WorldWideScience

Sample records for accident dosimetry experiment

  1. A second simulated criticality accident dosimetry experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, N

    1973-01-01

    This experiment was undertaken to facilitate training in criticality dose assessment by UKAEA and BNFL establishments with potential criticality hazards. Personal dosemeters, coins, samples of hair, etc. supplied by the seven participating establishments were attached to a man-phantom filled with a solution of sodium nitrate (simulating 'body-sodium'), and exposed to a burst of radiation from the AWRE pulsed reactor VIPER. The neutron and photon doses were each several hundred rads. Participants made two sets of dose assessments. The first, made solely from the evidence of their routine dosemeters the activation of body-sodium and standard monitoring data, simulated the initial dose assessment that would be made before the circumstances of a real incident were established. The second was made when the position and orientation of the phantom relative to the reactor and the shielding (20 cm of copper) between the reactor core and the phantom were disclosed. Neutron and photon dose assessments for comparison wit...

  2. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, C S

    1989-09-01

    Twenty-two nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast-pulse Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a total of 62 different organizations a forum for discussion of criticality accident dosimetry, an opportunity to test their neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry systems under a variety of simulated criticality accident conditions, and the experience of comparing results with reference dose values as well as with the measured results obtained by others making measurements under identical conditions. Sixty-nine nuclear accidents (27 with unmoderated neutron energy spectra and 42 with eight different shielded spectra) have been simulated in the studies. Neutron doses were in the 0.2-8.5 Gy range and gamma doses in the 0.1-2.0 Gy range. A total of 2,289 dose measurements (1,311 neutron, 978 gamma) were made during the intercomparisons. The primary methods of neutron dosimetry were activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and blood sodium activation. The main methods of gamma dose measurement were thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiophotoluminescent glass, and film. About 68% of the neutron measurements met the accuracy guidelines (+/- 25%) and about 52% of the gamma measurements met the accuracy criterion (+/- 20%) for accident dosimetry.

  3. LLNL Results from CALIBAN-PROSPERO Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Experiments in September 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobaugh, M. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hickman, D. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wong, C. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wysong, A. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Merritt, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Heinrichs, D. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Topper, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses thin neutron activation foils, sulfur, and threshold energy shielding to determine neutron component doses and the total dose from neutrons in the event of a nuclear criticality accident. The dosimeter also uses a DOELAP accredited Panasonic UD-810 (Panasonic Industrial Devices Sales Company of America, 2 Riverfront Plaza, Newark, NJ 07102, U.S.A.) thermoluminescent dosimetery system (TLD) for determining the gamma component of the total dose. LLNL has participated in three international intercomparisons of nuclear accident dosimeters. In October 2009, LLNL participated in an exercise at the French Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission- CEA) Research Center at Valduc utilizing the SILENE reactor (Hickman, et.al. 2010). In September 2010, LLNL participated in a second intercomparison at CEA Valduc, this time with exposures at the CALIBAN reactor (Hickman et al. 2011). This paper discusses LLNL’s results of a third intercomparison hosted by the French Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety- IRSN) with exposures at two CEA Valduc reactors (CALIBAN and PROSPERO) in September 2014. Comparison results between the three participating facilities is presented elsewhere (Chevallier 2015; Duluc 2015).

  4. Criticality accident dosimetry with ESR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Errico, F. [DCMN, Universita degli Studi di Pisa (Italy); Fattibene, P.; Onori, S.; Pantaloni, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Fisica

    1997-01-01

    The suitability of the ESR alanine and sugar detectors for criticality accident dosimetry was experimentally investigated during an intercomparison of dosimetry techniques. Tests were performed irradiating detectors both free-in-air and on-phantom during controlled criticality excursions at the SILENE reactor in Valduc, France. Several grays of absorbed dose were imparted in neutron gamma-ray fields of various relative intensities and spectral distributions. Analysed results confirmed the potential of these systems which can immediately provide an acute dose assessment with an average underestimate of 30% in the various fields. This performance allows for the screening of severely exposed individuals and meets the IAEA recommendations on the early estimate of accident absorbed doses. (Author).

  5. Retrospective accident dosimetry using trapped charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L.; Chang, I.; Kim, B. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Dicentric chromosome aberrations technique scoring of aberrations in metaphases prepared from human lymphocytes is most commonly used. This is considered as a reliable technique because the sample is extracted from the individual human body itself. There are other techniques in biological dosimetry such as Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) using translocations, premature chromosome condensation (PCC) and micronucleus assay. However the minimum detectable doses (MDD) are relatively high and sample preparation time is also relatively longer. Therefore, there is limitation in use of these techniques for the purpose of triage in a short time in case of emergency situation relating large number of persons. Electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique is based on the signal from unpaired electrons such as free radicals in irradiated materials especially tooth enamel, however it has also limitation for the purpose of triage because of difficulty of sample taking and its high MDD. Recently as physical methods, thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique have been attracted due to its lower MDD and simplicity of sample preparation. Density of the trapped charges is generally proportional to the radiation dose absorbed and the intensity of emitting light is also proportional to the density of trapped charges, thus it can be applied to measure radiation dose retrospectively. In this presentation, TL and OSL techniques are going to introduced and discussed as physical methods for retrospective accident dosimetry using trapped charges especially in electronic component materials. As a tool for dose reconstruction for emergency situation, thermoluminescece and optically stimulated luminescence techniques which are based on trapped charges during exposure of material are introduced. These techniques have several advantages such as high sensitivity, fast evaluation and ease to sample collection over common biological dosimetry and EPR

  6. International Intercomparison Exercise for Nuclear Accident Dosimetry at the DAF Using GODIVA-IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, David [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hudson, Becka [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Program operated under the direction of Dr. Jerry McKamy completed the first NNSA Nuclear Accident Dosimetry exercise on May 27, 2016. Participants in the exercise were from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), Savanah River Site (SRS), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), US Navy, the Atomic Weapons Establishment (United Kingdom) under the auspices of JOWOG 30, and the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (France) by special invitation and NCSP memorandum of understanding. This exercise was the culmination of a series of Integral Experiment Requests (IER) that included the establishment of the Nuclear Criticality Experimental Research Center, (NCERC) the startup of the Godiva Reactor (IER-194), the establishment of a the Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Laboratory (NAD LAB) in Mercury, NV, and the determination of reference dosimetry values for the mixed neutron and photon radiation field of Godiva within NCERC.

  7. The program of international intercomparison of accident dosimetry; Le programme d'intercomparaison internationale de dosimetrie d'accident 10-12 juin 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    The French institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN) has carried out in June 2002 an international intercomparison program for the testing of the physical and biological accident dosimetry techniques. The intercomparison is jointly organized by the IRSN and the OECD-NEA with the sustain of the European commission and the collaboration of the CEA centre of Valduc (France). About 30 countries have participated to this program. Each country has supplied its own dosimeters and biological samples which have been irradiated using the Silene reactor of CEA-Valduc or a {sup 60}Co source. These experiments allow to test the new dosimetric techniques that have been developed since the previous intercomparison program (1993) and to confirm or improve the performances of older techniques. Aside from the intercomparison exercise, this report makes a status of the known radiological accidents and of the effects of high doses of ionizing radiations on human health (symptoms, therapeutics). It explains the phenomenology of criticality accidents, the prevention means, and the history of such accidents up to the Tokai-Mura one in 1999. Finally, the dosimetry of criticality is presented with its physical and biological techniques. (J.S.)

  8. Performance of the CEDS Accident Dosimetry System at the 1995 Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahan, K.L.; Schwanke, L.J.

    1996-12-01

    In July 1995, LANL hosted an accident dosimetry intercomparison. When all reactors on the Oak Ridge Reservation were idled in 1988, the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR), which had been used for 22 previous intercomparisons dating from 1965, was shut down for an indefinite period. The LANL group began characterization of two critical assemblies for dosimetry purposes. As a result, NAD-23 was conceived and 10 DOE facilities accepted invitations to participate in the intercomparison. This report is a summary of the performance of one of the participants, the Centralized External Dosimetry System (CEDS). The CEDS is a cooperative personnel dosimetry arrangement between three DOE sites in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Many successes and failures are reported herein. Generally, the TL dosimeters performed poorly and always over-reported the delivered dose. The TLD processing procedures contain efforts that would lead to large biases in the reported absorbed dose, and omit several key steps in the TLD reading process. The supralinear behavior of lithium fluoride (LiF) has not been characterized for this particular dosimeter and application (i.e., in high-dose mixed neutron/gamma fields). The use of TLD materials may also be precluded given the limitations of the LiF material itself, the TLD reading system, and the upper dose level to which accident dosimetry systems are required to perform as set forth in DOE regulations. The indium foil results confirm the expected inability of that material to predict the magnitude of the wearer`s dose reliably, although it is quite suitable as a quick-sort material. Biological sample (hair) results were above the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for only one of the tests. Several questions as to the best methods for sample handling and processing remain.

  9. The Chernobyl experience in the area of retrospective dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumak, Vadim V

    2012-03-01

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred on 26 April 1986 at a nuclear power plant located less than 150 km north of Kiev, was the largest nuclear accident to date. The unprecedented scale of the accident was determined not only by the amount of released activity, but also by the number of workers and of the general public involved, and therefore exposed to increased doses of ionising radiation. Due to the unexpected and large scale of the accident, dosimetry techniques and practices were far from the optimum; personal dosimetry of cleanup workers (liquidators) was not complete, and there were no direct measurements of the exposures of members of the public. As a result, an acute need for retrospective dose assessment was dictated by radiation protection and research considerations. In response, substantial efforts have been made to reconstruct doses for the main exposed cohorts, using a broad variety of newly developed methods: analytical, biological and physical (electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of teeth, thermoluminescence of quartz) and modelling. This paper reviews the extensive experience gained by the National Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Ukraine in the field of retrospective dosimetry of large cohorts of exposed population and professionals. These dose reconstruction projects were implemented, in particular, in the framework of epidemiological studies, designed to follow-up the medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident and study health effects of ionizing radiation, particularly Ukrainian-American studies of cataracts and leukaemia among liquidators.

  10. Fifteenth nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison study: August 14--22, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, C.S.

    1979-05-01

    The fifteenth in the continuing series of Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison Studies was held August 14--22, 1978 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The Health Physics Research Reactor, operated in the pulse mode, served as the radiation source. Using different shielding configurations, nuclear accidents with three different neutron and gamma spectra were simulated. Participants from 19 organizations, the most in the history of the studies, exposed dosimeters set up as area monitors as well as dosimeters mounted on phantoms for personnel monitoring. Although many participants performed accurate measurements, the composite dose results, in the majority of cases, failed to meet established nuclear criticality accident dosimetry guidelines which suggest accuracies of +- 25% for neutron dose and +- 20% for gamma dose. This indicates that many participants need to improve their dosimetry systems, their analytical techniques, or both.

  11. Biological dosimetry following exposure to neutrons in a criticality accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, C. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, STUK (Finland)); Wojcik, A. (Stockholm Univ. (SU), Stockholm (Sweden)); Jaworska, A. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) (Norway))

    2011-01-15

    The aim of the BIONCA project was to implement cytogenetic techniques for biodosimetry purposes in the Nordic countries. The previous NKS-funded biodosimetry activities (BIODOS and BIOPEX) concentrated on experiments using gamma-irradiation and on developing the PCC ring assay for biodosimetry. Experiments conducted during the present BIONCA project has broadened the biodosimetry capacity of the Nordic countries to include dose estimation of exposure to neutrons for both PCC ring and dicentric chromosome techniques. In 2009, experiments were conducted for establishing both PCC ring and dicentric dose calibration curves. Neutron irradiation of human whole blood obtained from two volunteers was conducted in the Netherlands at the Petten reactor. Cell cultures and analysis of whole blood exposed to eight doses between 0 and 10 Gy were performed for both techniques. For the dicentric assay, excellent uniformity in dose calibration for data from both SU and STUK was observed. For PCC rings, the SU and STUK curves were not equally congruent, probably due to the less uniform scoring criteria. However, both curves displayed strong linearity throughout the dose range. In 2010, an exercise was conducted to simulate a criticality accident and to test the validity of the established dose calibration curves. For accident simulation, 16 blood samples were irradiated in Norway at the Kjeller reactor and analysed for dose estimation with both assays. The results showed that, despite a different com-position of the radiation beams in Petten and Kjeller, good dose estimates were obtained. The activity has provided good experience on collaboration required in radiation emergency situations where the biodosimetry capacity and resources of one laboratory may be inadequate. In this respect, the project has strengthened the informal network between the Nordic countries: STUK, the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, NRPA, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and SU

  12. 1983 international intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimetry systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R.E.; Greene, R.T.; Sims, C.S.

    1985-04-01

    An international intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimetry systems was conducted during September 12-16, 1983, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using the Health Physics Research Reactor operated in the pulse mode to simulate criticality accidents. This study marked the twentieth in a series of annual accident dosimetry intercomparisons conducted at ORNL. Participants from ten organizations attended this intercomparison and measured neutron and gamma doses at area monitoring stations and on phantoms for three different shield conditions. Results of this study indicate that foil activation techniques are the most popular and accurate method of determining accident-level neutron doses at area monitoring stations. For personnel monitoring, foil activation, blood sodium activation, and thermoluminescent (TL) methods are all capable of providing accurate dose estimates in a variety of radiation fields. All participants in this study used TLD's to determine gamma doses with very good results on the average. Chemical dosemeters were also shown to be capable of yielding accurate estimates of total neutron plus gamma doses in a variety of radiation fields. While 83% of all neutron measurements satisfied regulatory standards relative to reference values, only 39% of all gamma results satisfied corresponding guidelines for gamma measurements. These results indicate that continued improvement in accident dosimetry evaluation and measurement techniques is needed.

  13. Sensitivity studies associated with dosimetry experiment interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourganel, S.; Soldevila, M. [CEA/DANS/DM2S/SERMA, CEA Saclay, 91191, Gif sur Yvette (France); Ferrer, A.; Gregoire, G.; Destouches, C.; Beretz, D. [CEA/DEN-CAD/DER/SPEX, CEA Cadarache, F13108, Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2011-07-01

    Document available in abstract form only, full text of document follows: Interpretation of reactor dosimetry experiments with C/E comparison requires precise knowledge of parameters involved in modeling. Some parameters have more weight than others on the calculated values. So, sensitivity studies should be conducted to verify the importance of these parameters. The conclusions of these studies are used to refine the experiment modeling, or to correct uncertainty calculations. The results of these sensitivity studies allow a post-irradiation analysis, which can justify the discarding of some atypical C/M values. Derived uncertainties may be improved by the sensitivity analyses. Beyond classical parameters as geometry or composition, this paper describes some specific sensitivity studies conducted for dosimetry irradiation in reactor, and presents conclusions. These studies are based on dosimeters irradiated in the EOLE reactor facility at Cadarache CEA center. Conclusions drawn from these studies are generic and can be applied to any dosimetry study. Calculations performed for these studies were realized using TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo code. (authors)

  14. On the use of new generation mobile phone (smart phone) for retrospective accident dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. I.; Chang, I.; Pradhan, A. S.; Kim, J. L.; Kim, B. H.; Chung, K. S.

    2015-11-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) characteristics of resistors, inductors and integrated-circuit (IC) chips, extracted from new generation smart phones, were investigated for the purpose of retrospective accident dosimetry. Inductor samples were found to exhibit OSL sensitivity about 5 times and 40 times higher than that of the resistors and the IC chips, respectively. On post-irradiation storage, the resistors exhibited a much higher OSL fading (about 80 % in 36 h as compared to the value 3 min after irradiation) than IC chips (about 20 % after 36 h) and inductors (about 50 % in 36 h). Higher OSL sensitivity, linear dose response (from 8.7 mGy up to 8.9 Gy) and acceptable fading make inductors more attractive for accident dosimetry than widely studied resistors.

  15. Using soils for accident dosimetry: a preliminary study using optically stimulated luminescence from quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujita, Hiroki; Jain, Mayank; Murray, Andrew S.

    2011-01-01

    The optimum conditions of preheat temperature, stimulation temperature, etc. in the single-aliquot regenerative optically stimulated luminescence (SAR OSL) method were examined specifically for measuring background dose in natural quartz extracted from soils collected around Tokai-mura in Japan....... The objective was to assess the potential of SAROSL dosimetry using soils for retrospective assessment of a radiation accident. Variation in dose with depth was also measured. The SAR data showed good reproducibility and dose recovery, and there was no evidence of fading of the quartz signal based on “delayed......, and no clear trend in dose depth profile was observed. From these results, we conclude that SAR OSL dosimetry using natural quartz extracted from soil could be used to evaluate the dose of an accident....

  16. DOSIMETRY

    CERN Multimedia

    Service de dosimétrie individuelle

    2000-01-01

    From the distribution Novembre/Decembre 2000 (film colour green), the people who worked in LEP experiments and who have not announced their participation to LEP dismantling or new activities in another experiment or group will be taken out from the regular distribution list of the Individual Dosimetry Service. Please contact Individual Dosimetry Service, tel. 72155 or e-mail to Jeannine.Fraisse@cern.ch We inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER will be available from their usual dispatchers on the 1st of September 2000. Please have your films changed before the 12th of September. The colour of the dosimeter valid in SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER is RED. The service will be closed exceptionally on Friday 8 September.

  17. Dosimetry; La dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Couteulx, I.; Apretna, D.; Beaugerie, M.F. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    Eight articles treat the dosimetry. Two articles evaluate the radiation doses in specific cases, dosimetry of patients in radiodiagnosis, three articles are devoted to detectors (neutrons and x and gamma radiations) and a computer code to build up the dosimetry of an accident due to an external exposure. (N.C.)

  18. Review of the correlation between results of cytogenetic dosimetry from blood lymphocytes and EPR dosimetry from tooth enamel for victims of radiation accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvostunov, I K; Ivannikov, A I; Skvortsov, V G; Nugis, V Yu; Golub, E V

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study was to compare dose estimates from electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry with teeth and cytogenetic dosimetry with blood lymphocytes for 30 victims of radiation accidents. The whole-body exposures estimated by tooth enamel EPR dosimetry were ranging from 0.01 to 9.3 Gy. Study group comprised victims exposed to acute and prolonged irradiation at high and low dose rate in different accidents. Blood samples were taken from each of them for cytogenetic analysis. Aberrations were scored and analysed according to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) guidelines for conventional and FISH analysis. Tooth samples were collected in dental clinics after they had been extracted during ordinary practice. EPR dosimetry was performed according to the IAEA protocol. EPR dosimetry showed good correlation with dosimetry based on chromosomal analysis. All estimations of cytogenetic dose below detection limit coincide with EPR dose estimates within the ranges of uncertainty. The differences between cytogenetic and EPR assays may occur in a case of previous unaccounted exposure, non-homogeneous irradiation and due to contribution to absorbed dose from neutron irradiation.

  19. Study on the establishment of retrospective dosimetry system for nuclear radiation accident(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Shik; Chai, Ha Seok; Lee, Jong Ok [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    This study was driven forward centering around physical techniques in retrospective dosimetry system for encountering nuclear radiation accident. The results obtained through this study are summarized as follow : the minimal facilities based on physical techniques should be assured at KINS for appropriate operation and establishment of retrospective accident dosimetry system, the necessary apparatus and man power for retrospective dose assessment by physical techniques might be operated flexibly, however, CL and TL/OSL readers should be equipped with the highest priority, a series of comparative examination of several physical techniques for retrospective dose assessment revealed that most of the irradiated materials around accident sites are usable for the dose assessment, if a priori study on the dosimetrical characteristics of those materials is preceded in accordance with the species of the collectable samples, the results of the study on the CL-dose response and radiation energy dependence of sugar and sorbitol, showed the nonlinearity in CL-dose relationship at the range of low dose(less than 5 Gy), and it led us to perform a study on the correction of the nonlinearity, and in the later study, CL output showed heavy dependence on radiation energy in the energy below around 100 keV and accordingly, a study on the correction for the energy dependence was also carried out, ve were able to obtain good results as a first attempt to carry out such corrections.

  20. Accident dosimetry using the TL from dental restoration porcelains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauricio, C.L.P.; Rosa, L.A.R.; Cunha, P.G. (Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1985-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of dental restorative porcelain were investigated with the aim of using this material as a TL dosemeter to estimate high doses in radiological accidents. The irradiations were carried out with a /sup 60/Co gamma source and X rays with effective energies from 29 to 95 keV. The porcelain glow curve presents three peaks at about 393,463 and 543K. The samples have a limit of detection at about 1.29 x 10/sup -2/ C.kg/sup -1/(50 R) and their reproducibility is better than 15%. Linearity was observed from 1.29 x 10/sup -2/ to 12.9 C.kg/sup -1/(50 to 50,000 R). Over this exposure range, the dental porcelain TL response presents a maximum pre-dose sensitisation factor of 2.33. The porcelain TL sensitivity, normalised to /sup 60/Co, has a maximum of 4.8 at 29 keV due to its energy dependence.

  1. MISTI Shielding and Dosimetry Experiment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reliable on-orbit dosimetry is necessary for understanding effects of space radiation environments on spacecraft microelectronics performance and comparison of...

  2. EPR dosimetry teeth in past and future accidents: A prospective look at a retrospective method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskell, E.; Kenner, G.; Hayes, R. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Center for Applied Dosimetry; Chumak, V.; Shalom, S. [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1997-03-01

    Accurate assessments of doses received by individuals exposed to radiation from nuclear accidents and incidents such as those at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Nevada test site, Cheliabinsk and Mayak are required for epidemiological studies seeking to establish relationships between radiation dose and health effects. One method of retrospective dosimetry which allows for measurement of cumulative gamma ray doses received by exposed individuals is electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) of tooth enamel. Tooth enamel stores and retains, indefinitely, information on absorbed radiation dose. And teeth are available in every population as a result of dental extraction for medical reasons including periodontal disease and impacted wisdom teeth. In the case of children, deciduous teeth, which are shed between the ages of 7 and 13, can be a very important dosimetric source if documented collection is implemented shortly following an accident.

  3. EPR dosimetry of teeth in past and future accidents. A prospective look at a retrospective method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskell, E.; Kenner, G.; Hayes, R. [Center for Applied Dosimetry, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Chumak, V.; Shalom, S.

    1996-12-31

    Accurate assessments of doses received by individuals exposed to radiation from nuclear accidents and incidents such as those at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Nevada test site, Chelyabinsk and Mayak are required for epidemiological studies seeking to establish relationships between radiation dose and health effects. One method of retrospective dosimetry which allows for measurement of cumulative gamma ray doses received by exposed individuals is electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) of tooth enamel. Tooth enamel stores and retains, indefinitely, information on absorbed radiation dose; and teeth are available in every population as a result of dental extraction for medical reasons including periodontal disease and impacted wisdom teeth. In the case of children, deciduous teeth, which are shed between the ages of 7 and 13, can be a very important dosimetric source if documented collection is implemented shortly following an accident. (author)

  4. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for internal dosimetry. Volume 1: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harrison, J.D. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA internal dosimetry models.

  5. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for internal dosimetry. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harrison, J.D. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA internal dosimetry models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on internal dosimetry, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  6. PNNL Measurement Results for the 2016 Criticality Accident Dosimetry Exercise at the Nevada National Security Stite (IER-148)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Morley, Shannon M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephens, John A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) participated in a criticality accident dosimetry intercomparison exercise held at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) May 24-27, 2016. The exercise was administered by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and consisted of three exposures performed using the Godiva-IV critical assembly housed in the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) located on the NNSS site. The exercise allowed participants to test the ability of their nuclear accident dosimeters to meet the performance criteria in ANSI/HPS N13.3-2013, Dosimetry for Criticality Accidents and to obtain new measurement data for use in revising dose calculation methods and quick sort screening methods where appropriate. PNNL participated with new prototype Personal Nuclear Accident Dosimeter (PNAD) and Fixed Nuclear Accident Dosimeter (FNAD) designs as well as the existing historical PNAD design. The new prototype designs incorporate optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters in place of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs), among other design changes, while retaining the same set of activation foils historically used. The default dose calculation methodology established decades ago for use with activation foils in PNNL PNADs and FNADs was used to calculate neutron dose results for both the existing and prototype dosimeters tested in the exercise. The results indicate that the effective cross sections and/or dose conversion factors used historically need to be updated to accurately measure the operational quantities recommended for nuclear accident dosimetry in ANSI/HPS N13.3-2013 and to ensure PNAD and FNAD performance meets the ANSI/HPS N13.3-2013 performance criteria. The operational quantities recommended for nuclear accident dosimetry are personal absorbed dose, Dp(10), and ambient absorbed dose, D*(10).

  7. Sandia National Laboratories results for the 2010 criticality accident dosimetry exercise, at the CALIBAN reactor, CEA Valduc France.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Dann C.

    2011-09-01

    This document describes the personal nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) used by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and presents PNAD dosimetry results obtained during the Nuclear Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Study held 20-23 September, 2010, at CEA Valduc, France. SNL PNADs were exposed in two separate irradiations from the CALIBAN reactor. Biases for reported neutron doses ranged from -15% to +0.4% with an average bias of -7.7%. PNADs were also exposed on the back side of phantoms to assess orientation effects.

  8. DOSIMETRY

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From the month of May on, the neutron dosimeter will be worn in an extra package distinct from the usual film-badge. We will give you more ample information in Weekly Bulletin No. 18/2001 of April 30, 2001. In the week following Easter (17 - 20. 4. 2001) the Individual Dosimetry Service will be opened in the mornings from 8:30 to 11:30 h only. The Service will be closed on April 30.

  9. Professional experience and traffic accidents/near-miss accidents among truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Edmarlon; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; González, Alberto Durán; Mesas, Arthur Eumann

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between the time working as a truck driver and the report of involvement in traffic accidents or near-miss accidents. A cross-sectional study was performed with truck drivers transporting products from the Brazilian grain harvest to the Port of Paranaguá, Paraná, Brazil. The drivers were interviewed regarding sociodemographic characteristics, working conditions, behavior in traffic and involvement in accidents or near-miss accidents in the previous 12 months. Subsequently, the participants answered a self-applied questionnaire on substance use. The time of professional experience as drivers was categorized in tertiles. Statistical analyses were performed through the construction of models adjusted by multinomial regression to assess the relationship between the length of experience as a truck driver and the involvement in accidents or near-miss accidents. This study included 665 male drivers with an average age of 42.2 (±11.1) years. Among them, 7.2% and 41.7% of the drivers reported involvement in accidents and near-miss accidents, respectively. In fully adjusted analysis, the 3rd tertile of professional experience (>22years) was shown to be inversely associated with involvement in accidents (odds ratio [OR] 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.52) and near-miss accidents (OR 0.17; 95% CI 0.05-0.53). The 2nd tertile of professional experience (11-22 years) was inversely associated with involvement in accidents (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.40-0.98). An evident relationship was observed between longer professional experience and a reduction in reporting involvement in accidents and near-miss accidents, regardless of age, substance use, working conditions and behavior in traffic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dosimetry for radiobiology experiments at GANIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durantel, Florent; Balanzat, Emmanuel; Cassimi, Amine; Chevalier, François; Ngono-Ravache, Yvette; Madi, Toiammou; Poully, Jean-Christophe; Ramillon, Jean-Marc; Rothard, Hermann; Ropars, Frédéric; Schwob, Lucas; Testard, Isabelle; Saintigny, Yannick

    2016-04-01

    Mainly encouraged by the increasing application of ion beams for cancer treatment (hadron-therapy) including carbon beams, the use of heavy ion facilities for radiobiology is expanding rapidly today. As an alternative to dedicated centers for treatment and medical research, accelerators like GANIL offer the possibility to undertake such experiments. Since 20 years, CIMAP, reinforced 15 years ago by the biological host laboratory LARIA, has been receiving researchers in radiobiology and assisted them in performing experiments in different fields such as hadron-therapy, space radioprotection and fundamental biological and physico-chemical mechanisms. We present here a short description of the beam line and the on-line equipments that allow the automatic irradiation of up to 24 biological samples at once. We also developed an original on-line beam monitoring procedure for low ion flux (low dose rates) based on the measurement of the K-shell X-rays emitted from a thin iron foil. This detector is calibrated on an absolute scale before each experiment by counting etched tracks on an irradiated CR39 polymer plate. We present the performances and limits of this method and finally give typical fluence (dose) uncertainties for a standard irradiation in radiobiology.

  11. Dosimetry for radiobiology experiments at GANIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durantel, Florent, E-mail: durantel@ganil.fr [CIMAP-GANIL, Caen (France); Balanzat, Emmanuel; Cassimi, Amine [CIMAP-GANIL, Caen (France); Chevalier, François [CEA/DSV/LARIA, Caen (France); Ngono-Ravache, Yvette; Madi, Toiammou; Poully, Jean-Christophe; Ramillon, Jean-Marc; Rothard, Hermann; Ropars, Frédéric; Schwob, Lucas [CIMAP-GANIL, Caen (France); Testard, Isabelle [CEA/DSV/CBM/iRTSV, Grenoble (France); Saintigny, Yannick [CEA/DSV/LARIA, Caen (France)

    2016-04-21

    Mainly encouraged by the increasing application of ion beams for cancer treatment (hadron-therapy) including carbon beams, the use of heavy ion facilities for radiobiology is expanding rapidly today. As an alternative to dedicated centers for treatment and medical research, accelerators like GANIL offer the possibility to undertake such experiments. Since 20 years, CIMAP, reinforced 15 years ago by the biological host laboratory LARIA, has been receiving researchers in radiobiology and assisted them in performing experiments in different fields such as hadron-therapy, space radioprotection and fundamental biological and physico-chemical mechanisms. We present here a short description of the beam line and the on-line equipments that allow the automatic irradiation of up to 24 biological samples at once. We also developed an original on-line beam monitoring procedure for low ion flux (low dose rates) based on the measurement of the K-shell X-rays emitted from a thin iron foil. This detector is calibrated on an absolute scale before each experiment by counting etched tracks on an irradiated CR39 polymer plate. We present the performances and limits of this method and finally give typical fluence (dose) uncertainties for a standard irradiation in radiobiology.

  12. Recent experience in applying the cytogenetic dosimetry assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khvostunov, I.K., E-mail: 726727@mrrc.obninsk.ru [Medical Radiological Research Centre, Koroliov Str. 4, Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249036 (Russian Federation); Sevan' kaev, A.V. [Medical Radiological Research Centre, Koroliov Str. 4, Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249036 (Russian Federation); Lloyd, D.C. [Health Protection Agency, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Nugis, V.Yu. [Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of the Federal Medical Biological Agency, Marshala Novikova Str., 23, Moscow (Russian Federation); Voisin, P. [Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, SRBE, B.P. 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France)

    2011-09-15

    This paper considers how well standard calibration curve for translocations constructed for lymphocyte cultures irradiated in vitro with gamma-rays from {sup 60}Co compares with the translocations yield in lymphocytes taken from people at a long post-exposure time. Data were used from radiation accident victims overexposed to doses ranging from 0.2 to 8.5 Gy and who were cytogenetically followed-up for various times upto 50 y. Their cultured lymphocytes had been scored both by the conventional dicentric method and by FISH for all translocations involving painted chromosomes (2, 3, 8); (2, 3, 5) or (2, 4, 12). The in vivo dose response relationship was derived by fitting translocation frequencies to the contemporary individual doses obtained independently and confirmed by different biological assays and physical dosimetry. A comparison with the conventional in vitro curve indicates reductions of translocation frequencies with increasing time which would prejudice retrospective dose assessment by FISH. This has led to the possibility to amend the in vitro dose response curve for translocations to make it more suitable for use in retrospective biodosimetry. This approach for retrospective biodosimetry therefore uses a dose response relationship based on truly persisting translocations.

  13. EPR dosimetry of teeth in past and future accidents: a prospective look at a retrospective method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskell, E.H.; Kenner, G.H.; Hayes, R.B. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Center for Applied Dosimetry; Chumak, V.; Shalom, S. [All-Union Scientific Centre of Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1996-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) of tooth enamel is a relatively new technique for retrospective dosimetry that in the past two years has seen increasing effort towards its development and evaluation. Efforts have centered on determining the accuracy which may be achieved with current measurement techniques as well as the minimum doses detectable. The study was focused on evaluating some factors which influence the accuracy of EPR dosimetry of enamel. Reported are studies on sample intercomparisions, instrumental considerations, and effects of dental x-rays, environmental sunlight and ultraviolet radiation.

  14. Final Design for an International Intercomparison Exercise for Nuclear Accident Dosimetry at the DAF Using Godiva-IV: IER-148 CED-2 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrichs, Dave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Beller, Tim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Burch, Jennifer [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cummings, Rick [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States) Nevada National Security Site; Duluc, Matthieu [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Sûrete Nucleaire (ISRN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Gadd, Milan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goda, Joetta [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hickman, David [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McAvoy, Doug [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rathbone, Bruce [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sullivan, Randy [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Trompier, Francois [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Sûrete Nucleaire (ISRN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Veinot, Ken [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ward, Dann [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Will, Rashelle [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States) Nevada National Security Site; Wilson, Chris [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom); Zieziulewicz, Thomas [Knolls Atomic Power Lab. (KAPL), Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2014-09-30

    This document is the Final Design (CED-2) Report for IER-148, “International Inter-comparison Exercise for Nuclear Accident Dosimetry at the DAF Using Godiva-IV.” The report describes the structure of the exercise consisting of three irradiations; identifies the participating laboratories and their points of contact; provides the details of all dosimetry elements and their placement in proximity to Godiva-IV on support stands or phantoms ; and lists the counting and spectroscopy equipment each laboratory will utilize in the Mercury NAD Lab. The exercise is tentatively scheduled for one week in August 2015.

  15. Dosimetry of an accident in mixed field (neutrons, photons) using the spectrometry by electronic paramagnetic resonance(EPR); Dosimetrie d'accident en champ mixte (neutrons, photons) utilisant la spectrometrie par resonance paramagnetique electronique (RPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herve, M.L

    2006-03-15

    In a radiological accident, the assessment of the dose received by the victim is relevant information for the therapeutic strategy. Two complementary dosimetric techniques based on physical means are used in routine practice in the laboratory: EPR spectroscopy performed on materials removed from the victim or gathered from the vicinity of the victim and Monte Carlo calculations. EPR dosimetry, has been used successfully several times in cases of photon or electron overexposures. Accidental exposure may also occur with a neutron component. The aim of this work is to investigate the potentiality of EPR dosimetry for mixed photon and neutron field exposure with different organic materials (ascorbic acid, sorbitol, glucose, galactose, fructose, mannose, lactose and sucrose). The influence of irradiation parameters (dose, dose rate, photon energy) and of environmental parameters (temperature of heating, light exposure) on the EPR signal amplitude was studied. To assess the neutron sensitivity, the materials were exposed to a mixed radiation field of experimental reactors with different neutron to photon ratios. The relative neutron sensitivity was found to range from 10% to 43% according to the materials. Prior knowledge of the ratio between the dose in samples measured by EPR spectrometry and organ or whole body dose obtained by calculations previously performed for these different configurations, makes it possible to give a first estimation of the dose received by the victim in a short delay. The second aim of this work is to provide data relevant for a quick assessment of the dose distribution in case of accidental overexposure based on EPR measurements performed on one or several points of the body. The study consists in determining by calculation the relation between the dose to the organs and whole body and the dose to specific points of the body, like teeth, bones or samples located in the pockets of victim clothes, for different external exposures corresponding

  16. A micro-gap, air-filled ionisation chamber as a detector for criticality accident dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawski, Ł; Zielczyński, M; Golnik, N; Gryziński, M A

    2014-10-01

    A micro-gap air-filled ionisation chamber was designed for criticality dosimetry. The special feature of the chamber is its very small gap between electrodes of only 0.3 mm. This prevents ion recombination at high dose rates and minimises the influence of gas on secondary particles spectrum. The electrodes are made of polypropylene because of higher content of hydrogen in this material, when compared with soft tissue. The difference between neutron and gamma sensitivity in such chamber becomes practically negligible. The chamber's envelope contains two specially connected capacitors, one for polarising the electrodes and the other for collecting the ionisation charge.

  17. EPR response characterization of drugs excipients for applying in accident dosimetry; Caracterizacao da resposta RPE dos excipientes dos medicamentos para aplicacao em dosimetria de acidente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marczewski, Barbara S.; Rodrigues Junior, Orlando; Galante, Ocimar L.; Costa, Zelia M. da; Campos, Leticia L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Some drugs are widely used by the population and can be employed to dose retrospective. The carbohydrates (saccharides), commonly used as excipients in the pharmaceutical industry, produce a quantity of free radicals after gamma irradiation, making them useful for dosimetry in emergency or accident situations that imply in dose evaluation from the materials found nearly or in contact with victims. In general, EPR signal from pulverized pills of some drugs are very complex due to the variety of components in the formulation. Because of this fact, some pharmaceutical excipients identified in the pill composition were also analysed by EPR spectrometry. On the counter drugs were studied: Cebion glucose, AAS, Aspirina, Conmel, Lacto-Purga and sugar substitutive ZeroCal. The excipients were: lactose, amide, anhydrous glucose and magnesium stearate. In some samples the number of radicals produced increased with the dose, showing a linear response for a dose range of interest and an adequate sensibility for dosimetry in accident cases.

