. Overall, the agreement in internal dose assessments between laboratories was considered satisfactory with 79% of the assessed committed effective doses, e(50), for cases within a band of {+-}40% of the median value. The range (highest/lowest) in e(50) estimated by the laboratories was smallest (1.2) for a case involving inhalation of {sup 137}Cs. The range was greatest (6.0) for a case involving a wound with, and possible inhalation of, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am; the variation between laboratories in assessment of intakes could not be considered to be satisfactory in this case. Judgements on the most appropriate data to use in estimating intakes, choice of parameter values for use with the ICRP models and allowing for the effects of treatment with DTPA were important sources of variability between laboratories. (author)

  5. Dosimetry audits and intercomparisons in radiotherapy: A Malaysian profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Noor, Noramaliza; Nisbet, A.; Hussein, M.; Chu S, Sarene; Kadni, T.; Abdullah, N.; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    Quality audits and intercomparisons are important in ensuring control of processes in any system of endeavour. Present interest is in control of dosimetry in teletherapy, there being a need to assess the extent to which there is consistent radiation dose delivery to the patient. In this study we review significant factors that impact upon radiotherapy dosimetry, focusing upon the example situation of radiotherapy delivery in Malaysia, examining existing literature in support of such efforts. A number of recommendations are made to provide for increased quality assurance and control. In addition to this study, the first level of intercomparison audit i.e. measuring beam output under reference conditions at eight selected Malaysian radiotherapy centres is checked; use being made of 9 μm core diameter Ge-doped silica fibres (Ge-9 μm). The results of Malaysian Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) participation in the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit services during the period between 2011 and 2015 will also been discussed. In conclusion, following review of the development of dosimetry audits and the conduct of one such exercise in Malaysia, it is apparent that regular periodic radiotherapy audits and intercomparison programmes should be strongly supported and implemented worldwide. The programmes to-date demonstrate these to be a good indicator of errors and of consistency between centres. A total of ei+ght beams have been checked in eight Malaysian radiotherapy centres. One out of the eight beams checked produced an unacceptable deviation; this was found to be due to unfamiliarity with the irradiation procedures. Prior to a repeat measurement, the mean ratio of measured to quoted dose was found to be 0.99 with standard deviation of 3%. Subsequent to the repeat measurement, the mean distribution was 1.00, and the standard deviation was 1.3%.

  6. An intercomparison of Canadian external dosimetry processors for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The five Canadian external dosimetry processors have participated in a two-stage intercomparison. The first stage involved dosimeters to known radiation fields under controlled laboratory conditions. The second stage involved exposing dosimeters to radiation fields in power reactor working environments. The results for each stage indicated the dose reported by each processor relative to an independently determined dose and relative to the others. The results of the intercomparisons confirm the original supposition: namely that the average differences in reported dose among five processors are much less than the uncertainty limits recommended by the ICRP. This report provides a description of the experimental methods as well as a discussion of the results for each stage. The report also includes a set of recommendations

  7. First intercomparison exercise in the frame of the coordinated investigation program of the IAEA on regional intercomparison of personal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massera, G.; Papadopulos, S.B.; Gregori, B.N.; DaSilva, T.; Griffith, R.; )

    1998-01-01

    During the days 7 and 11 of October of 1996 took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina, the first Meeting of the Coordinated Investigation program of the IAEA on Regional Intercomparison of Personal Dosimetry for Latin American. In this meeting participated nine representatives of reference laboratories and of personal dosimetry of the region. Fundamental aspect of personal dosimetry relates with the quantity personal dose equivalent Hp application and the implementation of intercomparison exercise in order to improve the quality of the dose estimation have been discussed. Also lectures carried out by the specialist on Hp and practical aspects of it implementation; answer and calibration according to the ISO 4037; intercomparison methods: procedures and organizations. It was carried out the first intercomparison exercise where the participants collaborated in the preparations and irradiations of personal dosemeters they have brought. (author)

  8. PNNL Results from 2010 CALIBAN Criticality Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Robin L.; Conrady, Matthew M.

    2011-01-01

    This document reports the results of the Hanford personnel nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) and fixed nuclear accident dosimeter (FNAD) during a criticality accident dosimeter intercomparison exercise at the CEA Valduc Center on September 20-23, 2010. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) participated in a criticality accident dosimeter intercomparison exercise at the Commissariat a Energie Atomique (CEA) Valduc Center near Dijon, France on September 20-23, 2010. The intercomparison exercise was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as the lead Laboratory. PNNL was one of six invited DOE Laboratory participants. The other participating Laboratories were: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Savannah River Site (SRS), the Y-12 National Security Complex at Oak Ridge, and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). The goals of PNNL's participation in the intercomparison exercise were to test and validate the procedures and algorithm currently used for the Hanford personnel nuclear accident dosimeters (PNADs) on the metallic reactor, CALIBAN, to test exposures to PNADs from the side and from behind a phantom, and to test PNADs that were taken from a historical batch of Hanford PNADs that had varying degrees of degradation of the bare indium foil. Similar testing of the PNADs was done on the Valduc SILENE test reactor in 2009 (Hill and Conrady, 2010). The CALIBAN results are reported here.

  9. A European neutron dosimetry intercomparison project (ENDIP). Results and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Burger, G.; Coppola, M.

    1978-01-01

    A total of twenty groups from nine countries participated in sessions of the European Neutron Dosimetry Intercomparison Project (ENDIP) which were held during 1975 at GSF, Munich-Neuherberg and TNO, Rijswijk. The data of all participants are collected, the analysis and evaluation of the results are given in the present report. Specific chapters deal with the experimental arrangements and monitoring results at GSF and TNO, characteristics of the dosimetry systems employed by the paticipating groups and the basic physical data and correction factors employed for the determination of kerma and absorbed dose. In general, the participants in ENDIP quote systematic uncertainties of 7 to 8% in the neutron and total kerma or absorbed dose, which are mainly attributed to inadequate knowledge of basic constants. The variations in the results obtained by different participants seem to be in accordance with the relative large systematic uncertainties quoted. In order to determine the influence of the use of different values for the physical parameters, the relative responses of the participants' dosimeters have also been compared. The variances of quoted kerma and dose values are of the same order of magnitude as those of instrument responses. This result indicates inconsistencies in experimental techniques employed by the participants for the determination of kerma and absorbed dose. A separate nonparametric analysis of the ENDIP results confirmed that there are considerable systematic differences. Recommendations for future studies on neutron dosimetry for biological and medical applications are given at the end of the report

  10. Lessons learnt from an international intercomparison of national network systems used to provide early warning of a nuclear accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez-Vergara, J.C.; Thompson, I.M.G.; Funck, E.

    2003-01-01

    and at the Underground Laboratory for Dosimetry and Spectrometry (UDO) of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. The network systems are used continuously to monitor radiation levels throughout a country in order to give early warning of nuclear accidents having transboundary implications...... in order to be consistent with the preliminary report. In addition, in some cases the results are also given in terms of the quantity measured by each national network system. The experience gained from this intercomparison is used to help organise a follow-up intercomparison to be held at the PTB...

  11. Biological dosimetry of irradiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, V.; Chambrette, V.; Le Roy, A.; Paillole, N.; Sorokine, I.; Voisin, P.

    1994-01-01

    The biological dosimetry in radiation protection allows to evaluate the received dose by a potentially irradiated person from biological markers such chromosomal abnormalities. The technologies of Hybridization In Situ by Fluorescence (F.I.S.H) allow the detection of steady chromosomal aberrations of translocation type

  12. Dose intercomparison studies for standardization of high-dose dosimetry in Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai Hoang Hoa; Duong Nguyen Dinh; Kojima, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Irradiation Center of the Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission (IC-VAEC) is planning to establish a traceability system for high-dose dosimetry and to provide high-dose standards as a secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL) level in Vietnam. For countries which do not have a standard dosimetry laboratory, the participation in the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the most common means to verify own dosimetry performance with a certain uncertainty. This is, however, only one-direction dose intercomparison with evaluation by IAEA including unknown parameter at participant laboratories. The SSDL level laboratory should have traceability as well as compatibility, ability to evaluate uncertainties of its own dosimetry performance by itself In the present paper, we reviewed our dosimetry performance through two-way dose intercomparison studies and self-evaluation of uncertainty in our dosimetry procedure. The performance of silver dichromate dosimeter as reference transfer dosimeter in IC-VAEC was studied through two-way blind dose intercomparison experiments between the IC-VAEC and JAERI. As another channel of dose intercomparison with IAEA, alanine dosimeters issued by IDAS were simultaneously irradiated with the IC-VAEC dichromate dosimeters at IC-VAEC and analyzed by IAEA. Dose intercomparison between IC-VAEC and JAERI results into a good agreement (better than ±2.5%), and IDAS results also show similar agreement within ±3.0%. The uncertainty was self-estimated on the basis of the JAERI alanine dosimetry, and a preliminary value of about 1.86% at a 68% confidence level is established. The results from these intercomparisons and our estimation of the uncertainty are consistent. We hope that our experience is valuable to other countries which do not have dosimetry standard laboratories and/or are planning to establish them. (author)

  13. First national intercomparison of personal dosimetry for dosimetry service providers in paec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, J.; Ahmed, S.S.

    2006-12-01

    Health Physics Division, PINSTECH, has conducted an intercomparison exercise for PAEC organizations which are responsible for providing personal dosimetry services for the assessment of occupational doses of radiation workers. The exercise was on voluntary basis and it was designed to harmonize the procedure of individual dose monitoring techniques in terms of new ICRP operational quantities of personal dose equivalent Hp (10) for photons. Cobalt-60 and Cesium-137 protection level sources were used for irradiation. The dosimeters were exposed to radiation in the range of 0.46 to 24.20 mSv. Irradiations were performed in Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) at HPD, PINSTECH according to IAEA/WHO standards. The performance of the participating laboratories was judged by trumpet curve that provides the acceptable limits on overall accuracy for occupational dose monitoring at 95% confidence level according to international standards. The response of measured dose/standard true dose (Hm/Ht lies in the range of 0.66 to 1.11 for 60CO and 0.84 to 1.17 for 137CS. This report describes the procedure and results of the intercomparison exercise. (author)

  14. The sixth EULEP x-ray dosimetry intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalbers, A.H.L.; Bader, F.J.M.

    1991-03-01

    During march-October 1989, the 6th EULEP X-Ray Dosimetry Inter-comparison on whole-body irradiation of mice was performed. It consisted of 2 irradiation series; the initial study comprised 15 participating institutes, the 2nd series was performed for 7 institutes which showed appreciable deviation from reference value. Mouse phantoms containing LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD-100 extruded ribbons) were mailed to participating institutes. In accordance with EULEP Protocol recommendations, participants performed irradiations using a procedure whereby the mouse phantom should receive an absorbed dose of 2Gy in muscle tissue at the central position. The read-out and evaluation of TL-dosemeters was performed at Dutch National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM Bilthoven). The mean absorbed dose results in the centre of the phantom revealed that 10/15 participants agreed with the reference institute to within 5%. Somewhat larger deviations (±5-10%) were observed for 3 participants The remaining 2 participants showed discrepancies up to 15%. Uniform dose distributions over the mouse phantoms i.e. dose variations of ≤ 10% were observed for 10 participants. Four participants did not meet the recommended criterion for a uniform dose distribution, and one did not aim for uniform exposure conditions. Procedures followed to assess the comparability of dosimetry at different institutes cooperating within EULEP, are satisfactory with regard to the determination of absorbed dose and dose distribution. The deviations observed at 5 institutes indicate the need for site-visits to trace probable systematic errors. (author). 9 refs.; 10 figs.; 6 tabs

  15. Personal dosimetry at the radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevoznikov, O.N.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Kanchenko, V.A.

    2007-01-01

    The radiation accidents of different types and the methods of the dosimetry used at the consequences liquidation are considered. The long-term experience of the population personal instrumental dosimetric control carrying out at the ChNPP accident consequences liquidation is widely covered in details. The concepts are stated out and the results are presented on the functioning of the created system for personal dose monitoring of the population of Ukraine irradiation. The use of the person radiation counters at the internal irradiation population and personal dose assessment is considered in details

  16. Lessons learnt from an international intercomparison of national network systems used to provide early warning of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez-Vergara, J.C.; Thompson, I.M.G.; Funck, E.; Andersen, C.E.; Neumaier, S.; Botter-Jensen, L.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the European Research Council's Fourth Framework Programme, the EURADOS Action Group on Monitoring of External Exposures held an intercomparison of national network systems. This took place during May/June 1999 at the Riso Natural Environmental Radiation Measurement Station in Denmark and at the Underground Laboratory for Dosimetry and Spectrometry of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Germany. The network systems are used continuously to monitor radiation levels throughout a country in order to give early warning of nuclear accidents having transboundary implications. The radiation levels measured are used to estimate the radiation risks to people arising from the accident. Seven European countries participated in the intercomparison with detector systems used in their national network systems as well as with detectors being developed for future use. Since different radiation quantities were measured by the systems (namely exposure, air kerma and ambient dose equivalent), the initial analysis of the intercomparison results was made in terms of the quantity air kerma rate. This report completes the analysis of the results and these are given in terms of air kerma rate in order to be consistent with the preliminary report. In addition, in some cases the results are also given in terms of the quantity measured by each national network system. The experience gained from this intercomparison is used to help organise a follow-up intercomparison to be held at the PTB Braunschweig in September 2002 and in which a further seven or eight countries from Europe will participate. (author)

  17. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Methods and equipment for analysis of biological materials; (3) A system of fixed nuclear accident... Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material to... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304...

  18. Latinamerican Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNET). International Biological Dosimetry intercomparison Program (exercise 2007-2008)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Vallerga, Maria B.; Radl, A.; Taja, Maria R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the International Biological Dosimetry Intercomparison Program (exercise 2007-2008) - developed within the framework of the IAEA regional project - RLA/9/054 (Establishment of national capabilities for response to radiological and nuclear emergency) whose general objectives are: assess reproducibility inter-laboratory; identify problems and provide the necessary modifications for collaborative work in accidental situations requiring activation of mutual assistance mechanisms which will form the basis of the Organization of LBDNET. This exercise involves the laboratories of the region: Argentina (laboratory support), Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay and the laboratory of the Autonomous University of Barcelona-Espana (Joan Francesc Barquinero and staff). Finally, these countries will meet the next time for the drafting of a final report and later publication. (author)

  19. Report of the Intercomparison program by thermoluminescent dosimetry for Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopulos, Susana

    2000-01-01

    In this report the results of an intercomparison program within a research coordinated program are presented. This is a third phase of the study that consisted in to evaluate the implementation of the new ICRU quantities for individual monitoring by the SSDLs, their capabilities to perform irradiations in different angles and the interpretation of the standard ISO 4370-3. This phase as well the first one was coordinated by Argentina through the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear that verified the performance of the participant laboratories. The SSDL of Argentina calibrated the dosimetric system to be used, and sent a set of tld dosimeters for irradiation at the SSDL or dosimetry laboratories of nine countries of latin america

  20. Reference dosimetry and small-field dosimetry in external beam radiotherapy: Results from a Danish intercomparison study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beierholm, Anders Ravnsborg; Behrens, Claus F.; Sibolt, Patrik

    methods was performed by DTU Nutech at six Danish clinics. The first part of the intercompa-rison regarded the consistency of reference dosimetry. Absorbed dose to water under reference conditions was measured using a Farmer ionization chamber, and was found to agree within 1 % with the daily dose checks......-specific correction factors for non-reference fields....

  1. Neutron dosimetry intercomparison run for verification of the neutron fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penev, I.; Kinova, L.

    2001-01-01

    For the neutron fluence verification the intercomparison runs Balakovo and KORPUS have been carried out. The participation in the international intercomparison runs shows that in order to more precisely verify the calculated values of the neutron fluence more intercomparison exercises are necessary. Due to such exercises the results improved after calibration of Nb performed and are in a very good agreement with RIIAR results in spite of the different approaches in the determination of its activity

  2. Retrospective accident dosimetry using trapped charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L.; Chang, I.; Kim, B. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Dicentric chromosome aberrations technique scoring of aberrations in metaphases prepared from human lymphocytes is most commonly used. This is considered as a reliable technique because the sample is extracted from the individual human body itself. There are other techniques in biological dosimetry such as Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) using translocations, premature chromosome condensation (PCC) and micronucleus assay. However the minimum detectable doses (MDD) are relatively high and sample preparation time is also relatively longer. Therefore, there is limitation in use of these techniques for the purpose of triage in a short time in case of emergency situation relating large number of persons. Electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique is based on the signal from unpaired electrons such as free radicals in irradiated materials especially tooth enamel, however it has also limitation for the purpose of triage because of difficulty of sample taking and its high MDD. Recently as physical methods, thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique have been attracted due to its lower MDD and simplicity of sample preparation. Density of the trapped charges is generally proportional to the radiation dose absorbed and the intensity of emitting light is also proportional to the density of trapped charges, thus it can be applied to measure radiation dose retrospectively. In this presentation, TL and OSL techniques are going to introduced and discussed as physical methods for retrospective accident dosimetry using trapped charges especially in electronic component materials. As a tool for dose reconstruction for emergency situation, thermoluminescece and optically stimulated luminescence techniques which are based on trapped charges during exposure of material are introduced. These techniques have several advantages such as high sensitivity, fast evaluation and ease to sample collection over common biological dosimetry and EPR

  3. Results of the argentinian intercomparison on internal dosimetry 2014. Measurement of thyroid burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Puerta, N.; Gossio, S.; Gómez Parada, I.

    2015-01-01

    Internal dosimetry intercomparisons are essential for the verification of the capability to perform direct measurements of “1”3”1I thyroid burden and the expertise in the interpretation of these data for dose assessment. To that aim, in 2014 the National Intercomparison Exercise was organized and coordinated by the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN) of Argentina. The exercise counted with the participation of six internal dosimetry services: nuclear power plants (NA-SA CNA and NA-SA CNE), CNEA Atomic Centres: Bariloche (CAB) and Ezeiza (CAE), Roffo Institute (UBA – CNEA) and ARN. This report shows a complete analysis of the participant’s results in this exercise. (authors) [es

  4. Participation of the regional reference center for dosimetry of Argentina in the personnel dosimetry intercomparison for Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, P.; Lindner, C.; Montano, R.G.; Saravi, M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: A Regional Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison was organized in the Regional Reference Center for Dosimetry (CRRD), in agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN), with the participation of 9 countries of Latin America. For dosimeter irradiations, X-ray, 60 Co γ-ray and 137 Cs γ-ray beams were used during the intercomparison. The air kerma rate was measured with the Secondary Standard NE 2560 and NE 2561 ionisation chamber. In compliance with ISO 4037 guideline, the wide spectrum series W60, W110 and W200 for the X-ray irradiations were chosen, determining their quality by the HVL method. Prior to the intercomparison, these beams were checked by the Physikalish Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) using thermoluminescence dosimeters 'pill box', which were irradiated in air and in ICRU phantom. As result of this check, only one 'X ray beam got a deviation of 7%, while the rest of them were less than 3%. Periodic checks of the beams by a Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory such as PTB give reliability to the irradiations performed by this CRRD. (author) [es

  5. The second EURADOS intercomparison of national network systems used to provide early warning of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez-Vergara, J. C.; Thompson, I. M. G.; Gurriaran, R.; Dombrowski, H.; Funck, E.; Neumaier, S.

    2007-01-01

    In 1999 and 2002, the EURADOS Working Group on Environmental Monitoring organised two European intercomparison exercises of national network systems used to provide early warning in case of a nuclear accident. In total, 12 European countries, represented by more than 40 scientists, participated in these two intercomparisons with more than 35 different dose rate detectors. In addition, an in situ gamma spectrometry intercomparison was performed by a group of European scientists during the 2002 exercise. Results of these spectrometry measurements will be reported elsewhere. This report summarises the results of the second intercomparison, performed in 2002, at the environmental dosimetry facilities of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. The unique combination of the ultra-low background Underground Laboratory (UDO) and two free-field sites (a floating platform on a lake showing an almost pure cosmic radiation field and a free-field gamma ray irradiation facility) provide the particular opportunity to precisely quantify the inherent background of the detectors and to calibrate them almost free of any background and traceable to PTB's primary standards. In addition, the intercomparison comprised investigations on the energy and dose rate dependence of the detectors' response to gamma radiation as well as on the response to cosmic radiation. Finally, the sensitivity of the detector systems to small dose rate variations, similar to that caused by a passing overhead radioactive plume, was studied under realistic free-field conditions. Following the Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM, the participants of the 2002 intercomparison were asked to report their results in terms of the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent, H*(10). Although the verification of the individual calibrations showed smaller discrepancies than those in the 1999 intercomparison, in a few cases, these discrepancies would be still unacceptably high in the case of a real

  6. Quality audit of dosimetry in radiotherapy centers using postal dose TLD intercomparison in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, G.; Kadam, V.D.; Vinatha, S.P.; Soman, A.T.; Vijayam, M.; Shaha, V.V.; Abani, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    The national quality audit of dosimetry in radiation therapy centers using mailed TLDs is being carried out by RSS/ASSD of BARC since 1976, in collaboration with IAEA/WHO for India and neighbouring countries such as Mayanmar, Sri Lanka and Nepal. The importance of the programme comes from the fact that consistent, high accuracy ( 60 Co machines ∼35 linear accelerators are being covered by the programme. This paper brings out the materials and methods used in the intercomparison. The results of intercomparison are analyzed to find the steps to improve the performance in quality audit of those centers whose results are outside the limit of acceptable deviation

  7. Personnel-dosimetry intercomparison studies at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    Since 1974, seven annual personnel dosimetry intercomparison studies have been conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the Health Physics Reactor. These studies have produced more than 2000 measurements by 72 participating organizations of neutron and gamma dose equivalents between 0.1 to 15.0 mSv in six mixed radiation fields. The relative performance of three basic types of personnel neutron dosimeters (nuclear emulsion film, thermoluminescent, and track-etch) and two basic types of gamma dosimeters (film and thermoluminescent) was assessed based on experimental results obtained during the seven intercomparisons

  8. INTERCOMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR A PWR ROD EJECTION ACCIDENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DIAMOND,D.J.; ARONSON,A.; JO,J.; AVVAKUMOV,A.; MALOFEEV,V.; SIDOROV,V.; FERRARESI,P.; GOUIN,C.; ANIEL,S.; ROYER,M.E.

    1999-10-01

    This study is part of an overall program to understand the uncertainty in best-estimate calculations of the local fuel enthalpy during the rod ejection accident. Local fuel enthalpy is used as the acceptance criterion for this design-basis event and can also be used to estimate fuel damage for the purpose of determining radiological consequences. The study used results from neutron kinetics models in PARCS, BARS, and CRONOS2, codes developed in the US, the Russian Federation, and France, respectively. Since BARS uses a heterogeneous representation of the fuel assembly as opposed to the homogeneous representations in PARCS and CRONOS, the effect of the intercomparison was primarily to compare different intra-assembly models. Quantitative comparisons for core power, reactivity, assembly fuel enthalpy and pin power were carried out. In general the agreement between methods was very good providing additional confidence in the codes and providing a starting point for a quantitative assessment of the uncertainty in calculated fuel enthalpy using best-estimate methods.

  9. Extremity ring dosimetry intercomparison in reference and workplace fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginjaume, M.; Carinou, E.; Donadille, L.; Jankowski, J.; Rimpler, A.; Sans Merce, M.; Vanhavere, F.; Denoziere, M.; Daures, J.; Bordy, J. M.; Itie, C.; Covens, P.

    2008-01-01

    An intercomparison of ring dosemeters has been organised with the aim of assessing the technical capabilities of available extremity dosemeters and focusing on their performance at clinical workplaces with potentially high extremity doses. Twenty-four services from 16 countries participated in the intercomparison. The dosemeters were exposed to reference photon ( 137 Cs) and beta ( 147 Pm, 85 Kr and 90 Sr/ 90 Y) fields together with fields representing realistic exposure situations in interventional radiology (direct and scattered radiation) and nuclear medicine ( 99m Tc and 18 F). It has been found that most dosemeters provided satisfactory measurements of H p (0.07) for photon radiation, both in reference and realistic fields. However, only four dosemeters fulfilled the established requirements for all radiation qualities. The main difficulties were found for the measurement of low-energy beta radiation. Finally, the results also showed a general under-response of detectors to 18 F, which was attributed to the difficulties of the dosimetric systems to measure the positron contribution to the dose. (authors)

  10. Intercomparison on the usage of computational codes in radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, R.; Pesic, M.; Pavlovic, R.

    2003-01-01

    SRNA-2KG software package was modified for this work to include necessary input and output data and for predicted voxelized geometry and dosimetry. SRNA is a Monte Carlo code developed for applications in proton transport, radiotherapy and dosimetry. Protons within energy range from 100 keV to 250 MeV with predefined spectra are transported in 3D geometry through material zones confined by planes and second order surfaces or in 3D voxelized geometry. The code can treat proton transport in a few hundred different materials including elements from Z=1 to Z=98. Simulation of proton transport is based on the multiple scattering theory of charged particles and on the model for compound nucleus decay

  11. Sandia National Laboratories results for the 2010 criticality accident dosimetry exercise, at the CALIBAN reactor, CEA Valduc France.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Dann C.

    2011-09-01

    This document describes the personal nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) used by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and presents PNAD dosimetry results obtained during the Nuclear Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Study held 20-23 September, 2010, at CEA Valduc, France. SNL PNADs were exposed in two separate irradiations from the CALIBAN reactor. Biases for reported neutron doses ranged from -15% to +0.4% with an average bias of -7.7%. PNADs were also exposed on the back side of phantoms to assess orientation effects.

  12. Sandia National Laboratories results for the 2010 criticality accident dosimetry exercise, at the CALIBAN reactor, CEA Valduc France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Dann C.

    2011-01-01

    This document describes the personal nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) used by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and presents PNAD dosimetry results obtained during the Nuclear Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Study held 20-23 September, 2010, at CEA Valduc, France. SNL PNADs were exposed in two separate irradiations from the CALIBAN reactor. Biases for reported neutron doses ranged from -15% to +0.4% with an average bias of -7.7%. PNADs were also exposed on the back side of phantoms to assess orientation effects.

  13. An international co-ordinated research programme on nuclear accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flakus, F.N.

    1977-01-01

    Where fissile materials are being processed in quantities exceeding the minimum critical amounts, a radiation risk to workers arises from the possibility of criticality excursions. Despite the fact that techniques for preventing the occurende of such accidental excursions have reached very high standards it is generally agreed that the availability of suitable nuclear accident dosimetry (NAD) systems is very important. Following the recommendations of an Advisory Group meeting on NAD, the IAEA had established in 1969 an international coordinated research programme on NAD systems and elaborating standarized systems. A large number of research groups from 14 Member States throughout the world participated in this co-ordinated work. Since 1970 four international multilaboratory intercomparison experiments on NAD have been organized and the response of a variety of dosimeters examined in different neutron spectra under simulated accident conditions at Valduc (France), Oak Ridge (USA), Vinca (Yugoslavia) and Harwell (UK). The results achieved in these intercomparison studies show that NAD systems have been substantially improved and that several systems are available now in a number of laboratories throughout the world that perform within the criteria laid down by the initiating advisory group in 1969. A compendium of neutron leakage spectra has also been elaborated for facilitating the determination of dose from readings of detectors exposed to various neutron fields in criticality accidents

  14. The Third International Intercomparison on EPR Tooth Dosimetry: Part 2, final analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, A.; Debuyst, R.; Fattibene, P.; Meghzifene, A.; Onori, S.; Bayankin, S. N.; Brik, A.; Bugay, A.; Chumak, V.; Ciesielski, B.; Hoshi, M.; Imata, H.; Ivannikov, A.; Ivanov, D.; Junczewska, M.; Miyazawa, C.; Penkowski, M.; Pivovarov, S.; Romanyukha, A.; Romanyukha, L.; Schauer, D.; Scherbina, O.; Schultka, K.; Sholom, S.; Skvortsov, V.; Stepanenko, V.; Thomas, J. A.; Tielewuhan, E.; Toyoda, S.; Trompier, F.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the Third International Intercomparison on EPR Tooth Dosimetry was to evaluate laboratories performing tooth enamel dosimetry <300 mGy. Final analysis of results included a correlation analysis between features of laboratory dose reconstruction protocols and dosimetry performance. Applicability of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) tooth dosimetry at low dose was shown at two applied dose levels of 79 and 176 mGy. Most (9 of 12) laboratories reported the dose to be within 50 mGy of the delivered dose of 79 mGy, and 10 of 12 laboratories reported the dose to be within 100 mGy of the delivered dose of 176 mGy. At the high-dose tested (704 mGy) agreement within 25% of the delivered dose was found in 10 laboratories. Features of EPR dose reconstruction protocols that affect dosimetry performance were found to be magnetic field modulation amplitude in EPR spectrum recording, EPR signal model in spectrum deconvolution and duration of latency period for tooth enamel samples after preparation. (authors)

  15. Present and future activities of the IAEA on internal dosimetry: Lessons learned from international intercomparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Suarez, R.; Gustafsson, M.; Mrabit, K.

    2003-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducts safety activities to support the assessment of occupational exposure due to intakes of radionuclides; a comprehensive set of safety documents will soon be completed. In recent years, extensive improvements in measurement techniques, phantoms and computational tools have been made. Thus, it is important for laboratories involved in internal dosimetry to undergo performance testing procedures to demonstrate the correctness of the methods applied and also to determine the consistency of their results with those obtained by other laboratories. Several intercomparisons were organised, and they revealed significant differences among laboratories in their approaches, methods and assumptions, and consequently in their results. This paper presents the current and future IAEA activities in support of assessment of occupational exposure due to intakes of radionuclides in the IAEA Member States, as well as the lessons learned from several intercomparison exercises in the last 5 years. (author)

  16. EPR dosimetry intercomparison using smart phone touch screen glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattibene, Paola; Trompier, Francois; Wieser, Albrecht; Brai, Maria; Ciesielski, Bartlomej; De Angelis, Cinzia; Della Monaca, Sara; Garcia, Tristan; Gustafsson, H; Hole, Eli Olag; Juniewicz, M; Krefft, K; Longo, Anna; Leveque, Philippe; Lund, Eva; Marrale, Maurizio; Michalec, Barbara; Mierzwińska, Gabriela; Rao, J L; Romanyukha, Alexander A; Tuner, Hasan

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an interlaboratory comparison of retrospective dosimetry using the electron paramagnetic resonance method. The test material used in this exercise was glass coming from the touch screens of smart phones that might be used as fortuitous dosimeters in a large-scale radiological incident. There were 13 participants to whom samples were dispatched, and 11 laboratories reported results. The participants received five calibration samples (0, 0.8, 2, 4, and 10 Gy) and four blindly irradiated samples (0, 0.9, 1.3, and 3.3 Gy). Participants were divided into two groups: for group A (formed by three participants), samples came from a homogeneous batch of glass and were stored in similar setting; for group B (formed by eight participants), samples came from different smart phones and stored in different settings of light and temperature. The calibration curves determined by the participants of group A had a small error and a critical level in the 0.37-0.40-Gy dose range, whereas the curves determined by the participants of group B were more scattered and led to a critical level in the 1.3-3.2-Gy dose range for six participants out of eight. Group A were able to assess the dose within 20 % for the lowest doses (<1.5 Gy) and within 5 % for the highest doses. For group B, only the highest blind dose could be evaluated in a reliable way because of the high critical values involved. The results from group A are encouraging, whereas the results from group B suggest that the influence of environmental conditions and the intervariability of samples coming from different smart phones need to be further investigated. An alongside conclusion is that the protocol was easily transferred to participants making a network of laboratories in case of a mass casualty event potentially feasible.

  17. EPR dosimetry intercomparison using smart phone touch screen glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattibene, Paola; De Angelis, Cinzia; Della Monaca, Sara; Trompier, Francois; Rao, J.L.; Wieser, Albrecht; Brai, Maria; Longo, Anna; Marrale, Maurizio; Ciesielski, Bartlomej; Juniewicz, M.; Krefft, K.; Garcia, Tristan; Gustafsson, H.; Lund, Eva; Hole, Eli Olag; Leveque, Philippe; Michalec, Barbara; Mierzwinska, Gabriela; Rao, J.L.; Romanyukha, Alexander A.; Tuner, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an interlaboratory comparison of retrospective dosimetry using the electron paramagnetic resonance method. The test material used in this exercise was glass coming from the touch screens of smart phones that might be used as fortuitous dosimeters in a large-scale radiological incident. There were 13 participants to whom samples were dispatched, and 11 laboratories reported results. The participants received five calibration samples (0, 0.8, 2, 4, and 10 Gy) and four blindly irradiated samples (0, 0.9, 1.3, and 3.3 Gy). Participants were divided into two groups: for group A (formed by three participants), samples came from a homogeneous batch of glass and were stored in similar setting; for group B (formed by eight participants), samples came from different smart phones and stored in different settings of light and temperature. The calibration curves determined by the participants of group A had a small error and a critical level in the 0.37-0.40-Gy dose range, whereas the curves determined by the participants of group B were more scattered and led to a critical level in the 1.3-3.2-Gy dose range for six participants out of eight. Group A were able to assess the dose within 20 % for the lowest doses (≤1.5 Gy) and within 5 % for the highest doses. For group B, only the highest blind dose could be evaluated in a reliable way because of the high critical values involved. The results from group A are encouraging, whereas the results from group B suggest that the influence of environmental conditions and the inter-variability of samples coming from different smart phones need to be further investigated. An alongside conclusion is that the protocol was easily transferred to participants making a network of laboratories in case of a mass casualty event potentially feasible. (authors)

  18. The 3rd international intercomparison on EPR tooth dosimetry: Part 1, general analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, A.; Debuyst, R.; Fattibene, P.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the 3rd International Intercomparison on Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Tooth Dosimetry was the evaluation of laboratories performing tooth enamel dosimetry below 300 mGy. Participants had to reconstruct the absorbed dose in tooth enamel from 11 molars, which were cut into two halves. One half of each tooth was irradiated in a 60 Co beam to doses in the ranges of 30-100 mGy (5 samples), 100-300 mGy (5 samples), and 300-900 mGy (1 sample). Fourteen international laboratories participated in this intercomparison programme. A first analysis of the results and an overview of the essential features of methods applied in different laboratories are presented. The relative standard deviation of results of all methods was better than 27% for applied doses in the range of 79-704 mGy. In the analysis of the unirradiated tooth halves 8% of the samples were identified as outliers with additional absorbed dose above background dose

  19. Intercomparison of dispersed radiation readings among film dosimetry, electronic and OSL with X-rays for low dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andisco, D.; Blanco, S.; Bourel, V.; Schmidt, L.; Di Risio, C.

    2014-08-01

    One of the personal dosimetry methods more used for several decades is the dosimetry type film, characterized to possess readings with certain margin of trust. Today other methods exist that many times are presupposed more reliable due to the nature of the detection like the electronic dosimeters or the OSL (Optically Stimulated Luminescence) dosimetry. With the purpose of comparing different methods and to can determining the existent differences among each method has been carried out an intercomparison assay. The different dosimeters have been exposed to dispersed radiation generated by a Hemodynamics equipment of the type -arch in C- and a dispersing system of the primary beam. Film dosimeters have been used; OSL (In Light), OSL (Nano Dots) and Electronic with the purpose of knowing and to valorize the existent differences among its readings. Always, the intercomparison exercises have demonstrated to be an useful tool when establishing the measurement capacity and the quality of the results emitted by the laboratories of personal dosimetry services. Also, this type of assays allows obtaining quality indicators of the laboratory performance and they are habitual part of the procedures for accreditation of the same ones. The Optically Stimulated Luminescence is a technology that has grown in Argentina so much in the area of personal dosimetry as in dosimetry in vivo (radiotherapy area). In this intercomparison study, the answers corresponding to each technology were looked for oneself irradiation of the disperse type, that is to say, of very low energy. (Author)

  20. The IAEA/WHO thermoluminescent dosimetry intercomparison used for the improvement of clinical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racoveanu, N.T.

    1981-01-01

    Results of thermoluminescent dosimetry collected over 5 years in the Eastern Mediterranean region of WHO were analyzed in an attempt to improve clinical dosimetry. Data for 16 radiotherapy departments showed considerable inconsistencies. It was found that the clinical dosemeters used by 3 of the departments were not working properly. The remainder of the departments had one or more dosemeters in perfect working order but the procedure for measuring machine output was inadequate or the correction factors (pressure, temperature) were wrongly applied due to lack of reliable instruments for such measurements. Problems encountered in the sending and returning of TLD dosemeters for assessment are discussed

  1. Intercomparison of Environmental Dosemeters Using Various TL Materials and Dosimetry Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crnic, B.; Gobec, S.; Zorko, B.; Knezevic, Z.; Majer, M.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to compare the ambient dose equivalent (H*(10)) values determined at 20 sites around NPP Krško, using different thermoluminescence (TL) materials and various dosimetry systems. The H*(10) was measured by the CaF 2 :Mn (TLD-400) provided by the Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI) Ljubljana, Slovenia. These dosemeters were deployed in the environment in plastic bags and suspended inside the plastic bottles. On the other hand the Ruder Boskovic Institute (RBI), Zagreb, Croatia applied LiF:Mg,Cu,P (TLD-100H), CaF 2 :Mn, Al 2 O 3 :C TL detectors and radiophotoluminescence (RPL) glass dosemeters type SG1. They were placed at the same locations in as much as possible same conditions as JSI detectors. According to the protocol established for this intercomparison, the control and transport detectors (not deployed in the environment) were held in dark storage containers and used to determine the background radiation. The TL responses were corrected for individual sensitivity of the TL detectors which is an important factor after the calibration irradiations. The calibration irradiations were performed by 137Cs sources provided in Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory facilities at the JSI and RBI. The results obtained by different TL materials and different dosimetry systems show interesting features especially concerning local environmental peculiarities. The H*(10) obtained by the dosemeters of various types deployed in the countryside fluctuate less than 10 %. The outcome should emphasize also in the manner that the results obtained and reported in the intercomparison are traceable to the primary standards.(author)

  2. PNNL Measurement Results for the 2016 Criticality Accident Dosimetry Exercise at the Nevada National Security Stite (IER-148)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.; Morley, Shannon M.; Stephens, John A.

    2017-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) participated in a criticality accident dosimetry intercomparison exercise held at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) May 24-27, 2016. The exercise was administered by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and consisted of three exposures performed using the Godiva-IV critical assembly housed in the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) located on the NNSS site. The exercise allowed participants to test the ability of their nuclear accident dosimeters to meet the performance criteria in ANSI/HPS N13.3-2013, Dosimetry for Criticality Accidents and to obtain new measurement data for use in revising dose calculation methods and quick sort screening methods where appropriate. PNNL participated with new prototype Personal Nuclear Accident Dosimeter (PNAD) and Fixed Nuclear Accident Dosimeter (FNAD) designs as well as the existing historical PNAD design. The new prototype designs incorporate optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters in place of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs), among other design changes, while retaining the same set of activation foils historically used. The default dose calculation methodology established decades ago for use with activation foils in PNNL PNADs and FNADs was used to calculate neutron dose results for both the existing and prototype dosimeters tested in the exercise. The results indicate that the effective cross sections and/or dose conversion factors used historically need to be updated to accurately measure the operational quantities recommended for nuclear accident dosimetry in ANSI/HPS N13.3-2013 and to ensure PNAD and FNAD performance meets the ANSI/HPS N13.3-2013 performance criteria. The operational quantities recommended for nuclear accident dosimetry are personal absorbed dose, Dp(10), and ambient absorbed dose, D*(10).

  3. Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, G S; Ritchie, R H; Sanders, F W; Reinhardt, P W; Auxier, J A; Wagner, E B; Callihan, A D; Morgan, K Z [Health Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1962-03-15

    The methods of dosimetry used for investigation of the doses received by the individuals exposed in the Yugoslav accident were essentially those used in connection with the Oak Ridge Y-12 accident. An outline of the general scheme is as follows: When fast neutrons enter the human body, most of these are moderated to thermal energy and a small fraction of these are captured by a (n, gamma) process in Na sup 2 sup 3 , giving rise to Na sup 2 sup 4 , which by virtue of its emission of high-energy gamma rays with a half life of 14.8 h, is easily detected. It has been shown that the probability of capture, making Na sup 2 sup 4 , is not a strong function of the energy of the fast neutrons and that the probability of capture for neutrons is higher in the fast region than in the thermal region. Thus, the uniform distribution of Na sup 2 sup 3 in the human body provides an excellent means of normalizing the neutron exposure of an individual. in particular, for a given neutron energy spectrum the fast neutron dose is proportional to the ratio Na sup 2 sup 4 /Na sup 2 sup 3 in the body or in the blood system. This method of normalization is quite important in the dosimetry of radiation accidents since no assumptions need be made about the exact location of an individual at the time of the energy release. The importance of this fact can be made clear by reference to the Y-12 accident where it was shown by calculation of the neutron dose based on the known number of fissions and the stated location of the individual that one of the surviving individuals would have received a dose several times the lethal value. To accomplish the measurements described, the zero power R sub B reactor was operated in two ranges of power level, 'low' power and 'high 'power. Neutron leakage spectrum was obtained by multigroup approximation of the Boltzmann transport equation. Prompt gamma rays from fission products, from capture in the moderator and fuel cladding as well as in tank walls are given

  4. Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, G S; Ritchie, R H; Sanders, F W; Reinhardt, P W; Auxier, J A; Wagner, E B; Callihan, A D; Morgan, K Z [Health Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1962-03-01

    The methods of dosimetry used for investigation of the doses received by the individuals exposed in the Yugoslav accident were essentially those used in connection with the Oak Ridge Y-12 accident. An outline of the general scheme is as follows: When fast neutrons enter the human body, most of these are moderated to thermal energy and a small fraction of these are captured by a (n, {gamma}) process in Na{sup 23}, giving rise to Na{sup 24}, which by virtue of its emission of high-energy gamma rays with a half life of 14.8 h, is easily detected. It has been shown that the probability of capture, making Na{sup 24}, is not a strong function of the energy of the fast neutrons and that the probability of capture for neutrons is higher in the fast region than in the thermal region. Thus, the uniform distribution of Na{sup 23} in the human body provides an excellent means of normalizing the neutron exposure of an individual. in particular, for a given neutron energy spectrum the fast neutron dose is proportional to the ratio Na{sup 24}/Na{sup 23} in the body or in the blood system. This method of normalization is quite important in the dosimetry of radiation accidents since no assumptions need be made about the exact location of an individual at the time of the energy release. The importance of this fact can be made clear by reference to the Y-12 accident where it was shown by calculation of the neutron dose based on the known number of fissions and the stated location of the individual that one of the surviving individuals would have received a dose several times the lethal value. To accomplish the measurements described, the zero power R{sub B} reactor was operated in two ranges of power level, 'low' power and 'high 'power. Neutron leakage spectrum was obtained by multigroup approximation of the Boltzman transport equation. Prompt gamma rays from fission products, from capture in the moderator and fuel cladding as well as in tank walls are given. A summary of the 4{pi

  5. Eleventh ORNL personnel dosimetry intercomparison study, May 22-23, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaja, R.E.; Oyan, R.; Sims, C.S.

    1986-07-01

    The Eleventh Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during May 22-23, 1985. Dosimeter badges from 44 participating organizations were mounted on Lucite block phantoms and exposed to four mixed-radiation fields with neutron dose equivalents around 5 mSv and gamma dose equivalents between 0.1 and 0.7 mSv. Results of this study indicated that no participants had difficulty obtaining measurable indication of neutron exposure at the provided dose equivalent levels, and very few had difficulty obtaining indication of gamma exposure at dose equivalents as low as 0.10 mSv. Average neutron results for all dosimeter types were within 20% of reference values with no obvious spectrum dependence. Different dosimeter types (albedo, direct interaction TLD, film, recoil track, and combination albedo-track) with 10 or more reported measurements provided average results within 35% of reference values for all spectra. With regard to precision, about 80% of the reported neutron results had single standard deviations within 10% at the means which indicates that precision is not a problem relative to accuracy for most participants. Average gamma results were greater than reference values by factors of 1.07 to 1.52 for the four exposures with TLD systems being more accurate than film. About 80% of all neutron results and 67% of all gamma results met regulatory standards for measurement accuracy and approximately 70% of all neutron data satisfied national dosimetry accreditation criteria for accuracy plus precision. In general, neutron dosimeter performance observed in this intercomparison was much improved compared to that observed in the prior studies while gamma dosimeter performance was about the same

  6. Nuclear accident dosimetry. Revision of emergency data sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafield, H.J.

    1976-09-01

    The Emergency Data Sheets on Nuclear Accident Dosimetry have been revealed following the publication of a three part manual on this subject (Delafield, Dennis and Gibson, AERE-R 7485/6/7, 1973). This memo provides an explanation of the action levels adopted for the initial segregation of irradiated persons following a criticality accident, by monitoring the activity of indium foils contained in personnel dosimeters and the induced body sodium activity. The data sheets are given as an Appendix. They provide basic information on; the segregation of irradiated persons, the estimation of radiation exposure, and the assessment of personnel γ-ray and neutron doses. (author)

  7. Neutron personal dosimetry in criticality accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, E.S. da; Mauricio, C.L.P.

    1996-01-01

    In the present work an innovating method is proposed to estimate the absorbed dose received by individuals irradiated with neutrons in an accident, even in the case that the victim is not using any kind of neutron dosemeter. The method combines direct measurements of 24 Na and 32 P activated in the human body. The calculation method was developed using data taken from previously published papers and experimental measurements. Other irradiations results in different neutron spectra prove the validity of the method here proposed. Using a whole body counter to measure 24 Na activity, it is possible to evaluate neutron absorbed doses in the order of 140 μ Gy of very soft (thermal) spectra. For fast neutron fields, the lower limit for neutron dose detection increases, but the present method continues to be very useful in accidents, with higher neutron doses. (author)

  8. EURADOS intercomparisons in external radiation dosimetry: similarities and differences among exercises for whole-body photon, whole-body neutron, extremity, eye-lens and passive area dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Ana M.; Grimbergen, Tom; McWhan, Andrew; Stadtmann, Hannes; Fantuzzi, Elena; Clairand, Isabelle; Neumaier, Stefan; Dombrowski, Harald; Figel, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been organising dosimetry intercomparisons for many years in response to an identified requirement from individual monitoring services (IMS) for independent performance tests for dosimetry systems. The participation in intercomparisons gives IMS the opportunity to show compliance with their own quality management system, compare results with other participants and develop plans for improving their dosimetry systems. In response to growing demand, EURADOS has increased the number of intercomparisons for external radiation dosimetry. Most of these fit into the programme of self-financing intercomparisons for dosemeters routinely used by IMS. This programme is being coordinated by EURADOS working group 2 (WG2). Up to now, this programme has included four intercomparisons for whole-body dosemeters in photon fields, one for extremity dosemeters in photon and beta fields, and one for whole-body dosemeters in neutron fields. Other EURADOS working groups have organised additional intercomparisons including events in 2014 for eye-lens dosemeters and passive area dosemeters for environmental monitoring. In this paper, the organisation and achievements of these intercomparisons are compared in detail focusing on the similarities and differences in their execution. (authors)

  9. Results of the ninth exercise of intercomparison in services of personal dosimetry in Argentina Republic in the year of 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrufino, G.A.; Discacciatti, P.A.; Lopez, F.O.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of the ninth intercomparison exercise personal dosimetry services, conducted by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in 2011. The exercise was designed to evaluate the performance of laboratories providing personal dosimetry services in Argentina , for X-rays and gamma radiation fields . This exercise was organized by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority with the Ministry of Health of the Nation and the Regional Reference Laboratory Centre for Dosimetry of the National Atomic Energy Commission . The irradiations were carried out in full accordance with ISO 4037-3 . Participates all private companies in Argentina serving all personal dosimetry laboratories and agencies, provincial and national. Furthermore, the Laboratories from Cuba, Brazil and Uruguay also participate. The performance of a laboratory is considered acceptable if it meets the criteria established in the IRAM- ISO 14146 , which states: 'It is recognized that at most, one-tenth of dosimeters irradiated to exceed the limits'. Of all of the laboratories that participated , 68% reported their results within the acceptance criteria above. The primary objective of this intercomparison exercise is to provide an objective tool to evaluate the ability of personnel dosimetry services. (author)

  10. Report of the results of the second phase of Research Coordinated Program of IAEA ''Regional Intercomparison of Personnel Dosimetry''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.; Diaz, E.; Hernandez, E.; Capote, E.

    1998-01-01

    In this report the results of an intercomparison program within a research coordinated program are presented. This is a second phase of the study that consisted in to evaluate the implementation of the new ICRU quantities for individual monitoring by the dosimetry laboratories. In this report the organization aspects, quality control of the irradiations performed by the reference laboratory (SSDL of the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las radiaciones) as well the results of the participant laboratories are included

  11. The principles of radioiodine dosimetry following a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonova, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    Based upon the experience of radioiodine dosimetry after the Chernobyl accident main principals of radioiodine measurements and dosimetry in thyroid glands of population in case of a radiation accident are discussed in the report. For the correct dose estimation following the radioiodine measurement in the thyroid one should know the ''history'' of radionuclide intake into the body of a contaminated person. So a measurement of radioiodine thyroid content should be accompanied by asking questions of investigated persons about, their life style and feeding after a nuclear incident. These data coincidently with data of radionuclides dynamic in the air and food (especially in milk products) are used for the development of radioiodine intake model and then for thyroid dose estimation. The influence of stable iodine prophylaxis and other countermeasures on values are discussed in dependence on the time of its using. Some methods of thyroid dose reconstruction used after the Chernobyl accident in Russia for a situation of thyroid radioiodine measurements lacking in a contaminated settlement are presented in the report. (author). 16 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  12. The principles of radioiodine dosimetry following a nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvonova, I A [Institute of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1996-08-01

    Based upon the experience of radioiodine dosimetry after the Chernobyl accident main principals of radioiodine measurements and dosimetry in thyroid glands of population in case of a radiation accident are discussed in the report. For the correct dose estimation following the radioiodine measurement in the thyroid one should know the ``history`` of radionuclide intake into the body of a contaminated person. So a measurement of radioiodine thyroid content should be accompanied by asking questions of investigated persons about, their life style and feeding after a nuclear incident. These data coincidently with data of radionuclides dynamic in the air and food (especially in milk products) are used for the development of radioiodine intake model and then for thyroid dose estimation. The influence of stable iodine prophylaxis and other countermeasures on values are discussed in dependence on the time of its using. Some methods of thyroid dose reconstruction used after the Chernobyl accident in Russia for a situation of thyroid radioiodine measurements lacking in a contaminated settlement are presented in the report. (author). 16 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs.

  13. Latin-American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNET) Intercomparison Exercise. Evaluation through triage and conventional scoring criteria. Development of a new approach for statistical data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B.; Radl, A.

    2011-01-01

    Biological Dosimetry is a necessary support for National Radiation Protection Programs and Emergency Response Schemes. A Latin-American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNET) has been constituted by the biological dosimetry laboratories from: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, and Uruguay (IAEA Regional Project RLA9/054, 2007). The biological dosimetry laboratory of Argentina organized an international biological dosimetry intercomparison for the analysis of some relevant parameters involved in dose assessment, to reinforce the response capability in accidental situations requiring the activation of mutual assistance mechanisms and thus, constituting the bases of the LBDNET organization. (authors)

  14. Pitfalls and modelling inconsistencies in computational radiation dosimetry: Lessons learnt from the QUADOS intercomparison. Part I: Neutrons and uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebert, B. R. L.; Tanner, R. J.; Chartier, J. L.; Agosteo, S.; Grosswendt, B.; Gualdrini, G.; Menard, S.; Kodeli, I.; Leuthold, G. P.; Price, R. A.; Tagziria, H.; Terrissol, M.; Zankl, M.

    2006-01-01

    The QUADOS EU cost shared action conducted an intercomparison on the usage of numerical methods in radiation protection and dosimetry. The eight problems proposed were intended to test the usage of Monte Carlo and deterministic methods by assessing the accuracy with which the codes are applied and also the methods used to evaluate uncertainty in the answer gained through these methods. The overall objective was to spread good practice through the community and give users information on how to assess the uncertainties associated with their calculated results. (authors)

  15. Henri Jammet Memorial lecture: The role of dosimetry in radiation accident response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricks, Robert C.; Joiner, Eugene; Toohey, Richard E.; Holloway, Elizabeth C.

    1997-01-01

    This document presents a lecture given on the role of dosimetry in radiation accident response, focusing accidents such as: Vinca, occurred on october 15, 1958, Goiania Cs-137, Hanford Am-241 and Juarez Co-60, Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Other accidents are reported as they are registered in the REAC/TS Registry

  16. RCA/IAEA third external dosimetry intercomparisons in East Asia region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, H.; Yoshizawa, M.; Murakami, H.; Momose, T.; Tsujimura, N.; Kanai, K.; Cruz-Suarez, R.

    2007-01-01

    Several intercomparison exercises were organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the determination of operational quantities at the regional or inter-regional basis. In East Asia region, a third phase of the intercomparison finished in mid 2004. It was organised within the frame of the Regional Cooperation Agreement (RCA) as a follow-up to previous exercises carried out during 1990-1992 and 1995-1996. The results of this intercomparison for the determination of operational quantities were satisfactory for all Member States. The laboratories demonstrated a good performance in quantities tested. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the RCA/IAEA intercomparison and the future of RCA activities in support of assessment of occupational exposure by organising intercomparison runs. (authors)

  17. Proceedings of the III international workshop 'Actual problems of dosimetry (15 years after the Chernobyl accident)'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milyutin, A.A.; Chudakov, V.A.; Berezhnoj, A.V.

    2001-10-01

    Materials grouped to three main issues: normative, metrological and technical support of dosimetric and radiometric control; biological dosimetry and markers of radiation effects; monitoring and reconstruction of radiation doses at radiation accidents

  18. Biological dosimetry intercomparison exercise: an evaluation of Triage and routine mode results by robust methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B.; Radl, A.; Taja, M.R.; Barquinero, J.F.; Seoane, A.; De Luca, J.; Guerrero Carvajal, Y.C.; Stuck Oliveira, M.S.; Valdivia, P.; García Lima, O.; Lamadrid, A.; González Mesa, J.; Romero Aguilera, I.; Mandina Cardoso, T.; Arceo Maldonado, C.; Espinoza, M.E.; Martínez López, W.; Lloyd, D.C.; Méndez Acuña, L.; Di Tomaso, M.V.; Roy, L.; Lindholm, C.; Romm, H.; Güçlü, I.

    2011-01-01

    Well-defined protocols and quality management standards are indispensable for biological dosimetry laboratories. Participation in periodic proficiency testing by interlaboratory comparisons is also required. This harmonization is essential if a cooperative network is used to respond to a mass casualty event. Here we present an international intercomparison based on dicentric chromosome analysis for dose assessment performed in the framework of the IAEA Regional Latin American RLA/9/054 Project. The exercise involved 14 laboratories, 8 from Latin America and 6 from Europe. The performance of each laboratory and the reproducibility of the exercise were evaluated using robust methods described in ISO standards. The study was based on the analysis of slides from samples irradiated with 0.75 (DI) and 2.5 Gy (DII). Laboratories were required to score the frequency of dicentrics and convert them to estimated doses, using their own dose-effect curves, after the analysis of 50 or 100 cells (triage mode) and after conventional scoring of 500 cells or 100 dicentrics. In the conventional scoring, at both doses, all reported frequencies were considered as satisfactory, and two reported doses were considered as questionable. The analysis of the data dispersion among the dicentric frequencies and among doses indicated a better reproducibility for estimated doses (15.6% for DI and 8.8% for DII) than for frequencies (24.4% for DI and 11.4% for DII), expressed by the coefficient of variation. In the two triage modes, although robust analysis classified some reported frequencies or doses as unsatisfactory or questionable, all estimated doses were in agreement with the accepted error of ±0.5 Gy. However, at the DI dose and for 50 scored cells, 5 out of the 14 reported confidence intervals that included zero dose and could be interpreted as false negatives. This improved with 100 cells, where only one confidence interval included zero dose. At the DII dose, all estimations fell within

  19. OSL properties of three commonly available salt brands in India for its use in accident dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. K.; Menon, S. N.; Kadam, S. Y.; Koul, D. K.; Datta, D.

    2018-03-01

    Thermally stimulated luminescence (TL) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) characterization of three commonly available salt brands in India were undertaken for their application in accident dosimetry. The investigations showed that the luminescence properties differed to some extent with that reported in literature. Dosimetric properties of these salt samples showed that these can be useful in accident dosimetry. Based on the sensitization and fading behaviour of the samples a Single Aliquot Regenerative (SAR) protocol has been proposed for dose estimation.

  20. Improved set of criticality accident detectors used in the intercomparison experiment in Valduc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jozefowicz, K.; Golnik, N.

    1996-01-01

    An improved set of critically accident detectors has been elaborated for the needs of the Inst. of Atomic Energy in Swierk. The sets, which consist of fission track detectors, wide-base silicon diodes and RPL glasses, were tested in the international intercomparison experiment in Valduc, France. Comparison of our results with the reference measurements showed a good agreement (within 25%) for both the neutron and gamma measurements. Additionally, the diode response to neutron kerma was investigated more extensively in the dose range between 2 and 10 Gy, where the dependence of the diode signal versus neutron kerma was not well known. A possibility of the multiple use of the diodes has been proved. (author)

  1. Results of the Argentinian intercomparison on internal dosimetry – 2014. Interpretation of monitoring data for effective dose assessment due to internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Puerta, N.; Gossio, S.; Gómez Parada, I.

    2015-01-01

    Internal dosimetry intercomparisons are essential for the verification of the models applied and the results consistency. To that aim, in 2014 the National Intercomparison Exercise was organized and coordinated by the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina. Four simulated cases covering intakes of “1”3”1I, “1”3”7Cs and tritium were proposed. The exercise counted with the participation of four internal dosimetry services from the nuclear power plants (NA-SA CNA and NA-SA CNE) and the CNEA Atomic Centres: Bariloche (CAB) and Ezeiza (CAE). This report shows a complete analysis of the participant’s results in this exercise. (authors) [es

  2. Radiation accident dosimetry: TL properties of mobile phone screen glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassinet, C.; Pirault, N.; Baumann, M.; Clairand, I.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile phones are carried by a large part of the population and previous studies have shown that they may be able to function as individual fortuitous dosimeters in case of radiological accident. This study deals with thermoluminescence (TL) properties of mobile phone screen glass. The presence of a significant background signal which partially overlaps with the radiation-induced signal is a serious issue for dose reconstruction. A mechanical method to reduce this signal using a diamond grinding bit is presented. An over-response at low energy (∼50 keV) is observed for two investigated glasses. The results of a dose recovery test using a single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) procedure are discussed. - Highlights: • Mobile phone screen glass is a promising material for retrospective dosimetry. • The TL non-radiation induced background signal can be significantly reduced by a mechanical method. • A dose recovery test using an SAR procedure was successfully carried out for the investigated glass

  3. In situ gamma spectrometry aspects of an European intercomparison of national networks used to provide early warning of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurriaran, R.; Lemercier, M.; Bouisset, P.; Cagnat, X.; Saez-Vergara, J. C.; Tyler, A. N.

    2006-01-01

    In 2002, the EURADOS Working Group on Environmental Monitoring organised the second European intercomparison exercise of national network systems used to provide early warning in case of a nuclear accident. The aim of the exercise is to ensure consistent and comparable results reported by different countries during a nuclear accident, hence avoiding that the dose rate measurements reported present steps at national borders due to different calibrations or different measurement quantities being used. The exercise studied the response of the detectors to different situations: Free field site, a flat area covered with grass. The detectors where in presence of environmental radiation and point sources. Radioactive plume simulator. An incident was simulated by gradually increasing the ambient dose rate by values up to 50% of the normal value. Cosmic radiation site. A platform installed in the middle of a lake permitted to study the response of detectors to cosmic rays in the absence of other components. Ultra low background laboratory (UDO). Situated at 925 m in a salt mine this unique facility has a very low ambient dose (<1 nSv/h) and permitted the study of the response of detectors to collimated beams, in the absence of other components. The exercise was focused on the systems that continuously monitor the ambient dose rate but a novelty in the 2002 intercomparison was the participation of in situ gamma spectrometry teams. This presentation will focus on the in situ gamma spectrometry aspects: The interest of having the energy spectra information in order to discriminate the different contributors to the ambient dose, and the work that has been done in order to ensure an agreement between the dosimetry aspects and the spectrometry results

  4. Technical basis for nuclear accident dosimetry at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Mei, G.T.

    1993-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental, Safety, and Health Emergency Response Organization has the responsibility of providing analyses of personnel exposures to neutrons and gamma rays from a nuclear accident. This report presents the technical and philosophical basis for the dose assessment aspects of the nuclear accident dosimetry (NAD) system at ORNL. The issues addressed are regulatory guidelines, ORNL NAD system components and performance, and the interpretation of dosimetric information that would be gathered following a nuclear accident

  5. Stereotactic radiosurgery photon field profile dosimetry using conventional dosimeters and polymer gel dosimetry. Analysis and inter-comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, E; Maris, T G; Zacharopoulou, F; Papadakis, A [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, 711 10 Stavrakia-Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Manolopoulos, S; Green, S [Queen Elizabeth Medical Centre, University Hospital Birmingham NHS Trust, Birmingham B15 2TH (United Kingdom); Wojnecki, C, E-mail: epappas@edu.med.uoc.gr

    2009-05-01

    Small photon fields are increasingly used in modern radiotherapy and especially in IMRT and SRS/SRT treatments. Accurate beam profile measurements of such beams are crucial for a precise and effective treatment. In this work four different dosimetric methods have been used for profile measurements of three small 6 MV circular fields having diameters of 7.5, 15.0 and 30.0 mm. A small sensitive volume air ion chamber, a diamond detector, a novel silicon-diode array and Vinyl-Pyrrolidone based polymer gel dosimetry. The results of this work reveal the well-known disadvantages and/or problems of the conventional dosimeters for this kind of measurements and support that polymer gel dosimetry may overcome these problems. Conclusively, it is estimated that polymer gels could play an important role towards the minimization of the total SRS/SRT treatment error that is related with small field profile measurements.

  6. Intercomparison of personnel dosimetry for thermal neutron dose equivalent in neutron and gamma-ray mixed fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    1985-01-01

    In order to consider the problems concerned with personnel dosimetry using film badges and TLDs, an intercomparison of personnel dosimetry, especially dose equivalent responses of personnel dosimeters to thermal neutron, was carried out in five different neutron and gamma-ray mixed fields at KUR and UTR-KINKI from the practical point of view. For the estimation of thermal neutron dose equivalent, it may be concluded that each personnel dosimeter has good performances in the precision, that is, the standard deviations in the measured values by individual dosimeter were within 24 %, and the dose equivalent responses to thermal neutron were almost independent on cadmium ratio and gamma-ray contamination. However, the relative thermal neutron dose equivalent of individual dosimeter normalized to the ICRP recommended value varied considerably and a difference of about 4 times was observed among the dosimeters. From the results obtained, it is suggested that the standardization of calibration factors and procedures is required from the practical point of radiation protection and safety. (author)

  7. Metabolism in tooth enamel and reliability of retrospective EPR dosimetry connected with Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brik, A.; Radchuk, V.; Scherbina, O.; Matyash, M.; Gaver, O.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that the results of retrospective EPR dosimetry by tooth enamel are essentially determined by the fact that tooth enamel is the mineral of biological origin. The structure of tooth enamel, properties of radiation defects and the role of metabolism in tooth enamel are discussed. It is shown that at deep metamorphic modifications tooth enamel don't save information about its radiation history. The reliability and accuracy of retrospective EPR dosimetry are discussed. Because after Chernobyl accident have passed 10 years the application of tooth enamel for reconstruction of doses which are connected with Chernobyl accident need care and additional investigations

  8. Results of the regional intercomparison on internal dosimetry – 2013: Interpretation of monitoring data for effective dose assessment due to internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Puerta, N.; Gossio, S.; Gómez Parada, I.

    2015-01-01

    Internal dosimetry intercomparisons are essential for the verification of the models applied and the results consistency. To that aim, the 1. Regional Intercomparison Exercise was organized in 2005 in the frame of the RLA 9/049. The results of this exercise led to the 2. Regional Intercomparison Exercise in 2013, which was organized in the frame of the RLA 9/066 and coordinated by Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN) of Argentina. Four simulated cases covering intakes of “1”3”1I, “1”3”7Cs and Tritium were proposed. The exercise counted with the participation of 19 centres from 13 countries. This report shows a complete analysis of the participant’s results in this 2nd. exercise, useful to test their skills and acquired knowledge, particularly in applying the IDEAS guidelines. It is important to highlight the improvement in the general performance of the participants. (authors) [es

  9. Dosimetry service participation of CIEMAT in intercomparisons 2008-2010 for personal dosimeters EURADOS; Participacion del servicio de dosimetria del CIEMAT en las intercomparaciones EURADOS 2008-2010 para dosimetros personales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Jimenez, R.; Romero Gutierrez, A. M.; Lopez Moyano, J. L.

    2011-07-01

    Individual monitoring of workers exposed to ionizing radiation requires the use of personal dosimeters. EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group) recently organized three intercomparison exercises External Personal Dosimetry Services (EPDS): two for body dosimeters in 2008 and 2010 and one for extremity dosimeters in the year 2009.El paper shows and analyzes the results obtained by CIEMAT SDPE participation in all exercises.

  10. The spanish participation in the European intercomparison of instruments used for dosimetry in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosed, A.; Granados, C.E.; Delgado, A.

    1991-01-01

    Fifteen Spanish institutions took part in the European intercomparison of dosimeters promoted by DGXI of the EEC and steered by the German National Laboratory, PTB. The aim was to ascertain the measurement errors in the assessment of air kerma for the energy ranges corresponding to conventional diagnostic and mammography. Technical aspects are pointed out and the scheme proposed by PTB is described, together with the technical peculiarities of the Spanish branch, coordinated by the metrology division of CIEMAT. The results of the Spanish participation are presented and compared with the whole of the European participants. Some insight was also obtained on the performance of the measurement equipment and on the influence of some factors upon the air kerma measurements. (author) 27 fig. 2 ref

  11. Long-term intercomparison of Spanish environmental dosimetry services. Study of transit dose estimations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duch, Ma Amor; Carlos Saez-Vergara, Jose; Ginjaume, Merce; Gomez, Candelas; Maria Gonzalez-Leiton, Ana; Herrero, Javier; Jose de Lucas, Ma; Rodriguez, Rafael; Marugan, Immaculada; Salas, Rosario

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the layout and results of a three-year follow-up of a national intercomparison campaign organized on a voluntary basis among the Spanish Laboratories in charge of environmental monitoring at and in the vicinity of Spanish nuclear installations. The dosemeters were exposed in the field at an environmental reference station with a known ambient dose equivalent, and controlled meteorological parameters. The study aimed at verifying the consistency of the different laboratories in estimating the ambient dose equivalent in realistic fields and to evaluate the influence of two different procedures to estimate the transit dose during the transfer of the dosemeters both from and to the dosimetric laboratory and the monitored site. All the results were within 20% of the reference doses for all the dosemeters tested, and in most cases they were within 10%

  12. Inter-comparison of dynamic models for radionuclide transfer to marine biota in a Fukushima accident scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives i Batlle, J.; Beresford, N. A.; Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Bezhenar, R.; Brown, J.; Cheng, J. -J.; Ćujić, M.; Dragović, S.; Duffa, C.; Fiévet, B.; Hosseini, A.; Jung, K. T.; Kamboj, S.; Keum, D. -K.; Kryshev, A.; LePoire, D.; Maderich, V.; Min, B. -I.; Periáñez, R.; Sazykina, T.; Suh, K. -S.; Yu, C.; Wang, C.; Heling, R.

    2016-03-01

    We report an inter-comparison of eight models designed to predict the radiological exposure of radionuclides in marine biota. The models were required to simulate dynamically the uptake and turnover of radionuclides by marine organisms. Model predictions of radionuclide uptake and turnover using kinetic calculations based on biological half-life (TB1/2) and/or more complex metabolic modelling approaches were used to predict activity concentrations and, consequently, dose rates of 90Sr, 131I and 137Cs to fish, crustaceans, macroalgae and molluscs under circumstances where the water concentrations are changing with time. For comparison, the ERICA Tool, a model commonly used in environmental assessment, and which uses equilibrium concentration ratios, was also used. As input to the models we used hydrodynamic forecasts of water and sediment activity concentrations using a simulated scenario reflecting the Fukushima accident releases. Although model variability is important, the intercomparison gives logical results, in that the dynamic models predict consistently a pattern of delayed rise of activity concentration in biota and slow decline instead of the instantaneous equilibrium with the activity concentration in seawater predicted by the ERICA Tool. The differences between ERICA and the dynamic models increase the shorter the TB1/2 becomes; however, there is significant variability between models, underpinned by parameter and methodological differences between them. The need to validate the dynamic models used in this intercomparison has been highlighted, particularly in regards to optimisation of the model biokinetic parameters.

  13. Bayesian methods for chromosome dosimetry following a criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brame, R.S.; Groer, P.G.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation doses received during a criticality accident will be from a combination of fission spectrum neutrons and gamma rays. It is desirable to estimate the total dose, as well as the neutron and gamma doses. Present methods for dose estimation with chromosome aberrations after a criticality accident use point estimates of the neutron to gamma dose ratio obtained from personnel dosemeters and/or accident reconstruction calculations. In this paper a Bayesian approach to dose estimation with chromosome aberrations is developed that allows the uncertainty of the dose ratio to be considered. Posterior probability densities for the total and the neutron and gamma doses were derived. (author)

  14. Dosimetry intercomparison of four proton therapy institutions in Germany employing spot scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeumer, Christian; Koska, Benjamin [Westdeutsches Protonentherapiezentrum, Essen (Germany); Ackermann, Benjamin; Latzel, Harald [Heidelberger Ionenstrahl-Therapiezentrum, Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Institute for Radiation Oncology (Germany); Hillbrand, Martin; Kaiser, Franz-Joachim [Rinecker Proton Therapy Center, Muenchen (Germany); Luehr, Armin [German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg (Germany); Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Menkel, Stefan [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Timmermann, Beate [Westdeutsches Protonentherapiezentrum, Essen (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg (Germany); Essen Univ. Hospital (Germany). West German Cancer Center (WTZ)

    2017-08-01

    To verify the consistency of dose and range measurement in an interinstitution comparison among proton therapy institutions in Germany which use the pencil-beam scanning technique. Following a peer-to-peer approach absorbed dose and range have been intercompared in several missions at two hosting centers with two or three visiting physics teams of participating institutions using their own dosimetry equipment. A meta-analysis has been performed integrating the results of the individual missions. Dose has been determined with ionization chambers according to the dosimetry protocol IAEA TRS-398. For determination of the depth of the distal 80% dose the teams used either a scanning water phantom, a variable water column or a multi-layer ionization chamber. The systematic deviation between measured doses of the participating institutions is less than 1%. Ranges differ systematically less than 0.4 mm. The match of measured dose and range is better than expected from the respective uncertainties. As all physics teams agree on the assessment of absorbed dose and range, an important prerequisite for a start of joint clinical studies is fulfilled.

  15. OSL and TL of Resistors of Mobile Phones for Retrospective Accident Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L.; Pradhan, A. S.; Chang, I.; Kim, B. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) of ubiquitous materials continue to draw wider attention for individual dosimetry in nuclear and radiation accidents. Use of ubiquitous objects for radiation dosimetry is preferred because the affected persons in such unexpected events are usually not covered by personal dosimetry services and do not carry personal dosimeters. Often accident sites do not have area monitoring system in place. As the main concern of the dosimetry is health effects, a quick distinction of level of exposures of the affected persons for the required medical care becomes important in all accidents involving radiation. Both in large scale nuclear accidents such Fukushima, Chernobyl or Hiroshima and Nagasaki where large population around the accident site get exposed to radiation (evacuation is based on doses) and in smaller but panicky events, such as misuse of radiological exposure device (RED), radiological dispersive device (RDD: 'Dirty Bomb'), improvised nuclear device (IND) and deliberate dispersal of radioactive contaminants, a need for an ubiquitous personal dosimeter is well recognized. As biological dosimetry systems are yet to become viable for measurements of doses with required accuracy and speed, use of physical dosimeters is often explored. Among the various types of physical dosimetry systems, use of TL and OSL by processing common material such as bricks or tiles and measuring the doses cumulated for long periods of time has already become an accepted tool for large scale nuclear accidents such as Hiroshima and Nagasaki or Chernobyl involving higher doses. In the other potential cases of unexpected situations where the doses encountered could be much lower (even to escape the range of remotely installed area monitors), the need to measure even the low doses in shortest possible time becomes important. It is often realized that in such situations, the main problem could become the panic at the

  16. OSL and TL of Resistors of Mobile Phones for Retrospective Accident Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L.; Pradhan, A. S.; Chang, I.; Kim, B. H.

    2012-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) of ubiquitous materials continue to draw wider attention for individual dosimetry in nuclear and radiation accidents. Use of ubiquitous objects for radiation dosimetry is preferred because the affected persons in such unexpected events are usually not covered by personal dosimetry services and do not carry personal dosimeters. Often accident sites do not have area monitoring system in place. As the main concern of the dosimetry is health effects, a quick distinction of level of exposures of the affected persons for the required medical care becomes important in all accidents involving radiation. Both in large scale nuclear accidents such Fukushima, Chernobyl or Hiroshima and Nagasaki where large population around the accident site get exposed to radiation (evacuation is based on doses) and in smaller but panicky events, such as misuse of radiological exposure device (RED), radiological dispersive device (RDD: 'Dirty Bomb'), improvised nuclear device (IND) and deliberate dispersal of radioactive contaminants, a need for an ubiquitous personal dosimeter is well recognized. As biological dosimetry systems are yet to become viable for measurements of doses with required accuracy and speed, use of physical dosimeters is often explored. Among the various types of physical dosimetry systems, use of TL and OSL by processing common material such as bricks or tiles and measuring the doses cumulated for long periods of time has already become an accepted tool for large scale nuclear accidents such as Hiroshima and Nagasaki or Chernobyl involving higher doses. In the other potential cases of unexpected situations where the doses encountered could be much lower (even to escape the range of remotely installed area monitors), the need to measure even the low doses in shortest possible time becomes important. It is often realized that in such situations, the main problem could become the panic at the work place

  17. Intercomparison of absorbed dose to water and air-kerma based dosimetry protocols for photon and electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huq, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    ,10 value of 0.80; for electrons a maximum difference of about 1% is observed between TRS-398 and TRS-381 and about 1.8% between TRS-398 and TRS277 for energies ranging from 6-18 MeV. The comparison of TRS-398 with TG-51 reveals that photon beam dosimetry agrees within about ±0.3% for most commonly used energies. For electron beam dosimetry, comparison of TRS-398 with TG-51 reveals agreement within about ±0.4% for cylindrical chambers for energies above 10 MeV approximately; however, for plane-parallel chambers, differences of almost up to 2% is observed between the two protocols. On the other hand, the agreement for these chambers when cross-calibration procedures are used is excellent. This talk will provide a comprehensive review of intercomparisons of all these protocols. The reasons for the discrepancies between theory and experiments will be discussed terms of the combined effect of small data differences and the influence of N D,w /N K for the various chamber types. (author)

  18. Retrospective dosimetry of populations exposed to reactor accident: Chernobyl example, lesson for Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, Vadim V.

    2013-01-01

    Follow-up of the Chernobyl accident had included a good deal of retrospective dosimetry and dose reconstruction. Comparison of Chernobyl and Fukushima shows that despite some differences in course and scale of the two accidents, main elements are present in both situations and Chernobyl experience could be quite educative for better understanding and more optimal handling of Fukushima Dai-ichi accident consequences. This paper contains review of dose reconstruction efforts done to date and extensively published in scientific journals and reports. Specifically the following cases are considered: (i) evaluation of individual doses to evacuees; (ii) validation of ecological dosimetric models and ruling out unconfirmed dose rate measurements; dosimetric support of (iii) case–control study of leukemia among Chernobyl clean-up workers (liquidators), and (iv) cohort study of cataracts among liquidators. Due to limited size of this paper the given application cases are rather outlined while more detailed descriptions could be found in relevant publications. Each considered Chernobyl case is commented with respect to possible application to Fukushima Dai-ichi situation. The presented methodological findings and approaches could be used for retrospective assessment of human exposures in Fukushima. -- Highlights: ► Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for evaluation of individual doses to evacuees. ► Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for validation of ecological dosimetric models, rejection dubious dose rate records. ► Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for risk assessment of leukemia among Chernobyl clean-up workers (liquidators). ► Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for study of cataracts among liquidators. ► Experience of dose reconstruction in Chernobyl could be used for retrospective assessment of exposures in Fukushima

  19. Using soils for accident dosimetry: a preliminary study using optically stimulated luminescence from quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujita, Hiroki; Jain, Mayank; Murray, Andrew S.

    2011-01-01

    . The objective was to assess the potential of SAROSL dosimetry using soils for retrospective assessment of a radiation accident. Variation in dose with depth was also measured. The SAR data showed good reproducibility and dose recovery, and there was no evidence of fading of the quartz signal based on “delayed......” dose recovery experiments. The minimum detection limit (MDL) dose was about 0.1Gy. The dose dependence was measured using both the above SAR OSL protocol as well as a SAR thermoluminescence (TL, violet emission) protocol. The background doses were generally in the range of the MDL to several Gy......, and no clear trend in dose depth profile was observed. From these results, we conclude that SAR OSL dosimetry using natural quartz extracted from soil could be used to evaluate the dose of an accident....

  20. EPR response characterization of drugs excipients for applying in accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczewski, Barbara S.; Rodrigues Junior, Orlando; Galante, Ocimar L.; Costa, Zelia M. da; Campos, Leticia L.

    2002-01-01

    Some drugs are widely used by the population and can be employed to dose retrospective. The carbohydrates (saccharides), commonly used as excipients in the pharmaceutical industry, produce a quantity of free radicals after gamma irradiation, making them useful for dosimetry in emergency or accident situations that imply in dose evaluation from the materials found nearly or in contact with victims. In general, EPR signal from pulverized pills of some drugs are very complex due to the variety of components in the formulation. Because of this fact, some pharmaceutical excipients identified in the pill composition were also analysed by EPR spectrometry. On the counter drugs were studied: Cebion glucose, AAS, Aspirina, Conmel, Lacto-Purga and sugar substitutive ZeroCal. The excipients were: lactose, amide, anhydrous glucose and magnesium stearate. In some samples the number of radicals produced increased with the dose, showing a linear response for a dose range of interest and an adequate sensibility for dosimetry in accident cases

  1. Cytogenetics for dosimetry in cases of radiation accidents and assessing the safety of irradiated food material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, A.T.; Kesavan, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    One of the many areas of research initiated by Swaminathan at the Botany Division of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi was radiation cytogenetics, which involves study of induced chromosomal aberrations. These studies had impact not only on elucidating basic mechanisms involved in the formation of chromosomal aberrations, but also several practical applications related to human health. In this review, we briefly summarize two applications, namely biological dosimetry following radiation accidents and safety of irradiated food material. (author)

  2. On the use of new generation mobile phone (smart phone) for retrospective accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.I.; Chang, I.; Pradhan, A.S.; Kim, J.L.; Kim, B.H.; Chung, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) characteristics of resistors, inductors and integrated-circuit (IC) chips, extracted from new generation smart phones, were investigated for the purpose of retrospective accident dosimetry. Inductor samples were found to exhibit OSL sensitivity about 5 times and 40 times higher than that of the resistors and the IC chips, respectively. On post-irradiation storage, the resistors exhibited a much higher OSL fading (about 80 % in 36 h as compared to the value 3 min after irradiation) than IC chips (about 20 % after 36 h) and inductors (about 50 % in 36 h). Higher OSL sensitivity, linear dose response (from 8.7 mGy up to 8.9 Gy) and acceptable fading make inductors more attractive for accident dosimetry than widely studied resistors. - Highlights: • OSL properties of electronic components from a smart phone were investigated. • OSL Sensitivity of inductor was estimated to 5 times higher than that of resistor. • Inductor exhibits most attractive properties for retrospective accident dosimetry.

  3. Dosimetry of accidents using thermoluminescence of dental restorative porcelains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauricio, C.L.P.; Rosa, L.A.R. da; Cunha, P.G. da

    1986-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of dental restorative porcelain were investigated with the aim of using this material as a TL dosemeter to estimate high doses in radiological accidents. The irradiations were carried out with a 60 Co gamma source and X rays with effective energies from 29 to 95 KeV. The samples have a limit of detection at about 50R and their reproducibility is better than 15%. Linearity was observed from 50 to 5000R. (Author) [pt

  4. Beta dosimetry using partial body dosimeters II. Results of intercomparison measurements of 1998/1999 - PTB report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, P.; Helmstaedter, K.

    2000-12-01

    In 1998 the PTB organised a second series of intercomparison measurements for selected beta dosimeters worn on the extremities. In April 1999 these intercomparison measurements and the results obtained were discussed in a one day meeting. The contributions given and the results obtained and the conclusions drawn after extensive discussions are presented in this PTB report. (orig.) [de

  5. Intercomparison of dispersed radiation readings among film dosimetry, electronic and OSL with X-rays for low dose; Intercomparacion de lecturas de radiacion dispersa entre dosimetria film, electronica y OSL con rayos X para dosis bajas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andisco, D. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Medicina, Paraguay 2155, C1121AAA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Blanco, S. [CONICET, Saavedra 15, C1083ACA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bourel, V.; Schmidt, L. [Universidad Favaloro, Facultad de Ciencias e Ingenieria, Solis 453, C1078AAI, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Di Risio, C., E-mail: dandisco@fmed.uba.ar [Universidad de Belgrano, Facultad de Ingenieria, Zabala 1837, C1426DQG, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    One of the personal dosimetry methods more used for several decades is the dosimetry type film, characterized to possess readings with certain margin of trust. Today other methods exist that many times are presupposed more reliable due to the nature of the detection like the electronic dosimeters or the OSL (Optically Stimulated Luminescence) dosimetry. With the purpose of comparing different methods and to can determining the existent differences among each method has been carried out an intercomparison assay. The different dosimeters have been exposed to dispersed radiation generated by a Hemodynamics equipment of the type -arch in C- and a dispersing system of the primary beam. Film dosimeters have been used; OSL (In Light), OSL (Nano Dots) and Electronic with the purpose of knowing and to valorize the existent differences among its readings. Always, the intercomparison exercises have demonstrated to be an useful tool when establishing the measurement capacity and the quality of the results emitted by the laboratories of personal dosimetry services. Also, this type of assays allows obtaining quality indicators of the laboratory performance and they are habitual part of the procedures for accreditation of the same ones. The Optically Stimulated Luminescence is a technology that has grown in Argentina so much in the area of personal dosimetry as in dosimetry in vivo (radiotherapy area). In this intercomparison study, the answers corresponding to each technology were looked for oneself irradiation of the disperse type, that is to say, of very low energy. (Author)

  6. Dosimetry; La dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Couteulx, I.; Apretna, D.; Beaugerie, M.F. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    Eight articles treat the dosimetry. Two articles evaluate the radiation doses in specific cases, dosimetry of patients in radiodiagnosis, three articles are devoted to detectors (neutrons and x and gamma radiations) and a computer code to build up the dosimetry of an accident due to an external exposure. (N.C.)

  7. ESR accident dosimetry using medicine tablets coated with sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, A.; Miki, T.; Ikeya, M.

    1990-01-01

    Properties of radiation-induced radicals in medicine tablets were investigated using electron spin resonance (ESR). A sharp ESR signal sensitive to gamma ray irradiation was observed in the sugar coating part of the tablets. The signal has anisotropic g values of g 1 = 2.0009, g 2 = 2.0007 and g 3 = 2.0002. The signal grows linearly with dose at least up to about 20 Gy. No fading was observed at room temperature even when exposed to sunlight. The dose to artificially irradiated tablets was estimated using the signal intensity and a previously determined calibration curve. The signal in sugar coated tablets can be utilised for dose measurements. In particular, the wide distribution of sugar coated tablets allows the use of the tablets as accident dosemeters. (author)

  8. Biological dosimetry following exposure to neutrons in a criticality accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, C. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, STUK (Finland)); Wojcik, A. (Stockholm Univ. (SU), Stockholm (Sweden)); Jaworska, A. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) (Norway))

    2011-01-15

    The aim of the BIONCA project was to implement cytogenetic techniques for biodosimetry purposes in the Nordic countries. The previous NKS-funded biodosimetry activities (BIODOS and BIOPEX) concentrated on experiments using gamma-irradiation and on developing the PCC ring assay for biodosimetry. Experiments conducted during the present BIONCA project has broadened the biodosimetry capacity of the Nordic countries to include dose estimation of exposure to neutrons for both PCC ring and dicentric chromosome techniques. In 2009, experiments were conducted for establishing both PCC ring and dicentric dose calibration curves. Neutron irradiation of human whole blood obtained from two volunteers was conducted in the Netherlands at the Petten reactor. Cell cultures and analysis of whole blood exposed to eight doses between 0 and 10 Gy were performed for both techniques. For the dicentric assay, excellent uniformity in dose calibration for data from both SU and STUK was observed. For PCC rings, the SU and STUK curves were not equally congruent, probably due to the less uniform scoring criteria. However, both curves displayed strong linearity throughout the dose range. In 2010, an exercise was conducted to simulate a criticality accident and to test the validity of the established dose calibration curves. For accident simulation, 16 blood samples were irradiated in Norway at the Kjeller reactor and analysed for dose estimation with both assays. The results showed that, despite a different com-position of the radiation beams in Petten and Kjeller, good dose estimates were obtained. The activity has provided good experience on collaboration required in radiation emergency situations where the biodosimetry capacity and resources of one laboratory may be inadequate. In this respect, the project has strengthened the informal network between the Nordic countries: STUK, the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, NRPA, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and SU

  9. Criticality accidents in solution (CRAC and SILENE programmes) and complementary studies of accidents; radiation dosimetry in human organism during the CRAC programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbry, M.; Dousset, M.

    C.R.A.C. (CRiticality occurring ACcidentally) programme is intended to study experimentally the development of a criticality accident as it could occur when handling solutions of fissile material as well as the radiological consequences of such an accident. The fissile matter solutions have been chosen (a) for practical considerations of use and (b) because the probability of an accident occurring seems greater with this type of environment, as the known accidents have shown. The programme is twofold: study of accident physics: form of the evolution (peak, plateau, oscillations, boil up of solutions) the most probable maximum power, minimal power, flux and radiation spectra emitted, freed energy, associated effects, radiolysis, constraints, etc., study of radiological consequences: area dosimetry, individual dosimetry, radiobiological studies, etc. Additional criticality Accident experiments have been and continue to be made on the SILENE reactor in the following principal domains: determination of the emission rate of gaseous fission products and aerosols, area dosimetry and health dosimetry in the presence of shields around the core to vary the neutron and gamma components of the radiation field. Improvement in the knowledge of certain particular aspects of the power excursion, radiolysis gas and pressure wave, experiments of the ''boiling'' type [fr

  10. Review of the correlation between results of cytogenetic dosimetry from blood lymphocytes and EPR dosimetry from tooth enamel for victims of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvostunov, I.K.; Ivannikov, A.I.; Skvortsov, V.G.; Golub, E.V.; Nugis, V. Yu.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare dose estimates from electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry with teeth and cytogenetic dosimetry with blood lymphocytes for 30 victims of radiation accidents. The whole-body exposures estimated by tooth enamel EPR dosimetry were ranging from 0.01 to 9.3 Gy. Study group comprised victims exposed to acute and prolonged irradiation at high and low dose rate in different accidents. Blood samples were taken from each of them for cytogenetic analysis. Aberrations were scored and analysed according to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) guidelines for conventional and FISH analysis. Tooth samples were collected in dental clinics after they had been extracted during ordinary practice. EPR dosimetry was performed according to the IAEA protocol. EPR dosimetry showed good correlation with dosimetry based on chromosomal analysis. All estimations of cytogenetic dose below detection limit coincide with EPR dose estimates within the ranges of uncertainty. The differences between cytogenetic and EPR assays may occur in a case of previous unaccounted exposure, non-homogeneous irradiation and due to contribution to absorbed dose from neutron irradiation. (authors)

  11. Reconstructive dosimetry of radiological accidents - a brazilian case study of industrial gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Francisco Cesar Augusto da; Hunt, John G.; Ramalho, Adriana; Pinto, Livia M.F. Amalfi

    2001-01-01

    In may 2000, an operator of industrial gammagraphy, during a work of maintenance of a cobalt source irradiator, suffered a radiological accident which caused serious consequences for its left hand. Specialists who work in the Group of Overexposure Analysis (GADE/IRD/CNEN), began the reconstructive dosimetry for estimate the radiation dose. The objective was to determine the real dose received by the operator and to make possible the medical evaluation and to prescribe the medical procedures for the involved victim's treatment. This work presents the reconstructive dosimetry done by theoretical, experimental and computation methods for determining the radiation doses of the operator. Related to the computation method a program was used for external dose calculation based on Monte Carlo's Method and a human body simulator composed by voxels. It is also showed values of the effective and equivalent doses that caused serious lesions in the operator's hand. (author)

  12. Reconstructive dosimetry of radiological accidents - study of a brazilian case of industrial gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Francisco Cesar Augusto da; Hunt, John G.; Ramalho, Adriana; Pinto, Livia M.F. Amalfi

    2002-01-01

    On May 2000, an industrial gamma radiography operator, during a maintenance work of a 60 Co irradiator, has suffered a radiological accident with severe consequences to the left hand. The experts of the High Doses Analysis Group (GADE/IRD/CNEN) initiated the reconstructive dosimetry for the radiation dose estimation, in order to determine the real dose received by the operator, and to help the medical evaluation for prescribing the medical procedures for treatment of the involved victim. This paper presents the reconstructive dosimetry performed through the determination of the radiation doses of the operator, based on theoretical, experimental and computational methods. For the computer methods, a program for the calculation of external doses were used, based on the Monte Carlo method, and a human body simulator composed by voxels. The values of effective and equivalent doses are also presented which has caused severe lesions on the operator hand

  13. Study on the establishment of retrospective dosimetry system for nuclear radiation accident(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Shik; Chai, Ha Seok; Lee, Jong Ok [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    This study was driven forward centering around physical techniques in retrospective dosimetry system for encountering nuclear radiation accident. The results obtained through this study are summarized as follow : the minimal facilities based on physical techniques should be assured at KINS for appropriate operation and establishment of retrospective accident dosimetry system, the necessary apparatus and man power for retrospective dose assessment by physical techniques might be operated flexibly, however, CL and TL/OSL readers should be equipped with the highest priority, a series of comparative examination of several physical techniques for retrospective dose assessment revealed that most of the irradiated materials around accident sites are usable for the dose assessment, if a priori study on the dosimetrical characteristics of those materials is preceded in accordance with the species of the collectable samples, the results of the study on the CL-dose response and radiation energy dependence of sugar and sorbitol, showed the nonlinearity in CL-dose relationship at the range of low dose(less than 5 Gy), and it led us to perform a study on the correction of the nonlinearity, and in the later study, CL output showed heavy dependence on radiation energy in the energy below around 100 keV and accordingly, a study on the correction for the energy dependence was also carried out, ve were able to obtain good results as a first attempt to carry out such corrections.

  14. EPR dosimetry teeth in past and future accidents: A prospective look at a retrospective method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskell, E.; Kenner, G.; Hayes, R. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Center for Applied Dosimetry; Chumak, V.; Shalom, S. [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1997-03-01

    Accurate assessments of doses received by individuals exposed to radiation from nuclear accidents and incidents such as those at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Nevada test site, Cheliabinsk and Mayak are required for epidemiological studies seeking to establish relationships between radiation dose and health effects. One method of retrospective dosimetry which allows for measurement of cumulative gamma ray doses received by exposed individuals is electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) of tooth enamel. Tooth enamel stores and retains, indefinitely, information on absorbed radiation dose. And teeth are available in every population as a result of dental extraction for medical reasons including periodontal disease and impacted wisdom teeth. In the case of children, deciduous teeth, which are shed between the ages of 7 and 13, can be a very important dosimetric source if documented collection is implemented shortly following an accident.

  15. EPR dosimetry teeth in past and future accidents: A prospective look at a retrospective method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskell, E.; Kenner, G.; Hayes, R.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate assessments of doses received by individuals exposed to radiation from nuclear accidents and incidents such as those at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Nevada test site, Cheliabinsk and Mayak are required for epidemiological studies seeking to establish relationships between radiation dose and health effects. One method of retrospective dosimetry which allows for measurement of cumulative gamma ray doses received by exposed individuals is electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) of tooth enamel. Tooth enamel stores and retains, indefinitely, information on absorbed radiation dose. And teeth are available in every population as a result of dental extraction for medical reasons including periodontal disease and impacted wisdom teeth. In the case of children, deciduous teeth, which are shed between the ages of 7 and 13, can be a very important dosimetric source if documented collection is implemented shortly following an accident

  16. EPR dosimetry of teeth in past and future accidents. A prospective look at a retrospective method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskell, E.; Kenner, G.; Hayes, R. [Center for Applied Dosimetry, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Chumak, V.; Shalom, S.

    1996-12-31

    Accurate assessments of doses received by individuals exposed to radiation from nuclear accidents and incidents such as those at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Nevada test site, Chelyabinsk and Mayak are required for epidemiological studies seeking to establish relationships between radiation dose and health effects. One method of retrospective dosimetry which allows for measurement of cumulative gamma ray doses received by exposed individuals is electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) of tooth enamel. Tooth enamel stores and retains, indefinitely, information on absorbed radiation dose; and teeth are available in every population as a result of dental extraction for medical reasons including periodontal disease and impacted wisdom teeth. In the case of children, deciduous teeth, which are shed between the ages of 7 and 13, can be a very important dosimetric source if documented collection is implemented shortly following an accident. (author)

  17. Report on external occupational dosimetry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    In light of the new recommendations of the ICRP in Report 60 on dose quantities and dose limits, this working group was set up to examine the implications for external dosimetry in Canada. The operational quantities proposed by the ICRU are discussed in detail with regard to their applicability in Canada. The current occupational dosimetry services available in Canada are described as well as the several performance intercomparisons that have been carried out within the country as well as internationally. Recommendations are given with respect to standards for dosimetry, including accuracy and precision. More practical advice is given on the choice of dosimeter to use for external dosimetry, frequency of monitoring, and who should be monitored. Specific advice is given on the monitoring of pregnant workers and problem of non-uniform irradiation. Accident and emergency dosimetry are dealt with briefly. Suggestions are given regarding record keeping both for employers and for the national dose registry. 48 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  18. Dose evaluation in criticality accidents using response of panasonic TL personal dosemeters (UD-809/UD-802)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeyrek, C. T.; Guenduez, H.

    2012-01-01

    This study gives the results of dosimetry measurements carried out in the Silene reactor at Valduc (France) with neutron and photon personal thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) in mixed neutron and gamma radiation fields, in the frame of the international accident dosimetry intercomparison programme in 2002. The intercomparison consisted of a series of three irradiation scenarios. The scenarios took place at the Valduc site (France) by using the Silene experimental reactor. For neutron and photon dosimetry, Panasonic model UD-809 and UD-802 personal TLDs were used together. (authors)

  19. Dose evaluation in criticality accidents using response of Panasonic TL personal dosemeters (UD-809/UD-802).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyrek, C T; Gündüz, H

    2012-09-01

    This study gives the results of dosimetry measurements carried out in the Silène reactor at Valduc (France) with neutron and photon personal thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) in mixed neutron and gamma radiation fields, in the frame of the international accident dosimetry intercomparison programme in 2002. The intercomparison consisted of a series of three irradiation scenarios. The scenarios took place at the Valduc site (France) by using the Silène experimental reactor. For neutron and photon dosimetry, Panasonic model UD-809 and UD-802 personal TLDs were used together.

  20. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for internal dosimetry. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harrison, J.D. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA internal dosimetry models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on internal dosimetry, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  1. Personnel Dosimetry for Radiation Accidents. Proceedings of a Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Accidents involving the exposure of persons to high levels of radiation have been few in number and meticulous precautions are taken in an effort to maintain this good record. When, however, such an accident does occur, a timely estimate of the dose received can be of considerable help to the physician in deciding whether a particular person requires medical treatment, and in selecting the most appropriate treatment. Individual dosimetry provides the physical basis for relating the observed effects to those in other accident cases, to other human data, and to data from animal experiments, thus providing an important aid to rational treatment and to the accumulation of a meaningful body of knowledge on the subject. It is most important therefore that, where there is a possibility of receiving high-level exposure, methods of personnel dosimetry should be available that would provide the dosimetric information most useful to the physician. Provision of good personnel dosimetry for accidental high-level exposure is in many cases an essential part of emergency planning because the information provided may influence emergency and rescue operations, and can lead to improved accident preparedness. Accordingly, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization jointly organized the Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation for the discussion of such methods and for a critical review of the procedures adopted in some of the radiation accidents that have already occurred. The meeting was attended by 179 participants from 34 countries and from five other international organizations. The papers presented and the ensuing discussions are published in these Proceedings. It is hoped that the Proceedings will be of help to those concerned with the organization and development of wide-range personnel monitoring systems, and with the interpretation of the results provided

  2. Measurement of stray radiation within a scanning proton therapy facility: EURADOS WG9 intercomparison exercise of active dosimetry systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farah, J.; Mares, V.; Romero-Exposito, M.; Trinkl, S.; Domingo, C.; Dufek, V.; Klodowska, M.; Kubančák, Ján; Knezevic, Z.; Ploc, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 5 (2015), s. 2572-2584 ISSN 0094-2405 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : scanning proton therapy * measurement of stray neutrons * spectrometry * ambient dose eyuivalent * intercomparison Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 2.496, year: 2015

  3. Experience with COSYMA in an international intercomparison of probabilistic accident consequence assessment codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasemann, I.; Jones, J.A.; Steen, J. van der; Wonderen, E. van

    1996-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD have organized an international exercise to compare the predictions of accident consequence assessment codes, and to identify those features of the models which lead to differences in the predicted results. Alongside this, a further exercise was undertaken in which the COSYMA code was used independently by several different organizations. Some of the findings of the COSYMA users' exercise are described that have general applications to accident consequence assessments. A number of areas are identified in which further work on accident consequence models may be justified. These areas, which are also of interest for codes other than COSYMA, are (a) the calculation and averaging of doses and risks to people sheltered in different types of buildings, particularly with respect to the evaluation of early health effects; (b) the modeling of long-duration releases and their description as a series of shorter releases; (c) meteorological sampling for results at a certain location, specifically for use with trajectory models of atmospheric dispersion; and (d) aspects of calculating probabilities of consequences at a point

  4. Thyroid dosimetry after the Chernobyl accident and thyroid cancer in iodine deficient areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szybinski, Z [Jagiellonian Univ., Cracow (Poland). Dept. of Endocrinology

    1996-08-01

    Of the radionuclides generated from 235-U and 239-Pu in a core of the nuclear reactor, radioiodines particularly 131-I, is the most significant in view of its huge quantities, easy dispersion and cumulation in the human thyroid in case of a nuclear accident. After nuclear accident in Chernobyl 20-50 million Ci of 131-I was released. Depending on the dose absorbed to the thyroid, 131-I can cause a late appearance of a thyroid nodule or cancer and/or thyroid destruction leading to hypothyroidism. Thyroid irradiation may origin from two sources: external cumulative radiation mainly of gamma type and internal related to 131-I cumulation. So far most information on the risk factors of the thyroid cancer due to is related to from external radiation, but there is no scientific basis to believe that internal radiation cannot induce the thyroid cancer. Thyroid dosimetry after Chernobyl accident in near and far field is essential for calculation of the thyroid cancer risk coefficient due to radiation. 1 tab.

  5. Results of the ninth exercise of intercomparison in services of personal dosimetry in Argentina Republic in the year of 2011; Resultados del noveno ejercicio de intercomparacion de servicios de dosimetria personal realizado en la Republica Argentina en el ano 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrufino, G.A.; Discacciatti, P.A.; Lopez, F.O., E-mail: gferrufino@am.gob.ar [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Buenos Aies (Argentina)

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we present the results of the ninth intercomparison exercise personal dosimetry services, conducted by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in 2011. The exercise was designed to evaluate the performance of laboratories providing personal dosimetry services in Argentina , for X-rays and gamma radiation fields . This exercise was organized by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority with the Ministry of Health of the Nation and the Regional Reference Laboratory Centre for Dosimetry of the National Atomic Energy Commission . The irradiations were carried out in full accordance with ISO 4037-3 . Participates all private companies in Argentina serving all personal dosimetry laboratories and agencies, provincial and national. Furthermore, the Laboratories from Cuba, Brazil and Uruguay also participate. The performance of a laboratory is considered acceptable if it meets the criteria established in the IRAM- ISO 14146 , which states: 'It is recognized that at most, one-tenth of dosimeters irradiated to exceed the limits'. Of all of the laboratories that participated , 68% reported their results within the acceptance criteria above. The primary objective of this intercomparison exercise is to provide an objective tool to evaluate the ability of personnel dosimetry services. (author)

  6. Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of ionizing radiation dosimetry is the measurement of the physical and biological consequences of exposure to radiation. As these consequences are proportional to the local absorption of energy, the dosimetry of ionizing radiation is based on the measurement of this quantity. Owing to the size of the effects of ionizing radiation on materials in all of these area, dosimetry plays an essential role in the prevention and the control of radiation exposure. Its use is of great importance in two areas in particular where the employment of ionizing radiation relates to human health: radiation protection, and medical applications. Dosimetry is different for various reasons: owing to the diversity of the physical characteristics produced by different kinds of radiation according to their nature (X- and γ-photons, electrons, neutrons,...), their energy (from several keV to several MeV), the orders of magnitude of the doses being estimated (a factor of about 10 5 between diagnostic and therapeutic applications); and the temporal and spatial variation of the biological parameters entering into the calculations. On the practical level, dosimetry poses two distinct yet closely related problems: the determination of the absorbed dose received by a subject exposed to radiation from a source external to his body (external dosimetry); and the determination of the absorbed dose received by a subject owing to the presence within his body of some radioactive substance (internal dosimetry)

  7. Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende, D.A.O. de

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental units of dosimetry are defined, such as exposure rate, absorbed dose and equivalent dose. A table is given of relative biological effectiveness values for the different types of radiation. The relation between the roentgen and rad units is calculated and the concepts of physical half-life, biological half-life and effective half-life are discussed. Referring to internal dosimetry, a mathematical treatment is given to β particle-and γ radiation dosimetry. The absorbed dose is calculated and a practical example is given of the calculation of the exposure and of the dose rate for a gama source [pt

  8. Thermoluminescence of chip inductors from mobile phones for retrospective and accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler, I.; Woda, C.

    2011-01-01

    Electronic components in portable electronic devices such as mobile phones and portable media player have previously been shown to be useful tools for retrospective and accident dosimetry. In this study the properties of alumina rich inductors removed from mobile phones are investigated using thermoluminescence (TL). The typical glow curve of this component has two main peaks at 170 and 270 °C. With a suitable measurement protocol sensitivity changes of both peaks could be corrected so that the TL signal shows a linear increase in the investigated dose range from 100 mGy to 5 Gy. All inductors studied showed essentially no signal for zero dose. We investigated the fading of the TL signals and the detection limit of inductors extracted from different mobile phones.

  9. On the use of OSL of chip card modules with molding for retrospective and accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woda, Clemens; Fiedler, Irene; Spöttl, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The potential of optically stimulated luminescence of wire-bond chip card modules with molded encapsulations for retrospective and accident dosimetry is investigated. Contact-based and contactless modules were studied, the latter finding potential use in electronic documents (e.g. electronic passports, electronic identity cards). Investigations were carried out on intact as well as chemically prepared modules, extracting the filler material. Contact-based modules are characterized according to zero dose signal, correlation between OSL and TL, dose response and long-term signal stability. For prepared modules, the minimum detectable dose immediately after irradiation is 3 mGy and between 20 and 200 mGy for contact-based and contactless modules, respectively. Dose recovery tests on contact-based modules indicate that the developed methodology yields results with sufficient accuracy for measurements promptly after irradiation, whereas a systematic underestimation is observed for longer delay times. The reasons for this behaviour are as yet not fully understood.

  10. Improvement of dose determination using glass display of mobile phones for accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discher, M.; Woda, C.; Fiedler, I.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that mobile phones can be used as suitable emergency dosimeters in case of an accidental radiation overexposure. Glass samples extracted from displays of mobile phones are sensitive to ionizing radiation and can be measured using the thermoluminescence (TL) method. A non-radiation induced background signal (so-called zero dose signal) was observed which overlaps with the radiation induced signal and consequently limits the minimum detectable dose. Investigations of several glasses from different displays showed that it is possible to reduce the zero dose signal up to 90% by etching the glass surface with concentrated hydrofluoric acid. With this approach a reduction of the detection limit of a factor of four, corresponding to approximately 80 mGy, was achieved. Dosimetric properties of etched samples are presented and developed protocols validated by dose recovery tests under realistic conditions. With the improvements in sample preparation the proposed method of dose determination is a competitive alternative to OSL/TL measurements of electronic components and chip cards and provides a useful option for retrospective accident dosimetry. -- Highlights: ► Glass displays from mobile phones have good potential for emergency dosimetry. ► The background signal can be reduced by etching glass samples with hydrofluoric acid. ► The minimum detectable dose can be lowered to approximately 80 mGy

  11. Photon energy dependence and angular response of glass display used in mobile phones for accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discher, Michael; Greiter, Matthias; Woda, Clemens

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that glass displays extracted from mobile phones are suitable as emergency dosimeters in case of an accidental radiation overexposure using the thermoluminescence (TL) method. So far these studies have focused only on recovering the absorbed dose to the material. However, dose in air or dose to the victim carrying the device might be significantly different. Therefore the aim of this work was to investigate photon energy dependence and angular response of glass display used in modern mobile phones. An over-response of about a factor of five is observed for low photon energies compared to the response to Cs-137 (662 keV) which is in reasonable agreement with calculated values mass energy-absorption coefficients of glass and air. Little variation in the energy dependence can be seen for glass displays coming from three different mobile phone models. The angular response for display glass is flat with regard to air kerma within the incident angle of ±60°, independent of the irradiation setup used (with a water phantom or with air kerma reference conditions). For incident angles of 90° the shielding effect of the mobile phones becomes important. With the dosimetric characterization of the photon energy and angular dependencies the absorbed dose in a glass display can be transferred to a reference air kerma dose and provides a useful option for retrospective accident dosimetry. - Highlights: • Determination of the photon energy dependence and angular response for display glass used as an accident dosimeter. • Over-response of about a factor of five for low photon energies. • Flat angular response within incident angles between ±60°

  12. A micro-gap, air-filled ionisation chamber as a detector for criticality accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murawski, I.; Zielczynski, M.; Gryzinski, M.A.; Golnik, N.

    2014-01-01

    A micro-gap air-filled ionisation chamber was designed for criticality dosimetry. The special feature of the chamber is its very small gap between electrodes of only 0.3 mm. This prevents ion recombination at high dose rates and minimises the influence of gas on secondary particles spectrum. The electrodes are made of polypropylene because of higher content of hydrogen in this material, when compared with soft tissue. The difference between neutron and gamma sensitivity in such chamber becomes practically negligible. The chamber's envelope contains two specially connected capacitors, one for polarising the electrodes and the other for collecting the ionisation charge. Air-filled ionisation chamber with very small gap is a simple dosemeter, which fulfills the most desired properties of criticality accident dosemeters. Short ion collection time is achieved by combination of small gap and relatively high polarising voltage. For the same reason, parasitic recombination of ions in the chamber is negligibly small even at high dose rates. The difference between neutron and gamma sensitivity is small for tissue-equivalent chamber and is expected to become practically negligible when the chamber electrodes are made of polypropylene. Additional capacitor provides a broad measuring range from ∼0.1 Gy up to ∼25 Gy; however, leakage of electrical charge from polarising capacitor has to be observed and taken into account. Periodical re-charging of the device is necessary. Obviously, final test of the device in conditions simulating criticality accident is needed and will be performed as soon as available. (authors)

  13. Thyroid dosimetry in the western trace of the Chernobyl accident plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedveckaite, T.; Filistovic, V.; Mastauskas, A.; Thiessen, K.

    2004-01-01

    According to World Health Organization guidelines (WHO/SDE/PHE/99.6), the reference level for consideration in stable iodine prophylaxis is based on the inhalation exposure pathway. In the western trace of the Chernobyl accident, the measurement of airborne 131 I fractions (aerosol-associated, gaseous reactive and gaseous organic) indicates that airborne gaseous reactive and, especially, organic 131 I fractions were the major contributors to thyroid exposure due to inhalation. The contribution of inhaled short-lived radio-iodines was negligible. To attain more precise thyroid exposure evaluation, 131 I dose factors were determined as a function of age and prevalence of stable iodine deficiency. The results demonstrate that children with a stable iodine deficiency experienced at least two times higher thyroid doses than did children with a dietary iodine sufficiency. The results of these investigations demonstrate that in thyroid dosimetry it is important to know the stable iodine status as well as to have a standardised method for airborne radioiodine measurements, especially for consideration of stable iodine prophylaxis based on the inhalation exposure pathway. (authors)

  14. Investigations of touchscreen glasses from mobile phones for retrospective and accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discher, Michael; Bortolin, Emanuela; Woda, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Touchscreen glasses of mobile phones are sensitive to ionizing radiation and have the potential of usage as an emergency dosimeter for retrospective dosimetry for the purpose of triage after a radiological accident or attack. In this study the TL glow curves and dosimetric properties of touchscreen glasses were studied in detail, such as intrinsic background dose, dose response, reproducibility, optical stability and long-term stability of the TL signal. Preliminary results are additionally presented to minimize the intrinsic background dose by mechanically removing the surface layer of the glass samples. Additionally chemical element analyses of the touchscreen glass samples were carried out to investigate the difference between glass samples which show a TL signal and samples which show neither an intrinsic zero dose signal nor a radiation induced TL signal. An irradiation trial using glass samples stored in the dark demonstrated a successful dose recovery. However, when applying a realistic, external light exposure scenario, dose underestimation was observed, even though samples were pre-bleached prior to measurement. More investigations have to be carried out in the future to solve the challenge of the low optical stability of the TL signal, if touchscreen glasses are to be used as a reliable emergency dosimeter. - Highlights: • Touchscreen glasses are sensitive to ionizing radiation and show suitable dosimetric properties. • Mechanically treated samples demonstrated a significant reduction of the intrinsic zero dose signal. • An irradiation trial showed limitations of the used protocol for strongly bleached samples.