  18. Precision dosimetry system suited for low temperature radiation damage experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.H.; Hanke, C.C.; Sørensen, H.

    1967-01-01

    A calorimetric system for dosimetry on a beam of charged particles is described. The calorimeter works at liquid helium temperature. The total dose may be measured with an accuracy of 0.3%, and the dose per area with 0.4%. No theoretical corrections are needed. © 1967 The American Institute...

  19. Reconstructive dosimetry of radiological accidents - study of a brazilian case of industrial gamma radiography; Dosimetria reconstrutiva de acidentes radiologicos - estudo de um caso brasileiro de gamagrafia industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Francisco Cesar Augusto da; Hunt, John G.; Ramalho, Adriana [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinto, Livia M.F. Amalfi [ARCtest - Servicos Tecnicos de Inspecao e Manutencao Industrial Ltda., Paulinia, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: protecao@arctest.com.br

    2002-07-01

    On May 2000, an industrial gamma radiography operator, during a maintenance work of a {sup 60}Co irradiator, has suffered a radiological accident with severe consequences to the left hand. The experts of the High Doses Analysis Group (GADE/IRD/CNEN) initiated the reconstructive dosimetry for the radiation dose estimation, in order to determine the real dose received by the operator, and to help the medical evaluation for prescribing the medical procedures for treatment of the involved victim. This paper presents the reconstructive dosimetry performed through the determination of the radiation doses of the operator, based on theoretical, experimental and computational methods. For the computer methods, a program for the calculation of external doses were used, based on the Monte Carlo method, and a human body simulator composed by voxels. The values of effective and equivalent doses are also presented which has caused severe lesions on the operator hand.

  20. Consequences and countermeasures in a nuclear power accident: Chernobyl experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, Vladimir A; Kirichenko, Alexander V; Werts, Day E

    2012-09-01

    Despite the tragic accidents in Fukushima and Chernobyl, the nuclear power industry will continue to contribute to the production of electric energy worldwide until there are efficient and sustainable alternative sources of energy. The Chernobyl nuclear accident, which occurred 26 years ago in the former Soviet Union, released an immense amount of radioactivity over vast territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, extending into northern Europe, and became the most severe accident in the history of the nuclear industry. This disaster was a result of numerous factors including inadequate nuclear power plant design, human errors, and violation of safety measures. The lessons learned from nuclear accidents will continue to strengthen the safety design of new reactor installations, but with more than 400 active nuclear power stations worldwide and 104 reactors in the Unites States, it is essential to reassess fundamental issues related to the Chernobyl experience as it continues to evolve. This article summarizes early and late events of the incident, the impact on thyroid health, and attempts to reduce agricultural radioactive contamination.

  1. Computational dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebert, B.R.L.; Thomas, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a definition of the term ``Computational Dosimetry`` that is interpreted as the sub-discipline of computational physics which is devoted to radiation metrology. It is shown that computational dosimetry is more than a mere collection of computational methods. Computational simulations directed at basic understanding and modelling are important tools provided by computational dosimetry, while another very important application is the support that it can give to the design, optimization and analysis of experiments. However, the primary task of computational dosimetry is to reduce the variance in the determination of absorbed dose (and its related quantities), for example in the disciplines of radiological protection and radiation therapy. In this paper emphasis is given to the discussion of potential pitfalls in the applications of computational dosimetry and recommendations are given for their avoidance. The need for comparison of calculated and experimental data whenever possible is strongly stressed.

  2. CATHARE Assessment of PACTEL LOCA Experiments with Accident Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luben Sabotinov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the analysis results of three PACTEL experiments, carried out with the advanced thermal-hydraulic system computer CATHARE 2 code as a part of the second work package WP2 (analytical work of the EC project “Improved Accident Management of VVER nuclear power plants” (IMPAM-VVER. The three LOCA experiments, conducted on the Finnish test facility PACTEL (VVER-440 model, represent 7.4% cold leg breaks with combination of secondary bleed and primary bleed and feed and different actuation modes of the passive safety injection. The code was used for both defining and analyzing the experiments, and to assess its capabilities in predicting the associated complex VVER-related phenomena. The code results are in reasonable agreement with the measurements, and the important physical phenomena are well predicted, although still further improvement and validation might be necessary.

  3. CIEMAT EXTERNAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE: ISO/IEC 17025 ACCREDITATION AND 3 Y OF OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE AS AN ACCREDITED LABORATORY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, A M; Rodríguez, R; López, J L; Martín, R; Benavente, J F

    2016-09-01

    In 2008, the CIEMAT Radiation Dosimetry Service decided to implement a quality management system, in accordance with established requirements, in order to achieve ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation. Although the Service comprises the approved individual monitoring services of both external and internal radiation, this paper is specific to the actions taken by the External Dosimetry Service, including personal and environmental dosimetry laboratories, to gain accreditation and the reflections of 3 y of operational experience as an accredited laboratory. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. IODINE-129 in soils from northern Ukraine and the retrospective dosimetry of the IODINE-131 exposure after the Chernobyl accident; IODINE-129 in Boeden der noerdlichen Ukraine und die retrospektive Dosimetrie der IODINE-131-Exposition nach dem Unfall von Tschernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daraoui, A.; Michel, R.; Gorny, M.; Jakob, D.; Korntheuer, J.; Sachse, R. [Zentrum fuer Strahlenschutz and Radiooekologie, Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany); Alfimov, V.; Synal, H.A. [Lab. fuer Ionenstrahlphysik (LIP), ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    With the help of the long-lived {sup 129}I a retrospective dosimetry of the {sup 131}I exposure after the Chernobyl accident can be achieved in the highly contaminated zone in Ukraine. 300 soil samples down to a depth of 40 cm and 3 soil profiles to a depth of 200 cm were taken from 60 villages in contamination zone II und III in northern Ukraine in 2004 and 2007. {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I was analysed by AMS and {sup 127}I was determined by ICP-MS. The results from the soil profiles show that more than 90% of the {sup 129}I-concentrations in the soil profiles are still located in the top 40 cm of the profiles. This allows using the {sup 129}I inventories in the soil samples down to 40 cm depth as proxies for the total anthropogenic {sup 129}I inventories. The {sup 129}I- und {sup 137}Cs- inventories are correlated in the highly contaminated areas. However, the variability of the {sup 129}I/{sup 137}Cs ratios is large, so that for the retrospective dosimetry one has to rely on {sup 129}I. In 35 villages in the contamination zone II, the mean thyroid doses were 1.9 x 3.2{sup {+-}}{sup 1} Gy for 5-year-old children and 0.45 x 3.2{sup {+-}}{sup 1} Gy for adults. In 25 locations in the contamination zone III, the mean thyroid doses were 0.75 x 1.9{sup {+-}}{sup 1} Gy for 5-year-old children and 0.18 x 1.9{sup {+-}}{sup 1} Gy for adults. (orig.)

  5. Dosimetry experiments at the MEDUSA Facility (Little Mountain).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper-Slaboszewicz, Victor Jozef; Shaneyfelt, Marty Ray; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Hartman, E. Frederick; Schwank, James Ralph

    2010-10-01

    A series of experiments on the MEDUSA linear accelerator radiation test facility were performed to evaluate the difference in dose measured using different methods. Significant differences in dosimeter-measured radiation dose were observed for the different dosimeter types for the same radiation environments, and the results are compared and discussed in this report.

  6. Large-Scale Containment Cooler Performance Experiments under Accident Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Kapulla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational Fluid Dynamics codes are increasingly used to simulate containment conditions after various transient accident scenarios. This paper presents validation experiments, conducted in the frame of the OECD/SETH-2 project. These experiments address the combined effects of mass sources and heat sinks related to gas mixing and hydrogen transport within containment compartments. A wall jet interacts with an operating containment cooler located in the middle (M-configuration and the top (T-configuration of the containment vessel. The experiments are characterized by a 3-phase injection scenario. In Phase I, pure steam is injected, while in Phase II, a helium-steam mixture is injected. Finally, in Phase III, pure steam is injected again. Results for the M-configuration show helium stratification build up during Phase II. During Phase III, a positively buoyant plume emerging from the cooler housing becomes negatively buoyant once it reaches the helium-steam layer and continuously erodes the layer. For the M-configuration, a strong degradation of the cooler performance was observed during the injection of the helium/steam mixture (Phase II. For the T-configuration, we observe a mainly downwards acting cooler resulting in a combination of forced and natural convection flow patterns. The cooler performance degradation was much weaker compared with the M-configuration and a good mixing was ensured by the operation of the cooler.

  7. Radiation protection issues on preparedness and response for a severe nuclear accident: experiences of the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, T; Takahara, S; Kimura, M; Kinase, S

    2015-06-01

    Radiation protection issues on preparedness and response for a severe nuclear accident are discussed in this paper based on the experiences following the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The criteria for use in nuclear emergencies in the Japanese emergency preparedness guide were based on the recommendations of International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 60 and 63. Although the decision-making process for implementing protective actions relied heavily on computer-based predictive models prior to the accident, urgent protective actions, such as evacuation and sheltering, were implemented effectively based on the plant conditions. As there were no recommendations and criteria for long-term protective actions in the emergency preparedness guide, the recommendations of ICRP Publications 103, 109, and 111 were taken into consideration in determining the temporary relocation of inhabitants of heavily contaminated areas. These recommendations were very useful in deciding the emergency protective actions to take in the early stages of the Fukushima accident. However, some suggestions have been made for improving emergency preparedness and response in the early stages of a severe nuclear accident.

  8. Initial Results from the Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) Balloon Flight Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) high-altitude balloon mission was successfully launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico USA on 25 September, 2015. Over 15 hours of science data were obtained from four dosimeters at altitudes above about 25 km. The four dosimeters flown on the RaD-X science payload are a Hawk version 3.0 Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) manufactured by Far West Technologies, a Liulin dosimeter-spectrometer produced by the Solar Research and Technology Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, a total ionizing dose detector manufactured by Teledyne Microelectronic Technologies, and the RaySure detector provided by the University of Surrey.

  9. Benchmark experiment to verify radiation transport calculations for dosimetry in radiation therapy; Benchmark-Experiment zur Verifikation von Strahlungstransportrechnungen fuer die Dosimetrie in der Strahlentherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, Franziska [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are regarded as the most accurate method of solving complex problems in the field of dosimetry and radiation transport. In (external) radiation therapy they are increasingly used for the calculation of dose distributions during treatment planning. In comparison to other algorithms for the calculation of dose distributions, Monte Carlo methods have the capability of improving the accuracy of dose calculations - especially under complex circumstances (e.g. consideration of inhomogeneities). However, there is a lack of knowledge of how accurate the results of Monte Carlo calculations are on an absolute basis. A practical verification of the calculations can be performed by direct comparison with the results of a benchmark experiment. This work presents such a benchmark experiment and compares its results (with detailed consideration of measurement uncertainty) with the results of Monte Carlo calculations using the well-established Monte Carlo code EGSnrc. The experiment was designed to have parallels to external beam radiation therapy with respect to the type and energy of the radiation, the materials used and the kind of dose measurement. Because the properties of the beam have to be well known in order to compare the results of the experiment and the simulation on an absolute basis, the benchmark experiment was performed using the research electron accelerator of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), whose beam was accurately characterized in advance. The benchmark experiment and the corresponding Monte Carlo simulations were carried out for two different types of ionization chambers and the results were compared. Considering the uncertainty, which is about 0.7 % for the experimental values and about 1.0 % for the Monte Carlo simulation, the results of the simulation and the experiment coincide.

  10. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H. [eds.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

  11. BiodosEPR-2006 Meeting: Acute dosimetry consensus committee recommendations on biodosimetry applications in events involving uses of radiation by terrorists and radiation accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, George A. [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Preparedness and Emergency Operations, 200 Independence Avenue, SW, Room 403B-1, Washington, DC 20201 (United States); Swartz, Harold M. [Dept. of Radiology and Physiology Dept., Dartmouth Medical School, HB 7785, Vail 702, Rubin 601, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Amundson, Sally A. [Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 W. 168th Street, VC11-215, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Blakely, William F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)], E-mail: blakely@afrri.usuhs.mil; Buddemeier, Brooke [Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528 (United States); Gallez, Bernard [Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Unit and Lab. of Medicinal Chemistry and Radiopharmacy, Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Dainiak, Nicholas [Dept. of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, 267 Grant Street, Bridgeport, CT 06610 (United States); Goans, Ronald E. [MJW Corporation, 1422 Eagle Bend Drive, Clinton, TN 37716-4029 (United States); Hayes, Robert B. [Remote Sensing Lab., MS RSL-47, P.O. Box 98421, Las Vegas, NV 89193 (United States); Lowry, Patrick C. [Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS), Oak Ridge Associated Universities, P.O. Box 117, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117 (United States); Noska, Michael A. [Food and Drug Administration, FDA/CDRH, 1350 Piccard Drive, HFZ-240, Rockville, MD 20850 (United States); Okunieff, Paul [Dept. of Radiation Oncology (Box 647), Univ. of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Salner, Andrew L. [Helen and Harry Gray Cancer Center, Hartford Hospital, 80 Seymour Street, Hartford, CT 06102 (United States); Schauer, David A. [National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 400, Bethesda, MD 20814-3095 (United States)] (and others)

    2007-07-15

    In the aftermath of a radiological terrorism incident or mass-casualty radiation accident, first responders and receivers require prior guidance and pre-positioned resources for assessment, triage and medical management of affected individuals [NCRP, 2005. Key elements of preparing emergency responders for nuclear and radiological terrorism. NCRP Commentary No. 19, Bethesda, Maryland, USA]. Several recent articles [Dainiak, N., Waselenko, J.K., Armitage, J.O., MacVittie, T.J., Farese, A.M., 2003. The hematologist and radiation casualties. Hematology (Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program) 473-496; Waselenko, J.K., MacVittie, T.J., Blakely, W.F., Pesik, N., Wiley, A.L., Dickerson, W.E., Tsu, H., Confer, D.L., Coleman, C.N., Seed, T., Lowry, P., Armitage, J.O., Dainiak, N., Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group, 2004. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 140(12), 1037-1051; Blakely, W.F., Salter, C.A., Prasanna, P.G., 2005. Early-response biological dosimetry-recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Phys. 89(5), 494-504; Goans, R.E., Waselenko, J.K., 2005. Medical management of radiation casualties. Health Phys. 89(5), 505-512; Swartz, H.M., Iwasaki, A., Walczak, T., Demidenko, E., Salikhov, I., Lesniewski, P., Starewicz, P., Schauer, D., Romanyukha, A., 2005. Measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using non-invasive in vivo EPR spectroscopy of teeth in situ. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 62, 293-299; . Acute radiation injury: contingency planning for triage, supportive care, and transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 12(6), 672-682], national [. Management of persons accidentally contaminated with radionuclides. NCRP Report No. 65, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; . Management of terrorist events involving radioactive material. NCRP Report No. 138, Bethesda, Maryland

  12. Truck Drivers' Experiences and Perspectives Regarding Factors Influencing Traffic Accidents: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Ranjbar, Hossein; Heydari, Abbas; Scurlock-Evans, Laura

    2015-08-01

    Traffic accidents are a major public health problem, leading to death and disability. Although pertinent studies have been conducted, little data are available in Iran. This study explored the experiences of truck drivers and their perspectives regarding factors contributing to traffic accidents. Eighteen truck drivers, purposively sampled, participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. A main theme, lack of ability to control stress, emerged as a factor influencing the incidence of traffic accidents. This main theme was found to have three subthemes: poor organization of the job, lack of workplace facilities and proper equipment, and unsupportive environment. Although several factors were found to contribute to traffic accidents, their effects were not independent, and all were considered significant. Identifying factors that contribute to traffic accidents requires a systematic and holistic approach. Findings could be used by the transportation industry and community health centers to prevent traffic accidents. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Analysis of HFIR Dosimetry Experiments Performed in Cycles 400 and 401

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remec, Igor [ORNL; Baldwin, Charles A [ORNL

    2008-09-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has been in operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory since 1966. To upgrade and enhance capabilities for neutron science research at the reactor, a larger HB-2 beam tube was installed in April of 2002. To assess, experimentally, the impact of this larger beam tube on radiation damage rates [i.e., displacement-per-atom (dpa) rates] used in vessel life extension studies, dosimetry experiments were performed from April to August 2004 during fuel cycles 400 and 401. This report documents the analysis of the dosimetry experiments and the determination of best-estimate dpa rates. These dpa rates are obtained by performing a least-squares adjustment of calculated neutron and gamma-ray fluxes and the measured responses of radiometric monitors and beryllium helium accumulation fluence monitors. The best-estimate dpa rates provided here will be used to update HFIR pressure vessel life extension studies, which determine the pressure/temperature limits for reactor operation and the HFIR pressure vessel's remaining life. All irradiation parameters given in this report correspond to a reactor power of 85 MW.

  14. Relationship between Recent Flight Experience and Pilot Error General Aviation Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Sarah J.

    Aviation insurance agents and fixed-base operation (FBO) owners use recent flight experience, as implied by the 90-day rule, to measure pilot proficiency in physical airplane skills, and to assess the likelihood of a pilot error accident. The generally accepted premise is that more experience in a recent timeframe predicts less of a propensity for an accident, all other factors excluded. Some of these aviation industry stakeholders measure pilot proficiency solely by using time flown within the past 90, 60, or even 30 days, not accounting for extensive research showing aeronautical decision-making and situational awareness training decrease the likelihood of a pilot error accident. In an effort to reduce the pilot error accident rate, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has seen the need to shift pilot training emphasis from proficiency in physical airplane skills to aeronautical decision-making and situational awareness skills. However, current pilot training standards still focus more on the former than on the latter. The relationship between pilot error accidents and recent flight experience implied by the FAA's 90-day rule has not been rigorously assessed using empirical data. The intent of this research was to relate recent flight experience, in terms of time flown in the past 90 days, to pilot error accidents. A quantitative ex post facto approach, focusing on private pilots of single-engine general aviation (GA) fixed-wing aircraft, was used to analyze National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident investigation archival data. The data were analyzed using t-tests and binary logistic regression. T-tests between the mean number of hours of recent flight experience of tricycle gear pilots involved in pilot error accidents (TPE) and non-pilot error accidents (TNPE), t(202) = -.200, p = .842, and conventional gear pilots involved in pilot error accidents (CPE) and non-pilot error accidents (CNPE), t(111) = -.271, p = .787, indicate there is no

  15. RADIATION ACCIDENTS: EXPERIENCE OF MEDICAL PROTECTION AND MODERN STRATEGY OF PHARMACOLOGICAL MAINTENANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Grebenyuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience of medical protection at radiation accidents is analyzed. It is shown, that medicines that have been in the arsenal of medical service during the liquidation of consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident satisfied their predestination in a whole and were rather effective for radiation protection. The modern strategy of pharmacological maintenance based on use of means and methods, allowing to keeping a life, health and professional serviceability of people in conditions of amazing action of a complex of factors of radiation accidents, is submitted.

  16. Bibliography for nuclear criticality accident experience, alarm systems, and emergency management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putman, V.L.

    1995-09-01

    The characteristics, detection, and emergency management of nuclear criticality accidents outside reactors has been an important component of criticality safety for as long as the need for this specialized safety discipline has been recognized. The general interest and importance of such topics receives special emphasis because of the potentially lethal, albeit highly localized, effects of criticality accidents and because of heightened public and regulatory concerns for any undesirable event in nuclear and radiological fields. This bibliography lists references which are potentially applicable to or interesting for criticality alarm, detection, and warning systems; criticality accident emergency management; and their associated programs. The lists are annotated to assist bibliography users in identifying applicable: industry and regulatory guidance and requirements, with historical development information and comments; criticality accident characteristics, consequences, experiences, and responses; hazard-, risk-, or safety-analysis criteria; CAS design and qualification criteria; CAS calibration, maintenance, repair, and testing criteria; experiences of CAS designers and maintainers; criticality accident emergency management (planning, preparedness, response, and recovery) requirements and guidance; criticality accident emergency management experience, plans, and techniques; methods and tools for analysis; and additional bibliographies.

  17. A study on posttraumatic experience of road traffic accident afflicted maxillofacial trauma patient at tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Shrestha, Suraksha

    2017-01-01

    Patients are usually left in a vulnerable state after an accident. Because of this, they long for a good encounter when they are brought to the hospital. Physical impairment and psychological morbidities are some of the complications that can occur to them. Traditionally, surgeons tend to pay little attention to a patient's emotional and psychological perspective. The aim of this study was to understand the experience of oral and maxillofacial trauma patients due to road traffic accident right from immediate after the accident till the end of definitive treatment. Phenomenological approach of qualitative study was used to explore these patients' experience. Twenty subjects involved in road traffic accidents without any cognitive impairment aged 18 and above were recruited. Purposive sampling was used to include maximal variation sample regarding age, gender, types of injury, and types of treatment received. Semi-structured and open-ended interview approach was used to obtain in-depth information. Seven themes were identified to describe the patients' response to and experience after meeting with a road traffic accident; they are unreal experiences, emotional responses, need to inform and need for information, need for assistance, their perception toward the maxillofacial injury, their experience on treatment and staff-patient interaction. This qualitative study has provided an in-depth understanding of patients experience during maxillofacial trauma and treatment, which otherwise cannot be obtained by the use of surveys and test questions.

  18. Reconstructive dosimetry and radiation doses evaluation of members of the public due to radiological accident in industrial radiography; Dosimetria reconstrutiva e avaliacao de dose de individuos do publico devido a acidente radiologico em radiografia industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Camila Moreira Araujo de

    2016-07-01

    Radiological accidents have occurred mainly in the practices recognized as high risk radiological and classified by the IAEA as Categories 1 and 2, and highlighted the radiotherapy, industrial irradiators and industrial radiography. In Brazil, since there were five major cases in industrial radiography, which involved 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public, causing localized radiation lesions on the hands and fingers. One of these accidents will be the focus of this work. In this accident, a {sup 192}Ir radioactive source was exposed for more than 8 hours in the workplace inside a company, exposing radiation workers, individuals of the public and people from the surrounding facilities, including children of a school. The radioactive source was also handled by a security worker causing severe radiation injuries in the hand and fingers. In this paper, the most relevant and used techniques of reconstructive dosimetry internationally are presented. To estimate the radiation doses received by exposed individuals in various scenarios of radiological accident in focus, the following computer codes were used: Visual Monte Carlo Dose Calculation (VMC), Virtual Environment for Radiological and Nuclear Accidents Simulation (AVSAR) and RADPRO Calculator. Through these codes some radiation doses were estimated, such as, 33.90 Gy in security worker's finger, 4.47 mSv in children in the school and 55 to 160 mSv for workers in the company during the whole day work. It is intended that this work will contribute to the improvement of dose reconstruction methodology for radiological accidents, having then more realist radiation doses. (author)

  19. Accreditation ISO/IEC 1705 in dosimetry: Experience and results; Acreditacion ISO/IEC 17025 en dosimetria: Experiencia y resultados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Garcia, R.; Navarro Bravo, T.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work is to present the experience in the process of accreditation of the radiation dosimetry service in which there are trials for the determination of radiation doses due to internal and external exhibitions. Is They describe the aspects that were considered for the design and development of a system of quality and results after its implementation. A review of the benefits accreditation has been reported to the organization is finally made. (Author)

  20. Overview of the Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) flight mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.

    2016-11-01

    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) stratospheric balloon flight mission addresses the need to reduce the uncertainty in predicting human exposure to cosmic radiation in the aircraft environment. Measurements were taken that characterize the dosimetric properties of cosmic ray primaries, the ultimate source of aviation radiation exposure, and the cosmic ray secondary radiations that are produced and transported to aviation altitudes. In addition, radiation detectors were flown to assess their potential application to long-term, continuous monitoring of the aircraft radiation environment. RaD-X was successfully launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico (34.5°N, 104.2°W), on 25 September 2015. Over 18 h of science data were obtained from a total of four different type dosimeters at altitudes above 20 km. The RaD-X flight mission was supported by laboratory radiation exposure testing of the balloon flight dosimeters and also by coordinated radiation measurements taken on ER-2 and commercial aircraft. This paper provides the science background and motivation for the RaD-X flight mission, a brief description of the balloon flight profile and the supporting aircraft flights, and a summary of the articles included in the RaD-X special collection and their contributions to the science goals of the RaD-X mission.

  1. Results from 2010 Caliban Criticality Dosimetry Intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veinot, K. G.

    2011-10-12

    The external dosimetry program participated in a criticality dosimetry intercomparison conducted at the Caliban facility in Valduc, France in 2010. Representatives from the dosimetry and instrumentation groups were present during testing which included irradiations of whole-body beta/gamma (HBGT) and neutron thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), a fixed nuclear accident dosimeter (FNAD), electronic alarming dosimeters, and a humanoid phantom filled with reference man concentrations of sodium. This report reviews the testing procedures, preparations, irradiations, and presents results of the tests.

  2. The Special Education Story: Obituary, Accident Report, Conversion Experience, Reincarnation, or None of the Above?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, James M.

    2000-01-01

    The current status of special education and possible futures are examined through a true news story of current "reform" efforts in Washington, D.C. schools and in imaginary future news stories reporting on special education as an obituary, an accident, a conversion experience, and a reincarnation. The author urges special educators to reject…

  3. Radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hine, Gerald J; Hine, Gerald J

    1956-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry focuses on the advancements, processes, technologies, techniques, and principles involved in radiation dosimetry, including counters and calibration and standardization techniques. The selection first offers information on radiation units and the theory of ionization dosimetry and interaction of radiation with matter. Topics include quantities derivable from roentgens, determination of dose in roentgens, ionization dosimetry of high-energy photons and corpuscular radiations, and heavy charged particles. The text then examines the biological and medical effects of radiation,

  4. Hematological dosimetry. Dosimetrie hematologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluery-Herard, A. (CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (FR). Direction des Sciences du Vivant)

    1991-01-01

    The principles of hematological dosimetry after acute or protracted whole-body irradiation are reviewed. In both cases, over-exposure is never homogeneous and the clinical consequences, viz medullary aplasia, are directly associated with the mean absorbed dose and the seriousness and location of the overexposure. The main hematological data required to assess the seriousness of exposure are the following: repeated blood analysis, blood precursor cultures, as indicators of whole-body exposure; bone marrow puncture, medullary precursor cultures and medullary scintigraphy as indicators of the importance of a local over-exposure and capacity for spontaneous repair. These paraclinical investigations, which are essential for diagnosis and dosimetry, are also used for surveillance and for the main therapeutic issues.

  5. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Cern Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page: http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 - 12.00. Closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after the use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel. 7 2155 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  6. Road Traffic Accident Victims' Experiences of Return to Normal Life: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaei Sabet, Fatemeh; Norouzi Tabrizi, Kian; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Saadat, Soheil; Abedi, Heidar Ali; Bastami, Alireza

    2016-04-01

    Road traffic accident (RTA) victims also suffer from different types of injuries and disabilities, which can affect their quality of life. They usually face with various physical, mental, and social problems. Most traffic accident victims had difficulty to return to normal life. This study aimed to understand the experiences of return to normal life in RTA victims. This qualitative study with content analysis approach was conducted on 18 Iranian patients with disability in the upper or lower limbs caused by traffic accidents, who had passed a time between 3 months till 2 years. A purposeful sampling method was applied until reaching data saturation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Afterwards, the gathered data were analyzed through conventional content analysis. By analyzing 498 primary codes, four main categories, including supportive needs, adaptation to the new situation, seeking information, and transition from functional limitation, were extracted from traffic accident victims' experiences of reintegration to normal life. The results of this study may help policy-makers to take steps toward health promotion and recovery of RTA victims. Considering the results of this study, it is a need for further research to investigate RTAs victims' needs for reintegration to home and community. Access to training and supportive facilities like strong therapeutic, nursing and social support, and the possibility to participate in self-care activities is essential for reintegration to community in RTA victims.

  7. Road Traffic Accident Victims’ Experiences of Return to Normal Life: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaei Sabet, Fatemeh; Norouzi Tabrizi, Kian; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Saadat, Soheil; Abedi, Heidar Ali; Bastami, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background Road traffic accident (RTA) victims also suffer from different types of injuries and disabilities, which can affect their quality of life. They usually face with various physical, mental, and social problems. Most traffic accident victims had difficulty to return to normal life. Objectives This study aimed to understand the experiences of return to normal life in RTA victims. Patients and Methods This qualitative study with content analysis approach was conducted on 18 Iranian patients with disability in the upper or lower limbs caused by traffic accidents, who had passed a time between 3 months till 2 years. A purposeful sampling method was applied until reaching data saturation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Afterwards, the gathered data were analyzed through conventional content analysis. Results By analyzing 498 primary codes, four main categories, including supportive needs, adaptation to the new situation, seeking information, and transition from functional limitation, were extracted from traffic accident victims’ experiences of reintegration to normal life. Conclusions The results of this study may help policy-makers to take steps toward health promotion and recovery of RTA victims. Considering the results of this study, it is a need for further research to investigate RTAs victims’ needs for reintegration to home and community. Access to training and supportive facilities like strong therapeutic, nursing and social support, and the possibility to participate in self-care activities is essential for reintegration to community in RTA victims. PMID:27275399

  8. Safety in New Zealand's adventure tourism industry: the client accident experience of adventure tourism operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, T A; Page, S J; Laird, I S

    2000-01-01

    Injuries and fatalities among participants of adventure tourism activities have the potential to seriously impact on New Zealand's tourism industry. However, the absence of statistics for tourist accidents in New Zealand, and the lack of detailed academic research into adventure tourism safety, means the extent of the problem is unknown. The aims of the present study were to determine the incidence of client injuries across a range of adventure tourism activity sectors, and to identify common accident events and contributory risk factors. A postal questionnaire survey of New Zealand adventure tourism operators was used. Operators were asked to provide information related to their business; the number of recorded client injuries during the preceding 12 month period, January to December 1998; common accident and injury events associated with their activity; and perceived risk factors for accidents in their sector of the adventure tourism industry. The survey was responded to by 142 New Zealand adventure tourism operators. The operators' reported client injury experience suggests the incidence of serious client injuries is very low. Highest client injury incidence rates were found for activities that involved the risk of falling from a moving vehicle or animal (e.g., cycle tours, quad biking, horse riding, and white-water rafting). Slips, trips, and falls on the level were common accident events across most sectors of the industry. Perceived accident/incident causes were most commonly related to the client, and in particular, failure to attend to and follow instructions. The prevalence of client injuries in activity sectors not presently covered by government regulation, suggests policy makers should look again at extending codes of practice to a wider range of adventure tourism activities. Further research considering adventure tourism involvement in overseas visitor hospitalized injuries in New Zealand, is currently in progress. This will provide supporting evidence

  9. Automation of the particle dosimetry and the dose application for radiobiological experiments at a vertical proton beam

    CERN Document Server

    Moertel, H; Eyrich, W; Fritsch, M; Distel, L

    2002-01-01

    A facility with a vertical beam for radiobiological experiments with low-energy protons has been setup at the Tandem accelerator at Erlangen. This energy region is optimal to investigate the biological effects of the linear energy transfer in the Bragg region under physiological conditions. A new automated data acquisition system for dosimetry and monitoring based on a personal computer was developed and optimized for this setup. A specially designed sample holder offers possibilities of cooling or changing of atmosphere during irradiation. First irradiations of biological samples have shown the functionality of the setup.

  10. a Study of the Reconstruction of Accidents and Crime Scenes Through Computational Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. J.; Chae, S. W.; Kim, S. H.; Yang, K. M.; Chung, H. S.

    Recently, with an increase in the number of studies of the safety of both pedestrians and passengers, computer software, such as MADYMO, Pam-crash, and LS-dyna, has been providing human models for computer simulation. Although such programs have been applied to make machines beneficial for humans, studies that analyze the reconstruction of accidents or crime scenes are rare. Therefore, through computational experiments, the present study presents reconstructions of two questionable accidents. In the first case, a car fell off the road and the driver was separated from it. The accident investigator was very confused because some circumstantial evidence suggested the possibility that the driver was murdered. In the second case, a woman died in her house and the police suspected foul play with her boyfriend as a suspect. These two cases were reconstructed using the human model in MADYMO software. The first case was eventually confirmed as a traffic accident in which the driver bounced out of the car when the car fell off, and the second case was proved to be suicide rather than homicide.

  11. Self-care to elderly after cerebrovascular accident: caregiver and academics experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Gabriela Gomes Nascimento

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: understand the experiences of the caregiver and multidisciplinary health academics toward the developmentof self-care at home for elderly after cerebrovascular accident. Methods: qualitative study with the use of semi-structuredinterviews with six caregivers and eight academics whose data were analyzed in the light of the Phenomenology. Results:three categories emerged: living with the challenges and limitations imposed on the caregiver and on the person being cared;the professional being and the technic conservatism; the multidisciplinary team at home: experiences with the caregiver andthe person being cared. Conclusion: caregivers of elderly who went through cerebrovascular accident need more supportand guidance for conducting home care, they need a plan of care to facilitate and encourage self-care, minimizing the burdenincurred to the caregiver. Multidisciplinary academics displayed a technical view. This demonstrates the need for change inacademic education with more focus on a holistic and humanistic view of care.

  12. Preliminary experiment design of graphite dust emission measurement under accident conditions for HTGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Wei, E-mail: pengwei@tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University, Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology Cooperation Innovation Center, The Key Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Engineering and Safety, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Tao; Sun, Qi; Wang, Jie [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University, Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology Cooperation Innovation Center, The Key Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Engineering and Safety, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Yu, Suyuan, E-mail: suyuan@tsinghua.edu.cn [Center for Combustion Energy, The Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering, Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • A theoretical analysis is used to predict the total graphite dust release for an AVR LOCA. • Similarity criteria must be satisfied between the experiment and the actual HTGR system. • Model experiments should be conducted to predict the graphite dust resuspension rate. - Abstract: The graphite dust movement behavior is significant for the safety analyses of high-temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). The graphite dust release for accident conditions is an important source term for HTGR safety analyses. Depressurization release tests are not practical in HTGR because of a radioactivity release to the environment. Thus, a theoretical analysis and similarity principles were used to design a group of modeling experiments. Modeling experiments for fan start-up and depressurization process and actual experiments of helium circulator start-up in an HTGR were used to predict the rate of graphite dust resuspension and the graphite dust concentration, which can be used to predict the graphite dust release during accidents. The modeling experiments are easy to realize and the helium circulator start-up test does not harm the reactor system or the environment, so this experiment program is easily achieved. The revised Rock’n’Roll model was then used to calculate the AVR reactor release. The calculation results indicate that the total graphite dust releases during a LOCA will be about 0.65 g in AVR.

  13. Optimization of the Severe Accident Management Strategy for Domestic Plants and Validation Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. B.; Kim, H. D.; Koo, K. M.; Park, R. J.; Hong, S. H.; Cho, Y. R.; Kim, J. T.; Ha, K. S.; Kang, K. H

    2007-04-15

    nuclear power plants, a technical basis report and computational aid tools were developed in parallel with the experimental and analytical works for the resolution of the uncertain safety issues. ELIAS experiments were carried out to quantify the boiling heat removal rate at the upper surface of a metallic layer for precise evaluations on the effect of a late in-vessel coolant injection. T-HERMES experiments were performed to examine the two-phase natural circulation phenomena through the gap between the reactor vessel and the insulator in the APR1400. Detailed analyses on the hydrogen control in the APR1400 containment were performed focused on the effect of spray system actuation on the hydrogen burning and the evaluation of the hydrogen behavior in the IRWST. To develop the technical basis report for the severe accident management, analyses using SCDAP/RELAP5 code were performed for the accident sequences of the OPR1000. Based on the experimental and analytical results performed in this study, the computational aids for the evaluations of hydrogen flammability in the containment, criteria of the in-vessel corium cooling, criteria of the external reactor vessel cooling were developed. An ASSA code was developed to validate the signal from the instrumentations during the severe accidents and to process the abnormal signal. Since ASSA can perform the signal processing from the direct input of the nuclear power plant during the severe accident, it can be platform of the computational aids. In this study, the ASSA was linked with the computaional aids for the hydrogen flammability.