  15. Thermoluminescence of glass display from mobile phones for retrospective and accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discher, M.; Woda, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the thermoluminescence (TL) study of glass displays from mobile phones with the aim to use them as emergency dosimeters after an accident involving ionizing radiation. Dosimetric properties are analysed in order to examine and to critically evaluate the usability. Tests are carried out regarding the characterization of the radiation induced TL signal and the zero dose signal (intrinsic background) on a variety of display samples. Investigations on the thermal and optical stability of TL signals are carried out. The detection limit is mainly determined by the variability of the zero dose signal and lies in the range of 300–400 mGy. A linear relationship between the measured TL signal and the applied dose is observed for doses between 10 mGy and 20 Gy. A measurement protocol for the detection of absorbed radiation dose is developed, considering the experimental dosimetric properties. A reconstruction of the absorbed dose is possible using glass samples from mobile phones, if the signal loss due to storage and optical bleaching of the TL signal is adequately corrected for. This was confirmed by realistic tests. - Highlights: • Glass displays of mobile phones have potential for retrospective dosimetry. • Signal fading can be corrected with an universally fading curve. • Irradiation trials on intact mobile phones demonstrated a reasonable agreement between given and measured dose

  16. Analysis of results from intercomparison among Spanish laboratories involved of photon energy ''137 Cs for environmental dosimetry laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.M.; Brosed, A.; Salas, R.

    2003-01-01

    Any environmental thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD) system must be periodically calibrated at a calibration laboratory. In this frame, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN) has performed an intercomparison among Spanish laboratories involved in environmental monitoring, by means of TLD, in order to verify the traceability of the whole dosimeter and reader to the national standard for the protection quantities of interest for a given photon energy (''137Cs). To achieve this goal the CSN asked the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT) to carry out the reference irradiations in the energy above mentioned at the lonising Radiations Metrology Unit headquarters. Nine laboratories have participated. All the dosemeters were irradiated with the same air kerma rate. The radiological quantity used was the ambient dose equivalent, H (10), and the values of this quantity assigned to each laboratory were between 210 and 360 μSv. All the dosemeters of the participating laboratories met the two analysis criteria used. All of them demonstrated a satisfactory fulfilment of the requirements established by so called trumpet curves and of the requirements established by the ANSI 1311. (Author) 7 refs

  17. An international intercomparison of national network systems used to provide early warning of a nuclear accident having transboundary implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, I.M.G.; Andersen, C.E.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    2000-01-01

    be harmonised so that it can be accurately interpreted by other countries and by international organisations. To assist with such harmonisation an intercomparison was held during May/June 1999 at the Riso Natural Environmental Radiation Measurement Station in Denmark and at the PTB underground laboratory...

  18. Cytogenetic chromosomal aberration dosimetry method after radiation accidents and prognostic significance of stereotypically appearing chromosomal aberrations after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloennigen, K.A.

    1973-01-01

    The paper reports on a radiation accident involving an Iridium-192 rod of an activity of 7.8 Ci and a size of 2 x 2 x 2 mm 3 . The radiation source had remained in direct contact with the left hip and elbow of the examined person for a period of 45 minutes. On the points that had been directly exposed, physical values of 5,000 rad and 10,000 rad were measured while the whole-body dose was 100-200 rad and the gonad dose 300-400 rad. These values were confirmed by observations of the clinical course and haematological and andrological examinations. Chromosome analysis of lymphocytes produced values between 100 and 125 and thus a significant agreement with the values determined by physical methods. The findings suggest that the relatively simple and fast method of cytogenetic dosimetry provides a useful complementary method to physical dosimetry. (orig./AK) [de

  19. Measurement of stray radiation within a scanning proton therapy facility: EURADOS WG9 intercomparison exercise of active dosimetry systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farah, J., E-mail: jad.farah@irsn.fr; Trompier, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), Pôle Radioprotection de l’Homme, BP17, Fontenay-aux-Roses 92260 (France); Mares, V.; Schinner, K.; Wielunski, M. [Helmholtz Zentrum München, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, Neuherberg 85764 (Germany); Romero-Expósito, M.; Domingo, C. [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra E-08193 (Spain); Trinkl, S. [Helmholtz Zentrum München, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, Neuherberg 85764, Germany and Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, Garching 85748 (Germany); Dufek, V. [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Břehová 7, Prague 115 19, Czech Republic and National Radiation Protection Institute, Bartoškova 28, Prague 140 00 (Czech Republic); Klodowska, M.; Liszka, M.; Stolarczyk, L.; Olko, P. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Kubancak, J. [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Břehová 7, Prague 115 19, Czech Republic and Department of Radiation Dosimetry, Nuclear Physics Institute, Řež CZ-250 68 (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: To characterize stray radiation around the target volume in scanning proton therapy and study the performance of active neutron monitors. Methods: Working Group 9 of the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS WG9—Radiation protection in medicine) carried out a large measurement campaign at the Trento Centro di Protonterapia (Trento, Italy) in order to determine the neutron spectra near the patient using two extended-range Bonner sphere spectrometry (BSS) systems. In addition, the work focused on acknowledging the performance of different commercial active dosimetry systems when measuring neutron ambient dose equivalents, H{sup ∗}(10), at several positions inside (8 positions) and outside (3 positions) the treatment room. Detectors included three TEPCs—tissue equivalent proportional counters (Hawk type from Far West Technology, Inc.) and six rem-counters (WENDI-II, LB 6411, RadEye™ NL, a regular and an extended-range NM2B). Meanwhile, the photon component of stray radiation was deduced from the low-lineal energy transfer part of TEPC spectra or measured using a Thermo Scientific™ FH-40G survey meter. Experiments involved a water tank phantom (60 × 30 × 30 cm{sup 3}) representing the patient that was uniformly irradiated using a 3 mm spot diameter proton pencil beam with 10 cm modulation width, 19.95 cm distal beam range, and 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} field size. Results: Neutron spectrometry around the target volume showed two main components at the thermal and fast energy ranges. The study also revealed the large dependence of the energy distribution of neutrons, and consequently of out-of-field doses, on the primary beam direction (directional emission of intranuclear cascade neutrons) and energy (spectral composition of secondary neutrons). In addition, neutron mapping within the facility was conducted and showed the highest H{sup ∗}(10) value of ∼51 μSv Gy{sup −1}; this was measured at 1.15 m along the beam axis. H{sup ∗}(10) values

  20. ESR Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baffa, Oswaldo; Rossi, Bruno; Graeff, Carlos; Kinoshita, Angela; Chen Abrego, Felipe; Santos, Adevailton Bernardo dos

    2004-01-01

    ESR dosimetry is widely used for several applications such as dose assessment in accidents, medical applications and sterilization of food and other materials. In this work the dosimetric properties of natural and synthetic Hydroxyapatite, Alanine, and 2-Methylalanine are presented. Recent results on the use of a K-Band (24 GHz) ESR spectrometer in dosimetry are also presented

  1. Reconstructive dosimetry and radiation doses evaluation of members of the public due to radiological accident in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Camila Moreira Araujo de

    2016-01-01

    Radiological accidents have occurred mainly in the practices recognized as high risk radiological and classified by the IAEA as Categories 1 and 2, and highlighted the radiotherapy, industrial irradiators and industrial radiography. In Brazil, since there were five major cases in industrial radiography, which involved 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public, causing localized radiation lesions on the hands and fingers. One of these accidents will be the focus of this work. In this accident, a "1"9"2Ir radioactive source was exposed for more than 8 hours in the workplace inside a company, exposing radiation workers, individuals of the public and people from the surrounding facilities, including children of a school. The radioactive source was also handled by a security worker causing severe radiation injuries in the hand and fingers. In this paper, the most relevant and used techniques of reconstructive dosimetry internationally are presented. To estimate the radiation doses received by exposed individuals in various scenarios of radiological accident in focus, the following computer codes were used: Visual Monte Carlo Dose Calculation (VMC), Virtual Environment for Radiological and Nuclear Accidents Simulation (AVSAR) and RADPRO Calculator. Through these codes some radiation doses were estimated, such as, 33.90 Gy in security worker's finger, 4.47 mSv in children in the school and 55 to 160 mSv for workers in the company during the whole day work. It is intended that this work will contribute to the improvement of dose reconstruction methodology for radiological accidents, having then more realist radiation doses. (author)

  2. Personnel neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankins, D.

    1982-04-01

    This edited transcript of a presentation on personnel neutron discusses the accuracy of present dosimetry practices, requirements, calibration, dosemeter types, quality factors, operational problems, and dosimetry for a criticality accident. 32 figs

  3. EPR dosimetry of teeth in past and future accidents: a prospective look at a retrospective method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskell, E.H.; Kenner, G.H.; Hayes, R.B. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Center for Applied Dosimetry; Chumak, V.; Shalom, S. [All-Union Scientific Centre of Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1996-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) of tooth enamel is a relatively new technique for retrospective dosimetry that in the past two years has seen increasing effort towards its development and evaluation. Efforts have centered on determining the accuracy which may be achieved with current measurement techniques as well as the minimum doses detectable. The study was focused on evaluating some factors which influence the accuracy of EPR dosimetry of enamel. Reported are studies on sample intercomparisions, instrumental considerations, and effects of dental x-rays, environmental sunlight and ultraviolet radiation.

  4. EPR dosimetry of teeth in past and future accidents: a prospective look at a retrospective method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskell, E.H.; Kenner, G.H.; Hayes, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) of tooth enamel is a relatively new technique for retrospective dosimetry that in the past two years has seen increasing effort towards its development and evaluation. Efforts have centered on determining the accuracy which may be achieved with current measurement techniques as well as the minimum doses detectable. The study was focused on evaluating some factors which influence the accuracy of EPR dosimetry of enamel. Reported are studies on sample intercomparisions, instrumental considerations, and effects of dental x-rays, environmental sunlight and ultraviolet radiation

  5. Canadian Cytogenetic Emergency network (CEN) for biological dosimetry following radiological/nuclear accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Susan M; Ferrarotto, Catherine L; Vlahovich, Slavica; Wilkins, Ruth C; Boreham, Douglas R; Dolling, Jo-Anna

    2007-07-01

    To test the ability of the cytogenetic emergency network (CEN) of laboratories, currently under development across Canada, to provide rapid biological dosimetry using the dicentric assay for triage assessment, that could be implemented in the event of a large-scale radiation/nuclear emergency. A workshop was held in May 2004 in Toronto, Canada, to introduce the concept of CEN and recruit clinical cytogenetic laboratories at hospitals across the country. Slides were prepared for dicentric assay analysis following in vitro irradiation of blood to a range of gamma-ray doses. A minimum of 50 metaphases per slide were analyzed by 41 people at 22 different laboratories to estimate the exposure level. Dose estimates were calculated based on a dose response curve generated at Health Canada. There were a total of 104 dose estimates and 96 (92.3%) of them fell within the expected range using triage scoring criteria. Half of the laboratories analyzed 50 metaphases in dosimetry. When this network is fully operational, it will be the first of its kind in Canada able to respond to radiological/nuclear emergencies by providing triage quality biological dosimetry for a large number of samples. This network represents an alternate expansion of existing international emergency biological dosimetry cytogenetic networks.

  6. Calibration of the indium foil used for criticality accident dosimetry in the UCC-ND employee identification badge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.; Butler, H.M.; Gupton, E.D.; Sims, C.S.

    1982-05-01

    The UCC-ND Employee Identification Badge contains an indium foil disc that is intended for use as a dosimetry screening device in the event of a criticality accident. While it is recognized that indium is not a precise mixed neutron-gamma dosimeter, its activation by neutrons provides adequate means for separating potentially exposed persons into three groups. These groups are: (1) personnel exposed below annual dose limits, (2) personnel exposed above annual dose limits but below 25 rem, and (3) personnel exposed above 25 rem. This screening procedure is designed to facilitate dosimeter processing in order to meet regulatory reporting requirements. A quick method of interpreting induced activity measurements is presented and discussed

  7. INTERCOMPARISON ON THE MEASUREMENT OF THE QUANTITY PERSONAL DOSE EQUIVALENT HP(10) IN PHOTON FIELDS. LINEARITY DEPENDENCE, LOWER LIMIT OF DETECTION AND UNCERTAINTY IN MEASUREMENT OF DOSIMETRY SYSTEMS OF INDIVIDUAL MONITORING SERVICES IN GABON AND GHANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondo Meye, P; Schandorf, C; Amoako, J K; Manteaw, P O; Amoatey, E A; Adjei, D N

    2017-12-01

    An inter-comparison study was conducted to assess the capability of dosimetry systems of individual monitoring services (IMSs) in Gabon and Ghana to measure personal dose equivalent Hp(10) in photon fields. The performance indicators assessed were the lower limit of detection, linearity and uncertainty in measurement. Monthly and quarterly recording levels were proposed with corresponding values of 0.08 and 0.025 mSv, and 0.05 and 0.15 mSv for the TLD and OSL systems, respectively. The linearity dependence of the dosimetry systems was performed following the requirement given in the Standard IEC 62387 of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The results obtained for the two systems were satisfactory. The procedure followed for the uncertainty assessment is the one given in the IEC technical report TR62461. The maximum relative overall uncertainties, in absolute value, expressed in terms of Hp(10), for the TL dosimetry system Harshaw 6600, are 44. 35% for true doses below 0.40 mSv and 36.33% for true doses ≥0.40 mSv. For the OSL dosimetry system microStar, the maximum relative overall uncertainties, in absolute value, are 52.17% for true doses below 0.40 mSv and 37.43% for true doses ≥0.40 mSv. These results are in good agreement with the requirements for accuracy of the International Commission on Radiological protection. When expressing the uncertainties in terms of response, comparison with the IAEA requirements for overall accuracy showed that the uncertainty results were also acceptable. The values of Hp(10) directly measured by the two dosimetry systems showed a significant underestimation for the Harshaw 6600 system, and a slight overestimation for the microStar system. After correction for linearity of the measured doses, the two dosimetry systems gave better and comparable results. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The use of the dicentric assay for biological dosimetry for radiation accidents in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjidekova, Valeria; Hristova, Rositsa; Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Atanasova, Petya; Popova, Ljubomira; Staynova, Albena

    2010-02-01

    This paper details the construction of a 137Cs gamma calibration curve that has been established for dicentric assay and the testing and validation of the curve through biological dosimetry in three situations of suspected workplace overexposure that arose accidentally or through negligence or lack of appropriate safety measures. The three situations were: (1) suspected 137Cs contamination in a factory air supply; (2) suspected exposure to an industrial 192Ir source; and (3) accidental exposure of construction workers to radiation from a 60Co radiotherapy source in a hospital medical physics department. From a total of 24 potentially-exposed subjects, only one worker was found to have a statistically significant dose (0.16 Gy, 95% confidence intervals 0.02-0.43 Gy). In all other cases, the main function of the biological dosimetry was to reassure the subjects that any dose received was low.

  9. Researches and Applications of ESR Dosimetry for Radiation Accident Dose Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, K.; Guo, L.; Cong, J.B.; Sun, C.P.; Hu, J.M.; Zhou, Z.S.; Wang, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Shi, Y.M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work was to establish methods suitable for practical dose assessment of people involved in ionising radiation accidents. Some biological materials of the human body and materials possibly carried or worn by people were taken as detection samples. By using electron spin resonance (ESR) techniques, the basic dosimetric properties of selected materials were investigated in the range above the threshold dose of human acute haemopoietic radiation syndrome. The dosimetric properties involved included dose response properties of ESR signals, signal stabilities, distribution of background signals, the lowest detectable dose value, radiation conditions, environmental effects on the detecting process, etc. Several practical dose analytical indexes and detecting methods were set up. Some of them (bone, watch glass and tooth enamel) had also been successfully used in the dose assessment of people involved in three radiation accidents, including the Chernobyl reactor accident. This work further proves the important role of ESR techniques in radiation accident dose estimation. (author)

  10. Adaptation of a free radical dosimeter to the intercomparison of fast neutron beams. Part of a coordinated programme on the development of a transfer instrument for neutron dosimetry intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermann, F.

    1978-07-01

    A compressed mixture of alanine and paraffin is a compact and uniform dosemeter with good reproducibility and practical use of it can be made in the range from 10 2 to 10 7 rad. These dosemeters are virtually tissue-equivalent as regards to the absorption of ionizing radiation, especially in the case of fast neutrons. The detection efficiency decreases in the case of particles with high LET. As far as intercomparisons are concerned, this dosemeter shows good relative accuracy of the data and affords an opportunity of successive readings after intervals of time

  11. Dosimetry of an accident in mixed field (neutrons, photons) using the spectrometry by electronic paramagnetic resonance(EPR); Dosimetrie d'accident en champ mixte (neutrons, photons) utilisant la spectrometrie par resonance paramagnetique electronique (RPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herve, M.L

    2006-03-15

    In a radiological accident, the assessment of the dose received by the victim is relevant information for the therapeutic strategy. Two complementary dosimetric techniques based on physical means are used in routine practice in the laboratory: EPR spectroscopy performed on materials removed from the victim or gathered from the vicinity of the victim and Monte Carlo calculations. EPR dosimetry, has been used successfully several times in cases of photon or electron overexposures. Accidental exposure may also occur with a neutron component. The aim of this work is to investigate the potentiality of EPR dosimetry for mixed photon and neutron field exposure with different organic materials (ascorbic acid, sorbitol, glucose, galactose, fructose, mannose, lactose and sucrose). The influence of irradiation parameters (dose, dose rate, photon energy) and of environmental parameters (temperature of heating, light exposure) on the EPR signal amplitude was studied. To assess the neutron sensitivity, the materials were exposed to a mixed radiation field of experimental reactors with different neutron to photon ratios. The relative neutron sensitivity was found to range from 10% to 43% according to the materials. Prior knowledge of the ratio between the dose in samples measured by EPR spectrometry and organ or whole body dose obtained by calculations previously performed for these different configurations, makes it possible to give a first estimation of the dose received by the victim in a short delay. The second aim of this work is to provide data relevant for a quick assessment of the dose distribution in case of accidental overexposure based on EPR measurements performed on one or several points of the body. The study consists in determining by calculation the relation between the dose to the organs and whole body and the dose to specific points of the body, like teeth, bones or samples located in the pockets of victim clothes, for different external exposures corresponding

  12. EPR dosimetry - present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulla, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    In the past, IAEA has played a central role in stipulating research and development in EPR high-dose standardisation as well as co-ordinating and organising international dose intercomparison programs, within the Member States of the United Nations from the mid-seventies till today. The future tasks of EPR dosimetry seem to tend towards different subjects such as biomarkers, biological radiation effects, post-accident dose reconstruction in the environment, and retrospective human dosimetry. The latter may be considered a promising tool for epidemiology on the way to re-define radiation risk of man for chronicle radiation exposures, based on e.g. South Ural civil population and radiation workers. There are on-going international activities in the field of standardising high-level dosimetry by the American Standards on Testing and Materials (ASTM), and the International Organisation of Standards (ISO) as well as those of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) considering the establishment of relevant recommendations concerning industrial radiation processing, but also human dose reconstruction. (author)

  13. EPR Dosimetry - Present and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regulla, D.F. [GSF - National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    In the past, IAEA has played a central role in stipulating research and development in EPR high-dose standardisation as well as in coordinating and organising international dose intercomparison programs, within the Member States of the United Nations from the mid-seventies till today. The future tasks of EPR dosimetry seem to tend towards different subjects such as bio markers, biological radiation effects, post-accident dose reconstruction in the environment, and retrospective human dosimetry. The latter may be considered a promising tool for epidemiology on the way to re-define radiation risk of man for chronicle radiation exposures, based on e.g. South Ural civil population and radiation workers. There are on-going international activities in the field of standardising high-level dosimetry by the American Standards on Testing and Materials (Astm), and by the International Organisation of Standards (ISO). The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) is considering the establishment of relevant recommendations concerning industrial radiation processing, but also human dose reconstruction. (Author)

  14. EPR Dosimetry - Present and Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulla, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    In the past, IAEA has played a central role in stipulating research and development in EPR high-dose standardisation as well as in coordinating and organising international dose intercomparison programs, within the Member States of the United Nations from the mid-seventies till today. The future tasks of EPR dosimetry seem to tend towards different subjects such as bio markers, biological radiation effects, post-accident dose reconstruction in the environment, and retrospective human dosimetry. The latter may be considered a promising tool for epidemiology on the way to re-define radiation risk of man for chronicle radiation exposures, based on e.g. South Ural civil population and radiation workers. There are on-going international activities in the field of standardising high-level dosimetry by the American Standards on Testing and Materials (Astm), and by the International Organisation of Standards (ISO). The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) is considering the establishment of relevant recommendations concerning industrial radiation processing, but also human dose reconstruction. (Author)

  15. Personnel radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The book contains the 21 technical papers presented at the Technical Committee Meeting to Elaborate Procedures and Data for the Intercomparison of Personnel Dosimeters organizaed by the IAEA on 22-26 April 1985. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. A list of areas in which additional research and development work is needed and recommendations for an IAEA-sponsored intercomparison program on personnel dosimetry is also included

  16. Intercomparison exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, J.

    2007-01-01

    Intercomparison exercises are vital to many a national programmes. These are only tools available with the laboratories to prove their competence to an international audience and also for the accrediting agencies to assess a laboratory

  17. Dosimetry of an accident in mixed field (neutrons, photons) using the spectrometry by electronic paramagnetic resonance(EPR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve, M.L.

    2006-03-01

    In a radiological accident, the assessment of the dose received by the victim is relevant information for the therapeutic strategy. Two complementary dosimetric techniques based on physical means are used in routine practice in the laboratory: EPR spectroscopy performed on materials removed from the victim or gathered from the vicinity of the victim and Monte Carlo calculations. EPR dosimetry, has been used successfully several times in cases of photon or electron overexposures. Accidental exposure may also occur with a neutron component. The aim of this work is to investigate the potentiality of EPR dosimetry for mixed photon and neutron field exposure with different organic materials (ascorbic acid, sorbitol, glucose, galactose, fructose, mannose, lactose and sucrose). The influence of irradiation parameters (dose, dose rate, photon energy) and of environmental parameters (temperature of heating, light exposure) on the EPR signal amplitude was studied. To assess the neutron sensitivity, the materials were exposed to a mixed radiation field of experimental reactors with different neutron to photon ratios. The relative neutron sensitivity was found to range from 10% to 43% according to the materials. Prior knowledge of the ratio between the dose in samples measured by EPR spectrometry and organ or whole body dose obtained by calculations previously performed for these different configurations, makes it possible to give a first estimation of the dose received by the victim in a short delay. The second aim of this work is to provide data relevant for a quick assessment of the dose distribution in case of accidental overexposure based on EPR measurements performed on one or several points of the body. The study consists in determining by calculation the relation between the dose to the organs and whole body and the dose to specific points of the body, like teeth, bones or samples located in the pockets of victim clothes, for different external exposures corresponding

  18. EPR response characterization of drugs excipients for applying in accident dosimetry; Caracterizacao da resposta RPE dos excipientes dos medicamentos para aplicacao em dosimetria de acidente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marczewski, Barbara S.; Rodrigues Junior, Orlando; Galante, Ocimar L.; Costa, Zelia M. da; Campos, Leticia L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Some drugs are widely used by the population and can be employed to dose retrospective. The carbohydrates (saccharides), commonly used as excipients in the pharmaceutical industry, produce a quantity of free radicals after gamma irradiation, making them useful for dosimetry in emergency or accident situations that imply in dose evaluation from the materials found nearly or in contact with victims. In general, EPR signal from pulverized pills of some drugs are very complex due to the variety of components in the formulation. Because of this fact, some pharmaceutical excipients identified in the pill composition were also analysed by EPR spectrometry. On the counter drugs were studied: Cebion glucose, AAS, Aspirina, Conmel, Lacto-Purga and sugar substitutive ZeroCal. The excipients were: lactose, amide, anhydrous glucose and magnesium stearate. In some samples the number of radicals produced increased with the dose, showing a linear response for a dose range of interest and an adequate sensibility for dosimetry in accident cases.

  19. Considerations regarding the implementation of EPR dosimetry for the population in the vicinity of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site based on experience from other radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvortsov, Valeriy; Ivannikov, Alexander; Tikunov, Dimitri; Stepanenko, Valeriy; Borysheva, Natalie; Orlenko, Sergey; Nalapko, Mikhail; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    General aspects of applying the method of retrospective dose estimation by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of human tooth enamel (EPR dosimetry) to the population residing in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site are analyzed and summarized. The analysis is based on the results obtained during 20 years of investigations conducted in the Medical Radiological Research Center regarding the development and practical application of this method for wide-scale dosimetrical investigation of populations exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl accident and other radiation accidents. (author)

  20. Study of EPR/ESR Dosimetry in Fingernails as a Method for Assessing Dose of Victims of Radiological Accidents/Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-17

    Dosimetry for Population in the Vicinity of the Most Contaminating Radioactive Fallout Trace After the First Nuclear Test in the Semipalatinsk Test Site ...collection, preparation, and measurements at an accident site can be met with techniques illustrated in this study. v “STUDY OF ELECTRON...the value of Bo at the predicted resonance site . At this site , the direction of magnetic moment of unpaired electrons and their spin state change

  1. Biological dose assessment by cytogenetic dosimetry in the Goianian radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, A.T.; Nascimento, A.C.H.; Bellido, P.

    1989-01-01

    During the recent Goianian radiation accident, 112 exposed or potentially exposed individuals were analyzed for the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and rings) in their lymphocytes, for estimation of the absorbed radiation dose. Of these, 29 subjects had dose estimates exceeding 0.5 Gy, 21 exceeded 1.0 Gy and eight exceeded 4.0 Gy. None of the estimates exceeded 7.0 Gy. (author)

  2. On the use of OSL of wire-bond chip card modules for retrospective and accident dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woda, Clemens [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)], E-mail: clemens.woda@helmholtz-muenchen.de; Spoettl, Thomas [Infineon Technologies AG, Wernerwerkstrasse 1, D-93049 Regensburg (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    The potential of optically stimulated luminescence of wire-bond chip card modules, used in health insurance, ID, cash and credit cards for retrospective and accident dosimetry is investigated. Chip card modules obtained directly from the producer, using a widely spread UV-cured epoxy product for encapsulation, are used as basis for the study. The radiation sensitivity is due to silica grains added to the epoxy for controlling the thixotropic properties. Luminescence properties are complex due to the presumed thermo-optical release of electrons from the epoxy and transfer into the silica. Best results and highest sensitivity are obtained by using no or only low preheat treatments. A high degree of fading of the OSL signal during storage at room temperature is observed, which is tentatively explained by the superposition of thermal decay of shallow OSL traps and athermal (anomalous) decay of deeper OSL traps. The dose response of the OSL signal shows exponentially saturating behaviour, with saturation doses of 77 Gy or 9.6 Gy, depending on pretreatment. Dose recovery tests show that given doses can be recovered within a deviation of {+-}14%, if measured signals are corrected for fading. The minimum detectable dose is estimated at {approx}3 mGy, {approx}10 mGy and {approx}20 mGy for readouts immediately, 1 day and 10 days after exposure, respectively.

  3. An extended role for thermoluminescent phosphors in personnel, environmental and accident dosimetry using sensitisation, re-estimation and fast fading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper summarises some techniques for extending the usefulness of conventional phosphors in personnel, environmental and accident dosimetry. An optimised procedure for utilising radiation sensitisation and UV re-estimation in thermoluminescent LiF is presented. In particular it is shown that optimum performance is achieved by using a UV wavelength of 250 +- 10 nm for both the UV/thermal anneal following sensitisation, and for the UV re-estimation procedure. In the case of Harshaw Lif Chips (3x3x0.9 mm 3 ) the sensitivity is increased by a factor of 4-5 to achieve a minimum detectable dose of approx.=10 μGy (2sigma) and a minimum re-estimable dose of 50-100 mGy (2sigma), dependent on batch. Sensitized LiF also exhibits improved tissue equivalence, extended linearity and improved precision at low doses. The information from fast-fading glow peaks, which is normally rejected, is shown to have a useful application to the evaluation of short-term increases in environmental dose rates such as may occur following accidental releases of radioactivity. (orig.)

  4. On the use of OSL of wire-bond chip card modules for retrospective and accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woda, Clemens; Spoettl, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The potential of optically stimulated luminescence of wire-bond chip card modules, used in health insurance, ID, cash and credit cards for retrospective and accident dosimetry is investigated. Chip card modules obtained directly from the producer, using a widely spread UV-cured epoxy product for encapsulation, are used as basis for the study. The radiation sensitivity is due to silica grains added to the epoxy for controlling the thixotropic properties. Luminescence properties are complex due to the presumed thermo-optical release of electrons from the epoxy and transfer into the silica. Best results and highest sensitivity are obtained by using no or only low preheat treatments. A high degree of fading of the OSL signal during storage at room temperature is observed, which is tentatively explained by the superposition of thermal decay of shallow OSL traps and athermal (anomalous) decay of deeper OSL traps. The dose response of the OSL signal shows exponentially saturating behaviour, with saturation doses of 77 Gy or 9.6 Gy, depending on pretreatment. Dose recovery tests show that given doses can be recovered within a deviation of ±14%, if measured signals are corrected for fading. The minimum detectable dose is estimated at ∼3 mGy, ∼10 mGy and ∼20 mGy for readouts immediately, 1 day and 10 days after exposure, respectively.

  5. Radiation protection experience in Yugoslavia from the Vinca accident to nowadays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.M

    2000-01-01

    This Paper is the expression of the author opinion about development of radiation protection in Yugoslavia from its beginning forty years ago, which might affect its status in the foreseeable future at the first decades of the 21st century. It focuses on key events in this field starting from the Vinca Accident, which happened in the October 1958, to nowadays. Shortly reviewed some of key events are: Vinca Accident; Foundation of the Radiation Protection Laboratory in the Vinca Institute; International Vinca Dosimetry Experiment; First National Symposium and foundation of the Yugoslav Radiation Protection Association; International Intercomparison Experiment on Nuclear Accident Dosimetry and, International Summer Schools and Symposium on Radiation Protection organized in Yugoslavia. Finally, some specific experimental data obtained during and after Chernobyl Accident up to nowadays in radiation protection action in Yugoslavia are presented also. (author)

  6. Intercomparison exercises - a 'must' or a 'need'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraschiva, Mircea-Valentin; Cherestes, Margareta; Cherestes, Codrut

    2011-01-01

    The national legislation and the IAEA's Basic Safety Standards Series require the implementation of a QA programme for approval of dosimetry services. The implementation of a quality system according to EN ISO/IEC17025:2005 standard is a way to demonstrate that the dosimetry service is technically competent and capable of generating technically valid results. There are around fifty different standards relevant to individual monitoring, which indicates the complexity and difficulty of understanding and using the appropriate standard in routine work. The new recommendations published by European Commission - RP-160 - bring together requirements and guidance given in 96/29/EURATOM Directive, ICRP Publications, ICRU Reports and IAEA technical documents. The aim of these recommendations is to address the growing need for improvement and harmonization of practices and procedures used in individual dosimetry, for a mutual recognition of dose assessments performed by Approved Dosimetry Services across Europe. An intercomparison exercise among dosimetry services is like a performance test. The results of intercomparisons are published but anonimized. In many Member States participation in international intercomparisons is strongly recommended as results can be used to support an application for approval or accreditation. In this paper we present the results of our participation in two intercomparison exercises: EURADOS Intercomparison 2008 and EURADOS Intercomparison 2010. The results are displayed using the 'trumpet curves' (ISO 14146). The corrective actions are presented and also the lessons learned. At first exercise, in 2008, we have participated with one dosimetric system - photographic dosemeter - and at the second one, we have participated with two dosimetric systems: photographic and thermoluminescent. (authors)

  7. National intercomparison on in vivo measurement of Iodine-131 in the thyroid within a Brazilian Internal Dosimetry Laboratory Network - IAEA PROJECT BRA9055; Intercomparacao nacional de medicao in vivo de Iodo-131 na tireoide - Projeto TC IAEA BRA 9055

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, B.M.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Lucena, E.A., E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Cardoso, J.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ramos, M.A.P.; Sa, M.S. [Eletrobras Eletronuclear, Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil); Alonso, T.C.; Silva, T.V.; Oliveira, C.M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, F.F.; Oliveira, M.L.; Lacerda, I.V.B. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Fajgelj, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria)

    2013-08-15

    In 2011, in Brazil, a National Intercalibration and Intercomparison exercise on in vivo measurement of iodine-131 in the thyroid was carried out in the scope of the Project IAEABRA9055 'Establishing a National Laboratory Network for Internal Individual Monitoring'. The exercise was conducted by the Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) and the Institute for Nuclear and Energetic Research (IPEN), from National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). The objectives of the exercise were to (i) update information on current instrumentation resources available in the in vivo monitoring laboratories in operation in Brazil and to (ii) verify the reliability of the results of measurements of iodine-131 in thyroid provided by those laboratories. The procedure consisted on the measurement of a neck-thyroid anthropomorphic phantom provided by the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory of IRD, containing two barium-133 standard sources certified by the National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation. Each participant should measure the phantom in a period of five days. The five laboratories are located in the States of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais and Pernambuco, in the following Institutions: Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry, Nuclear Power Station Almirante Alvaro Alberto, Center for the Development of Nuclear Technology, Institute for Nuclear and Energetic Research, and Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences. The results reported included: activity measured, minimum detectable activity, accuracy and precision. The performance of the laboratories was evaluated according to the criteria suggested by ANSI 13.30 indicating their capacity to provide reliable results of iodine-131 content in the thyroid. (author)

  8. Subsidies to cytogenetic dosimetry technique generated from analysis of results of Goiania radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, Adriana Teixeira

    1993-06-01

    Following the Goiania radiation accident, which occurred in September of 1987, peripheral lymphocytes from 129 exposed or potentially exposed individuals were analyzed for the frequency of unstable chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and centric rings) to estimate absorbed radiation dose. During the emergency period, the doses were assessed to help immediate medical treatment. After this initial estimation, doses were reassessed using in vitro calibration curves produced after the accident, more suitable for the conditions prevailing in Goiania. Dose estimates for 24 subjects exceeded 0,5 Gy. Among those, 15 individuals exceeded 1,0 Gy and 5 exceeded 3,0 Gy. None of the estimates exceeded 6,0 Gy. Four of the subjects died. During the emergency period, a cytogenetic follow-up of 14 of the exposed patients was started, aiming to observe the mean lifetime of lymphocytes containing dicentric and ring aberrations. The results suggest that for the highly exposed individuals the disappearance rate of unstable aberrations follows a two- term exponential function. Up to 470 days after the exposure, there is a rapid fall in the aberration frequency. After 470 days, the disappearance rate is very slow, almost constant. The estimated average half-time of elimination of dicentrics and rings among the highly exposed group (> 1 Gy) was 140 days for the initial period after the exposure (up to 470 days). This value is significantly shorter than the usually accepted value of 3 years reported in the literature. Mean disappearance functions of unstable chromosome aberrations were inferred, to be applied in accident situations in which there is a blood sampling delay. Statistical analysis of possible correlations between the individual half-times and biological parameters, such as sex, age, leukopenia level shown during the critical period, absorbed dose (initial frequency of chromosomal aberrations) and the administration of the bone marrow stimulating factor (rHuGM-CSF) was

  9. Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance of irradiated nails: challenges for a dosimetry in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannoni, Ricardo A.; Rodrigues Junior, Orlando

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize samples of human nails exposed to high doses of radiation, applying the technique of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). The objective is to establish a dose response study that allow determine the absorbed dose by exposed individuals in situations of radiological accidents, in a retrospective form. Samples of human nails were collected and afterward irradiated with gamma radiation, and received dose of 20 Gy. The EPR measurement performed on the samples, before irradiation, permitted the signal identification of the components associated with effects caused by the mechanical stress during the fingernail cutting, the so-called mechanically induced signal (MIS). After the irradiation, different species of free radicals were identified, the so-called radiation induced signal (RIS). (author)

  10. The radioiodine problem following the Chernobyl accident: ecology, dosimetry and medical effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonova, I.A.

    1991-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident radioisotopes of iodine constituted the main dose-forming factor among the people who stayed on in the radioactively contaminated areas, and in a number of places the effective doses to the thyroid gland were up to two orders of magnitude higher than the whole-body dose stemming from uniform internal and external irradiation. We consider the mechanisms involved in the radioiodine contribution to the doses in the human organism, depending on intake path, life style and social and ecological factors. We illustrate, by means of examples, thyroid gland dose distribution for various age groups in the population, and discuss the medical effects and predict the long-term risks for the population of exposure to radioisotopes of iodine. (author)

  11. Results obtained in the intercomparison of dosimetry systems Total body organized by In 2012, the European Group for radiation dosimetry (EURADOS) has organized an intercomparison of systems; Resultados obtenidos en la intercomparacion de sistemas dosimetricos de cuerpo entero organizada pro Eurados (IC2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casal Zamorano, E.; Soriano Cruz, A.; Alabau Albors, J.; Palma Copete, J. D.

    2013-07-01

    dosimetric full-length for photons, within the action on {sup h}armonization of the monitoring Individual of the radiation External{sup e}stablished by the group. 88 dosimetric systems, 75 30 institutions have participated in the intercomparison countries. Each participant has sent a group of 26 dosimeters which have been irradiated with various doses and radiation qualities. The overall results of the intercomparison were presented recently (1). This communication presents the results obtained by our Center. EURADOS (IC2012). (Author)

  12. Biological dosimetry of local radiation accidents of skin: possible cytological and biochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potten, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    Skin erythema or skin reaction is a highly dose-dependent change in skin appearance. A few gray can usually be detected in humans but higher doses are usually required for experimental rodents. The disadvantages are that the end-point is subjective and the response strongly influenced by numerous physical and biological factors. Changes in the levels of pigmentation can be detected in the epidermis and possibly the hair follicles but generally these only become apparent after chronic exposures. The skin appendages, particularly the hair follicles, could represent sensitive systems for detecting radiation exposures, but the cyclic behaviour of the hair follicles is difficult to control or determine in an accident. Acute cell death can be measured in the follicle germ and changes in the thickness and appearance of the hair are easily detected: in severe cases there is loss of hair (epilation). The number of dead cells per follicle section increased at a rate of 2.9/Gy and doses of about 0.2Gy can be easily detected. The width of the hair is reduced by about 7-8%/Gy and this change, which results in a dysplastic hair is believed to be the consequences of cell death in the follicles. (author)

  13. Optically stimulated luminescence of electronic components for forensic, retrospective, and accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inrig, E.L.; Godfrey-Smith, D.I.; Khanna, S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) response of electronic components found within portable electronic devices such as cell phones and pagers, portable computers, music and video players, global positioning system receivers, cameras, and digital watches. The analysis of components extracted from these ubiquitous devices was proposed for applications ranging from rapid accident dose reconstruction to the tracking and attribution of gamma-emitting radiological materials. Surface-mount resistors with alumina porcelain substrates consistently produced OSL following irradiation, with minimum detectable doses on the order of 10 mGy for a typical sample. Since the resistor ceramics were found to exhibit anomalous fading, dose reconstruction procedures were developed to correct for this using laboratory measurements of fading rates carried out over approximately 3 months. Two trials were conducted in which cellular phones were affixed to an anthropomorphic phantom and irradiated using gamma-ray sources; ultimately, analysis of the devices used in these trials succeeded in reconstructing doses in the range of 0.1-0.6Gy

  14. Biological dosimetry, diagnosis, and treatment of bone-marrow syndrome in victims of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugis, V.Yu.; Konchalovskii, M.V.

    1993-01-01

    During our medical investigation and treatment of victims of the Chernobyl accident, we obtained extensive clinical and laboratory data. The injuries to these victims were caused primarily by high external gamma and beta radiation doses. In some cases, these doses were accompanied by skin contamination by beta- and gamma-emitting radionuclides and by an intake of radionuclides, although the latter exposure mode was, for the most part, insignificant. Cytogenetic analysis of lymphocyte cultures of peripheral blood and bone marrow provided early estimations of radiation doses based on frequency of dicentrics. These dose estimates were well correlated with dose estimates derived from analysis of neutrophil numbers in peripheral blood. Early isolation of patients with acute radiation sickness (ARS), selective decontamination of the intestine, and application of a wide range of antibiotics and antifungal and antiviral medications helped avoid the development of fatal infections in many patients. Autological cryopreserved thrombocyte mass treatment was successfully used for victims in the second and third degree of ARS. Transplantation of allogenic bone marrow (13 cases) was ineffective and frequently caused fatal secondary sickness. As a whole, complications from widespread skin contamination by beta-emitting radionuclides, interstitial radiation pneumonia complicated by infection, and gastrointestinal syndrome were the leading factors in thanatogenesis. 21 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Reconstructive dosimetry of radiological accidents - study of a brazilian case of industrial gamma radiography; Dosimetria reconstrutiva de acidentes radiologicos - estudo de um caso brasileiro de gamagrafia industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Francisco Cesar Augusto da; Hunt, John G.; Ramalho, Adriana [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinto, Livia M.F. Amalfi [ARCtest - Servicos Tecnicos de Inspecao e Manutencao Industrial Ltda., Paulinia, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: protecao@arctest.com.br

    2002-07-01

    On May 2000, an industrial gamma radiography operator, during a maintenance work of a {sup 60}Co irradiator, has suffered a radiological accident with severe consequences to the left hand. The experts of the High Doses Analysis Group (GADE/IRD/CNEN) initiated the reconstructive dosimetry for the radiation dose estimation, in order to determine the real dose received by the operator, and to help the medical evaluation for prescribing the medical procedures for treatment of the involved victim. This paper presents the reconstructive dosimetry performed through the determination of the radiation doses of the operator, based on theoretical, experimental and computational methods. For the computer methods, a program for the calculation of external doses were used, based on the Monte Carlo method, and a human body simulator composed by voxels. The values of effective and equivalent doses are also presented which has caused severe lesions on the operator hand.

  16. Results of the IAEA/RCA personal dosemeter intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, Norio; Momose, Takumaro; Hayashi, Naomi [Environment and Safety Division, Tokai Works, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    The intercomparison of personal dosemeters for photon was carried out between 1990 and 1996 as part of the IAEA/RCA 'strengthening of radiation protection infrastructure' project. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute participated in the intercomparison as one of the in-house personal dosimetry service organizations in Japan and also served the host irradiating laboratory. This report summarizes the dose evaluation results obtained from the JNC-TLD badges in the past four intercomparison programs. In the latest intercomparison the evaluated doses agreed to the reference doses with an accuracy of 10%. (author)

  17. EPR dosimetry in a mixed neutron and gamma radiation field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompier, F; Fattibene, P; Tikunov, D; Bartolotta, A; Carosi, A; Doca, M C

    2004-01-01

    Suitability of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy for criticality dosimetry was evaluated for tooth enamel, mannose and alanine pellets during the 'international intercomparison of criticality dosimetry techniques' at the SILENE reactor held in Valduc in June 2002, France. These three materials were irradiated in neutron and gamma-ray fields of various relative intensities and spectral distributions in order to evaluate their neutron sensitivity. The neutron response was found to be around 10% for tooth enamel, 45% for mannose and between 40 and 90% for alanine pellets according their type. According to the IAEA recommendations on the early estimate of criticality accident absorbed dose, analyzed results show the EPR potentiality and complementarity with regular criticality techniques.

  18. Progetto EURAMET: HLT03 DUTy - Dosimetria per terapie ultrasonore. Confronto tra metodi di misura - EURAMET: HLT03 DUTy - Dosimetry for ultrasound therapy. Intercomparison of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Durando

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La mancanza di una definizione della dose ultrasonora rende di fatto impossibile la valutazione della più appropriata “quantità” energia ceduta ai tessuti dal fascio ultrasonoro emesso da un trasduttore durante una terapia. Il progetto di ricerca “Dosimetry for Ultrasound Therapy - DUTy”, finanziato dal programma di ricerca EURAMET EMRP, aveva tra i suoi principali obiettivi, oltre al confronto interlaboratorio che validasse le capacità metrologiche dei laboratori partecipanti, la ricerca della definizione di dose ultrasonora che consentisse la definizione di un piano terapeutico specifico per ogni paziente. ------ Standardized and traceable dose has not yet been developed for medical ultrasound applications. This means that the ‘amount’ of ultrasound required for a particular therapy cannot be calculated and that the ‘amount’ actually delivered quantified. The aim of EURAMET EMRP project “Dosimetry for Ultrasound Therapy - DUTy” project was developing the metrological infrastructure (definitions, validated measurement and modelling methods which underpins the specification of dose for therapeutic ultrasound applications allowing appropriate treatment planning and risk assessment.

  19. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Support of IER 252 and the Dose Characterization of the Flattop Reactor at the DAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, D. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jeffers, K. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Radev, R. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tai, L. I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ward, D. C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Leonard, E. I. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-06

    In support of IER 252 “Characterization of the Flattop Reactor at the NCERC”, LLNL performed ROSPEC measurements of the neutron spectrum and deployed 129 Personnel Nuclear Accident Dosimeters (PNAD) to establish the need for height corrections and verification of neutron spectrum evaluation of the fluences and dose. A very limited number of heights (typically only one or two heights) can be measured using neutron spectrometers, therefore it was important to determine if any height correction would be needed in future intercomparisons and studies. Specific measurement positions around the Flatttop reactor are provided in Figure 1. Table 1 provides run and position information for LLNL measurements. The LLNL ROSPEC (R2) was used for run numbers 1 – 7, and vi. PNADs were positioned on trees during run numbers 9, 11, and 13.

  20. Mixed field dosimetry with paired ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppola, M.; Porro, F.

    1977-01-01

    This report describes the results of neutron and gamma mixed-field dosimetry obtained by the Ispra Group in the framework of the European Neutron Dosimetry intercomparison Project (ENDIP). The experimental method and the formulation employed for the derivation of Kerma results are also present

  1. EURADOS intercomparison 2012 for neutron dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantuzzi, E.; Chevallier, M.A.; Cruz-Suarez, R.; Luszik-Bhadra, M.; Mayer, S.; Thomas, D.J.; Tanner, R.; Vanhavere, F.

    2014-11-01

    EURADOS, within the work performed by Working Group 2 - Harmonization of Individual Monitoring in Europe, has started a self-sustained programme of regular intercomparisons and has successfully executed three intercomparisons for whole body photon dosemeters (IC2008, IC2010, IC2012) and one intercomparison for extremity dosemeters for photon and beta fields (IC2009). In 2012, the EURADOS intercomparison IC2012n was launched for personal neutron dosemeters routinely used to measure personal dose equivalent, Hp(10), in individual monitoring. No systems under development were allowed to participate. IC2012n was carried out by a EURADOS nominated Organization Group (OG) consisting of: Marie- Anne Chevallier (IRSN, F), Rodolfo Cruz-Suarez (IAEA, UN-Vienna), Marlies Luszik-Bhadra (PTB, D), Sabine Mayer (PSI, CH), David J. Thomas (NPL, UK), Rick Tanner (PHE, UK), Filip Vanhavere (SCK-CEN, B) led by a Coordinator, Elena Fantuzzi (ENEA, I). 31 participants registered for the comparison, with 34 dosimetry systems. In total 816 dosemeters were irradiated in selected neutron fields on an ISO slab phantom. The irradiations were performed at 2 European accredited laboratories which are both National Primary Metrology Laboratories for ionizing radiation: NPL (National Physical Laboratory, UK) and PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, D). All irradiations were carried out according to the irradiation plan developed by the OG. The overall results show that most, although not all, dosimetric systems perform acceptably well (within a factor of 2) for irradiations with a bare radionuclide source ( 252 Cf at 0 ), whilst more than half of the systems underestimate the reference value for irradiations from non-normal angles of incidence irradiations ( 252 Cf at 45 ) or for simulated workplace fields ( 252 Cf(D 2 O) or 252 Cf source behind a shadow cone). The performance for 250 keV mono-energetic neutron irradiations varies mainly reflecting the detection principle on which the

  2. EURADOS intercomparison 2012 for neutron dosemeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantuzzi, E. [ENEA-Radiation Protection Institute, Bologna (Italy); Chevallier, M.A. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Cruz-Suarez, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Luszik-Bhadra, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Mayer, S. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Thomas, D.J. [National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington (United Kingdom); Tanner, R. [Public Health England, Oxon (United Kingdom); Vanhavere, F. [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Mol (Belgium)

    2014-11-15

    EURADOS, within the work performed by Working Group 2 - Harmonization of Individual Monitoring in Europe, has started a self-sustained programme of regular intercomparisons and has successfully executed three intercomparisons for whole body photon dosemeters (IC2008, IC2010, IC2012) and one intercomparison for extremity dosemeters for photon and beta fields (IC2009). In 2012, the EURADOS intercomparison IC2012n was launched for personal neutron dosemeters routinely used to measure personal dose equivalent, Hp(10), in individual monitoring. No systems under development were allowed to participate. IC2012n was carried out by a EURADOS nominated Organization Group (OG) consisting of: Marie- Anne Chevallier (IRSN, F), Rodolfo Cruz-Suarez (IAEA, UN-Vienna), Marlies Luszik-Bhadra (PTB, D), Sabine Mayer (PSI, CH), David J. Thomas (NPL, UK), Rick Tanner (PHE, UK), Filip Vanhavere (SCK-CEN, B) led by a Coordinator, Elena Fantuzzi (ENEA, I). 31 participants registered for the comparison, with 34 dosimetry systems. In total 816 dosemeters were irradiated in selected neutron fields on an ISO slab phantom. The irradiations were performed at 2 European accredited laboratories which are both National Primary Metrology Laboratories for ionizing radiation: NPL (National Physical Laboratory, UK) and PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, D). All irradiations were carried out according to the irradiation plan developed by the OG. The overall results show that most, although not all, dosimetric systems perform acceptably well (within a factor of 2) for irradiations with a bare radionuclide source ({sup 252}Cf at 0 ), whilst more than half of the systems underestimate the reference value for irradiations from non-normal angles of incidence irradiations ({sup 252}Cf at 45 ) or for simulated workplace fields ({sup 252}Cf(D{sub 2}O) or {sup 252}Cf source behind a shadow cone). The performance for 250 keV mono-energetic neutron irradiations varies mainly reflecting the detection

  3. Intercomparison I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes P, A.; Garcia D, O.; Becerril V, A.

    1997-01-01

    Assuming the importance that have the use of measurement procedures which yield consistent results with other laboratories it is necessary to participate in international intercomparisons. In this time, the Radioactive patterns laboratory (LPR) at Metrology Department of National Institute of Nuclear Research participated in the Quality Appraisement Program (QAP) which was organized by the Energy Department of the United States in march 1997. In this program soil samples, vegetables and contaminated air filters were distributed with different radioisotopes. This laboratory took part in the measurement and analysis of one of the air filters. This filter was contaminated with 12 radioisotopes, 7 β emissors, 4 α and γ emissors and a β pure emissor. The β - γ emissors were measured with a gamma spectrometer system with a Ge high purity detector. From the 7 activity measurements corresponding to the β, γ emissors were qualified as acceptable. In this work, the used equipment is described and the procedure followed is reported for the problem filter measurement as well as the obtained results. (Author)

  4. TL detectors for gamma ray dose measurements in criticality accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miljanic, S.; Zorko, B.; Gregori, B.; Knezevic, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Determination of gamma ray dose in mixed neutron + gamma ray fields is still a demanding task. Dosemeters used for gamma ray dosimetry are usually in some extent sensitive to neutrons and their response variations depend on neutron energy i.e., on neutron spectra. Besides, it is necessary to take into account the energy dependence of dosemeter responses to gamma rays. In this work, several types of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) placed in different holders used for gamma ray dose determination in the mixed fields were examined. Dosemeters were from three different institutions: Ruder Boskovic Inst. (RBI), Croatia, Jozef Stefan Inst. (JSI), Slovenia and Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Argentina. All dosemeters were irradiated during the International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE Reactor, Valduc, June 2002. Three accidental scenarios were reproduced and in each irradiation the dosemeters were exposed placed on the front of phantom and 'free in air'. Following types of TLDs were used: 7 LiF (TLD-700), CaF 2 :Mn and Al2 O3 :Mg,Y - all from RBI; CaF 2 :Mn from JSI and 7 LiF (TLD-700) from ARN. Reported doses were compared with the reference values as well as with the values obtained from the results of all participants. The results show satisfactory agreement with other dosimetry systems used in the Intercomparison. The influence of different types of holders and applied corrections of dosemeters' readings are discussed. (authors)

  5. TL detectors for gamma ray dose measurements in criticality accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljanić, Saveta; Zorko, Benjamin; Gregori, Beatriz; Knezević, Zeljka

    2007-01-01

    Determination of gamma ray dose in mixed neutron+gamma ray fields is still a demanding task. Dosemeters used for gamma ray dosimetry are usually in some extent sensitive to neutrons and their response variations depend on neutron energy i.e., on neutron spectra. Besides, it is necessary to take into account the energy dependence of dosemeter responses to gamma rays. In this work, several types of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) placed in different holders used for gamma ray dose determination in the mixed fields were examined. Dosemeters were from three different institutions: Ruder Bosković Institute (RBI), Croatia, JoZef Stefan Institute (JSI), Slovenia and Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Argentina. All dosemeters were irradiated during the International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE Reactor, Valduc, June 2002. Three accidental scenarios were reproduced and in each irradiation the dosemeters were exposed placed on the front of phantom and 'free in air'. Following types of TLDs were used: 7LiF (TLD-700), CaF2:Mn and Al2O3:Mg,Y-all from RBI; CaF2:Mn from JSI and 7LiF (TLD-700) from ARN. Reported doses were compared with the reference values as well as with the values obtained from the results of all participants. The results show satisfactory agreement with other dosimetry systems used in the Intercomparison. The influence of different types of holders and applied corrections of dosemeters' readings are discussed.