  14. ACTIVITY OF HEALTH EDUCATION AIMED AT PREVENTING WORK ACCIDENTS WITH NEEDLESTICK MATERIALS: EXPERIENCE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Vangeris Silva Fernandes de Lima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health services are composed of complex work environments. For this reason, they present several risks to the health of workers and also of people being treated at these places. Among these risks, one that is peculiar to health services is the risk of occupational accidents with biological material involving sharps. Objective: This study aimed to describe a health education activity conducted in a Health Center of the Federal District, Brazil. Methods: This is an experience report that discusses the final paper of the discipline “Administration Applied to Nursing and Internship”, offered by the Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Brasilia. A lecture was prepared, aimed at health workers and support staff, on general aspects of occupational accidents involving sharps, as well as preventive aspects. Results: In each clinical room of the Health Center were fixed two posters: the first discussing the proper disposal of sharps and the second, in turn, was a message of reflection. 31 professionals attended the lecture as listeners. Conclusion: We understand the validity of the lecture delivered, based on scientific studies that highlight the need and shortage of health education activities that address the prevention of occupational accidents involving sharps among Health Professionals. Additionally, it is important mentioning that such activity demand was estimated by the workers of the Health Center in study.

  15. The Design of PSB-VVER Experiments Relevant to Accident Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Alessandro Del; D'Auria, Francesco; Mazzini, Marino; Bykov, Michael; Elkin, Ilya V.; Suslov, Alexander

    Experimental programs carried-out in integral test facilities are relevant for validating the best estimate thermal-hydraulic codes(1), which are used for accident analyses, design of accident management procedures, licensing of nuclear power plants, etc. The validation process, in fact, is based on well designed experiments. It consists in the comparison of the measured and calculated parameters and the determination whether a computer code has an adequate capability in predicting the major phenomena expected to occur in the course of transient and/or accidents. University of Pisa was responsible of the numerical design of the 12 experiments executed in PSB-VVER facility (2), operated at Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Center (Russia), in the framework of the TACIS 2.03/97 Contract 3.03.03 Part A, EC financed (3). The paper describes the methodology adopted at University of Pisa, starting form the scenarios foreseen in the final test matrix until the execution of the experiments. This process considers three key topics: a) the scaling issue and the simulation, with unavoidable distortions, of the expected performance of the reference nuclear power plants; b) the code assessment process involving the identification of phenomena challenging the code models; c) the features of the concerned integral test facility (scaling limitations, control logics, data acquisition system, instrumentation, etc.). The activities performed in this respect are discussed, and emphasis is also given to the relevance of the thermal losses to the environment. This issue affects particularly the small scaled facilities and has relevance on the scaling approach related to the power and volume of the facility.

  16. Review of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) instrumental developments for retrospective dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Jain, Mayank

    2010-01-01

    This review describes 40 years of experience gained at Risø National Laboratory in the development of facilities for irradiation, thermal/optical stimulation and luminescence signal detection. These facilities have mainly been used in luminescence dating and nuclear accident dosimetry. We focus e...... especially on methods for light stimulation and irradiation, and developments of new portable TL/OSL readers for determining doses directly in the field on both Earth and the planet Mars....

  17. Reactivity Initiated Accident Test Series RIA Scoping Test Experiment Operating Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1978-06-01

    This document describes the experiment operating specifications for the Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) Scoping Test to be conducted in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The primary objectives of the RIA research are to determine fuel failure thresholds, modes, and consequences as functions of (a) enthalpy insertion, (b) irradiation history, and (c) fuel design. Coolant conditions of pressure, temperature, and flow rate that are typical of hot-startup conditions in commercial boiling water reactors (BWRs) will be used in the first six RIA tests, termed Series I.

  18. Protocol for emergency EPR dosimetry in fingernails

    OpenAIRE

    Trompier, F; Kornak, L.; Calas, C.; Romanyukha, A.; LeBlanc, B.; Mitchell, C. A.; Swartz, H M; Clairand, I.

    2007-01-01

    There is an increased need for after-the-fact dosimetry because of the high risk of radiation exposures due to terrorism or accidents. In case of such an event, a method is needed to make measurements of dose in a large number of individuals rapidly and with sufficient accuracy to facilitate effective medical triage. Dosimetry based on EPR measurements of fingernails potentially could be an effective tool for this purpose. This paper presents the first operational protocols for EPR fingernail...

  19. Dosimetry methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, A.; Kovacs, A.;

    2003-01-01

    Chemical and physical radiation dosimetry methods, used for the measurement of absorbed dose mainly during the practical use of ionizing radiation, are discussed with respect to their characteristics and fields of application.......Chemical and physical radiation dosimetry methods, used for the measurement of absorbed dose mainly during the practical use of ionizing radiation, are discussed with respect to their characteristics and fields of application....

  20. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Dosimetry Service

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter at least once every month. A regular read-out is indispensable to ensure periodic monitoring of your personal dose. You must read your dosimeter even if you have not visited the controlled areas. Film badges are no longer valid at CERN and holders of film badges are no longer allowed to enter the controlled radiation areas or work with a source. Dosimetry Service Tel. 72155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  1. Epid Dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Peter B.; Vial, Philip

    2011-05-01

    Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) were introduced originally for patient position verification. The idea of using EPIDs for dosimetry was realised in the 1980s. Little was published on the topic until the mid 1990's, when the interest in EPIDs for dosimetry increased rapidly and continues to grow. The increasing research on EPID dosimetry coincided with the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). EPIDs are well suited to IMRT dosimetry because they are high resolution, two-dimensional (2D) digital detectors. They are also pre-existing on almost all modern linear accelerators. They generally show a linear response to increasing dose. Different types of EPIDs have been clinically implemented, and these have been described in several review papers. The current generation of commercially available EPIDs are indirect detection active matrix flat panel imagers, also known as amorphous silicon (a-Si) EPIDs. Disadvantages of a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry include non-water equivalent construction materials, and the energy sensitivity and optical scatter of the phosphor scintillators used to create optical signal from the megavoltage beam. This report discusses current knowledge regarding a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry.

  2. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact their dispatchers to explain their activities for the future, after LEP dismantling in order to be maintained on the regular distribution list at Individual DosimetryWe inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period MAY/JUNE will be available from their usual dispatchers on Tuesday 2 May.Please have your films changed before the 12 May.The colour of the dosimeter valid in is MAY/JUNE is YELLOW.Individual Dosimetry Service will be closed on Friday 28 April.

  3. Optically stimulated luminescence in retrospective dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s the exploration of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) in retrospective accident dosimetry has driven an intensive investigation and development programme at Riso into measurement facilities and techniques. This paper reviews some of the outcomes of this progr......Since the beginning of the 1990s the exploration of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) in retrospective accident dosimetry has driven an intensive investigation and development programme at Riso into measurement facilities and techniques. This paper reviews some of the outcomes...

  4. High-level dosimetry at the demagnetization experiments of permanent magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H S; Qiu, R; Hong, S; Chung, C W; Bizen, T; Li, J

    2007-01-01

    The measurements of high-energy and high dose mixed radiation from high-energy electron accelerator are carried out using a radiation damage monitor. It consists of two Radiation-Sensing Field-Effect Transistors (RADFETs) for total absorbed dose from mainly gamma ray and other charged particles and a Si PIN diode for neutron fluence. This is a part of the demagnetization study of rare earth permanent magnet irradiated by 2.5-GeV electron beam. The sensitivities of damage detectors are measured using 65-MeV quasi-monoenergic neutron, 14-MeV D-T neutron, (252)Cf neutron for Si PIN diode and (60)Co and (137)Cs gamma ray for RADFETs. Measured sensitivities are in acceptable range in the comparison of producer's proposed values. The dose and fluence measurements are carried out for the same target condition, Cu and Ta, as that for the demagnetization study. The 5 x 5 cm(2) cross-sectional and 5.5-cm-thick Pb target is also used for the general comparison with photoneutron yields. All measured dose and fluence are compared with the calculated results using the FLUKA code and agree well each other. The application of this kind of radiation damage monitor to high-level dosimetry at high-energy electron accelerator has been discussed.

  5. QA experience at the University of Wisconsin accredited dosimetry calibration laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWard, L.A.; Micka, J.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The University of Wisconsin Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory (UW ADCL) employs procedure manuals as part of its Quality Assurance (QA) program. One of these manuals covers the QA procedures and results for all of the UW ADCL measurement equipment. The QA procedures are divided into two main areas: QA for laboratory equipment and QA for external chambers sent for calibration. All internal laboratory equipment is checked and recalibrated on an annual basis, after establishing its consistency on a 6-month basis. QA for external instruments involves checking past calibration history as well as comparing to a range of calibration values for specific instrument models. Generally, the authors find that a chamber will have a variation of less than 0.5 % from previous Co-60 calibration factors, and falls within two standard deviations of previous calibrations. If x-ray calibrations are also performed, the energy response of the chamber is plotted and compared to previous instruments of the same model. These procedures give the authors confidence in the transfer of calibration values from National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

  6. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  7. Monte Carlo modeling in CT-based geometries: dosimetry for biological modeling experiments with particle beam radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenderfer, Eric S; Dolney, Derek; Schaettler, Maximilian; Sanzari, Jenine K; McDonough, James; Cengel, Keith A

    2014-03-01

    The space radiation environment imposes increased dangers of exposure to ionizing radiation, particularly during a solar particle event (SPE). These events consist primarily of low energy protons that produce a highly inhomogeneous dose distribution. Due to this inherent dose heterogeneity, experiments designed to investigate the radiobiological effects of SPE radiation present difficulties in evaluating and interpreting dose to sensitive organs. To address this challenge, we used the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation framework to develop dosimetry software that uses computed tomography (CT) images and provides radiation transport simulations incorporating all relevant physical interaction processes. We found that this simulation accurately predicts measured data in phantoms and can be applied to model dose in radiobiological experiments with animal models exposed to charged particle (electron and proton) beams. This study clearly demonstrates the value of Monte Carlo radiation transport methods for two critically interrelated uses: (i) determining the overall dose distribution and dose levels to specific organ systems for animal experiments with SPE-like radiation, and (ii) interpreting the effect of random and systematic variations in experimental variables (e.g. animal movement during long exposures) on the dose distributions and consequent biological effects from SPE-like radiation exposure. The software developed and validated in this study represents a critically important new tool that allows integration of computational and biological modeling for evaluating the biological outcomes of exposures to inhomogeneous SPE-like radiation dose distributions, and has potential applications for other environmental and therapeutic exposure simulations.

  8. Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance of irradiated nails: challenges for a dosimetry in radiation accidents; Ressonancia Paramagnetica Eletronica de unhas irradiadas: desafios para uma dosimetria em acidentes radiologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannoni, Ricardo A., E-mail: giannoni@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rodrigues Junior, Orlando [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize samples of human nails exposed to high doses of radiation, applying the technique of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). The objective is to establish a dose response study that allow determine the absorbed dose by exposed individuals in situations of radiological accidents, in a retrospective form. Samples of human nails were collected and afterward irradiated with gamma radiation, and received dose of 20 Gy. The EPR measurement performed on the samples, before irradiation, permitted the signal identification of the components associated with effects caused by the mechanical stress during the fingernail cutting, the so-called mechanically induced signal (MIS). After the irradiation, different species of free radicals were identified, the so-called radiation induced signal (RIS). (author)

  9. Safety Climate and Occupational Stress According to Occupational Accidents Experience and Employment Type in Shipbuilding Industry of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Woo; Park, Sung Jin; Lim, Hae Sun; Cho, Hm Hak

    2017-09-01

    Safety climate and occupational stress are related with occupational accident. The present study tried to identify the differences in safety climate and occupational stress according to occupational accidents experience and employment type (e.g., direct workers and subcontract workers). In this study, we conducted a survey using safety climate scale and Korean Occupational Stress Scale and classified the participants into four groups: direct workers working for accident-free departments, direct workers working for accident departments, subcontract workers working for accident-free departments, and subcontract workers working for accident departments for 2 years within the same workplace in the shipbuilding industry. The direct workers and subcontract workers showed diverse results in subscales of safety climate and occupational stress. This result is supported by existing studies; however, further study is necessary for more supporting evidence and elaborative methodological approach. The necessity of management for safety climate and psychosocial factor such as occupational stress for both direct workers and subcontract workers as a whole is suggested by this study.

  10. Accidental neutron dosimetry with human hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekendahl, Daniela; Bečková, Věra; Zdychová, Vlasta; Bulánek, Boris; Prouza, Zdeněk; Štefánik, Milan

    2014-11-01

    Human hair contains sulfur, which can be activated by fast neutrons. The 32S(n,p)32P reaction with a threshold of 2.5 MeV was used for fast neutron dose estimation. It is a very important parameter for individual dose reconstruction with regards to the heterogeneity of the neutron transfer to the human body. Samples of human hair were irradiated in a radial channel of a training reactor VR-1. 32P activity in hair was measured both, directly by means of a proportional counter, and as ash dispersed in a liquid scintillator. Based on neutron spectrum estimation, a relationship between the neutron dose and induced activity was derived. The experiment verified the practical feasibility of this dosimetry method in cases of criticality accidents or malevolent acts with nuclear materials.

  11. Initial experiments with gel-water: towards MRI-linac dosimetry and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnaghy, Sarah J; Gargett, Maegan; Liney, Gary; Petasecca, Marco; Begg, Jarrad; Espinoza, Anthony; Newall, Matthew K; Duncan, Mitchell; Holloway, Lois; Lerch, Michael L F; Lazea, Mircea; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B; Metcalfe, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Tracking the position of a moving radiation detector in time and space during data acquisition can replicate 4D image-guided radiotherapy (4DIGRT). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-linacs need MRI-visible detectors to achieve this, however, imaging solid phantoms is an issue. Hence, gel-water, a material that provides signal for MRI-visibility, and which will in future work, replace solid water for an MRI-linac 4DIGRT quality assurance tool, is discussed. MR and CT images of gel-water were acquired for visualisation and electron density verification. Characterisation of gel-water at 0 T was compared to Gammex-RMI solid water, using MagicPlate-512 (M512) and RMI Attix chamber; this included percentage depth dose, tissue-phantom ratio (TPR20/10), tissue-maximum ratio (TMR), profiles, output factors, and a gamma analysis to investigate field penumbral differences. MR images of a non-powered detector in gel-water demonstrated detector visualisation. The CT-determined gel-water electron density agreed with the calculated value of 1.01. Gel-water depth dose data demonstrated a maximum deviation of 0.7% from solid water for M512 and 2.4% for the Attix chamber, and by 2.1% for TPR20/10 and 1.0% for TMR. FWHM and output factor differences between materials were ≤0.3 and ≤1.4%. M512 data passed gamma analysis with 100% within 2%, 2 mm tolerance for multileaf collimator defined fields. Gel-water was shown to be tissue-equivalent for dosimetry and a feasible option to replace solid water.

  12. Accurate dose assessment system for an exposed person utilising radiation transport calculation codes in emergency response to a radiological accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, F; Shigemori, Y; Seki, A

    2009-01-01

    A system has been developed to assess radiation dose distribution inside the body of exposed persons in a radiological accident by utilising radiation transport calculation codes-MCNP and MCNPX. The system consists mainly of two parts, pre-processor and post-processor of the radiation transport calculation. Programs for the pre-processor are used to set up a 'problem-dependent' input file, which defines the accident condition and dosimetric quantities to be estimated. The program developed for the post-processor part can effectively indicate dose information based upon the output file of the code. All of the programs in the dosimetry system can be executed with a generally used personal computer and accurately give the dose profile to an exposed person in a radiological accident without complicated procedures. An experiment using a physical phantom was carried out to verify the availability of the dosimetry system with the developed programs in a gamma ray irradiation field.

  13. US plant and radiation dosimetry experiments flown on the soviet satellite COSMOS 1129. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, M.R.; Souza, K.A.

    1981-05-01

    Experiments included: 30 young male Wistar SPF rats used for wide range physiological studies Kosmos Satellites experiments with plants, fungi, insects, and mammalian tissue cultures; radiation physics experiments; a heat convection study; a rat embryology experiment in which an attempt was made to breed 2 male and 5 female rats during the flight; and fertile quail eggs used to determine the effects of spaceflight on avian embryogenesis. Specimens for US experiments were initially prepared at the recovery site or in Moscow and transferred to US laboratories for complete analyses. An overview of the mission focusing on preflight, on orbit, and postflight activities pertinent to the fourteen US experiments aboard Cosmos 1129 is presented.

  14. US plant and radiation dosimetry experiments flown on the Soviet satellite Cosmos 1129

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, M. R. (Editor); Souza, K. A. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Experiments included: 30 young male Wistar SPF rats used for wide range physiological studies; experiments with plants, fungi, insects, and mammalian tissue cultures; radiation physics experiments; a heat convection study; a rat embryology experiment in which an attempt was made to breed 2 male and 5 female rats during the flight; and fertile quail eggs used to determine the effects of spaceflight on avian embryogenesis. Specimens for US experiments were initially prepared at the recovery site or in Moscow and transferred to US laboratories for complete analyses. An overview of the mission focusing on preflight, on orbit, and postflight activities pertinent to the fourteen US experiments aboard Cosmos 1129 is presented.

  15. (Biological dosimetry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  16. THERMOLUMINESCENT DOSIMETRY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-10-20

    Oct 20, 2005 ... abo area of the city has the least radiation dose rate while Obantoku area has the upper limit. aking this as ... 'n Abeokuta. eywords: Environmental radiation, thermoluminescent dosimetry, Abeokuta, outdoor ... Both 238U and 232Th have long decay series with ... effects of radiation exposure (Hanson and.

  17. THERMOLUMINESCENT DOSIMETRY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-10-20

    Oct 20, 2005 ... abo area of the city has the least radiation dose rate while Obantoku area has the upper limit. aking this as ... “n Abeokuta. eywords: Environmental radiation, thermoluminescent dosimetry, Abeokuta, outdoor ... Both 238U and 232Th have long decay series with ... effects of radiation exposure (Hanson and.

  18. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidently exposed to fallout radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical Team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Noteworthy has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  19. Optically stimulated luminescence techniques in retrospective dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence signals from natural quartz and feldspar are now used routinely in dating geological and archaeological materials. More recently they have also been employed in accident dosimetry, i.e. the retrospective assessment of doses received as a result of a nuclear...

  20. Dosimetry at a 400 keV accelerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1992-01-01

    Absolute calorimetric dosimetry and relative dose mapping methods are described for a 400 keV electron accelerator used for polymer curing and crosslinking experiments. These methods of dosimetry are also useful at accelerators used in gas cleaning processes.......Absolute calorimetric dosimetry and relative dose mapping methods are described for a 400 keV electron accelerator used for polymer curing and crosslinking experiments. These methods of dosimetry are also useful at accelerators used in gas cleaning processes....

  1. Characterization and performances of DOSION, a dosimetry equipment dedicated to radiobiology experiments taking place at GANIL

    CERN Document Server

    Boissonnat, G; Balanzat, E; Boumard, F; Carniol, B; Colin, J; Cussol, D; Etasse, D; Fontbonne, C; Frelin, A -M; Hommet, J; Peronnel, J; Salvador, S

    2016-01-01

    Currently, radiobiology experiments using heavy ions at GANIL(Grand Acc\\'el\\'erateur National d'Ions Lourds) are conducted under the supervision of the CIMAP (Center for research on Ions, MAterials and Photonics). In this context, a new beam monitoring equipment named DOSION has been developed. It allows to perform measurements of accurate fluence and dose maps in near real time for each biological sample irradiated. In this paper, we present the detection system, its design, performances, calibration protocol and measurements performed during radiobiology experiments. This setup is currently available for any radiobiology experiments if one wishes to correlate one's own sample analysis to state of the art dosimetric references.

  2. Neutron dosimetry and damage calculation for the JP-10, 11, 13, and 16 experiments in HFIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, L.R.; Ratner, R.T.

    1996-04-01

    Neutron fluence measurements and radiation damage calculations are reported for the joint U.S./Japanese experiments JP-10, 11, 13, and 16 in the target of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL). These experiments were irradiated at 85 MW for 238.5 EFPD. The maximum fast neutron fluence >0.1 MeV was about 2.1E + 22 n/cm{sup 2} for all of the experiments resulting in about 17.3 dpa in 316 stainless steel.

  3. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Dosimetry Service

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter every month at least once and preferably during the first week. A regular read-out is indispensable in order to ensure a periodic monitoring of the personal dose. You should read your dosimeter even if you have not visited the controlled areas. If you still have the old dosimeter (film badge), please send it immediately for evaluation to us (Bdg 24 E-011). After January 2005 there will be no developing process for the old film system. Information for Contractors: Please remember also to bring the form ‘Confirm Reception of a CERN Dosimeter' signed with ‘Feuille d'enregistrement du CERN'. Without these forms the dosimeter cannot be assigned. Thank you for your cooperation. Dosimetry Service Tel 767 2155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  4. Radiation dosimetry.

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, J

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes the basic facts about the measurement of ionizing radiation, usually referred to as radiation dosimetry. The article defines the common radiation quantities and units; gives typical levels of natural radiation and medical exposures; and describes the most important biological effects of radiation and the methods used to measure radiation. Finally, a proposal is made for a new radiation risk unit to make radiation risks more understandable to nonspecialists.

  5. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact the Individual Dosimetry Service.We inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period MARCH/APRIL will be available from their usual dispatchers on the third of March 2000.Please have your films changed before the 13th of March.The colour of the dosimeter valid in MARCH/APRIL is BLUE.

  6. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact the Individual Dosimetry ServiceWe inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period JANUARY/FEBRUARY will be available from their usual dispatchers on Monday the third of January 2000.Please have your films changed:before the 12 January.The colour of the dosimeter valid in JANUARY/FEBRUARY is WHITE.

  7. Neutron dosimetry and damage calculations for the JP-17, 18 and 19 experiments in HFIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, L.R.; Baldwin, C.A.

    1996-04-01

    Neutron fluence measurements and radiation damage calculations are reported for the joint US-Japanese experiments JP-17, 18, and 19 in the target of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These experiments were irradiated at 85 MW for two cycles resulting in 43.55 EFPD for JP-17 and 42.06 EFPD for JP-18 and 19. The maximum fast neutron fluence > 0.1 MeV was about 3.7E + 21 n/cm{sup 2} for all three irradiations, resulting in about 3 dpa in 316 stainless steel.

  8. Towards emergency management of natural disasters and critical accidents: the Greek experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivolianitou, Zoe; Synodinou, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents the findings of a prototype study which sought to identify factors that contribute to effective emergency management in Greece and other European states regarding both natural disasters and critical accidents. The parameters for proper action and successful intervention in operational and logistical are identified based on the document analysis and interviews with emergency responders. The interviews are conducted between state-owned and voluntary organizations. They were asked to rate in terms of their importance for effective emergency response efforts. This paper offers useful information of the organization and management of emergency response in Greece, as well as provides interesting responders' opinions data concerning important priorities in the emergency management area. Despite the fact that the data come from the Greek experience, the conclusions may be applied for a broader use in the emergency planning of disasters. The whole study has been undertaken within the European Pre-Emergencies (PreEm) project. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Experiments on silver-indium-cadmium control rod failure during severe accident sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbrueck, M.; Stegmaier, U. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Silver-indium-cadmium (SIC) alloy is used as neutron absorber material in control rods (CR) of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). It is the material with the lowest melting temperature (approx. 1100 K) among all metallic and ceramic materials applied in nuclear reactors. During a hypothetical severe accident the SIC melt is kept in its stainless steel (SS) cladding tube as long as this is intact. After failure of the cladding tube by eutectic interaction with the Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) guide tube or latest by reaching the SS melting temperature SIC elements are released and may interact with other core components. Furthermore, Ag-In-Cd are one of the main contributors to aerosol release in the reactor cooling system and may strongly influence nature and transport of fission products in the primary circuit and later on in the containment. The bundle experiment QUENCH-13 with prototypical SIC control rod as well as two series of single-rod tests with 10-cm long CR segments were performed at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, former FZK) in order to improve the data base on SIC CR degradation and aerosol release. This paper concentrates on the degradation and failure mechanisms of SIC CRs as well as on the interaction between SIC absorber melt with other core components. (orig.)

  10. Iterative ensemble Kalman filter for atmospheric dispersion in nuclear accidents: An application to Kincaid tracer experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X L; Su, G F; Chen, J G; Raskob, W; Yuan, H Y; Huang, Q Y

    2015-10-30

    Information about atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides is vitally important for planning effective countermeasures during nuclear accidents. Results of dispersion models have high spatial and temporal resolutions, but they are not accurate enough due to the uncertain source term and the errors in meteorological data. Environmental measurements are more reliable, but they are scarce and unable to give forecasts. In this study, our newly proposed iterative ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) data assimilation scheme is used to combine model results and environmental measurements. The system is thoroughly validated against the observations in the Kincaid tracer experiment. The initial first-guess emissions are assumed to be six magnitudes underestimated. The iterative EnKF system rapidly corrects the errors in the emission rate and wind data, thereby significantly improving the model results (>80% reduction of the normalized mean square error, r=0.71). Sensitivity tests are conducted to investigate the influence of meteorological parameters. The results indicate that the system is sensitive to boundary layer height. When the heights from the numerical weather prediction model are used, only 62.5% of reconstructed emission rates are within a factor two of the actual emissions. This increases to 87.5% when the heights derived from the on-site observations are used.

  11. When the social discourse on violation behaviours is challenged by the perception of everyday life experiences: Effects of non-accident experiences on offending attitudes and habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lheureux, Florent; Auzoult, Laurent

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this article is to introduce the concept of the Non-Accident Experience (NAE) with regard to violations of traffic safety regulations. An NAE refers to the fact of not having been involved in an accident following the adoption of a behaviour socially recognised as promoting its occurrence. We hypothesise that this type of experiences has a strong effect on attitudes (valence and strength) and habits with regard to traffic offences such as speeding and drink-drive. An empirical study was conducted to test the relevance of this set of hypotheses. 543 French drivers participated to a survey designed to measure all these theoretical constructs. As expected, the results showed that the more frequently NAEs were experienced the more individuals had a favourable and weak (less certain, less important, more ambivalent) attitude towards violations, as well as strong habits. In addition, the more numerous NAEs experienced by others were perceived to be, the more ambivalent was the attitude. The discussion firstly concerns the methodological limitations of this study (e.g. use of cross-sectional design) as well as the integration of this concept into current research, especially in relation to the attitude strength concept and the theory of planned behaviour. Then, we discuss its practical implications (use of the experience based analysis technique, with consideration of both accident and non-accident experiences).

  12. Dosimetry experiences and lessons learned for radiation dose assessment in Korean nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong Rak; Kim, Hee Geun; Kong, Tae Young; Son, Jung Kwon

    2013-07-01

    Since the first Korean nuclear power plant (NPP), Kori 1, commenced operation in 1978, a total of 21 NPPs had been put into operation in Korea by the end of 2011. Radiation doses of NPP workers have been periodically evaluated and controlled within the prescribed dose limit. Radiation dose assessment is carried out monthly by reading personal dosemeters for external radiation exposure, which have traceability in compliance with strict technical guidelines. In the case of the internal radiation exposure, workers who have access to the possible area of polluted air are also evaluated for their internal dose after maintenance task. In this article, the overall situation and experience for the assessment and distribution of radiation doses in Korean NPPs is described.

  13. The role of personality traits and driving experience in self-reported risky driving behaviors and accident risk among Chinese drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Da; Zhang, Rui; Qu, Xingda

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of personality traits and driving experience in the prediction of risky driving behaviors and accident risk among Chinese population. A convenience sample of drivers (n=511; mean (SD) age=34.2 (8.8) years) completed a self-report questionnaire that was designed based on validated scales for measuring personality traits, risky driving behaviors and self-reported accident risk. Results from structural equation modeling analysis demonstrated that the data fit well with our theoretical model. While showing no direct effects on accident risk, personality traits had direct effects on risky driving behaviors, and yielded indirect effects on accident risk mediated by risky driving behaviors. Both driving experience and risky driving behaviors directly predicted accident risk and accounted for 15% of its variance. There was little gender difference in personality traits, risky driving behaviors and accident risk. The findings emphasized the importance of personality traits and driving experience in the understanding of risky driving behaviors and accident risk among Chinese drivers and provided new insight into the design of evidence-based driving education and accident prevention interventions.

  14. Radiotherapy quality insurance by individualized in vivo dosimetry: state of the art; Dosimetrie individuelle in vivo pour le controle de qualite en radiotherapie: etat de l'art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, A.; Giraud, J.Y.; Sihanath, R.; Balosso, J. [University Hospital of Grenoble, Dept. of Radiotherapy, 38 - Grenoble (France); Ismail, A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radioprotection Dept., Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Luc, G.N.; Pittet, P.; Galvanc, J.M. [Claude-Bernard Univ., Lyon Nanotechnology Institute, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2009-06-15

    The quality insurance in radiotherapy in the frame of highly complex technical process as Intensity modulated radiotherapy (I.M.R.T.) needs independent control of the delivered dose to the patient. Actually, up to now, most of the radiotherapy treatments rely only on computed dosimetry through a rather complicated series of linked simulation tool. This dosimetry approach requires also qualified treatment means based on cautious quality insurance procedures. However, erroneous parameters could be difficult to detect and systematical errors could happen leading to radiotherapy accidents. In this context, in vivo dosimetry has a critical role of final control of the delivered dose. As many beam incidences and ports are used for any photon therapy treatment, external control could be very tedious and time consuming. Therefore, innovations are needed for in vivo dosimetry to provide ergonomic and efficient tools for these controls. This paper presents a review of technologies and products that can be used for in vivo dosimetry. It proposes also a reflection on the concepts to develop future devices suitable for this purpose. The technical means with their physical principles are reviewed, the clinical experiences demonstrating the feasibility of new techniques are then summarized and finally, the early clinical use and its impact on clinical practice is review. (authors)

  15. Pretherapeutic radioembolization of CNS tumors: Methods, dosimetry and first clinical experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haldemann, A.R.; Roesler, H.; Noelpp, U. [Univ. of Berne (Sweden)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    Our experience with transarterial radioembolization using 90Y resin particles ({null} 45-75 {mu}m) after selective catheterization of malignant tumors has shown good palliative results in patients with inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma. This method may be applicable for many inoperable tumors or symptomatic metastases, but selective tumor embolization must be documented prior to therapy. We have started examining highly vascularized tumors of the CNS that are routinely embolized mechanically with microparticles of different sizes in order to reduce the perioperative risk of hemorrhage. In 13 patients (5 meningiomas, 3 dural angiomas, 2 metastasis, 2 chemodectomas and 1 dural fibrosarcoma) 100 MBq 99mTc labelled macroaggregates of albumin ({null} 25-50 {mu}m) were injected intraarterially after transfemoral cathererization of the tumor-feeding artery. The activity in the area of embolization and in the lungs was then recorded using a gamma camera, and the pulmonary shunt rates calculated. In this ongoing study, we found three different patterns of embolization: (1) embolization with pulmonary shunt (up to 76% of injected activity; 3 patients), (2) embolization without pulmonary shunt but sometimes considerable peritumoral embolization (6 patients) and (3) superselective embolization without significant pulmonary or peritumoral embolization (5 patients). In patients of group (3) who would qualify for therapeutic radioembolization, dosimetric calculations resulted in tumor doses of 200-1000 Gy for 370 MBq 90Y resin particles.

  16. Analysis of gamma-ray dosimetry experiments in the zero power MINERVE facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amharrak, H.; Di Salvo, J.; Lyoussi, A.; Roche, A.; Masson-Fauchier, M.; Bosq, J. C. [CEA, DEN, DER, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Carette, M. [Aix-Marseille Univ., LCP UMR 6264, 13397, Marseille (France)

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study is to develop nuclear heating measurement methods in zero power experimental reactors. These developments contribute to the qualification of photonics calculation schemes for the assessment of gamma heating in the future Jules Horowitz Material Testing Reactor. This paper presents the analysis of thermoluminescent detector (TLD) experiments in the UO{sub 2} core of the MINERVE Research Reactor at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission center in Cadarache. The experimental sources of uncertainty in the gamma dose have been reduced by improving the measurement conditions and the repeatability of the calibration step for each individual TLD. The interpretation of these measurements needs to take into account the calculation of cavity correction factors related to calibration and irradiation configurations, as well as neutron correction calculations. These calculations are based on Monte Carlo simulations of neutron-gamma and gamma-electron transport coupled particles. The comparison between calculated and measured integral gamma-ray absorbed doses in the aluminum material surrounding the TLD shows that calculations slightly overestimate the measurement, with a calculated versus experimental ratio equal to 1.04 {+-} 5.7 % (k=2). (authors)

  17. Topics in radiation dosimetry radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    1972-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry, Supplement 1: Topics in Radiation Dosimetry covers instruments and techniques in dealing with special dosimetry problems. The book discusses thermoluminescence dosimetry in archeological dating; dosimetric applications of track etching; vacuum chambers of radiation measurement. The text also describes wall-less detectors in microdosimetry; dosimetry of low-energy X-rays; and the theory and general applicability of the gamma-ray theory of track effects to various systems. Dose equivalent determinations in neutron fields by means of moderator techniques; as well as developm

  18. Iterative ensemble Kalman filter for atmospheric dispersion in nuclear accidents: An application to Kincaid tracer experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.L.; Su, G.F.; Chen, J.G. [Institute of Public Safety Research, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Raskob, W. [Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, D-76021 (Germany); Yuan, H.Y., E-mail: hy-yuan@outlook.com [Institute of Public Safety Research, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Huang, Q.Y. [Institute of Public Safety Research, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • We integrate the iterative EnKF method into the POLYPHEMUS platform. • We thoroughly evaluate the data assimilation system against the Kincaid dataset. • The data assimilation system substantially improves the model predictions. • More than 60% of the retrieved emissions are within a factor two of actual values. • The results reveal that the boundary layer height is the key influential factor. - Abstract: Information about atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides is vitally important for planning effective countermeasures during nuclear accidents. Results of dispersion models have high spatial and temporal resolutions, but they are not accurate enough due to the uncertain source term and the errors in meteorological data. Environmental measurements are more reliable, but they are scarce and unable to give forecasts. In this study, our newly proposed iterative ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) data assimilation scheme is used to combine model results and environmental measurements. The system is thoroughly validated against the observations in the Kincaid tracer experiment. The initial first-guess emissions are assumed to be six magnitudes underestimated. The iterative EnKF system rapidly corrects the errors in the emission rate and wind data, thereby significantly improving the model results (>80% reduction of the normalized mean square error, r = 0.71). Sensitivity tests are conducted to investigate the influence of meteorological parameters. The results indicate that the system is sensitive to boundary layer height. When the heights from the numerical weather prediction model are used, only 62.5% of reconstructed emission rates are within a factor two of the actual emissions. This increases to 87.5% when the heights derived from the on-site observations are used.

  19. ESR dosimetry: achievements and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baffa, O., E-mail: baffa@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), also known as Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and more recently as Electron Magnetic Resonance (Emr), is a spectroscopy technique able to detect unpaired electrons such as those created by the interaction ionizing radiation with matter. When the unpaired electrons created by ionizing radiation are stable over some reasonable time, ESR can be used to measure the radiation dose deposited in the material under study. In principle, any insulating material that satisfies this requisite can be used as a dosimeter. ESR has been used in retrospective dosimetry in case of radiological accidents using natural constituents of human body such as teeth, bones and nails as well as fortuitous materials as sugar, sweeteners and plastics. When using teeth the typical detected dose is 0.5 Gy for, for X-Band spectrometers (9 GHz) and even lower doses if higher frequency spectrometers are used. Clinical dosimetry is another area of potential use of this dosimetric modality. In this application the amino acid alanine has been proposed and being used. Alanine dosimeters are very easy to prepare and require no complicated treatments for use. Alanine/ESR dosimetry satisfies many of the required properties for clinical applications such as water equivalent composition, independence of response for the energy range used in therapy and high precision. Other organic materials such as ammonium tartrate are being investigated to increase the sensitivity of ESR for clinical applications. Finally, industrial applications can also benefit from this dosimetry. The challenges to expand applications, the number of users and research groups of ESR dosimetry will be discussed. (Author)

  20. Recording, notification, compilation, and classification of statistics of occupational accidents and diseases: the Thai experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, B C

    1996-11-01

    An International Labour Organization (ILO) project was conducted in July and August 1995 in Thailand to assist with the development of an information system on occupational accidents and diseases for the Workmen's Compensation Fund (WCF). The WCF provides cash benefits and medical care to insured workers who suffer employment injuries. The project included literature research based on the facilities of the ILO in Bangkok, and those of the Thai government, and a thorough review of the ILO Code of Practice (the Code) on recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases, and of other international recommendations on statistics of occupational accidents and diseases. A comparative study of various notification systems of occupational accidents and diseases in Australia, Canada, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States was conducted. The project also included fact-finding sessions among various information suppliers and users in Thailand. The Thai notification form for collecting data for the database was redesigned and pretested. Results of the project indicated that the Code is appropriate for the recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases in Thailand. In addition, a number of information requirements, which were included in the notification systems in the countries studied but not listed in the Code, were found to be useful for the database. A list of the baseline variables to be included in the proposed database was developed, the notification form was redesigned, and coding schemes for the information collected on the redesigned form were constructed on the basis of international standard classification systems for economic activity, employment status, occupation, nature of injury, occupational disease, body part, type of accident, and agency. A number of mechanisms were suggested for cross-checking the accuracy of data in the database. Based on the review of the Code and other international recommendations on

  1. The Sheffield experiment: the effects of centralising accident and emergency services in a large urban setting

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, A.; Wardrope, J; Burke, D

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To assess the effects of centralisation of accident and emergency (A&E) services in a large urban setting. The end points were the quality of patient care judged by time to see a doctor or nurse practitioner, time to admission and the cost of the A&E service as a whole.

  2. ESR dosimetry using eggshells and tooth enamel for accidental dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Toshihide; Yamanaka, Chihiro; Ikeya, Motoji [Department of Earth and Space Science, Faculty of Science, Osaka Univ., Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    The CO{sub 2}{sup -} signal of eggshells showed a good dose linearity and was appropriate in the wide dose range from 1 to 10 kGy, while ESR signal of CO{sub 2}{sup -} in sea and fresh water shells were saturated at a dose od below 10 kGy. The minimum detectable dose and G-value of CO{sub 2}{sup -} in eggshells were estimated 0.3 Gy and 0.28, respectively. The lifetime of CO{sub 2}{sup -} in eggshells could not be determined exactly because of overlapping organic signals, however it is still sufficiently long for practical use as ESR dosimeter materials. Various bird`s or reptile`s eggshells would be available as natural retrospective ESR dosimeter materials after nuclear accidents. Eggshells will be useful for the food irradiation dosimetry in the dose range of about a few kGy. Tooth enamel is one of the most useful dosimeter materials in public at a accident because of its high sensitivity. ESR dosimetry will replace TLD in near future if the cost of an ESR reader is further reduced . (author)

  3. EPR Dosimetry - Present and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regulla, D.F. [GSF - National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    In the past, IAEA has played a central role in stipulating research and development in EPR high-dose standardisation as well as in coordinating and organising international dose intercomparison programs, within the Member States of the United Nations from the mid-seventies till today. The future tasks of EPR dosimetry seem to tend towards different subjects such as bio markers, biological radiation effects, post-accident dose reconstruction in the environment, and retrospective human dosimetry. The latter may be considered a promising tool for epidemiology on the way to re-define radiation risk of man for chronicle radiation exposures, based on e.g. South Ural civil population and radiation workers. There are on-going international activities in the field of standardising high-level dosimetry by the American Standards on Testing and Materials (Astm), and by the International Organisation of Standards (ISO). The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) is considering the establishment of relevant recommendations concerning industrial radiation processing, but also human dose reconstruction. (Author)

  4. Dosimetry studies in Zaborie village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, J; Hoshi, M; Endo, S; Stepanenko, V F; Kondrashov, A E; Petin, D; Skvortsov, V; Ivannikov, A; Tikounov, D; Gavrilin, Y; Snykov, V P

    2000-05-01

    Dosimetry studies in Zaborie, a territory in Russia highly contaminated by the Chernobyl accident, were carried out in July, 1997. Studies on dosimetry for people are important not only for epidemiology but also for recovery of local social activity. The local contamination of the soil was measured to be 1.5-6.3 MBq/m2 of Cs-137 with 0.7-4 microSv/h of dose rate. A case study for a villager presently 40 years old indicates estimations of 72 and 269 mSv as the expected internal and external doses during 50 years starting in 1997 based on data of a whole-body measurement of Cs-137 and environmental dose rates. Mean values of accumulated external and internal doses for the period from the year 1986 till 1996 are also estimated to be 130 mSv and 16 mSv for Zaborie. The estimation of the 1986-1996 accumulated dose on the basis of large scale ESR teeth enamel dosimetry provides for this village, the value of 180 mSv. For a short term visitor from Japan to this area, external and internal dose are estimated to be 0.13 mSv/9d (during visit in 1997) and 0.024 mSv/50y (during 50 years starting from 1997), respectively.

  5. Bayesian Methods for Radiation Detection and Dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Groer, Peter G

    2002-01-01

    We performed work in three areas: radiation detection, external and internal radiation dosimetry. In radiation detection we developed Bayesian techniques to estimate the net activity of high and low activity radioactive samples. These techniques have the advantage that the remaining uncertainty about the net activity is described by probability densities. Graphs of the densities show the uncertainty in pictorial form. Figure 1 below demonstrates this point. We applied stochastic processes for a method to obtain Bayesian estimates of 222Rn-daughter products from observed counting rates. In external radiation dosimetry we studied and developed Bayesian methods to estimate radiation doses to an individual with radiation induced chromosome aberrations. We analyzed chromosome aberrations after exposure to gammas and neutrons and developed a method for dose-estimation after criticality accidents. The research in internal radiation dosimetry focused on parameter estimation for compartmental models from observed comp...

  6. Protocol for emergency EPR dosimetry in fingernails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompier, F; Kornak, L; Calas, C; Romanyukha, A; Leblanc, B; Mitchell, C A; Swartz, H M; Clairand, I

    2007-08-01

    There is an increased need for after-the-fact dosimetry because of the high risk of radiation exposures due to terrorism or accidents. In case of such an event, a method is needed to make measurements of dose in a large number of individuals rapidly and with sufficient accuracy to facilitate effective medical triage. Dosimetry based on EPR measurements of fingernails potentially could be an effective tool for this purpose. This paper presents the first operational protocols for EPR fingernail dosimetry, including guidelines for collection and storage of samples, parameters for EPR measurements, and the method of dose assessment. In a blinded test of this protocol application was carried out on nails freshly sampled and irradiated to 4 and 20 Gy; this protocol gave dose estimates with an error of less than 30%.

  7. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact their dispatchers to explain their activities for the future, after LEP dismantling in order to be maintained on the regular distribution list at Individual Dosimetry ServiceWe inform all staffs and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period JULY/AUGUST are available from their usual dispatchers.Please have your films changed before the 10th of July.The colour of the dosimeter valid in JULY/AUGUST is PINK.

  8. Recent numerical simulations and experiments on coolability of debris beds during severe accidents of light water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starflinger, J., E-mail: joerg.starflinger@ike.uni-stuttgart.de; Buck, M.; Hartmann, A.; Kulenovic, R.; Leininger, S.; Rahman, S.; Rashid, M.

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Investigation on coolability of three-dimensional debris beds has been performed. • Computer code MEWA (Melt Water) is introduced and described briefly. • Validation experiments have been carried out in DEBRIS facility. • Comparison of MEWA simulations and DEBRIS experiments show good agreement. • Example simulation on reactor scale was performed to explain the analysis method. - Abstract: In the course of a severe accident in light water reactors with core degradation, so-called debris beds can be formed inside the reactor pressure vessel or in the reactor cavity. The strategy to analyse the coolability of such debris beds with both experiments and numerical simulations is discussed. The numerical simulations are carried out with MEWA (MElt WAter) code, being developed at the institute for the prediction of the thermal-hydraulic conditions inside a debris bed, including the prediction of dryout heat flux. The simulations show good agreement with experimental data of the DEBRIS experiments.

  9. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both...... and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading...

  10. EXPERIENCE OF RADIATION-HYGIENIC MONITORING MANAGEMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF RADIATION SITUATION IN THE BRYANSK REGION TERRITORY AFTER 25 YEARS SINCE THE DAY OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Trapeznikova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly presents the experience of the radiation-hygienic monitoring system creation in the territory contaminated with the radionuclides due to the Chernobyl accident and application of the radiation hygienic monitoring data for the assessment of protective measures efficiency. Radiation situation data for the territory of the Bryansk region after 25 years of Chernobyl accident and dynamics of the population average annual effective exposure dose are being presented.

  11. Experience of technological and natural disasters and their impact on the perceived risk of nuclear accidents after the Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan 2011: A cross-country analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses cross-country data compiled immediately after the Fukushima nuclear accident to investigate how the experience of such disasters affects the perception of the risk of nuclear accidents. Estimation results show that the perceived risk of a nuclear accident is positively associated with experiencing technological disasters but not with that of natural disasters.

  12. Reconstructive dosimetry for cutaneous radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, C.M.A.; Lima, A.R.; Degenhardt, Ä.L.; Da Silva, F.C.A., E-mail: dasilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Valverde, N.J. [Fundacao Eletronuclear de Assistencia Medica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a relatively significant number of radiological accidents have occurred in recent years mainly because of the practices referred to as potentially high-risk activities, such as radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography, especially in gammagraphy assays. In some instances, severe injuries have occurred in exposed persons due to high radiation doses. In industrial radiography, 80 cases involving a total of 120 radiation workers, 110 members of the public including 12 deaths have been recorded up to 2014. Radiological accidents in industrial practices in Brazil have mainly resulted in development of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) in hands and fingers. Brazilian data include 5 serious cases related to industrial gammagraphy, affecting 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public; however, none of them were fatal. Some methods of reconstructive dosimetry have been used to estimate the radiation dose to assist in prescribing medical treatment. The type and development of cutaneous manifestations in the exposed areas of a person is the first achievable gross dose estimation. This review article presents the state-of-the-art reconstructive dosimetry methods enabling estimation of local radiation doses and provides guidelines for medical handling of the exposed individuals. The review also presents the Chilean and Brazilian radiological accident cases to highlight the importance of reconstructive dosimetry. (author)

  13. Reconstructive dosimetry for cutaneous radiation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, C M A; Lima, A R; Degenhardt, Ä L; Valverde, N J; Silva, F C A da

    2015-10-01

    According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a relatively significant number of radiological accidents have occurred in recent years mainly because of the practices referred to as potentially high-risk activities, such as radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography, especially in gammagraphy assays. In some instances, severe injuries have occurred in exposed persons due to high radiation doses. In industrial radiography, 80 cases involving a total of 120 radiation workers, 110 members of the public including 12 deaths have been recorded up to 2014. Radiological accidents in industrial practices in Brazil have mainly resulted in development of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) in hands and fingers. Brazilian data include 5 serious cases related to industrial gammagraphy, affecting 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public; however, none of them were fatal. Some methods of reconstructive dosimetry have been used to estimate the radiation dose to assist in prescribing medical treatment. The type and development of cutaneous manifestations in the exposed areas of a person is the first achievable gross dose estimation. This review article presents the state-of-the-art reconstructive dosimetry methods enabling estimation of local radiation doses and provides guidelines for medical handling of the exposed individuals. The review also presents the Chilean and Brazilian radiological accident cases to highlight the importance of reconstructive dosimetry.

  14. Reconstructive dosimetry for cutaneous radiation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.A. Lima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, a relatively significant number of radiological accidents have occurred in recent years mainly because of the practices referred to as potentially high-risk activities, such as radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography, especially in gammagraphy assays. In some instances, severe injuries have occurred in exposed persons due to high radiation doses. In industrial radiography, 80 cases involving a total of 120 radiation workers, 110 members of the public including 12 deaths have been recorded up to 2014. Radiological accidents in industrial practices in Brazil have mainly resulted in development of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS in hands and fingers. Brazilian data include 5 serious cases related to industrial gammagraphy, affecting 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public; however, none of them were fatal. Some methods of reconstructive dosimetry have been used to estimate the radiation dose to assist in prescribing medical treatment. The type and development of cutaneous manifestations in the exposed areas of a person is the first achievable gross dose estimation. This review article presents the state-of-the-art reconstructive dosimetry methods enabling estimation of local radiation doses and provides guidelines for medical handling of the exposed individuals. The review also presents the Chilean and Brazilian radiological accident cases to highlight the importance of reconstructive dosimetry.

  15. Sensitivity analysis for CORSOR models simulating fission product release in LOFT-LP-FP-2 severe accident experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoseyni, Seyed Mohsen [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Basic Sciences; Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Young Researchers and Elite Club; Pourgol-Mohammad, Mohammad [Sahand Univ. of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Yousefpour, Faramarz [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    This paper deals with simulation, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of LP-FP-2 experiment of LOFT test facility. The test facility simulates the major components and system response of a pressurized water reactor during a LOCA. MELCOR code is used for predicting the fission product release from the core fuel elements in LOFT LP-FP-2 experiment. Moreover, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is performed for different CORSOR models simulating release of fission products in severe accident calculations for nuclear power plants. The calculated values for the fission product release are compared under different modeling options to the experimental data available from the experiment. In conclusion, the performance of 8 CORSOR modeling options is assessed for available modeling alternatives in the code structure.

  16. Post test calculations of a severe accident experiment for VVER-440 reactors by the ATHLET code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyoergy, Hunor [Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics (Hungary). Inst. of Nuclear Techniques (BME NTI); Trosztel, Istvan [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Centre for Energy Research (MTA EK)

    2013-09-15

    Severe accident - if no mitigation action is taken - leads to core melt. An effective severe accident management strategy can be the external reactor pressure vessel cooling for corium localization and stabilization. For some time discussion was going on, whether the in-vessel retention can be applied for the VVER-440 type reactors. It had to be demonstrated that the available space between the reactor vessel and biological protection allows sufficient cooling to keep the melted core in the vessel, without the reactor pressure vessel losing its integrity. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept an experimental facility was realized in Hungary. The facility called Cooling Effectiveness on the Reactor External Surface (CERES) is modeling the vessel external surface and the biological protection of Paks NPP. A model of the CERES facility for the ATHLET TH system code was developed. The results of the ATHLET calculation agree well with the measurements showing that the vessel cooling can be insured for a long time in a VVER-440 reactor. (orig.)

  17. Developments in optically stimulated luminescence techniques for dating and retrospective dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence signals from natural quartz and feldspar are now used routinely in dating geological and archaeological materials. More recently they have also been employed in accident dosimetry, i.e. the retrospective assessment of doses received as a result of a nuclear...... accident. Since 1990, the exploration of this wide variety of applications has driven an intensive investigation and development programme at Riso in measurement facilities and techniques. This paper reviews some of the outcomes of this programme, including (i) optimisation of stimulation and emission...... windows, and detection sensitivity, (ii) experience with various stimulation light sources, including filtered incandescent lamps and high intensity light emitting diodes and laser diodes (infrared at 830-850 nm, blue-green at 420-550 nm and blue at 470 nm). Also discussed are recently developed high...

  18. Prototypic Thermal-Hydraulic Experiment in NRU to Simulate Loss-of-Coolant Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, C. L.; Hesson, G. M.; Russcher, G. E.; Marsh, R. K.; King, L. L.; Wildung, N. J.; Rausch, W. N.; Bennett, W. D.

    1981-04-01

    Quick-look test results are reported for the initial test series of the Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Simulation in the National Research Universal {NRU) test program, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This test was devoted to evaluating the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of a full-length light water reactor (LWR) fuel bundle during the heatup, reflood, and quench phases of a LOCA. Experimental results from 28 tests cover reflood rates of 0.74 in./sec to 11 in./sec and delay times to initiate reflood of 3 sec to 66 sec. The results indicate that current analysis methods can predict peak temperatures within 10% and measured quench times for the bundle were significantly less than predicted. For reflood rates of 1 in./sec where long quench times were predicted (>2000 sec}, measured quench times of 200 sec were found.

  19. Prototypic Thermal-Hydraulic Experiment in NRU to Simulate Loss-of-Coolant Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, C. L.; Hesson, G. M.; Russcher, G. E.; Marsh, R. K.; King, L. L.; Wildung, N. J.; Rausch, W. N.; Bennett, W. D.

    1981-04-01

    Quick-look test results are reported for the initial test series of the Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Simulation in the National Research Universal {NRU) test program, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This test was devoted to evaluating the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of a full-length light water reactor (LWR) fuel bundle during the heatup, reflood, and quench phases of a LOCA. Experimental results from 28 tests cover reflood rates of 0.74 in./sec to 11 in./sec and delay times to initiate reflood of 3 sec to 66 sec. The results indicate that current analysis methods can predict peak temperatures within 10% and measured quench times for the bundle were significantly less than predicted. For reflood rates of 1 in./sec where long quench times were predicted (>2000 sec}, measured quench times of 200 sec were found.

  20. Numerical interpretation of the MARA 8 experiment simulating a hypothetical core disruptive accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbe, M.F. E-mail: mfrobbe@cea.fr; Lepareux, M.; Cariou, Y

    2003-03-01

    In the case of a hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA) in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), it is assumed that the core of the nuclear reactor has melted partially and that the chemical interaction between the molten fuel and the liquid sodium has created a high-pressure gas bubble in the core. The violent expansion of this bubble loads and deforms the reactor vessel, thus endangering the safety of the nuclear plant. The experimental test MARA 8 simulates the explosive phenomenon in a mock-up included in a flexible vessel with a flexible roof. This paper presents a numerical simulation of the test and a comparison of the computed results with the experimental results and previous numerical ones.

  1. Neutron dosimetry, damage calculations, and helium measurements for the HFIR-MFE-60J-1 and MFE-330J-1 spectral tailoring experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, L.R. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Baldwin, C.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Oliver, B.M.

    1995-04-01

    The objective is to provide dosimetry and damage analysis for fusion materials irradiation experiments. Neutron fluence measurements and radiation damage calculations are reported for the joint US -Japanese MFE-60J-1 and MFE-330J-1 experiments in the hafnium-lined removable beryllium (RB{sup *}) position of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These experiments were continuations of the ORR-6J and 7J irradiations performed in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. The combination of irradiations was designed to tailor the neutron spectrum in order to achieve fusion reactor helium/dpa levels in stainless steel. These experiments produced maximum helium (appm)/dpa(displacement per atom) levels of 10.2 at 18.5 dpa for the ORR-6J and HFIR-MFE-60J-1 combination and 11.8 at 19.0 dpa for the ORR-7J and HFIR-MFE-330J-1 combination. A helium measurement in one JPCA sample was in good agreement with helium calculations.

  2. How do user experiences with different transport modes affect the risk of traffic accidents? From the viewpoint of licence possession status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Hiroshi; Usui, Shinnosuke

    2017-02-01

    Road accidents between different modes of transport-such as between automobiles and pedestrians, automobiles and bicycles, or automobiles and motorcycles-are frequent. In such cases, it is important to consider the other side's perspective. This involves the ability to correctly judge, for every given situation, how other people on the road perceive their surroundings and what they intend to do next. In this paper, we conduct two types of studies assuming that this kind of ability to consider perspectives is higher when the person is licenced to drive the mode of transport used by the other party. For Study 1, we analysed accidents involving senior citizens between the ages of 65 and 74 years, who collided with automobiles as pedestrians or cyclists (1656 and 3192 cases respectively), in terms of the accident category and type of road at the accident spot. The results indicate that possession or non-possession of a licence was irrelevant for accidents involving cyclists, but for accidents with pedestrians, senior citizens who did not possess a licence are likely to be involved in a greater number of accidents in places that require interaction with automobiles, such as while crossing at crosswalks or at intersections. For Study 2, we reviewed 875 ordinary first-class licence practical test examinees, categorised them according to their licence possession status (motorcycle licence, moped licence, or no licence), and made a category-wise comparison of the test instructor's assessment of their ability to make a left turn. The results showed that those who had a motorcycle or moped licence tended to make a left turn more safely. Thus, the results indicate that experience with different modes of transport is likely to reduce the risk of accidents. These findings may be used to popularise educational interventions encouraging users of various transport modes to consider the perspective of others (i.e. via perspective-taking). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  3. Developments in optically stimulated luminescence techniques for dating and retrospective dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence signals from natural quartz and feldspar are now used routinely in dating geological and archaeological materials. More recently they have also been employed in accident dosimetry, i.e. the retrospective assessment of doses received as a result of a nuclear accid...

  4. Large scale experiments simulating hydrogen distribution in a spent fuel pool building during a hypothetical fuel uncovery accident scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignot, Guillaume; Paranjape, Sidharth; Paladino, Domenico; Jaeckel, Bernd; Rydl, Adolf [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2016-08-15

    Following the Fukushima accident and its extended station blackout, attention was brought to the importance of the spent fuel pools' (SFPs) behavior in case of a prolonged loss of the cooling system. Since then, many analytical works have been performed to estimate the timing of hypothetical fuel uncovery for various SFP types. Experimentally, however, little was done to investigate issues related to the formation of a flammable gas mixture, distribution, and stratification in the SFP building itself and to some extent assess the capability for the code to correctly predict it. This paper presents the main outcomes of the Experiments on Spent Fuel Pool (ESFP) project carried out under the auspices of Swissnuclear (Framework 2012–2013) in the PANDA facility at the Paul Scherrer Institut in Switzerland. It consists of an experimental investigation focused on hydrogen concentration build-up into a SFP building during a predefined scaled scenario for different venting positions. Tests follow a two-phase scenario. Initially steam is released to mimic the boiling of the pool followed by a helium/steam mixture release to simulate the deterioration of the oxidizing spent fuel. Results shows that while the SFP building would mainly be inerted by the presence of a high concentration of steam, the volume located below the level of the pool in adjacent rooms would maintain a high air content. The interface of the two-gas mixture presents the highest risk of flammability. Additionally, it was observed that the gas mixture could become stagnant leading locally to high hydrogen concentration while steam condenses. Overall, the experiments provide relevant information for the potentially hazardous gas distribution formed in the SFP building and hints on accident management and on eventual retrofitting measures to be implemented in the SFP building.

  5. Development of radiation biological dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil; Son, Young Sook; Kim, Soo Kwan; Jang, Won Suk; Le, Sun Joo; Jee, Young Heun; Jung, Woo Jung

    1999-04-01

    Up until now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline (triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the premature chromosome condensation assay and apoptotic fragment assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiation dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with conventional chromosome aberration assay and micronuclei assay.

  6. Commitment of involved actors in the preparation of accidental and post-accident situations: European experiments; Engagement des parties prenantes a la preparation aux situations accidentelles et post-accidentelles: experiences Europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Th. [CEPN, 28 rue de la Redoute, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2010-07-01

    The author briefly describes some approaches developed within the EURANOS European research programme between 2004 and 2009 which aims at promoting the building up of a European network (NERIS) for the management of nuclear accidental and post-accident situations. Notably, he comments the experiment which took place in the Montbeliard district where two types of radiological events have been modelled and simulated: an accident in the Fessenheim nuclear power plant with two scenarios of release, and a transportation accident with a release of radioactive caesium 137. He also evokes the Norwegian experience and some other actions in Finland, Great-Britain, Spain and Slovakia where reflections on the management of accidental and post-accident situations or crisis exercises have been organized

  7. Experiments and analyses on melt-structure-water interactions during severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seghal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Bui, V.A.; Green, J.A.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Okkonen, T.O.; Dinh, A.T. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety

    1998-04-01

    This report is the final report for the research project Melt Structure Water Interactions (MSWI). It describes results of analytical and experimental studies concerning MSWI during the course of a hypothetical core meltdown accident in a LWR. Emphasis has been placed on phenomena which govern vessel failure mode and timing and the mechanisms and properties which govern the fragmentation and breakup of melt jets and droplets. It was found that: 2-D effects significantly diminished the focusing effect of an overlying metallic layer on top of an oxide melt pool. This result improves the feasibility of in-vessel retention of a melt pool through external cooling of the lower head; phenomena related to hole ablation and melt discharge, in the event of vessel failure, are affected significantly by crust formation; the jet fragmentation process is a function of many related phenomena. The fragmentation rate depends not only on the traditional parameters but also on the melt physical properties, which change as the melt cools down from liquid to solid temperature; film boiling was investigated by developing a two-phase flow model and inserting it in a multi-D fluid dynamics code. It was concluded that the thickness of the film on the surface of a melt jet would be small and that the effects of the film on the process should not be large. This conclusion is contrary to the modeling employed in some other codes. The computer codes were developed and validated against the data obtained in the MSWI Project. The melt vessel interaction thermal analysis code describes the process of melt pool formation and convection and the resulting vessel thermal loadings. In addition, several innovative models were developed to describe the melt-water interaction process. The code MELT-3D treats the melt jet as a collection of particles whose movement is described with a three-dimensional Eulerian formulation. The model (SIPHRA) tracks the melt jet with an additional equation, using the

  8. [Experience in organization of joint actions of expert divisions during the accident at P.S. Podporozniy Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkutin, V V; Ivanov, P L; Fetisov, V A; Afanas'ev, S A; Dorozhkin, O A; Vognerubov, R N; Kuznetsov, T L

    2010-01-01

    The authors illustrate positive experience in organization and coordination of joint actions of expert divisions of different sectors during the accident at P.S. Podporozniy Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station in August 2009. Special emphasis is laid on the participation of experts of quick-reaction teams formed by territorial forensic medical bureaus, mobile and supporting forces from the adjacent regions.

  9. An aftermath analysis of the 2014 coal mine accident in Soma, Turkey: Use of risk performance indicators based on historical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Matteo; Burgherr, Peter

    2016-02-01

    On the 13th of May 2014 a fire related incident in the Soma coal mine in Turkey caused 301 fatalities and more than 80 injuries. This has been the largest coal mine accident in Turkey, and in the OECD country group, so far. This study investigated if such a disastrous event should be expected, in a statistical sense, based on historical observations. For this purpose, PSI's ENSAD database is used to extract accident data for the period 1970-2014. Four different cases are analyzed, i.e., OECD, OECD w/o Turkey, Turkey and USA. Analysis of temporal trends for annual numbers of accidents and fatalities indicated a non-significant decreasing tendency for OECD and OECD w/o Turkey and a significant one for USA, whereas for Turkey both measures showed an increase over time. The expectation analysis revealed clearly that an event with the consequences of the Soma accident is rather unlikely for OECD, OECD w/o Turkey and USA. In contrast, such a severe accident has a substantially higher expectation for Turkey, i.e. it cannot be considered an extremely rare event, based on historical experience. This indicates a need for improved safety measures and stricter regulations in the Turkish coal mining sector in order to get closer to the rest of OECD.

  10. Dosimetry service removal

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2010-01-01

    Dear personal dosimeter user, Please note that the Dosimetry service has moved in building 55, the service is now located in the main floor: 55-R-004. Main floor instead of second floor. On your right hand when accessing in the building. Thank you Dosimetry Service

  11. Bicycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, M G; Wollin, S

    1986-01-01

    Information concerning 520 bicycle accidents and their victims was obtained from medical records and the victims' replies to questionnaires. The analyzed aspects included risk of injury, completeness of accident registrations by police and in hospitals, types of injuries and influence of the cyclists' age and sex, alcohol, fatigue, hunger, haste, physical disability, purpose of cycling, wearing of protective helmet and other clothing, type and quality of road surface, site of accident (road junctions, separate cycle paths, etc.) and turning manoeuvres.

  12. Large Scale Experiments Simulating Hydrogen Distribution in a Spent Fuel Pool Building During a Hypothetical Fuel Uncovery Accident Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Mignot

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the main outcomes of the Experiments on Spent Fuel Pool (ESFP project carried out under the auspices of Swissnuclear (Framework 2012–2013 in the PANDA facility at the Paul Scherrer Institut in Switzerland. It consists of an experimental investigation focused on hydrogen concentration build-up into a SFP building during a predefined scaled scenario for different venting positions. Tests follow a two-phase scenario. Initially steam is released to mimic the boiling of the pool followed by a helium/steam mixture release to simulate the deterioration of the oxidizing spent fuel. Results shows that while the SFP building would mainly be inerted by the presence of a high concentration of steam, the volume located below the level of the pool in adjacent rooms would maintain a high air content. The interface of the two-gas mixture presents the highest risk of flammability. Additionally, it was observed that the gas mixture could become stagnant leading locally to high hydrogen concentration while steam condenses. Overall, the experiments provide relevant information for the potentially hazardous gas distribution formed in the SFP building and hints on accident management and on eventual retrofitting measures to be implemented in the SFP building.

  13. Understanding the potentiality of accelerator based-boron neutron capture therapy for osteosarcoma: dosimetry assessment based on the reported clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolussi, Silva; Postuma, Ian; Protti, Nicoletta; Provenzano, Lucas; Ferrari, Cinzia; Cansolino, Laura; Dionigi, Paolo; Galasso, Olimpio; Gasparini, Giorgio; Altieri, Saverio; Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; González, Sara J

    2017-08-15

    Osteosarcoma is the most frequent primary malignant bone tumour, and its incidence is higher in children and adolescents, for whom it represents more than 10% of solid cancers. Despite the introduction of adjuvant and neo-adjuvant chemotherapy that markedly increased the success rate in the treatment, aggressive surgery is still needed and a considerable percentage of patients do not survive due to recurrences or early metastases. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), an experimental radiotherapy, was investigated as a treatment that could allow a less aggressive surgery by killing infiltrated tumour cells in the surrounding healthy tissues. BNCT requires an intense neutron beam to ensure irradiation times of the order of 1 h. In Italy, a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) proton accelerator has been designed and constructed for BNCT, and a suitable neutron spectrum was tailored by means of Monte Carlo calculations. This paper explores the feasibility of BNCT to treat osteosarcoma using this neutron source based on accelerator. The therapeutic efficacy of BNCT was analysed evaluating the dose distribution obtained in a clinical case of femur osteosarcoma. Mixed field dosimetry was assessed with two different formalisms whose parameters were specifically derived from radiobiological experiments involving in vitro UMR-106 osteosarcoma cell survival assays and boron concentration assessments in an animal model of osteosarcoma. A clinical case of skull osteosarcoma treated with BNCT in Japan was re-evaluated from the point of view of dose calculation and used as a reference for comparison. The results in the case of femur osteosarcoma show that the RFQ beam would ensure a suitable tumour dose painting in a total irradiation time of less than an hour. Comparing the dosimetry between the analysed case and the treated patient in Japan it turns out that doses obtained in the femur tumour are at least as good as the ones delivered in the skull osteosarcoma. The same is

  14. Evaluation of LLNL's Nuclear Accident Dosimeters at the CALIBAN Reactor September 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, D P; Wysong, A R; Heinrichs, D P; Wong, C T; Merritt, M J; Topper, J D; Gressmann, F A; Madden, D J

    2011-06-21

    the other DOE participants were limited in what they were allowed to do at the Caliban and Silene exercises and testing of various elements of the nuclear accident dosimetry programs cannot always be performed as guests at other sites, it has become evident that DOE needs its own capability to test nuclear accident dosimeters. Angular dependence determination and correction factors for NADs desperately need testing as well as more evaluation regarding the correct determination of gamma doses. It will be critical to properly design any testing facility so that the necessary experiments can be performed by DOE laboratories as well as guest laboratories. Alternate methods of dose assessment such as using various metals commonly found in pockets and clothing have yet to be evaluated. The DOE is planning to utilize the Godiva or Flattop reactor for testing nuclear accident dosimeters. LLNL has been assigned the primary operational authority for such testing. Proper testing of nuclear accident dosimeters will require highly specific characterization of the pulse fields. Just as important as the characterization of the pulsed fields will be the design of facilities used to process the NADs. Appropriate facilities will be needed to allow for early access to dosimeters to test and develop quick sorting techniques. These facilities will need appropriate laboratory preparation space and an area for measurements. Finally, such a facility will allow greater numbers of LLNL and DOE laboratory personnel to train on the processing and interpretation of nuclear accident dosimeters and results. Until this facility is fully operational for test purposes, DOE laboratories may need to continue periodic testing as guests of other reactor facilities such as Silene and Caliban.

  15. Individual dosimetry of workers and patients: implementation and perspectives; La dosimetrie individuelle des travailleurs et de patients: mise en oeuvre et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rannou, A.; Aubert, B.; Lahaye, Th.; Scaff, P.; Casanova, Ph.; Van Bladel, L.; Queinnec, F.; Valendru, N.; Jehanno, J.; Grude, E.; Berard, Ph.; Desbree, A.; Kafrouni, H.; Paquet, F.; Vanhavere, F.; Bridier, A.; Ginestet, Ch.; Magne, S.; Donadille, L.; Bordy, J.M.; Bottollier-Depois, J.F.; Barrere, J.L.; Ferragut, A.; Metivier, H.; Gaillard-Lecanu, E

    2008-07-01

    These days organised by the section of the technical protection of the S.F.R.P. review the different techniques of dosimetry used in France and Europe, and present the future orientations.The different interventions are as follow: Individual exposures of the workers: historic assessment and perspectives; medical exposure: where are the doses; legal obligations in individual dosimetry: which are the objective and the need on the subject; the dosimetry follow-up of workers by the S.I.S.E.R.I. system: assessment and perspectives; impact of the norm ISO 20553 on the follow-up of internal exposure; the implementation of the patient dose measurement in Belgium; techniques of passive dosimetry used in Europe; Supervision radiation protection at EDF: long term and short term approach; Comparison active and passive dosimetry at Melox; methodology for the choice of new neutron dosemeters; the working group M.E.D.O.R.: guide of internal dosimetry for the use of practitioners; O.E.D.I.P.E.: tool of modeling for the personalized internal dosimetry; the use of the Monte-Carlo method for the planning of the cancer treatment by radiotherapy becomes a reality; the works of the committee 2 of the ICRP; passive dosimetry versus operational dosimetry: situation in Europe; Implementation of the in vivo dosimetry in a radiotherapy department: experience of the Gustave Roussy institute; experience feedback on the in vivo measures in radiotherapy, based on the use of O.S.L. pellets; multi points O.S.L. instrumentation for the radiation dose monitoring in radiotherapy; dosimetry for extremities for medical applications: principle results of the European contract C.O.N.R.A.D.; references and perspectives in dosimetry; what perspectives for numerical dosimetry, an example: Sievert; system of dose management: how to answer to needs; the last technical evolutions in terms of electronic dosimetry in nuclear power plant; the fourth generation type reactors: what dosimetry. (N.C.)

  16. Dosimetry on the radiological risks prevention in radiotherapy; La dosimetria en la prevencion de riesgos radiologicos en radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornet R, O. M.; Perez G, F., E-mail: nuclear2@citmahlg.holguin.inf.cu [Delegacion Territorial del CITMA, Peralta 16 esq. P. Feria, Rpto. Peralta, 80400 Holguin (Cuba)

    2014-08-15

    Dosimetry in its various forms plays a determining role on the radiological risks prevention in radiotherapy. To prove this in this paper is shown an analysis based on the risk matrix method, how the dosimetry can influence in each stages of a radiotherapy service; installation and acceptance, operation, maintenance and calibration. For each one of these stages the role that can play is analyzed as either the initiating event of a radiological accident or limiting barrier of these events of the dosimetric processes used for the individual dosimetry, the area monitoring, fixed or portable, for radiation beam dosimetry and of the patients for a radiotherapy service with cobalt-therapy equipment. The result of the study shows that the application of a prospective approach in the role evaluation of dosimetry in the prevention and mitigation of the consequences of a radiological accident in radiotherapy is crucial and should be subject to permanent evaluation at each development stage of these services. (author)

  17. Radioactive material (RAM) transportation accident and incident experience in the U.S.A. (1971--1997)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, J.D.; Yoshimura, H.R.; Fagan, H.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Transportation Systems Analysis Dept.; Thomas, T. [Dept. of Energy National Transportation Program (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) database was developed in 1981 at the Transportation Technology Center of Sandia National Laboratories to support its research and development activities for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This database contains information about radioactive materials transportation incidents that have occurred in the US since 1971. These data were drawn from the US Department of Transportation`s (DOT) Hazardous Materials Incident Report system, from Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) files, and from various agencies including state radiological control offices. Support for the RMIR data base is funded by the National Transportation Program (EM-70) of the US Department of Energy. Transportation events in RMIR are classified in one of the following ways: as a transportation accident, as a handling accident, or as a reported incident. This presentation will provide definitions for these classifications and give examples of each. The primary objective of this presentation is to provide information on nuclear materials transportation accident incident events in the US for the period 1971--1997. Among the areas to be examined are: transportation accidents by mode, package response during accidents and an examination of accidents where release of contents has occurred.