  6. Textbook of dosimetry. 4. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.I.

    1999-01-01

    This textbook of dosimetry is devoted to the students in physics and technical physics of high education institutions, confronted with different application of atomic energy as well as with protection of population and environment against ionizing radiations. Atomic energy is highly beneficial for man but unfortunately incorporates potential dangers which manifest in accidents, the source of which is either insufficient training of the personnel, a criminal negligence or insufficient reliability of the nuclear facilities. The majority of the incident and accident events have had as origin the personnel errors. This was the case with both the 'Three Miles Island' (1979) and Chernobyl (1986) NPP accidents. The dosimetry science acquires a vital significance in accident situations since the data obtained by its procedures are essential in choosing the correct immediate actions, behaviour tactics, orientation of liquidation of accident consequences as well as in ensuring the health of population. An important accent is placed in this manual on clarification of the nature of physical processes taken place in dosimetric detectors, in establishing the relation between radiation field characteristics and the detector response as well as in defining different dosimetric quantities. The terminology and the units of physical quantities is based on the international system of units. The book contains the following 15 chapters: 1. Ionizing radiation field; 2. Radiation doses; 3. Physical bases of gamma radiation dosimetry; 4. Ionization dosimetric detectors; 5. Semiconductor dosimetric detectors; 6. Scintillation detection in the gamma radiation dosimetry; 7. Luminescent methods in dosimetry; 8. The photographic and chemical methods of gamma radiation dosimetry; 9. Neutron dosimetry; 10. Dosimetry of high intensity radiation; 11. Dosimetry of high energy Bremsstrahlung; 12. Measurement of the linear energy transfer; 13. Microdosimetry; 14. Dosimetry of incorporated

  7. Dosimetry at the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility: Past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1993-10-01

    Although the primary reason for the existence of the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility is to provide basic data on the physics of systems of fissile material, the physical arrangements and ability to provide sources of radiation have led to applications for all types of radiation dosimetry. In the broad definition of radiation phenomena, the facility has provided sources to evaluate biological effects, radiation shielding and transport, and measurements of basic parameters such as the evaluation of delayed neutron parameters. Within the last 15 years, many of the radiation measurements have been directed to calibration and intercomparison of dosimetry related to nuclear criticality safety. Future plans include (1) the new applications of Godiva IV, a bare-metal pulse assembly, for dosimetry (including an evaluation of neutron and gamma-ray room return); (2) a proposal to relocate the Health Physics Research Reactor from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to Los Alamos, which will provide the opportunity to continue the application of a primary benchmark source to radiation dosimetry; and (3) a proposal to employ SHEBA, a low-enrichment solution assembly, for accident dosimetry and evaluation

  8. The Why and How of Nuclear Accident Dosimetry; Dosimetrie en cas d'Accident Nucleaire: Raison d'Etre et Modalites; 041e 0411 041e 0421 041d 041e 0412 0414 ; Dosimetria en Casos de Accidente Nuclear: Justificacion y Modalidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallario, E. J.; Wasson, H. R. [United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1965-06-15

    The objective of an effective nuclear accident dosimetry programme is to ensure that a means is provided for estimating the gamma neutron dose from a nuclear accident. In this connection, the limitation of the film badge is discussed, in addition to certain accident experiences which demonstrate the need for an effective accident dosimetry programme at facilities having a potential for nuclear accidents. Certain basic parameters should be considered in the development of an effective nuclear accident dosimetry programme. These are (a) a method for screening personnel involved in nuclear accidents, (b) a fixed system (primary unit) capable of determining first collision dose within some established degree of accuracy at its point of location, (c) the need for ''secondary units'', and (d) the need for a device worn by personnel which would afford spectrum and flux information to assist in dose extrapolation from the fixed unit to the location of man. The neutron component of the system should permit flux and spectral information in order to arrive at appropriate quality factors in the dose estimation. Accuracies should be established based upon the current state of the art. The gamma -ray component of the system should permit measuring gamma radiation within the biological area of interest, i. e. from 10 to 10{sup 3}r. Consideration for the number, placement and ease of recovery of accident units are indeed an integral part of an effective system of accident dosimetry. These considerations should enable reasonable data collection across the entire fission spectrum. (author) [French] L'objet d'un programme efficace de dosimetrie en cas d'accident nucleaire est d'evaluer la dose de rayons gamma et de neutrons emise lors d'un acccident nucleaire. Le memoire examine les limitations des dosimetres a film et expose les circonstances accompagnant certains accidents, lesquelles demontrent la necessite de prevoir un programme efficace de dosimetrie dans les installations ou

  9. Dosimetry problems when evaluating radiation effects on the personnel, restoration work participants, and human population due to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, Yu.V.; Osanov, D.P.; Gimadova, T.I.; Gus'kov, V.M.; Kruchkov, V.P.; Pavlov, D.A.; Shaks, A.I.

    1993-01-01

    System of radiation monitoring operations of the Chernobyl NPP personnel is described for the period from the date of accident up to present time as well as of persons worked in the Chernobyl NPP 30 km zone, servicemen, and human population. Unsatisfactory organization of radiation on monitoring is marked and causes of this fact are considered. 8 refs.; 3 figs

  10. Eurados self-sustained programme of intercomparisons for individual monitoring services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimbergen, T. W. M.; Figel, M.; Romero, A. M.; Stadtmann, H.; McWhan, A. F.

    2011-01-01

    Within EURADOS working group 2, a system for self-sustained intercomparisons for individual monitoring services for external radiation was developed. With the intercomparison results, the participants can show compliance within their quality management system, compare their results with those from other participants and develop plans for improvement of their system. The costs of the exercises are covered by the participants fees. In this programme, the first intercomparison exercise for whole-body dosemeters has been executed in 2008 with 62 participating dosimetry systems from participants across Europe. In general, film systems show the largest deviations, although the results of some participants indicate that it is possible to achieve results with a film system with similar quality as for thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) systems. A second intercomparison has been organised for extremity dosemeters in 2009. For 2010 it is planned to organise a second intercomparison for whole-body dosemeters. (authors)

  11. International intercomparison of dose measurements using EPR spectrometry of tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, A.; Chumak, V.; Pasalskaya, L.; Pavlenko, J.; Sholom, S.; Bailiff, I.; Baran, N.; Bougai, A.; Kolesnik, S.; Maksimenko, V.; Brik, A.; Matyash, M.; Scherbina, O.; Dubovsky, S.; Kirillov, V.; Minenko, V.; Finin, V.; Haskell, E.; Hayes, R.; Kenner, G.; Ivannikov, A.; Skvortsov, V.; Stepanenko, V.; Liidja, G.; Lippmaa, E.; Past, J.; Puskar, J.; Meijer, A.; Radchuk, V.; Vaher, Ue.

    1996-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry with teeth is the only solid state dosimetry method that allows for direct measurement of the individual dose. It is considered to be a very promising tool for retrospective individual dosimetry after accidental radioactive releases. It will help to make a reliable assessment of the radiation risk. A number of laboratories are engaged in retrospective EPR dosimetry with teeth. There is consequently a need to develop a programme of intercalibration and intercomparison to check whether the results produced by different laboratories are either consistent or accurate. The Commission of the European Communities has initiated the project ECP10 entitled, Retrospective Dosimetry and Dose reconstruction. Within the joint Eu/CIS project the 1st International Intercomparison of EPR Dosimetry with Teeth' was started in 1994. Nine research laboratories were involved from Germany, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Estonia and USA

  12. Modern methods of personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.; Herrmann, D.; Kiesewetter, W.

    The physical properties of radiation detectors for personnel dosimetry are described and compared. The suitability of different types of dosimeters for operational and central monitoring of normal occupational exposure, for accident and catastrophe dosimetry and for background and space-flight dosimetry is discussed. The difficulties in interpreting the dosimeter reading with respect to the dose in individual body organs are discussed briefly. 430 literature citations (up to Spring 1966) are given

  13. An international intercomparison of absorbed dose measurements for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taiman Kadni; Noriah Mod Ali

    2002-01-01

    Dose intercomparison on an international basis has become an important component of quality assurance measurement i.e. to check the performance of absorbed dose measurements in radiation therapy. The absorbed dose to water measurements for radiation therapy at the SSDL, MINT have been regularly compared through international intercomparison programmes organised by the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria such as IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose quality audits and the Intercomparison of therapy level ionisation chamber calibration factors in terms of air kerma and absorbed dose to water calibration factors. The results of these intercomparison in terms of percentage deviations for Cobalt 60 gamma radiation and megavoltage x-ray from medical linear accelerators participated by the SSDL-MINT during the year 1985-2001 are within the acceptance limit. (Author)

  14. BiodosEPR-2006 Meeting: Acute dosimetry consensus committee recommendations on biodosimetry applications in events involving uses of radiation by terrorists and radiation accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, George A. [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Preparedness and Emergency Operations, 200 Independence Avenue, SW, Room 403B-1, Washington, DC 20201 (United States); Swartz, Harold M. [Dept. of Radiology and Physiology Dept., Dartmouth Medical School, HB 7785, Vail 702, Rubin 601, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Amundson, Sally A. [Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 W. 168th Street, VC11-215, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Blakely, William F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)], E-mail: blakely@afrri.usuhs.mil; Buddemeier, Brooke [Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528 (United States); Gallez, Bernard [Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Unit and Lab. of Medicinal Chemistry and Radiopharmacy, Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Dainiak, Nicholas [Dept. of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, 267 Grant Street, Bridgeport, CT 06610 (United States); Goans, Ronald E. [MJW Corporation, 1422 Eagle Bend Drive, Clinton, TN 37716-4029 (United States); Hayes, Robert B. [Remote Sensing Lab., MS RSL-47, P.O. Box 98421, Las Vegas, NV 89193 (United States); Lowry, Patrick C. [Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS), Oak Ridge Associated Universities, P.O. Box 117, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117 (United States); Noska, Michael A. [Food and Drug Administration, FDA/CDRH, 1350 Piccard Drive, HFZ-240, Rockville, MD 20850 (United States); Okunieff, Paul [Dept. of Radiation Oncology (Box 647), Univ. of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Salner, Andrew L. [Helen and Harry Gray Cancer Center, Hartford Hospital, 80 Seymour Street, Hartford, CT 06102 (United States); Schauer, David A. [National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 400, Bethesda, MD 20814-3095 (United States)] (and others)

    2007-07-15

    In the aftermath of a radiological terrorism incident or mass-casualty radiation accident, first responders and receivers require prior guidance and pre-positioned resources for assessment, triage and medical management of affected individuals [NCRP, 2005. Key elements of preparing emergency responders for nuclear and radiological terrorism. NCRP Commentary No. 19, Bethesda, Maryland, USA]. Several recent articles [Dainiak, N., Waselenko, J.K., Armitage, J.O., MacVittie, T.J., Farese, A.M., 2003. The hematologist and radiation casualties. Hematology (Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program) 473-496; Waselenko, J.K., MacVittie, T.J., Blakely, W.F., Pesik, N., Wiley, A.L., Dickerson, W.E., Tsu, H., Confer, D.L., Coleman, C.N., Seed, T., Lowry, P., Armitage, J.O., Dainiak, N., Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group, 2004. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 140(12), 1037-1051; Blakely, W.F., Salter, C.A., Prasanna, P.G., 2005. Early-response biological dosimetry-recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Phys. 89(5), 494-504; Goans, R.E., Waselenko, J.K., 2005. Medical management of radiation casualties. Health Phys. 89(5), 505-512; Swartz, H.M., Iwasaki, A., Walczak, T., Demidenko, E., Salikhov, I., Lesniewski, P., Starewicz, P., Schauer, D., Romanyukha, A., 2005. Measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using non-invasive in vivo EPR spectroscopy of teeth in situ. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 62, 293-299; . Acute radiation injury: contingency planning for triage, supportive care, and transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 12(6), 672-682], national [. Management of persons accidentally contaminated with radionuclides. NCRP Report No. 65, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; . Management of terrorist events involving radioactive material. NCRP Report No. 138, Bethesda, Maryland

  15. BiodosEPR-2006 Meeting: Acute dosimetry consensus committee recommendations on biodosimetry applications in events involving uses of radiation by terrorists and radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, George A.; Swartz, Harold M.; Amundson, Sally A.; Blakely, William F.; Buddemeier, Brooke; Gallez, Bernard; Dainiak, Nicholas; Goans, Ronald E.; Hayes, Robert B.; Lowry, Patrick C.; Noska, Michael A.; Okunieff, Paul; Salner, Andrew L.; Schauer, David A.

    2007-01-01

    In the aftermath of a radiological terrorism incident or mass-casualty radiation accident, first responders and receivers require prior guidance and pre-positioned resources for assessment, triage and medical management of affected individuals [NCRP, 2005. Key elements of preparing emergency responders for nuclear and radiological terrorism. NCRP Commentary No. 19, Bethesda, Maryland, USA]. Several recent articles [Dainiak, N., Waselenko, J.K., Armitage, J.O., MacVittie, T.J., Farese, A.M., 2003. The hematologist and radiation casualties. Hematology (Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program) 473-496; Waselenko, J.K., MacVittie, T.J., Blakely, W.F., Pesik, N., Wiley, A.L., Dickerson, W.E., Tsu, H., Confer, D.L., Coleman, C.N., Seed, T., Lowry, P., Armitage, J.O., Dainiak, N., Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group, 2004. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 140(12), 1037-1051; Blakely, W.F., Salter, C.A., Prasanna, P.G., 2005. Early-response biological dosimetry-recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Phys. 89(5), 494-504; Goans, R.E., Waselenko, J.K., 2005. Medical management of radiation casualties. Health Phys. 89(5), 505-512; Swartz, H.M., Iwasaki, A., Walczak, T., Demidenko, E., Salikhov, I., Lesniewski, P., Starewicz, P., Schauer, D., Romanyukha, A., 2005. Measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using non-invasive in vivo EPR spectroscopy of teeth in situ. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 62, 293-299; . Acute radiation injury: contingency planning for triage, supportive care, and transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 12(6), 672-682], national [. Management of persons accidentally contaminated with radionuclides. NCRP Report No. 65, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; . Management of terrorist events involving radioactive material. NCRP Report No. 138, Bethesda, Maryland

  16. On the use of dental ceramics as a possible second-line approach to accident irradiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Recent development in dental ceramic production has resulted in natural or depleted uranium, used for over half a century to mimic the fluorescence of natural teeth, being substituted in such ceramics by non-radioactive fluorescent materials. This creates the possibility of using dental ceramics incorporating the latter as second-line dosimeters in cases of accidental irradiation. This pilot study shows the feasbility of such an approach using both thermally stimulated exoelectron and thermoluminescent techniques. In conclusion, it is considered that it would be of interest to continue this investigation of dental ceramic materials as second-line accident dosimeters

  17. Intercomparison of high energy neutron personnel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.C.; Akabani, G.; Loesch, R.M.

    1993-03-01

    An intercomparison of high-energy neutron personnel dosimeters was performed to evaluate the uniformity of the response characteristics of typical neutron dosimeters presently in use at US Department of Energy (DOE) accelerator facilities. It was necessary to perform an intercomparison because there are no national or international standards for high-energy neutron dosimetry. The testing that is presently under way for the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) is limited to the use of neutron sources that range in energy from about 1 keV to 2 MeV. Therefore, the high-energy neutron dosimeters presently in use at DOE accelerator facilities are not being tested effectively. This intercomparison employed neutrons produced by the 9 Be(p,n) 9 B interaction at the University of Washington cyclotron, using 50-MeV protons. The resulting neutron energy spectrum extended to a maximum of approximately 50-MeV, with a mean energy of about 20-MeV. Intercomparison results for currently used dosimeters, including Nuclear Type A (NTA) film, thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-albedo, and track-etch dosimeters (TEDs), indicated a wide variation in response to identical doses of high-energy neutrons. Results of this study will be discussed along with a description of plans for future work

  18. Retrospective Dosimetry and Clinical Follow-up Programme of Chernobyl Accident Clean-up Workers in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironova-Ulmane, N.; Pavlenko, A.; Zvagule, T.; Karner, T.; Bruvere, R.; Volrate, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: About 6500 Latvian inhabitants were recruited for clean-up works at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant during 1986-1991. Absorbed doses for them are usually unknown, because only less then half of the clean-up workers cohort had officially documented external exposure. Clinical investigations show high morbidity rate of clean-up workers compared with general population. The results of Electronic Spin Resonance (ESR) dose reconstruction (doses absorbed in the tooth enamel) for the clean-up workers were always higher as documented of exposure doses of physical measurements. In many cases more than half of total absorbed dose is due to 90 Sr accumulated in teeth. Most of the clean-up workers have poli-symptomatic sicknesses that exhibit tendency to progress, and their morbidity exceeds that observed in general population. ESR dosimetry programs and clinical follow-up improved existing knowledge in the field of radiation medicine. These data will help to develop and apply the proper treatment and rehabilitation procedures for clean-up workers. (author)

  19. EURADOS intercomparison on measurements and Monte Carlo modelling for the assessment of Americium in a USTUR leg phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M. A.; Broggio, D.; Capello, K.; Cardenas-Mendez, E.; El-Faramawy, N.; Franck, D.; James, A. C.; Kramer, G. H.; Lacerenza, G.; Lynch, T. P.; Navarro, J. F.; Navarro, T.; Perez, B.; Ruehm, W.; Tolmachev, S. Y.; Weitzenegger, E.

    2011-01-01

    A collaboration of the EURADOS working group on 'Internal Dosimetry' and the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) has taken place to carry out an intercomparison on measurements and Monte Carlo modelling determining americium deposited in the bone of a USTUR leg phantom. Preliminary results and conclusions of this intercomparison exercise are presented here. (authors)

  20. Alpha alumina exoemissive and thermoluminescent properties. Application to the dosimetry of ionizing radiations in case of accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandri, M.F.

    1989-06-01

    This work consists of two parts. In the first part, a phenomenon of phototransfer in Thermostimulated Exoelectronic Emission (T.S.E.E.) is pointed out. Study of intrinsic T.S.E.E. of alpha alumina exposed to ultraviolet (U.V.) excitation of energy superior to 4 eV shows three T.S.E.E. peaks situated at 240, 325, 535 0 C (heating rate of 2 0 C.s -1 ). The phototransfer phenomenon is then characterized notably by the lowering of the U.V. excitation threshold to 3.5 eV and the increasing of T.S.E.E. response for U.V. energies between 3.5 and 6 eV. Discussion and interpretation of the results obtained are based on the perfect analogy with the phototransfer of Thermoluminescence (T.L.) observed on a similar type of alpha alumina. The second part describes the application of alpha alumina dosimetric properties to accidental irradiation dosimetry and cartography. The material is bound to a textile support to be used for clothes manufacturing for irradiation risking workers. T.S.E.E. and T.L. properties of the selected fabric have been studied. - T.S.E.E. response to a beta irradiation of strontium 90 covers the region [0.01 - 10 Gy], with a dispersion of ± 20%, a non significant thermic fading beyond 72 hours after irradiation and a very important optical fading; - the region in T.L. extends from 0.25 to 10 Gy with X irradiation (45 kV) and from 0.5 to 10 Gy with gamma irradiation of cobalt 60 and caesium 137; the dispersion is ± 20%, the thermic fading is weak and the optical fading is negligible in artificial light or does not vary any more after 5 days of sunlight exposition [fr

  1. Alanine-ESR dosimetry for radiotherapy IAEA experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, K.; Girzikowsky, R.; )

    1997-01-01

    At present, the most commonly used transfer dosimeters for radiotherapy applications are TL dosemeters. They are being used for intercomparison between SSDLs (about 70) and the IAEA dosimetry laboratory. However, there are some undesirable characteristics of this dosimetry system. We have a study in progress at the IAEA to evaluate the alanine-ESR systems as an alternative to TLDs. There are several desirable qualities which make alanine an attractive dosemeter. Preliminary data suggest that the alanine-ESR dosimetry system has the potential to replace TLDs for intercomparison amongst SSDLs in the therapy-level dose regions. (Author)

  2. Intercomparison of radiation dosimeters for individual monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The Co-ordinated Research Programme on Intercomparison for Individual Monitoring was established to provide participants with an opportunity to assess (1) their ability to measure external photon radiation fields and (2) the potential impact of introduction of the new operational quantities on their dosimetry programmes. Twenty-four laboratories from 18 IAEA Member States and three international organizations, including the IAEA, participated. The results of phase II of the CRP are presented in this document, which includes a compilation of the presentations and conclusions from the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Main activities of the Latin American Network of Biological Dosimetry (LBDNet)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B.; Radl, A.; Taja, M.R.; Stuck Oliveira, M.; Valdivia, P.; Garcia Lima, O.; Lamadrid, A.; Gonzalez Mesa, J.E.; Romero Aguilera, I.; Mandina Cardoso, T.; Guerrero Carbajal, C.; Arceo Maldonado, C.; Espinoza, M.; Martinez Lopez, W.; Di Tomasso, M.; Barquinero, F.; Roy, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNET) was constituted in 2007 for mutual assistance in case of a radiation emergency in the region supported by IAEA Technical Cooperation Projects RLA/9/054 and RLA/9/061. The main objectives are: a) to strengthen the technical capacities of Biological Dosimetry Services belonging to laboratories existing in the region (Argentine, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay) integrated in National Radiological Emergency Plans to provide a rapid biodosimetric response in a coordinated manner between countries and with RANET-IAEA/BioDoseNet-WHO, b) to provide support to other countries in the region lacking Biological Dosimetry laboratories, c) to consolidate the organization of the Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network for mutual assistance. The activities developed include technical meetings for protocols and chromosomal aberration scoring criteria unification, blood samples cultures exercises, chromosomal aberrations analysis at microscope, discussion of statistical methods and specialized software for dose calculation, the intercomparison between laboratory data after the analysis of slides with irradiated material and the intercomparison of the analysis of captured images distributed electronically in the WEB. The last exercise was the transportation of an irradiated human blood sample to countries inside and outside of the region. At the moment the exercises are concluded and they are pending to be published in reference journals. Results obtained show the capacity in the region for a biodosimetric response to a radiological accident. In the future the network will integrate techniques for high dose exposure evaluation and will enhance the interaction with other emergency systems in the region. (authors) [es

  4. A neutron dosemeter for nuclear criticality accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Errico, F; Curzio, G; Ciolini, R; Del Gratta, A; Nath, R

    2004-01-01

    A neutron dosemeter which offers instant read-out has been developed for nuclear criticality accidents. The system is based on gels containing emulsions of superheated dichlorodifluoromethane droplets, which vaporise into bubbles upon neutron irradiation. The expansion of these bubbles displaces an equivalent volume of gel into a graduated pipette, providing an immediate measure of the dose. Instant read-out is achieved using an array of transmissive optical sensors which consist of coupled LED emitters and phototransistor receivers. When the gel displaced in the pipette crosses the sensing region of the photomicrosensors, it generates a signal collected on a computer through a dedicated acquisition board. The performance of the device was tested during the 2002 International Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison in Valduc, France. The dosemeter was able to follow the initial dose gradient of a simulated accident, providing accurate values of neutron kerma; however, the emulsion was rapidly depleted of all its drops. A model of the depletion effects was developed and it indicates that an adequate dynamic range of the dose response can be achieved by using emulsions of smaller droplets.

  5. A neutron dosemeter for nuclear criticality accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Errico, F.; Curzio, G.; Ciolini, R.; Del Gratta, A.; Nath, R.

    2004-01-01

    A neutron dosemeter which offers instant read-out has been developed for nuclear criticality accidents. The system is based on gels containing emulsions of superheated dichlorodifluoromethane droplets, which vaporise into bubbles upon neutron irradiation. The expansion of these bubbles displaces an equivalent volume of gel into a graduated pipette, providing an immediate measure of the dose. Instant read-out is achieved using an array of transmissive optical sensors which consist of coupled LED emitters and phototransistor receivers. When the gel displaced in the pipette crosses the sensing region of the photo microsensors, it generates a signal collected on a computer through a dedicated acquisition board. The performance of the device was tested during the 2002 International Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison in Valduc (France)). The dosemeter was able to follow the initial dose gradient of a simulated accident, providing accurate values of neutron kerma; however, the emulsion was rapidly depleted of all its drops. A model of the depletion effects was developed and it indicates that an adequate dynamic range of the dose response can be achieved by using emulsions of smaller droplets. (authors)

  6. Radioiodine dosimetry and prediction of consequences of thyroid exposure of the Russian population following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonova, I.A.; Balonov, M.I.

    1993-01-01

    In the early period after the Chernobyl accident, analysis of patterns of 131 I exposure of the human thyroid showed that contaminated milk was the basic source of 131 I intake among the inhabitants of Russia. The equipment and techniques used for measurement of the 131 I content in the thyroids of these individuals are described in this work. A model of the 131 I intake, taking into account protective actions, and a method of thyroid dose calculation are discussed. The mean thyroid dose and frequency distributions of the thyroid doses to inhabitants of towns and villages of the Bryansk, Tula and Orel regions of Russia are presented. The mean dose to the thyroids of children living in the villages was 2 to 5 times higher than the dose to adult thyroids; for children living in the towns, the mean dose was 1.5 to 12 times higher. The mean thyroid mass in adult inhabitants of the Bryansk region was 27 g, which exceeded the value for a standard man (20 g) and was taken into account in the dosimetric calculations. The technique for reconstructing the mean and individual thyroid doses was based on the correlation between thyroid dose and several parameters: Surface 137 Cs activity in soil, dose rate in air in May of 1986, 131 I content in local milk, milk consumption rate, and 134 Cs + 137 Cs content in the body. The collective thyroid dose to inhabitants of the most contaminated regions of Russia is estimated and a thyroid cancer rate prognosis is derived. The need for intensified medical care for the critical group - children of preschool age during 1986 - is based on a significant increase in the number of projected thyroid cancers and adenomas. 32 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs

  7. Comprehensive Australasian multicentre dosimetric intercomparison: issues, logistics and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, M A; Harrison, K M; Cornes, D; Howlett, S J; Joseph, D J; Kron, T; Hamilton, C S; Denham, J W

    2009-02-01

    The present paper describes the logistics of the 2004-2008 Australasian Level III Dosimetry Intercomparison. Dosimetric intercomparisons (or 'audits') can be used in radiotherapy to evaluate the accuracy and quality of radiation delivery. An intercomparison was undertaken in New Zealand and Australia to evaluate the feasibility and logistics of ongoing dosimetric intercomparisons that evaluate all steps in the radiotherapy treatment process, known as a 'Level III' intercomparison. The study commenced in 2002 with the establishment of a study team, definition of the study protocol, acquisition of appropriate equipment and recruitment of participating radiotherapy centres. Measurements were undertaken between October 2004 and March 2008, and included collation of data on time, costs and logistics of the study. Forty independent Australian and New Zealand radiotherapy centres agreed to participate. Measurement visits were made to 37 of these centres. Data is presented on the costs of the study and the level of support required. The study involved the participation of 16 staff at the study centre who invested over 4000 hours in the study, and of over 200 professionals at participating centres. Recommendations are provided for future phantom-based intercomparisons. It is hoped that the present paper will be of benefit to any centres or groups contemplating similar activities by identifying the processes involved in establishing the study, the potential hazards and pitfalls, and expected resource requirements.

  8. Dosimetry and shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farinelli, U.

    1977-01-01

    Today, reactor dosimetry and shielding have wide areas of overlap as concerns both problems and methods. Increased interchange of results and know-how would benefit both. The areas of common interest include calculational methods, sensitivity studies, theoretical and experimental benchmarks, cross sections and other nuclear data, multigroup libraries and procedures for their adjustment, experimental techniques and damage functions. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and the latest development in each of these areas as far as shielding is concerned, and suggests a number of interactions that could be profitable for reactor dosimetry. Among them, re-evaluation of the potentialities of calculational methods (in view of the recent developments) in predicting radiation environments of interest; the application of sensitivity analysis to dosimetry problems; a common effort in the field of theoretical benchmarks; the use of the shielding one-material propagation experiments as reference spectra for detector cross sections; common standardization of the detector nuclear data used in both fields; the setting up of a common (or compatible) multigroup structure and library applicable to shielding, dosimetry and core physics; the exchange of information and experience in the fields of cross section errors, correlations and adjustment; and the intercomparison of experimental techniques

  9. Evaluation of Brazilian intercomparison program data from 1991 to 1995 of radionuclide assays in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vianna, Maria Elizabeth Couto M.; Tauhata, Luiz; Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo de; Oliveira, Josue Peter de; Clain, Almir Faria; Ferreira, Ana Cristina M.

    1998-01-01

    Historical radioanalytical data from the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) national intercomparison program from 1991 to 1995 were analyzed to evaluate the performance of sixteen Brazilian laboratories in radionuclide analyses in environmental samples. Data are comprised of measurements of radionuclides in 435 spiked environmental samples distributed in fifteen intercomparison runs comprised of 955 analyses. The general and specific radionuclide performances of the participating laboratories were evaluated relative to the reference value. Data analysis encourages improvements in beta emitter measurements

  10. Intercomparison Measurements Exercises of Mobile Radiological Laboratories (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martincic, R.

    2000-01-01

    After the reactor accident in Chernobyl, the importance of mobile radiological laboratories became evident and in situ gamma spectrometry became a common method for the rapid detection of gamma emitters in the environment. Since then different institutions in European countries have organised periodic intercomparison exercises of mobile radiological laboratories to improve the measurement methods and the preparedness of emergency monitoring teams. The general objectives of these workshops are to promote the knowledge and to exchange the experiences of emergency monitoring teams that use mobile radiological laboratories, as well as to foster the international harmonisation of emergency monitoring procedures and cooperation among teams. Finally, the results of intercomparison measurements have shown that such exercises are mandatory for rapid, efficient and correct environmental monitoring in nuclear or radiological emergencies. An overview of these intercomparison measurements is given, results from the 1999 intercomparison workshop are presented and lessons learned are discussed. (author)

  11. The role of intercomparisons and intercalibrations in the improvement of internal dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    2000-01-01

    In vivo monitoring and dose assessment is a highly technical field. Moreover, it is carried out by a relatively small number of specialists. A number of technical steps can be taken to improve internal dosimetry programmes. However, one of the most valuable activities for overall improvement of measurement programmes is active participation in national and international intercomparisons and intercalibrations. These bring a number of benefits to the internal dosimetry programme, including validation of measurement practices, harmonisation of techniques, information exchange, and training. The number of intercalibration and intercomparison activities conducted on the national and international level has grown in recent years. These activities may involve actual measurement programmes or calculation exercises to compare approaches used for assessment of internal dose from measurement results. When conducted effectively such programmes are a highly cost effective use of limited resources. They also contribute to the credibility of the overall dosimetry process. Intercomparisons should be an important component of the in vivo measurement programme. Cooperation between the organisers of various intercomparison activities is essential to avoid unnecessary duplication and ensure the most effective use of the participants' time and energy. Future activities should address the use of simplified phantoms and source arrays to expedite shipping, reduce cost, and contribute to more timely conduct of intercomparisons. It is also important that managers and regulatory authorities be prepared to support intercomparison and intercalibration programmes. (author)

  12. Results of the IAEA/RCA personal dosemeter intercomparison in the Asian and Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, H.; Minami, K.; Griffith, R.V.

    1994-01-01

    In 1988, the International Atomic Energy Agency started the Regional Co-operative Agreement project for strengthening the radiation protection infrastructure in the Asian and Pacific region. One component of the initial programme was a regional personal dosimetry intercomparison, which was subsequently conducted in three phases over three years during the period 1990 to 1992. Seventeen organisations of all 14 member states participated in the programmes. Irradiations and data compilation were conducted by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This paper describes the results of the intercomparison programmes and discusses some features and personal dosimetry problems in the RCA member states. (author)

  13. Status of neutron dosimetry cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Several new cross section libraries, such as ENDF/B-VI(release 2), IRDF-90,JEF-2.2, and JENDL-3 Dosimetry, have recently been made available to the dosimetry community. the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) has worked with these libraries since pre-release versions were available. this paper summarizes the results of the intercomparison and testing of dosimetry cross sections. As a result of this analysis, a compendium of the best dosimetry cross sections was assembled from the available libraries for use within the SNL RML. this library, referred to as the SNLRML Library, contains 66 general dosimetry sensors and 3 special dosimeters unique to the RML sensor inventory. The SNLRML cross sections have been put into a format compatible with commonly used spectrum determination codes

  14. External audit in radiotherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, D.I.; Western General Hospital, Edinburgh

    1996-01-01

    Quality audit forms an essential part of any comprehensive quality assurance programme. This is true in radiotherapy generally and in specific areas such as radiotherapy dosimetry. Quality audit can independently test the effectiveness of the quality system and in so doing can identify problem areas and minimize their possible consequences. Some general points concerning quality audit applied to radiotherapy are followed by specific discussion of its practical role in radiotherapy dosimetry, following its evolution from dosimetric intercomparison exercises to routine measurement-based on-going audit in the various developing audit networks both in the UK and internationally. Specific examples of methods and results are given from some of these, including the Scottish+ audit group. Quality audit in radiotherapy dosimetry is now well proven and participation by individual centres is strongly recommended. Similar audit approaches are to be encouraged in other areas of the radiotherapy process. (author)

  15. Intercomparison of active personal dosemeters in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clairand, I.; Struelens, L.; Bordy, J. M.; Daures, J.; Debroas, J.; Denozieres, M.; Donadille, L.; Gouriou, J.; Itie, C.; Vaz, P.; D'Errico, F.

    2008-01-01

    The use of active personal dosemeters (APD) in interventional radiology was evaluated by Working Group 9 (Radiation protection dosimetry of medical staff) of the CONRAD project, which is a Coordination Action supported by the European Commission within its sixth Framework Programme. Interventional radiology procedures can be very complex and they can lead to relatively high doses to personnel who stand close to the primary radiation field and are mostly exposed to radiation scattered by the patient. For the adequate dosimetry of the scattered photons, APDs must be able to respond to low-energy [10-100 keV] and pulsed radiation with relatively high instantaneous dose rates. An intercomparison of five APD models deemed suitable for application in interventional radiology was organised in March 2007. The intercomparison used pulsed and continuous radiation beams, at CEA-LIST (Saclay (France)) and IRSN (Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)), respectively. A specific configuration, close to the clinical practice, was considered. The reference dose, in terms of Hp(10), was derived from air kerma measurements and from the measured and calculated energy distributions of the scattered radiation field. Additional Monte Carlo calculations were performed to investigate the energy spectra for different experimental conditions of the intercomparison. The results of this intercomparison are presented in this work and indicate which APDs are able to provide a correct response when used in the specific low-energy spectra and dose rates of pulsed X-rays encountered in interventional radiology. (authors)

  16. Intercomparison program of personal dosemeters in the Argentine Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregori, B.N.; Papadopulos, S.B.; Kunst, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    During 1997, under the auspices of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN), its was held the third exercise of intercomparison of laboratories of personal dosimetry. The dosemeters were irradiated in X-ray beams ISO quality W60, W110, W200 and gamma sources cesium 137 and cobalt 60. The irradiation were performed kerma free in air and in phantom in order to study the capacity to evaluate both conditions. An extent range of doses (low-high) have been given 0.3 mSv- 20mSv in order to determine the operative performance o each laboratory. Over 19 laboratories of Argentina, participated 13 (65%) and finished the intercomparison 12 (60%) of them. The systems of dosimetry detection were based on film and TLD. During this intercomparison as inquiry about several items related with the laboratories have been made. In this work are shown the individual laboratory results of the intercomparison related with the acceptance curve criteria ICRP 60 and 55. (author)

  17. Reconstructive dosimetry and radiation doses evaluation of members of the public due to radiological accident in industrial radiography; Dosimetria reconstrutiva e avaliacao de dose de individuos do publico devido a acidente radiologico em radiografia industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Camila Moreira Araujo de

    2016-07-01

    Radiological accidents have occurred mainly in the practices recognized as high risk radiological and classified by the IAEA as Categories 1 and 2, and highlighted the radiotherapy, industrial irradiators and industrial radiography. In Brazil, since there were five major cases in industrial radiography, which involved 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public, causing localized radiation lesions on the hands and fingers. One of these accidents will be the focus of this work. In this accident, a {sup 192}Ir radioactive source was exposed for more than 8 hours in the workplace inside a company, exposing radiation workers, individuals of the public and people from the surrounding facilities, including children of a school. The radioactive source was also handled by a security worker causing severe radiation injuries in the hand and fingers. In this paper, the most relevant and used techniques of reconstructive dosimetry internationally are presented. To estimate the radiation doses received by exposed individuals in various scenarios of radiological accident in focus, the following computer codes were used: Visual Monte Carlo Dose Calculation (VMC), Virtual Environment for Radiological and Nuclear Accidents Simulation (AVSAR) and RADPRO Calculator. Through these codes some radiation doses were estimated, such as, 33.90 Gy in security worker's finger, 4.47 mSv in children in the school and 55 to 160 mSv for workers in the company during the whole day work. It is intended that this work will contribute to the improvement of dose reconstruction methodology for radiological accidents, having then more realist radiation doses. (author)

  18. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Cern Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page: http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 - 12.00. Closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after the use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel. 7 2155 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  19. Commissioning dosimetry for the laboratory irradiation facility type PX-γ-30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Miranda, E.F.; Cuesta Fuente, G.I.; Chavez Ardanza, A.; Sainz Vidal, D.

    1997-01-01

    In the present paper at the laboratory irradiation type PX-y-30 was carried out the commissioning dosimetry, which belongs to Radiological Department of the CEADEN. It was determined the dose distribution as well as principal dosimetric parameters of the irradiation process. Besides, an irradiation position was found for the calibration or intercomparison of dosimetry systems

  20. IAEA/ WHO TLD postal dose intercomparison results in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.; Bhuiyan, N.U.; Rahman, S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: For the accurate delivery of prescribed dose to the patients, high precision and accuracy in radiation dosimetry is required. The hospital/medical physicist is responsible for the accurate delivery of whole planned radiation doses to the patients prescribed by the radio therapist. The proper delivery of radiation doses depends upon the accurate output measurements of doses from the therapy machines. In Bangladesh, only six 60 Co units and five deep therapy machines are in use. Some more are expected to be installed soon. Still in 2001, none of the Government radiotherapy centers in Bangladesh was properly equipped with medical physicists as well as radiotherapy dosimetry equipment. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is responsible for radiation safety in Bangladesh and BAEC has assigned Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of Bangladesh for providing dosimetry calibration to all radiotherapy centers in Bangladesh. The output measurements of therapy machines are performed once in a year by SSDL and the results are compared by participating in the annual TLD postal dose intercomparison program organized by IAEA/WHO SSDL Network. The absorbed dose to water is determined using IAEA dosimetry protocol (TRS 277 and 381) and water phantom of size 30 x 30 x 30 cm 3 , The measurements of SSDL are traceable to NPL of UK. The accuracy achieved in SSDL, Bangladesh has been found better than ± 3.5%, which is within the prescribed limit of dosimetry standard of IAEA. The methodology of output dose measurements in different radiotherapy centers in Bangladesh is described along with the IAEA/WHO intercomparison results

  1. Lyoluminescence dosimetry of the radiation in industrial doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigna Filho, E. del.

    1984-01-01

    The γ-rays lyoluminescence (LL) dosimetry study is presented. The basic principles involved, both in the method and radiation dosimetry, the equivalence between water and lyoluminescent materials, apparatus, irradiation technique and calibration method are discussed. The LL response dependence with environmental conditions are presented. These were temperature, humidity, storage time and the dependence on dissolved mass. A pre-reading thermal treatment was developed to overcome previous difficulties. The developed technique was applied to dose intercomparisons. (M.A.C.) [pt

  2. Characterization and evaluation studies on some JAERI dosimetry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, T.; Sunaga, H.; Tachibana, H.; Takizawa, H.; Tanaka, R.

    2000-01-01

    Characterization and evaluation studies were carried out on some JAERI dosimetry systems, mainly alanine-ESR, in terms of the influence on the dose response of parameters such as orientation at ESR analysis, and the temperature during irradiation and analysis. Feasibility study for application of these dosimetry systems to electrons with energies lower than 4 MeV and bremsstrahlung (X rays) was also performed parallel to their reliability check through international dose intercomparison. (author)

  3. Why is a high accuracy needed in dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzl, L.H.

    1976-01-01

    Dose and exposure intercomparisons on a national or international basis have become an important component of quality assurance in the practice of good radiotherapy. A high degree of accuracy of γ and x radiation dosimetry is essential in our international society, where medical information is so readily exchanged and used. The value of accurate dosimetry lies mainly in the avoidance of complications in normal tissue and an optimal degree of tumor control

  4. Intercomparison measurements with albedo neutron dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, W.G.; Kluge, H.

    1994-01-01

    Since the introduction of the albedo dosimeter as the official personal neutron dosimeter the dosimetry services concerned have participated in intercomparison measurements at the PTB. Their albedo dosimeters were irradiated in reference fields produced by unmoderated and D 2 O-moderated 252 Cf neutron sources in the standard irradiation facility of the PTB. Six fields with fluences different in energy and angle distribution could be realised in order to determine the response of the albedo dosimeter. The dose equivalent values evaluated by the services were compared with the reference values of the PTB for the directional dose equivalent H'(10). The results turned out to be essentially dependent on the evaluation method and the choice of the calibration factors. (orig.) [de

  5. Practical neutron dosimetry at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaslin, J.B.; Thomas, R.H.

    1980-10-01

    Dosimetry at high energy particle accelerators is discussed with emphasis on physical measurements which define the radiation environment and provide an immutable basis for the derivation of any quantities subsequently required for risk evaluation. Results of inter-laboratory dosimetric comparisons are reviewed and it is concluded that a well-supported systematic program is needed which would make possible detailed evaluations and inter-comparisons of instruments and techniques in well characterized high energy radiation fields. High-energy dosimetry is so coupled with radiation transport that it is clear their study should proceed concurrently

  6. Second Latin American intercomparison on internal dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.; Puerta, N.; Gossio, S.; Gomez Parada, I.; Cruz Suarez, R.; Lopez, E.; Medina, C.; Lastra Boylan, J.; Pinheiro Ramos, M.; Mora Ramirez, E.; Alves dos Reis, A.; Yanez, H.; Rubio, J.; Vironneau Janicek, L.; Somarriba Vanegas, F.; Puerta Ortiz, J.; Salas Ramirez, M.; Lopez Bejerano, G.; Da Silva, T.; Miri Oliveira, C.; Teran, M.; Alfaro, M.; Garcia, T.; Angeles, A.; Dure Romero, E.; Farias de Lima, F.

    2016-01-01

    Internal dosimetry intercomparisons are essential for the verification of applied models and the consistency of results. To that aim, the First Regional Intercomparison was organised in 2005, and that results led to the Second Regional Intercomparison Exercise in 2013, which was organised in the frame of the RLA 9/066 and coordinated by Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear of Argentina. Four simulated cases covering intakes of 131 I, 137 Cs and Tritium were proposed. Nineteen centres from thirteen different countries participated in this exercise. This paper analyses the participants' results in this second exercise in order to test their skills and acquired knowledge, particularly in the application of the IDEAS Guidelines. It is important to highlight the increased number of countries that participated in this exercise compared with the first one and, furthermore, the improvement in the overall performance. The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Projects since 2003 has led to a significant enhancement of internal dosimetry capabilities that strengthen the radiation protection of workers. (authors)

  7. SECOND LATIN AMERICAN INTERCOMPARISON ON INTERNAL DOSE ASSESSMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, A; Puerta, N; Gossio, S; Gómez Parada, I; Cruz Suarez, R; López, E; Medina, C; Lastra Boylan, J; Pinheiro Ramos, M; Mora Ramírez, E; Alves Dos Reis, A; Yánez, H; Rubio, J; Vironneau Janicek, L; Somarriba Vanegas, F; Puerta Ortiz, J; Salas Ramírez, M; López Bejerano, G; da Silva, T; Miri Oliveira, C; Terán, M; Alfaro, M; García, T; Angeles, A; Duré Romero, E; Farias de Lima, F

    2016-09-01

    Internal dosimetry intercomparisons are essential for the verification of applied models and the consistency of results'. To that aim, the First Regional Intercomparison was organised in 2005, and that results led to the Second Regional Intercomparison Exercise in 2013, which was organised in the frame of the RLA 9/066 and coordinated by Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear of Argentina. Four simulated cases covering intakes of (131)I, (137)Cs and Tritium were proposed. Ninteen centres from thirteen different countries participated in this exercise. This paper analyses the participants' results in this second exercise in order to test their skills and acquired knowledge, particularly in the application of the IDEAS Guidelines. It is important to highlight the increased number of countries that participated in this exercise compared with the first one and, furthermore, the improvement in the overall performance. The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Projects since 2003 has led to a significant enhancement of internal dosimetry capabilities that strengthen the radiation protection of workers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Development and current state of dosimetry in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Miranda, E.F.; Cuesta Fuente, G.; Chavez Ardanza, A.

    1999-01-01

    In Cuba, the application of the radiation technologies has been growing in the last years, and at present there are several dosimetry systems with different ranges of absorbed dose. Diverse researches were carried out on high dose dosimetry with the following dosimetry systems: Fricke, ceric-cerous sulfate, ethanol-chlorobenzene, cupric sulfate and Perspex (Red 4034 AE and Clear HX). In this paper the development achieved during the last 15 years in the high dose dosimetry for radiation processing in Cuba is presented, as well as, the current state of different dosimetry systems employed for standardization and for process control. The paper also reports the results of dosimetry intercomparison studies that were performed with the Ezeiza Atomic Center of Argentine and the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) of IAEA. (author)

  9. Proceedings of the 5. symposium on neutron dosimetry. Beam dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schraube, H.; Burger, G.; Booz, J.

    1985-01-01

    Proceedings of the fifth symposium on neutron dosimetry, organized at Neuherberg, 17-21 September 1984, by the Commission of the European Communities and the GSF Neuherberg, with the co-sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental Research. The proceedings deal with research on concepts, instruments and methods in radiological protection for neutrons and mixed neutron-gamma fields, including the generation, collection and evaluation of new dosimetric data, the derivation of relevant radiation protection quantitites, and the harmonization of experimental methods and instrumentation by intercomparison programmes. Besides radiation protection monitoring, the proceedings also report on the improvement of neutron beam dosimetry in the fields of radiobiology and radiation therapy

  10. IAEA intercomparisons in the frame of the occupational radiation protection programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrabit, K.; Cruz Suarez, R.

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA safety activities to support the assessment of occupational exposure through a comprehensive set of safety guides, safety reports and other related documents will soon be completed. Several intercomparison exercises were organized by the IAEA on the determination of radionuclides in human urine samples, whole body counting and external dosimetry. These previous intercomparison exercises revealed significant differences in the approaches, methods and assumptions, and consequently in the results. This underlined the importance of this kind of intercomparison programme as a key element of the international harmonization of quantities and units. The purpose of this paper is to present the current and future IAEA activities in support of assessment of occupational exposure by organizing intercomparison runs

  11. Dating by fission track method: study of neutron dosimetry with natural uranium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iunes, P.J.

    1990-06-01

    Fission track dating is described, focalizing the problem of the decay constant for spontaneous fission of 238 U and the use of neutron dosimetry in fission track analysis. Experimental procedures using thin films of natural uranium as neutron dosimeters and its results are presented. The author shows a intercomparison between different thin films and between the dosimetry with thin film and other dosimetries. (M.V.M.). 52 refs, 12 figs, 9 tabs

  12. Environmental radioactivity intercomparison measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In the context of the North Cotentin radioecological group set up in 1997 by the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of the Secretariat d'Etat a la Sante, the Swiss Federal Office of Public health, a national organization of independent status with respect to nuclear energy, conducted a series of measurements in the north Cotentin in 1998. Some sites proposed by local association 'Angry mothers' were examined in particular. This association has now taken the initiative to organize a large scale international intercomparison, ' North Cotentin 2000', in the vicinity of local nuclear installations. Besides the scientific aspect of the intercomparison, a specific aim of this intercomparison consists in providing to the local population with a real opportunity for direct exchange with participating international teams. The primary concern of the workshop is the determination, by in situ gamma spectrometry, of both natural and artificial concentrations and resulting ambient dose rates at selected marine ( beach) and terrestrial sites. A particular aim of the workshop also is to test the capacity of mobile teams to produce reliable results in the field of low level measurements on trace of special radionuclides (I 129 , Sr 90 , H 3 , C 14 , and alpha emitters) from environmental samples, using both direct ( in situ) and differed ( laboratory methods). an overview of the results obtained will be prepared for the benefit of the public. (N.C.)

  13. Evaluation of LLNL's Nuclear Accident Dosimeters at the CALIBAN Reactor September 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, D.P.; Wysong, A.R.; Heinrichs, D.P.; Wong, C.T.; Merritt, M.J.; Topper, J.D.; Gressmann, F.A.; Madden, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory uses neutron activation elements in a Panasonic TLD holder as a personnel nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD). The LLNL PNAD has periodically been tested using a Cf-252 neutron source, however until 2009, it was more than 25 years since the PNAD has been tested against a source of neutrons that arise from a reactor generated neutron spectrum that simulates a criticality. In October 2009, LLNL participated in an intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimeters at the CEA Valduc Silene reactor (Hickman, et.al. 2010). In September 2010, LLNL participated in a second intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimeters at CEA Valduc. The reactor generated neutron irradiations for the 2010 exercise were performed at the Caliban reactor. The Caliban results are described in this report. The procedure for measuring the nuclear accident dosimeters in the event of an accident has a solid foundation based on many experimental results and comparisons. The entire process, from receiving the activated NADs to collecting and storing them after counting was executed successfully in a field based operation. Under normal conditions at LLNL, detectors are ready and available 24/7 to perform the necessary measurement of nuclear accident components. Likewise LLNL maintains processing laboratories that are separated from the areas where measurements occur, but contained within the same facility for easy movement from processing area to measurement area. In the event of a loss of LLNL permanent facilities, the Caliban and previous Silene exercises have demonstrated that LLNL can establish field operations that will very good nuclear accident dosimetry results. There are still several aspects of LLNL's nuclear accident dosimetry program that have not been tested or confirmed. For instance, LLNL's method for using of biological samples (blood and hair) has not been verified since the method was first developed in the 1980's. Because LLNL and the other DOE

  14. Results of the third CEC intercomparison of active and passive detectors for the measurement of radon and radon decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Sinnaeve, J.

    1988-01-01

    In 1982 and 1984 the radiation protection research programme of the European Communities organized intercomparisons of radon and radon daughter measurement techniques, and the results were published (Miles et al., 1983; Miles and Sinnaeve, 1986. The second of these intercomparisons was carried out as part of a wider exercise sponsored jointly by the CEC and the OECD/NEA (OECD, 1983). The third CEC intercomparison, held at the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in the United Kingdom in 1987, again constituted the European regional part of this wider exercise. The intercomparison on the European region was carried out in two stages, the first for passive integrating detectors and the second for active instruments, usually by spot measurements. Twenty-one laboratories participated in the intercomparison, of passive dosimetry and 17 in that for active dosimetry. Passive detectors have been used in many European countries to carry out surveys of exposure in homes and to monitor occupational exposure. The exposures for the intercomparison of passive detectors were carried out in June, July and August 1987 at NRPB. The intercomparison of active detectors was carried out over three days in October 1987, when scientists from the participating laboratories brought their equipment to NRPB

  15. Argentine Republic intercomparison programme for personal dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregori, Beatriz N.; Papadopulos, Susana B.; Kunst, Juan J.; Cruzate, Juan A.; Saravi, Margarita C.

    2004-01-01

    In 1997 an Intercomparison Program for individual monitoring started in order to test (on a voluntary basis) the performance in absorbed dose and personal dose equivalent determinations. The aim of the program was also to gain some insight into the general aspects related to the type of the personnel dosimeter used, the calibration procedures, the phantom spectral dependence and the management of radiological quantities. The Regional Reference Center for Dosimetry (CCR), of the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission and the Physical Dosimetry Laboratory of the Argentine National Regulatory Authority, performed the irradiations. Those were done free air and on ICRU phantom, using X-ray, quality ISO: W60, W80, W110 and W200; and 137 Cs and 60 Co gamma rays, normal and angular (0, 30, 60 degrees) incidence. In the framework of the Program, an upgraded workshop took place and the national standard, IRAM 17146, was elaborated as well. In this work, the laboratories performance and its temporal evolution is shown from 1997 up to 2002. The suggestions to improve their performance are also included. (author)

  16. Neutron personnel dosimetry considerations for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, T.P.; Easterly, C.E.

    1979-07-01

    The increasing development of fusion reactor technology warrants an evaluation of personnel neutron dosimetry systems to aid in the concurrent development of a radiation protection program. For this reason, current state of knowledge neutron dosimeters have been reviewed with emphasis placed on practical utilization and the problems inherent in each type of dosimetry system. Evaluations of salient parameters such as energy response, latent image instability, and minimum detectable dose equivalent are presented for nuclear emulsion films, track etch techniques, albedo and other thermoluminescent dosimetry techniques, electrical conductivity damage effects, lyoluminescence, thermocurrent, and thermally stimulated exoelectron emission. Brief summaries of dosimetry regulatory requirements and intercomparison study results help to establish compliance and recent trends, respectively. Spectrum modeling data generated by the Neutron Physics Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Princeton Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Facility have been analyzed by both International Commission on Radiological Protection fluence to dose conversion factors and an adjoint technique of radiation dosimetry, in an attempt to determine the applicability of current neutron dosimetry systems to deuterium and tritium fusion reactor leakage spectra. Based on the modeling data, a wide range of neutron energies will probably be present in the leakage spectra of the TFTR facility, and no appreciable risk of somatic injury to occupationally exposed workers is expected. The relative dose contributions due to high energy and thermal neutrons indicate that neutron dosimetry will probably not be a serious limitation in the development of fusion power

  17. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter at least once a month. Regular read-outs are vital to ensure that your personal dose is periodically monitored. Dosimeters should be read even if you have not visited the controlled areas. Dosimetry Service - Tel. 7 2155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  18. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Dosimetry Service

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter at least once a month. Regular read-outs are vital to ensure that your personal dose is periodically monitored. Dosimeters should be read even if you have not visited the controlled areas. Dosimetry Service Tel. 7 2155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  19. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter at least once a month. Regular read-outs are vital to ensure that your personal dose is periodically monitored. Dosimeters should be read even if you have not visited the controlled areas. Dosimetry Service - Tel. 72155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  20. Analytical evaluation of dose measurement of critical accident at SILENE (Contract research)

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, T; Tonoike, K

    2003-01-01

    Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) jointly organized SILENE Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison Exercise to intercompare the dose measurement systems of participating countries. Each participating country carried out dose measurements in the same irradiation field, and the measurement results were mutually compared. The participated in the exercise to measure the doses of gamma rays and neutron from SILENE by using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD's) and an alanine dosimeter. In this examination, the derived evaluation formulae for obtaining a tissue-absorbed dose from measured value (ambient dose equivalent) of TLD for neutron. We reported the tissue-absorbed dose computed using this evaluation formula to OECD/NEA. TLD's for neutron were irradiated in the TRACY facility to verify the evaluation formulae. The results of TLD's were compared with the calculations of MCNP and measurements with alanine dose meter. We found that the ratio of the dose b...