  18. Radiation Measurement Systems and Experiences in Japan after the Fukushima Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    system to prove that rolls of grass harvested for animal feed meet the regulatory requirements. This document briefly describes the purpose of each measurement project, describes the instruments and assay method that used, and discusses some of the operational experiences from each of these projects. (authors)

  19. Risk Factors of Road Traffic Accidents Associated Mortality in Northern Iran; A Single Center Experience Utilizing Oaxaca Blinder Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherafati, Faranak; Homaie-Rad, Enayatollah; Afkar, Abolhassan; Gholampoor-Sigaroodi, Ramin; Sirusbakht, Soheil

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the differences in death after receiving emergency services in traffic accidents between urban and rural regions, and decompose factors of the gap in Langerood, Northern Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Langrood, Northern Iran during a 1-year period from 2013 to 2014. The hospital data of traffic crashes were used. Data contained those patients who survived at the scene of accident. Injury severity score, time to admission, age, gender, season of crash and type of collision were variables used in this study. Oaxaca decomposition technique was used to show the amount of inequity. In addition, three regression models were used to show the reason of inequity. Overall 1520 patients with road traffic accidents were admitted to our center during the study period. The mean age of the patients was 35.45 ± 17.9 years, and there were 1158 (76.1 %) men among the victims. Motorbike accidents accounted for 869 (57.1%) injuries and 833 (54.8 %) accidents occurred in rural regions. The in-hospital mortality rate was 60 (3.9%). The results of this study showed that 95% of inequity came from factors used in this study and 2.04% disadvantages were for rural crashes. Severity of crash and time to admission had relationship with death, while the effects of time to admission was higher in rural region and severity of the accident had more effect on mortality in urban regions in comparison with rural ones. The high rate of fatal accidents could be decreased by deleting the gap of access to health care services between urban and rural regions. This study suggested that more efforts of health system are needed to reduce the gap.

  20. Subsidies to cytogenetic dosimetry technique generated from analysis of results of Goiania radiological accident; Subsidios a tecnica de dosimetria citogenetica gerados a partir da analise de resultados obtidos com o acidente radiologico de Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, Adriana Teixeira

    1993-06-15

    Following the Goiania radiation accident, which occurred in September of 1987, peripheral lymphocytes from 129 exposed or potentially exposed individuals were analyzed for the frequency of unstable chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and centric rings) to estimate absorbed radiation dose. During the emergency period, the doses were assessed to help immediate medical treatment. After this initial estimation, doses were reassessed using in vitro calibration curves produced after the accident, more suitable for the conditions prevailing in Goiania. Dose estimates for 24 subjects exceeded 0,5 Gy. Among those, 15 individuals exceeded 1,0 Gy and 5 exceeded 3,0 Gy. None of the estimates exceeded 6,0 Gy. Four of the subjects died. During the emergency period, a cytogenetic follow-up of 14 of the exposed patients was started, aiming to observe the mean lifetime of lymphocytes containing dicentric and ring aberrations. The results suggest that for the highly exposed individuals the disappearance rate of unstable aberrations follows a two- term exponential function. Up to 470 days after the exposure, there is a rapid fall in the aberration frequency. After 470 days, the disappearance rate is very slow, almost constant. The estimated average half-time of elimination of dicentrics and rings among the highly exposed group (> 1 Gy) was 140 days for the initial period after the exposure (up to 470 days). This value is significantly shorter than the usually accepted value of 3 years reported in the literature. Mean disappearance functions of unstable chromosome aberrations were inferred, to be applied in accident situations in which there is a blood sampling delay. Statistical analysis of possible correlations between the individual half-times and biological parameters, such as sex, age, leukopenia level shown during the critical period, absorbed dose (initial frequency of chromosomal aberrations) and the administration of the bone marrow stimulating factor (rHuGM-CSF) was

  1. Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  2. Sports Accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    Kiebel

    1972-01-01

    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  3. Dosimetry of x-ray beams: The measure of the problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Castro, T.M.

    1986-08-01

    This document contains the text of an oral presentation on dosimetry of analytical x-ray equipment presented at the Denver X-Ray Conference. Included are discussions of sources of background radiation, exposure limits from occupational sources, and the relationship of these sources to the high dose source of x-rays found in analytical machines. The mathematical basis of x-ray dosimetry is reviewed in preparation for more detailed notes on personnel dosimetry and the selection of the most appropriate dosimeter for a specific application. The presentation concludes with a discussion common to previous x-ray equipment accidents. 2 refs. (TEM)

  4. Dosimetry procedures for an industrial irradiation plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Ch.

    Accurate and reliable dosimetry procedures constitute a very important part of process control and quality assurance at a radiation processing plant. γ-Dose measurements were made on the GBS 84 irradiator for food and other products on pallets or in containers. Chemical dosimeters wre exposed in the facility under conditions of the typical plant operation. The choice of the dosimeter systems employed was based on the experience in chemical dosimetry gained over several years. Dose uniformity information was obtained in air, spices, bulbs, feeds, cosmetics, plastics and surgical goods. Most products currently irradiated require dose uniformity which can be efficiently provided by pallet or box irradiators like GBS 84. The radiation performance characteristics and some dosimetry procedures are discussed.

  5. Terrorism-related injuries versus road traffic accident-related trauma: 5 years of experience in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Kobi; Savitsky, Bella

    2009-12-01

    Terrorism victims comprise the minority among trauma injured people, but this small population imposes a burden on the health care system. Thirty percent of the population injured in terrorist activities experienced severe trauma (injury severity score > or =16), more than half of them need a surgical procedure, and 25% of the population affected by terrorism had been admitted to intensive care. Furthermore, compared with patients with non-terrorism-related trauma, victims of terrorism often arrive in bulk, as part of a mass casualty event. This poses a sudden load on hospital resources and requires special organization and preparedness. The present study compared terrorism-related and road accident-related injuries and examined clinical characteristics of both groups of patients. This study is a retrospective study of all patients injured through terrorist acts and road traffic accidents from September 29, 2000 to December 31, 2005, and recorded in the Israel Trauma Registry. Data on the nature of injuries, treatment, and outcome were obtained from the registry. Medical diagnoses were extracted from the registry and classified based on International Classification of Diseases coding. Diagnoses were grouped to body regions, based on the Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix. The study includes 2197 patients with terrorism-related injuries and 30,176 patients injured in road traffic accidents. All in all, 27% of terrorism-related casualties suffered severe to critical injuries, comparing to 17% among road traffic accident-related victims. Glasgow Coma Scale scores terrorism victims, in contrast with 7.4% among people injured on the roads. The terrorism victims had a significantly higher rate of use of intensive care facilities (24.2% vs 12.4%). The overall inpatient death rate was 6.0% among terrorism victims and 2.4% among those injured in road traffic accidents. Casualties from terrorist events are more severely injured and require more resources relative to casualties

  6. Personnel radiation dosimetry symposium: program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    The purpose was to provide applied and research dosimetrists with sufficient information to evaluate the status and direction of their programs relative to the latest guidelines and techniques. A technical program was presented concerning experience, requirements, and advances in gamma, beta, and neutron personnel dosimetry.

  7. Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorbraak, Wim; Debarberis, Luigi; D'Hondt, Pierre; Wagemans, Jan

    2009-08-01

    . Williams, A. P. Ribaric and T. Schnauber. Agile high-fidelity MCNP model development techniques for rapid mechanical design iteration / J. A. Kulesza.Extension of Raptor-M3G to r-8-z geometry for use in reactor dosimetry applications / M. A. Hunter, G. Longoni and S. L. Anderson. In vessel exposure distributions evaluated with MCNP5 for Atucha II / J. M. Longhino, H. Blaumann and G. Zamonsky. Atucha I nuclear power plant azimutal ex-vessel flux profile evaluation / J. M. Longhino ... [et al.]. UFTR thermal column characterization and redesign for maximized thermal flux / C. Polit and A. Haghighat. Activation counter using liquid light-guide for dosimetry of neutron burst / M. Hayashi ... [et al.]. Control rod reactivity curves for the annular core research reactor / K. R. DePriest ... [et al.]. Specification of irradiation conditions in VVER-440 surveillance positions / V. Kochkin ... [et al.]. Simulations of Mg-Ar ionisation and TE-TE ionisation chambers with MCNPX in a straightforward gamma and beta irradiation field / S. Nievaart ... [et al.]. The change of austenitic stainless steel elements content in the inner parts of VVER-440 reactor during operation / V. Smutný, J. Hep and P. Novosad. Fast neutron environmental spectrometry using disk activation / G. Lövestam ... [et al.]. Optimization of the neutron activation detector location scheme for VVER-lOOO ex-vessel dosimetry / V. N. Bukanov ... [et al.]. Irradiation conditions for surveillance specimens located into plane containers installed in the WWER-lOOO reactor of unit 2 of the South-Ukrainian NPP / O. V. Grytsenko. V. N. Bukanov and S. M. Pugach. Conformity between LRO mock-ups and VVERS NPP RPV neutron flux attenuation / S. Belousov. Kr. Ilieva and D. Kirilova. FLUOLE: a new relevant experiment for PWR pressure vessel surveillance / D. Beretz ... [et al.]. Transport of neutrons and photons through the iron and water layers / M. J. Kost'ál ... [et al.]. Condition evaluation of spent nuclear fuel assemblies

  8. Operational accidents and radiation exposure experience within the United States Atomic Energy Commission, 1943--1975. [AEC health and safety during first 32 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    The occupational injury and fatality experience during 32 years of the development of the atomic energy industry under the direction of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and its predecessor, the Manhattan Engineering District, is reviewed. Data are included on the cause of all accidents, including fires and transportation accidents, and the cost of AEC property damage. Fatalities of AEC and contractor personnel from all causes during the 32-year period totaled 321, of which 184 occurred in construction; 121 in AEC operations such as production, research, and services; and 16 in Government functions. There were 19,225 lost-time injuries attributable to all accidental causes, or a 32-year frequency rate of 2.75 based on the number of injuries per million man-hours. There were six deaths attributable to nuclear causes, thee of which were due to blast and flying missiles and three caused by whole-body radiation exposure. Forty-one workers were involved in lost-time radiation accidents, of whom 26 showed clinical manifestations attributable to radiation, resulting in permanent partial-disability of three workers and the loss of a digit by four workers, while the others did not develop evidence of radiation injury. (CH)

  9. Barriers to learning from incidents and accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dechy, N.; Dien, Y.; Drupsteen, L.; Felicio, A.; Cunha, C.; Roed-Larsen, S.; Marsden, E.; Tulonen, T.; Stoop, J.; Strucic, M.; Vetere Arellano, A.L.; Vorm, J.K.J. van der; Benner, L.

    2015-01-01

    This document provides an overview of knowledge concerning barriers to learning from incidents and accidents. It focuses on learning from accident investigations, public inquiries and operational experience feedback, in industrial sectors that are exposed to major accident hazards. The document disc

  10. 福岛核事故对中国的影响及应急经验%Impact of Fukushima Accident to China and Response Experiences Accumulated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建岗; 徐潇潇; 姚仁太; 任晓娜; 汤荣耀; 赵兵; 徐向军; 张俊芳; 郝宏伟; 张雷

    2012-01-01

    介绍了福岛第一核电站事故后中国辐射防护研究院开展的响应工作,主要包括跟踪事故进程,进行释放源项和后果估算,开展环境监测,提供技术分析和专家支持。对福岛核电站事故对我国核与辐射应急的启示进行了讨论与分析,建议提升核设施应对严重事故的安全功能,加强应急计划和准备的基础和各级应急组织的响应能力,改进应急专用设施和设备的可靠性,完善核应急运行机制,重视核与辐射应急教育培训和国际合作。%This paper describes the work done by the China Institute for Radiation Protection (CIRP) in responding to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station Accident (NPS) , which mainly includes accident process follow-up, source term estimation, consequence evaluation, environmental monitoring, technical analysis and expert support. Experiences accumulated on nuclear and radiological emergency management in China through the Fukushima nuclear accident are also discussed then. Based on above, suggestions are proposed about the advancement of nuclear facility safety functions against severe accidents, the strengthening of emergency planning and preparedness foundations as well as emergency response abilities of organizations at all levels. Suggestions also include the progress of reliability of emergency special facilities and equipments, the improvement of operating mechanism of nuclear emergency management and greater attention to nuclear and radiation emergency training and international cooperation.

  11. Nuclear medicine radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    Complexities of the requirements for accurate radiation dosimetry evaluation in both diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine (including PET) have grown over the past decade. This is due primarily to four factors: growing consideration of accurate patient-specific treatment planning for radionuclide therapy as a means of improving the therapeutic benefit, development of more realistic anthropomorphic phantoms and their use in estimating radiation transport and dosimetry in patients, design and use of advanced Monte Carlo algorithms in calculating the above-mentioned radiation transport and

  12. Contribution of Case Based Reasoning (CBR) in the Exploitation of Return of Experience. Application to Accident Scenarii in Railroad Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Maalel, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    The study is from a base of accident scenarii in rail transport (feedback) in order to develop a tool to share build and sustain knowledge and safety and secondly to exploit the knowledge stored to prevent the reproduction of accidents / incidents. This tool should ultimately lead to the proposal of prevention and protection measures to minimize the risk level of a new transport system and thus to improve safety. The approach to achieving this goal largely depends on the use of artificial intelligence techniques and rarely the use of a method of automatic learning in order to develop a feasibility model of a software tool based on case based reasoning (CBR) to exploit stored knowledge in order to create know-how that can help stimulate domain experts in the task of analysis, evaluation and certification of a new system.

  13. Dosimetry for SIRT; Dosimetrie bei der SIRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, S.P. [Universitatesklinikum Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2011-09-15

    Dosimetry is only one aspect of treatment planning for 'Selective internal radiotherapy' (SIRT) or 'transarterial radioembolization' (TARE) with Yttrium-90 Microspheres is an emerging palliative therapy for malignant hepatoma. Dosimetric considerations, together with interventional, oncological and hepatological aspects need to be considered for optimal treatment stratification. The product-specific dosimetric calculations for 2 commercially available microsphere products are compared and set in relation to the average doses to liver and tumor. Ostensible discrepancies between the dose-response of Y-90-microspheres and external beam radiation therapy are discussed in the context of radiobiological concepts. (orig.)

  14. Status of radiation processing dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1993-01-01

    Several milestones have marked the field of radiation processing dosimetry since IMRP 7. Among them are the IAEA symposium on High Dose Dosimetry for Radiation Processing and the international Workshops on Dosimetry for Radiation Processing organized by the ASTM. Several standards have been...... or are being published by the ASTM in this field, both on dosimetry procedures and on the proper use of specific dosimeter systems. Several individuals are involved in this international cooperation which contribute significantly to the broader understanding of the role of dosimetry in radiation processing....... The importance of dosimetry is emphasized in the standards on radiation sterilization which are currently drafted by the European standards organization CEN and by the international standards organization ISO. In both standards, dosimetry plays key roles in characterization of the facility, in qualification...

  15. Profile of patients with head injury among vehicular accidents: An experience from a tertiary care centre of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjul Tripathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pattern of injuries among drivers, pillion riders and co-passengers of two and four-wheeler vehicles need to be separately evaluated and addressed. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 1545 patients (1314 males and 231 females between 01 April, 2011 to 31 December, 2011, to evaluate the profile of head injury patients due to road traffic accidents, admitted in Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER, Chandigarh. Proper subset of cases and controls with or without helmet, seat belt and history of alcohol intake were compared. Data was analyzed to evaluate the incidence, severity, pattern of head injury and outcome of the patients. Results: Male drivers of two-wheeler vehicular accidents (71.4% were most commonly injured. Among helmeted patients, only 4.8% sustained severe head injuries compared to 23.7% of un-helmeted patients. Only full coverage helmets were effective in preventing head injury. Among helmeted patients with a proper chinstrap, 2.6% suffered critical injuries compared to 14% of non-strapped ones. In 142 patients, helmet was at position after the crash and only 0.7% of these sustained severe head injuries. Drunk driving was noticed among 19% and 6% of two- and four-wheeler vehicular occupants, respectively. Only 7.5% of the four-wheel vehicular occupants were wearing seat belt at the time of accident. Conclusions: Injury profile of two- and four-wheeler vehicular accident victims is entirely different. A ready supply of affordable helmets of appropriate quality and strict legislation for safety constraints is the need of the hour for road safety.

  16. Thermoluminescence characteristics of Israeli household salts for retrospective dosimetry in radiological events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druzhyna, S.; Datz, H.; Horowitz, Y. S.; Oster, L.; Orion, I.

    2016-06-01

    Following a nuclear accident or terror attack involving the dispersal of radioactive substances, radiation dose assessment to first responders and the members of the public is essential. The need for a retrospective assessment of the radiation dose to those possibly affected is, therefore, obligatory. The present study examines the potential use of Israeli household salt as a retrospective dosimeter (RD). The experiments were carried out on Israeli salt samples (NaCl) following a Nielsen market track survey based on scanning data representing the barcoded market, including organized and independent retail chains and a sample of private minimarkets and supermarkets. The technique used was thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry. Salt samples were exposed to levels of dose from 0.5 mGy to 300 Gy at the Israeli Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of the Soreq Nuclear Research Center using a calibrated 137Cs source. Our emphasis has been on a detailed investigation of the basic dosimetric characteristics of the salts including: (i) glow curve analysis (ii) individual glow peak dose response (iii) reproducibility (iv) estimation of minimal measurable dose (v) effect of nitrogen readout, (vi) influence of humidity during pre-irradiation storage and (vii) light induced fading. The results are sufficiently favorable to lead to the conclusion that the Israeli household salts can serve as a pragmatic potential candidate for RD under certain restricted conditions. Occasional pre-calibration of the major salt brands in a dedicated laboratory may be essential depending on the required accuracy in the estimation of dose and consequent clinical evaluation.

  17. High frequency electromagnetic dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Hernández, David A

    2009-01-01

    Along with the growth of RF and microwave technology applications, there is a mounting concern about the possible adverse effects over human health from electromagnetic radiation. Addressing this issue and putting it into perspective, this groundbreaking resource provides critical details on the latest advances in high frequency electromagnetic dosimetry.

  18. Individual dosimetry service

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    We inform all staff and users under regular dosimetry control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period JULY-AUGUST 2004 are available from their usual dispatchers. Please have your films changed before the 15 JULY 2004. The color of the dosimeter valid in July-August 2004 is PINK.

  19. How to reduce the number of accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Among the safety objectives that the Director-General has established for CERN in 2012 is a reduction in the number of workplace accidents.   The best way to prevent workplace accidents is to learn from experience. This is why any accident, fire, instance of pollution, or even a near-miss, should be reported using the EDH form that can be found here. All accident reports are followed up. The departments investigate all accidents that result in sick leave, as well as all the more common categories of accidents at CERN, essentially falls (slipping, falling on stairs, etc.), regardless of whether or not they lead to sick leave. By studying the accident causes that come to light in this way, it is possible to take preventive action to avoid such accidents in the future. If you have any questions, the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. HSE Unit

  20. Retrospective dosimetry using Japanese brick quartz: A way forward despite an unstable fast decaying OSL signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujita, Hiroki; Jain, Mayank; Murray, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Quartz extracted from heated bricks has been previously suggested for use in dose estimation in accident dosimetry, but this technique has never been applied before to Japanese quartz which often has unusual OSL characteristics. In this study the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) characteri...

  1. Retrospective dosimetry: Dose evaluation using unheated and heated quartz from a radioactive waste storage building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, M.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    In the assessment of dose received from a nuclear accident, considerable attention has been paid to retrospective dosimetry using heated materials such as household ceramics and bricks. However, unheated materials such as mortar and concrete are more commonly found in industrial sites and particu...

  2. Accident: Reminder

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

  3. SU-E-T-62: A Preliminary Experience of Using EPID Transit Dosimetry for Monitoring Daily Dose Variations in Radiation Treatment Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, R; Chisela, W [Columbus Regional Healthcare, Columbus, GA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the use of EPID transit dosimetry for monitoring daily dose variations in radiation treatment delivery. Methods: A patient with head and neck cancer treated using nine field IMRT beams was used in this study. The prescription was 45 Gy in 25 fractions. A KV CBCT was acquired before each treatment on a Varian NTX linear accelerator. Integrated images using MV EPID were acquired for each treatment beam. Planning CT images, treatment plan, and daily integrated images were imported into a commercial QA software Dosimetry Check (v4r4 Math Resolutions, LLC, Columbia, MD) to calculate 3D dose of the day assuming 25 fractions treatment. Planning CT images were deformed and registered to each daily CBCT using Varian SmartAdapt (v11.MR2). ROIs were then propagated from planning CT to daily CBCT. The correlation between maximum, average dose of ROIs and ROI volume, center of mass shift, Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) were investigated. Results: Not all parameters investigated showed strong correlations. For PTV and CTV, the average dose has inverse correlation with their volume change (correlation coefficient −0.52, −0.50, respectively) and DSC (−0.59, −0.59, respectively). The average dose of right parotid has correlation with its volume change (0.56). The maximum dose of spinal cord has correlation with the center of mass superior-inferior shift (0.52) and inverse correlation with the center of mass anterior-posterior shift (−0.73). Conclusion: Transit dosimetry using EPID images collected during treatment delivery offers great potential to monitor daily dose variations due to patient anatomy change, motion, and setup errors in radiation treatment delivery. It can provide a patient-specific QA tool valuable for adaptive radiation therapy. Further work is needed to validate the technique.

  4. Thyroid Cancer and the Chornobyl Accident in Ukraine: Experience With the Implementation of a Follow-Up Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyka, Dimitry A; Prysyazhnyuk, Anatoly Ye; Fuzik, Mykola M; Fedorenko, Zoya P

    2016-09-01

    Thyroid cancer incidence, its annual variation pattern and influence of gender and age at exposure were analyzed in population groups of Ukraine exposed to ionizing radiation by the Chornobyl accident. Significant radiation risks are demonstrated in the recovery operation workers and evacuees from Prypiat town and the exclusion zone. The radiation-induced excess of thyroid cancer is confirmed among people exposed as children and adolescents and subjects who had relatively high average thyroid radiation doses. Some excess is observed in population groups exposed as adults. In the female age group of 40-49 at the moment of the accident the age-specific thyroid cancer incidence rates were significantly higher in 'high exposure' regions versus 'low exposure' ones for all the years of follow-up since 1989 until 2012. The available Ukrainian data suggest that wider survey of population with application of thyroid ultrasound examination improves the early detection of cancer and only marginally leads to bias of the completeness of registration of this disease because of 'screening effect'.

  5. EPR tooth dosimetry of SNTS area inhabitants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholom, Sergey [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Melnikova str., 53, Kiev (Ukraine); Desrosiers, Marc [Ionizing Radiation Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Bouville, Andre; Luckyanov, Nicholas [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD (United States); Chumak, Vadim [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Melnikova str., 53, Kiev (Ukraine); Simon, Steven L. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD (United States)], E-mail: ssimon@mail.nih.gov

    2007-07-15

    The determination of external dose to teeth of inhabitants of settlements near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) was conducted using the EPR dosimetry technique to assess radiation doses associated with exposure to radioactive fallout from the test site. In this study, tooth doses have been reconstructed for 103 persons with all studied teeth having been formed before the first nuclear test in 1949. Doses above those received from natural background radiation, termed 'accident doses', were found to lie in the range from zero to approximately 2 Gy, with one exception, a dose for one person from Semipalatinsk city was approximately 9 Gy. The variability of reconstructed doses within each of the settlements demonstrated heterogeneity of the deposited fallout as well as variations in lifestyle. The village mean external gamma doses for residents of nine settlements were in the range from a few tens of mGy to approximately 100 mGy.

  6. The dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    A continuation of the treatise The Dosimetry of Ionizing Radiation, Volume III builds upon the foundations of Volumes I and II and the tradition of the preceeding treatise Radiation Dosimetry. Volume III contains three comprehensive chapters on the applications of radiation dosimetry in particular research and medical settings, a chapter on unique and useful detectors, and two chapters on Monte Carlo techniques and their applications.

  7. Experiments in the Underground Laboratory for Dosimetry and Spectrometry (UDO) of the PTB in the Asse II salt mine - summary highlighting work performed and outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Neumaier, S; Zwiener, R

    2003-01-01

    Due to its extremely low area dose rate, the Underground Laboratory for Dosimetry and Spectrometry (UDO) of the PTB at the 925 m level of the Asse II Salt Mine offers unique possibilities for the investigation and calibration of dosimetry systems of high sensitivity as are used, for example, in environmental monitoring. Due to its low area dose rate, this laboratory has an outstanding position worldwide. The low ambient dose equivalent rate in the UDO of approx. 1 nSv/h, that means of only approx. 1 percent of the ambient dose rate typically encountered at the Earth's surface, is mainly due to the following reasons: - At the depth at which the UDO is situated, the penetrating muon component of cosmic radiation which considerably contributes to the environmental equivalent dose rate at the Earth's surface (in Braunschweig, for example, approx. one third) is already attenuated by more than five orders of magnitude and is therefore completely negligible for dosimetric investigations; - The activity concentration...

  8. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.; Bonell, P.G.; Hicks, D.

    1987-01-01

    The USSR power reactor programme is first described. The reasons for the accident at the Chernobyl-4 RBMK nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986, the sequence of events that took place, and the immediate and long-term consequences are considered. A description of the RBMK-type reactors is given and the design changes resulting from the experience of the accident are explained. The source terms describing the details of the radioactivity release associated with the accident and the environmental consequences are covered in the last two sections of the report. Throughout the text comments referring to the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate Safety assessment principles have been inserted. (U.K.).

  9. Quantitative imaging for clinical dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardiès, Manuel; Flux, Glenn; Lassmann, Michael; Monsieurs, Myriam; Savolainen, Sauli; Strand, Sven-Erik

    2006-12-01

    Patient-specific dosimetry in nuclear medicine is now a legal requirement in many countries throughout the EU for targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) applications. In order to achieve that goal, an increased level of accuracy in dosimetry procedures is needed. Current research in nuclear medicine dosimetry should not only aim at developing new methods to assess the delivered radiation absorbed dose at the patient level, but also to ensure that the proposed methods can be put into practice in a sufficient number of institutions. A unified dosimetry methodology is required for making clinical outcome comparisons possible.

  10. Neutron beam measurement dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, C.R. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This report describes animal dosimetry studies and phantom measurements. During 1994, 12 dogs were irradiated at BMRR as part of a 4 fraction dose tolerance study. The animals were first infused with BSH and irradiated daily for 4 consecutive days. BNL irradiated 2 beagles as part of their dose tolerance study using BPA fructose. In addition, a dog at WSU was irradiated at BMRR after an infusion of BPA fructose. During 1994, the INEL BNCT dosimetry team measured neutron flux and gamma dose profiles in two phantoms exposed to the epithermal neutron beam at the BMRR. These measurements were performed as a preparatory step to the commencement of human clinical trials in progress at the BMRR.

  11. Evaluation of the concrete shield compositions from the 2010 criticality accident alarm system benchmark experiments at the CEA Valduc SILENE facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Thomas Martin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Celik, Cihangir [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dunn, Michael E [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wagner, John C [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McMahan, Kimberly L [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Authier, Nicolas [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Jacquet, Xavier [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Rousseau, Guillaume [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Wolff, Herve [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Savanier, Laurence [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Baclet, Nathalie [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Lee, Yi-kang [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Trama, Jean-Christophe [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Masse, Veronique [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Gagnier, Emmanuel [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Naury, Sylvie [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Blanc-Tranchant, Patrick [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Hunter, Richard [Babcock International Group (United Kingdom); Kim, Soon [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dulik, George Michael [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, Kevin H. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In October 2010, a series of benchmark experiments were conducted at the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) Valduc SILENE facility. These experiments were a joint effort between the United States Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program and the CEA. The purpose of these experiments was to create three benchmarks for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data used in the analysis of criticality accident alarm systems. This series of experiments consisted of three single-pulsed experiments with the SILENE reactor. For the first experiment, the reactor was bare (unshielded), whereas in the second and third experiments, it was shielded by lead and polyethylene, respectively. The polyethylene shield of the third experiment had a cadmium liner on its internal and external surfaces, which vertically was located near the fuel region of SILENE. During each experiment, several neutron activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed around the reactor. Nearly half of the foils and TLDs had additional high-density magnetite concrete, high-density barite concrete, standard concrete, and/or BoroBond shields. CEA Saclay provided all the concrete, and the US Y-12 National Security Complex provided the BoroBond. Measurement data from the experiments were published at the 2011 International Conference on Nuclear Criticality (ICNC 2011) and the 2013 Nuclear Criticality Safety Division (NCSD 2013) topical meeting. Preliminary computational results for the first experiment were presented in the ICNC 2011 paper, which showed poor agreement between the computational results and the measured values of the foils shielded by concrete. Recently the hydrogen content, boron content, and density of these concrete shields were further investigated within the constraints of the previously available data. New computational results for the first experiment are now available

  12. HYGIENIC STANDARDS FOR CS-137 AND SR-90 IN THE FOODSTUFFS: EXPERIENCE OF BELARUS AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Kenigsberg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of analysis for development and implementation of the national permissible levels for Cs-137 and Sr-90 contamination of the foodstuff and water. These permissible levels were introduced in Belarus after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP as a protective measure to limit the doses of internal exposure. The article also contains comparison between numerical values of permissible levels introduced in Belarus, Ukraine and Russian as well as between the potential doses of internal exposure which could be formed while consuming the contaminated foodstuff with the levels of contamination equal to the permissible levels. The possibilities for harmonization of the permissible levels in three countries are discussed. The expediency of establishing quotes for doses of internal and external exposure is considered.

  13. Dosimetry: an ARDENT topic

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    The first annual ARDENT workshop took place in Vienna from 20 to 23 November. The workshop gathered together the Early-Stage Researchers (ESR) and their supervisors, plus other people involved from all the participating institutions.   “The meeting, which was organised with the local support of the Austrian Institute of Technology, was a nice opportunity for the ESRs to get together, meet each other, and present their research plans and some preliminary results of their work,” says Marco Silari, a member of CERN Radiation Protection Group and the scientist in charge of the programme. Two full days were devoted to a training course on radiation dosimetry, delivered by renowned experts. The workshop closed with a half-day visit to the MedAustron facility in Wiener Neustadt. ARDENT (Advanced Radiation Dosimetry European Network Training) is a Marie Curie ITN project funded under EU FP7 with €4 million. The project focuses on radiation dosimetry exploiting se...

  14. Exploratory analysis of Spanish energetic mining accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Freijo, Modesto; Rossell, Josep M

    2012-01-01

    Using data on work accidents and annual mining statistics, the paper studies work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining sector in 1999-2008. The following 3 parameters are considered: age, experience and size of the mine (in number of workers) where the accident took place. The main objective of this paper is to show the relationship between different accident indicators: risk index (as an expression of the incidence), average duration index for the age and size of the mine variables (as a measure of the seriousness of an accident), and the gravity index for the various sizes of mines (which measures the seriousness of an accident, too). The conclusions of this study could be useful to develop suitable prevention policies that would contribute towards a decrease in work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining industry.

  15. Experience on IMRT treatment for prostate cancer. Planning, dosimetry and quality assurance; Experiencia en el tratamiento de IMRT en cancer de prostata. Planificacion, dosimetria y garantia de calidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Barrado, A.; Garcia Vicente, F.; Fernandez Bedoya, V.; Zapatero Laborda, A.; Fernandez, I.; Bermudez Luna, R.; Perez Gonzalez, L.; Torres Escobar, J. J.

    2011-07-01

    In this study a revision concerning the treatment of prostate cancer with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is performed. Planning and verification of treatments involving dose calculations and image positioning are considered. A set of 110 patients is analysed concerning dosimetry and 92 considering image verification. Dose calculation is verified both experimentally and by means of a monitor unit (MU) calculation system. Positioning control of the prostate is achieved using intraprostatic fiducial markers and digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) as well as a home-made software. All patients studied were consistent with the specifications of the treatment protocol regarding dose prescription in planning target volume (PTV), organ at risk (OAR) dose limitations, dosimetric quality assurance and positioning control. The procedure includes a learning curve considering every aspect of the treatment. The MU calculation system itself has been proved as an effective and functional tool for treatment verification. (Author) 12 refs.

  16. Application of biological dosimetry in accidental radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosal, M.; Batora, I.; Kolesar, D.; Stojkovic, J. (Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta); Gaal, P.; Sklovsky, A. (Krajska Hygienicka Stanica, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)); Cizova, O. (Sexuologicka Ambulancia KUNZ, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia))

    1982-03-01

    The case is described of accidental irradiation of a male person with /sup 137/Cs of an activity of 24.71 GBq. The first estimate induced a reasonable suspicion that the absorbed dose could be very high and life-threatening. On the other hand the clinical picture, usual laboratory examinations, findings in the fluorescent blood count, the analysis of chromosomal count of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, the spermiogram, and the negative post-irradiation porphyrinuria suggested that the absorbed dose could be much lower than the original estimate. The results of dosimetry obtained after the reconstruction of the accident by measuring on a phantom revealed that the actual dose was very close to that presumed from the results of biological dosimetry during the first days of examination of the patient.

  17. Alternative statistical methods for cytogenetic radiation biological dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Fornalski, Krzysztof Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents alternative statistical methods for biological dosimetry, such as the Bayesian and Monte Carlo method. The classical Gaussian and robust Bayesian fit algorithms for the linear, linear-quadratic as well as saturated and critical calibration curves are described. The Bayesian model selection algorithm for those curves is also presented. In addition, five methods of dose estimation for a mixed neutron and gamma irradiation field were described: two classical methods, two Bayesian methods and one Monte Carlo method. Bayesian methods were also enhanced and generalized for situations with many types of mixed radiation. All algorithms were presented in easy-to-use form, which can be applied to any computational programming language. The presented algorithm is universal, although it was originally dedicated to cytogenetic biological dosimetry of victims of a nuclear reactor accident.

  18. Self-reported accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2016-01-01

    The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....

  19. Radioembolization dosimetry : the road ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Maarten L J; Elschot, Mattijs; Sze, Daniel Y; Kao, Yung H; Nijsen, JFW; Iagaru, Andre H; de Jong, Hugo W A M; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Lam, Marnix G E H

    2015-01-01

    Methods for calculating the activity to be administered during yttrium-90 radioembolization (RE) are largely based on empirical toxicity and efficacy analyses, rather than dosimetry. At the same time, it is recognized that treatment planning based on proper dosimetry is of vital importance for the o

  20. The Chernobyl accident: EPR dosimetry on dental enamel of children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gualtieri, G. E-mail: gianni@fismedw2.univaq.it; Colacicchi, S.; Sgattoni, R.; Giannoni, M

    2001-07-01

    The radiation dose on tooth enamel of children living close to Chernobyl has been evaluated by EPR. The sample preparation was reduced to a minimum of mechanical steps to remove a piece of enamel. A standard X-ray tube at low energy was used for additive irradiation. The filtration effect of facial soft tissue was taken into account. The radiation dose for a group of teeth slightly exceeds the annual dose, whereas for another group the dose very much exceeds the annual dose. Since the higher dose is found in teeth whose enamel have much lower EPR sensitivity to the radiation, it can be suggested that for these teeth the native signal could alter the evaluation of the smaller radiation signal.

  1. The Chernobyl accident: EPR dosimetry on dental enamel of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, G; Colacicchi, S; Sgattoni, R; Giannoni, M

    2001-07-01

    The radiation dose on tooth enamel of children living close to Chernobyl has been evaluated by EPR. The sample preparation was reduced to a minimum of mechanical steps to remove a piece of enamel. A standard X-ray tube at low energy was used for additive irradiation. The filtration effect of facial soft tissue was taken into account. The radiation dose for a group of teeth slightly exceeds the annual dose, whereas for another group the dose very much exceeds the annual dose. Since the higher dose is found in teeth whose enamel have much lower EPR sensitivity to the radiation, it can be suggested that for these teeth the native signal could alter the evaluation of the smaller radiation signal.

  2. Relocation of Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Dosimetry Service is moving from Building 24 to Building 55 and will therefore be closed on Friday, March 30. From Monday, April 2 onwards you will find us in building 55/1-001. Please note that during that day we might still have some problems with the internet connections and cannot fully guarantee normal service procedures. The service's opening hours and telephone number will not change as a result of the move 8.30 - 12.00, afternoons closed Tel. 72155

  3. Lessons learned from post-accident management at Chernobyl: the P.a.r.e.x. project; Retour d'experience sur la gestion post-accidentelle de Tchernobyl: le projet Parex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heriard Dubreuil, G. [Mutadis Consultants, 75 - Paris (France); Lochard, J.; Bataille, C. [CEPN, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Ollagnon, H. [AgroParisTech, 75 - Paris (France); Baude, St. [Mutadis, 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-07-15

    Return of experience on Chernobyl post-accident management: the PAREX study Belarus is the country the most affected by the Chernobyl fallouts and is among the most significant experiences in the nuclear post-accident field. Despite specificities inherent to the political and social situation in Belarus, the experience of post-accidental management in this country holds a wealth of lessons in the perspective of preparation to a post-accidental situation in the French and European context. Through the PAREX project (2005-2006), the French Nuclear Safety Authority analysed the return of experience of Chernobyl post-accident management from 1986 to 2005 in order to draw its lessons in the perspective of a preparation policy. The study was led by a group of experts and involved the participation of a pluralistic group of about thirty participants (public authorities, local governments, NGOs, experts, operators). PAREX highlighted the complexity of a situation of long-lasting radioactive contamination (diversity of stakeholders and of dimensions at stake: health, environment, economy, society...). Beyond traditional public crisis management tools and frameworks, post-accident strategies also involves in the longer term a territorial and social response, which relies on local capacities of initiative. Preparation to such process requires experimenting new modes of operation that allow a diversity of local actors to take part to the response to a situation of contamination and to the surveillance system, with the support of public authorities. The conclusions of PAREX include a set of recommendations in this perspective. (authors)

  4. In vivo dosimetry in external beam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijnheer, Ben [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam 1066 CX (Netherlands); Beddar, Sam [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Izewska, Joanna [Division of Human Health, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna 1400 (Austria); Reft, Chester [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    In vivo dosimetry (IVD) is in use in external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to detect major errors, to assess clinically relevant differences between planned and delivered dose, to record dose received by individual patients, and to fulfill legal requirements. After discussing briefly the main characteristics of the most commonly applied IVD systems, the clinical experience of IVD during EBRT will be summarized. Advancement of the traditional aspects of in vivo dosimetry as well as the development of currently available and newly emerging noninterventional technologies are required for large-scale implementation of IVD in EBRT. These new technologies include the development of electronic portal imaging devices for 2D and 3D patient dosimetry during advanced treatment techniques, such as IMRT and VMAT, and the use of IVD in proton and ion radiotherapy by measuring the decay of radiation-induced radionuclides. In the final analysis, we will show in this Vision 20/20 paper that in addition to regulatory compliance and reimbursement issues, the rationale for in vivo measurements is to provide an accurate and independent verification of the overall treatment procedure. It will enable the identification of potential errors in dose calculation, data transfer, dose delivery, patient setup, and changes in patient anatomy. It is the authors' opinion that all treatments with curative intent should be verified through in vivo dose measurements in combination with pretreatment checks.

  5. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please note the following opening hours of the Service: From 31st July onwards: Every morning from 8:30 to 12:00 The Service is closed in the afternoons. We should like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCTs) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel 72155 Bldg. 24 E 011 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  6. Paragliding accidents in remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, G; Schippinger, G; Pretscher, R

    1997-08-01

    Paragliding is an increasingly popular hobby, as people try to find new and more adventurous activities. However, there is an increased and inherent danger with this sport. For this reason, as well as the inexperience of many operators, injuries occur frequently. This retrospective study centers on the helicopter rescue of 70 individuals in paragliding accidents. All histories were examined, and 43 patients answered a questionnaire. Nineteen (42%) pilots were injured when taking off, 20 (44%) during the flight, and six (13%) when landing. Routine and experience did not affect the prevalence of accident. Analysis of the causes of accident revealed pilot errors in all but three cases. In 34 rescue operations a landing of the helicopter near the site of the accident was possible. Half of the patients had to be rescued by a cable winch or a long rope fixed to the helicopter. Seven (10%) of the pilots suffered multiple trauma, 38 (54%) had injuries of the lower extremities, and 32 (84%) of them sustained fractures. Injuries to the spine were diagnosed in 34 cases with a fracture rate of 85%. One patient had an incomplete paraplegia. Injuries to the head occurred in 17 patients. No paraglider pilot died. The average hospitalization was 22 days, and average time of working inability was 14 weeks. Fourteen (34%) patients suffered from a permanent damage to their nerves or joints. Forty-three percent of the paragliders continued their sport despite the accident; two of them had another accident. An improved training program is necessary to lower the incidence of paragliding accidents. Optimal equipment to reduce injuries in case of accidents is mandatory. The helicopter emergency physician must perform a careful examination, provide stabilization of airways and circulation, give analgesics, splint fractured extremities, and transport the victim on a vacuum mattress to the appropriate hospital.

  7. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  8. Radioembolization Dosimetry: The Road Ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smits, Maarten L. J., E-mail: m.l.j.smits-3@umcutrecht.nl; Elschot, Mattijs [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands); Sze, Daniel Y. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Kao, Yung H. [Austin Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Australia); Nijsen, Johannes F. W. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands); Iagaru, Andre H. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (United States); Jong, Hugo W. A. M. de; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den; Lam, Marnix G. E. H. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands)

    2015-04-15

    Methods for calculating the activity to be administered during yttrium-90 radioembolization (RE) are largely based on empirical toxicity and efficacy analyses, rather than dosimetry. At the same time, it is recognized that treatment planning based on proper dosimetry is of vital importance for the optimization of the results of RE. The heterogeneous and often clustered intrahepatic biodistribution of millions of point-source radioactive particles poses a challenge for dosimetry. Several studies found a relationship between absorbed doses and treatment outcome, with regard to both toxicity and efficacy. This should ultimately lead to improved patient selection and individualized treatment planning. New calculation methods and imaging techniques and a new generation of microspheres for image-guided RE will all contribute to these improvements. The aim of this review is to give insight into the latest and most important developments in RE dosimetry and to suggest future directions on patient selection, individualized treatment planning, and study designs.

  9. Radioembolization dosimetry: the road ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Maarten L J; Elschot, Mattijs; Sze, Daniel Y; Kao, Yung H; Nijsen, Johannes F W; Iagaru, Andre H; de Jong, Hugo W A M; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Lam, Marnix G E H

    2015-04-01

    Methods for calculating the activity to be administered during yttrium-90 radioembolization (RE) are largely based on empirical toxicity and efficacy analyses, rather than dosimetry. At the same time, it is recognized that treatment planning based on proper dosimetry is of vital importance for the optimization of the results of RE. The heterogeneous and often clustered intrahepatic biodistribution of millions of point-source radioactive particles poses a challenge for dosimetry. Several studies found a relationship between absorbed doses and treatment outcome, with regard to both toxicity and efficacy. This should ultimately lead to improved patient selection and individualized treatment planning. New calculation methods and imaging techniques and a new generation of microspheres for image-guided RE will all contribute to these improvements. The aim of this review is to give insight into the latest and most important developments in RE dosimetry and to suggest future directions on patient selection, individualized treatment planning, and study designs.

  10. Hanford internal dosimetry program manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.; Bihl, D.E.; Aldridge, T.L.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry program. Program Services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessments of internal exposure and dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating internal radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. 13 refs., 16 figs., 42 tabs.

  11. Dosimetry of iodoantipyrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, R Y; Ekeh, S; Basmadjian, G

    1989-01-01

    Dosimetry of iodoantipyrine labeled with radioactive iodine was determined by measuring the biodistribution of 131I-iodoantipyrine in 41 female rabbits. Following administration of the radiopharmaceutical, subjects were killed at 0.5, 6, 12, 17, 24, 36, and 48 h. Organs and samples of tissues and body fluids were assayed. Results were corrected for physical decay. Exponential functions were employed to describe the time-concentration curves; representative value would be the biological half life of 9.96 +/- 0.55 h for blood. Cumulated activity estimates for 123I, 125I and 131I were then computed. Extrapolation to absorbed dose in humans followed the formulation of the Medical International Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine. The whole body absorbed doses are 7 mu Gray, 5 mu Gray and 29 mu Gray per MBq of 123I, 125I, and 131I administered respectively.

  12. Medical dosimetry in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turák, O.; Osvay, M.; Ballay, L.

    2012-09-01

    Radiation exposure of medical staff during cardiological and radiological procedures was investigated. The exposure of medical staff is directly connected to patient exposure. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of doses on uncovered part of body of medical staff using LiF thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters in seven locations. Individual Kodak film dosimeters (as authorized dosimetry system) were used for the assessment of medical staff's effective dose. Results achieved on dose distribution measurements confirm that wearing only one film badge under the lead apron does not provide enough information on the personal dose. The value of estimated annual doses on eye lens and extremities (fingers) were in good correlation with international publications.

  13. Strahlungsmessung und Dosimetrie

    CERN Document Server

    Krieger, Hanno

    2013-01-01

    „Strahlungsquellen und Dosimetrie“ ist Teil einer Lehrbuchreihe zur Strahlungsphysik und zum Strahlenschutz. Der erste Teil befasst sich mit den physikalischen Grundlagen der Strahlungsdetektoren und der Strahlungsmessung. Im zweiten Teil werden die Konzepte und Verfahren der klinischen Dosimetrie dargestellt. Der dritte Abschnitt erläutert ausführlich die Dosisverteilungen der klinisch angewendeten Strahlungsarten. Im vierten Teil werden weitere Messaufgaben der Strahlungsphysik einschließlich der Messsysteme für die Bildgebung mit Röntgenstrahlung dargestellt. Neben den grundlegenden Ausführungen enthält dieser Band im laufenden Text zahlreiche Tabellen und Grafiken zur technischen und medizinischen Radiologie, die bei der praktischen Arbeit sehr hilfreich sein können und 199 Übungsaufgaben mit Lösungen zur Vertiefung der Inhalte. Für die zweite Auflage wurden die Darstellungen der Elektronen- und der Protonendosimetrie sowie der bildgebenden Verfahren mit Computertomografen deutlich erweit...

  14. Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Adrie J. J.

    2011-05-01

    The basic concepts of radiation dosimetry are reviewed on basis of ICRU reports and text books. The radiation field is described with, among others, the particle fluence. Cross sections for indirectly ionizing radiation are defined and indicated is how they are related to the mass energy transfer and mass energy absorption coefficients. Definitions of total and restricted mass stopping powers of directly ionizing radiation are given. The dosimetric quantities, kerma, absorbed dose and exposure together with the relations between them are discussed in depth. Finally it is indicated how the absorbed dose can be measured with a calorimeter by measuring the temperature increase and with an ionisation chamber measuring the charge produced by the ionizing radiation and making use of the Bragg-Gray relation.

  15. Dosimetry considerations in phototherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Profio, A.E.; Doiron, D.R.

    Dosimetry in phototherapy involves a determination of the energy absorbed per unit mass of tissue, corrected for the quantum yield in a photochemical reaction. The dose rate in photochemotherapy of cancer with hematoporphyrin derivative and visible light is related to the extinction coefficient, quantum yield for singlet oxygen production, concentration of sensitizer and energy flux density at depth. Data or methods of determining these quantities are presented. Calculations have been performed for the energy flux density at depth, as a function of the total attenuation coefficient and ratio of scattering coefficient to total attenuation coefficient, for isotropic scattering in slab geometry. For small absorption, these depth dose curves exhibit a maximum within the tissue followed by an exponential decrease.

  16. Dosimetry considerations in phototherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Profio, A.E.; Doiron, D.R.

    1981-03-01

    Dosimetry in phototherapy involves a determination of the energy absorbed per unit mass of tissue, corrected for the quantum yield in a photochemical reaction. The dose rate in photochemotherapy of cancer with hematoporphyrin derivative and visible light is related to the extinction coefficient, quantum yield for singlet oxygen production, concentration of sensitizer and energy flux density at depth. Data or methods of determining these quantities are presented. Calculations have been performed for the energy flux density at depth, as a function of the total attenuation coefficient and ratio of scattering coefficient to total attenuation coefficient, for isotropic scattering in slab geometry. For small absorption, these depth dose curves exhibit a maximum within the tissue followed by an exponential decrease.

  17. Thermoluminescence characteristics of Israeli household salts for retrospective dosimetry in radiological events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druzhyna, S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University, 84105 Beer Sheva (Israel); Datz, H. [Radiation Safety Division, Soreq Nuclear Research Center, 81800 Yavne (Israel); Horowitz, Y.S. [Physics Department, Ben Gurion University, 84105 Beer Sheva (Israel); Oster, L., E-mail: leonido@sce.ac.il [Physics Unit, Sami Shamoon College of Engineering, 84100 Beer Sheva (Israel); Orion, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University, 84105 Beer Sheva (Israel)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Examination the potential use of Israeli household salt as a retrospective dosimeter. • Detailed investigation of the basic dosimetric characteristics of the salts. • It is shown that computerized glow curve analysis for accurate background subtraction and dose measurement is required. - Abstract: Following a nuclear accident or terror attack involving the dispersal of radioactive substances, radiation dose assessment to first responders and the members of the public is essential. The need for a retrospective assessment of the radiation dose to those possibly affected is, therefore, obligatory. The present study examines the potential use of Israeli household salt as a retrospective dosimeter (RD). The experiments were carried out on Israeli salt samples (NaCl) following a Nielsen market track survey based on scanning data representing the barcoded market, including organized and independent retail chains and a sample of private minimarkets and supermarkets. The technique used was thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry. Salt samples were exposed to levels of dose from 0.5 mGy to 300 Gy at the Israeli Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of the Soreq Nuclear Research Center using a calibrated {sup 137}Cs source. Our emphasis has been on a detailed investigation of the basic dosimetric characteristics of the salts including: (i) glow curve analysis (ii) individual glow peak dose response (iii) reproducibility (iv) estimation of minimal measurable dose (v) effect of nitrogen readout, (vi) influence of humidity during pre-irradiation storage and (vii) light induced fading. The results are sufficiently favorable to lead to the conclusion that the Israeli household salts can serve as a pragmatic potential candidate for RD under certain restricted conditions. Occasional pre-calibration of the major salt brands in a dedicated laboratory may be essential depending on the required accuracy in the estimation of dose and consequent clinical evaluation.

  18. Relationship between student selection criteria and learner success for medical dosimetry students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jamie; Tucker, Debra; Raynes, Edilberto; Aitken, Florence; Allen, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Medical dosimetry education occupies a specialized branch of allied health higher education. Noted international shortages of health care workers, reduced university funding, limitations on faculty staffing, trends in learner attrition, and increased enrollment of nontraditional students force medical dosimetry educational leadership to reevaluate current admission practices. Program officials wish to select medical dosimetry students with the best chances of successful graduation. The purpose of the quantitative ex post facto correlation study was to investigate the relationship between applicant characteristics (cumulative undergraduate grade point average (GPA), science grade point average (SGPA), prior experience as a radiation therapist, and previous academic degrees) and the successful completion of a medical dosimetry program, as measured by graduation. A key finding from the quantitative study was the statistically significant positive correlation between a student׳s previous degree and his or her successful graduation from the medical dosimetry program. Future research investigations could include a larger research sample, representative of more medical dosimetry student populations, and additional studies concerning the relationship of previous work as a radiation therapist and the effect on success as a medical dosimetry student. Based on the quantitative correlation analysis, medical dosimetry leadership on admissions committees could revise student selection rubrics to place less emphasis on an applicant׳s undergraduate cumulative GPA and increase the weight assigned to previous degrees.

  19. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-01-01

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  20. Applied physics of external radiation exposure dosimetry and radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Antoni, Rodolphe

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the interaction of living matter with photons, neutrons, charged particles, electrons and ions. The authors are specialists in the field of radiation protection. The book synthesizes many years of experiments with external radiation exposure in the fields of dosimetry and radiation shielding in medical, industrial and research fields. It presents the basic physical concepts including dosimetry and offers a number of tools to be used by students, engineers and technicians to assess the radiological risk and the means to avoid them by calculating the appropriate shields. The theory of radiation interaction in matter is presented together with empirical formulas and abacus. Numerous numerical applications are treated to illustrate the different topics. The state of the art in radiation protection and dosimetry is presented in detail, especially in the field of simulation codes for external exposure to radiation, medical projects and advanced research. Moreover, important data spread in differ...

  1. Graphite mixed magnesium borate TL dosemeters for beta ray dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokic, M; Christensen, Poul

    1984-01-01

    Sintered MgB4O7:Dy dosemeters with graphite contents from 1 to 10% were investigated for application for personnel dosimetry. Data are given on dose response, dose threshold, reproducibility, beta energy response and fading. Furthermore, results from practical field experiments are presented...

  2. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders in Reactions to Car Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasahow, Robert J.

    This paper explains the most frequent psychological symptom that a car accident victim experiences and describes the nature of an anxiety and avoidant reaction to being in a car following an accident. The description of these responses is based on clinical and in-vivo observations from the treatment of more than 450 cases. Accident victim…

  3. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, B.; Groenberg, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs.

  4. Radioactive materials transport accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSweeney, T.I.; Maheras, S.J.; Ross, S.B. [Battelle Memorial Inst. (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Over the last 25 years, one of the major issues raised regarding radioactive material transportation has been the risk of severe accidents. While numerous studies have shown that traffic fatalities dominate the risk, modeling the risk of severe accidents has remained one of the most difficult analysis problems. This paper will show how models that were developed for nuclear spent fuel transport accident analysis can be adopted to obtain estimates of release fractions for other types of radioactive material such as vitrified highlevel radioactive waste. The paper will also show how some experimental results from fire experiments involving low level waste packaging can be used in modeling transport accident analysis with this waste form. The results of the analysis enable an analyst to clearly show the differences in the release fractions as a function of accident severity. The paper will also show that by placing the data in a database such as ACCESS trademark, it is possible to obtain risk measures for transporting the waste forms along proposed routes from the generator site to potential final disposal sites.

  5. Upgrading the dosimetry at Ontario Hydro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirning, C.R. [Ontario Hydro, Whitby, ON (Canada). Health Physics Dept.

    1996-12-01

    Ontario Hydro has embarked upon a major programme to replace and upgrade its external dosimetry systems. In two year`s time, the utility expects to have two state-of-the-art dosimetry systems in place: a new TLD dosimetry of legal record that was designed nearly 30 years ago; and an electronic dosimetry system which could eventually replace the TLD as the primary system. (Author).

  6. Characterising an aluminium oxide dosimetry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conheady, Clement F; Gagliardi, Frank M; Ackerly, Trevor

    2015-09-01

    In vivo dosimetry is recommended as a defence-in-depth strategy in radiotherapy treatments and is currently employed by clinics around the world. The characteristics of a new optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry system were investigated for the purpose of replacing an aging thermoluminescence dosimetry system for in vivo dosimetry. The stability of the system was not sufficient to satisfy commissioning requirements and therefore it has not been released into clinical service at this time.

  7. Dose assessment in the criticality accident at Tokai-mura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Akira, E-mail: endo.akira3@jaea.go.j [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    The present paper reviews a dose assessment carried out after the criticality accident that occurred on September 30, 1999 at JCO in Tokai-mura, Japan. In the accident, almost all doses were caused by external exposure to neutrons and {gamma}-rays emitted upon the fission of uranium. By a joint effort of Japanese experts in radiation dosimetry, a dose assessment was performed for neighboring residents, JCO employees including 3 workers who were at the accident spot, and emergency response personnel. The dose assessment was carried out using records of dosimeters, radiation monitoring data in and around the site, analysis of biological specimens, and computer simulation techniques. It was concluded from the results of the dose assessment that deterministic effects are not expected, except for the 3 heavily exposed workers, and that the probability of stochastic effects is very small and will be undetectable.

  8. Fundamentals of materials, techniques and instrumentation for OSL and FNTD dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akselrod, M. S.

    2013-02-01

    The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique has already become a successful commercial tool in personal radiation dosimetry, medical dosimetry, diagnostic imaging, geological and archeological dating. This review briefly describes the history and fundamental principles of OSL materials, methods and instrumentation. The advantages of OSL technology and instrumentation in comparison with thermoluminescent technique are analyzed. Progress in material and detector engineering has allowed new and promising developments regarding OSL applications in the medical field. Special attention is dedicated to Al2O3:C as a material of choice for many dosimetric applications including fiberoptic OSL/RL sensors with diameters as small as 300 μm. A new RL/OSL fiberoptic system has a high potential for in vivo and in vitro dosimetry in both radiation therapy and diagnostic mammography. Different aspects of instrumentation, data processing algorithms, post-irradiation and real-time measurements are described. The next technological breakthrough was done with Fluorescent Nuclear Track detectors (FNTD) that has some important advantages in measuring fast neutron and high energy heavy charge particles that became the latest tool in radiation therapy. New Mg-doped aluminum oxide crystals and novel type of imaging instrumentation for FNTD technology were engineered and successfully demonstrated for occupational and accident dosimetry, for medical dosimetry and radiobiological research.

  9. Dosimetry of iodoantipyrine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, R.Y.L.; Ekeh, S. (Oklahoma Univ., Oklahoma City, OK (USA). Dept. of Radiological Sciences; Veterans Administration Medical Center, Oklahoma City, OK (USA)); Basmadjian, G. (Oklahoma Univ., Oklahoma City, OK (USA). Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences)

    1989-12-01

    Dosimetry of iodoantipyrine labeled with radioactive iodine was determined by measuring the biodistribution of {sup 131}I-iodoantipyrine in 41 female rabbits. Following administration of the radiopharmaceutical, subjects were killed at 0.5, 6, 12, 17, 24, 36, and 48 h. Organs and samples of tissues and body fluids were assayed. Results were corrected for physical decay. Exponential functions were employed to describe the time-concentration curves; representative value would be the biological half life of 9.96+-0.55 h for blood. Cumulated activity estimates for {sup 123}I, {sup 125}I and {sup 131}I were then computed. Extrapolation to absorbed dose in humans followed the formulation of the Medical International Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine. The whole body absorbed doses are 0.7 {mu}Gray, 0.5 {mu}Gray and 2.9 {mu}Gray per MBq of {sup 123}I, {sup 123}I, and {sup 131}I administered respectively. (orig.).

  10. Proton minibeam radiation therapy: Experimental dosimetry evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peucelle, C.; Martínez-Rovira, I.; Prezado, Y., E-mail: prezado@imnc.in2p3.fr [IMNC-UMR 8165, CNRS, Paris 7 and Paris 11 Universities, 15 rue Georges Clemenceau, Orsay Cedex 91406 (France); Nauraye, C.; Patriarca, A.; Hierso, E.; Fournier-Bidoz, N. [Institut Curie - Centre de Protonthérapie d’Orsay, Campus Universitaire, Bât. 101, Orsay 91898 (France)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Proton minibeam radiation therapy (pMBRT) is a new radiotherapy (RT) approach that allies the inherent physical advantages of protons with the normal tissue preservation observed when irradiated with submillimetric spatially fractionated beams. This dosimetry work aims at demonstrating the feasibility of the technical implementation of pMBRT. This has been performed at the Institut Curie - Proton Therapy Center in Orsay. Methods: Proton minibeams (400 and 700 μm-width) were generated by means of a brass multislit collimator. Center-to-center distances between consecutive beams of 3200 and 3500 μm, respectively, were employed. The (passive scattered) beam energy was 100 MeV corresponding to a range of 7.7 cm water equivalent. Absolute dosimetry was performed with a thimble ionization chamber (IBA CC13) in a water tank. Relative dosimetry was carried out irradiating radiochromic films interspersed in a IBA RW3 slab phantom. Depth dose curves and lateral profiles at different depths were evaluated. Peak-to-valley dose ratios (PVDR), beam widths, and output factors were also assessed as a function of depth. Results: A pattern of peaks and valleys was maintained in the transverse direction with PVDR values decreasing as a function of depth until 6.7 cm. From that depth, the transverse dose profiles became homogeneous due to multiple Coulomb scattering. Peak-to-valley dose ratio values extended from 8.2 ± 0.5 at the phantom surface to 1.08 ± 0.06 at the Bragg peak. This was the first time that dosimetry in such small proton field sizes was performed. Despite the challenge, a complete set of dosimetric data needed to guide the first biological experiments was achieved. Conclusions: pMBRT is a novel strategy in order to reduce the side effects of RT. This works provides the experimental proof of concept of this new RT method: clinical proton beams might allow depositing a (high) uniform dose in a brain tumor located in the center of the brain (7.5 cm depth

  11. Calibration facility for environment dosimetry instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bercea, Sorin; Celarel, Aurelia; Cenusa, Constantin [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, 30 Reactorului St, Magurele, Jud Ilfov, P.O.B. MG-6, RO-077125 (Romania)

    2013-12-16

    In the last ten years, the nuclear activities, as well as the major nuclear events (see Fukushima accident) had an increasing impact on the environment, merely by contamination with radioactive materials. The most conferment way to quickly identify the presence of some radioactive elements in the environment, is to measure the dose-equivalent rate H. In this situation, information concerning the values of H due only to the natural radiation background must exist. Usually, the values of H due to the natural radiation background, are very low (∼10{sup −9} - 10{sup −8} Sv/h). A correct measurement of H in this range involve a performing calibration of the measuring instruments in the measuring range corresponding to the natural radiation background lead to important problems due to the presence of the natural background itself the best way to overlap this difficulty is to set up the calibration stand in an area with very low natural radiation background. In Romania, we identified an area with such special conditions at 200 m dept, in a salt mine. This paper deals with the necessary requirements for such a calibration facility, as well as with the calibration stand itself. The paper includes also, a description of the calibration stand (and images) as well as the radiological and metrological parameters. This calibration facilities for environment dosimetry is one of the few laboratories in this field in Europe.

  12. Reactor dosimetry and RPV life management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belousov, S.; Ilieva, K.; Mitev, M. [Inst. for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tsarigradsko 72, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-07-01

    Reactor dosimetry (RD) is a tool that provides data for neutron fluence accumulated over the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) during the reactor operation. This information, however, is not sufficient for RPV lifetime assessment. The life management of RPV is a multidisciplinary task. To assess whether the RPV steel properties at the current stage (for actual accumulated neutron fluence) of reactor operation are still 'safe enough,' the dependence of material properties on the fluence must be known; this is a task for material science (MS). Moreover, the mechanical loading over the RPV during normal operation and accidence have to be known, as well, for evaluation, if the RPV material integrity in this loading condition and existing cracks is provided. The crack loading path in terms of stress intensity factor is carried out by structural analyses (SA). Pressure and temperature distribution over RPV used in these analyses are obtained from a thermal hydraulic (TH) calculation. The conjunction of RD and other disciplines in RPV integrity assessment is analyzed in accordance with the FFP (fitness for purpose) approach. It could help to improve the efficiency in multi-disciplinary tasks solutions. (authors)

  13. Calibration facility for environment dosimetry instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercea, Sorin; Celarel, Aurelia; Cenusa, Constantin

    2013-12-01

    In the last ten years, the nuclear activities, as well as the major nuclear events (see Fukushima accident) had an increasing impact on the environment, merely by contamination with radioactive materials. The most conferment way to quickly identify the presence of some radioactive elements in the environment, is to measure the dose-equivalent rate H. In this situation, information concerning the values of H due only to the natural radiation background must exist. Usually, the values of H due to the natural radiation background, are very low (˜10-9 - 10-8 Sv/h). A correct measurement of H in this range involve a performing calibration of the measuring instruments in the measuring range corresponding to the natural radiation background lead to important problems due to the presence of the natural background itself the best way to overlap this difficulty is to set up the calibration stand in an area with very low natural radiation background. In Romania, we identified an area with such special conditions at 200 m dept, in a salt mine. This paper deals with the necessary requirements for such a calibration facility, as well as with the calibration stand itself. The paper includes also, a description of the calibration stand (and images) as well as the radiological and metrological parameters. This calibration facilities for environment dosimetry is one of the few laboratories in this field in Europe.

  14. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please note the following opening hours of the Service: In June: Every morning from 8:30 to 12:00 In July: Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays from 8:30 to 11:30 Closed all day on Tuesdays and Thursdays From 31st July onwards: Every morning from 8:30 to 12:00 The Service is closed in the afternoons. We should like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCTs) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel 72155 Bldg. 24 E 011 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  15. For information: Individual dosimetry service

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The service has noticed that there are dosimeter holders who have changed their activities and thus have no longer need of dosimeter as a permanent basis in their work (persons who go rarely to the controlled areas). The reduction of persons in the regular distribution list of dosimeters will lighten the work of the service (distribution, evaluation and consolidation of doses) as well as the work of the distributors, needless to say the economical input this would have for CERN. For the persons who only need a dosimeter temporarily we would like to remind that there is a quick and simple procedure to have one immediately from the Individual Dosimetry Service. Please contact the service (dosimetry.service@cern.ch) if you do not need a dosimeter regularly. Thank you for your cooperation. http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  16. Experience in training of health personnel for response to radiological and nuclear accidents; Experiencia na capacitacao de profissionais de saude para a resposta a acidentes radiologicos e nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurmo, Alexandre M., E-mail: ammaurmo@gmail.com [Fundacao Eletronuclear de Assistencia Medica (CMRI/CTNV/FEAM), Praia Brava, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Medicina das Radiacoes Ionizantes. Centro de Treinamento Prof. Nelson Valverde; Leite, Teresa C.S.B., E-mail: feam@feam-etn.org.br [Fundacao Eletronuclear de Assistencia Medica (CIRA/FEAM), Praia Brava, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Informacoes em Radioepidemiologia

    2013-07-01

    Eletronuclear Healthcare Foundation is the Institution responsible for the actions of health response involving ionizing radiation in the area of Nuclear Power Plant Almirante Alvaro Alberto in Angra dos Reis. Because of their specific assignments and references for being in training health manpower in the field of ionizing radiation developed a range of Training Courses for Professionals Area Health to prepare them for Response to Radiological and Nuclear Accidents. Modules are proposed specifically for the professional response of the Technical Level and Higher Level, the level Pre-hospital and hospital. These modules are further divided into specific levels or modules, Basic or Introductory, Intermediate and Advanced. Are applied pretests and post tests to monitor the content of fixing, maintaining a historical series of reviews. Your content is theoretical and practical applications developed in 30 to 48 hours, with simulations (drills) and distribution of educational materials. We already have more than 80 applications training, focusing on internal staff and external to the institution, developing interesting partner with the Armed Forces and Civil Defense. It still maintained a link on the institution seeking access and download over 400 titles on the subject and exchange of information and experiences. For improving the teaching material, the authors launched in 2011 the first manual in Portuguese on the subject with new revised edition in 2013: 'Manual of Medical Actions In Radiological Emergencies'. The results indicate increased knowledge and appropriateness of the themes and the strategy proposed for this activity, demonstrating yet passed that information can be multiplied and meets the growing demand of the country that has hosted and will host international events relevant at QBNRE risk. (author)

  17. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CERN Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry. The Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 - 12.00, and closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats.

  18. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CERN Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page: http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry. The Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 to 12.00 and is closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats.

  19. Cytogenetic dosimetry intercomparison among four Latin American countries; Intercomparacao em dosimetria citogenetica entre quatro paises latino-americanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, Adriana T.; Costa, Maria Lucia P.; Oliveira, Monica S. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: adriana@ird.gov.br; Nasazzi, Nora; Giorgio, Marina Di; Taja, Maria Rosa [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: nnasazzi@cae.arn.gov.ar; Garcia, Omar F.; Lamadrid, Ana I. [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, La Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: omar@cprh.edu.cu; Lopez, Ines [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCHEN), Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: ilopez@gopher.cchen.cl

    2001-07-01

    Cytogenetic dosimetry is the most powerful biological tool for dose assessment in cases of radiological accidents and suspected overexposures. In Latin America, the use of this technique is concentrated in a few countries. An intercomparison exercise in biological dosimetry was performed. It aimed to check if the laboratories would score similar frequencies of unstable chromosomal aberrations in an irradiated blood sample. The interlaboratory differences in the scored yields of aberrations are within expected limits for this technique. It was observed the presence of a few rogue cells. Those cells show an extreme level of chromosomal damage. The observations thus departed grossly from a Poisson distribution. (author)

  20. Criticality accident in uranium fuel processing plant. Efficacy of insurance and third party inspection system. Capability margins of insurance, in view of bitter experience at JCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, Taiichiro [Songaihokenryoritsusanteikai (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    Among persons relating to safety engineering, most of them point out merit and demerit of safety theory in Japan since a long term before. Under national policy aiming at growth and expansion due to a policy under leading of government after war, running for about 50 years remained some strains containing a number of contradictions and absurdities in various fields. Here was described mainly on how to be done safety accident protection and inspection on a base of happenings incidentally seen at a chance of the criticality accident. Therefore, here were also established some viewpoints such as transferable risk, limit from insurance feature, genealogy of insurance, under-writing, and risk management, to mention effectiveness of the third party inspection with closed relationship with accident insurance. (G.K.)

  1. Application of the micronucleus assay performed by different scorers in case of large-scale radiation accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawojć Kamila

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mass casualty scenarios of radiation exposure require high throughput biological dosimetry techniques for population triage, in order to rapidly identify individuals, who require clinical treatment. Accurate dose estimates can be made by biological dosimetry, to predict the acute radiation syndrome (ARS within days after a radiation accident or a malicious act involving radiation. Timely information on dose is important for the medical management of acutely irradiated persons [1]. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of the micronuclei (MNi scoring procedure in an experimental mode, where 500 binucleated cells were analyzed in different exposure dose ranges. Whole-body exposure was simulated in an in vitro experiment by irradiating whole blood collected from one healthy donor with 60 MeV protons and 250 keV X-rays, in the dose range of 0.3-4.0 Gy. For achieving meaningful results, sample scoring was performed by three independent persons, who followed guidelines described in detail by Fenech et al. [2, 3]. Compared results revealed no significant differences between scorers, which has important meaning in reducing the analysis time. Moreover, presented data based on 500 cells distribution, show that there are significant differences between MNi yields after 1.0 Gy exposure of blood for both protons and X-rays, implicating this experimental mode as appropriate for the distinction between high and low dose-exposed individuals, which allows early classification of exposed victims into clinically relevant subgroups.

  2. Development and implementation of In-vivo dosimetry with OSL in special techniques (IMRT, TBI, TSE); Desarrollo e implementacion de dosimetria In-vivo con OSL en tecnicas especiales (IMRT, TBI, TSE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourel, V., E-mail: vbourel@favaloro.edu.ar [Universidad Favaloro, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Special techniques of radiation treatments generally require a quality control very thorough because in general tend to be high-risk techniques of complications due to imparting high doses in a small volume or involve a very large volume of the patient are the techniques of total body irradiation either photons or electrons. In these techniques a moderate error in the given dose can mean a very significant variation in tumor control probability (Tcp) or the likelihood of complications in normal tissues has happened in known published accidents and can be deduced from the typical sigmoid curve of response vs. dose. The technique In-vivo dosimetry has proved useful a final tool to detect any possible error in the chain of procedures to which is subjected prior to radiation treatment. This chain of procedures includes initial imaging, treatment planning involving the calibration of the equipment s, location and immobilization of the patient. The In-vivo dosimetry involves a measurement of the dose delivered to the patient in the treatment conditions to detect a possible deviation between the prescribed and the delivered dose. The experience so far has been done mainly with semiconductor elements (diodes) or thermoluminescent dosimetry. The advent of the optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLD), particularly in the nano Dots form, is a very appropriate tool for its size, ease of handling, accurate and fast reading. With these dosimeters has been developed and implemented the In-vivo dosimetry in three techniques in which the accuracy of the dose delivered is extremely important. These techniques are the treatment of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) that seeks to impart a very high dose in the tumor tissues protecting organs in risk around the target and the techniques of total body irradiation with photons, whose function is to generate immune suppression in patients before being transplanted, or with electrons for the treatment of

  3. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Mortality and cancer registration experience of the Sellafield workers known to have been involved in the 1957 Windscale accident: 50 year follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGeoghegan, D; Whaley, S; Binks, K; Gillies, M; Thompson, K; McElvenny, D M, E-mail: Steve.Whaley@westlakes.ac.u [Epidemiology Group, Westlakes Research Institute, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3LN (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    This paper studies the mortality and cancer morbidity of the 470 male workers involved in tackling the 1957 Sellafield Windscale fire or its subsequent clean-up. Workers were followed up for 50 years to 2007, extending the follow-up of a previously published cohort study on the Windscale fire by 10 years. The size of the study population is small, but the cohort is of interest because of the involvement of the workers in the accident. Significant excesses of deaths from diseases of the circulatory system (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) = 120, 95% CI = 103-138; 194 deaths) driven by ischaemic heart disease (IHD) (SMR = 133, 95% CI = 112-157, 141 deaths) were found when compared with the population of England and Wales but not when compared with the population of Northwest England (SMR = 105, 95% CI = 90-120 and SMR = 115, 95% CI = 97-136 respectively). When compared with those workers in post at the time of the fire but not directly involved in the fire the mortality rate from IHD among those involved in tackling the fire was raised but not statistically significantly (rate ratio (RR) = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.92-1.33). A RR of 1.11 is consistent with an excess relative risk of 0.65 Sv{sup -1} as reported in an earlier study of non-cancer mortality in the British Nuclear Fuels plc cohort of which these workers are a small but significant part. There was a statistically significant difference in lung cancer mortality (RR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.05-4.52) rates between workers who had received higher recorded external doses during the fire and those who had received lower external doses. Comparison of the mortality rates of workers directly involved in the accident with workers in post, but not so involved, showed no significant differences overall. On the basis of the use of a propensity score the average effect of involvement in the Windscale fire on all causes of death was - 2.13% (se = 3.64%, p = 0.56) though this difference is not statistically significant. The average

  5. Experience in the treatment of IMRT in prostate cancer. Planning, dosimetry and quality control; Experiencia en el tratamiento de IMRT en cancer de prostata. Planificacion, dosimetria y control de calidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Barrado, A.; Garcia Vicente, F.; Fernandez Bedoya, V.; Bermudez Luna, R.; Perez Gonzalez, L.; Torres Escobar, J. J.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study is to review the treatment of prostate cancer at our center. A description of the entire procedure, involving clinical dosimetry, and procedures for verification of treatment, including physical dosimetry and parallel computing system MSure (Standard Imaging, Inc., Middleton) as part of these procedures. This system is based on the model published by trifuente Yang et al. (Yang et al. 2002) for testing treatments regarding the number of monitor unit (MU) given. In addition, this software has a module for the testing of treatments for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), which will be analyzed in this study.