  1. TL detectors for gamma-ray dose measurements in critically accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miljanic, S.; Knezevic, Z.; Zorko, B.; Gregori, B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Determination of gamma-ray dose in mixed neutron + gamma-ray fields is still a challenging task. Dosemeters used for gamma-ray dosimetry are usually in some extent sensitive to neutrons and their response variations depend on neutron energy i.e. on neutron spectra. Besides, it is necessary to take into account the energy dependence of dosimeter responses to gamma-rays. To reduce all these influences, design of dosemeter holders is of special importance. In this work, several types of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) placed in different holders used for gamma-ray dose determination in mixed fields were examined. Dosemeters were from three different institutions: Ruder Boscovic Institute (RBI), Croatia, Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Slovenia and Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Argentina. All dosemeters were irradiated during the International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE Reactor, Valduc, June 2002. At that exercise three accidental scenarios were reproduced: bare reactor, free evolution; lead shielded reactor, steady state; and lead shielded reactor, free evolution. In each irradiation dosemeters were exposed placed on the front of phantom and 'free-in-air'. Also, dosemeters were irradiated in a pure gamma ray field of 60 Co source. Following types of TLDs were used: 7 LiF (TLD-700), CaF 2 :Mn and AI 2 O 3 :Mg,Y - all from RBI; CaF 2 :Mn from JSI and 7 LiF (TLD-700) from ARN. Reported doses were compared with the reference values as well as with the mean participants' values. The results show satisfactory agreement with other dosimetry systems used in the Intercomparison. The influence of different types of holders and applied corrections of dosemeters' readings are discussed. (author)

  2. Individual dosimetry and calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, T.

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, the Dosimetry and Calibration Section was, as in previous years, mainly engaged in routine tasks: the distribution of over 6000 dosimeters (with a total of more than 10,000 films) every two months and the calibration of about 900 fixed and mobile instruments used in the radiation survey sections of RP group. These tasks were, thanks to an experienced team, well mastered. Special efforts had to be made in a number of areas to modernize the service or to keep it in line with new prescriptions. The Individual Dosimetry Service had to assure that CERN's contracting firms comply with the prescriptions in the Radiation Safety Manual (1996) that had been inspired by the Swiss Ordinance of 1994: Companies must file for authorizations with the Swiss Federal Office for Public Health requiring that in every company an 'Expert in Radiation Protection' be nominated and subsequently trained. CERN's Individual Dosimetry Service is accredited by the Swiss Federal Authorities and works closely together with other, similar services on a rigorous quality assurance programme. Within this framework, CERN was mandated to organize this year the annual Swiss 'Intercomparison of Dosimeters'. All ten accredited dosimetry services - among others those of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen and of the four Swiss nuclear power stations - sent dosimeters to CERN, where they were irradiated in CERN's calibration facility with precise photon doses. After return to their origin they were processed and evaluated. The results were communicated to CERN and were compared with the originally given doses. A report on the results was subsequently prepared and submitted to the Swiss 'Group of Experts on Personal Dosimetry'. Reference monitors for photon and neutron radiation were brought to standard laboratories to assure the traceability of CERN's calibration service to the fundamental quantities. For photon radiation, a set of ionization chambers was calibrated in the reference field

  3. Hanford External Dosimetry Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford External Dosimetry Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include administrating the Hanford personnel dosimeter processing program and ensuring that the related dosimeter data accurately reflect occupational dose received by Hanford personnel or visitors. Specific chapters of this report deal with the following subjects: personnel dosimetry organizations at Hanford and the associated DOE and contractor exposure guidelines; types, characteristics, and procurement of personnel dosimeters used at Hanford; personnel dosimeter identification, acceptance testing, accountability, and exchange; dosimeter processing and data recording practices; standard sources, calibration factors, and calibration processes (including algorithms) used for calibrating Hanford personnel dosimeters; system operating parameters required for assurance of dosimeter processing quality control; special dose evaluation methods applied for individuals under abnormal circumstances (i.e., lost results, etc.); and methods for evaluating personnel doses from nuclear accidents. 1 ref., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Planned Procedures for Fast Determination of Radiation Levels and Personnel Dosimetry in Connection with Radiological Accidents; Methodes de Dosimetrie Rapide du Personnel en Cas d'Accident Radiologique; 041f 041b 0410 041d 0414 ; Servicio Organizado de Determinacion Rapida de los Niveles de Radiacion y de Dosimetria del Personal en Caso de Accidente Radiologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edvardsson, K. -A.; Wahlberg, T. [AB Atomenergi, Studsvik (Sweden)

    1965-06-15

    'exterieur. En matiere de dosimetrie du personnel, il est souhaitable d'obtenir aussitot que possible des donnees preliminaires approximatives sur les debits d'exposition externe et interne et de recevoir egalement dans des delais raisonnables des donnees assez precises sur la dose de rayonnement a laquelle chaque personne a ete exposee. Des equipes de controle dosimetrique font une enquete rapide sur les lieux afin de proceder a une evaluation generale des risques. Ces equipes entrent en action des le declenchement du signai d'alarme; munies d'appareils portatifs, elles se deplacent en voiture selon des itineraires sur le site determines. Des essais pratiques ont montre que les renseignements recueillis par ces equipes parviennent au poste central dans les 10 a 15 minutes qui suivent l'alarme et permettent de se faire une idee de l'intensite des rayonnements a l'interieur et a l'exterieur des differents batiments. Les appareils portatifs comportent des echantillonneurs d'air a prelevement tres rapide, fonctionnant suivant le principe de la pompe a vide. Les doses individuelles d'exposition externe sont evaluees a l'aide de films dosimetres, par activation des dosimetres de criticite et par les analyses de la radioactivite des cheveux et du sang. La contamination interne est determinee par anthroporadiametrie et analyses radiometriques des excreta. Afin de delimiter les champs de rayonnement crees par un accident, plusieurs postes de controle fixes sont dotes de differents types de dosimetres dont les indications sont egalement relevees aussitot que possible en cas d'accident presume. (author) [Spanish] La AB Atomenergi de Suecia cuenta con un servicio para casos de urgencia que empieza a actuar tan pronto como se recibe una senal de alarma indicadora de que se ha planteado una situacion extraordinaria que entrana considerables riesgos de irradiacion. Este servicio actua desde una oficina central en la que se encuentra almacenado el correspondiente equipo y que dispone de varios

  5. The Radiotherapy Dosimetry Audit System In the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    Two national radiotherapy dosimetry intercomparisons have been earned out in the UK, involving all radiotherapy institutes. The first was concerned with megavoltage photon beams and looked at beam calibration and simple three-field planned distributions in a geometric phantom. The intercomparisons were carried out by an independent intercomparison physicist visiting each department in turn and making measurements with ion chambers, following a fixed protocol. The beam calibration intercomparison was earned out on every 60 C o beam and every MV x-ray beam, whilst the planned comparisons were carried out on one beam only. The plans included effects of wedges, oblique incidence and inhomogeneities. The study was unfunded and took a significant time (1988-1991) to cover the 65 or so centres. It was followed up by a national electron dosimetry intercomparison which was fended (Department of Health) and which ran from 1994-1996. This audited three electron beam energies in each centre (depth dose, beam energy, dose calibration) and also included a follow-up of the original photon beam intercomparison. In general these studies showed good consistency of dosimetry across the UK centres, with mean (measured/locally stated) doses being close to unity and standard deviations of the distributions of values being approx. 1.5 and 1% for photons, 1.8% for electrons for beam calibration and 2.5-3.5% for the planned multi-beam situations. 97-100% of measurements were within the pre-set 3% tolerance for beam calibration and around 90% of the measurements within a pre-set 5% tolerance for planned situations. The studies did highlight some areas where increased on Q A could provide benefits. In particular the photon intercomparison discovered one 60 C o unit mis calibration which led to national recommendations for the implementation of Quality Systems in radiotherapy departments

  6. The United Kingdom's radiotherapy dosimetry audit network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, D.I.; Allahverdi, M.; Powley, S.K.; Nisbet, A.

    2003-01-01

    The first comprehensive national dosimetry intercomparison in the United Kingdom involving all UK radiotherapy centres was carried out in the late 1980s. Out of this a regular radiotherapy dosimetry audit network evolved in the early 1990s. The network is co-ordinated by the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine and comprises eight co-operative regional groups. Audits are based on site visits using ionization chambers and epoxy resin water substitute phantoms. The basic audit methodology and phantom design follows that of the original national intercomparison exercise. However, most of the groups have evolved more complex methods, to extend the audit scope to include other parameters, other parts of the radiotherapy process and other treatment modalities. A number of the groups have developed phantoms to simulate various clinical treatment situations, enabling the sharing of phantoms and expertise between groups, but retaining a common base. Besides megavoltage external beam photon dosimetry, a number of the groups have also included the audit of kilovoltage X ray beams, electron beams and brachytherapy dosimetry. The National Physical Laboratory is involved in the network and carries out basic beam calibration audits to link the groups. The network is described and the methods and results are illustrated using the Scottish+ group as an example. (author)

  7. Mixed field dosimetry with the twin chamber technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, G.; Maier, E.

    1974-04-01

    For the separate dosimetry of the neutron- and gamma-component in a mixed beam it is principally possible to use two ionization chambers with different ratios of neutron- to gamma sensitivity. Several authors proposed for this purpose the use of a homogenious TE-chamber filled with the TE-gas and of a carbon-chamber filled with CO 2 -gas. This chamber combination is also commercially available in several countries. The chambers are normally equipped with a continuous gas-flow provision and with a waterproof-housing for the use within liquid phantoms. The application of such chambers for mixed field dosimetry in the intercomparison project of the ICRU at the RARAF-facility in Brookhaven (International Neutron Dosimetry Intercomparison - INDI) is described. (orig./HP) [de

  8. SSDL Argentina: Dosimetric intercomparison programme for cobalt 60 therapy units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravi, M; Papadopulos, S; Mugliaroli, H [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1996-08-01

    Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) are widely used to verify absorbed dose delivered from radiation therapy beams. The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of Argentina uses TLD for its mailed dose intercomparison programme for cobalt 60 radiation therapy units. Results obtained since 1978 as well as causes of dose discrepancies greater than 5% are analyzed. Results of the external quality control performed by the IAEA for this programme indicate that the dose evaluated by the SSDL TLD service for the participating centers is about 1% lower than that evaluated by the IAEA TLD service. This deviation is accepted taking on account that a {+-} 2% dose uncertainty for TLD dosimetry is reasonable. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs.

  9. Biodosimetry versus physical dosimetry for emergency dose assessment following large-scale radiological exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeever, S.W.S.; Sholom, S.

    2016-01-01

    Existing data on intercomparisons involving biodosimetry or physical dosimetry methods are analyzed and the results interpreted regarding their efficacy in triage in emergency dosimetry following mass casualty radiological events. The biodosimetry technique examined is dicentric chromosome aberrations (DCA). The physical dosimetry techniques include electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of biological material (teeth) and physical material (smartphone screen glass), and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of electronic components (surface mount resistors) from mobile phones. Issues relating to calibration and interpretation of the data are discussed. An important conclusion of the analysis is that more research is critically needed to interpret the efficacy of the various methods. Included in this needed research are intercomparisons of the various methods in controlled experiments and the need to harmonize protocols. - Highlights: • Utility of bio- and physical dosimetry methods for emergency dosimetry triage. • Analysis of intercomparison data for different bio- and physical dosimetry methods. • The percentage of false positives and false negatives for a simulated IND event. • More research, especially intercomparisons, is required to reduce uncertainties.

  10. Dosimetry methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, A.; Kovacs, A.

    2003-01-01

    Chemical and physical radiation dosimetry methods, used for the measurement of absorbed dose mainly during the practical use of ionizing radiation, are discussed with respect to their characteristics and fields of application....

  11. Physical dosimetry and biological indicators of carcinogenic risk in a cohort of persons exposed to unhealthy ecological factors following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orel, V E; Tereschenki, V M; Czyatkovskaya, N N; Mazepa, M G; Buzunov, V A

    1998-01-01

    The April 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident caused ecological changes in the Ovruch State forests in the Zhytomir oblast in the Ukraine. The highest radioactivity existed in moss, followed by the pine-forest substrate and soil. During 1984-1985, the pine needles were primarily surface contaminated, whereas during 1986-1988, they were contaminated secondarily. Radioactivity in air was highest (1.07+/-0.185 Bq/l) during dry and sunny weather and when trees were felled; the lowest levels (0.196+/-0.044 Bq/l) occurred during periods of stable snow coverage. Between 1987 and 1989 (i.e., after the Chernobyl accident), the caesium levels in forestry employees exceeded by 13.9-fold the average levels found in the Ukrainian Polessje population. Ovruch forest guards and woodcutters had the highest effective equivalent doses of radiation, and they therefore exhibited the highest carcinogenic risk.

  12. Neutron personal dosimetry: state-of-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurný, František

    2005-03-01

    State-of-art of the personal neutron dosimetry is presented, analysed and discussed. Particular attention is devoted to the problems of this type of the dosimetry of external exposure for radiation fields at nuclear power plants. A review of general problems of neutron dosimetry is given and the active individual dosimetry methods available and/or in the stage of development are briefly reviewed. Main attention is devoted to the analysis of the methods available for passive individual neutron dosimetry. The characteristics of these dosemeters were studied and are compared: their energy response functions, detection thresholds and the highest detection limits, the linearity of response, the influence of environmental factors, etc. Particular attention is devoted to their behavior in reactor neutron fields. It is concluded that the choice of the neutron personal dosemeter depends largely on the conditions in which the instrument should be used (neutron spectrum, the level of exposure and the exposure rate, etc.). The results obtained with some of these dosemeters during international intercomparisons are also presented. Particular attention is paid to the personal neutron dosimeter developed and routinely used by National Personal Dosimetry Service Ltd. in the Czech Republic. (author)

  13. Research Laboratory of Mixed Radiation Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    determined as a product H = D·Q of the absorbed dose, D, and radiation quality factor, Q, both determined by the recombination chamber. The chambers can be used for determination of dose equivalents of any external radiation, therefore also in neutron and neutron-gamma fields. REFERENCE NEUTRON FIELDS Standard neutron fields, traceable to primary standard laboratory (NPL, Great Britain) were established at the Institute of Atomic Energy almost ten years ago. The fields are formed by calibrated sources of 252 Cf and 241 Am-Be. Additionally, spherical filters made of iron or paraffin can be used for modification of the neutron spectrum and gamma component of absorbed dose. The fields are used mostly for research work but they also serve as only one in Poland facility suitable for calibration of neutron dose meters used in radiation protection. Maintenance of the fields includes some periodic measurements of the dosimetric parameters, improvements of the measuring methods and international intercomparisons. RESEARCH ON INTERNAL DOSIMETRY - Two research projects were carried out in 2001-evaluation of the data on intake of radiocesium after the Chernobyl accident and research on calibration of thyroid counter with regard to depth of thyroid gland. The second of the projects can be applied not only for radiation protection but also for improvement of measurements of iodine uptake in thyroid after diagnostic administration of 131 I. (author)

  14. Activity Of EURADOS In Environmental Solid State Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Duch, M. A.; Haninger, T.

    2015-01-01

    Working Group 3 (WG3) of the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) carries out research projects and coordinated activities to advance the scientific understanding of environmental dosimetry and especially to promote the technical development of new methods in environmental monitoring. In this field of dosimetry, the measurement of small additional doses caused by artificial radiation on top of the natural environmental radiation is a challenge. Further, WG3 stimulates the organisation of intercomparison programmes and the definition of standards and recommendations in the field of environmental radiation monitoring (ERM). WG3 has played a significant role in the harmonisation of early warning dosimetry network stations in Europe and has organised 6 EURADOS intercomparison exercises; in which 42 institutions from 19 countries have participated. Today, about 5000 stations provide real-time dose rate data to a database run by the European Commission. Within WG3 a subgroup (S1) on spectrometry system was formed in 2013. Since then, WG3 has been involved in the field of spectrometry systems used both for dosimetric and spectrometric monitoring in the environment. A remarkable result of the WG3 - S1 is that many members contributed to the new European Joint Research Project 'Metrology for radiological early warning networks in Europe' which started in 2014. A second subgroup WG3 - S2 on passive dosimetry in ERM was inaugurated in 2014. To gain an overview of the passive dosimetry practice in ERM, WG3 - S2 decided to collect information by means of a questionnaire which has been send to European dosimetry services. One of the results was the identification of some open questions, problems in ERM (for example terminology, protocol of routine dosimetry, uncertainty assessment) which require clarification for harmonisation of ERM using passive dosimeters. Another result was that there exists a need for intercomparisons. The first intercomparison for passive

  15. Individual monitoring dosimetry in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, H.G.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the various types of individual monitoring systems presently in use within the European community and neutron dosimetry research being coordinated by the EURADOS working group. Research is currently being conducted on nuclear track dosimeters, primarily with CR-39 (TM), and TLD-albedo dosimeters. Studies are being conducted on the energy and angular response of each type of dosimeter. Because the response of dosimeters depends on the energy of the neutrons, it is necessary to have spectral information to accurately assess the dose. Neutron energy spectrum measurements are being performed in typical work place environments. Work is also progressing on development of calibration sources which will be representative of the neutron energy spectrum found in typical neutron exposure situations. This work utilizes 14 MeV neutrons incident on a uranium block with various other filters. Research is also continuing on neutron dosimetry using tissue equivalent proportional counters and microdosimetric techniques. The results of intercomparisons between several different instruments are discussed. In addition to personnel dosimetry, these systems are being used to record the dose to passengers and flight crews aboard commercial aircraft

  16. High energy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhm, W.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Currently, quantification of doses from high-energy radiation fields is a topical issue. This is so because high-energy neutrons play an important role for radiation exposure of air crew members and personnel outside the shielding of ion therapy facilities. In an effort to study air crew exposure from cosmic radiation in detail, two Bonner Sphere Spectrometers (BSSs) have recently been installed to measure secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation, one at the environmental research station 'Schneefernerhaus' at an altitude of 2650 m on the Zugspitze mountain, Germany, the other at the Koldewey station close to the North Pole on Spitsbergen. Based on the measured neutron fluence distributions and on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients, mean ambient dose equivalent rate values of 75.0 ± 2.9 nSv/h and 8.7 ± 0.6 nSv/h were obtained for October 2008, respectively. Neutrons with energies above about 20 MeV contribute about 50% to dose, at 2650 m. Ambient dose equivalent rates measured by means of a standard rem counter and an extended rem counter at the Schneefernerhaus confirm this result. In order to study the response of state-of-the-art radiation instrumentation in such a high-energy radiation field, a benchmark exercise that included both measurements in and simulation of the stray neutron radiation field at the high-energy particle accelerator at GSI, Germany, were performed. This CONRAD (COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry) project was funded by the European Commission, and the organizational framework was provided by the European Radiation Dosimetry Group, EURADOS. The Monte Carlo simulations of the radiation field and the experimental determination of the neutron spectra with various Bonner Sphere Spectrometers suggest the neutron fluence distributions to be very similar to those of secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation. The results of this intercomparison exercise in terms of ambient dose equivalent are also discussed

  17. IAEA/SSDL intercomparison of calibration factors for therapy level ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jilong; Cheng Jinsheng; Guo Zhaohui; Li Kaibao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: By participating in IAEA-SSDL intercomparison, a dose to water calibration factor was introduced in order to check the measuring accuracy of 60 Co radiotherapy dose level standard and ensure the reliability and consistency of our calibration. Methods: The authors carried out both air kerma and absorbed dose to water calibrations against 60 Co γ-rays for one of our field class ionization chambers, and sent the results together with the chamber to IAEA dosimetry laboratory for calibration, then IAEA calibrated it and gave the deviation of the intercomparison. Results: The deviation of our air kerma calibration factors is -0.5%, and the deviation of our absorbed dose to water calibration factors is 0.4%. Conclusion: The deviation of calibration factors between IAEA and SSDL should be no more than ±1.5%. Therefore, the result of this intercomparison is considered satisfactory. (authors)

  18. Clinical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassow, J.

    1973-01-01

    The main point of this paper on clinical dosimetry which is to be understood here as application of physical dosimetry on accelerators in medical practice, is based on dosimetric methodics. Following an explanation of the dose parameters and description of the dose distribution important for clinical practice as well as geometric irradiation parameters, the significance of a series of physical parameters such as accelerator energy, surface energy of average stopping power etc. is dealt with in detail. Following a section on field homogenization with bremsstrahlung and electron radiation, details on dosimetry in clinical practice are given. Finally, a few problems of dosemeter or monitor calibration on accelerators are described. The explanations are supplemented by a series of diagrams and tables. (ORU/LH) [de

  19. Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance of irradiated nails: challenges for a dosimetry in radiation accidents; Ressonancia Paramagnetica Eletronica de unhas irradiadas: desafios para uma dosimetria em acidentes radiologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannoni, Ricardo A., E-mail: giannoni@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rodrigues Junior, Orlando [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize samples of human nails exposed to high doses of radiation, applying the technique of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). The objective is to establish a dose response study that allow determine the absorbed dose by exposed individuals in situations of radiological accidents, in a retrospective form. Samples of human nails were collected and afterward irradiated with gamma radiation, and received dose of 20 Gy. The EPR measurement performed on the samples, before irradiation, permitted the signal identification of the components associated with effects caused by the mechanical stress during the fingernail cutting, the so-called mechanically induced signal (MIS). After the irradiation, different species of free radicals were identified, the so-called radiation induced signal (RIS). (author)

  20. First Italian intercomparison on methodologies for dose assessment from internal contamination. Results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, C.M.; Battisti, P.; Tarroni, G.

    1998-01-01

    In the frame of the MIDIA activities (coordination of whole body counters operating in Italy) an intercomparison on dose evaluation methods was promoted and carried out between October 1995 and March 1996 by 5 WBC centres. The main results related to the estimation of Intake and effective dose equivalent on the four case studies are reported. A comparison with European preliminary results is also presented. Finally perspectives related to the quality assurance of internal dosimetry estimates are indicated [it

  1. ABACC's laboratory intercomparison program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Gevaldo L. de; Esteban, Adolfo; Almeida, Silvio G. de; Araujo, Radier M. de; Rocha, Zildete

    1996-01-01

    A Laboratory Intercomparison Program involving Brazilian and Argentine laboratories, with the special participation of New Brunswick Laboratory - DOE and IAEA Seibersdorf Safeguards Laboratory, was implanted by ABACC having as main purpose to qualify a network to provide analytical services to this Agency on its role as administrator of the Common System of Accountability and Control of Nuclear Materials. For the first round robin of this Program, 15 laboratories were invited to perform elemental analysis on UO 2 samples, by using any desired method. Thirteen confirmed the participation and 10 reported the results. After an evaluation of the results by using a Two-Way Variance Analysis applied to a nested error model, it was found that 5 of them deviate less than 0.1% from the reference value established for the UO 2 uranium contents, being thus situated within the limits adopted for the target values, while the remaining ones reach a maximal deviation of 0.44%. The outcome of this evaluation, was sent to the laboratories, providing them with a feedback to improve their performance by applying corrective actions to the detected sources of errors or bias related to the methods techniques and procedures. (author)

  2. Intercomparison of the PTB and LMRI standards in beta dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, J.; Hillion, P.; Simoen, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    To set up national standard measuring devices for verifying the unit of the quantity 'absorbed dose rate in soft tissue' at different depths for β-radiation, extrapolation chambers have been developed at the PTB and LMRI. They are constructed of nearly tissue equivalent materials and connected to measuring devices of highest metrological quality. A comparison of these standards has been carried out using two β-ray emitters of 90 Sr+ 90 Y, one from each laboratory. Absorbed dose rates between 0.5 Gy h -1 and 1.3 Gy h -1 have been determined. The overall uncertainties of the absorbed dose rates in tissue are 1.8%. The part of the uncertainty due to systematic uncertainties of corrections, assumed to be carried out independently by each laboratory, amounts to 0.8% for the LMRI and 0.7% for the PTB. The ratios of the corresponding absorbed dose rates measured at the PTB and at the LMRI differ by 0.2% to 0.7%. On the average, the LMRI values are 0.4% smaller than the PTB values. The agreement is felt to be very satisfactory

  3. Intercomparison ot the PTB and LMRI standards in beta dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillion, P.; Simoen, J.P.; Boehm, J.

    1976-12-01

    To set up national standard measuring devices for verifying the unit of the quantity 'absorbed dose rate in soft tissue' at different depths for β-radiation, extrapolation chambers have been developed at the PTB and LMRI. They are constructed of nearly tissue equivalent materials and connected to measuring devices of highest metrological quality. A comparison of these standards has been carried out using two β-ray sources of 90 Sr + 90 Y, one from each laboratory. Absorbed dose rates between 0,5 Gy h -1 and 1.3 Gy -1 have been determined. The overall uncertainties of the absorbed dose rates in tissue are 1.8%. The part of the uncertainty due to systematic uncertainties of corrections unique for each laboratory amounts to 0.8% for the LMRI and 0.7% for the PTB. The ratios of the corresponding absorbed dose rates measured at the PTB and at the LMRI differ by 0.2% to 0.7%. On the average, the LMRI values are 0.4% samller than the PTB values. The agreement is felt to be very satisfactory. (orig.) [de

  4. Nuclear Accident Dosimetry at Argonne National Laboratory; Dosimetrie dans les Cas d'Accidents Nucleaires au Laboratoire National d'Argonne; 0421 041b 0423 0416 0411 0410 0414 ; Dosimetria en Casos de Accidente Nuclear en el Laboratorio Nacional de Argonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L. L.; Duffy, T. L.; Sedlet, J.; O' Neil, D. P. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1965-06-15

    storage stability are discussed. Plans have been formulated to determine phosphorus-32 in biological materials in order to obtain a fast- neutron dose, to analyse environmental materials for neutron activation products, and to determine the total number of fissions. Administrative control of dose determination will be facilitated with a manual which lists dosimeter locations and handling and counting procedures as well as formulae for dose calculations. (author) [French] La communication resume les mesures actuellement prevues au Laboratoire national d'Argonne pour evaluer les doses recues a la suite d'un accident de criticite. L'etude porte essentiellement sur deux types d'ensembles dosimetres en vente dans le commerce et donne les resultats d'operations de calibrage effectuees independamment au Laboratoire. Le reseau primaire de dosimetrie est constitue par des detecteurs a seuil mis au point au Laboratoire national d'Oak Ridge pour la mesure des spectres de neutrons. On a determine experimentalement, d'apres la decroissance d'activite de feuilles a fission, des courbes d'etalonnage pour les appareils de comptage a scintillation couramment utilises a Argonne. Ce materiel a egalement ete etalonne pour la mesure de l'activite du sodium-24 dans le sang. Des ensembles dosimetres du type mis au point au Laboratoire de Savannah River constituent le reseau secondaire. Les donnees fournies par les cellules de ces appareils qui detectent les neutrons par activation permettront de proceder a des corrections du spectre neutronique pour les energies intermediaires et pour les energies thermiques. L'activation epicadmique d'une feuille de cuivre, pour une fluence donnee des neutrons d'energie intermediaire, se revele relativement insensible aux variations du spectre neutronique dans la region consideree et on a pu determiner une moyenne significative pour la section efficace dans le cuivre. Le memoire donne les facteurs d'etalonnage des compteurs, calcules a Argonne pour les

  5. Intercomparison for individual monitoring. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    Twenty-one laboratories from 19 countries participated in the Intercomparison. The exposures were conducted in May and June of 1988, and the dosimeters were returned to the participating laboratories for processing. The results were returned to the IAEA in late 1988. They were reviewed and compiled at the end of the year. The technical background for the CRP is described in the papers appearing in Parts 1 and 2 of this report. The results are summarized in Parts 3 and 4. An important aspect of the programme was comparison of the techniques used to evaluate the participants' dosimeters (Part 5). There are a number of technical and philosophical issues related to implementation of the ICRU operational quantities, particularly as they relate to needs of Agency Member States (Part 6). Various aspects of the dosimetry system affect the accuracy and precision of the overall results (Part 7). The report concludes with a Summary and Conclusions in Part 8, and a complete list of the participants is shown in Part 9. (orig./DG)

  6. The IAEA intercomparison for individual monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.; Boehm, J.; Herrman, D.; Strachotinsky, C.; Thompson, I.M.G.

    1990-01-01

    In 1985 the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements introduced a new set of operational quantities for radiation protection purposes through Report 39. The International Atomic Energy Agency has been concerned with the impact of possible adoption of these quantities by its 113 Member States. Thus the Agency implemented a Coordinated Research Programme on Intercomparison for Individual Monitoring in 1987. The first phase completed with a Research Coordination meeting of the participants in April, 1989. Photon exposures were provided at 11 energies over a range from 18 keV to 1.25 MeV at three standards laboratories in Austria, the GDR and the UK. Technical coordination was provided by the PTB, Braunschweig. Twenty one laboratories from 19 countries participated with film, TLD of various types, and combination dosemeters. Irradiations were performed on the IAEA 30 cm cubic, water-filled phantom that is in use throughout its network of 61 Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories. Conversion coefficients for the IAEA phantom were calculated by the PTB and confirmed through measurements at ASMW in the GDR. Preliminary results indicated that the type of dosemeter (film or TLD) had little effect on the quality of results. The most important factor appears to be the specific techniques used for data interpretation. (author)

  7. Intercalibration of radiological measurements for surveillance purposes of the internal dosimetry laboratory coordinated by the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro L, M.M.

    2002-07-01

    The ININ of Mexico participated in this intercomparison organized by the IAEA in 2000. The objective of this activity is that the dosimetry laboratories that participate can validate the programs of internal dosimetry, with the purpose of improving its capacity in the evaluation of the internal dose and have access to a mechanism to evaluate its dosimetry system under real conditions. The specific objectives of this intercomparison were: 1. To evaluate the participant's capacity to manage the measurements of individual monitoring in terms of the activity in the phantom. 2. To provide the access to the unique calibration resources that otherwise would not be available. 3. To compare the operation of several detection systems, the geometry, phantoms, calibration methods and methods for the evaluation of activity of the radionuclide used by each institution. 4. To provide the independent verification of the direct measurement methods of the dosimetry service. (Author)

  8. Environmental dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.

    1977-01-01

    For more than 60 years, natural radiation has offered broad opportunities for basic research as evidenced by many fundamental discoveries. Within the last decade, however, dramatic changes have occurred in the motivation and direction of this research. The urgent need for economical energy sources entailing acceptably low levels of environmental impact has compelled the applied aspects of our radiation environment to become overriding considerations. It is within this general framework that state-of-the-art environmental dosimetry techniques are reviewed. Although applied motivation and relevance underscores the current milieu for both reactor and environmental dosimetry, a perhaps even more unifying force is the broad similarity of reactor and environmental radiation fields. In this review, a comparison of these two mixed radiation fields is presented stressing the underlying similarities that exist. On this basis, the evolution of a strong inner bond between dosimetry methods for both reactor and environmental radiation fields is described. The existence of this bond will be illustrated using representative examples of observed spectra. Dosimetry methods of particularly high applicability for both of these fields are described. Special emphasis is placed on techniques of high sensitivity and absolute accuracy which are capable of resolving the components of these mixed radiation fields

  9. Intercomparison of Environmental Nuclear Radiation Measuring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Fei; NI; Ning; HOU; Jin-bing; SONG; Ming-zhe

    2015-01-01

    In 2015,Radiation Metrology Division of China Institute of Atomic Energy organized an environmental monitoring of nuclear radiation measuring intercomparison,and 9laboratories attended.The intercomparison included environmental level dosemeters and protection level

  10. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  11. 134Cs and 137Cs whole-body measurements and internal dosimetry of the population living in areas contaminated by radioactivity after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonova, I.A.; Jesko, T.V.; Balonov, M.I.; Danilova, I.O.; Wallstroem, E.; Alpsten, M.; Thornberg, C.; Mattsson, S.

    1995-01-01

    Six western districts of the Bryansk region, Russia, were heavily contaminated with radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Annually, between 1991 and 1994, inhabitants of four settlements were studied. Whole-body 134+137 Cs contents were measured in about 500 inhabitants. No correlation between Cs whole-body content and Cs soil contamination was found; Cs accumulation in a body depends greatly on natural factors such as type of soil, on social factors such as food habits including consumption of forest products, and on countermeasures to reduce internal exposure. During 1991-1994 average whole-body content of 134+137 Cs in adult inhabitants was about 3-60 kBq, corresponding to an effective dose of 0.1-2.4 mSv.y -1 . Cs whole-body content increases equally for girls and boys up to adult age. Cs content in adults does not depend significantly on age and is usually 1.2-2 times higher in men than in women. The average annual internal effective dose varies with age significantly less than 134+137 Cs whole-body content. In children (0-5 years) the mean absorbed dose is usually 1.2-1.5 times less than in adults. (author)

  12. European protocol for neutron dosimetry for external beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Mijnheer, B.J.; Williams, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The paper attempts to serve the needs of European centres participating in the High LET Therapy Project Group set up under the sponsorship of The European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer, to promote cooperation between physicists involved in fast neutron therapy and establish a common basis for neutron dosimetry. Differences in dosimetry procedures between European and American Groups are indicated if relevant. The subject is dealt with under the following main headings: principles of dosimetry of neutron fields, dosimetric methods, physical parameters, determination of absorbed dose at a reference point, determination of absorbed dose at any point, check of absorbed dose given to a patient, dosimetry intercomparisons between institutes. There is an ample bibliography. (U.K.)

  13. SOIL moisture data intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Yann; Rodriguez-Frenandez, Nemesio; Al-Yaari, Amen; Parens, Marie; Molero, Beatriz; Mahmoodi, Ali; Mialon, Arnaud; Richaume, Philippe; Bindlish, Rajat; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity satellite (SMOS) was launched in November 2009 and started delivering data in January 2010. Subsequently, the satellite has been in operation for over 6 years while the retrieval algorithms from Level 1 to Level 2 underwent significant evolutions as knowledge improved. Other approaches for retrieval at Level 2 over land were also investigated while Level 3 and 4 were initiated. In this présentation these improvements are assessed by inter-comparisons of the current Level 2 (V620) against the previous version (V551) and new products either using neural networks or Level 3. In addition a global evaluation of different SMOS soil moisture (SM) products is performed comparing products with those of model simulations and other satellites (AMSR E/ AMSR2 and ASCAT). Finally, all products were evaluated against in situ measurements of soil moisture (SM). The study demonstrated that the V620 shows a significant improvement (including those at level1 improving level2)) with respect to the earlier version V551. Results also show that neural network based approaches can yield excellent results over areas where other products are poor. Finally, global comparison indicates that SMOS behaves very well when compared to other sensors/approaches and gives consistent results over all surfaces from very dry (African Sahel, Arizona), to wet (tropical rain forests). RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) is still an issue even though detection has been greatly improved while RFI sources in several areas of the world are significantly reduced. When compared to other satellite products, the analysis shows that SMOS achieves its expected goals and is globally consistent over different eco climate regions from low to high latitudes and throughout the seasons.

  14. Intercomparison On Depth Dose Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohmah, N; Akhadi, M

    1996-01-01

    Intercomparation on personal dose evaluation system has been carried out between CSRSR-NAEA of Indonesia toward Standard Laboratory of JAERI (Japan) and ARL (Australia). The intercomparison was in 10 amm depth dose measurement , Hp (10), from the intercomparison result could be stated that personal depth dose measurement conducted by CSRSR was sufficiently good. Deviation of dose measurement result using personal dosemeter of TLD BG-1 type which were used by CSRSR in the intercomparison and routine photon personal dose monitoring was still in internationally agreed limit. Maximum deviation of reported doses by CSRSR compared to delivered doses for dosemeter irradiation by JAERI was -10.0 percent and by ARL was +29 percent. Maximum deviation permitted in personal dose monitoring is ± 50 percent

  15. Dosimetry and operation of irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    The industrial use of ionizing radiation has required, from the very first, the measurement of delivered and absorbed doses; hence the necessity of providing dosimetric systems. Laboratories, scientists, industries and potential equipment manufacturers have all collaborated in this new field of activity. Dosimetric intercomparisons have been made by each industry at their own facilities and in collaboration with specialists, national organizations and the IAEA. Dosimetry has become a way of ensuring that treatment by irradiation has been carried out in accordance with the rules. It has become in effect assurance of quality. Routine dosimetry should determine a maximum and minimum dose. Numerous factors play a part in dosimetry. Industry is currently in possession of routine dosimetric systems that are sufficiently accurate, fairly easy to handle and reasonable in cost, thereby satisfying all the requirements of industry and the need for control. Dosimetry is important in the process of marketing irradiated products. The operator of an industrial irradiation facility bases his dosimetry on comparison with reference systems. Research aimed at simplifying the practice of routine dosimetry should be continued. New physical and chemical techniques will be incorporated into systems already in use. The introduction of microcomputers into the operation of radiation facilities has increased the value of dosimetry and made the conditions of treatment more widespread. Stress should be placed on research in several areas apart from reference systems, for example: dosimetric systems at temperatures from +8 deg. C to -45 deg. C, over the dose range 100 krad to a little more than 1 Mrad, liquids and fluidized solids carried at high speed through ducts, thin-film liquids circulating at a high flow rate, and various other problems. (author)

  16. Commissioning dosimetry at SINAGAMA irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Mod Ali; Hasan Sham; Taiman Kadni

    2000-01-01

    Dose mapping is one of the important factors in the commissioning of the irradiation plant. Comparison of the dose distribution obtained through the dose mapping exercise carried out since 1991 for Sinagama plant are described in this paper. It is aimed to confirmed the need for a thorough dose-mapping before the plant can be proceed with routine irradiation. The dose measurement was performed using a routine ceric-cerous dosimeter, supplied by the High Dose Dosimetry Laboratory, SSDL. The quality assurance of these service was maintain and verify through regular participation in dose intercomparison organised by the IAEA

  17. Neutron personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1981-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in neutron personnel dosimetry is reviewed. Topics covered include dosimetry needs and alternatives, current dosimetry approaches, personnel monitoring devices, calibration strategies, and future developments

  18. Revisiting the Goiania Accident: Medical and Dosimetric Experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.R.; Valverde, C.E.; Brandao Mello, N.J.L.; Almeida, C.E.V.

    1998-01-01

    Retrospective dosimetry can be accomplished by means of a physical reconstruction using mathematical or anthropomorphic phantoms or biological or clinical indicators. Biological dosimetry, based on biochemical, cytological and cytogenetic indicators, reduces the uncertainties in dose estimation. Micronuclei, PCC and FISH are techniques now available to radiobiologists and radiation specialists, which will complement the role played by conventional cytogenetics. After the Chernobyl accident, reliance was on various bioclinical dosemeters, such as the onset of vomiting, lymphocytes and neutrophils and biochemical indicators. The onset of prodromal manifestations, haematological behaviour and other indicators presented by eight caesium patients were analysed and correlated with the biological dosimetry performed immediately after the accident. Clinical and haematological indicators matched to a good extent with the cytogenetic dosimetry performed in Brazil and the USA. It was concluded that in an accident involving the public, retrospective dosimetry could be helpful in aiding dose estimation and also in validating dosimetry established by conventional physical and biological techniques. (author)

  19. Cytogenetic dosimetry in suspected cases of ionizing radiation occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, Adriana T.; Costa, Maria Lucia P.; Oliveira, Monica S.; Silva, Francisco Cesar A. da

    2001-01-01

    Cytogenetic dosimetry is very useful in routine as well as in serious accident situations in which exposed individuals do not wear physical dosimeters. Since 1984, the technique of cytogenetic dosimetry has been used as a routine in our laboratory at IRD/CNEN to complement the data of physical dosimetry. In the period from 1984 to 2000, 138 cases of occupational overexposure of individual dosimeters were investigated by us. In total, only in 36 of the 138 cases investigated the overexposure was confirmed by cytogenetic dosimetry. The data indicates a total confirmation index of just 26% of the suspected cases.(author)

  20. Hematological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluery-Herard, A.

    1991-01-01

    The principles of hematological dosimetry after acute or protracted whole-body irradiation are reviewed. In both cases, over-exposure is never homogeneous and the clinical consequences, viz medullary aplasia, are directly associated with the mean absorbed dose and the seriousness and location of the overexposure. The main hematological data required to assess the seriousness of exposure are the following: repeated blood analysis, blood precursor cultures, as indicators of whole-body exposure; bone marrow puncture, medullary precursor cultures and medullary scintigraphy as indicators of the importance of a local over-exposure and capacity for spontaneous repair. These paraclinical investigations, which are essential for diagnosis and dosimetry, are also used for surveillance and for the main therapeutic issues [fr

  1. Dosimetry on the radiological risks prevention in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornet R, O. M.; Perez G, F.

    2014-08-01

    Dosimetry in its various forms plays a determining role on the radiological risks prevention in radiotherapy. To prove this in this paper is shown an analysis based on the risk matrix method, how the dosimetry can influence in each stages of a radiotherapy service; installation and acceptance, operation, maintenance and calibration. For each one of these stages the role that can play is analyzed as either the initiating event of a radiological accident or limiting barrier of these events of the dosimetric processes used for the individual dosimetry, the area monitoring, fixed or portable, for radiation beam dosimetry and of the patients for a radiotherapy service with cobalt-therapy equipment. The result of the study shows that the application of a prospective approach in the role evaluation of dosimetry in the prevention and mitigation of the consequences of a radiological accident in radiotherapy is crucial and should be subject to permanent evaluation at each development stage of these services. (author)

  2. Methods and advantages of intercomparisons of TLDs for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Klemic, G.

    1997-01-01

    One of the most difficult tasks facing the international community is the monitoring of environmental radiation for potential increases due to facility accidents or weapons activity. Monitoring networks have been established to provide a record of natural background radiation as well as measure any radiation releases from a facility. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are an important element of such networks and are the most widely used passive detector for environmental monitoring. In order to reach a high international standard in the application of TLDs in routine environmental monitoring, there is a need for a intercomparisons. (authors)

  3. Intercomparison of transuranics in sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, K.

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a recent intercomparison of transuranic analyses in Nordic sediments undertaken by five laboratories. Five different samplers were tested to determine their consistency and utility. Plutonium and americium were determined in all the samples and the analysis of variance is discussed. (author)

  4. Protocol for X-ray dosimetry and exposure arrangements employed in studies of late somatic effects in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoetelief, J.; Kogel, A.J. van der; Broerse, J.J.; Scarpa, G.; Dixon-Brown, A.

    1985-01-01

    A number of European laboratories studying the late effects of ionizing radiation in animals have established an effective cooperation within the European Late Effects Project Group (EULEP) since 1970. To facilitate the exchange of biological results several techniques, including quality control of the experimental animals, pathology and dosimetry, have to be standardized. The most important aspects of the procedures for X-irradiation and dosimetry of small animals are summarized. These include recommendations on irradiation conditions, dosimetry methods, characteristics of phantoms and factors affecting X-ray dosimetry. X-irradiation procedures employed by the participating institutes are described and the results of five X-ray dosimetry intercomparisons are reported. The introduction of a common dosimetry protocol has resulted in improvements in exposure arrangements and absolute dosimetry. (author)

  5. The Vinca dosimetry experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-03-15

    On 15 October 1958 there occurred a very brief uncontrolled run of the zero-power reactor at the Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Science, Vinca, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia. During this run six persons received various doses of radiation. They were subsequently given medical treatment of a novel kind at the Curie Hospital, Paris. In atomic energy operations to date, very few accidents involving excessive radiation exposure to human beings have occurred. In fact, the cases of acute radiation injury are limited to about 30 known high exposures, few of which were in the lethal or near-lethal range. Since direct experiment to determine the effects of ionizing radiation on man is unacceptable, information on these effects has to be based on a consideration of data relating to accidental exposures, viewed in the light of the much more extensive data obtained from experiments on animals. Therefore, any direct information on the effects of radiation on humans is very valuable. The international dosimetry project described in this report was carried out at Vinca, Yugoslavia, under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency to determine the precise amount of radiation to which the persons had been exposed during the accident. These dosimetry data, together with the record of the carefully observed clinical effects, are of importance both for the scientific study of radiation effects on man and for the development of methods of therapy. The experiment and measurements were carried out at the end of April 1960. The project formed part of the Agency's research programme in the field of health and safety. The results of the experiment are made available through this report to all Member States.

  6. The Vinca dosimetry experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-03-01

    On 15 October 1958 there occurred a very brief uncontrolled run of the zero-power reactor at the Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Science, Vinca, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia. During this run six persons received various doses of radiation. They were subsequently given medical treatment of a novel kind at the Curie Hospital, Paris. In atomic energy operations to date, very few accidents involving excessive radiation exposure to human beings have occurred. In fact, the cases of acute radiation injury are limited to about 30 known high exposures, few of which were in the lethal or near-lethal range. Since direct experiment to determine the effects of ionizing radiation on man is unacceptable, information on these effects has to be based on a consideration of data relating to accidental exposures, viewed in the light of the much more extensive data obtained from experiments on animals. Therefore, any direct information on the effects of radiation on humans is very valuable. The international dosimetry project described in this report was carried out at Vinca, Yugoslavia, under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency to determine the precise amount of radiation to which the persons had been exposed during the accident. These dosimetry data, together with the record of the carefully observed clinical effects, are of importance both for the scientific study of radiation effects on man and for the development of methods of therapy. The experiment and measurements were carried out at the end of April 1960. The project formed part of the Agency's research programme in the field of health and safety. The results of the experiment are made available through this report to all Member States

  7. Analysis of SCRM experience in the area of quality assurance for retrospective EPR dosimetry technique with teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholom, S. V.; Chumak, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel is commonly accepted as one of most precise and accurate methods for retrospective dosimetry. At the same time, regularly conducted international Intercomparisons and Inter-calibrations of EPR dosimetry techniques demonstrate the significant scatter of results among laboratories operation in this area. This is mainly caused by the lack of commonly adopted unified technique which would be based on clear and efficient scheme of quality assurance. In the present work we will summarize more than ten-year experience of Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine in the area of EPR dosimetry from the point of view of quality assurance. EPR dosimetry technique with teeth, which was developed and being used in SCRM for routine dosimetry of liquidators is characterized by two-level system of quality assurance. In-house level covers all steps of the technique and allows control and minimizing of uncertainties that arise on separate steps. Extramural level provides the control of reliability and accuracy of technique in whole by means of regular participation in bi- and multi-lateral intercomparisons. Cumulative uncertainty of EPR dosimetry technique determined based on the results of 6 different intercomparisons is 21 mGy for dose below 300 and 11% for dose higher that 300 mGy. (authors)

  8. Accident consequence assessment code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, T.; Togawa, O.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the new computer code system, OSCAAR developed for off-site consequence assessment of a potential nuclear accident. OSCAAR consists of several modules which have modeling capabilities in atmospheric transport, foodchain transport, dosimetry, emergency response and radiological health effects. The major modules of the consequence assessment code are described, highlighting the validation and verification of the models. (author)

  9. Neutron Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhavere, F.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on neutron dosimetry is to improve the determination of neutron doses by studying neutron spectra, neutron dosemeters and shielding adaptations. In 2000, R and D focused on the contiued investigation of the bubble detectors type BD-PND and BDT, in particular their sensitivity and temperature dependence; the updating of SCK-CEN's criticality dosemeter, the investigation of the characteristics of new thermoluminescent materials and their use in neutron dosemetry; and the investigation of neutron shielding

  10. Neutron Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhavere, F

    2001-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on neutron dosimetry is to improve the determination of neutron doses by studying neutron spectra, neutron dosemeters and shielding adaptations. In 2000, R and D focused on the contiued investigation of the bubble detectors type BD-PND and BDT, in particular their sensitivity and temperature dependence; the updating of SCK-CEN's criticality dosemeter, the investigation of the characteristics of new thermoluminescent materials and their use in neutron dosemetry; and the investigation of neutron shielding.

  11. Topics in radiation dosimetry radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    1972-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry, Supplement 1: Topics in Radiation Dosimetry covers instruments and techniques in dealing with special dosimetry problems. The book discusses thermoluminescence dosimetry in archeological dating; dosimetric applications of track etching; vacuum chambers of radiation measurement. The text also describes wall-less detectors in microdosimetry; dosimetry of low-energy X-rays; and the theory and general applicability of the gamma-ray theory of track effects to various systems. Dose equivalent determinations in neutron fields by means of moderator techniques; as well as developm

  12. Regional inter-comparison of measurements of personal dose equivalent Hp(10) using photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bero, M.; Zahili, M.; Kharita, M.H.

    2012-11-01

    The overall objective is to verify performance and to improve the Individual Monitoring services (IMS). This can be achieved with the following specific objectives of the intercomparison:1. To assess the capabilities of the dosimetry services to measure the quantity H p (10) in photon (gamma and x-ray) fields. 2. To help the participating Member States in achieving sufficiently accurate dosimetry service and, if necessary, 3. To provide guidelines for improvements and not simply a test of the performance of the existing dosimetric service. Actually a significant improvement has been achieved by the participants in the accuracy of evaluating personal dose equivalent from 15% in the first phase to 5% in the second phase. Some participants used the results of the inter-comparison to verify the calibration and to improve their dosimetric procedures, but from the results it was clear that some participants need to a technical support especially in calibration and using their measuring system in the field of personal monitoring. The conclusion contains advises, solutions, propositions and evaluation for all situations which noticed during the intercomparison. (authors)

  13. Medical care of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Isamu

    1986-02-01

    This monograph, divided into six chapters, focuses on basic knowledge and medical strategies for radiation accidents. Chapters I to V deal with practice in emergency care for radiation exposure, covering 1) medical strategies for radiation accidents, 2) personnel dosimetry and monitoring, 3) nuclear facilities and their surrounding areas with the potential for creating radiation accidents, and emergency medical care for exposed persons, 4) emergency care procedures for radiation exposure and radioactive contamination, and 5) radiation hazards and their treatment. The last chapter provides some references. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Further AMBER and Ecolego Intercomparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, Philip; Robinson, Peter; Broed, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The AMBER compartmental modelling software is used by Quintessa in undertaking Performance Assessment (PA) calculations for SKI. SSI and NRPA are supporting the development of Ecolego which is based on the Matlab/Simulink general purpose modelling software for undertaking PA calculations. Intercomparison calculations using AMBER and Ecolego have been undertaken based on calculation cases considered in SKB's SR97 assessment. The reasons for undertaking such intercomparisons included: 1. to give confidence in the use of AMBER and Ecolego for whole system PA calculations for a deep repository; and 2. to provide SKI and SSI with an understanding of some of the technical issues raised by seeking to repeat the SR97 calculations with different models and software. Conclusions drawn from these intercomparisons included: 1. Both modelling packages successfully reproduced SKB's SR97 calculations for the near field, geosphere and biosphere. 2. AMBER and Ecolego calculations were typically in agreement to within one significant figure, but in several instances the SR97 documentation was not sufficiently clear to enable the implementation of the models in AMBER and Ecolego to be unambiguous. In order to gain more information on the comparisons between the two codes, additional intercomparisons have been undertaken using input data from the Vault Safety Case originally undertaken as part of an IAEA research project (ISAM). The comparisons between the AMBER and Ecolego calculations for the ISAM vault safety case have shown excellent agreement. Calculations at specified times generally agree to around three significant figures, and calculations of peak radionuclide fluxes and concentrations agree to two significant figures. This agreement is particularly good given the large number of model compartments and the inclusion of decay changes of up to six members. The most important situation where agreement may not be as good as that generally found is where radionuclides have been

  15. International Intercomparison of Calorimeters. A Report of Measurements Made in the Reactor Melusine at C.E.N. Grenoble March 1970 by Eight Reactor Calorimetry Groups from Six Member States of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, A.W.

    1970-01-01

    The Working Group on Reactor Radiation Measurements has recommended an international intercomparison of calorimeters through its Subgroup 5 on calorimetric methods. Through the cooperation of the IAEA and the Centre d'Etudes Nucléaires de Grenoble of the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique of France, the intercomparison was arranged. Representatives of eight dosimetry groups from six countries took part in this intercomparison which was carried out during the period 9-17 March 1970. This document will help workers in the field of absorbed dose measurements in reactors in choosing consistent and accurate procedures of experimentation and reporting data

  16. A transferability study of the EPR-tooth-dosimetry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholom, S.; Chumak, V.; Desrosiers, M.; Bouville, A.

    2006-01-01

    The transferability of a measurement protocol from one laboratory to another is an important feature of any mature, standardised protocol. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-tooth dosimetry technique that was developed in Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, AMS (Ukraine) (SCRM) for routine dosimetry of Chernobyl liquidators has demonstrated consistent results in several inter-laboratory measurement comparisons. Transferability to the EPR dosimetry laboratory at the National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST) was examined. Several approaches were used to test the technique, including dose reconstruction of SCRM-NIST inter-comparison samples. The study has demonstrated full transferability of the technique and the possibility to reproduce results in a different laboratory environment. (authors)

  17. A second simulated criticality accident dosimetry experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, N

    1973-01-01

    This experiment was undertaken to facilitate training in criticality dose assessment by UKAEA and BNFL establishments with potential criticality hazards. Personal dosemeters, coins, samples of hair, etc. supplied by the seven participating establishments were attached to a man-phantom filled with a solution of sodium nitrate (simulating 'body-sodium'), and exposed to a burst of radiation from the AWRE pulsed reactor VIPER. The neutron and photon doses were each several hundred rads. Participants made two sets of dose assessments. The first, made solely from the evidence of their routine dosemeters the activation of body-sodium and standard monitoring data, simulated the initial dose assessment that would be made before the circumstances of a real incident were established. The second was made when the position and orientation of the phantom relative to the reactor and the shielding (20 cm of copper) between the reactor core and the phantom were disclosed. Neutron and photon dose assessments for comparison wit...

  18. Radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, M.W.; Thomas, B.; Conway, J.

    1977-01-01

    A dosemeter is described that is based on the TSCD principle (thermally stimulated current dosimetry). Basically this involves irradiating a responsive material and then heating it,whereby an electric current is produced. If the material is heated in an electric field the peak value of the thermally stimulated current or alternatively the total charge released by heating, can be related to the radiation dose received. The instrument described utilises a sheet coated with a thermoplastic polymer, such as a poly4-methylpent-l-ene. The polymer should have a softening point not lower than 150 0 C with an electrical resistivity of at least 10 16 chms/cm at 150 0 C. The polymer may also be PTFE. Heating should be in the range 150 0 C to 200 0 C and the electric field in the range 50 to 10,000V/mm. (U.K.)

  19. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  20. Organ dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Dean C.; Egbert, Stephen D.; Otis, Mark D.; Kuhn, Thomas; Kerr, George D.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Cristy, Mark; Ryman, Jeffrey C.; Tang, Jabo S.; Maruyama, Takashi

    1987-01-01

    This chapter describes the technical approach, complicating factors, and sensitivities and uncertainties of calculations of doses to the organs of the A-bomb survivors. It is the object of the effort so described to provide data that enables the dosimetry system to determine the fluence, kerma, absorbed dose, and similar quantities in 14 organs and the fetus, specified as being of radiobiological interest. This object was accomplished through the use of adjoint Monte Carlo computations, which use a number of random particle histories to determine the relationship of incident neutrons and gamma rays to those transported to a target organ. The system uses these histories to correlate externally-incident energy- and angle-differential fluences with the fluence spectrum (energy differential only) within the target organ. In order for the system to work in the most efficient manner possible, two levels of data were provided. The first level, represented by approximately 6,000 random adjoint-particle histories, enables the computation of the fluence spectrum with sufficient precision to provide statistically reliable (± 6 %) mean doses within any given organ. With this limited history inventory, the system can be run rapidly for all survivors. Mean organ dose and dose uncertainty are obtainable in this mode. The second mode of operation enables the system to produce a good approximation to fluence spectrum within any organ or to produce the dose in each of an array of organ subvolumes. To be statistically reliable, this level of detail requires far more random histories, approximately 40,000 per organ. Thus, operation of the dosimetry system in this mode (i.e., with this data set) is intended to be on an as-needed, organ-specific basis, since the system run time is eight times that in the mean dose mode. (author)

  1. Dating by fission track method: study of neutron dosimetry with natural uranium thin films; Datacao com o metodo dos tracos de fissao: estudo da dosimetria de neutrons com filmes finos de uranio natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iunes, P J

    1990-06-01

    Fission track dating is described, focalizing the problem of the decay constant for spontaneous fission of {sup 238} U and the use of neutron dosimetry in fission track analysis. Experimental procedures using thin films of natural uranium as neutron dosimeters and its results are presented. The author shows a intercomparison between different thin films and between the dosimetry with thin film and other dosimetries. (M.V.M.). 52 refs, 12 figs, 9 tabs.

  2. Intercomparison of 131I activity measurements in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, G. Y.; Yang, H. K.; Lim, C. I.; Lee, H. K.; Jeong, H. K.

    2004-01-01

    Activity measurements in nuclear medicine using a dose calibrator have been performed for several decades and their reliability has varied. To minimise the radiation dose to patients with radionuclides, it is necessary to ensure that the sample administered is accurately assayed. Recognizing the importance of intercomparison in nuclear medicine and the need to make access to activity standards traceable to the international measurement system, the KFDA, as a national secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL), started an intercomparison program in 2002. This program was initiated by survey to all nuclear medicine centres regarding general information about their dose calibrators, radioisotopes etc. 71 nuclear medicine centres (79 dose calibrators) participated in the intercomparison program with 131 I isotope. To assess the accuracy of clinical measurements of the activity of 131 I solutions and to determine the reason for the disagreement, an intercomparison was conducted using 4 ml aliquots in 10 ml P6 vial with a total activity in the region of 10 -20 MBq. The reference time of decay for all solutions was 0:00 on 25 September 2002. The half-life used was 8.04 days. For the evaluation of solution in KFDA, a sealed, high pressure and re-entrant ionisation chamber, NPL-CRC radionuclide calibrators were used. The verification of our calibration quality was by means of a comparison with the Korea Primary Standard Laboratory (KRISS). The activity ratio of KFDA to KRISS for the 131 I solutions is 1.011. The difference between the value quoted by the clinic, A hospital and the value obtained by the KFDA, A KFDA , is expressed as a percent deviation, i.e. DEV(%) 100x(A hospital -A KFDA )/A KFDA . From the data obtained it was found that 61% of the calibrators showed a deviation within +/-5%; 23% had a deviation in the range 5% 131 I solution activity measurements, using dose calibrators in Koreas, and also to provide the participants with a traceable standard to

  3. Postulated accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, W.

    1980-01-01

    This lecture on 'Postulated Accidents' is the first of a series of lectures on the dynamic and transient behaviour of nuclear power plants, especially pressurized water reactors. The main points covered will be: Reactivity Accidents, Transients (Intact Loop) and Loss of Cooland Accidents (LOCA) including small leak. This lecture will discuss the accident analysis in general, the definition of the various operational phases, the accident classification, and, as an example, an accident sequence analysis on the basis of 'Postulated Accidents'. (orig./RW)

  4. A contribution to the study and development of radiothermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portal, Guy.

    1975-10-01

    The applications of radiothermoluminescence to radiation dosimetry were investigated. The fundamental processes are first reviewed and the main properties of radiothermoluminescence dosemeters are stated. The investigations carried out in order to have materials presenting particular dosimetric characteristics are then described: a lithium fluoride stabilized by sodium that can be reused without regeneration an alumina suitable for dosimetry in case of accident. Finally, the measurement of electromagnetic radiation in presence of neutrons of various energies are considered [fr

  5. Intercomparison of gamma ray analysis software packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The IAEA undertook an intercomparison exercise to review available software for gamma ray spectra analysis. This document describes the methods used in the intercomparison exercise, characterizes the software packages reviewed and presents the results obtained. Only direct results are given without any recommendation for a particular software or method for gamma ray spectra analysis

  6. Radiation protection dosimetry in medicine - Report of the working group n.9 of the European radiation dosimetry group (EURADOS) - coordinated network for radiation dosimetry (CONRAD - contract EC N) fp6-12684; Dosimetrie pour la radioprotection en milieu medical - rapport du groupe de travail n. 9 du European radiation dosimetry group (EURADOS) - coordinated netword for radiation dosimetry (CONRAD - contrat CE fp6-12684)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This report present the results achieved within the frame of the work the WP 7 (Radiation Protection Dosimetry of Medical Staff) of the coordination action CONRAD (Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry) funded through the 6. EU Framework Program. This action was coordinated by EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group). EURADOS is an organization founded in 1981 to advance the scientific understanding and the technical development of the dosimetry of ionising radiation in the fields of radiation protection, radiobiology, radiation therapy and medical diagnosis by promoting collaboration between European laboratories. WP7 coordinates and promotes European research for the assessment of occupational exposures to staff in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology workplaces. Research is coordinated through sub-groups covering three specific areas: 1. Extremity dosimetry in nuclear medicine and interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in the specific fields of the hospitals and studies of doses to different parts of the hands, arms, legs and feet; 2. Practice of double dosimetry: this sub-group reviews and evaluates the different methods and algorithms for the use of dosemeters placed above and below lead aprons in large exposure during interventional radiology procedures, especially to determine effective doses to cardiologists during cardiac catheterization; and 3. Use of electronic personal dosemeters in interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in laboratories and hospitals, and intercomparisons with passive dosemeters with the aim to enable the formulation of standards. (authors)

  7. Bayesian Methods for Radiation Detection and Dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Groer, Peter G

    2002-01-01

    We performed work in three areas: radiation detection, external and internal radiation dosimetry. In radiation detection we developed Bayesian techniques to estimate the net activity of high and low activity radioactive samples. These techniques have the advantage that the remaining uncertainty about the net activity is described by probability densities. Graphs of the densities show the uncertainty in pictorial form. Figure 1 below demonstrates this point. We applied stochastic processes for a method to obtain Bayesian estimates of 222Rn-daughter products from observed counting rates. In external radiation dosimetry we studied and developed Bayesian methods to estimate radiation doses to an individual with radiation induced chromosome aberrations. We analyzed chromosome aberrations after exposure to gammas and neutrons and developed a method for dose-estimation after criticality accidents. The research in internal radiation dosimetry focused on parameter estimation for compartmental models from observed comp...

  8. Quality assurance in radiotherapy dosimetry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kaibao; Luo Suming; Cheng Jinsheng; He Zhijian; An Jinggang; Hu Yimin; Feng Ningyuan

    2002-01-01

    In 1995, the SSDL in the Laboratory of Industrial Hygiene cooperated with Beijing Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical science joined the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (NO.8769/RO). According to the requirements of the project, an External Audit Group (EAG) in China was established in 1996 with the responsibilities of operating TLD-based quality audit for radiotherapy dosimetry. Since then. The national TLD dose quality audit services have been carried out in 7 provinces in China. Besides this, the national programmes for brachytherapy and stereostatic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment dosimetry were initiated in 2001. The activity measurement intercomparison between the SSDL and some hospitals for Ir-192 HDR brachytherapy sources has been performed using a HDR well-type ionization chamber (Model HDR 1000 plus) and CDX-2000A Charge Digitizer, which were calibrated in Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory, University of Wisconsin, USA. The preliminary results indicated that the agreement between SSDL measured activity and hospital stated activity was within ±5% for more than 80% of total participants

  9. EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattibene, Paola; Callens, Freddy

    2010-01-01

    When tooth enamel is exposed to ionizing radiation, radicals are formed, which can be detected using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. EPR dosimetry using tooth enamel is based on the (presumed) correlation between the intensity or amplitude of some of the radiation-induced signals with the dose absorbed in the enamel. In the present paper a critical review is given of this widely applied dosimetric method. The first part of the paper is fairly fundamental and deals with the main properties of tooth enamel and some of its model systems (e.g., synthetic apatites). Considerable attention is also paid to the numerous radiation-induced and native EPR signals and the radicals responsible for them. The relevant methods for EPR detection, identification and spectrum analyzing are reviewed from a general point of view. Finally, the needs for solid-state modelling and studies of the linearity of the dose response are investigated. The second part is devoted to the practical implementation of EPR dosimetry using enamel. It concerns specific problems of preparation of samples, their irradiation and spectrum acquisition. It also describes how the dosimetric signal intensity and dose can be retrieved from the EPR spectra. Special attention is paid to the energy dependence of the EPR response and to sources of uncertainties. Results of and problems encountered in international intercomparisons and epidemiological studies are also dealt with. In the final section the future of EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel is analyzed.

  10. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both...... and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading...

  11. Neutron dosimetry - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, J W

    1955-03-29

    This review summarizes information on the following subjects: (1) physical processes of importance in neutron dosimetry; (2) biological effects of neutrons; (3) neutron sources; and (4) instruments and methods used in neutron dosimetry. Also, possible improvements in dosimetry instrumentation are outlined and discussed. (author)

  12. Intercomparison Measurements Zavazna Poruba '98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostial, J.; Nemcovic, V.; Cabanekova, H.; Durcik, M.; Svatosova, O.; Fueloep, M.; Buban, P.; Galbavy, V.; Dzubara, M.; Svatos, J.

    1998-01-01

    The periodical intercomparison exercises of mobile radiological laboratories was organized in order to improve the measuring methods and to gain a good basis for quality assurance. 20 teams from 10 countries were registered for the workshop from which 20 arrived and participated only as observers. There altogether 73 participants. The list of participants is enclosed in and of this report. The aims of 1998 intercomparison measurements were: (1) to compare the results of the measurements by in-situ spectrometry assuming the different distribution; (2) to improve cooperation among different institutions in Europe; (3) to test the ability of the teams to produce results at the spot; (4) to test the teams capability to produce results for Cs-137 with real distribution without having soil density and alpha/ro prior measurement. The program of the workshop consisted from two parts: field exercises and presentations. Field exercises were: (1) In-situ gamma spectrometry of natural and artificial radionuclides and their contribution to ambient dose rate over an area with heterogeneous distribution of the contamination of cesium-137 at Zavazna Poruba. (2) Dose rate measurement from cobalt-60 source; (3) Identification and determination of activity and depth of a buried source by in-situ spectrometry; (4) Search for lost sources by mobile radiological laboratory; (6) In-situ measurements and dose rate measurement above the water-level of Liptovska Mara; (6) In-situ gamma spectrometry on the bank of the dam an area Liptovsky Trnovec

  13. ESR/tooth enamel dosimetry application to Chernobyl case: individual retrospective dosimetry of the liquidators and wild animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugai, A.; Baryakchtar, V.G.; Baran, N.

    1996-01-01

    ESR/tooth enamel dosimetry technique was used for individual retrospective dosimetry of the servicemen who had worked in 1986-1987 at the liquidation of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. For 18 investigated cases, the values varied from 0,10 (sensitivity limit) to 1,75 Gy. The same technique was used for individual dosimetry of wild animals boars, red deers, elks) hunted at contaminated 30-km area around the Chernobyl Power Plant. Measured values varied from 0,20 to 5,0 Gy/year and were compared with calculated for external and internal irradiation

  14. Codes of practice and protocols for the dosimetry in reference conditions of proton and ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatnitsky, S.; Andreo, P.

    2002-01-01

    the most interesting aspects of the ECHED Supplement was the use of the proton stopping-power data in then just released ICRU-49 report. In order to achieve homogeneity in the dosimetry and dose delivery at institutions implementing heavy-particle radiotherapy, the two protocols, TG 20 and ECHED, recommended periodic dosimetry intercomparisons among the different centres. Several ionization chamber intercomparisons performed in the early nineties revealed that the different physical data in the two protocols were the main cause of the observed substantial differences in absorbed dose determination in proton therapy centres. Calorimetry studies performed at a number of institutions confirmed the findings of the ion chamber intercomparisons, indicating that the adoption of a uniform set of data and a common dosimetry protocol would be necessary to achieve consistency in the dose delivered to patients in all proton centres. In the following years, the publication of the ICRU 59 report represented an attempt to harmonize clinical proton dosimetry worldwide and to promote the dissemination of the new radiation metrology standards in terms of absorbed dose to water. Practical problems associated with the use of Faraday cups and calorimeters were fully recognized by the ICRU report, and the role of these methods in proton dosimetry was minimized, favouring that of ionization chamber dosimetry. Upon the adoption of ICRU 59 in multiple proton centres, international dosimetry intercomparisons using ionization chambers calibrated in terms of air kerma in 60 Co, have shown, as expected, a considerable improvement in their homogeneity with the result that all participants agreed within ±0.9% in their calibration of a common beam using their own instrumentation. This result encouraged the use of ICRU 59 worldwide for the calibration of clinical proton beams. On the other hand, detailed analysis of the intercomparison data and recent publications have indicated that improvements

  15. Chemical dosimetry principles in high dose dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhatre, Sachin G.V.

    2016-01-01

    In radiation processing, activities of principal concern are process validation and process control. The objective of such formalized procedures is to establish documentary evidence that the irradiation process has achieved the desired results. The key element of such activities is inevitably a well characterized reliable dosimetry system that is traceable to recognized national and international dosimetry standards. Only such dosimetry systems can help establish the required documentary evidence. In addition, industrial radiation processing such as irradiation of foodstuffs and sterilization of health careproducts are both highly regulated, in particular with regard to dose. Besides, dosimetry is necessary for scaling up processes from the research level to the industrial level. Thus, accurate dosimetry is indispensable

  16. Feasibility study of radiophotoluminescent glass rod dosimeter postal dose intercomparison for high energy photon beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rah, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Siyong; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Woo; Chung, Jin-Beom; Shin, Dong-Oh; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2009-01-01

    A radiophotoluminescent glass rod dosimeter (GRD) system has recently become commercially available. In this study we evaluated whether the GRD would be suitable for external dosimetric audit program in radiotherapy. For this purpose, we introduced a methodology of the absorbed dose determination with the GRD by establishing calibration coefficient and various correction factors (non-linearity dose response, fading, energy dependence and angular dependence). A feasibility test of the GRD postal dose intercomparison was also performed for eight high photon beams by considering four radiotherapy centers in Korea. In the accuracy evaluation of the GRD dosimetry established in this study, we obtained within 1.5% agreements with the ionization chamber dosimetry for the 60 Co beam. It was also observed that, in the feasibility study, all the relative deviations were smaller than 3%. Based on these results, we believe that the new GRD system has considerable potential to be used for a postal dose audit program

  17. Dosimetry system 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolson, William A.; Egbert, Stephen D.; Gritzner, Michael L.

    1987-01-01

    In May 1983, the authors proposed a dosimetry system for use by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) that would incorporate the new findings and calculations of the joint United States - Japan working groups on the reassessment of A-bomb dosimetry. The proposed dosimetry system evolved from extensive discussions with RERF personnel, numerous meetings of the scientists from Japan and the United States involved in the dosimetry reassessment research, and requirements expressed by epidemiologists and radiobiologists on the various review panels. The dosimetry system proposed was based on considerations of the dosimetry requirements for the normal work of RERF and for future research in radiobiology, the computerized input data on A-bomb survivors available in the RERF data base, the level of detail, precision, and accuracy of various components of the dosimetric estimates, and the computer resources available at RERF in Hiroshima. These discussions and our own experience indicated that, in light of the expansion of computer and radiation technologies and the desire for more detail in the dosimetry, an entirely new approach to the dosimetry system was appropriate. This resulted in a complete replacement of the T65D system as distinguished from a simpler approach involving a renormalization of T65D parameters to reflect the new dosimetry. The proposed dosimetry system for RERF and the plan for implementation was accepted by the Department of Energy (DOE) Working Group on A-bomb Dosimetry chaired by Dr. R.F. Christy. The dosimetry system plan was also presented to the binational A-bomb dosimetry review groups for critical comment and was discussed at joint US-Japan workshop. A prototype dosimetry system incorporating preliminary dosimetry estimates and applicable to only a limited set of A-bomb survivors was installed on the RERF computer system in the fall of 1984. This system was successfully operated at RERF and provided an initial look at the impact of

  18. Applications of gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibbott, Geoffrey S

    2004-01-01

    Gel dosimetry has been examined as a clinical dosimeter since the 1950s. During the last two decades, however, a rapid increase in the number of investigators has been seen, and the body of knowledge regarding gel dosimetry has expanded considerably. Gel dosimetry is still considered a research project, and the introduction of this tool into clinical use is proceeding slowly. This paper will review the characteristics of gel dosimetry that make it desirable for clinical use, the postulated and demonstrated applications of gel dosimetry, and some complications, set-backs, and failures that have contributed to the slow introduction into routine clinical use

  19. Reconstructive dosimetry for cutaneous radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, C.M.A.; Lima, A.R.; Degenhardt, Ä.L.; Da Silva, F.C.A., E-mail: dasilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Valverde, N.J. [Fundacao Eletronuclear de Assistencia Medica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a relatively significant number of radiological accidents have occurred in recent years mainly because of the practices referred to as potentially high-risk activities, such as radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography, especially in gammagraphy assays. In some instances, severe injuries have occurred in exposed persons due to high radiation doses. In industrial radiography, 80 cases involving a total of 120 radiation workers, 110 members of the public including 12 deaths have been recorded up to 2014. Radiological accidents in industrial practices in Brazil have mainly resulted in development of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) in hands and fingers. Brazilian data include 5 serious cases related to industrial gammagraphy, affecting 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public; however, none of them were fatal. Some methods of reconstructive dosimetry have been used to estimate the radiation dose to assist in prescribing medical treatment. The type and development of cutaneous manifestations in the exposed areas of a person is the first achievable gross dose estimation. This review article presents the state-of-the-art reconstructive dosimetry methods enabling estimation of local radiation doses and provides guidelines for medical handling of the exposed individuals. The review also presents the Chilean and Brazilian radiological accident cases to highlight the importance of reconstructive dosimetry. (author)

  20. Relative and absolute dosimetry of proton therapy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazal, A.; Delacroix, S.; Bridier, A.; Daures, J.; Dolo, J.M.; Nauraye, C.; Ferrand, R.; Cosgrave, V.; Habrand, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Different codes of practice are in use or under preparation by several groups and national or international societies, concerning the dosimetry of proton beams. In spite of a large number of experiences and the increasing interest on this field, there are still large incertitudes on some of the basic conversion and correction factors to get dose values from different measuring methods. In practice, dose uniformity between centers is searched and encouraged by intercomparisons using standard procedures. We present the characteristics and the results on proton dosimetry intercomparisons using calorimeters, Faraday cups and ion chambers, as well as on the use of other detectors like diodes, radiographic films and TLD. New detectors like diamond, scintillators, radiochromic films, alanine, gels, ... can give new solutions to particular problems, provided their response is not affected at the end of the proton range (higher LET region), and their resolution, range, linearity, cost, ... are well adapted to practical situations. Some examples of special challenges are non interfering measurements during treatments for quality control, in vivo measurements, small beams for stereotactic irradiations, scanned beams and correlations between dosimetry, microdosimetry and radiobiology

  1. Progress in high-dose radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettinger, K.V.; Nam, J.W.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Chadwick, K.H.

    1981-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a deluge of new high-dose dosimetry techniques and expanded applications of methods developed earlier. Many of the principal systems are calibrated by means of calorimetry, although production of heat is not always the final radiation effect of interest. Reference systems also include a number of chemical dose meters: ferrous sulphate, ferrous-cupric sulphate, and ceric sulphate acidic aqueous solutions. Requirements for stable and reliable transfer dose meters have led to further developments of several important high-dose systems: amino acids and saccharides analysed by ESR or lyoluminescence, thermoluminescent materials, radiochromic dyes and plastics, ceric-cerous solutions analysed by potentiometry, and ethanol-chlorobenzene solutions analysed by high-frequency oscillometry. A number of other prospective dose meters are also treated in this review. In addition, an IAEA programme of high-dose standardization and intercomparison for industrial radiation processing is described. (author)

  2. Report on a workshop on the application of thermoluminescence dosimetry to large scale individual monitoring, Ispra, 11-13 September 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthe, J.R.; Christensen, P.; Driscoll, C.M.H.; Marshall, T.O.; Harvey, J.R.; Julius, H.W.; Marshall, M.; Oberhoffer, M.

    1987-01-01

    The workshop was held for the benefit of those actually involved in the operation of large scale automatic thermoluminescence dosimetry systems. It was organised around three overall themes subdivided into 13 subject headings: External constraints: User requirements, Quantities and Units, Legal requirements, Testing, Intercomparisons; Dosimetry systems: Materials, Dosemeter design, Reading systems, Annealing procedures, Rogue readings; Management: Distribution and organisation, Reporting and record keeping, Financial aspects. (author)

  3. Report on the Intercomparison Exercises 1993

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aminot, A.; Boer, J. de; Cofino, W.

    This report covers the intercomparison exercises - 1993 of the project Quasimeme - Quality Assurance of Information for Marine Environmental Monitoring in Europe. The report is prepared under contract for the measurement and testing programme (BCR) of the European Community....

  4. Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorbraak, Wim; Debarberis, Luigi; D'Hondt, Pierre; Wagemans, Jan

    2009-08-01

    Oral session 1: Retrospective dosimetry. Retrospective dosimetry of VVER 440 reactor pressure vessel at the 3rd unit of Dukovany NPP / M. Marek ... [et al.]. Retrospective dosimetry study at the RPV of NPP Greifswald unit 1 / J. Konheiser ... [et al.]. Test of prototype detector for retrospective neutron dosimetry of reactor internals and vessel / K. Hayashi ... [et al.]. Neutron doses to the concrete vessel and tendons of a magnox reactor using retrospective dosimetry / D. A. Allen ... [et al.]. A retrospective dosimetry feasibility study for Atucha I / J. Wagemans ... [et al.]. Retrospective reactor dosimetry with zirconium alloy samples in a PWR / L. R. Greenwood and J. P. Foster -- Oral session 2: Experimental techniques. Characterizing the Time-dependent components of reactor n/y environments / P. J. Griffin, S. M. Luker and A. J. Suo-Anttila. Measurements of the recoil-ion response of silicon carbide detectors to fast neutrons / F. H. Ruddy, J. G. Seidel and F. Franceschini. Measurement of the neutron spectrum of the HB-4 cold source at the high flux isotope reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory / J. L. Robertson and E. B. Iverson. Feasibility of cavity ring-down laser spectroscopy for dose rate monitoring on nuclear reactor / H. Tomita ... [et al.]. Measuring transistor damage factors in a non-stable defect environment / D. B. King ... [et al.]. Neutron-detection based monitoring of void effects in boiling water reactors / J. Loberg ... [et al.] -- Poster session 1: Power reactor surveillance, retrospective dosimetry, benchmarks and inter-comparisons, adjustment methods, experimental techniques, transport calculations. Improved diagnostics for analysis of a reactor pulse radiation environment / S. M. Luker ... [et al.]. Simulation of the response of silicon carbide fast neutron detectors / F. Franceschini, F. H. Ruddy and B. Petrović. NSV A-3: a computer code for least-squares adjustment of neutron spectra and measured dosimeter responses / J. G

  5. Accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, R.J.; Monty, B.S.; Liparulo, N.J.; Desaedeleer, G.

    1989-01-01

    The foundation of the framework for a Severe Accident Management Program is the contained in the Probabilistic Safety Study (PSS) or the Individual Plant Evaluations (IPE) for a specific plant. The development of a Severe Accident Management Program at a plant is based on the use of the information, in conjunction with other applicable information. A Severe Accident Management Program must address both accident prevention and accident mitigation. The overall Severe Accident Management framework must address these two facets, as a living program in terms of gathering the evaluating information, the readiness to respond to an event. Significant international experience in the development of severe accident management programs exist which should provide some direction for the development of Severe Accident Management in the U.S. This paper reports that the two most important elements of a Severe Accident Management Program are the Emergency Consultation process and the standards for measuring the effectiveness of individual Severe Accident Management Programs at utilities

  6. 1982 radon intercomparison exercises at EML

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisenne, I.M.; George, A.C.; Keller, H.W.

    1983-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of two radon measurement intercomparison exercises held in 1982. Sixteen organizations, including five United States federal departments, two state governments, two national laboratories, three universities, three private sector laboratories and Swedish National Institute participated in these exercises. The results indicate good agreement among the participants at the 30 pCi 222 Rn/L level. With the continued interest and cooperation of groups involved in radon measurements, twp intercomparison exercises are planned during 1983

  7. Intercomparison of Rn-222 determination from groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterbacka, P.; Pettersson, H.; Hanste, U.-M.

    2010-01-01

    An intercomparison exercise on Rn-222 determination in groundwater was organized between eight Nordic laboratories. The individual laboratory results were in most cases within 20% of the median value and within reported uncertainties. Considering the particular difficulties in preparing, transpor......An intercomparison exercise on Rn-222 determination in groundwater was organized between eight Nordic laboratories. The individual laboratory results were in most cases within 20% of the median value and within reported uncertainties. Considering the particular difficulties in preparing...

  8. High level radiation dosimetry in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Tetsuo

    1979-01-01

    The physical and biological dosimetries relating to cancer therapy with radiation were taken up at the first place in the late intercomparison on high LET radiation therapy in Japan-US cancer research cooperative study. The biological dosimetry, the large dose in biomedical research, the high dose rate in biomedical research and the practical dosimeters for pulsed neutrons or protons are outlined with the main development history and the characteristics which were obtained in the relating experiments. The clinical neutron facilities in the US and Japan involved in the intercomparison are presented. Concerning the experimental results of dosimeters, the relation between the R.B.E. compared with Chiba (Cyclotron in National Institute of Radiological Sciences) and the energy of deuterons or protons used for neutron production, the survival curves of three cultured cell lines derived from human cancers, after the irradiation of 250 keV X-ray, cyclotron neutrons of about 13 MeV and Van de Graaff neutrons of about 2 MeV, the hatchability of dry Artemia eggs at the several depths in an absorber stack irradiated by 60 MeV proton beam of 40, 120 and 200 krad, the peak skin reaction of mouse legs observed at various sets of average and instantaneous dose rates, and the peak skin reaction versus three instantaneous dose rates at fixed average dose rate of 7,300 rad/min are shown. These actual data were evaluated numerically and in relation to the physical meaning from the viewpoint of the fundamental aspect of cancer therapy, comparing the Japanese measured values to the US data. The discussion record on the high dose rate effect of low LET particles on biological substances and others is added. (Nakai, Y.)

  9. Unavoidable Accident

    OpenAIRE

    Grady, Mark F.

    2009-01-01

    In negligence law, "unavoidable accident" is the risk that remains when an actor has used due care. The counterpart of unavoidable accident is "negligent harm." Negligence law makes parties immune for unavoidable accident even when they have used less than due care. Courts have developed a number of methods by which they "sort" accidents to unavoidable accident or to negligent harm, holding parties liable only for the latter. These sorting techniques are interesting in their own right and als...

  10. Thermoluminescence albedo-neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Storruste, A.

    1986-10-01

    The report discusses neutron detection with respect to dosimetry and compares different thermoluminescent dosimetry materials for neutron dosimetry. Construction and calibration of a thermoluminescence albedo neutron dosemeter, developed by the authors, is described

  11. Analytical evaluation of dose measurement of critical accident at SILENE (Contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Takemi; Tonoike, Kotaro; Miyoshi, Yoshinori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) jointly organized SILENE Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison Exercise to intercompare the dose measurement systems of participating countries. Each participating country carried out dose measurements in the same irradiation field, and the measurement results were mutually compared. The authors participated in the exercise to measure the doses of gamma rays and neutron from SILENE by using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD's) and an alanine dosimeter. In this examination, the authors derived evaluation formulae for obtaining a tissue-absorbed dose from measured value (ambient dose equivalent) of TLD for neutron. We reported the tissue-absorbed dose computed using this evaluation formula to OECD/NEA. TLD's for neutron were irradiated in the TRACY facility to verify the evaluation formulae. The results of TLD's were compared with the calculations of MCNP and measurements with alanine dose meter. We found that the ratio of the dose by the evaluation formula to the measured value by the alanine dosimeter was 0.94 and the formula agreed within 6%. From examination of this TRACY, we can conclude that the value reported to OECD/NEA has equivalent accuracy. (author)

  12. Thermoluminescence in medical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, T.

    2011-10-01

    The dosimetry by thermoluminescence (Tl) is applied in the entire world for the dosimetry of ionizing radiations specially to personal and medical dosimetry. This dosimetry method has been very interesting for measures in vivo because the Tl dosimeters have the advantage of being very sensitive in a very small volume and they are also equivalent to tissue and they do not need additional accessories (for example, cable, electrometer, etc.) The main characteristics of the diverse Tl materials to be used in the radiation measures and practical applications are: the Tl curve, the share homogeneity, the signal stability after the irradiation, precision and exactitude, the response in function with the dose and the energy influence. In this work a brief summary of the advances of the radiations dosimetry is presented by means of the thermally stimulated luminescence and its application to the dosimetry in radiotherapy. (Author)

  13. The UK radiotherapy dosimetry audit network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, D.I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Radiotherapy dosimetry intercomparison in the UK has been carried out in limited studies since the 1960s. However the first national dosimetry intercomparison involving all radiotherapy centres was conducted in the late 1980s. This was based on visits to each centre, using ionisation chamber dosimetry. It audited megavoltage photon beam calibration and other single field parameters. It also measured doses in a three-field 'treatment' in a trapezoidal phantom constructed from epoxy-resin water-equivalent material and compared these to locally planned doses. This included off-axis points, oblique incidence, inhomogeneities, etc. The study found mean measured beam calibration doses close to stated values (ratio 1.003), with a standard deviation (sd) of the distribution of 1.5% and 97% of doses within the pro-set 3% tolerance. For the planned multi-field irradiations, mean dose ratios (measured/stated) were 1.01 (sd 3%, 90% of results within 5%). A number of discrepancies were identified, leading to improved practice. A follow up study (mid-1990s) for electron beam audit also repeated the megavoltage photon calibration audit. For photons, an improvement was noted (mean ratio 1.003, sd 1.0%, 100% within 3%), whilst for electron beams, the mean ratio of measured/stated dose was 0.994 (sd 1.8%, 94% within 3%, 99% within 5%). In parallel with - and growing out of - this, a national audit network began to develop in 1991/2. It utilised similar methodology to the intercomparison and a network approach to allow parallel developments of the scope of the system. The network has eight regional groups, each with up to 10 radiotherapy centres, serving average populations of 7-8 million. Each group organises audits of its own centres and has developed at its own pace. Most have piloted methodology, phantoms, etc. for new audits which can then be used by other groups. All 65 UK centres are included. The network is co-ordinated by an IPEM Steering Committee (current chair

  14. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  15. Internal sources dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savio, Eduardo

    1994-01-01

    The absorbed dose, need of estimation in risk evaluation in the application of radiopharmaceuticals in Nuclear Medicine practice,internal dosimetry,internal and external sources. Calculation methodology,Marinelli model,MIRD system for absorbed dose calculation based on biological parameters of radiopharmaceutical in human body or individual,energy of emitted radiations by administered radionuclide, fraction of emitted energy that is absorbed by target body.Limitation of the MIRD calculation model. A explanation of Marinelli method of dosimetry calculation,β dosimetry. Y dosimetry, effective dose, calculation in organs and tissues, examples. Bibliography .

  16. Dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.; Seda, J.; Trousil, J.

    1992-01-01

    The publication deals with a major field of ionizing radiation dosimetry, viz., integrating dosimetric methods, which are the basic means of operative dose determination. It is divided into the following sections: physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation; integrating dosimetric methods for low radiation doses (film dosimetry, nuclear emulsions, thermoluminescence, radiophotoluminescence, solid-state track detectors, integrating ionization dosemeters); dosimetry of high ionizing radiation doses (chemical dosimetric methods, dosemeters based on the coloring effect, activation detectors); additional methods applicable to integrating dosimetry (exoelectron emission, electron spin resonance, lyoluminescence, etc.); and calibration techniques for dosimetric instrumentation. (Z.S.). 422 refs

  17. The Community Intercomparison Suite (CIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Parris, Duncan; Schutgens, Nick; Cook, Nick; Kipling, Zak; Kershaw, Phil; Gryspeerdt, Ed; Lawrence, Bryan; Stier, Philip

    2017-04-01

    Earth observations (both remote and in-situ) create vast amounts of data providing invaluable constraints for the climate science community. Efficient exploitation of these complex and highly heterogeneous datasets has been limited however by the lack of suitable software tools, particularly for comparison of gridded and ungridded data, thus reducing scientific productivity. CIS (http://cistools.net) is an open-source, command line tool and Python library which allows the straight-forward quantitative analysis, intercomparison and visualisation of remote sensing, in-situ and model data. The CIS can read gridded and ungridded remote sensing, in-situ and model data - and many other data sources 'out-of-the-box', such as ESA Aerosol and Cloud CCI product, MODIS, Cloud CCI, Cloudsat, AERONET. Perhaps most importantly however CIS also employs a modular plugin architecture to allow for the reading of limitless different data types. Users are able to write their own plugins for reading the data sources which they are familiar with, and share them within the community, allowing all to benefit from their expertise. To enable the intercomparison of this data the CIS provides a number of operations including: the aggregation of ungridded and gridded datasets to coarser representations using a number of different built in averaging kernels; the subsetting of data to reduce its extent or dimensionality; the co-location of two distinct datasets onto a single set of co-ordinates; the visualisation of the input or output data through a number of different plots and graphs; the evaluation of arbitrary mathematical expressions against any number of datasets; and a number of other supporting functions such as a statistical comparison of two co-located datasets. These operations can be performed efficiently on local machines or large computing clusters - and is already available on the JASMIN computing facility. A case-study using the GASSP collection of in-situ aerosol observations

  18. Helium production measurements for neutron dosimetry and damage correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, H. IV; Lippincott, E.P.

    1978-01-01

    Helium accumulation fluence monitors (HAFM's), consisting of miniature vanadium capsules containing small, accurately-known amounts of 10 B or 6 Li, are being used routinely for neutron dosimetry measurements in breeder reactor environments. Additionally, solid wires of Al, Fe and Cu have been irradiated by 14.8-MeV neutrons from the d-T reaction, and measurements of the helium production along these wires have given detailed neutron fluence profiles. Additional materials with relatively high (n,α) cross sections are being tested in a wide variety of neutron environments to select HAFM sets that will provide spectral information by unfolding techniques. The mass spectrometric helium measurement technique has been demonstrated to produce results with better than 2% (1 sigma) absolute accuracy. Intercomparisons with other laboratories have demonstrated good correlations with radiometric and fission chamber dosimetry results

  19. Radiation-induced damage analysed by luminescence methods in retrospective dosimetry and emergency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woda, Clemens; Bassinet, Céline; Trompier, François; Bortolin, Emanuela; Della Monaca, Sara; Fattibene, Paola

    2009-01-01

    The increasing risk of a mass casualty scenario following a large scale radiological accident or attack necessitates the development of appropriate dosimetric tools for emergency response. Luminescence dosimetry has been reliably applied for dose reconstruction in contaminated settlements for several decades and recent research into new materials carried close to the human body opens the possibility of estimating individual doses for accident and emergency dosimetry using the same technique. This paper reviews the luminescence research into materials useful for accident dosimetry and applications in retrospective dosimetry. The properties of the materials are critically discussed with regard to the requirements for population triage. It is concluded that electronic components found within portable electronic devices, such as e.g. mobile phones, are at present the most promising material to function as a fortuitous dosimeter in an emergency response.

  20. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H. [eds.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

  1. Review of retrospective dosimetry techniques for external ionising radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsbury, E. A.; Bakhanova, E.; Barquinero, J. F.; Brai, M.; Chumak, V.; Correcher, V.; Darroudi, F.; Fattibene, P.; Gruel, G.; Guclu, I.; Horn, S.; Jaworska, A.; Kulka, U.; Lindholm, C.; Lloyd, D.; Longo, A.; Marrale, M.; Monteiro Gil, O.; Oestreicher, U.; Pajic, J.; Rakic, B.; Romm, H.; Trompier, F.; Veronese, I.; Voisin, P.; Vral, A.; Whitehouse, C. A.; Wieser, A.; Woda, C.; Wojcik, A.; Rothkamm, K.

    2011-01-01

    The current focus on networking and mutual assistance in the management of radiation accidents or incidents has demonstrated the importance of a joined-up approach in physical and biological dosimetry. To this end, the European Radiation Dosimetry Working Group 10 on 'Retrospective Dosimetry' has been set up by individuals from a wide range of disciplines across Europe. Here, established and emerging dosimetry methods are reviewed, which can be used immediately and retrospectively following external ionising radiation exposure. Endpoints and assays include dicentrics, translocations, premature chromosome condensation, micronuclei, somatic mutations, gene expression, electron paramagnetic resonance, thermoluminescence, optically stimulated luminescence, neutron activation, haematology, protein biomarkers and analytical dose reconstruction. Individual characteristics of these techniques, their limitations and potential for further development are reviewed, and their usefulness in specific exposure scenarios is discussed. Whilst no single technique fulfils the criteria of an ideal dosemeter, an integrated approach using multiple techniques tailored to the exposure scenario can cover most requirements. (authors)

  2. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database

  3. Calibration curves for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero C, C.; Brena V, M. . E-mail cgc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-01-01

    The generated information by the investigations in different laboratories of the world, included the ININ, in which settles down that certain class of chromosomal leisure it increases in function of the dose and radiation type, has given by result the obtaining of calibrated curves that are applied in the well-known technique as biological dosimetry. In this work is presented a summary of the work made in the laboratory that includes the calibrated curves for gamma radiation of 60 Cobalt and X rays of 250 k Vp, examples of presumed exposure to ionizing radiation, resolved by means of aberration analysis and the corresponding dose estimate through the equations of the respective curves and finally a comparison among the dose calculations in those people affected by the accident of Ciudad Juarez, carried out by the group of Oak Ridge, USA and those obtained in this laboratory. (Author)

  4. Development of radiation biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil; Son, Young Sook; Kim, Soo Kwan; Jang, Won Suk; Le, Sun Joo; Jee, Young Heun; Jung, Woo Jung

    1999-04-01

    Up until now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline (triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the premature chromosome condensation assay and apoptotic fragment assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiation dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with conventional chromosome aberration assay and micronuclei assay

  5. Development of radiation biological dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil; Son, Young Sook; Kim, Soo Kwan; Jang, Won Suk; Le, Sun Joo; Jee, Young Heun; Jung, Woo Jung

    1999-04-01

    Up until now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline (triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the premature chromosome condensation assay and apoptotic fragment assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiation dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with conventional chromosome aberration assay and micronuclei assay.

  6. Dosimetric intercomparison in Cobalt 60 unities using TLD-100 crystals and CaSO4: Dy + Ptfe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.; Azorin N, J.; Perez P, M.A.; Castillo H, M.; Flores F, F.; Guzman R, L.V.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to design and construct a phantom in basis of thermoplastic polymer of methyl methacrylate that is reutilizable and which allows to do an analysis of the absorbed doses in thermoluminescent crystals (Tl) exposed to cobalt 60 to establish the dosimetric intercomparison in cobalt units which allows to do the follow-up of the Quality assurance programs, standardization of calibration procedures, dosimetry and TLD post intercomparison in radiotherapy. This work allows also prove new thermoluminescent materials of national manufacture developed by Juan Azorin and collaborators as the CaSO 4 : Dy + Ptfe. This is a first study which is realized in Mexico with the system crystal-phantom for aims to intercomparison in cobalt 60 units. In this work participate eight unities of cobalt 60 of different trades belonging at four radiotherapy centers. The results of the dose intercomparison of the eight unities of cobalt 60 were in the range 0.95-1.13, taking in account that the values between 0.95 and 1.05 were considered acceptable in terms of the requirements by the standing legislation. (Author)

  7. Intercomparison exercise on internal dose assessment. Final report of a joint IAEA-IDEAS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-09-01

    There have been several intercomparison exercises organized already at national and international levels for the assessment of occupational exposure due to intakes of radionuclides. These intercomparison exercises revealed significant differences in approaches, methods and assumptions, and consequently in the results. Because of the relevance of the issue for internal dosimetrists, the IAEA organized a new intercomparison exercise in cooperation with the IDEAS project General Guidelines for the Evaluation of Incorporation Monitoring Data, launched under the 5th EU Framework Programme (EU Contract No. FIKR-CT2001-00160). This new intercomparison exercise focused especially on the effect of the guidelines for harmonization of internal dosimetry. It also considered the following aspects: - to provide possibilities for the participating laboratories to check the quality of their internal dose assessment methods in applying the recent ICRP recommendations (e.g. for the new respiratory tract model); - to compare different approaches in interpretation of internal contamination monitoring data; - to quantify the differences in internal dose assessments based on the new guidelines or on other procedures, respectively; - to provide some figures for the influence of the input parameters on the monitoring results; and - to provide a broad forum for information exchange. Several cases have been selected for this exercise with the aim of covering a wide range of practices in the nuclear fuel cycle and in medical applications. The cases were: 1. Acute intake of HTO; 2. Acute inhalation of fission products 137 Cs and 90 Sr; 3. Intake of 60 Co; 4. Repeated intakes of 131 I; 5. Intake of enriched uranium; 6. Single intake of plutonium radionuclides and 241 Am. An Internet based approach had been used for the presentation of the cases, collection of responses and potential discussion of the results. Solutions to these cases were reported by 80 participants worldwide. This report

  8. Preventing accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    As the most effective strategy for improving safety is to prevent accidents from occurring at all, the Volpe Center applies a broad range of research techniques and capabilities to determine causes and consequences of accidents and to identify, asses...

  9. Radiation protection dosimetry in medicine - Report of the working group n.9 of the European radiation dosimetry group (EURADOS) - coordinated network for radiation dosimetry (CONRAD - contract EC N) fp6-12684

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report present the results achieved within the frame of the work the WP 7 (Radiation Protection Dosimetry of Medical Staff) of the coordination action CONRAD (Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry) funded through the 6. EU Framework Program. This action was coordinated by EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group). EURADOS is an organization founded in 1981 to advance the scientific understanding and the technical development of the dosimetry of ionising radiation in the fields of radiation protection, radiobiology, radiation therapy and medical diagnosis by promoting collaboration between European laboratories. WP7 coordinates and promotes European research for the assessment of occupational exposures to staff in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology workplaces. Research is coordinated through sub-groups covering three specific areas: 1. Extremity dosimetry in nuclear medicine and interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in the specific fields of the hospitals and studies of doses to different parts of the hands, arms, legs and feet; 2. Practice of double dosimetry: this sub-group reviews and evaluates the different methods and algorithms for the use of dosemeters placed above and below lead aprons in large exposure during interventional radiology procedures, especially to determine effective doses to cardiologists during cardiac catheterization; and 3. Use of electronic personal dosemeters in interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in laboratories and hospitals, and intercomparisons with passive dosemeters with the aim to enable the formulation of standards. (authors)

  10. Chernobyl Experience in the Field of Retrospective Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, V.; Bakhanova, E.

    2011-01-01

    Chernobyl accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986 at NPP located less than 150 km north of Kiev, is the largest nuclear accident ever. Unprecedented scale of the accident was determined not only by the amount of released activity, but also by a number of population and workers involved and, therefore, exposed to enhanced doses of ionizing radiation. Population of the 30-km exclusion zone numbering about 116,000 persons of all ages and both genders was evacuated within days and weeks after the accident, emergency workers called ''liquidators of the accident'' (males age 20-50) were involved into clean-up and recovery for 5 years and their number is estimated as 600,000, about 300,000 are Ukrainian citizens. Due to unexpected and excessively large scale accident, none of residents had personal dosimeters, personal dosimetry of liquidators was not total, dosimetry techniques and practices were far from the optimum. As a result, an acute need for retrospective dose assessment was dictated by radiation protection and research considerations. This need was responded by implementation of wide scale dose reconstruction efforts, which covered main exposed cohorts and encompassed broad variety of newly developed methods: analytical (time-and-motion), modeling, biological and physical (EPR spectroscopy of teeth, TL of quartz). The presentation summarizes vast experience accumulated by RCRM in the field of retrospective dosimetry of large cohorts of exposed population and professionals. These dose reconstruction projects were implemented, in particular, in the framework of epidemiological studies, designed to follow-up medical consequences of Chernobyl accident and study health effects of ionizing radiation, in particular, Ukrainian-American studies of cataracts and leukemia among liquidators. Over 25 years passed after Chernobyl accident a broad variety of retrospective dosimetry problems was addressed by the team of Research Center for Radiation Medicine AMS Ukraine. In

  11. The intercomparison of aerosol codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, I.H.; Fermandjian, J.; Gauvain, J.

    1988-01-01

    The behavior of aerosols in a reactor containment vessel following a severe accident could be an important determinant of the accident source term to the environment. Various processes result in the deposition of the aerosol onto surfaces within the containment, from where they are much less likely to be released. Some of these processes are very sensitive to particle size, so it is important to model the aerosol growth processes: agglomeration and condensation. A number of computer codes have been written to model growth and deposition processes. They have been tested against each other in a series of code comparison exercises. These exercises have investigated sensitivities to physical and numerical assumptions and have also proved a useful means of quality control for the codes. Various exercises in which code predictions are compared with experimental results are now under way

  12. Worldwide QA networks for radiotherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, J.; Svensson, H.; Ibbott, G.

    2002-01-01

    institutions participating in the U.S. National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) co-operative clinical trials. The RPC currently monitors approximately 1300 centres throughout the USA, Canada and several other countries. The audit tools include, in addition to mailed TLD, review of the institution's dosimetry data, the treatment records of patients entered into trials, and the institution's QA programme. Anthropomorphic phantoms have been developed to evaluate specific treatment techniques. Other currently operating external audit programmes have been either associated with national and international clinical trial groups, similarly to RPC, e.g. EORTC (European Organisation for Research in Treatment of Cancer) in Europe, MRC (Medical Research Council) in the UK, or have been one-off national dosimetry intercomparison exercises, carried out to test various levels of radiotherapy dosimetry, e.g. in Sweden, the Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland, Australia. Some individual countries have set up comprehensive regular audits of radiotherapy centres, including QA programmes, equipment and dosimetry, e.g. Finland, New Zealand. The IAEA supports its Member States in developing national programmes for TLD based QA audits in radiotherapy dosimetry and whenever possible, establishes links between the national programmes and the IAEA's Dosimetry Laboratory. It disseminates its standardised TLD methodology and provides technical back up to national TLD networks assuring at the same time traceability to primary dosimetry standards. There are several countries (Argentina, Algeria, Brazil, China, Colombia, Cuba, Czech Republic, India, Israel, Malaysia, Philippines, Poland and Vietnam) that have established TLD programmes to audit radiotherapy beams in their countries with assistance of the IAEA. Recently a new IAEA project has been initiated for national TLD audits in non-reference conditions as significant numbers of deviations in non-reference situations, as used clinically on patients, have been

  13. Radiochromic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhiyong

    2002-01-01

    Radiochromic film dosimetry was developed to measure ionization irradiation dose for industry and medicine. At this time, there are no comprehensive guideline on the medical application, calibration method and densitometer system for medicine. The review gives update on Radiochromic film dosimetry used for medicine, including principles, film model and material, characteristics, calibration method, scanning densitometer system and medical application

  14. Personal dosimetry in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvoshnyanskaya, I.R.; Vdovichenko, V.G.; Lozbin, A.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    KATEP-AE Radiation Laboratory is the first organization in Kazakhstan officially licensed by the Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee to provide individual dosimetry services. The Laboratory was established according to the international standards. Nowadays it is the largest company providing personal dosimetry services in the Republic of Kazakhstan. (author)

  15. 100 years of solid state dosimetry and radiation protection dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The use of solid state detectors in radiation dosimetry has passed its 100th anniversary. The major applications of these detectors in radiation dosimetry have been in personal dosimetry, retrospective dosimetry, dating, medical dosimetry, the characterization of radiation fields, and also in microdosimetry and radiobiology research. In this introductory paper for the 15th International Conference, I shall speak of the history of solid state dosimetry and of the radiation measurement quantities that developed at the same time, mention some landmark developments in detectors and applications, speak a bit more about dosimetry and measurement quantities, and briefly look at the past and future

  16. External quality audit programmes for radiotherapy dosimetry and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, D.I.

    1997-01-01

    It is widely accepted that individual radiotherapy centres should have in place a comprehensive quality assurance programme on all the necessary steps for the delivery of safe accurate treatment. As regards the performance of radiotherapy equipment and dosimetry, the most widely used process of external checking has been dosimetry intercomparison, comparing independently measured doses to locally stated doses in a variety of conditions. These have been at a number of different levels: from basic beam calibration; up to and including exercises employing anatomic or pseudo-anatomic phantoms and incorporating tests of treatment planning equipment and procedures. Some of these have been one-off exercises, whilst others are continuing, or have given rise to on-going quality audit programmes on a national (or wider) basis. A number of these have evolved, or are evolving, into audits which include external checking of the achievement of standards in performance of treatment equipment, as well as in the dosimetry in each institution involved. The principles and methodologies of the various types of external checking programmes for treatment equipment and dosimetry are reviewed, covering the experimental approaches and the tolerances applied. What is included in a given programme will, of necessity, depend on the resources available and the purpose of the exercise. Methods and tolerances must be matched to endpoint. Tolerance levels must take into account the experimental uncertainties of the measurement methods employed. Finally, external audit can only be used to complement, and in conjunction with, institutional quality assurance programmes and not as a substitute for them

  17. Proceedings of the V. international symposium 'Actual problems of dosimetry'; Materialy V mezhdunarodnogo simpoziuma 'Aktual'nye problemy dozimetrii'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundas, S P; Okeanov, A E [International A. Sakharov environmental univ., Minsk (Belarus); Shevchuk, V E [Komitet po problemam posledstvij katastrofy na Chernobyl' skoj AEhS pri Sovete Ministrov Respubliki Belarus' , Minsk (Belarus)

    2005-10-01

    The main topics of the workshop were: monitoring and reconstruction of radiation doses at radiation accidents, biological dosimetry and markers of radiation effects as well as normative, metrological and technical aspects of dosimetric and radiometric monitoring.

  18. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Boyd, A.W.; Chadwick, K.H.; McDonald, J.C.; Miller, A.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation processing is a relatively young industry with broad applications and considerable commercial success. Dosimetry provides an independent and effective way of developing and controlling many industrial processes. In the sterilization of medical devices and in food irradiation, where the radiation treatment impacts directly on public health, the measurements of dose provide the official means of regulating and approving its use. In this respect, dosimetry provides the operator with a means of characterizing the facility, of proving that products are treated within acceptable dose limits and of controlling the routine operation. This book presents an up-to-date review of the theory, data and measurement techniques for radiation processing dosimetry in a practical and useful way. It is hoped that this book will lead to improved measurement procedures, more accurate and precise dosimetry and a greater appreciation of the necessity of dosimetry for radiation processing. (author)

  19. Requirements for the approval of dosimetry services under the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985: Pt. 1: External radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Guidance for dosimetry services on the requirements for approval by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is provided in three parts. This part sets out the procedures and criteria that will be used by HSE in the assessment of dosimetry services seeking approval in relation to external radiations (including accidents). (author)

  20. ERRICCA radon model intercomparison exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, C.E.; Albarracin, D.; Csige, I.; Graaf, E.R. van der; Jiranek, M.; Rehs, B.; Svoboda, Z.; Toro, L.

    1999-04-01

    Numerical models based on finite-difference or finite-element methods are used by various research groups in studies of radon-222 transport through soil and building materials. Applications range from design of radon remediation systems to more fundamental studies of radon transport. To ascertain that results obtained with these models are of good quality, it is necessary that such models are tested. This document reports on a benchmark test organized by the EU project ERRICCA: European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action. The test comprises the following cases: 1) Steady-state diffusive radon profiles in dry and wet soils, 2) steady-state entry of soil gas and radon into a house, 3) time-dependent radon exhalation from a building-material sample. These cases cover features such as: soil heterogeneity, anisotropy, 3D-effects, time dependency, combined advective and diffusive transport of radon, flux calculations, and partitioning of radon between air and water in soil pores. Seven groups participated in the intercomparison. All groups submitted results without knowing the results of others. For these results, relatively large group-to-group discrepancies were observed. Because of this, all groups scrutinized their computations (once more) and engaged in follow-up discussions with others. During this debugging process, problems were indeed identified (and eliminated). The accordingly revised results were in better agreement than those reported initially. Some discrepancies, however, still remain. All in all, it seems that the exercise has served its purpose and stimulated improvements relating to the quality of numerical modelling of radon transport. To maintain a high quality of modelling, it is recommended that additional exercises are carried out. (au)

  1. New advanced TLD system for space dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, I.; Szabo, B.; Vagvoelgyi, J.; Deme, S.; Szabo, P.P.; Csoeke, A.

    1983-10-01

    A new version of the TLD reader type PILLE has been developed for space applications. The earlier compact and portable device could also be used for measurements during space flights but its range was limited. A new bulb detector with easier handling has also been developed with an upper limit of linear dose response of 10 Gy. The range of this new and more versatile reader, NA206S, (1μGy-10 Gy) is 3 orders of magnitude higher than that of the earlier system; it also has increased sensitivity and decreased mass. It can be used not only in space applications but also for environmental monitoring or even in accident dosimetry. The measured dose value is displayed on a four-digit display with automatic range switch. Another new version, the NA206E, has been developed for environmental dosimetry; it can be operated from a battery or from the mains. (author)

  2. Accident management for severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.; Pratt, W.T.; Lehner, J.; Leonard, M.; Disalvo, R.; Sheron, B.

    1988-01-01

    The management of severe accidents in light water reactors is receiving much attention in several countries. The reduction of risk by measures and/or actions that would affect the behavior of a severe accident is discussed. The research program that is being conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission focuses on both in-vessel accident management and containment and release accident management. The key issues and approaches taken in this program are summarized. 6 refs

  3. Intercomparison of PIXE spectrometry software packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    During the year 2000, an exercise was organized to make a intercomparison of widely available software packages for analysis of particle induced X ray emission (PIXE) spectra. This TECDOC describes the method used in this intercomparison exercise and presents the results obtained. It also gives a general overview of the participating software packages. This includes basic information on their user interface, graphical presentation capabilities, physical phenomena taken in account, way of presenting results, etc. No recommendation for a particular software package or method for spectrum analysis is given. It is intended that the readers reach their own conclusions and make their own choices, according to their specific needs. This TECDOC will be useful to anyone involved in PIXE spectrum analysis. This TECDOC includes a companion CD with the complete set of test spectra used for intercomparison. The test spectra on this CD can be used to test any PIXE spectral analysis software package

  4. Intercomparison of alpha particle spectrometry software packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    Software has reached an important level as the 'logical controller' at different levels, from a single instrument to an entire computer-controlled experiment. This is also the case for software packages in nuclear instruments and experiments. In particular, because of the range of applications of alpha-particle spectrometry, software packages in this field are often used. It is the aim of this intercomparison to test and describe the abilities of four such software packages. The main objectives of the intercomparison were the ability of the programs to determine the peak areas and the peak area uncertainties, and the statistical control and stability of reported results. In this report, the task, methods and results of the intercomparison are presented in order to asist the potential users of such software and to stimulate the development of even better alpha-particle spectrum analysis software

  5. EURADOS intercomparisons on whole body and extremity dosemeters (2008–2009) – Results and comparison of different dosemeter designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadtmann, H.; Grimbergen, T.W.M.; Figel, M.; Romero, A.M.; Mcwhan, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    The EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group) working group (WG2) on Harmonisation of Individual Monitoring in Europe has shown that intercomparisons are fundamental for harmonisation of individual monitoring. As a result of these considerations, EURADOS started to prepare a series of continuous intercomparisons for individual monitoring services (IMS) in Europe. EURADOS has now successfully executed two intercomparison exercises, one for whole body dosemeters (2008) and one for extremity dosemeters (2009). Both exercises were performed without external funding, all costs being covered by the participants’ fees. More than 120 (!) different – mainly passive – dosimetry systems were tested from all over Europe until now and the results were analysed and compared. Although scientific studies were not the primary objective of these exercises specific additional information about the tested systems supplied by the participants for statistical analysis allows a detailed analysis of these results with respect to different parameters like dosemeter type, detector material, filter thickness or others design parameters. The influence of such parameters on the response values of the dosemeters is analysed and discussed in this paper. Both energy response as well as directional response for beta and photon radiation are considered. The influence of different design parameters e.g. detector material, is analysed by comparing the frequency distribution of the response values for different dosemeter groups. Pronounced differences for different detector materials (LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P and Li 2 B 4 O 7 /CaSO 4 ) were found. The paper gives a comprehensive overview on the performance of various European dosimetry services and the influence of the dosemeter design on the resulting response values.

  6. Intercomparison of the air kerma and absorbed dose to water therapy calibrations provided by NRPA and CPRH SSDLs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.A.; Campa, R.; Bjerke, H.; Jensen, H.