  6. Dosimetry for Electron Beam Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1983-01-01

    This report describes two aspects of electron bean dosimetry, on one hand developaent of thin fil« dosimeters and measurements of their properties, and on the other hand developaent of calorimeters for calibration of routine dosimeters, e.g. thin films. Two types of radiochromic thin film...

  7. In aqua vivo EPID dosimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendling, M.; McDermott, L.N.; Mans, A.; Olaciregui-Ruiz, I.; Pecharroman-Gallego, R.; Sonke, J.J.; Stroom, J.; Herk, M. van; Mijnheer, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: At the Netherlands Cancer Institute--Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital in vivo dosimetry using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) has been implemented for almost all high-energy photon treatments of cancer with curative intent. Lung cancer treatments were initially excluded, because t

  8. In vivo dosimetry in brachytherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Kari; Beddar, Sam; Andersen, Claus Erik;

    2013-01-01

    In vivo dosimetry (IVD) has been used in brachytherapy (BT) for decades with a number of different detectors and measurement technologies. However, IVD in BT has been subject to certain difficulties and complexities, in particular due to challenges of the high-gradient BT dose distribution and th...

  9. Portal dosimetry in wedged beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuw, H.; Rozendaal, R.; Camargo, P.; Mans, A.; Wendling, M.; Olaciregui-Ruiz, I.; Sonke, J.J.; Herk, M. van; Mijnheer, B.

    2015-01-01

    Portal dosimetry using electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) is often applied to verify high-energy photon beam treatments. Due to the change in photon energy spectrum, the resulting dose values are, however, not very accurate in the case of wedged beams if the pixel-to-dose conversion for the s

  10. Plutonium worker dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchall, Alan; Puncher, M; Harrison, J; Riddell, A; Bailey, M R; Khokryakov, V; Romanov, S

    2010-05-01

    Epidemiological studies of the relationship between risk and internal exposure to plutonium are clearly reliant on the dose estimates used. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is currently reviewing the latest scientific information available on biokinetic models and dosimetry, and it is likely that a number of changes to the existing models will be recommended. The effect of certain changes, particularly to the ICRP model of the respiratory tract, has been investigated for inhaled forms of (239)Pu and uncertainties have also been assessed. Notable effects of possible changes to respiratory tract model assumptions are (1) a reduction in the absorbed dose to target cells in the airways, if changes under consideration are made to the slow clearing fraction and (2) a doubling of absorbed dose to the alveolar region for insoluble forms, if evidence of longer retention times is taken into account. An important factor influencing doses for moderately soluble forms of (239)Pu is the extent of binding of dissolved plutonium to lung tissues and assumptions regarding the extent of binding in the airways. Uncertainty analyses have been performed with prior distributions chosen for application in epidemiological studies. The resulting distributions for dose per unit intake were lognormal with geometric standard deviations of 2.3 and 2.6 for nitrates and oxides, respectively. The wide ranges were due largely to consideration of results for a range of experimental data for the solubility of different forms of nitrate and oxides. The medians of these distributions were a factor of three times higher than calculated using current default ICRP parameter values. For nitrates, this was due to the assumption of a bound fraction, and for oxides due mainly to the assumption of slower alveolar clearance. This study highlights areas where more research is needed to reduce biokinetic uncertainties, including more accurate determination of particle transport rates

  11. Workshop on dosimetry for radon and radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.E.; Holoway, C.F.; Loebl, A.S. (eds.)

    1978-05-01

    Emphasis is placed on the dosimetry for radon and daughters, rather than on monitoring and instrumentation. The objectives of the meeting were to exchange scientific information, to identify problem areas in radon-daughter dosimetry, and to make any observations or recommendations by the participants through issuance of this report. The discussion topics included the history of dosimetry for radon and daughters, human data, aerosols, deposition and movement in the respiratory tract, dose calculations, dose-to-working-level-month (WLM) conversion factors, animal experiments, and the development of regulations and remedial criteria for reducing population exposures to radon daughters. This report contains a summary of Workshop discussions plus individual statements contributed by several of the participants. The outstanding problem areas from the standpoint of dosimetry appear to involve the appropriate lung organ mass to be used (average lung-tissue dose vs. high-level local dose); recognition of the discrete, rather than continuous, structure of the mucus; lack of knowledge about lung clearance; the variability of dose with the degree of disequilibrium and the unattached fraction of radon daughters for a given WLM; and questions about the character of uranium mine atmospheres actually breathed in the older mines from which much of the epidemiological information originates. The development of criteria for taking remedial action to reduce exposures involves additional concerns of basing long-term risk assessment on short-term sampling and applying WLM data for miners to general populations.

  12. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  13. Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. Lessons learnt from an international intercomparison of national network systems used to provide early warning of a nuclear accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez-Vergara, J.C.; Thompson, I.M.G.; Funck, E.

    2003-01-01

    and at the Underground Laboratory for Dosimetry and Spectrometry (UDO) of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. The network systems are used continuously to monitor radiation levels throughout a country in order to give early warning of nuclear accidents having transboundary implications...

  15. [Accidents with the "paraglider"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T H; Dengg, C; Gabl, M

    1988-09-01

    With a collective of 46 patients we show the details and kinds of accidents caused by paragliding. The base for the casuistry of the accidents was a questionnaire which was answered by most of the injured persons. These were questions about the theoretical and practical training, the course of the flight during the different phases, and the subjective point of view of the course of the accident. The patterns of the injuries showed a high incidence of injuries of the spinal column and high risks for the ankles. At the end, we give some advice how to prevent these accidents.

  16. Accidents (FARS) (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Accident - (1975-current): This data file (NTAD) contains information about crash characteristics and environmental conditions at the time of the crash. There is one...

  17. Experiences in the continuous improvement of quality assurance of the dosimetry services of SLDC-MD-ININ; Experiencias en la mejora continua del aseguramiento de la calidad de los servicios de dosimetria de LSCD-ME-ININ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovar M, V. M.; Vergara M, F.; Perez M, V.; Anaya M, R.; Cejudo A, J.; Alvarez R, J. T.; Arenas O, A.; Cruz F, C., E-mail: victor.tovar@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Laboratorio Secundario de Calibracion Dosimetrica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    From 2003 the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric Calibration (SLDC) of Metrology Department of Ionizing Radiations (MD), has complemented the Quality Manual of National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) according to the standard ISO 9001: 2000. However, due to that the National Center of Metrology of Mexico delegates its functions in the dosimetry and activity area for the field of the ionizing radiations to the ININ: one of the requirements so that the ININ has been designated as -Declared Institute- before the International Office of Weights and Measurements, it is to demonstrate before the Inter-American System of Metrology that the quality system of the SLDC fulfills the standard ISO/IEC 17025: 2005, satisfied this requirement the Inter-American System of Metrology in their meeting of evaluation of quality systems, Ottawa (2007) grants a certification document to the SLDC that guarantees their capacities of calibration measurements for dosimetry services. Concretely, inside the standard activities ISO 9000 with respect to the point 8 on measurement, analysis and improvement the Management of Quality Assurance of ININ carries out at year two interns auditing and every month is given continuation to the non conformities detected in the procedures that support the services of the SLDC for dosimetry with purposes of radiological protection and clinical dosimetry. (Author)

  18. Calculation codes in radioprotection, radio-physics and dosimetry; Codes de calcul en radioprotection, radiophysique et dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan, S.; Laedermann, J.P.; Bochud, F.; Ferragut, A.; Bordy, J.M.; Parisi, L.L.; Abou-Khalil, R.; Longeot, M.; Kitsos, S.; Groetz, J.E.; Villagrasa, C.; Daures, J.; Martin, E.; Henriet, J.; Tsilanizara, A.; Farah, J.; Uyttenhove, W.; Perrot, Y.; De Carlan, L.; Vivier, A.; Kodeli, I.; Sayah, R.; Hadid, L.; Courageot, E.; Fritsch, P.; Davesne, E.; Michel, X.

    2010-07-01

    the pulmonary anthropo-radiometry (J. Farah); 17 - evaluation of the GUINEVERE experiment shielding (W. Uyttenhove); 18 - GATE/GEANT4 validation for external radiotherapy (Y. Perrot); 19 - European intercomparison of Monte Carlo code users for the kerma uncertainty calculation in air near a {sup 137}Cs source (L. De Carlan); 20 - decision threshold and detection limit in gamma dose rate measurement (A. Vivier); 21 - uncertainties spreading from basic data of nuclear reactors key parameters (I. Kodeli); 22 - evaluation of secondary neutrons-related doses received by patients treated by proton-therapy (R. Sayah); 23 - radioprotection optimization for nuclear medicine patients: doses evaluation for the new reference voxelized fantoms of the CIPR (international commission of radiological protection) (L. Hadid); 24 - radiological accident reconstruction using numerical tools: towards a more and more realistic representation of the victim (E. Courageot); 25 - new tools for treatment optimization after internal contamination by Pu/Am/Cm (P. Fritsch); 26 - development of an expert system for the consideration of uncertainties in internal contamination monitoring (E. Davesne); 27 - CUTADOSE, a calculation code for skin dose estimation after skin contamination (X. Michel). (J.S.)

  19. Retrospective dosimetry using EPR and TL techniques: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskell, E.H.

    1996-12-31

    Methods of retrospective dosimetry, including luminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), rely on measurement of accident dose absorbed by naturally occurring materials - ceramics in the case of both thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and organic materials and bio- minerals in the case of EPR. Each of these methods relies on measurement of radiation defects resulting from accidental exposure. Since defects also result from natural sources of radiation over the lifetime of a sample, analysis is usually restricted to materials for which the natural dose may be determined and subtracted from the measured cumulative dose. Luminescence dating techniques rely heavily on an accurate assessment of cumulative dose from natural radiation sources, and dating research has provided us with the bulk of our knowledge in this area. Virtually all of the work on natural dose determination can be directly applied to retrospective techniques. With EPR techniques the cumulative dose from diagnostic x- rays is also of importance.

  20. Improvement of severe accident analysis method for KSNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Song Won; Cho, Youn Soo [Korea Radiation Technology Institute Co., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    The objective of this study is preparation of MELCOR 1.8.5 input deck for KSNP and simulation of some major severe accidents. The contents of this project are preparation of MELCOR 1.8.5 base input deck for KSNP to understand severe accident phenomena and to assess severe accident strategy, preparation of 20 cell containment input deck to simulate the distribution of hydrogen and fission products in containment, simulation of some major severe accident scenarios such as TLOFW, SBO, SBLOCA, MBLOCA, and LBLOCA. The method for MELCOR 1.8.5 input deck preparation can be used to prepare the input deck for domestic PWRs and to simulate severe accident experiments such as ISP-46. Information gained from analyses of severe accidents may be helpful to set up the severe accident management strategy and to develop regulatory guidance.

  1. Communication and industrial accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the conc

  2. Accidents - personal factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaitsev, S.L.; Tsygankov, A.V.

    1982-03-01

    This paper evaluates influence of selected personal factors on accident rate in underground coal mines in the USSR. Investigations show that so-called organizational factors cause from 80 to 85% of all accidents. About 70% of the organizational factors is associated with social, personal and economic features of personnel. Selected results of the investigations carried out in Donbass mines are discussed. Causes of miner dissatisfaction are reviewed: 14% is caused by unsatisfactory working conditions, 21% by repeated machine failures, 16% by forced labor during days off, 14% by unsatisfactory material supply, 16% by hard physical labor, 19% by other reasons. About 25% of miners injured during work accidents are characterized as highly professionally qualified with automatic reactions, and about 41% by medium qualifications. About 60% of accidents is caused by miners with less than a 3 year period of service. About 15% of accidents occurs during the first month after a miner has returned from a leave. More than 30% of accidents occurs on the first work day after a day or days off. Distribution of accidents is also presented: 19% of accidents occurs during the first 2 hours of a shift, 36% from the second to the fourth hour, and 45% occurs after the fourth hour and before the shift ends.

  3. Accident investigation and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, J. van; Drupsteen, L.

    2013-01-01

    Many organisations and companies take extensive proactive measures to identify, evaluate and reduce occupational risks. However, despite these efforts things still go wrong and unintended events occur. After a major incident or accident, conducting an accident investigation is generally the next ste

  4. Fifth personnel dosimetry intercomparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, C.S.

    1980-02-01

    The fifth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study (PDIS) was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Dosimetry Applications Research (DOSAR) facility on March 20-22, 1979. This study is the latest PDIS in the continuing series started at the DOSAR facility in 1974. The PDIS is a three day study, typically in March, where personnel dosimeters are mailed to the DOSAR facility, exposed to a range of low-level neutron radiation doses (1 to 15 mSv or equivalently, 100 to 1500 mrem) and neutron-to-gamma ratios (1:1-10:1) using the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) as the radiation source, and returned to the participants for evaluation. This report is a summary and analysis of the results reported by the various participants. The participants are able to intercompare their results with those of others who made dose measurements under identical experimental conditions.

  5. Gel dosimetry for conformal radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G. [Department of Physics of the University and INFN, Milan (Italy)]. e-mail: grazia.gambarini@mi.infn.it

    2005-07-01

    With the continuum development of conformal radio therapies, aimed at delivering high dose to tumor tissue and low dose to the healthy tissue around, the necessities has appeared of suitable improvement of dosimetry techniques giving the possibility of obtaining dose images to be compared with diagnostic images. Also if wide software has been developed for calculating dose distributions in the fields of various radiotherapy units, experimental verifications are necessary, in particular in the case of complex geometries in conformal radiotherapy. Gel dosimetry is a promising method for imaging the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent phantoms, with the possibility of 3D reconstruction of the spatial dose distribution, with milli metric resolution. Optical imaging of gel dosimeters, based on visible light absorbance analysis, has shown to be a reliable technique for achieving dose distributions. (Author)

  6. NOTE FROM THE DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    During March, the Dosimetry Service will be opened from 8h30 to 12h in the morning and closed every afternoon.   We have established that many people, who are provided regularly with a personal dosimeter (film badge), have changed their activity and do not need it anymore, because they do not, or only exceptionally, enter controlled areas. If you are one of these persons, please contact the Personal Dosimeter Service (tel: 72155). There is a simplified procedure for obtaining a dosimeter if you have an immediate need for short-term visits in controlled areas. A reduction of the number of persons on the regular distribution list of dosimeters would decrease our and the distributors workload. It would also contribute to significant savings in the dosimetry, and thus CERN, budget. We thank you in advance for your understanding and for your collaboration.

  7. Dosimetry for the external radiation therapy. Dosimetry with alanine; Dosimetrie fuer die externe Strahlentherapie. Dosimetrie mit Alanin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, Mathias [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' Alanin-Dosimetrie'

    2013-06-15

    The alanine-ESR dosimetry in the PTB is described. The response power of alanine related to the water energy dose for X-rays with average energy of 10-1000 keV is presented. Furthermore the application of alanine for the quality assurance in the radiation therapy is described by means of the prostate irradiation and the therapy of a tumor in the neck region as examples. (HSI)

  8. Pilot test of ANSI draft standard N13.29 environmental dosimetry -- Performance criteria for testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemic, G.; Shebell, P.; Monetti, M.; Raccah, F. [Dept. of Energy, New York, NY (United States). Environmental Measurement Lab.; Shobe, J.; Lamperti, P.; Soares, C. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Sengupta, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1998-09-01

    American National Standards Institute Draft N13.29 describes performance tests for environmental radiation dosimetry providers. If approved it would be the first step toward applying the types of performance testing now required in personnel dosimetry to environmental radiation monitoring. The objective of this study was to pilot test the draft standard, before it undergoes final balloting, on a small group of dosimetry providers that were selected to provide a mix of facility types, thermoluminescent dosimeter designs and monitoring program applications. The first phase of the pilot test involved exposing dosimeters to laboratory photon, beta, and x-ray sources at routine and accident dose levels. In the second phase, dosimeters were subjected to ninety days of simulated environmental conditions in an environmental chamber that cycled through extremes of temperature and humidity. Two out of seven participants passed all categories of the laboratory testing phase, and all seven passed the environmental test phase. While some relatively minor deficiencies were uncovered in the course of the pilot test, the results show that draft N13.29 describes useful tests that could be appropriate for environmental dosimetry providers. An appendix to this report contains recommendations that should be addressed by the N13.29 working group before draft N13.29 is submitted for balloting.

  9. I-124 Imaging and Dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russ Kuker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although radioactive iodine imaging and therapy are one of the earliest applications of theranostics, there still remain a number of unresolved clinical questions as to the optimization of diagnostic techniques and dosimetry protocols. I-124 as a positron emission tomography (PET radiotracer has the potential to improve the current clinical practice in the diagnosis and treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. The higher sensitivity and spatial resolution of PET/computed tomography (CT compared to standard gamma scintigraphy can aid in the detection of recurrent or metastatic disease and provide more accurate measurements of metabolic tumor volumes. However the complex decay schema of I-124 poses challenges to quantitative PET imaging. More prospective studies are needed to define optimal dosimetry protocols and to improve patient-specific treatment planning strategies, taking into account not only the absorbed dose to tumors but also methods to avoid toxicity to normal organs. A historical perspective of I-124 imaging and dosimetry as well as future concepts are discussed.

  10. Lessons learnt from an international intercomparison of national network systems used to provide early warning of a nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saez-Vergara, J.C.; Thompson, I.M.G.; Funck, E.; Andersen, C.E.; Neumaier, S.; Botter-Jensen, L

    2003-07-01

    As part of the European Research Council's Fourth Framework Programme, the EURADOS Action Group on Monitoring of External Exposures held an intercomparison of national network systems. This took place during May/June 1999 at the Riso Natural Environmental Radiation Measurement Station in Denmark and at the Underground Laboratory for Dosimetry and Spectrometry of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Germany. The network systems are used continuously to monitor radiation levels throughout a country in order to give early warning of nuclear accidents having transboundary implications. The radiation levels measured are used to estimate the radiation risks to people arising from the accident. Seven European countries participated in the intercomparison with detector systems used in their national network systems as well as with detectors being developed for future use. Since different radiation quantities were measured by the systems (namely exposure, air kerma and ambient dose equivalent), the initial analysis of the intercomparison results was made in terms of the quantity air kerma rate. This report completes the analysis of the results and these are given in terms of air kerma rate in order to be consistent with the preliminary report. In addition, in some cases the results are also given in terms of the quantity measured by each national network system. The experience gained from this intercomparison is used to help organise a follow-up intercomparison to be held at the PTB Braunschweig in September 2002 and in which a further seven or eight countries from Europe will participate. (author)

  11. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  12. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  13. Development of radiation biological dosimetry and treatment of radiation-induced damaged tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil [and others

    2000-04-01

    Util now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline(triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the apoptotic fragment assay, PCC, comet assay, and micronucleus assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiated dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with chromosome dosimetry and micronucleus assay.

  14. Dosimetry requirements derived from the sterilization standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1998-01-01

    The main standards for radiation sterilization, ISO 11137 and EN 552, rest the documentation for the properly executed sterilization process on dosimetry. Both standards describe general requirements to the dosimetry system: The dose measurements must be traceable to national standards, the uncer...

  15. [Multicenter paragliding accident study 1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, S; Karli, U; Matter, P

    1992-01-01

    During the period from 1.1.90 until 31.12.90, 86 injuries associated with paragliding were analyzed in a prospective study in 12 different Swiss hospitals with reference to causes, patterns, and frequencies. The injuries showed a mean score of over 2 and were classified as severe. Most frequent spine injuries (36%) and lesions of the lower extremity (35%) with a high risk of the ankles were diagnosed. One accident was fatal. 60% of the accidents happened during landing, 26% during launching and 14% during flight. Half of the pilots were affected during their primary training course. Most accidents were caused by inflight error of judgement--especially incorrect estimation of wind conditions--and further the choice of unfavourable landing sites. In contrast to previous injury-reports, only one equipment failure could be noted, but often the equipment was not corresponding with the experience and the weight of the pilot. To reduce the frequency of paragliding-injuries an accurate choice of equipment and an increased attention to environmental factors is mandatory. Furthermore an education-program regarding the attitude and intelligence of the pilot should be included in training courses.

  16. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...

  17. Boating Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  18. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, John A.; Cole, James K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  19. The Fukushima accident; Accident nucleaire a Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, D.

    2012-02-15

    The Fukushima accident is characterized by a sequence of natural disasters: earthquake and tsunamis that deprived simultaneously 3 reactors from cooling and electrical power for quite a long time. A series of hydrogen explosion has added to the mess. Experts agree to say that certainly nuclear fuel has melt to form corium in all 3 reactors. The accident has contaminated tens of thousand acres of land around the plant and has jeopardized local coastal fishery. The human toll is unexpectedly low: no direct casualty in the population but several suicides among the people that was forced to leave their home. 5 people from the plant staff died certainly from the consequences of the tsunami. (A.C.)

  20. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eigh...

  1. Acute radiation disease and biological dosimetry in 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobiev, A I

    1997-01-01

    Mankind is at risk for accidental exposure to ionizing radiation. The experience in evaluating and treating victims of radiation exposure is briefly reviewed based upon accidents occurring over the past 25 years. Individual cases of acute toxicities to the skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver and bone marrow are presented. Biodosimetry (utilizing chromosome analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes and bone marrow and electron spin resonance spectrometry of dental enamel) has been utilized in radiation accidents to assess individual dose. Variability in the dose of ionizing radiation received is typical among the population affected by the Chernobyl accident. Whereas the acute radiation syndrome resulting in a high mortality has been well-documented, little information is available regarding the effects of chronic, low-level exposure from the Chernobyl accident.

  2. APRI-6. Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garis, Ninos; Ljung, J (eds.) (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)); Agrenius, Lennart (ed.) (Agrenius Ingenjoersbyraa AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    Since the early 1980s, nuclear power utilities in Sweden and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) collaborate on the research in severe reactor accidents. In the beginning focus was mostly on strengthening protection against environmental impacts after a severe reactor accident, for example by develop systems for the filtered relief of the reactor containment. Since the early 90s, this focus has shifted to the phenomenological issues of risk-dominant significance. During the years 2006-2008, the partnership continued in the research project APRI-6. The aim was to show whether the solutions adopted in the Swedish strategy for incident management provides adequate protection for the environment. This is done by studying important phenomena in the core melt estimating the amount of radioactivity that can be released to the atmosphere in a severe accident. To achieve these objectives the research has included monitoring of international research on severe accidents and evaluation of results and continued support for research of severe accidents at the Royal Inst. of Technology (KTH) and Chalmers University. The follow-up of international research has promoted the exchange of knowledge and experience and has given access to a wealth of information on various phenomena relevant to events in severe accidents. The continued support to KTH has provided increased knowledge about the possibility of cooling the molten core in the reactor tank and the processes associated with coolability in the confinement and about steam explosions. Support for Chalmers has increased knowledge of the accident chemistry, mainly the behavior of iodine and ruthenium in the containment after an accident.

  3. Optically stimulated luminescence of common plastic materials for accident dose reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, I.; Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, K. S. [Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Optically stimulate luminescence(OSL) has many applications in a variety of radiation dosimetry fields, including personal dosimetry, environmental radiation level monitor, retrospective dosimetry for dating, and reconstruction of radiation doses from radiation accident. In the reconstruction of radiation doses from radiation accident, OSL technique has been used to estimate the doses exposed to public area through analysis of housewares or house construing materials. Recently, many efforts have been carried out for dose reconstruction using personal electronic devices such as mobile phones and USB memory chips. Some of natural minerals such as quartz and feldspar have OSL properties. Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in continental crust of the Earth. In some of common plastics, inorganic fillers (quartz, alumina etc.) are added to make strengthen of their properties depends on applications areas. The aim of this research is to explore a possibility of use of the common plastic materials for dose reconstruction in radiation accident case. In this research the OSL dose response-curve and fading characteristics of the common plastics were tested and evaluated. Finally, we expect this work contribute to elevate the possibility of the dose reconstruction. The general conclusion of this work is that the possibility of dose reconstruction using common plastic materials is showed using the OSL characteristics of the materials. However, the tested common plastic materials have relatively low sensitivities. Further work is required to establish a database of OSL properties of common plastic materials for emergency dose reconstruction by using housewares.

  4. Dosimetry using radiosensitive gels in radiotherapy: significance and methods; Dosimetrie par gels radiosensibles en radiotherapie. Interet et methodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibon, D. [Dept. de Radiotherapie, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille Cedex (France); Bourel, P. [Lab. de Biophysique, Inst. de Technologie Medicale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Lille (France); Castelain, B. [Dept. de Radiotherapie, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille Cedex (France); Marchandise, X.; Rousseau, J. [Lab. de Biophysique, Inst. de Technologie Medicale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Lille (France)

    2001-02-01

    The goal of conformal radiotherapy is to concentrate the dose in a well-defined volume by avoiding the neighbouring healthy structures. This technique requires powerful treatment planning software and a rigorous control of estimated dosimetry. The usual dosimetric tools are not adapted to visualize and validate complex 3D treatment. Dosimetry by radiosensitive gel permits visualization and measurement of the three-dimensional dose distribution. The objective of this work is to report on current work in this field and, based on our results and our experience, to draw prospects for an optimal use of this technique. Further developments will relate to the realization of new radiosensitive gels satisfying, as well as possible, cost requirements, easy realization and use, magnetic resonance imagery (MRI) sensitivity, tissue equivalence, and stability. Other developments focus on scanning methods, especially in MRI to measure T1 and T2. (author)

  5. Cyclical Fluctuations in Workplace Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, J.; J. C. VAN OURS

    2002-01-01

    This Paper presents a theory and an empirical investigation on cyclical fluctuations in workplace accidents. The theory is based on the idea that reporting an accident dents the reputation of a worker and raises the probability that he is fired. Therefore a country with a high or an increasing unemployment rate has a low (reported) workplace accident rate. The empirical investigation concerns workplace accidents in OECD countries. The analysis confirms that workplace accident rates are invers...

  6. Radiation dosimetry by potassium feldspar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arun Pandya; S G Vaijapurkar; P K Bhatnagar

    2000-04-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of raw and annealed feldspar have been studied for their use in gamma dosimetry. The raw gamma exposed feldspar shows glow peaks at 120°C and 319°C. Gamma dose beyond 500 cGy can be measured without any significant fading even after 40 days of termination of exposure. The annealed feldspar shows a glow peak at 120°C after gamma exposure. This peak can be used to measure gamma doses beyond 25 cGy when the TL is measured after 24 h from termination of exposure.

  7. Relocation of the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Dosimetry Service is moving from Building 24 to Building 55 and will therefore be closed on Friday, 30 March. From Monday, 2 April onwards you will find us in Building 55/1-001. Please note that we cannot exclude problems with Internet connections on that day and are therefore unable to guarantee normal service. The Service's opening hours and telephone number will not change as a result of the move: Open from 8.30 - 12.00. Closed in the afternoons. Tel. 7 2155

  8. Dose Estimation by ESR on Tooth Enamel from Two Workers Exposed to Radiation due to the JCO accident

    OpenAIRE

    Kunio, SHIRAISHI; MIDORI, IWASAKI; Chyuzo, Miyazawa; HIDENORI, YONEHARA; Masaki, MATSUMOTO; Ohu University, School of Dentistry; Radon Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences; Environmental Radiation Protection System Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences

    2002-01-01

    ESR dosimetry is useful to estimate the external dose for the general population as well as for occupational workers in a nuclear emergency. Three teeth were extracted from two exposed workers (A and B) related to the JCO criticality accident. Tooth enamel was carefully separated from other tooth parts and subjected to ESR dosimetry. Doses equivalent to the γ-ray dose of ^Co were estimated as follows: for worker A, the buccal and lingual sides of the eighth tooth in the upper right side, 11.8...

  9. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  10. Anthropomorphic Phantom Radiation Dosimetry at the NATO Standard Reference Point at Aberdeen Proving Ground,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    will have a non-isotropic angular dependance . Thus, for free-field dosimetry, while the bubble detector results could be directly transformed * into...these experiments was the bubble dosimeter temperature dependance . In all experiments, the phantom was surrounded by a tent arrangement (see figs) in

  11. Proceedings of the second conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R. E.; Sims, C. S. [eds.

    1988-11-01

    The Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 31--November 3, 1988, at the Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To facilitate meeting these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical sessions included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, calibration, standards and regulations, instrumentation, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. This document provides a summary of the conference technical program and a partial collection of full papers for the oral presentations in order of delivery. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  12. An Automated Biological Dosimetry System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, T.; Bille, J.; Frieben, M.; Stephan, G.

    1986-04-01

    The scoring of structural chromosome aberrations in peripheral human blood lymphocytes can be used in biological dosimetry to estimate the radiation dose which an individual has received. Especially the dicentric chromosome is a rather specific indicator for an exposure to ionizing radiation. For statistical reasons, in the low dose range a great number of cells must be analysed, which is a very tedious task. The resulting high cost of a biological dose estimation limits the application of this method to cases of suspected irradiation for which physical dosimetry is not possible or not sufficient. Therefore an automated system has been designed to do the major part of the routine work. It uses a standard light microscope with motorized scanning stage, a Plumbicon TV-camera, a real-time hardware preprocessor, a binary and a grey level image buffer system. All computations are performed by a very powerful multi-microprocessor-system (POLYP) based on a MIMD-architecture. The task of the automated system can be split in finding the metaphases (see Figure 1) at low microscope magnification and scoring dicentrics at high magnification. The metaphase finding part has been completed and is now in routine use giving good results. The dicentric scoring part is still under development.

  13. Path forward for dosimetry cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, P.J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States); Peters, C.D. [Sandia Staffing Alliance, Albuquerque, NM 87110 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In the 1980's the dosimetry community embraced the need for a high fidelity quantification of uncertainty in nuclear data used for dosimetry applications. This led to the adoption of energy-dependent covariance matrices as the accepted manner of quantifying the uncertainty data. The trend for the dosimetry community to require high fidelity treatment of uncertainty estimates has continued to the current time where requirements on nuclear data are codified in standards such as ASTM E 1018. This paper surveys the current state of the dosimetry cross sections and investigates the quality of the current dosimetry cross section evaluations by examining calculated-to-experimental ratios in neutron benchmark fields. In recent years more nuclear-related technical areas are placing an emphasis on uncertainty quantification. With the availability of model-based cross sections and covariance matrices produced by nuclear data codes, some nuclear-related communities are considering the role these covariance matrices should play. While funding within the dosimetry community for cross section evaluations has been very meager, other areas, such as the solar-related astrophysics community and the US Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, have been supporting research in the area of neutron cross sections. The Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is responsible for the creation and maintenance of the ENDF/B library which has been the mainstay for the reactor dosimetry community. Given the new trends in cross section evaluations, this paper explores the path forward for the US nuclear reactor dosimetry community and its use of the ENDF/B cross-sections. The major concern is maintenance of the sufficiency and accuracy of the uncertainty estimate when used for dosimetry applications. The two major areas of deficiency in the proposed ENDF/B approach are: 1) the use of unrelated covariance matrices in ENDF/B evaluations and 2) the lack of 'due consideration' of

  14. Introduction to radiological physics and radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Attix, Frank Herbert

    2004-01-01

    A straightforward presentation of the broad concepts underlying radiological physics and radiation dosimetry for the graduate-level student. Covers photon and neutron attenuation, radiation and charged particle equilibrium, interactions of photons and charged particles with matter, radiotherapy dosimetry, as well as photographic, calorimetric, chemical, and thermoluminescence dosimetry. Includes many new derivations, such as Kramers X-ray spectrum, as well as topics that have not been thoroughly analyzed in other texts, such as broad-beam attenuation and geometrics, and the reciprocity theorem

  15. Who by accident? The social morphology of car accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor, Roni; Yair, Gad; Mahalel, David

    2010-09-01

    Prior studies in the sociology of accidents have shown that different social groups have different rates of accident involvement. This study extends those studies by implementing Bourdieu's relational perspective of social space to systematically explore the homology between drivers' social characteristics and their involvement in specific types of motor vehicle accident. Using a large database that merges official Israeli road-accident records with socioeconomic data from two censuses, this research maps the social order of road accidents through multiple correspondence analysis. Extending prior studies, the results show that different social groups indeed tend to be involved in motor vehicle accidents of different types and severity. For example, we find that drivers from low socioeconomic backgrounds are overinvolved in severe accidents with fatal outcomes. The new findings reported here shed light on the social regularity of road accidents and expose new facets in the social organization of death. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Development of probabilistic internal dosimetry computer code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Siwan; Kwon, Tae-Eun; Lee, Jai-Ki

    2017-02-01

    Internal radiation dose assessment involves biokinetic models, the corresponding parameters, measured data, and many assumptions. Every component considered in the internal dose assessment has its own uncertainty, which is propagated in the intake activity and internal dose estimates. For research or scientific purposes, and for retrospective dose reconstruction for accident scenarios occurring in workplaces having a large quantity of unsealed radionuclides, such as nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and facilities in which nuclear medicine is practiced, a quantitative uncertainty assessment of the internal dose is often required. However, no calculation tools or computer codes that incorporate all the relevant processes and their corresponding uncertainties, i.e., from the measured data to the committed dose, are available. Thus, the objective of the present study is to develop an integrated probabilistic internal-dose-assessment computer code. First, the uncertainty components in internal dosimetry are identified, and quantitative uncertainty data are collected. Then, an uncertainty database is established for each component. In order to propagate these uncertainties in an internal dose assessment, a probabilistic internal-dose-assessment system that employs the Bayesian and Monte Carlo methods. Based on the developed system, we developed a probabilistic internal-dose-assessment code by using MATLAB so as to estimate the dose distributions from the measured data with uncertainty. Using the developed code, we calculated the internal dose distribution and statistical values ( e.g. the 2.5th, 5th, median, 95th, and 97.5th percentiles) for three sample scenarios. On the basis of the distributions, we performed a sensitivity analysis to determine the influence of each component on the resulting dose in order to identify the major component of the uncertainty in a bioassay. The results of this study can be applied to various situations. In cases of

  17. ALICE Injected Beam Accidents

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE (point 2) interaction region is sensitive to beam orbit errors arising from magnet setting errors on injection. In this report, beam accident scenarios under injection for ALICE are described, focusing on ultra- fast error injection scenarios for the interaction straight correctors and dipoles. Beam 1 and beam 2 accident scenarios are considered, where the errors can lead to beam orbits striking the ALICE vacuum chamber or elements of the machine. The required thresholds for magnet current interlocks are calculated to avoid machine and detector risk.

  18. LHCb Injected Beam Accidents

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb (point 8) interaction region is sensitive to beam orbit errors arising from magnet setting errors on injection. In this report, beam accident scenarios under injection for LHCb are described, focusing on ultra- fast error injection scenarios for the interaction straight correctors and dipoles. Beam 1 and beam 2 accident scenarios are considered, where the errors can lead to beam orbits striking the LHCb vacuum chamber or elements of the machine. The required thresholds for magnet current interlocks are calculated to avoid machine and detector risk.

  19. Lessons learned from early criticality accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1996-06-01

    Four accidents involving the approach to criticality occurred during the period July, 1945, through May, 1996. These have been described in the format of the OPERATING EXPERIENCE WEEKLY SUMMARY which is distributed by the Office of Nuclear and Facility Safety. Although the lessons learned have been incorporated in standards, codes, and formal procedures during the last fifty years, this is their first presentation in this format. It is particularly appropriate that they be presented in the forum of the Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Project Workshop closest to the fiftieth anniversary of the last of the four accidents, and that which was most instrumental in demonstrating the need to incorporate lessons learned.