    2001-01-01

    The primary goal of any calibration laboratory is to routinely provide calibration services of the highest accuracy. To this end, the laboratory should be equipped with measuring standards of the highest metrological quality traceable to the international measuring system, should establish the appropriate calibration conditions and implement good measuring and working practices. In the case of the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) members of the IAEA/WHO Network of SSDLs, a great deal of the service quality relies on the appropriate laboratory design and implementation of the recommended calibration practices. Different approaches have been used by SSDLs to guarantee the traceability of the reference standard to the international measurement system. These include calibration of their standards at the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory, direct calibration at a primary standards laboratory or at a national calibration laboratory. The stability of reference and working standards is usually checked by means of radioactive check source measurements. The most comprehensive way that a laboratory could test its overall measurement competence is by taking part in comparisons with other laboratories of the same or higher metrological level. Regular efforts have been done at the regional scale by organizing such intercomparison exercises where the evaluation of the accuracy of secondary standards or the validation of new calibration methods has been the main objectives. Perhaps, the most important contribution to the assessment of SSDLs quality has been the periodical external measurement audit provided by the IAEA during the last years. Mos of these efforts have, however, only been focused on in-air and recently in-water calibration at the 60 Co radiation quality. An intercomparison of the therapy calibration services available at the SSDLs of the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) and of the Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) was organized

  7. Bio-dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidekova, V.; Kristova, R.; Stainova, A.; Deleva, S.; Popova, L.; Georgieva, D.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: The impact of ionizing radiation in medical, occupational and accidental human exposure leads to adverse side effects such as increased mortality and carcinogenesis. Information about the level of absorbed dose is important for risk assessment and for implementation of appropriate therapy. In most cases of actual or suspected exposure to ionizing radiation biological dosimetry is the only way to assess the absorbed dose. What you will learn: In this work we discuss the methods for biodosimetry and technological developments in their application in various emergency situations. The application of biological dosimetry and assessment of the influence of external factors in the conduct of epidemiological studies of radiation effects in protracted low-dose ionizing radiation on humans is presented. Discussion: The results of cytogenetic analysis and biological evaluation of absorbed dose based on the analysis of dicentrics in peripheral blood lymphocytes of five people injured in a severe radiation accident in Bulgaria in 2011 are presented. The assessed individual doses of the injured persons are in the range of 1.2 to 5,2 Gy acute homogeneous irradiation and are in line with the estimates of international experts. Conclusion: An algorithm to conduct a biological assessment of the dose in limited radiation accidents and in large scale radiation accidents with large number irradiated or suspected for exposure persons is proposed

  8. Revue of some dosimetry and dose assessment European projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolognese-Milsztajn, T.; Frank, D.; Lacoste, V.; Pihet, P.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Within the 5. Framework Programme of the European Commission several project dealing with dosimetry and dose assessment for internal and external exposure have been supported. A revue of the results of some of them is presented in this paper. The EURADOS network which involved 50 dosimetry institutes in EUROPE has coordinated the project DOSIMETRY NETWORK: the main results achieved within this action are the following: - The release on the World Wide Web of the EURADOS Database of Dosimetry Research Facilities; - The realisation of the report 'Harmonization of Individual Monitoring (IM) in Europe'; - The continuation of the intercomparisons programme of environmental radiation monitoring systems; - The realisation of the report Cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew. The EVIDOS project aimed at evaluating state of the art dosimetry techniques in representative workplaces of the nuclear industry with complex mixed neutron-photon radiation fields. This paper summarises the main findings from a practical point of view. Conclusions and recommendations will be given concerning characterisation of radiation fields, methods to derive radiation protection quantities and dosimeters results. The IDEA project aimed to improve the assessment of incorporated radionuclides through developments of advanced in-vivo and bioassay monitoring techniques and making use of such enhancements for improvements in routine monitoring. The primary goal was to categorize those new developments regarding their potential and eligibility for the routine monitoring community. The costs of monitoring for internal exposures in the workplace are usually significantly greater than the equivalent costs for external exposures. There is therefore a need to ensure that resources are employed with maximum effectiveness. The EC-funded OMINEX (Optimisation of Monitoring for Internal Exposure) project has developed methods for optimising the design and implementation of

  9. Polymer gel dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldock, C [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney (Australia); De Deene, Y [Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Doran, S [CRUK Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research Group, Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom); Ibbott, G [Radiation Physics, UT M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Jirasek, A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Lepage, M [Centre d' imagerie moleculaire de Sherbrooke, Departement de medecine nucleaire et de radiobiologie, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada); McAuley, K B [Department of Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON (Canada); Oldham, M [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Schreiner, L J [Cancer Centre of South Eastern Ontario, Kingston, ON (Canada)], E-mail: c.baldock@physics.usyd.edu.au, E-mail: yves.dedeene@ugent.be

    2010-03-07

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented. (topical review)

  10. Intercalibration of radiological measurements for surveillance purposes of the internal dosimetry laboratory coordinated by the IAEA; Intercalibracion de mediciones radiologicas para fines de vigilancia del laboratorio de dosimetria interna coordinada por el OIEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro L, M.M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2002-07-15

    The ININ of Mexico participated in this intercomparison organized by the IAEA in 2000. The objective of this activity is that the dosimetry laboratories that participate can validate the programs of internal dosimetry, with the purpose of improving its capacity in the evaluation of the internal dose and have access to a mechanism to evaluate its dosimetry system under real conditions. The specific objectives of this intercomparison were: 1. To evaluate the participant's capacity to manage the measurements of individual monitoring in terms of the activity in the phantom. 2. To provide the access to the unique calibration resources that otherwise would not be available. 3. To compare the operation of several detection systems, the geometry, phantoms, calibration methods and methods for the evaluation of activity of the radionuclide used by each institution. 4. To provide the independent verification of the direct measurement methods of the dosimetry service. (Author)

  11. Using operational equipment to read accident dosemeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, R T; Vigil, M M; Martinez, W A

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of accident dosemeters usually involves the use of laboratory-based counting equipment. Gamma spectrometers are used for indium, copper and gold, and alpha-beta detectors for sulphur. This equipment is usually not easily transported due to the shielding required and the weight and delicacy of the counters. For intercomparison studies that require reading the dosemeters on site, a transportable system is required unless the site operating the study can count samples for all the participants. In the case of an actual accident these systems would have a difficulty in counting a large number of accident dosemeters. In an accident, personnel are usually subdivided according to their level of exposure. Those exposed to higher doses are treated immediately. An alternate system should be made available to handle the dosemeters worn by those personnel are likely to receive lower doses. Improvements in portable operational equipment for gamma and beta monitoring allow their use as spectrometers. Such a system was used for the SILENE intercomparison conducted at IRSN Valduc on 12 June and 19, 2002, and the preliminary results compared well with the other participants.

  12. SU-F-P-15: Report On AAPM TG 178 Gamma Knife Dosimetry and Quality Assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetsch, S [San Diego Medical Physics, Solana Beach, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: AAPM Task Group 178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance was formed in August, 2008. The Task Group has 12 medical physicists, two physicians and two consultants. Methods: A round robin dosimetry intercomparison of proposed ionization chambers, electrometer and dosimetry phantoms was conducted over a 15 month period in 2011 and 2012 (Med Phys 42, 11, Nov, 2015). The data obtained at 9 institutions (with ten different Elekta Gamma Knife units) was analyzed by the lead author using several protocols. Results: The most consistent results were obtained using the Elekta ABS 16cm diameter phantom, with the TG-51 protocol modified as recommended by Alfonso et al (Med Phys 35, 11, Nov 2008). A key white paper (Med Phys, in press) sponsored by Elekta Corporation, was used to obtain correction factors for the ionization chambers and phantoms used in this intercomparison. Consistent results were obtained for both Elekta Gamma Knife Model 4C and Gamma Knife Perfexion units as measured with each of two miniature ionization chambers Conclusion: The full TG 178 report gives clinical history and background of gamma stereotactic radiosurgery, clinical examples and history, quality assurance recommendations and outline of possible dosimetry protocols. The report will be reviewed by the AAPM Working Group on Recommendations for Radiotherapy External Beam Quality Assurance and then by the AAPM Science Council before publication in Medical Physics. Consultant to Elekta, Inc.

  13. SU-F-P-15: Report On AAPM TG 178 Gamma Knife Dosimetry and Quality Assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetsch, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: AAPM Task Group 178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance was formed in August, 2008. The Task Group has 12 medical physicists, two physicians and two consultants. Methods: A round robin dosimetry intercomparison of proposed ionization chambers, electrometer and dosimetry phantoms was conducted over a 15 month period in 2011 and 2012 (Med Phys 42, 11, Nov, 2015). The data obtained at 9 institutions (with ten different Elekta Gamma Knife units) was analyzed by the lead author using several protocols. Results: The most consistent results were obtained using the Elekta ABS 16cm diameter phantom, with the TG-51 protocol modified as recommended by Alfonso et al (Med Phys 35, 11, Nov 2008). A key white paper (Med Phys, in press) sponsored by Elekta Corporation, was used to obtain correction factors for the ionization chambers and phantoms used in this intercomparison. Consistent results were obtained for both Elekta Gamma Knife Model 4C and Gamma Knife Perfexion units as measured with each of two miniature ionization chambers Conclusion: The full TG 178 report gives clinical history and background of gamma stereotactic radiosurgery, clinical examples and history, quality assurance recommendations and outline of possible dosimetry protocols. The report will be reviewed by the AAPM Working Group on Recommendations for Radiotherapy External Beam Quality Assurance and then by the AAPM Science Council before publication in Medical Physics. Consultant to Elekta, Inc

  14. Theoretical basis for dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry is fundamental to all fields of science dealing with radiation effects and is concerned with problems which are often intricate as hinted above. A firm scientific basis is needed to face increasing demands on accurate dosimetry. This chapter is an attempt to review and to elucidate the elements for such a basis. Quantities suitable for radiation dosimetry have been defined in the unique work to coordinate radiation terminology and usage by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, ICRU. Basic definitions and terminology used in this chapter conform with the recent ''Radiation Quantities and Units, Report 33'' of the ICRU

  15. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both by international organizations (IAEA) and national laboratories have helped to improve the reliability of dose measurements. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading to traceable and reliable dosimetry are discussed. (author)

  16. Calculation codes in radioprotection, radio-physics and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, S.; Laedermann, J.P.; Bochud, F.; Ferragut, A.; Bordy, J.M.; Parisi, L.L.; Abou-Khalil, R.; Longeot, M.; Kitsos, S.; Groetz, J.E.; Villagrasa, C.; Daures, J.; Martin, E.; Henriet, J.; Tsilanizara, A.; Farah, J.; Uyttenhove, W.; Perrot, Y.; De Carlan, L.; Vivier, A.; Kodeli, I.; Sayah, R.; Hadid, L.; Courageot, E.; Fritsch, P.; Davesne, E.; Michel, X.

    2010-01-01

    anthropo-radiometry (J. Farah); 17 - evaluation of the GUINEVERE experiment shielding (W. Uyttenhove); 18 - GATE/GEANT4 validation for external radiotherapy (Y. Perrot); 19 - European intercomparison of Monte Carlo code users for the kerma uncertainty calculation in air near a 137 Cs source (L. De Carlan); 20 - decision threshold and detection limit in gamma dose rate measurement (A. Vivier); 21 - uncertainties spreading from basic data of nuclear reactors key parameters (I. Kodeli); 22 - evaluation of secondary neutrons-related doses received by patients treated by proton-therapy (R. Sayah); 23 - radioprotection optimization for nuclear medicine patients: doses evaluation for the new reference voxelized fantoms of the CIPR (international commission of radiological protection) (L. Hadid); 24 - radiological accident reconstruction using numerical tools: towards a more and more realistic representation of the victim (E. Courageot); 25 - new tools for treatment optimization after internal contamination by Pu/Am/Cm (P. Fritsch); 26 - development of an expert system for the consideration of uncertainties in internal contamination monitoring (E. Davesne); 27 - CUTADOSE, a calculation code for skin dose estimation after skin contamination (X. Michel). (J.S.)

  17. Intercomparison of radiation protection devices in a high-energy stray neutron field. Part III: Instrument response

    CERN Document Server

    Silari, M; Beck, P; Bedogni, R; Cale, E; Caresana, M; Domingo, C; Donadille, L; Dubourg, N; Esposito, A; Fehrenbacher, G; Fernández, F; Ferrarini, M; Fiechtner, A; Fuchs, A; García, M J; Golnik, N; Gutermuth, F; Khurana, S; Klages, Th; Latocha, M; Mares, V; Mayer, S; Radon, T; Reithmeier, H; Rollet, S; Roos, H; Rühm, W; Sandri, S; Schardt, D; Simmer, G; Spurný, F; Trompier, F; Villa-Grasa, C; Weitzenegger, E; Wiegel, B; Wielunski, M; Wissmann, F; Zechner, A; Zielczyński, M

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission has funded within its 6th Framework Programme a three-year project (2005–2007) called CONRAD, COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry. The organizational framework for this project was provided by the European radiation Dosimetry Group EURADOS. Work Package 6 of CONRAD dealt with “complex mixed radiation fields at workplaces” and in this context it organised a benchmark exercise, which included both measurements and calculations, in a stray radiation field at a high-energy particle accelerator at GSI, Germany. The aim was to intercompare the response of several types of active detectors and passive dosemeters in a well-characterised workplace field. The Monte Carlo simulations of the radiation field and the experimental determination of the neutron spectra with various Bonner Sphere Spectrometers are discussed in Rollet et al. (2008) and in Wiegel et al. (2008). This paper focuses on the intercomparison of the response of the dosemeters in terms of ambient dose equivalent. Th...

  18. Analysis of the REAL-84 intercomparison exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    The document presents the conclusions and the recommendations of the specialists' meeting organized by the IAEA and held in Jackson Hole (USA) between 27-29 May 1987 as a result of the analysis of the REAL-84 intercomparison exercise for improving the accuracy in radiation damage predictions in the neutron environment using good quality input data and proper calculation methods. 6 refs

  19. Nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

  20. Blind intercomparison of nuclear models for predicting charged particle emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, K.; Cierjacks, S.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron activation data are important for dosimetry, radiation-damage and production of long-lived activities. For fusion energy applications, it is required to develop 'low-activation materials' from the viewpoints of safety, maintenance and waste disposal. Existing evaluated activation cross-section libraries are to a large extent based on nuclear-model calculations. The former Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Data Committee, NEANDC, (presently replaced by the NEA Nuclear Science Committee) organized the working group on activation cross sections. The first meeting of the group was held in 1989, and it was then agreed that a blind intercomparison of nuclear-model calculations should be undertaken in order to test the predictive power of the theoretical calculations. As a first stage the working group selected the reactions 60g Co(n,p) 60 Fe and 60m Co(n,p) 60 Fe, for which no experimental data were available, in the energy range from 1 to 20 MeV. The preliminary results compiled at the NEA Data Bank were sent to each participant and a meeting was held during the International Conference on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology in Julich 1991 to discuss the results. Following the outcome of the discussion in Julich, it was decided to extend this intercomparison. In the second-stage calculation, the same optical-model parameters were employed for neutrons, protons and α-particles, i.e., V = 50 MeV, W = 10 MeV, r = 1.25 fm and a = 0.6 fm with the Woods-Saxon volume-type form factors. No spin-orbit interaction was considered. Concerning the level density, the Fermi gas model with a = A/8 MeV -1 was assumed without pairing corrections. Moreover, gamma-ray competition was neglected to simplify the calculation. This report describes the final results of the blind comparison. Section 2 deals with a survey of the received contributions. The final results are graphically presented in section 3. 67 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs

  1. Harmonization of internal dosimetry procedures in Latin America - ARCAL/IAEA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, D.; Dantas, B.M.; Juliao, L. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria - Av. Salvador Allende S/N, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, RJ 22780-160 (Brazil); Cruz Suarez, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Rojo, A.; Serdero, N. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Videla, R. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Puerta, J.A. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia); Lopez, G. [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Ciudad de la Habana (Cuba); Alfaro, M.M. [Instituto nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico); Gonzales, S. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru); Hermida, J.C. [Hospital de Clinicas, Montevideo (Uruguay); Navarro, T. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Mediciones Ambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Under the auspices of the Regional Coordination Agreement for Latin America, representatives of the eight member states have participated in a project to improve radiological protection for workers exposed to unsealed sources of radiation. The design of the project was based on information obtained from a questionnaire circulated among the participants, from which the initial status of internal dosimetry services in each country was characterised. The objective of the project is to harmonize internal dosimetry procedures, with reference to International Atomic Energy Agency recommendations. After the implementation of new procedures and personnel training, four intercomparison exercises were carried out: measurement of iodine in thyroid phantoms, measurement of gamma emitters in urine samples, measurement of beta emitters in urine samples and internal dose assessments. This project has resulted in important improvements in internal dosimetry services in the region. (authors)

  2. Reproducibility in cyclostratigraphy: initiating an intercomparison project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnesael, Matthias; De Vleeschouwer, David; Zeeden, Christian; Claeys, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    The study of astronomical climate forcing and the application of cyclostratigraphy have experienced a spectacular growth over the last decades. In the field of cyclostratigraphy a broad range in methodological approaches exist. However, comparative study between the different approaches is lacking. Different cases demand different approaches, but with the growing importance of the field, questions arise about reproducibility, uncertainties and standardization of results. The radioisotopic dating community, in particular, has done far-reaching efforts to improve reproducibility and intercomparison of radioisotopic dates and their errors. To satisfy this need in cyclostratigraphy, we initiate a comparable framework for the community. The aims are to investigate and quantify reproducibility of, and uncertainties related to cyclostratigraphic studies and to provide a platform to discuss the merits and pitfalls of different methodologies, and their applicabilities. With this poster, we ask the feedback from the community on how to design this comparative framework in a useful, meaningful and productive manner. In parallel, we would like to discuss how reproducibility should be tested and what uncertainties should stand for in cyclostratigraphy. On the other hand, we intend to trigger interest for a cyclostratigraphic intercomparison project. This intercomparison project would imply the analysis of artificial and genuine geological records by individual researchers. All participants would be free to determine their method of choice. However, a handful of criterions will be required for an outcome to be comparable. The different results would be compared (e.g. during a workshop or a special session), and the lessons learned from the comparison could potentially be reported in a review paper. The aim of an intercomparison project is not to rank the different methods according to their merits, but to get insight into which specific methods are most suitable for which

  3. Dosimetry of internal emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The Dosimetry of Internal Emitter Program endeavors to refine the correlation between radiation dose and observed biological effects. The program is presently engaged in the development of studies that will demonstrate the applicability of microdosimetry models developed under the Microdosimetry of Internal Sources Program. The program also provides guidance and assistance to Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Biology Department in the dosimetric analysis of internally deposited radionuclides. This report deals with alpha particle dosimetry plutonium 239 inhalation, and in vitro studies of chromosomal observations

  4. Individual neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauricio, C.L.P.

    1987-01-01

    The most important concepts and development in individual neutron dosimetry are presented, especially the dosimetric properties of the albedo technique. The main problem in albedo dosimetry is to calibrate the dosemeter in the environs of each neutron source. Some of the most used calibration techniques are discussed. The IRD albedo dosemeter used in the routine neutron individual monitoring is described in detail. Its dosimetric properties and calibration methods are discussed. (Author) [pt

  5. Evaluation of Dosimetry Check software for IMRT patient-specific quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanasamy, Ganesh; Zalman, Travis; Ha, Chul S; Papanikolaou, Niko; Stathakis, Sotirios

    2015-05-08

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of the Dosimetry Check system for patient-specific IMRT QA. Typical QA methods measure the dose in an array dosimeter surrounded by homogenous medium for which the treatment plan has been recomputed. With the Dosimetry Check system, fluence measurements acquired on a portal dosimeter is applied to the patient's CT scans. Instead of making dose comparisons in a plane, Dosimetry Check system produces isodose lines and dose-volume histograms based on the planning CT images. By exporting the dose distribution from the treatment planning system into the Dosimetry Check system, one is able to make a direct comparison between the calculated dose and the planned dose. The versatility of the software is evaluated with respect to the two IMRT techniques - step and shoot and volumetric arc therapy. The system analyzed measurements made using EPID, PTW seven29, and IBA MatriXX, and an intercomparison study was performed. Plans from patients previously treated at our institution with treated anatomical site on brain, head & neck, liver, lung, and prostate were analyzed using Dosimetry Check system for any anatomical site dependence. We have recommendations and possible precautions that may be necessary to ensure proper QA with the Dosimetry Check system.

  6. Intercomparison and validation of computer codes for thermalhydraulic safety analysis of heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    Activities within the frame of the IAEA's Technical Working Group on Advanced Technologies for HWRs (TWG-HWR) are conducted in a project within the IAEA's subprogramme on nuclear power reactor technology development. The objective of the activities on HWRs is to foster, within the frame of the TWG-HWR, information exchange and co-operative research on technology development for current and future HWRs, with an emphasis on safety, economics and fuel resource sustainability. One of the activities recommended by the TWG-HWR was an international standard problem exercise entitled: Intercomparison and validation of computer codes for thermalhydraulics safety analyses. Intercomparison and validation of computer codes used in different countries for thermalhydraulics safety analyses will enhance the confidence in the predictions made by these codes. However, the intercomparison and validation exercise needs a set of reliable experimental data. The RD-14M Large-Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) test B9401 simulating HWR LOCA behaviour that was conducted by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL) was selected for this validation project. This report provides a comparison of the results obtained from six participating countries, utilizing four different computer codes. General conclusions are reached and recommendations made

  7. JENDL Dosimetry File

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Masaharu; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Katsuhei; Iwasaki, Shin; Sakurai, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Yujiro; Nakagawa, Tsuneo.

    1992-03-01

    The JENDL Dosimetry File based on JENDL-3 was compiled and integral tests of cross section data were performed by the Dosimetry Integral Test Working Group of the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee. Data stored in the JENDL Dosimetry File are the cross sections and their covariance data for 61 reactions. The cross sections were mainly taken from JENDL-3 and the covariances from IRDF-85. For some reactions, data were adopted from other evaluated data files. The data are given in the neutron energy region below 20 MeV in both of point-wise and group-wise files in the ENDF-5 format. In order to confirm reliability of the data, several integral tests were carried out; comparison with the data in IRDF-85 and average cross sections measured in fission neutron fields, fast reactor spectra, DT neutron fields and Li(d, n) neutron fields. As a result, it has been found that the JENDL Dosimetry File gives better results than IRDF-85 but there are some problems to be improved in future. The contents of the JENDL Dosimetry File and the results of the integral tests are described in this report. All of the dosimetry cross sections are shown in a graphical form. (author) 76 refs

  8. Dosimetry and Calibration Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Dosimetry and Calibration Section fulfils two tasks within CERN's Radiation Protection Group: the Individual Dosimetry Service monitors more than 5000 persons potentially exposed to ionizing radiation on the CERN sites, and the Calibration Laboratory verifies throughout the year, at regular intervals, over 1000 instruments, monitors, and electronic dosimeters used by RP Group. The establishment of a Quality Assurance System for the Individual Dosimetry Service, a requirement of the new Swiss Ordinance for personal dosimetry, put a considerable workload on the section. Together with an external consultant it was decided to identify and then describe the different 'processes' of the routine work performed in the dosimetry service. The resulting Quality Manual was submitted to the Federal Office for Public Health in Bern in autumn. The CERN Individual Dosimetry Service will eventually be officially endorsed after a successful technical test in March 1999. On the technical side, the introduction of an automatic development machine for gamma films was very successful. It processes the dosimetric films without an operator being present, and its built-in regeneration mechanism keeps the concentration of the processing chemicals at a constant level

  9. JENDL Dosimetry File

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, Masaharu; Iguchi, Tetsuo [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kobayashi, Katsuhei [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.; Iwasaki, Shin [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sakurai, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Yujior; Nakagawa, Tsuneo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1992-03-15

    The JENDL Dosimetry File based on JENDL-3 was compiled and integral tests of cross section data were performed by the Dosimetry Integral Test Working Group of the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee. Data stored in the JENDL Dosimetry File are the cross sections and their covariance data for 61 reactions. The cross sections were mainly taken from JENDL-3 and the covariances from IRDF-85. For some reactions, data were adopted from other evaluated data files. The data are given in the neutron energy region below 20 MeV in both of point-wise and group-wise files in the ENDF-5 format. In order to confirm reliability of the data, several integral tests were carried out; comparison with the data in IRDF-85 and average cross sections measured in fission neutron fields, fast reactor spectra, DT neutron fields and Li(d,n) neutron fields. As a result, it has been found that the JENDL Dosimetry File gives better results than IRDF-85 but there are some problems to be improved in future. The contents of the JENDL Dosimetry File and the results of the integral tests are described in this report. All of the dosimetry cross sections are shown in a graphical form.

  10. High-dosage dosimetry programme of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, K.

    1999-01-01

    The high-dose dosimetry programme was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1977. Like any other Agency programme, this one has various activities. These cover: research contracts and research agreements, co-ordinated research projects (CRP), training courses, and laboratory-based activities. The Agency's dose quality audit service (International Dose Assurance Service, IDAS), initiated in 1985, is one of the key elements of the programme. At earlier times, the technical part was operated through a laboratory in Germany. However, after purchasing the Bruker ESR spectrometer, the entire service has been operated from the Agency since 1992. This audit service has served well the needs of various institutes around the world involved with radiation processing. We have had two Co-ordinated Research Projects (the second one is in its last year) over the last several years. Both were/are aimed at standardization of dosimetry for radiation processing. Nine or ten participants of each CRP were about evenly distributed between the developed and developing Member States. In collaboration with the Food and Environmental Protection Section and the Industrial Applications and Chemistry Section, the Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics Section has participated in several training courses; these have been mainly regional courses. This collaboration has worked well since such courses combine specific radiation processing applications with the needs of good dosimetry and process control. Also, the Agency has organised several dose intercomparisons in recent time. The activities of the high-dose dosimetry programme since the last symposium (November 1990) are reviewed here. (author)

  11. Dosimetry on the radiological risks prevention in radiotherapy; La dosimetria en la prevencion de riesgos radiologicos en radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornet R, O. M.; Perez G, F., E-mail: nuclear2@citmahlg.holguin.inf.cu [Delegacion Territorial del CITMA, Peralta 16 esq. P. Feria, Rpto. Peralta, 80400 Holguin (Cuba)

    2014-08-15

    Dosimetry in its various forms plays a determining role on the radiological risks prevention in radiotherapy. To prove this in this paper is shown an analysis based on the risk matrix method, how the dosimetry can influence in each stages of a radiotherapy service; installation and acceptance, operation, maintenance and calibration. For each one of these stages the role that can play is analyzed as either the initiating event of a radiological accident or limiting barrier of these events of the dosimetric processes used for the individual dosimetry, the area monitoring, fixed or portable, for radiation beam dosimetry and of the patients for a radiotherapy service with cobalt-therapy equipment. The result of the study shows that the application of a prospective approach in the role evaluation of dosimetry in the prevention and mitigation of the consequences of a radiological accident in radiotherapy is crucial and should be subject to permanent evaluation at each development stage of these services. (author)

  12. Subsidies to cytogenetic dosimetry technique generated from analysis of results of Goiania radiological accident; Subsidios a tecnica de dosimetria citogenetica gerados a partir da analise de resultados obtidos com o acidente radiologico de Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, Adriana Teixeira

    1993-06-15

    Following the Goiania radiation accident, which occurred in September of 1987, peripheral lymphocytes from 129 exposed or potentially exposed individuals were analyzed for the frequency of unstable chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and centric rings) to estimate absorbed radiation dose. During the emergency period, the doses were assessed to help immediate medical treatment. After this initial estimation, doses were reassessed using in vitro calibration curves produced after the accident, more suitable for the conditions prevailing in Goiania. Dose estimates for 24 subjects exceeded 0,5 Gy. Among those, 15 individuals exceeded 1,0 Gy and 5 exceeded 3,0 Gy. None of the estimates exceeded 6,0 Gy. Four of the subjects died. During the emergency period, a cytogenetic follow-up of 14 of the exposed patients was started, aiming to observe the mean lifetime of lymphocytes containing dicentric and ring aberrations. The results suggest that for the highly exposed individuals the disappearance rate of unstable aberrations follows a two- term exponential function. Up to 470 days after the exposure, there is a rapid fall in the aberration frequency. After 470 days, the disappearance rate is very slow, almost constant. The estimated average half-time of elimination of dicentrics and rings among the highly exposed group (> 1 Gy) was 140 days for the initial period after the exposure (up to 470 days). This value is significantly shorter than the usually accepted value of 3 years reported in the literature. Mean disappearance functions of unstable chromosome aberrations were inferred, to be applied in accident situations in which there is a blood sampling delay. Statistical analysis of possible correlations between the individual half-times and biological parameters, such as sex, age, leukopenia level shown during the critical period, absorbed dose (initial frequency of chromosomal aberrations) and the administration of the bone marrow stimulating factor (rHuGM-CSF) was

  13. Image in nuclear dosimetry using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinsburg, G.; Matsuoka, M.; Watanabe, S.

    1987-01-01

    A low cost methodology to produce images of internal sick organs by radioisotopic intake, is presented. Dosimetries of thermoluminescent material and Teflon (ratio:50%) in bidimensional matrix shape are used with a Pb collimator. This collimator-bidimensional matrix system was tested ''in vivo'' and in thyroid phantoms using 99m Tc. A comparative evaluation between this method and the scintigraphy one is presented. (M.A.C.) [pt

  14. Improvement of dosimetry for I-131 therapy of lung metastases with special regard to children with thyroid cancer from Belarus following the Chernobyl accident. Final report 1997-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassmann, M.; Reiners, C.; Allen, S.

    2000-01-01

    The main problem in treating disseminated pulmonary metastases in children with papillary thyroid cancer is to find a balance between an insufficient dose for the ablation of metastatic tissue and unnecessary high radiation exposure to the lungs and the bone marrow. This can hardly be achieved without quantitative dosimetry for the more or less inhomogeneously distributed 1-131 in high dosed radioiodine therapy. The major goal of this project is to improve the concept for treating patients with lung metastases induced by thyroid carcinoma. Almost all of the patients with lung metastases are treated in more than one therapy course. After each course the knowledge of the doses to the tumor tissue, the lung, and the bone marrow is of crucial importance for a well funded decision about further treatment. In the cases of either the tumor doses being inefficient for ablation or substantial impairment of residuing pulmonary metastases or the cumulated doses to lung and bone marrow exceeds empirically defined ''critical'' limits the fractionated radioiodine treatment has to be stopped to avoid side effects such as lung fibrosis or leukemia in patients with papillary thyroid cancer. The decision which has to be taken must consider that prognosis with respect to mortality and quality of life even in the case of persisting lung metastases may be better than after the induction of progressive pulmonary fibrosis. Up to now, patients are treated more or less empirically until complete remission is achieved and no tumor uptake is visible in post-therapeutic scans with a gamma camera or the cumulative activity of 1-131 taken up by the lungs exceeds 3 GBq (80 mCi) according to recommendations given by Benua and Leaper in 1962. This project combines empirical approaches with theoretical research at cellular level to optimize the dose to the tumor cells with protection of healthy lung tissue. (orig.)

  15. IAEA intercomparison exercises of thyroid measurement: performance of Latin American and Caribbean laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, B.M.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Cruz-Suarez, R.

    2016-01-01

    131 I is widely used in Latin America and Caribbean Region in the field of nuclear medicine and has been recognised as one of the main sources of potential intake of radionuclides by the staff. The In Vivo Monitoring laboratory of the Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD-CNEN-Brazil) organised three intercomparison exercises (2005, 2009 and 2013) in the scope of IAEA technical cooperation projects RLA9049 and RLA9066 aimed to disseminate and harmonise the technique for measuring 131 I in the human thyroid. The number of participants in Latin America increased from 9 to 20 institutions from 7 and 13 countries, respectively, over the last 10 y. The participants have improved significantly their ability on the in vivo measurement technique. In the 2013 round all laboratories which reported results presented performances in an acceptable range according to the ISO criteria indicating the benefit of such exercises in the region. (authors)

  16. Bayesian Methods for Radiation Detection and Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter G. Groer

    2002-01-01

    We performed work in three areas: radiation detection, external and internal radiation dosimetry. In radiation detection we developed Bayesian techniques to estimate the net activity of high and low activity radioactive samples. These techniques have the advantage that the remaining uncertainty about the net activity is described by probability densities. Graphs of the densities show the uncertainty in pictorial form. Figure 1 below demonstrates this point. We applied stochastic processes for a method to obtain Bayesian estimates of 222Rn-daughter products from observed counting rates. In external radiation dosimetry we studied and developed Bayesian methods to estimate radiation doses to an individual with radiation induced chromosome aberrations. We analyzed chromosome aberrations after exposure to gammas and neutrons and developed a method for dose-estimation after criticality accidents. The research in internal radiation dosimetry focused on parameter estimation for compartmental models from observed compartmental activities. From the estimated probability densities of the model parameters we were able to derive the densities for compartmental activities for a two compartment catenary model at different times. We also calculated the average activities and their standard deviation for a simple two compartment model

  17. Factors influencing EPR dosimetry in fingernails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubner, D.L.; Spinella, M.R.; Bof, E.

    2010-01-01

    The technique based on the detection of ionizing radiation induced radicals by EPR in tooth enamel is an established method for the dosimetry of exposed persons in radiological emergencies. Dosimetry based on EPR spectral analysis of fingernail clippings, currently under development, has the practical advantage of the easier sample collection. A limiting factor is that overlapping the radiation induced signal (RIS), fingernails have shown the presence of two mechanically induced signals, called MIS1 and MIS2, due to elastic and plastic deformation respectively, at the time of fingernails cutting. With a water treatment, MIS1 is eliminated while MIS2 is considerably reduced. The calibration curves needed for radiation accident dosimetry should have 'universal' characteristics, ie. Represent the variability that can be found in different individuals. Early studies were directed to the analysis of factors affecting the development of such universal calibration curves. The peak to peak amplitude of the signal before and after the water treatment as well as the effect of size and number of clippings were studied. Furthermore, the interpersonal and intrapersonal variability were analyzed. Taking into account these previous studies, the optimal conditions for measurement were determined and EPR spectra of samples irradiated at different doses were used for the developing of dose-response curves. This paper presents the analysis of the results.(authors) [es

  18. Realising the European network of bio-dosimetry (RENEB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulka, U.; Ainsbury, L.; Atkinson, M.; Barquinero, J. F.; Barrios, L.; Beinke, C.; Bognar, G.; Cucu, A.; Darroudi, F.; Fattibene, P.; Gil, O.; Gregoire, E.; Hadjidekova, V.; Haghdoost, S.; Herranz, R.; Jaworska, A.; Lindholm, C.; Mkacher, R.; Moertl, S.; Montoro, A.; Moquet, J.; Moreno, M.; Ogbazghi, A.; Oestreicher, U.; Palitti, F.; Pantelias, G.; Popescu, I.; Prieto, M. J.; Romm, H.; Rothkamm, K.; Sabatier, L.; Sommer, S.; Terzoudi, G.; Testa, A.; Thierens, H.; Trompier, F.; Turai, I.; Vandersickel, V.; Vaz, P.; Voisin, P.; Vral, A.; Ugletveit, F.; Woda, C.; Wojcik, A.

    2012-01-01

    In Europe, a network for biological dosimetry has been created to strengthen the emergency preparedness and response capabilities in case of a large-scale nuclear accident or radiological emergency. Through the RENEB (Realising the European Network of bio-dosimetry) project, 23 experienced laboratories from 16 European countries will establish a sustainable network for rapid, comprehensive and standardised bio-dosimetry provision that would be urgently required in an emergency situation on European ground. The foundation of the network is formed by five main pillars: (1) the ad hoc operational basis, (2) a basis of future developments, (3) an effective quality-management system, (4) arrangements to guarantee long-term sustainability and (5) awareness of the existence of RENEB. RENEB will thus provide a mechanism for quick, efficient and reliable support within the European radiation emergency management. The scientific basis of RENEB will concurrently contribute to increased safety in the field of radiation protection. (authors)

  19. Lyoluminescence of saccharides as a tool for large scale dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, Th; Pitt, E; Scharmann, A; Suprihadi, T [Giessen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). 1. Physikalisches Inst.

    1990-01-01

    Lyoluminescence, the radiation induced chemiluminescence of solids like saccharides and salts, has been proposed as a cheap dosemeter for high level dosimetry, i.e. for therapy, accident dosimetry and spice irradiation detection. The tissue-equivalence of materials, as well as the omission of pre- and post-reading handling of these low cost dosemeter materials, may be considered advantageous in comparison with other systems. Up till now one of the factors most inhibiting the introduction of lyoluminescence in routine dosimetry is the insufficiently known role of environmental influences during the solution process, leading to large standard deviations in dose readings. Investigations concerning the behaviour of two typical saccharides and the influence of oxygen on the mechanisms of lyoluminescence are reported. (author).

  20. TLD Intercomparison in accelerators for radiotherapy in three Latin american countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.; Azorin N, J.; Perez, M.A.; Picon, C.; Castellanos, E.; Plazas, M.C.; Murcia, G.; Archundia, L.

    1998-01-01

    In Radiotherapy one of the objectives is to establish and to give follow up to quality assurance programs which make sure that the doses administered to the patients with cancer are a high probability of a success in external radiation. Likewise, one of the present preoccupations of the United Nations Agencies as well as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Pan-American Health Organization is the optimal employment of the radiations in the treatment of cancer patients since the administered dose in Radiotherapy suffers considerable variations by the lack of quality assurance programs. The use of Electron linear accelerators requires a program of quality assurance that includes expert personnel, equipment and adequate facilities. The more used methodology for the dosimetry calibration and characterization of X-ray beams and high energy electrons for radiotherapy use is using a ionization chamber dosemeter calibrated in a regional secondary standardization laboratory. However, to establish and give follow up to the quality assurance programs it is necessary the dosimetric intercomparison through TLD. In this study it was designed plastic phantoms with TLD crystals and it was made its characterization to realize an absorbed dose analysis in the crystals exposed at X-ray beams 6 MV and high energy electrons 10 and 12 MeV to standardize the dosimetric procedures and proceeding to realize an International Pilot intercomparison of absorbed doses in TLD crystals in three Latin American countries: Mexico, Peru and Colombia with the participation of accelerators of five different institutions. The found results show that the majority of the measured doses with TLD in the different accelerators were in the 0.95-1.05 range though it had two cases outside of this range. The use of the phantoms with TLD crystals shows that they are of excellent aid to make analysis of the doses administered to the patients and an intercomparison of results to standardize procedures at

  1. Dose intercomparison study involving Fricke, ethanol chlorobenzene, PMMA and alanine dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanuza, L.G.; Cabalfin, E.G.; Kojima, T.; Tachibana, H.

    1999-01-01

    A dose intercomparison study was carried out between the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) and Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) to determine reliability of the dosimetry systems being used by PNRI employing ethanol chlorobenzene (ECB), Fricke and alanine dosimeters. The Fricke and ECB dosimeters were prepared at PNRI while the alanine-polystyrene dosimeter was provided by JAERI. Fricke or ECB dosimeters were irradiated together with alanine at PNRI gamma irradiation facilities. Analyses of the Fricke and ECB dosimeters were performed at PNRI while alanine dosimeters were analyzed at JAERI. A comparison study between alanine and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, Radix RN15) dosimeters was also undertaken at JAERI. The dosimeters were irradiated together under different irradiation conditions using the gamma irradiation facilities of JAERI and Radia Industry Co. Ltd. (Japan). Evaluations of PMMA and alanine dosimeters were both performed at JAERI. Result of the dose intercomparison of PNRI with the International Atomic Energy Agency through the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) is also presented. (author)

  2. Dose intercomparison study involving Fricke, ethanol chlorobenzene, PMMA and alanine dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanuza, L G; Cabalfin, E G [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City (Philippines); Kojima, T; Tachibana, H [Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research institute, Takasaki (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    A dose intercomparison study was carried out between the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) and Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) to determine reliability of the dosimetry systems being used by PNRI employing ethanol chlorobenzene (ECB), Fricke and alanine dosimeters. The Fricke and ECB dosimeters were prepared at PNRI while the alanine-polystyrene dosimeter was provided by JAERI. Fricke or ECB dosimeters were irradiated together with alanine at PNRI gamma irradiation facilities. Analyses of the Fricke and ECB dosimeters were performed at PNRI while alanine dosimeters were analyzed at JAERI. A comparison study between alanine and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, Radix RN15) dosimeters was also undertaken at JAERI. The dosimeters were irradiated together under different irradiation conditions using the gamma irradiation facilities of JAERI and Radia Industry Co. Ltd. (Japan). Evaluations of PMMA and alanine dosimeters were both performed at JAERI. Result of the dose intercomparison of PNRI with the International Atomic Energy Agency through the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) is also presented. (author) 8 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  3. Dosimetry of x-ray beams: The measure of the problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Castro, T.M.

    1986-08-01

    This document contains the text of an oral presentation on dosimetry of analytical x-ray equipment presented at the Denver X-Ray Conference. Included are discussions of sources of background radiation, exposure limits from occupational sources, and the relationship of these sources to the high dose source of x-rays found in analytical machines. The mathematical basis of x-ray dosimetry is reviewed in preparation for more detailed notes on personnel dosimetry and the selection of the most appropriate dosimeter for a specific application. The presentation concludes with a discussion common to previous x-ray equipment accidents. 2 refs

  4. Proceedings of 5. French speaking scientific days on calculation codes for radioprotection, radio-physics and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon-Cornu, Marie; Mourlon, Christophe; Bordy, J.M.; Daures, J.; Dusiac, D.; Moignau, F.; Gouriou, J.; Million, M.; Moreno, B.; Chabert, I.; Lazaro, D.; Barat, E.; Dautremer, T.; Montagu, T.; Agelou, M.; De Carlan, L.; Patin, D.; Le Loirec, C.; Dupuis, P.; Gassa, F.; Guerin, L.; Batalla, A.; Leni, Pierre-Emmanuel; Laurent, Remy; Gschwind, Regine; Makovicka, Libor; Henriet, Julien; Salomon, Michel; Vivier, Alain; Lopez, Gerald; Dossat, C.; Pourrouquet, P.; Thomas, J.C.; Sarie, I.; Peyrard, P.F.; Chatry, N.; Lavielle, D.; Loze, R.; Brun, E.; Damian, F.; Diop, C.; Dumonteil, E.; Hugot, F.X.; Jouanne, C.; Lee, Y.K.; Malvagi, F.; Mazzolo, A.; Petit, O.; Trama, J.C.; Visonneau, T.; Zoia, A.; Courageot, Estelle; Gaillard-Lecanu, Emmanuelle; Kutschera, Reinald; Le Meur, Gaelle; Uzio, Fabien; De Conto, Celine; Gschwind, Regine; Makovicka, Libor; Farah, Jad; Martinetti, Florent; Sayah, Rima; Donadille, Laurent; Herault, Joel; Delacroix, Sabine; Nauraye, Catherine; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley; Clairand, Isabelle; Horodynski, Jean-Michel; Pauwels, Nicolas; Robert, Pierre; VOLLAIRE, Joachim; Nicoletti, C.; Kitsos, S.; Tardy, M.; Marchaud, G.; Stankovskiy, Alexey; Van Den Eynde, Gert; Fiorito, Luca; Malambu, Edouard; Dreuil, Serge; Mougeot, X.; Be, M.M.; Bisch, C.; Villagrasa, C.; Dos Santos, M.; Clairand, I.; Karamitros, M.; Incerti, S.; Petitguillaume, Alice; Franck, Didier; Desbree, Aurelie; Bernardini, Michela; Labriolle-Vaylet, Claire de; Gnesin, Silvano; Leadermann, Jean-Pascal; Paterne, Loic; Bochud, Francois O.; Verdun, Francis R.; Baechler, Sebastien; Prior, John O.; Thomassin, Alain; Arial, Emmanuelle; Laget, Michael; Masse, Veronique; Saldarriaga Vargas, Clarita; Struelens, Lara; Vanhavere, Filip; Perier, Aurelien; Courageot, Estelle; Gaillard-Lecanu, Emmanuelle; Le-Meur, Gaelle; Monier, Catherine; Thers, Dominique; Le-Guen, Bernard; Blond, Serge; Cordier, Gerard; Le Roy, Maiwenn; De Carlan, Loic; Bordy, Jean-Marc; Caccia, Barbara; Andenna, Claudio; Charimadurai, Arun; Selvam, T Palani; Czarnecki, Damian; Zink, Klemens; Gschwind, Regine; Martin, Eric; Huot, Nicolas; Zoubair, Mariam; El Bardouni, Tarek; Lazaro, Delphine; Barat, Eric; Dautremer, Thomas; Montagu, Thierry; Chabert, Isabelle; Guerin, Lucie; Batalla, Alain; Moignier, C.; Huet, C.; Bassinet, C.; Baumann, M.; Barraux, V.; Sebe-Mercier, K.; Loiseau, C.; Batalla, A.; Makovicka, L.; Desnoyers, Yvon; Juhel, Gabriel; Mattera, Christophe; Tempier, Maryline

    2014-03-01

    - Calculation of secondary doses received by healthy tissues of patients treated by proton-therapy for eye or intracranial tumors (J. Farah); 14 - Use of FLUKA at the design stage of the installation of a X-Ray production facility: THOMX project (J.M. Horodynski); 15 - Shielding study using FLUKA for the construction of a new experimental zone for the N-TOF facility at CERN (J. Vollaire); 16 - Radioprotection studies optimisation for the dimensioning of radioactive materials storage and transport packagings (C. Nicoletti); 17 - Source terms calculation using ALEPH2 (A. Stankovskiy); 18 - Organs dose calculation in scanography (S. Dreuil); 19 - Calculation of beta spectra shape (X. Mougeot); 20 - Implementation of a DNA geometry in GEANT4-DNA Monte-Carlo calculations for radio-induced damages analysis (C. Villagrasa); 21 - Treatment planning optimization in nuclear medicine by personalized Monte-Carlo dosimetry: application to selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) (A. Petitguillaume); 22 - Comparison between two personalized dosimetry approaches at the voxel scale for yttrium-90 radio-embolization (S. Gnesin); 23 - Criticality accident - Codac and dose assessment (A. Thomassin); 24 - Monte-Carlo calculations about the angular and energy dependence of the efficient dose for low energy photon beams and the impact of leaded clothing use (C. Saldarriaga Vargas); 25 - Study of Xenon-133 external exposure for the overall operating NPPs (A. Perier); 26 - Monte-Carlo codes intercomparison exercise for the modelling of a medical linear accelerator (M. Le Roy); 27 - Automatic determination of the primary electron beam parameters in Monte-Carlo simulations of linear accelerators for radiotherapy (D. Lazaro); 28 - Monte-Carlo determination of collimator opening and correction factors for a CyberKnife 1000 UM/min fitted with fixed collimators (C. Moignier, Presentation not available); 29 - Rooms investigation and characterization prior to dismantling - Coupling between a transport code and

  5. Results of the regional intercomparison exercise for the determination of operational quantity Hp(10) in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravi, M.; Zaretzky, A.; Lindner, C.; Diaz, J.; Walwyn, G.; Amorim, R.; De Souza, D.; Gregori, B.; Papadopulos, S.; Meghzifene, A.; Ferruz, P.; Suarez, R. C.

    2007-01-01

    Several intercomparison exercises were organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the determination of operational quantities at the regional or inter-regional basis. In the Latin American region an intercomparison for the determination of the operational quantity H p (10) was completed mid-2004, as a follow-up to previous exercises carried out during the 1990's. Eighteen individual external monitoring services from nineteen Member States participated in the first phase. The second phase grouped 15 services that had participated in the first phase. Dosemeter irradiations in photon beams were done by four Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) of the region. The preparation of this exercises involved an audit by the IAEA SSDL, where reference irradiations were provided to all participants for verification of their systems. During the first phase (2002-2003) only 9 out of 18 services met the performance requirements for such monitoring services. Necessary corrective actions and procedure verification were implemented. During the second phase (2004) 11 out of 15 services fulfilled the performance criteria. This intercomparison shows that there has been improvement in the second phase and most participants demonstrated a satisfactory performance of the quantity tested. (authors)

  6. Intercomparison of performance characteristics of OSLDs and TLDs used for individual monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meye, Phillipe Ondo

    2016-07-01

    This research work performed an intercomparison on some important performance characteristics of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry systems used by dosimetry services in Gabon and Ghana, respectively. The study verified the status of the selected performance indicators and propose ways to improve the performances of individual monitoring services of Ghana and Gabon if found necessary. The performance indicators assessed included the zero - dose, the minimum detectability and some important reader performance characteristics. These tests were performed using statistical and experimental methods. The overall uncertainty in measurement of the dosimetry systems of Ghana and Gabon for Hp(10) was determined using the IEC technical report TR 62461, and comparisons were carried out with IAEA 99, PTB 99, IEC 1066 and IEC1283 series performance standards. The IEC 62387 standard was used to assess the linearity dependence of the response and the coefficient of variation of the two dosimetry systems. For the Harshaw TLD 6600 system of the dosimetry service of Ghana, the Reference light QC test meets the requirement given in the user manual. For the OSL system microStar of the dosimetry system of Gabon, the three QC tests, DRK count, CAL count and LED count, meet the user manual requirements. However all these tests failed the statistical test that is part of counting statistics. This led to the conclusion that there may be some abnormalities in the counting system, and that the statistical abnormalities suspected have apparently no impact on the results of the reading. It was also concluded that since the DRK count and the CAL count failed the Chi - squared test by very small margin, a Gaussian distribution could still be considered as an approximation of the experimental data distributions of these two QC measurements. The zero dose for the Harshaw 6600 and the microStar system were found to be 0.026 mSv and 0.08 mSv respectively

  7. Working conditions analysis according T.L. personal dosimetry results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, O.; Jovanovic, S.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory for personal dosimetry in the Institute of Occupational and Radiological Health, Belgrade, used TLD more than twenty years. Before that, film dosimetry was main method in external monitoring. T.L. dosimetry was started with Reader Toledo 654 and crystals Mg B 4 O 7 . Finally, from 1992 laboratory has Harshaw TLD Reader Model 6600. Dosimeters are crystals LiF type 100, card packed, worn in standard filtrated holders. Personal dosimetry data are keeping 30 years for each worker according to regulations. The data from 1990 are in electronic form. Long experience enables conclusion that new technique means more advantages in practice. Recommendation from this laboratory practice refers to TLD read-out cycle. The longest period should be one month. LiF is recommended crystal. Glow curve deconvolution gives information about chronological irradiation. It is very important to conclude was dosimetry irradiated by 'one-shot' or continuously. Preparing calibration for determination the time since accident laboratory has to define adequate dose calibration methodology including low temperature peaks. Possibility to follow working conditions analyzing TLD glow curve is much more important than low decrease of dose severity. Time depend analyze is not possible if TLD would be read-out more than (approximately) six weeks after irradiation. If ionizing sources produce such low dose and has negligible probability of accidental exposure (according nowadays regulation read-out frequency could be once in three month), the recommendation is not to use external personal monitoring. Reading personal dosimeters once in three months deemed not useful. Complete and successful personal dosimetry dictates using system that enables glow curve shape representation to be sure that signal is ionizing irradiation result or not. Time depend analyze imparts information about protection permanence. In special circumstance, it is possible to estimate the time of exposure. This is extremely

  8. Personnel dosimetry methods introduced in the Czechoslovak national laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trousil, J.; Singer, J.; Kokta, L.; Prouza, Z.

    1979-01-01

    Personnel dosimetry methods are described that were developed in the Institute for Research, Production and Application of Radioisotopes and that have been or will be introduced in the national personnel dosimetry service. In Czechoslovakia, workers exposed to a radiation risk are divided into two groups, according to the level of the risk. The criterion is the possibility of exceeding one tenth of the MPD. For the higher risk group, a complex dose meter is usually used for dosimetry of photon and beta radiation; it contains a film dose meter and a radiothermoluminescent (RTL) glass dose meter. The RTL glass dose meter also serves as an accident dose meter. For neutron dosimetry, a dose meter comprising a solid-state track detector in combination with fissionable foils has been introduced. For accident dosimetry, a silicon diode of Czechoslovak production is used. For the lower risk group, only the introduction of an RTL dose meter is foreseen. There will be a three month control period; for neutron dosimetry, the track detector in combination with fissionable foils is retained. For measurements of hand doses, a themoluminescent ring dose meter has been introduced. The dose meters are described, giving information on the types of detectors employed, measurement techniques and descriptions of the basic characteristics of the instruments, their basic dosimetric parameters and the dose and energy ranges which can be measured. The results of international comparisons are presented; these have served to confirm the measurement precision. In conclusion, some questions of dose-meter calibration are summarized, and the problems of dose measurement in mixed fields of neutrons and gamma rays are discussed. (author)

  9. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Saion bin Salikin.

    1983-01-01

    A secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory has been established in the Tun Ismail Research Centre, Malaysia as a national laboratory for reference and standardization purposes in the field of radiation dosimetry. This article gives brief accounts on the general information, development of the facility, programmes to be carried out as well as other information on the relevant aspects of the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory. (author)

  11. Environmental radioactivity measurement intercomparison exercise 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, S.M.

    1991-05-01

    In a recent national intercomparison exercise, 49 laboratories involved in making environmental radioactivity measurements took part in the analysis of samples supplied by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the United Kingdom. There were two sets of samples; one containing pure β-emitters and one containing β/γ-emitters. Two thirds of the participants measured the β/γ-emitter sample only, the remainder measured both. The results are presented. (author)

  12. Internal dose assessment in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toohey, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    Although numerous models have been developed for occupational and medical internal dosimetry, they may not be applicable to an accident situation. Published dose coefficients relate effective dose to intake, but if acute deterministic effects are possible, effective dose is not a useful parameter. Consequently, dose rates to the organs of interest need to be computed from first principles. Standard bioassay methods may be used to assess body contents, but, again, the standard models for bioassay interpretation may not be applicable because of the circumstances of the accident and the prompt initiation of decorporation therapy. Examples of modifications to the standard methodologies include adjustment of biological half-times under therapy, such as in the Goiania accident, and the same effect, complicated by continued input from contaminated wounds, in the Hanford 241 Am accident. (author)

  13. Optically stimulated luminescence in electronic components for emergency dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geber-Bergstrand, T.; Bernhardsson, C.; Mattsson, S.; Raeaef, C.L.

    2015-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Accidents and, luckily more rarely, attacks involving nuclear or radiological material do occur from time to time. A very possible consequence of an accident or attack of this kind is that nearby people might be exposed to ionising radiation. Since these types of exposure situations, unlike the ones occurring in medicine, are unplanned, there are no radiation-monitoring data available. For several reasons, it is nevertheless of value to find out the dose that these people have received. The first and most urgent reason is after-the-event triage, to be able to carry out proper medical treatments and also to focus the available medical assets to the persons needing it the most. This is where different retrospective dosimetry techniques, such as luminescence, can be employed. Various electronic components from mobile phones and other portable devices have been studied using optically stimulated luminescence for their potential use in retrospective dosimetry. Previous investigations have been performed in laboratory conditions and have showed very promising properties for emergency dosimetry. In this study, the more practical parts of using electronic components in retrospective dosimetry have been considered. In a triage situation, one of the key parameters to consider is time; thus, effort has been made to speed up the readout procedure, yet without the loss of too much accuracy. (authors)

  14. Atmospheric Correction Inter-Comparison Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Doxani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Atmospheric Correction Inter-comparison eXercise (ACIX is an international initiative with the aim to analyse the Surface Reflectance (SR products of various state-of-the-art atmospheric correction (AC processors. The Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT and Water Vapour (WV are also examined in ACIX as additional outputs of AC processing. In this paper, the general ACIX framework is discussed; special mention is made of the motivation to initiate the experiment, the inter-comparison protocol, and the principal results. ACIX is free and open and every developer was welcome to participate. Eventually, 12 participants applied their approaches to various Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 image datasets acquired over sites around the world. The current results diverge depending on the sensors, products, and sites, indicating their strengths and weaknesses. Indeed, this first implementation of processor inter-comparison was proven to be a good lesson for the developers to learn the advantages and limitations of their approaches. Various algorithm improvements are expected, if not already implemented, and the enhanced performances are yet to be assessed in future ACIX experiments.

  15. Mobile Radiological Laboratories Intercomparison Measurements - Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martincic, R.; Glavic-Cindro, D.; Korun, M.; Pucelj, B.; Vodenik, B.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In last decade different institutions in European countries have organised periodic intercomparison exercises of mobile radiological laboratories to improve the preparedness of emergency monitoring teams. The 12th Regular Workshop on Mobile Radiological Laboratories was held in Exclusion Zone of the Chernobyl NPP, Ukraine from September 13 to September 18, 1999 under the acronym MORAL-12. The European Centre of Technological Safety (TESEC), Kiev, Ukraine and J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia organised Intercomparison Measurements 99 jointly under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Nineteen teams from 9 countries and IAEA participated in the Workshop. Six field and personal and equipment contamination control exercises were prepared and conducted at two measuring sites with very different ambient dose rate levels. The Workshop pointed out that such exercises are very valuable for rapid, efficient and harmonised emergency response in case of nuclear or radiological emergency. The teams had an opportunity to test their ability to perform field measurements in the contaminated environment, and to report results on the spot, as well as to test their emergency preparedness and persistence. They gained new experiences for fieldwork under stress conditions. An overview and results of these intercomparison measurements are presented and lessons learned are discussed. (author)

  16. Intercomparison campaign of Contracted Partner Institutes 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinen, H.A.J.M.; Tijsmans, M.H.; Van Tuinen, S.T.; Overwater, R.M.W.; Aldenkamp, F.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Dutch National Plan for Nuclear Emergency Planning and Response (EPR) is trained frequently. Intercomparison campaigns and exercises are part of this training for the Contracted Partner Institutes (CPI). The results of an intercomparison campaign in 1997 for the CPI are reported. Two carbon cartridges, one contaminated homogeneously and one inhomogeneously with 131 I, and a water sample contaminated with 134 Cs and 137 Cs were analysed by means of gamma spectroscopy. The results had to be faxed to RIVM within the time limits prescribed in the emergency protocols for CPI, i.e. 2 hours for the cartridges and 24 hours for the water sample. Most CPI reported in time. The results for the inhomogeneously contaminated cartridge are within 25% from the accepted reference value (ARV). For the homogeneously contaminated cartridge the results are within 40% from the ARV. In reality, the contamination of the cartridge will have an exponential profile, with most of the activity in the first few millimeters. In this situation results can be expected to be within 20% from the true value. The results for the water sample are within 5% from the ARV. Although most CPI have applied corrections for coincidence summing for 134 Cs there is still a systematic error of 4% for this nuclide. In regard of the requirements for measurements during emergency situations, the results of this intercomparison campaign are satisfactory

  17. On the methodology of the intercomparison of TND evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiftah, S.; Caner, M.; Gur, Y.

    1979-03-01

    The paper presents the problems which arise when two independent complete nuclear data evaluations of the same nuclide are available. A detailed intercomparison of the evaluations can be a multi-levelled exercise of considerable detail, the stages of which cannot always be performed. However, a detailed intercomparison can be a rich source for improving considerably the nuclear data used for the different applications. Preliminary examples of intercomparison are given for illustrative purpose. (B.G.)

  18. Neutron dosimetry in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigurbjoernsson, B.; Smith, H.H.; Gustafsson, A.

    1965-01-01

    To study adequately the biological effects of different energy neutrons it is necessary to have high-intensity sources which are not contaminated by other radiations, the most serious of which are gamma rays. An effective dosimetry must provide an accurate measure of the absorbed dose, in biological materials, of each type of radiation at any reactor facility involved in radiobiological research. A standardized biological dosimetry, in addition to physical and chemical methods, may be desirable. The ideal data needed to achieve a fully documented dosimetry has been compiled by H. Glubrecht: (1) Energy spectrum and intensity of neutrons; (2) Angular distribution of neutrons on the whole surface of the irradiated object; (3) Additional undesired radiation accompanying the neutrons; (4) Physical state and chemical composition of the irradiated object. It is not sufficient to note only an integral dose value (e.g. in 'rad') as the biological effect depends on the above data

  19. Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  20. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of radiation accidents over a 50 year period shows that simple cases, where the initiating events were immediately recognised, the source identified and under control, the medical input confined to current handling, were exceptional. In many cases, the accidents were only diagnosed when some injuries presented by the victims suggested the radiological nature of the cause. After large-scale accidents, the situation becomes more complicated, either because of management or medical problems, or both. The review of selected accidents which resulted in severe consequences shows that most of them could have been avoided; lack of regulations, contempt for rules, human failure and insufficient training have been identified as frequent initiating parameters. In addition, the situation was worsened because of unpreparedness, insufficient planning, unadapted resources, and underestimation of psychosociological aspects. (author)

  1. Sports Accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    Kiebel

    1972-01-01

    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  2. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplavskij, K.K.; Smorodintseva, G.I.

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of a critical analysis of the available data on causes and consequences of radiation accidents (RA), a classification of RA by severity (five groups of accidents) according to biomedical consequences and categories of exposed personnel is proposed. A RA is defined and its main characteristics are described. Methods of RA prevention are proposed, as is a plan of specific measures to deal with RA in accordance with the proposed classification

  3. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact their dispatchers to explain their activities for the future, after LEP dismantling in order to be maintained on the regular distribution list at Individual DosimetryWe inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period MAY/JUNE will be available from their usual dispatchers on Tuesday 2 May.Please have your films changed before the 12 May.The colour of the dosimeter valid in is MAY/JUNE is YELLOW.Individual Dosimetry Service will be closed on Friday 28 April.

  4. Nuclear medicine radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    Complexities of the requirements for accurate radiation dosimetry evaluation in both diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine (including PET) have grown over the past decade. This is due primarily to four factors: growing consideration of accurate patient-specific treatment planning for radionuclide therapy as a means of improving the therapeutic benefit, development of more realistic anthropomorphic phantoms and their use in estimating radiation transport and dosimetry in patients, design and use of advanced Monte Carlo algorithms in calculating the above-mentioned radiation transport and

  5. Computational methods in several fields of radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paretzke, Herwig G.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Radiation dosimetry has to cope with a wide spectrum of applications and requirements in time and size. The ubiquitous presence of various radiation fields or radionuclides in the human home, working, urban or agricultural environment can lead to various dosimetric tasks starting from radioecology, retrospective and predictive dosimetry, personal dosimetry, up to measurements of radionuclide concentrations in environmental and food product and, finally in persons and their excreta. In all these fields measurements and computational models for the interpretation or understanding of observations are employed explicitly or implicitly. In this lecture some examples of own computational models will be given from the various dosimetric fields, including a) Radioecology (e.g. with the code systems based on ECOSYS, which was developed far before the Chernobyl reactor accident, and tested thoroughly afterwards), b) Internal dosimetry (improved metabolism models based on our own data), c) External dosimetry (with the new ICRU-ICRP-Voxelphantom developed by our lab), d) Radiation therapy (with GEANT IV as applied to mixed reactor radiation incident on individualized voxel phantoms), e) Some aspects of nanodosimetric track structure computations (not dealt with in the other presentation of this author). Finally, some general remarks will be made on the high explicit or implicit importance of computational models in radiation protection and other research field dealing with large systems, as well as on good scientific practices which should generally be followed when developing and applying such computational models

  6. ISS protocol for EPR tooth dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onori, S.; Aragno, D.; Fattibene, P.; Petetti, E.; Pressello, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    The accuracy in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) dose reconstruction with tooth enamel is affected by sample preparation, dosimetric signal amplitude evaluation and unknown dose estimate. Worldwide efforts in the field of EPR dose reconstruction with tooth enamel are focused on the optimization of the three mentioned steps in dose assessment. In the present work, the protocol implemented at ISS in the framework of the European Community Nuclear Fission Safety project 'Dose Reconstruction' is presented. A combined mechanical-chemical procedure for ground enamel sample preparation is used. The signal intensity evaluation is carried out with powder spectra simulation program. Finally, the unknown dose is evaluated individually for each sample with the additive dose method. The unknown dose is obtained by subtracting a mean native dose from the back-extrapolated dose. As an example of the capability of the ISS protocol in unknown dose evaluation, the results obtained in the framework of the 2nd International Intercomparison on EPR tooth enamel dosimetry are reported

  7. Personnel photographic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirim-Markus, I.B.

    1981-01-01

    Technology of personnel photographic film dosimetry (PPD) based on the photographic effect of ionizing radiation is described briefly. Kinds of roentgen films used in PPD method are enumerated, compositions of a developer and fixing agents for these films are given [ru

  8. Dosimetry and Calibration Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, T.

    1998-01-01

    The two tasks of the Dosimetry and Calibration Section at CERN are the Individual Dosimetry Service which assures the personal monitoring of about 5000 persons potentially exposed to ionizing radiation at CERN, and the Calibration Laboratory which verifies all the instruments and monitors. This equipment is used by the sections of the RP Group for assuring radiation protection around CERN's accelerators, and by the Environmental Section of TISTE. In addition, nearly 250 electronic and 300 quartz fibre dosimeters, employed in operational dosimetry, are calibrated at least once a year. The Individual Dosimetry Service uses an extended database (INDOS) which contains information about all the individual doses ever received at CERN. For most of 1997 it was operated without the support of a database administrator as the technician who had assured this work retired. The Software Support Section of TIS-TE took over the technical responsibility of the database, but in view of the many other tasks of this Section and the lack of personnel, only a few interventions for solving immediate problems were possible

  9. Dosimetry of pion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicello, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    Negative pion beams are probably the most esoteric and most complicated type of radiation which has been suggested for use in clinical radiotherapy. Because of the limited availability of pion beams in the past, even to nuclear physicists, there exist relatively fewer basic data for this modality. Pion dosimetry is discussed

  10. High frequency electromagnetic dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Hernández, David A

    2009-01-01

    Along with the growth of RF and microwave technology applications, there is a mounting concern about the possible adverse effects over human health from electromagnetic radiation. Addressing this issue and putting it into perspective, this groundbreaking resource provides critical details on the latest advances in high frequency electromagnetic dosimetry.

  11. Group: radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, L.V.E.

    1990-01-01

    The main activities of the radiation dosimetry group is described, including the calibration of instruments, sources and radioactive solutions and the determination of neutron flux; development, production and market dosimetric materials; development radiation sensor make the control of radiation dose received by IPEN workers; development new techniques for monitoring, etc. (C.G.C.)

  12. Glucinium dosimetry in beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, M.

    1949-05-01

    The application of the method developed by Kolthoff and Sandell (1928) for the dosimetry of glucinium (beryllium) in beryl gives non-reproducible results with up to 20% discrepancies. This method recommends to separate beryllium and aluminium using 8 hydroxyquinoline and then to directly precipitate glucinium in the filtrate using ammonia. One possible reason of the problems generated by this method should be the formation of a volatile complex between beryllium and the oxine. This work shows that when the oxine is eliminated before the precipitation with ammonia the dosimetry of beryllium becomes accurate. The destruction of the oxine requires the dry evaporation of the filtrate, which is a long process. Thus the search for a reagent allowing the quantitative precipitation of beryllium in its solutions and in presence of oxine has been made. It has been verified also that the quantitative precipitation of the double beryllium and ammonium phosphate is not disturbed by the oxine in acetic buffer. This method, which gives good results, has also the advantage to separate beryllium from the alkaline-earth compounds still present in the filtrate. The report details the operation mode of the method: beryllium dosimetry using ammonium phosphate, aluminium-beryllium separation, application to beryl dosimetry (ore processing, insolubilization of silica, precipitation with ammonia, precipitation with oxine, precipitation of PO 4 NH 4 Gl, preciseness). (J.S.)

  13. Instrumentation in thermoluminescence dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julius, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    In the performance of a thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) system the equipment plays an important role. Crucial parameters of instrumentation in TLD are discussed in some detail. A review is given of equipment available on the market today - with some emphasis on automation - which is partly based on information from industry and others involved in research and development. (author)

  14. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  15. Storage of radioactive material - accidents - precipitation - personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matijasic, A.; Gacinovic, O.

    1961-12-01

    This volume covers the reports on four routine tasks concerned with safe handling of radioactive material and influence of nuclear facilities on the environment. The tasks performed were as follows: Storage of solid and liquid radioactive material; actions in case of accidents; radiation monitoring of the fallout, water and ground; personnel dosimetry

  16. Development of new methodology for dose calculation in photographic dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daltro, T.F.L.

    1994-01-01

    A new methodology for equivalent dose calculations has been developed at IPEN-CNEN/SP to be applied at the Photographic Dosimetry Laboratory using artificial intelligence techniques by means of neutral network. The research was orientated towards the optimization of the whole set of parameters involves in the film processing going from the irradiation in order to obtain the calibration curve up to the optical density readings. The learning of the neutral network was performed by taking the readings of optical density from calibration curve as input and the effective energy and equivalent dose as output. The obtained results in the intercomparison show an excellent agreement with the actual values of dose and energy given by the National Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation. (author)

  17. Development of new methodology for dose calculation in photographic dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daltro, T.F.L.; Campos, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    A new methodology for equivalent dose calculation has been developed at IPEN-CNEN/SP to be applied at the Photographic Dosimetry Laboratory using artificial intelligence techniques by means of neural network. The research was oriented towards the optimization of the whole set of parameters involved in the film processing going from the irradiation in order to obtain the calibration curve up to the optical density readings. The learning of the neural network was performed by taking readings of optical density from calibration curve as input and the effective energy and equivalent dose as output. The obtained results in the intercomparison show an excellent agreement with the actual values of dose and energy given by the National Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation

  18. Criticality accident:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavese, Susana I.

    2000-01-01

    A criticality accident occurred at 10:35 on September 30, 1999. It occurred in a precipitation tank in a Conversion Test Building at the JCO Tokai Works site in Tokaimura (Tokai Village) in the Ibaraki Prefecture of Japan. STA provisionally rated this accident a 4 on the seven-level, logarithmic International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). The September 30, 1999 criticality accident at the JCO Tokai Works Site in Tokaimura, Japan in described in preliminary, technical detail. Information is based on preliminary presentations to technical groups by Japanese scientists and spokespersons, translations by technical and non-technical persons of technical web postings by various nuclear authorities, and English-language non-technical reports from various news media and nuclear-interest groups. (author)

  19. DOE Radiological Calibrations Intercomparison Program: Results of fiscal year 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, F.M.; McDonald, J.C.

    1988-06-01

    This report presents the FY 1987 results of the radiological calibrations intercomparison program. The intercomparison operation is discussed, and the equipment is described, particularly the instrument set, the beta source set, and relevant calculations. Solutions to problems and improvements in the program are suggested, and conclusions are then introduced. 9 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs

  20. Atmospheric Correction Inter-comparison Exercise (ACIX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermote, E.; Doxani, G.; Gascon, F.; Roger, J. C.; Skakun, S.

    2017-12-01

    The free and open data access policy to Landsat-8 (L-8) and Sentinel-2 (S-2) satellite imagery has encouraged the development of atmospheric correction (AC) approaches for generating Bottom-of-Atmosphere (BOA) products. Several entities have started to generate (or plan to generate in the short term) BOA reflectance products at global scale for L-8 and S-2 missions. To this end, the European Space Agency (ESA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have initiated an exercise on the inter-comparison of the available AC processors. The results of the exercise are expected to point out the strengths and weaknesses, as well as communalities and discrepancies of various AC processors, in order to suggest and define ways for their further improvement. In particular, 11 atmospheric processors from five different countries participate in ACIX with the aim to inter-compare their performance when applied to L-8 and S-2 data. All the processors should be operational without requiring parametrization when applied on different areas. A protocol describing in details the inter-comparison metrics and the test dataset based on the AERONET sites has been agreed unanimously during the 1st ACIX workshop in June 2016. In particular, a basic and an advanced run of each of the processor were requested in the frame of ACIX, with the aim to draw robust and reliable conclusions on the processors' performance. The protocol also describes the comparison metrics of the aerosol optical thickness and water vapour products of the processors with the corresponding AERONET measurements. Moreover, concerning the surface reflectances, the inter-comparison among the processors is defined, as well as the comparison with the MODIS surface reflectance and with a reference surface reflectance product. Such a reference product will be obtained using the AERONET characterization of the aerosol (size distribution and refractive indices) and an accurate radiative transfer code. The inter-comparison

  1. Intercomparison for individual monitoring of external exposure from photon radiation. Results of a co-ordinated research project 1996-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    This TECDOC presents the results of a Co-ordinated Research Project on Intercomparison for Individual Monitoring of External Exposure from photon radiation. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) have endorsed the use of the operational quantities for monitoring purposes. Specifically, personal dose equivalent, H p (d), is to be used for individual dosimetry to demonstrate compliance with the exposure limit recommendations, while for workplace area monitoring the ambient dose equivalent and the directional dose equivalent are recommended. In view of the technical difficulties associated with the introduction of these operational quantities the IAEA decided to assist Member States in their provision of appropriate dosimetry for occupational protection. In this respect, intercomparisons have proven to be a cost effective method of providing such support. A Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) was started in 1997 on Intercomparison for Individual Monitoring of External Exposure from photon radiation, involving more than twenty laboratories from eastern Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union, and focusing on personnel dosimetry services for nuclear power plants. This CRP was part of the activities of the IAEA Occupational Protection Programme, the objective4s of which are to promote and internationally harmonized approach for optimizing occupational radiation protection through: the development of guides, within the IAEA activities for establishing standards for radiation protection, for restricting radiation exposures in the workplace and for applying current occupational radiation protection techniques, and the promotion of the application of these guidelines. The preparatory phase included, in May 1997, a workshop aimed at familiarizing the participants with the new operational quantities

  2. Optically stimulated luminescence in retrospective dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boetter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s the exploration of optically stimulated luminescence in retrospective accident dosimetry has driven an intensive investigation and development programme at Ris deg. into measurement facilities and techniques. This paper reviews some of the outcomes of this programme, including the evaluation of the single-aliquot regenerative-dose measurement protocol with brick quartz and the determination of dose-depth profiles in building materials as a guide to determining the mean energy of the incident radiation. Investigations into heated materials are most advanced, and a lower detection limit for quartz extracted from Chernobyl bricks was determined to be <10 mGy. The first results from the measurement of doses in unheated building materials such as mortar and concrete are also discussed. Both small-aliquot and single-grain techniques have been used to assess accident doses in these cement based building materials more commonly found in workplaces. Finally some results of a preliminary investigation of the OSL properties of household chemicals are discussed with reference to their potential as accident dosemeters. (author)

  3. The EURADOS/CONRAD activities on radiation protection dosimetry in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhavere, F.; Struelens, L.; Bordy, J.M.; Daures, J.; Denozieres, M.; Buls, N.; Clerinx, P.; Carinou, E.; Clairand, I.; Debroas, J.; Donadille, L.; Itie, C.; Ginjaume, M.; Jansen, J.; Jaervinen, H.; Miljanic, S.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Nikodemova, D.; Rimpler, A.; Sans Merce, M.; D'Errico, F.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This presentation gives an overview on the research activities that EURADOS coordinates in the field of radiation protection dosimetry in medicine. EURADOS is an organization founded in 1981 to advance the scientific understanding and the technical development of the dosimetry of ionising radiation in the fields of radiation protection, radiobiology, radiation therapy and medical diagnosis by promoting collaboration between European laboratories. EURADOS operates by setting up Working Groups dealing with particular topics. Currently funded through the CONRAD project of the 6th EU Framework Programme, EURADOS has working groups on Computational Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Complex mixed radiation fields at workplaces, and Radiation protection dosimetry of medical staff. The latter working group coordinates and promotes European research for the assessment of occupational exposures to staff in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology workplaces. Research is coordinated by sub-groups covering three specific areas: 1: Extremity dosimetry in nuclear medicine and interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in the specific fields of the hospitals and studies of doses to different parts of the hands, arms, legs and feet; 2: Practice of double dosimetry: this sub-group reviews and evaluates the different methods and algorithms for the use of dosemeters placed above and below lead aprons, especially to determine personal doses to cardiologists during cardiac catheterisation, but also in CT-fluoroscopy and some nuclear medicine developments (e.g. use of Re-188); and 3: Use of electronic personal dosemeters in interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in laboratories and hospitals, and intercomparisons with passive dosemeters with the aim to enable the formulation of standards. (author)

  4. Overview of physical dosimetry methods for triage application integrated in the new European network RENEB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompier, François; Burbidge, Christopher; Bassinet, Céline; Baumann, Marion; Bortolin, Emanuela; De Angelis, Cinzia; Eakins, Jonathan; Della Monaca, Sara; Fattibene, Paola; Quattrini, Maria Cristina; Tanner, Rick; Wieser, Albrecht; Woda, Clemens

    2017-01-01

    In the EC-funded project RENEB (Realizing the European Network in Biodosimetry), physical methods applied to fortuitous dosimetric materials are used to complement biological dosimetry, to increase dose assessment capacity for large-scale radiation/nuclear accidents. This paper describes the work performed to implement Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) dosimetry techniques. OSL is applied to electronic components and EPR to touch-screen glass from mobile phones. To implement these new approaches, several blind tests and inter-laboratory comparisons (ILC) were organized for each assay. OSL systems have shown good performances. EPR systems also show good performance in controlled conditions, but ILC have also demonstrated that post-irradiation exposure to sunlight increases the complexity of the EPR signal analysis. Physically-based dosimetry techniques present high capacity, new possibilities for accident dosimetry, especially in the case of large-scale events. Some of the techniques applied can be considered as operational (e.g. OSL on Surface Mounting Devices [SMD]) and provide a large increase of measurement capacity for existing networks. Other techniques and devices currently undergoing validation or development in Europe could lead to considerable increases in the capacity of the RENEB accident dosimetry network.

  5. Results of the 1996-1998 IAEA co-ordinated research project on intercomparison for individual monitoring of external exposure to photon radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouvrard, R.; Boehm, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the conclusions drawn at the end of the intercomparison, the purpose of which was to examine the performance of the dosimetry systems in radiation fields similar to those encountered in practical routine monitoring. These fields included, for a range of doses, mixed normally incident and wide angle fields of simulated direct source and room scatter radiation for some typical energy distributions and high-energy photons (6-7 MeV) with and without secondary electron equilibrium. Almost all of the participating services satisfied the evaluation criteria on overall accuracy for all fields. (author)

  6. Preliminary report: STOIC CGCM intercomparison - equatorial sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, M; Huddleston, M; Sperber, K R.

    1999-01-01

    An intercomparison and assessment of the tropical behaviour of coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) is being carried out, to identify common strengths and weaknesses and thus guide future CGCM development. The work is being carried out as part of the CLIVAR climate research programme, as a WG-SIP (Working Group on Seasonal to Interannual Prediction) project called STOIC (Study of Tropical Oceans In CGCMs), organised by Michael Davey. This project complements a companion sub-project called ENSIP (El Ni no Simulation Intercomparison Project) organised by Mojib Latif (Max- Planck-Institute for Meteorology) that focusses on equatorial Pacific CGCM behaviour (Latif et al. 1999). Previous coupled model assessments (Mechoso et al. 1995, Neelin et al. 1992, and ENSIP) have focussed on tropical Pacific behaviour. The aim of STOIC is to look at model performance in all tropical ocean regions. This status report contains a sample of the STOIC assessment work, highlighting mean and inter- annual equatorial sea surface temperatures and zonal windstresses. The intention is to submit STOIC and ENSIP papers in mid-1999 for publication together in a refereed journal

  7. Radiocarbon intercomparison program for Chauvet Cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuzange, M.T.; Delque-Kolic, E.; Oberlin, C.; Goslar, T.; Grootes, P.M.; Nadeau, M.J.; Higham, T.; Ramsey, C.B.; Kaltnecker, E.; Paterne, M.; Valladas, H.; Van der Plicht, J.; Van der Plicht, J.; Clottes, J.; Geneste, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    We present the first results of an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon intercomparison program on 3 different charcoal samples collected in one of the hearths of the Megaceros gallery of Chauvet Cave (Ardeche, France). This cave, rich in parietal decoration, is important for the study of the appearance and evolution of prehistoric art because certain drawings have been 14 C dated to the Aurignacian period at the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic. The new dates indicate an age of about 32,000 BP, which is consistent with this attribution and in agreement with the results from the same sector of the cave measured previously at the Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE). Six laboratories were involved in the intercomparison. Samples were measured in 4 AMS facilities: Center for Isotope Research, Groningen University, the Netherlands; the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, UK; the Centre de datation par le carbone 14, Univ. Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France (measured by AMS facilities of Poznan University, Poland); and the LSCE, UMR CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, France (measured by the Leibniz-Labor of Christian-Albrechts-Universitat Kiel, Germany). (authors)

  8. Summary of 'IAEA intercomparison of IBA software'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barradas, N.P.; Arstila, K.; Battistig, G.; Bianconi, M.; Dytlewski, N.; Jeynes, C.; Kotai, E.; Lulli, G.; Mayer, M.; Rauhala, E.; Szilagyi, E.; Thompson, M.

    2008-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has sponsored a formal intercomparison exercise for the seven depth profiling ion beam analysis codes, which are: GISA, RUMP, RBX, DEPTH, DataFurnace, SIMNRA and MCERD. This intercomparison is published in Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B [N.P. Barradas, K. Arstila, G. Battistig, M. Bianconi, N. Dytlewski, C. Jeynes, E. Kotai, G. Lulli, M. Mayer, E. Rauhala, E. Szilagyi, M. Thompson, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 262 (2007) 281-303] and summarised here. The codes implement all known physical effects and they are all evaluated. We demonstrate that there is agreement between codes often better than 0.1%; and also detailed agreement with real spectra, showing in particular that the SRIM 2003 stopping powers for Si are correct to 0.6% for 1.5 MeV He. For the case of heavy ion elastic recoil detection (HI-ERD) the single scattering codes performed poorly for scattered particles, although recoiled particles were calculated correctly

  9. Thorium in the workplace measurement intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modna, D.K.; Jerome, S.M.; White, M.A.; Woods, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    The monitoring of radionuclides in the nuclear industry has been recognized as the most straightforward way of assessing health and safety issues associated with the exposure of the workforce to potentially harmful radiation doses. Much of this is achieved by measurements in the workplace itself and by the bioassay and monitoring of workers in the industry. However, there also exists a significant 'non-nuclear' industry where workers are exposed to radioactive materials, for example where this involves thorium, which is made wide use of in the aerospace and other high technology industries. As such work involves the processing of thorium bearing materials, the workforce is potentially exposed to 232 Th and its daughter nuclides. Thus, to monitor the workforce effectively, it is important to be able to measure both 232 Th and the decay products of 232 Th where they are in an unknown state of radioactive equilibrium and this is where monitoring laboratories may experience some difficulty. Accordingly, the Health and Safety Laboratory in the UK has organized a EC wide project on the monitoring of thorium in the 'non-nuclear' workplace; this project is currently ongoing. We report the results of the first intercomparison of this project involving two solutions of 232 Th, one in radioactive equilibrium and one not in equilibrium with its daughters. The results are presented with some comments on how this intercomparison has progressed and how these first results will inform the rest of the project

  10. γ radiation level simulation and analysis with MCNP in EPR containment during severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Jun; Liu Shuhuan; Wang Yang; Zhai Liang

    2013-01-01

    The γ dosimetry model based on the EPR core structure, material composition and the designed shielding system was established. The γ-ray dose rate distributions in EPR containment under different conditions including normal operation state, loss-of-coolant accident and core melt severe accident were simulated with MCNP5, and the calculation results under normal operation state and severe accident were compared and analyzed respectively with that of the designed limit. The study results may provide some relative data reference for EPR core accident prediction and reactor accident emergency decision making. (authors)

  11. The dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    A continuation of the treatise The Dosimetry of Ionizing Radiation, Volume III builds upon the foundations of Volumes I and II and the tradition of the preceeding treatise Radiation Dosimetry. Volume III contains three comprehensive chapters on the applications of radiation dosimetry in particular research and medical settings, a chapter on unique and useful detectors, and two chapters on Monte Carlo techniques and their applications.

  12. Intercomparison of personal dose equivalent measurements by active personal dosimeters. Final report of a joint IAEA-EURADOS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-11-01

    Active personal dosimeters (APD) are widely used in many countries, i.e. in the medical field and as operational dosimeters in nuclear power plants. Their use as legal dosimeters is already established in a few countries, and will increase in the near future. In the majority of countries, APDs have not undergone accreditation programmes or intercomparisons. In 2001, an EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group) Working Group on harmonization of individual monitoring was formed, funded by the European Commission, in the fifth framework programme, and by the participating institutes. The work addressed four issues; inter alia also an inventory of new developments in individual monitoring with an emphasis on the possibilities and performance of active (electronic) dosimeters for both photon/beta and neutron dosimetry. Within the work on this issue, a catalogue of the most extensively used active personal dosimeters (APDs) suitable for individual monitoring was made. On the basis of the knowledge gained in this activity, the organization of an international intercomparison, which would address APDs, was considered of great value to the dosimetric community. The IAEA in cooperation with EURADOS organized such an intercomparison in which most of the testing criteria as described in two internationally accepted standards (IEC61526 and IEC61283) were used. Additionally, simulated workplace fields were used for testing the APD reactions to pulsed X ray fields and mixed gamma/X ray fields. This is the first time that results of comparisons of such types are published, which is of great importance for APD end users in medical diagnostic and surgery X ray applications. Nine suppliers from six countries in Europe and the USA participated in the intercomparison with 13 different models. One of the models was a special design for extremity dose measurements. Irradiations and readout was done by two accredited calibration laboratories in Belgium and France and the French

  13. Results of the regional intercomparison exercise for the determination of operational quantity Hp(d) in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravi, M.; Zaretzky, A.; Lindner, C.; Diaz, J.; Walwyn, G.; Souza, D.; Amorin, R.; Gregory, B.; Papadopulos, S.; Meghzifene, A.; Ferruz Cruz, P.; Cruz Suarez, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Several intercomparison exercises were organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the determination of operational quantities at the regional or interregional basis. These exercises revealed significant differences in the approach, methods and assumptions, and consequently in the measurement results obtained by participating laboratories. In the Latin America region, an intercomparison for determination of operational quantity Hp(10), organized within the frame of a technical cooperation regional project, was completed mid-2004, as a follow-up to previous exercises carried out during the 1990s. Eighteen laboratories from 19 member states participated in the first phase; the second phase grouped 15 laboratories from 16 member states. Dosimeter irradiations (5 different radiation qualities for photon simulating workplace fields) were done by 4 Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDL). The preparations for the exercise involved an audit by the IAEA SSDL, where reference irradiations were provided to all participants for verification of their system. During the first phase (2002/03), only 9 out of 18 laboratories met the performance requirements for such monitoring services. Necessary corrective actions and procedure verification were implemented, and staff involved in these evaluations were subsequently trained. During the second phase (2004), 11 out of 15 laboratories fulfilled the performance criteria. The 4 laboratories still having difficulties in assessing occupational exposure participated in a results meeting, during which problem areas were identified. An ongoing technical cooperation mission is expected to assist these laboratories accordingly. There has been a definite improvement in the second phase and most laboratories demonstrated a good performance in the quantity tested. The technical results clearly show that the laboratories' capability in assessing occupational exposure from external sources of radiation is

  14. Interlaboratory niobium dosimetry comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wille, P.

    1980-01-01

    For an interlaboratory comparison of neutron dosimetry using niobium the 93 sup(m)Nb activities of irradiated niobium monitors were measured. This work was performed to compare the applied techniques of dosimetry with Nb in different laboratories. The niobium monitors were irradiated in the fast breeder EBRII, USA and the BR2, Belgium. The monitors were dissolved and several samples were prepared. Their niobium contents were determined by the 94 Nb-count rates. since the original specific count rate was known. The KX radiations of the 93 sup(m)Nb of the samples and of a calibrated Nb-foil were compared. This foil was measured by PTB, Braunschweig and CBNM, Geel, which we additionally compared with the KX radiation of 88 Sr produced by a thin 88 Y source from a 88 Y-standard solution (PTB). (orig.) [de

  15. Neutron beam measurement dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaro, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes animal dosimetry studies and phantom measurements. During 1994, 12 dogs were irradiated at BMRR as part of a 4 fraction dose tolerance study. The animals were first infused with BSH and irradiated daily for 4 consecutive days. BNL irradiated 2 beagles as part of their dose tolerance study using BPA fructose. In addition, a dog at WSU was irradiated at BMRR after an infusion of BPA fructose. During 1994, the INEL BNCT dosimetry team measured neutron flux and gamma dose profiles in two phantoms exposed to the epithermal neutron beam at the BMRR. These measurements were performed as a preparatory step to the commencement of human clinical trials in progress at the BMRR

  16. Thermo-luminescent dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reither, M; Schorn, B; Schneider, E

    1981-01-01

    The development of paediatric radiology which began in the late 195O's has been characterised by the need to limit the dose of ionising radiation to which the child is subjected. The aim has been to keep radiation exposure as low as possible by the introduction of suitable techniques and by the development of new methods. It is therefore surprising that studies in dosimetry in the paediaytric age range have only been carried out in recent years. One reason for this may have been the fact that a suitable technique of measurement was not available at the time. The introduction of solid state dosimetry based on thermo-luminescence, first into radiotherapy (1968) and subsequently into radiodiagnosis, has made it possible to abandon the previously widely used ionisation chamber. The purpose of the present paper is to indicate the suitability of this form of dose measurement for paediatric radiological purposes and to stimulate its application in this field.

  17. Legal aspects of dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomarola, H.

    1976-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiations is regulated in France in all fields of application. The main principles governing inspection activities in the food industry are outlined. Conventional preservation methods are mentioned, after which a discussion is devoted to the preservation of food products by irradiation treatment and the increasing importance given to this technique. Consumer protection automatically implies the obligatory use of dosimetry by inspection organisms if the irradiated merchandise is likely to serve for human or animal consumption. Irradiation treatment permits are granted in a context of specific statutory texts mentioned here. Supervision is constant, but always both realistic and flexible. Each aspect of this treatment is discussed in maximum detail if not quite exhaustively, with special emphasis on dosimetry as an indispensable safety factor [fr

  18. WIPP radiation dosimetry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry is the process by which various measurement results and procedures are applied to quantify the radiation exposure of an individual. Accurate and precise determination of radiation dose is a key factor to the success of a radiation protection program. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility designed for permanent repository of transuranic wastes in a 2000-foot-thick salt bed 2150 feet underground, has established a dosimetry program developed to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5480.11, ''Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers''; ANSI/ASME NQA-1, ''Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities''; DOE Order 5484.1, ''Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Information Reporting Requirements''; and other applicable regulations

  19. A preliminary study on thermoluminescence of AMOLED glass from mobile phones for retrospective dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyoungtaek; Lee, Jungil; Chang, Insu; Lee, Seung Kyu; Kim, Min Chae; Park, Sang Won; Kim, Jang-Lyul; Kim, Bong-Hwan; Yu, Hyungjoon; Kim, Ah-reum

    2017-01-01

    Since mobile phones are always carried by individuals, the retrospective dosimetry using thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) characteristics of elements in mobile phone is intensively developing nowadays due to its advantages over conventional biological dosimetry techniques. Using a TL and OSL method on resistors and inductors in a mobile phone, a low background dose (zero dose) about tens of mGy is acquired in previous study. Radiation workers have to wear a dosimeter to assess individual exposure during their works. This monitoring system facilitate a fast medical treatment for highly exposed workers in case of a radiation accident. In the event of large-scale radiation accidents, where most of the subjects are ordinary people, it is difficult to evaluate the individual dose due to the absence of dosimeters. A technique for dose evaluation using a radiation dependency of various materials in the absence of a dosimeter is called retrospective dosimetry.

  20. Quantitative imaging for clinical dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardies, Manuel [INSERM U601, 9 Quai Moncousu, 44093 Nantes (France)]. E-mail: manu@nantes.inserm.fr; Flux, Glenn [Department of Physics, Royal Marsden NHS Trust, Sutton (United Kingdom); Lassmann, Michael [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Julis-Maximilians University, Wuerzburg (Germany); Monsieurs, Myriam [Department of Health Physics, University of Ghent, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Savolainen, Sauli [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki and HUS, Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland); Strand, Sven-Erik [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University (Sweden)

    2006-12-20

    Patient-specific dosimetry in nuclear medicine is now a legal requirement in many countries throughout the EU for targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) applications. In order to achieve that goal, an increased level of accuracy in dosimetry procedures is needed. Current research in nuclear medicine dosimetry should not only aim at developing new methods to assess the delivered radiation absorbed dose at the patient level, but also to ensure that the proposed methods can be put into practice in a sufficient number of institutions. A unified dosimetry methodology is required for making clinical outcome comparisons possible.

  1. Sixth symposium on neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This booklet contains all abstracts of papers presented in 13 sessions. Main topics: Cross sections and Kerma factors; analytical radiobiology; detectors for personnel monitoring; secondary charged particles and microdosimetric basis of q-value for neutrons; personnel dosimetry; concepts for radiation protection; ambient monitoring; TEPC and ion chambers in radiation protection; beam dosimetry; track detectors (CR-39); dosimetry at biomedical irradiation facilities; health physics at therapy facilities; calibration for radiation protection; devices for beam dosimetry (TLD and miscellaneous); therapy and biomedical irradiation facilities; treatment planning. (HP)

  2. Dosimetry for Crystals Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lecomte, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Before shipment to CMS, all PbWO4 crystals produced in China are irradiated there with 60 Co , in order to insure that the induced absorption coefficient is within specifications. Acceptance tests at CERNand at ENEA also include irradiation with gamma rays from 60 Co sources. There were initially discrepancies in quoted doses and doserates as well as in induced absorption coefficients. The present work resolves the discrepancies in irradiation measurements and defines common dosimetry methods for consistency checks between irradiation facilities.

  3. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact the Individual Dosimetry ServiceWe inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period JANUARY/FEBRUARY will be available from their usual dispatchers on Monday the third of January 2000.Please have your films changed:before the 12 January.The colour of the dosimeter valid in JANUARY/FEBRUARY is WHITE.

  4. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact the Individual Dosimetry Service.We inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period MARCH/APRIL will be available from their usual dispatchers on the third of March 2000.Please have your films changed before the 13th of March.The colour of the dosimeter valid in MARCH/APRIL is BLUE.

  5. Personal radon daughter dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, H.

    1979-12-01

    The conventional means of radon daughter exposure estimatikn for uranium miners in Canada is by grab sampling and time weighting. Personal dosimetry is a possible alternative method with its own advantages and limitations. The author poses basic questions with regard to two methods of radon daughter detection, thermoluminescent chips and track-etch film. An historical review of previous and current research and development programs in Canada and in other countries is presented, as are brief results and conclusions of each dosimeter evaluation

  6. Radiochromic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Christopher G.

    2006-01-01

    The object of this paper is to give a new user some practical information on the use of radiochromic films for medical applications. While various aspects of radiochromic film dosimetry for medical applications have been covered in some detail in several other excellent review articles which have appeared in the last few years [Niroomand-Rad, A., Blackwell, C.R., Coursey, B.M., Gall, K.P., McLaughlin, W.L., Meigooni, A.S., Nath, R., Rodgers, J.E., Soares, C.G., 1998. Radiochromic dosimetry: recommendations of the AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 55. Med. Phys. 25, 2093-2115; Dempsey, J.F., Low, D.A., Mutic, S., Markman, J., Kirov, A.S., Nussbaum, G.H., Williamson, J.F., 2000. Validation of a precision radiochromic film dosimetry system for quantitative two-dimensional imaging of acute exposure dose distributions. Med. Phys. 27, 2462-2475; Butson, M.J., Yu, P.K.N., Cheung, T., Metcalfe, P., 2003. Radiochromic film for medical radiation dosimetry. Mater. Sci. Eng. R41, 61-120], it is the intent of the present author to present material from a more user-oriented and practical standpoint. That is, how the films work will be stressed much less than how to make the films work well. The strength of radiochromic films is most evident in applications where there is a very high dose gradient and relatively high absorbed dose rates. These conditions are associated with brachytherapy applications, measurement of small fields, and at the edges (penumbra regions) of larger fields

  7. Dosimetry: an ARDENT topic

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    The first annual ARDENT workshop took place in Vienna from 20 to 23 November. The workshop gathered together the Early-Stage Researchers (ESR) and their supervisors, plus other people involved from all the participating institutions.   “The meeting, which was organised with the local support of the Austrian Institute of Technology, was a nice opportunity for the ESRs to get together, meet each other, and present their research plans and some preliminary results of their work,” says Marco Silari, a member of CERN Radiation Protection Group and the scientist in charge of the programme. Two full days were devoted to a training course on radiation dosimetry, delivered by renowned experts. The workshop closed with a half-day visit to the MedAustron facility in Wiener Neustadt. ARDENT (Advanced Radiation Dosimetry European Network Training) is a Marie Curie ITN project funded under EU FP7 with €4 million. The project focuses on radiation dosimetry exploiting se...

  8. Dosimetry in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, M L; Chatterjee, Ingita; Patil, Preeti; Naveen, S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review various dosimeters used in dentistry and the cumulative results of various studies done with various dosimeters. Several relevant PubMed indexed articles from 1999 to 2013 were electronically searched by typing "dosimeters", "dosimeters in dentistry", "properties of dosimeters", "thermoluminescent and optically stimulated dosimeters", "recent advancements in dosimetry in dentistry." The searches were limited to articles in English to prepare a concise review on dental dosimetry. Titles and abstracts were screened, and articles that fulfilled the criteria of use of dosimeters in dental applications were selected for a full-text reading. Article was divided into four groups: (1) Biological effects of radiation, (2) properties of dosimeters, (3) types of dosimeters and (4) results of various studies using different dosimeters. The present review on dosimetry based on various studies done with dosimeters revealed that, with the advent of radiographic technique the effective dose delivered is low. Therefore, selection of radiological technique plays an important role in dental dose delivery.

  9. Dosimetry in life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The uses of radiation in medicine and biology have grown in scope and diversity to make the Radiological Sciences a significant factor in both research and medical practice. Of critical importance in the applications and development of biomedical and radiological techniques is the precision with which the dose may be determined at all points of interest in the absorbing medium. This has developed as a result of efficacy of investigations in clinical radiation therapy, concern for patient safety and diagnostic accuracy in diagnostic radiology and the advent of clinical trials and research into the use of heavily ionizing radiations in biology and medicine. Since the last IAEA Symposium on Dosimetry Techniques applied to Agriculture, Industry, Biology and Medicine, held in Vienna in 1972, it has become increasingly clear that advances in the techniques and hardware of biomedical dosimetry have been rapid. It is for these reasons that this symposium was organized in a concerted effort to focus on the problems, developments and areas of further research in dosimetry in the Life Sciences. (author)

  10. Dosimetry in life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-06-15

    The uses of radiation in medicine and biology have grown in scope and diversity to make the Radiological Sciences a significant factor in both research and medical practice. Of critical importance in the applications and development of biomedical and radiological techniques is the precision with which the dose may be determined at all points of interest in the absorbing medium. This has developed as a result of efficacy of investigations in clinical radiation therapy, concern for patient safety and diagnostic accuracy in diagnostic radiology and the advent of clinical trials and research into the use of heavily ionizing radiations in biology and medicine. Since the last IAEA Symposium on Dosimetry Techniques applied to Agriculture, Industry, Biology and Medicine, held in Vienna in 1972, it has become increasingly clear that advances in the techniques and hardware of biomedical dosimetry have been rapid. It is for these reasons that this symposium was organized in a concerted effort to focus on the problems, developments and areas of further research in dosimetry in the Life Sciences. (author)

  11. Proceedings of the 5. Symposium on neutron dosimetry. Radiation protection aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schraube, H.; Burger, G.; Booz, J.

    1985-01-01

    Proceedings of the fifth symposium on neutron dosimetry, organized at Neuherberg, 17-21 September 1984, by the Commission of the European Communities and the GSF Neuherberg, with the co-sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental Research. The proceedings deal with research on concepts, instruments and methods in radiological protection for neutrons and mixed neutron-gamma fields, including the generation, collection and evaluation of new dosimetric data, the derivation of relevant radiation protection quantities, and the harmonization of experimental methods and instrumentation by intercomparison programmes. Besides radiation protection monitoring, the proceedings also report on the improvement of neutron beam dosimetry in the fields of radiobiology and radiation therapy

  12. The role of the national physical laboratory in monitoring and improving dosimetry in UK radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, M.R.; Duane, S.; Thomas, R.A.S.; Rosser, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    There are approximately 60 radiotherapy centres in the UK. In 1999, these centres carried out over 102,000 treatments in 1.2 million fractions. These centres are organised by IPEM into eight geographical regions for the purpose of inter-departmental audits, which have been carried out on a regular basis to check the uniformity of dosimetry, treatment planning, record keeping, etc. Thwaites et al (1992) carried out a dosimetric intercomparison of megavoltage photon beams in all UK radiotherapy centres obtaining a mean value for the ratio audit/local dose of 1.003 with a standard deviation of 1.5%. The present programme covers dosimetry of megavoltage photons and electrons and low and medium energy (10-300 kV) photons. Megavoltage photon audits have the longest history, while electron audits began in 2000 and kV audits are only at the pilot stage

  13. Preliminary assessment of LiF and alanine detectors for the dosimetry of proton therapy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattibene, P.; Calicchia, A.; De Angelis, C.; Onori, S.; Egger, E.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental intercomparison between the proton response of LiF TLD-100 and alanine detectors is reported. The investigations were performed with LiF chips and alanine pellets in a 62 MeV proton beam at the Paul Scherrer Institut in Villigen (CH). Results were compared with reference dosimetry provided by Markus type parallel plate ionization chamber. The response of the detectors was studied, in a phantom, at different beam penetration depths in pristine and modulated beams. For both alanine and TL detectors, within the experimental uncertainty of the measurements, no significant energy dependence in the response was observed down to the Bragg peak region. The sensitivity of alanine and LiF detectors to protons was measured in the centre of modulated Bragg peak and no significant difference was found with respect to 60 Co. Contrary to LiF, alanine also offers a remarkable tissue equivalence which favours its choice for in-phantom dosimetry. (author)

  14. EPR TOOTH DOSIMETRY OF SNTS AREA INHABITANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholom, Sergey; Desrosiers, Marc; Bouville, André; Luckyanov, Nicholas; Chumak, Vadim; Simon, Steven L

    2007-07-01

    The determination of external dose to teeth of inhabitants of settlements near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) was conducted using the EPR dosimetry technique to assess radiation doses associated with exposure to radioactive fallout from the test site. In this study, tooth doses have been reconstructed for 103 persons with all studied teeth having been formed before the first nuclear test in 1949. Doses above those received from natural background radiation, termed "accident doses", were found to lie in the range from zero to approximately 2 Gy, with one exception, a dose for one person from Semipalatinsk city was approximately 9 Gy. The variability of reconstructed doses within each of the settlements demonstrated heterogeneity of the deposited fallout as well as variations in lifestyle. The village mean external gamma doses for residents of nine[ settlements were in the range from a few tens of mGy to approximately 100 mGy.

  15. EPR tooth dosimetry of SNTS area inhabitants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholom, Sergey [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Melnikova str., 53, Kiev (Ukraine); Desrosiers, Marc [Ionizing Radiation Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Bouville, Andre; Luckyanov, Nicholas [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD (United States); Chumak, Vadim [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Melnikova str., 53, Kiev (Ukraine); Simon, Steven L. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD (United States)], E-mail: ssimon@mail.nih.gov

    2007-07-15

    The determination of external dose to teeth of inhabitants of settlements near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) was conducted using the EPR dosimetry technique to assess radiation doses associated with exposure to radioactive fallout from the test site. In this study, tooth doses have been reconstructed for 103 persons with all studied teeth having been formed before the first nuclear test in 1949. Doses above those received from natural background radiation, termed 'accident doses', were found to lie in the range from zero to approximately 2 Gy, with one exception, a dose for one person from Semipalatinsk city was approximately 9 Gy. The variability of reconstructed doses within each of the settlements demonstrated heterogeneity of the deposited fallout as well as variations in lifestyle. The village mean external gamma doses for residents of nine settlements were in the range from a few tens of mGy to approximately 100 mGy.

  16. EPR Dosimetry for ageing effect in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hoon; Lim, Young Ki; Kim, Jong Seog; Jung, Sun Chul

    2005-01-01

    As one of the retrospective dosimetry method, EPR spectroscopy has been studied by many research up to theses days. As a dosimeter for EPR spectroscopy, Alanine is already a well known dosimeter in the field of radiation therapy and dose assessment in radiological accident by its characteristics as good linearity in a wide range of energy level and extremely low signal fading on time. Through technical document of IAEA, the EPR dosimetry method using alanine sample was published in 2000 after research by coordinated project on management of ageing of in-containment I and C cables. Although alanine sample is regarded as a good EPR dosimeter like above ageing assessment field, actually the assessment of radiation should be done at least for two fuel cycles, because of its relatively low irradiation environment in almost all spots in power plant. So, for getting more accurate detection value of radiation, another material is tested for being put in simultaneously inside the power plant with alanine. The test result for lithium formate monohydrate (HCO 2 LiH 2 0) was presented below for checking its possibility for being applied as EPR dosimeter for this project

  17. SSDL newsletter. No. 45[Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The first article of this issue of the SSDL Newsletter is about intercomparison of air kerma and absorbed dose to water calibration factors between the SSDLs of Norway and Cuba. The intercomparison covered Co-60 gamma rays (for air kerma and absorbed dose to water) and x-ray beams (air kerma at medium and low energy). The results are presented in this article. The Secretariat of the IAEA/WHO SSDL Network encourages this type of exercise between the SSDLs as it reinforces confidence in the measurement system. The IAEA also provides intercomparison services to its Network members, using ionization chambers. Although the service is presently limited to Co-60 gamma rays, it will soon be expanded to cover x-ray beams. For this purpose, a consultants' meeting will be held soon in Vienna to advise the IAEA on the methodology to be adopted. The second article is a report by the SSDL of Iran on the design, construction and calibration of plane parallel ionization chambers. This article presents the design characteristics of the chambers and the results of their calibration as well as dose determination of electron beams by air kerma based and absorbed dose to water based dosimetry procedures using these chambers. The third article is a report of a Nordic dosimetry meeting (Oslo, 19 January 2001) on the implementation of the new international Code of Practice based on absorbed dose to water standards (TRS-398). This report summarizes the main discussions and conclusions of the meeting. The editor wishes to draw the attention of the readers to the recommendations adopted in section 3 of the report. In addition, the Secretariat of the Network would appreciate receiving reports or minutes of meetings organized by SSDLs and hospitals on the implementation of TRS-398. The last article is a report of a consultants' meeting, held at the IAEA Headquarters in May 2001, on the calibration of well type ionization chambers for High Dose Rate {sup 192}Ir quality. The conclusions and

  18. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet): Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero C, C.; Arceo M, C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.; Radl, A. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. del Libertador 8250, C1429 BNP CABA (Argentina); Taja, M.; Seoane, A.; De Luca, J. [Universidad Nacionald de La Plata, Av. 7 No. 1776, La Plata 1900, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Stuck O, M. [Instituto de Radioproteccion y Dosimetria, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Valdivia, P., E-mail: lbdnet@googlegroups.co [Comision Chilena de Energia, Amutanegui 95, Santiago Centro, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-10-15

    Biological dosimetry is a necessary support for national radiation protection programs and emergency response schemes. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet) was formally founded in 2007 for mutual assistance in case of radiation emergencies and for providing support to other Latin American countries that do not have bio dosimetry laboratories. In the frame of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Projects RLA/9/54 and RLA/9/61 the following activities have been performed: a) An international intercomparison exercise organized during 2007-2008 included six European countries and LBDNet laboratories. Relevant parameters related with dose assessment were evaluated through triage and conventional scoring criteria. A new approach for statistical data analysis was developed including assessment of inter-laboratory reproducibility and intra-laboratory repeatability. Overall, the laboratory performance was satisfactory for mutual cooperation purposes. b) In 2009, LBDNet and two European countries carried out a digital image intercomparison exercise involving dose assessment from metaphase images distributed electronically through internet. The main objectives were to evaluate scoring feasibility on metaphase images and time response. In addition a re-examination phase was considered in which the most controversial images were discussed jointly, this allowed for the development of a homogeneous scoring criteria within the network. c) A further exercise was performed during 2009 involving the shipment of biological samples for biological dosimetry assessment. The aim of this exercise was to test the timely and properly sending and receiving blood samples under national and international regulations. A total of 14 laboratories participated in this joint IAEA, PAHO and WHO. (Author)

  19. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet): Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero C, C.; Arceo M, C.; Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.; Radl, A.; Taja, M.; Seoane, A.; De Luca, J.; Stuck O, M.; Valdivia, P.

    2010-10-01

    Biological dosimetry is a necessary support for national radiation protection programs and emergency response schemes. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet) was formally founded in 2007 for mutual assistance in case of radiation emergencies and for providing support to other Latin American countries that do not have bio dosimetry laboratories. In the frame of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Projects RLA/9/54 and RLA/9/61 the following activities have been performed: a) An international intercomparison exercise organized during 2007-2008 included six European countries and LBDNet laboratories. Relevant parameters related with dose assessment were evaluated through triage and conventional scoring criteria. A new approach for statistical data analysis was developed including assessment of inter-laboratory reproducibility and intra-laboratory repeatability. Overall, the laboratory performance was satisfactory for mutual cooperation purposes. b) In 2009, LBDNet and two European countries carried out a digital image intercomparison exercise involving dose assessment from metaphase images distributed electronically through internet. The main objectives were to evaluate scoring feasibility on metaphase images and time response. In addition a re-examination phase was considered in which the most controversial images were discussed jointly, this allowed for the development of a homogeneous scoring criteria within the network. c) A further exercise was performed during 2009 involving the shipment of biological samples for biological dosimetry assessment. The aim of this exercise was to test the timely and properly sending and receiving blood samples under national and international regulations. A total of 14 laboratories participated in this joint IAEA, PAHO and WHO. (Author)

  20. Tchernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    First, R.M.B.K type reactors are described. Then, safety problems are dealt with reactor control, behavior during transients, normal loss of power and behavior of the reactor in case of leak. A possible scenario of the accident of Tchernobyl is proposed: events before the explosion, possible initiators, possible scenario and events subsequent to the core meltdown (corium-concrete interaction, interaction with the groundwater table). An estimation of the source term is proposed first from the installation characteristics and the supposed scenario of the accident, and from the measurements in Europe; radiological consequences are also estimated. Radioactivity measurements (Europe, Scandinavia, Western Europe, France) are given in tables (meteorological maps and fallouts in Europe). Finally, a description of the site is given [fr