  20. Optically stimulated luminescence techniques in retrospective dosimetry using single grains of quartz extracted from unheated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joerkov Thomsen, Kristina

    2004-02-01

    This work investigates the possibility of applying optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) in retrospective dose determinations using unheated materials. It focuses on identifying materials suitable for use in assessment of doses absorbed as a consequence of radiation accidents (i.e. accident dosimetry). Special attention has been paid to quartz extracted from unheated building materials such as concrete and mortar. The single-aliquot regeneration-dose (SAR) protocol has been used to determine absorbed doses in small aliquots as well as single grains of quartz. It is shown that OSL measurements of single grains of quartz extracted from poorly-bleached building materials can provide useful information on radiation accident doses, even when the luminescence sensitivity is low. Sources of variance in well-bleached single grain dose distributions have been investigated in detail and it is concluded that the observed variability in the data is consistent with the sum (in quadrature) of a component, which depends on the number of photons detected from each grain, and a fixed component independent of light level. Dose depth profiles through laboratory irradiated concrete bricks have successfully been measured and minimum detection limits of less than 100 mGy are derived. Measurements of thermal transfer in single grains of poorly-bleached quartz show that thermal transfer is variable on a grain-to-grain basis and that it can be a source of variance in single-grain dose distributions. Furthermore, the potential of using common household and workplace chemicals, such as table salt, washing powder and water softener, in retrospective dosimetry has been investigated. It is concluded that such materials should be considered as retrospective dosimeters in the event of a radiation accident. (au)

  1. Internal Accident Report: fill it out!

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    It is important to report all accidents, near-misses and dangerous situations so that they can be avoided in the future.   Reporting these events allows the relevant services to take appropriate action and implement corrective and preventive measures. It should be noted that the routing of the internal accident report was recently changed to make sure that the people who need to know are informed. Without information, corrective action is not possible. Without corrective action, there is a risk that the events will recur. As soon as you experience or see something amiss, fill out an internal accident report! If you have any questions the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. The HSE Unit

  2. Advanced materials in radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Bruzzi, M; Nava, F; Pini, S; Russo, S

    2002-01-01

    High band-gap semiconductor materials can represent good alternatives to silicon in relative dosimetry. Schottky diodes made with epitaxial n-type 4 H SiC and Chemical Vapor Deposited diamond films with ohmic contacts have been exposed to a sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma-source, 20 MeV electrons and 6 MV X photons from a linear accelerator to test the current response in on-line configuration in the dose range 0.1-10 Gy. The released charge as a function of the dose and the radiation-induced current as a function of the dose-rate are found to be linear. No priming effects have been observed using epitaxial SiC, due to the low density of lattice defects present in this material.

  3. Lessons learned from accidents investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga-Bello, P. [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT), Mexico City (Mexico); Croft, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Glenn, J

    1997-12-31

    Accidents from three main practices: medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the described accidents are approached by subjects covering: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  4. Application of luminescence techniques in retrospective dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Jungner, H.

    1999-01-01

    Luminescence signals measured from minerals within bricks or ceramic samples can provide information about the absorbed radiation dose. This feature has for several years been used in dating archaeological and geological samples and recently luminescence techniques have been intensively used far...... retrospective assessment of accident doses received by the population after a nuclear accident. The development of new luminescence techniques after the Chernobyl accident has considerably improved the sensitivity and precision in the evaluation of accident doses. This paper reviews the development work...

  5. Real-time dosimetry in external beam radiation therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramachandran; Prabhakar

    2013-01-01

    With growing complexity in radiotherapy treatment delivery,it has become mandatory to check each and every treatment plan before implementing clinically.This process is currently administered by an independent secondary check of all treatment parameters and as a pre-treatment quality assurance (QA) check for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment plans.Although pre-treatment IMRT QA is aimed to ensure the correct dose is delivered to the patient,it does not necessarily predict the clinically relevant patient dose errors.During radiotherapy,treatment uncertainties can affect tumor control and may increase complications to surrounding normal tissues.To combat this,image guided radiotherapy is employed to help ensure the plan conditions are mimicked on the treatment machine.However,it does not provide information on actual delivered dose to the tumor volume.Knowledge of actual dose delivered during treatment aid in confirming the prescribed dose and also to replan/reassess the treatment in situations where the planned dose is not delivered as expected by the treating physician.Major accidents in radiotherapy would have been averted if real time dosimetry is incorporated as part of the routine radiotherapy procedure.Of late real-time dosimetry is becoming popular with complex treatments in radiotherapy.Realtime dosimetry can be either in the form of point doses or planar doses or projected on to a 3D image dataset to obtain volumetric dose.They either provide entrance dose or exit dose or dose inside the natural cavities of a patient.In external beam radiotherapy,there are four different established platforms whereby the delivered dose information can be obtained:(1)Collimator;(2)Patient;(3)Couch;and(4)Electronic Portal Imaging Device.Current real-time dosimetric techniques available in radiotherapy have their own advantages and disadvantages and a combination of one or more of these methods provide vital information

  6. Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry Program of Ulchin Unit 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Mi Joung; Kim, Byoung Chul; Kim, Kyung Sik; Jeon, Young Kyou [Korea Reactor Integrity Surveillance Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    This paper presents the analysis of the first Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry (EVND) set of the Unit 4. The analysis is part of the comprehensive EVND surveillance program in all PWRs in Korea. Currently, EVND sets are installed in 16 PWR operating in Korea and dosimetry sets have been analyzed. On the other hand, unique design features arising from the KSNP's cavity configuration as well as special transport analysis considerations are discussed in this paper. Because of the geometrical similitude of the KSNPs, the design considerations of the Ulchin Unit 4 EVND are also applicable to the KSNP Yonggwang Units 3 through 6 and Ulchin Units 3, 5 and 6. The results show quantitative comparison between the analytical results and the dosimetry measurements irradiated during cycle 9. The Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 50, Appendix H, requires that neutron dosimetry be present to monitor the reactor vessel throughout plant life and that material specimens be used to measure damage associated with the end-of-life fast neutron exposure of the reactor vessel. The EVND Program at Korean PWRs has been designed primarily to provide a long term monitoring of fast neutron exposure distributions within the reactor vessel wall that could experience significant radiation induced increases in reference nil ductility transition temperature (RT{sub NDT}) over the service lifetime of the plant. When used in conjunction with dosimetry from internal surveillance capsules and with the results of neutron transport calculations, the EVND measurements allow the projection of embrittlement gradients with a minimum uncertainty. Through plant walk downs it was determined that conventional installation from the nozzle gallery was not possible due to the fact that the reactor vessel insulation support C-channels are welded to the bottom of the Upper Lateral Support, thus, precluding the lowering of EVND support chains. A solution was developed that would required the installation

  7. Authority structure and industrial accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational characteristics on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. The general hypothesis is that the authority structure is a main cause of accident-proneness

  8. Beta-particle dosimetry in radiation synovectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Yanch, J.C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Shortkroff, S. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brigham and Women`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Barnes, C.L. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brigham and Women`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Spitzer, A.I. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brigham and Women`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Sledge, C.B. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brigham and Women`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Beta-particle dosimetry of various radionuclides used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis was estimated using Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation coupled with experiments using reactor-produced radionuclides and radiachromic film dosimeters inserted into joint phantoms and the knees of cadavers. Results are presented as absorbed dose factors (cGy-cm{sup 2}/MBq-s) versus depth in a mathematical model of the rheumatoid joint which includes regions of bone, articular cartilage, joint capsule, and tissue (synovium) found in all synovial joints. The factors can be used to estimate absorbed dose and dose rate distributions in treated joints. In particular, guidance is provided for those interested in (a) a given radionuclide`s therapeutic range, (b) the amount of radioactivity to administer on a case-by-case basis, (c) the expected therapeutic dose to synovium, and (d) the radiation dose imparted to other, nontarget components in the joint, including bone and articular cartilage. (orig.). With 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Electromagnetic and heat transfer computations for non-ionizing radiation dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, T; Regli, P; Kuster, N

    2000-08-01

    Reliable information on the heat distribution inside biological tissues is essential for the planning and optimization of experiments which aim to study the effects of non-ionizing radiation (NIR). In electrodynamics, the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique has become the dominant technique for radiofrequency dosimetry. In order to obtain the electromagnetic field and heat distributions within the same simulation run without changing discretization, a heat diffusion solver has been directly integrated into an advanced electrodynamic FDTD kernel. The implementation enables both coupled and sequential simulations. It also includes the ability to work with complex bodies and to accelerate heat diffusion. This paper emphasizes the importance of this combination in the field of NIR dosimetry. Two examples from this area are given: the validation of dosimetry with temperature probes and the estimation of the highest thermal load during bioexperiments.

  10. Use of aspartame-based sweetener tablets in emergency dosimetry using EPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghraby, A; Salama, E

    2010-06-01

    Accident dosimetry aims to evaluate the unplanned radiation doses delivered to individuals through one of the objects exist in the area of the accident. The gamma dose response of free radicals generated in irradiated aspartame tablets and its usability for emergency dosimetry was studied. EPR spectra of unirradiated and irradiated aspartame-based sweetener were recorded. Two signals arise after irradiating, S(1) at g (S(1)) = 2.00229 +/- 0.00097 and S(2) at g (S(2)) = 2.00262 +/- 0.00088. Some EPR parameters were studied for radiation-induced radicals in aspartame sweeteners tablets, such as the microwave saturation behaviour, the effect of magnetic field modulation amplitude on the peak-to-peak height and peak-to-peak line width for both of S(1) and S(2). Responses of S(1) and S(2) to different radiation doses were studied and resulted in linear relationships, radicals persistence curves were plotted over a 49-d storage period. It was found that Aspartame sweeteners tablets are useful in the range from 0.96 to 39.96 Gy. Radiation-induced radicals possess reasonable stability.

  11. Uncertainty in 3D gel dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Deene, Yves; Jirasek, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) gel dosimetry has a unique role to play in safeguarding conformal radiotherapy treatments as the technique can cover the full treatment chain and provides the radiation oncologist with the integrated dose distribution in 3D. It can also be applied to benchmark new treatment strategies such as image guided and tracking radiotherapy techniques. A major obstacle that has hindered the wider dissemination of gel dosimetry in radiotherapy centres is a lack of confidence in the reliability of the measured dose distribution. Uncertainties in 3D dosimeters are attributed to both dosimeter properties and scanning performance. In polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout, discrepancies in dose response of large polymer gel dosimeters versus small calibration phantoms have been reported which can lead to significant inaccuracies in the dose maps. The sources of error in polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout are well understood and it has been demonstrated that with a carefully designed scanning protocol, the overall uncertainty in absolute dose that can currently be obtained falls within 5% on an individual voxel basis, for a minimum voxel size of 5 mm3. However, several research groups have chosen to use polymer gel dosimetry in a relative manner by normalizing the dose distribution towards an internal reference dose within the gel dosimeter phantom. 3D dosimetry with optical scanning has also been mostly applied in a relative way, although in principle absolute calibration is possible. As the optical absorption in 3D dosimeters is less dependent on temperature it can be expected that the achievable accuracy is higher with optical CT. The precision in optical scanning of 3D dosimeters depends to a large extend on the performance of the detector. 3D dosimetry with X-ray CT readout is a low contrast imaging modality for polymer gel dosimetry. Sources of error in x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry (XCT) are currently under investigation and include inherent

  12. Chemical vapour deposited diamonds for dosimetry of radiotherapeutical beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucciolini, M.; Mazzocchi, S. [Firenze Univ., Firenze (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica; INFN, Firenze (Italy); Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Pini, S.; Sciortino, S. [Firenze Univ., Firenze (Italy). Dipartimento di Energetica; INFN, Firenze (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P.; Guttone, G.; Raffaele, L.; Sabini, M.G. [INFN, Catania (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali del Sud

    2002-07-01

    This paper deals with the application of synthetic diamond detectors to the clinical dosimetry of photon and electron beams. It has been developed in the frame of INFN CANDIDO project and MURST Cofin. Diamonds grown with CVD (Chemical Vapour Deposition) technique have been studied; some of them are commercial samples while others have been locally synthesised. Experiments have been formed using both on-line and off-line approaches. For the off-line measurements, TL (thermoluminescent) and TSC (thermally stimulated current) techniques have been used.

  13. Dosimetry commissioning of the gamma irradiation facility ``ROBO''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, A.; Moussa, A.; Othman, I.; Alnaal, K.

    1998-06-01

    A product-overlap type gamma irradiation facility with wet storage was put into operation recently in Damascus, Syria and its technical specifications were controlled by dosimetry commissioning experiments and compared to the data specified by the supplier. In the course of this procedure detailed dose mapping using different density products was carried out, and thus the minimum and maximum dose locations within the product boxes were determined. Using these data the plant efficiency and the dose uniformity ratio have been calculated. The dose distribution was also determined vertically along the product carrier. The results were then analyzed with respect to the construction of the facility.

  14. Biological dosimetry for the victim accidentally exposed to 192Ir radiation source at "5.7" accident in Nanjing%南京“5.7”192Ir源放射事故患者的生物剂量估算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴宏; 刘玉龙; 王优优; 冯骏超; 赵骅; 刘青杰; 郭凯琳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To use three different methods in attempt to estimate the biological dose of the patient partially exposed to 192Ir source at " 5.7" accident in Nanjing,so as to provide dosimetric information for clinical remedy of exposed patients in the emergency of a nuclear accident.Methods Peripheral blood samples were collected on days 5 after exposure.The biological dose was estimated by the yields of dicentrics plus rings (" dic + r"),cytokinesis-block micronuclei (CBMN) assay and nucleoplasmic bridge plus FHC (NPB + FHC).The homogeneity of radiation exposure was examined by Poisson distribution of dicentrics.Results By using three different methods,the whole body equivalent dose was "dic + r" estimated to be 1.51 Gy (95% CI 1.40-1.61),1.47 Gy (95% CI 1.36-1.60) by CBMN and 1.30 Gy (95% CI 1.00-1.60) by NPB + FHC,respectively.A non-poisson distribution was also detected,suggesting partial body radiation exposure.Conclusions The estimated whole body equivalent dose ot a non-uniform radiation exposure was consistent with clinical diagnosis,suggesting that the yields of " dic + r",CBMN,as well as NPB + FHC,are efficient approaches to the estimation of biological doses.%目的 用3种方法估算南京“5.7”192Ir源放射事故患者的生物剂量,为核与辐射事故受照者的临床救治提供剂量资料.方法 受照后第5天采集患者外周血,分别进行外周血淋巴细胞染色体“双着丝粒+环”(“dic+r”)畸变分析、胞质分裂阻滞微核(CBMN)分析、核质桥(NPB+FHC)分析,并估算生物剂量.用双着丝粒畸变在细胞间的泊松分布情况检验照射的均匀性.结果 3种方法估算的该患者受到的一次全身等效剂量分别为“dic+r”畸变分析1.51 Gy (95% CI1.40~1.61),CBMN分析1.47 Gy(95% CI 1.36~1.60),NPB+ FHC分析1.30 Gy(95% CI1.00~1.60).泊松分布检验结果显示,该患者“dic+r”畸变偏离泊松分布,受到了不均匀照射.结论 外周血淋巴细胞染色体“dic

  15. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1987-06-01

    The paper concerns the Chernobyl reactor accident, with emphasis on the design of the RBMK reactor and nuclear safety. A description is given of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, including details of the RMBK reactor and safety systems. Comments on the design of the RBMK by UK experts prior to the accident are summarized, along with post-accident design changes to improve RBMK safety. Events of the Chernobyl accident are described, as well as design deficiencies highlighted by the accident. Differences between the USSR and UK approaches to nuclear safety are commented on. Finally source terms, release periods and environmental consequences are briefly discussed.

  16. Year 2000 compliance concerns with the ISA Thermoluminescent Dosimetry Data Processing (TL-DP) software system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saviz, K.

    1998-05-26

    The year 2000 is rapidly approaching, and there is a good chance that computer systems that utilize two digit year dates will experience problems in retrieval of date information. The ISA Thermoluminescent Dosimetry Data Processing (TL-DP) software and computer system has been reviewed for Year 2000 compliance issues.

  17. Accreditation of a system of extremity dosimetry: validation and uncertainty of method; Acreditacion de un sistema de dosimetria de extremidades: validacion e incertidumbre del metodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Gutierrez, A. M.; Rodriguez Jimenez, R.; Lopez Moyano, J. L.

    2013-07-01

    The authors' goal is to spread the practical experience gained during the accreditation process paying special attention to the process of method validation and estimation uncertainty of the dosimetry system. (Author)

  18. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may...... be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... rate of accidents than Danish citizens. Age was a major risk factor for accidents causing permanent disability. Change of ship and the first period aboard a particular ship were identified as risk factors. Walking from one place to another aboard the ship caused serious accidents. The most serious...

  19. Are falls more common than road traffic accidents in pediatric trauma?Experience from a Level 1 trauma centre in New Delhi, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Annu Babu; Amulya Rattan; Piyush Ranjan; Maneesh Singhal; Amit Gupta; Subodh Kumar; Biplab Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose:The epidemiology of pediatric trauma is different in different parts of the world.Some researchers suggest falls as the most common mechanism,whereas others report road traffic accidents (RTAs) as the most common cause.The aim of this study is to find out the leading cause of pediatric admissions in Trauma Surgery in New Delhi,India.Methods:Inpatient data from January 2012 to September 2014 was searched retrospectively in Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre Trauma Registry.All patients aged 18 years or less on index presentation admitted to surgical ward/ICU or later taken transfer by the Department of Trauma Surgery were included.Data were retrieved in predesigned proformas.Information thus compiled was coded in unique alphanumeric codes for each variable and subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS version 21.Results:We had 300 patients over a 33 month period.Among them,236 (78.6%) were males and 64 (21.3%) females.Overall the predominant cause was RTAs in 132 (43%) patients.On subgroup analysis of up to 12 years age group (n =147),the most common cause was found to be RTAs again.However,falls showed an incremental upward trend (36.05% in up to 12 age group versus 27% overall),catching up with RTAs (44.89%).Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS) ranged from 0 to 12 with a mean of 8.12 + 2.022.223 (74.33%) patients experienced trauma limited to one anatomic region only,whereas 77 (25.66%) patients suffered polytrauma.288 patients were discharged to home care.Overall,12 patients expired in the cohort.Median hospital stay was 6 days (range 1-182).Conclusion:Pediatric trauma is becoming a cause of increasing concern,especially in the developing countries.The leading cause of admissions in Trauma Surgery is RTAs (43%) as compared to falls from height (27%);however,falls from height are showing an increasing trend as we move to younger age groups.Enhancing road safety alone may not be a lasting solution for prevention of pediatric trauma and

  20. In aqua vivo EPID dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendling, Markus; McDermott, Leah N.; Mans, Anton; Olaciregui-Ruiz, Igor; Pecharroman-Gallego, Raul; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Stroom, Joep; Herk, Marcel J.; Mijnheer, Ben van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: At the Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital in vivo dosimetry using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) has been implemented for almost all high-energy photon treatments of cancer with curative intent. Lung cancer treatments were initially excluded, because the original back-projection dose-reconstruction algorithm uses water-based scatter-correction kernels and therefore does not account for tissue inhomogeneities accurately. The aim of this study was to test a new method, in aqua vivo EPID dosimetry, for fast dose verification of lung cancer irradiations during actual patient treatment. Methods: The key feature of our method is the dose reconstruction in the patient from EPID images, obtained during the actual treatment, whereby the images have been converted to a situation as if the patient consisted entirely of water; hence, the method is termed in aqua vivo. This is done by multiplying the measured in vivo EPID image with the ratio of two digitally reconstructed transmission images for the unit-density and inhomogeneous tissue situation. For dose verification, a comparison is made with the calculated dose distribution with the inhomogeneity correction switched off. IMRT treatment verification is performed for each beam in 2D using a 2D {gamma} evaluation, while for the verification of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments in 3D a 3D {gamma} evaluation is applied using the same parameters (3%, 3 mm). The method was tested using two inhomogeneous phantoms simulating a tumor in lung and measuring its sensitivity for patient positioning errors. Subsequently five IMRT and five VMAT clinical lung cancer treatments were investigated, using both the conventional back-projection algorithm and the in aqua vivo method. The verification results of the in aqua vivo method were statistically analyzed for 751 lung cancer patients treated with IMRT and 50 lung cancer patients treated with VMAT. Results: The improvements by

  1. Study for applying microwave power saturation technique on fingernail/EPR dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byeong Ryong; Choi, Hoon; Nam, Hyun Ill; Lee, Byung Ill [Radiation Health Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    There is growing recognition worldwide of the need to develop effective uses of dosimetry methods to assess unexpected exposure to radiation in the event of a large scale event. One of physically based dosimetry methods electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been applied to perform retrospective radiation dosimetry using extracted samples of tooth enamel and nail(fingernail and toenail), following radiation accidents and exposures resulting from weapon use, testing, and production. Human fingernails are composed largely of a keratin, which consists of {alpha} helical peptide chains that are twisted into a left handed coil and strengthened by disulphide cross links. Ionizing radiation generates free radicals in the keratin matrix, and these radicals are stable over a relatively long period (days to weeks). Most importantly, the number of radicals is proportional to the magnitude of the dose over a wide dose range (0{approx}30 Gy). Also, dose can be estimated at four different locations on the human body, providing information on the homogeneity of the radiation exposure. And The results from EPR nail dosimetry are immediately available However, relatively large background signal (BKS) converted from mechanically induced signal (MIS) after cutting process of fingernail, normally overlaps with the radiation induced signal (RIS), make it difficult to estimate accurate dose accidental exposure. Therefore, estimation method using dose response curve was difficult to ensure reliability below 5 Gy. In this study, In order to overcome these disadvantages, we measured the reactions of RIS and BKS (MIS) according to the change of Microwave power level, and researched about the applicability of the Power saturation technique at low dose.

  2. [Drowning accidents in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krandick, G; Mantel, K

    1990-09-30

    This is a report on five boys aged between 1 and 5 years who, after prolonged submersion in cold water, were treated at our department. On being taken out of the water, all the patients were clinically dead. After 1- to 3-hour successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, with a rectal temperature of about 27 degrees C, they were rewarmed at a rate of 1 degree/hour. Two patients died within a few hours after the accident. One patient survived with an apallic syndrome, 2 children survived with no sequelae. In the event of a water-related accident associated with hypothermia, we consider suitable resuscitation to have preference over rewarming measures. The most important treatment guidelines and prognostic factors are discussed.

  3. Technical Basis Document for PFP Area Monitoring Dosimetry Program

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, J R

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the phantom dosimetry used for the PFP Area Monitoring program and establishes the basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) area monitoring dosimetry program in accordance with the following requirements: Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 835, ''Occupational Radiation Protection'' Part 835.403; Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1), Part 514; HNF-PRO-382, Area Dosimetry Program; and PNL-MA-842, Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual.

  4. Personnel neutron dosimetry at Department of Energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Endres, G.W.R.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.

    1980-08-01

    This study assesses the state of personnel neutron dosimetry at DOE facilities. A survey of the personnel dosimetry systems in use at major DOE facilities was conducted, a literature search was made to determine recent advances in neutron dosimetry, and several dosimetry experts were interviewed. It was concluded that personnel neutron dosimeters do not meet current needs and that serious problems exist now and will increase in the future if neutron quality factors are increased and/or dose limits are lowered.

  5. RENEB accident simulation exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Brzozowska, Beata; Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Baert, Annelot; Beaton-Green, Lindsay; Barrios, Leonardo; Barquinero, Joan Francesc; Bassinet, Celine; Beinke, Christina; Benedek, Anett; Beukes, Philip; Bortolin, Emanuela; Buraczewska, Iwona; Burbidge, Christopher; De Amicis, Andrea; De Angelis, Cinzia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The RENEB accident exercise was carried out in order to train the RENEB participants in coordinating and managing potentially large data sets that would be generated in case of a major radiological event. Materials and methods: Each participant was offered the possibility to activate the network by sending an alerting email about a simulated radiation emergency. The same participant had to collect, compile and report capacity, triage categorization and exposure scenario results ob...

  6. Increase the Safety of Road Traffic Accidents by Applying Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kos Goran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of continual increase of number of traffic accidents and alarming trend of increasing number of traffic accidents with catastrophic consequences for human life and health, it is necessary to actively research and develop methods to combat these trends. One of the measures is the implementation of advanced information systems in existing traffic environment. Accidents clusters, as databases of traffic accidents, introduce a new dimension in traffic systems in the form of experience, providing information on current accidents and the ones that have previously occurred in a given period. This paper proposes a new approach to predictive management of traffic processes, based on the collection of data in real time and is based on accidents clusters. The modern traffic information services collects road traffic status data from a wide variety of traffic sensing systems using modern ICT technologies, creating the most accurate road traffic situation awareness achieved so far. Road traffic situation awareness enhanced by accident clusters' data can be visualized and distributed in various ways (including the forms of dynamic heat maps and on various information platforms, suiting the requirements of the end-users. Accent is placed on their significant features that are based on additional knowledge about existing traffic processes and distribution of important traffic information in order to prevent and reduce traffic accidents.

  7. The survey of occupational accidents in Yazd gas agency (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Khoshakhlagh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Existence of coordinated and professional safety system to prevent occurrence of accidents and potential hazards seem to be essential in installing networks of gas distribution projects. Objective: To survey work-related accidents and safety performance indices in project implementation unit of Yazd gas agency. Methods: This analytical study was conducted on 197 of workforce in Yazd gas agency in 2013 that were selected by census and they were male. Demographic and accident information were gathered using a self-made questionnaire and face- to- face interview, and required information obtained from dossier to determine the safety performance indicators. Safety performance indicators were calculated in separately of 13 types occupations in project implementation unit of gas agency and data were analyzed using T-test. Findings: The highest accident frequency and severity rate were related to digging occupation and then metal line welding. Consequences of accidents were cuts (%56.7 and soreness (%14.9. The causes of accidents were related to uselessness of personal protective equipment (%25.2 and lack of precision in the task (%19.3. The highest rate of accident was observed among the age group 20-29 years with work experience of 4-6 years. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study and the risk of gas processes, it seems to be necessary the implementation of integrated management systems and training of workers about safety rules to improve the safety culture and prevent accidents.

  8. PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Jovanovic

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical services, physicians and nurses play an essential role in the plant safety program through primary treatment of injured workers and by helping to identify workplace hazards. The physician and nurse should participate in the worksite investigations to identify specific hazard or stresses potentially causing the occupational accidents and injuries and in planning the subsequent hazard control program. Physicians and nurses must work closely and cooperatively with supervisors to ensure the prompt reporting and treatment of all work related health and safety problems. Occupational accidents, work related injuries and fatalities result from multiple causes, affect different segments of the working population, and occur in a myriad of occupations and industrial settings. Multiple factors and risks contribute to traumatic injuries, such as hazardous exposures, workplace and process design, work organization and environment, economics, and other social factors. With such a diversity of theories, it will not be difficult to understand that there does not exist one single theory that is considered right or correct and is universally accepted. These theories are nonetheless necessary, but not sufficient, for developing a frame of reference for understanding accident occurrences. Prevention strategies are also varied, and multiple strategies may be applicable to many settings, including engineering controls, protective equipment and technologies, management commitment to and investment in safety, regulatory controls, and education and training. Research needs are thus broad, and the development and application of interventions involve many disciplines and organizations.

  9. Advances in nuclear particle dosimetry for radiation protection and medicine - Ninth Symposium on Neutron Dosimetry (Editorial Material, English)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoetelief, J; Bos, A J.; Schuhmacher, H; McDonald, Joseph C.; Schultz, F W.; Pihet, P

    2004-12-15

    The Ninth Symposium on Neutron Dosimetry has been expanded to cover not only neutron radiation but heavy charged particle dosimetry as well. The applications are found in such fields as radiation protection, aircrew dosimetry, medicine, nuclear power and accelerator health physics. Scientists from many countries from around the world presented their work, and described the latest developments in techniques and instrumentation.

  10. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power.

  11. Instrumentation for the individual dosimetry of workers

    CERN Document Server

    Thévenin, J C

    2003-01-01

    The control of the radiation dose exposure of workers and personnel exposed to ionizing radiations (nuclear industry, nuclear medicine, army, university laboratories etc..) is ensured by individual dosemeters. This dosimetry is mandatory for all workers susceptible to be exposed to more than 30% of the regulatory dose limit. dosemeters are worn on the chest and in some particular cases, on the finger (dosemeter rings) or on the wrist. Passive dosemeters allow to measure the dose a posteriori, while electronic dosemeters allow a direct reading and recording of the dose. This article presents successively: 1 - the general principles of individual dosimetry: situations of exposure, radiation detection, operational data, standardization, calibration and quality assurance, measurement uncertainties; 2 - goals and regulatory framework of individual dosimetry: regulation and recommendations, optimization, respect of dose limits, accidental situations; 3 - passive dosemeters: film, thermoluminescent, radio-photolumin...

  12. Model selection for radiochromic film dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Méndez, Ignasi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the most accurate model for radiochromic film dosimetry by comparing different channel independent perturbation models. A model selection approach based on (algorithmic) information theory was followed, and the results were validated using gamma-index analysis on a set of benchmark test cases. Several questions were addressed: (a) whether incorporating the information of the non-irradiated film, by scanning prior to irradiation, improves the results; (b) whether lateral corrections are necessary when using multichannel models; (c) whether multichannel dosimetry produces better results than single-channel dosimetry; (d) which multichannel perturbation model provides more accurate film doses. It was found that scanning prior to irradiation and applying lateral corrections improved the accuracy of the results. For some perturbation models, increasing the number of color channels did not result in more accurate film doses. Employing Truncated Normal perturbations was found to...

  13. Performance testing of UK personal dosimetry laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, T O

    1985-01-01

    The proposed Ionising Radiations Regulations will require all UK personal dosimetry laboratories that monitor classified personnel to be approved for personal dosimetry by the Health and Safety Executive. It is suggested that these approvals should be based on general and supplementary criteria published by the British Calibration Service (BCS) for laboratory approval for the provision of personal dosimetry services. These criteria specify certain qualitative requirements and also indicate the need for regular tests of performance to be carried out to ensure constancy of dosimetric standards. This report concerns the latter. The status of the BCS criteria is discussed and the need for additional documents to cover new techniques and some modifications to existing documents is indicated. A means is described by which the technical performance of laboratories, concerned with personal monitoring for external radiations, can be assessed, both initially and ongoing. The costs to establish the scheme and operate it...

  14. RADON PROGENY AS AN EXPERIMENTAL TOOL FOR DOSIMETRY OF NANOAEROSOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzer, Lev; Ruzer, Lev S.; Apte, Michael G.

    2008-02-25

    The study of aerosol exposure and dosimetry measurements and related quantitation of health effects are important to the understanding of the consequences of air pollution, and are discussed widely in the scientific literature. During the last 10 years the need to correlate aerosol exposure and biological effects has become especially important due to rapid development of a new, revolutionary industry ?-- nanotechnology. Nanoproduct commerce is predicted to top $1 trillion by 2015. Quantitative assessment of aerosol particle behavior in air and in lung deposition, and dosimetry in different parts of the lung, particularly for nanoaerosols, remains poor despite several decades of study. Direct measurements on humans are still needed in order to validate the hollow cast, animal studies, and lung deposition modeling. We discuss here the use of nanoscale radon decay products as an experimental tool in the study of local deposition and lung dosimetry for nanoaerosols. The issue of the safe use of radon progeny in such measurements is discussed based on a comparison of measured exposure in 3 settings: general population, miners, and in a human experiment conducted at the Paul Scherer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland. One of the properties of radon progeny is that they consist partly of 1 nm radioactive particles called unattached activity; having extremely small size and high diffusion coefficients, these particles can be potentially useful as radioactive tracers in the study of nanometer-sized aerosols. We present a theoretical and experimental study of the correlation between the unattached activity and aerosol particle surface area, together with a description of its calibration and method for measurement of the unattached fraction.

  15. A família vivenciando o acidente doméstico: relato de uma experiência La familia vivenciando el accidente doméstico: relato de una experiencia The family facing the home accident: an experience report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Jane Eyre Xavier de Souza

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivos conhecer a vivência da família frente ao acidente doméstico na criança, identificar os fatores de risco no ambiente doméstico, a partir da percepção da família e analisar o contexto socioeconômico-cultural contribuindo para a ocorrência do acidente doméstico com a criança. Foi realizado com uma família que vivenciou um caso de intoxicação exógena, com uma criança de 4 anos. A metodologia utilizada foi a observação participante e a entrevista semi-estruturada. Os resultados evidenciaram que a família convive com o acidente doméstico na criança como fatos repetidos e o contexto socioeconômico-cultural influencia na quantidade e qualidade desses casos.El trabajo tuvo por objetivos conocer la vivencia de la familia frente el accidente doméstico en el niño, identificar los factores de riesgo en el ambiente doméstico, a partir de la percepción de la familia y analizar el contexto socioeconómico, cultural, contribuyendo para la ocurrencia del accidente doméstico con el niño. Fue realizado con una familia que vivencio el caso de una intoxicación exógena de un niño de 4 años. La metodologia usada fue la observación participante y la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los resultados evidenciaran que la familia convive con el accidente doméstico en el niño como hechos repetidos y el contexto socioeconómico y cultural influencia la cantidad y calidad de los accidentes.This study aims at knowing the behaviour of the family facing the home accidents among children, identifying the risk factors in the home environment, in the family's perception and analysing the socioeconomic-cultural context contributing to the occurrence of children's home accident. The work was made in a family that had experienced a case of poisoning of a 4 year-old child. Participant observation and the semi-structured interview were used as methodology. The results evidenced that the family constantly lives among children

  16. Severe Accident Test Station Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL

    2015-06-01

    Enhancing safety margins in light water reactor (LWR) severe accidents is currently the focus of a number of international R&D programs. The current UO2/Zr-based alloy fuel system is particularly susceptible since the Zr-based cladding experiences rapid oxidation kinetics in steam at elevated temperatures. Therefore, alternative cladding materials that offer slower oxidation kinetics and a smaller enthalpy of oxidation can significantly reduce the rate of heat and hydrogen generation in the core during a coolant-limited severe accident. In the U.S. program, the high temperature steam oxidation performance of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding solutions has been evaluated in the Severe Accident Test Station (SATS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 2012. This report summarizes the capabilities of the SATS and provides an overview of the oxidation kinetics of several candidate cladding materials. A suggested baseline for evaluating ATF candidates is a two order of magnitude reduction in the steam oxidation resistance above 1000ºC compared to Zr-based alloys. The ATF candidates are categorized based on the protective external oxide or scale that forms during exposure to steam at high temperature: chromia, alumina, and silica. Comparisons are made to literature and SATS data for Zr-based alloys and other less-protective materials.

  17. International program on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisel, W

    1995-05-01

    The International Program on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA) was established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1991. Currently, the technical part of IPHECA consists of five projects addressing the following areas of priority health problems or needs: thyroid, hematology, brain damage in utero, epidemiological registry and oral health. Important findings are: 1) a significant increase of thyroid cancer in children in Belarus and Ukraine since 1989, and in Russia since 1992 though not so pronounced. A relationship between detected thyroid cancers and radiation exposure is yet to be established, 2) no increase yet in the incidence of hemoblastoses in the three States, 3) no relationship established between mental retardation and radiation exposure in utero in 4,500 children investigated. The importance of dosimetry and biological indicators of radiation damage has been recognized by IPHECA. Several methods of biological and physical dosimetry are being employed using instrumentation provided by IPHECA. Some preliminary results indicate: 1) unstable aberrations can indicate an integral exposure but it is heavily biased to recent exposures, 2) when comparing healthy persons and patients with hematological diseases in contaminated areas, there is a higher ratio of total aberrations compared to their background and that the level of stable is lower than unstable aberrations, and 3) by applying electron spin resonance (ESR) it has been shown that the individual distribution of doses approaches a log-normal one, especially for adults, and that a peak shift towards higher doses is noticeable for children.

  18. National Differences in Reporting of Work Accidents at Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Sisse; Knudsen, Fabienne

    National Differences in Reporting of Work Accidents at Sea Grøn, S and Knudsen, F Centre for Maritime Health and Safety, University of Southern Denmark Filipinos working on Danish ships experience less work accidents than their Danish colleagues if we are to believe the various statistics available...... that there are diverse institutional and business-related traditions and practices which affect the reporting practice. In the presentation we will reflect upon how different institutional and cultural settings influence reporting practice and we hope to have a discussion with the audience about national differences...... in work accident reporting....

  19. Dosimetry of Low-Energy Beta Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Jette

    Useful techniques and procedures for derermination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy beta radiation were studied and evaluated. The four techniques included were beta spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical...... low-energy beta radiation field a moderated spectrum from a carbon-14 source was used. The measured responce of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreemant with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated response to electrons...

  20. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products ({sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, and {sup 59}Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium,. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation and bioassay follow-up treatment. 78 refs., 35 figs., 115 tabs.

  1. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products (/sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 54/Mn, and /sup 59/Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation; and bioassay follow-up treatment. 64 refs., 42 figs., 118 tabs.

  2. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); VanDenburg, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  3. Dosimetry of Low-Energy Beta Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Jette

    Useful techniques and procedures for derermination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy beta radiation were studied and evaluated. The four techniques included were beta spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical...... low-energy beta radiation field a moderated spectrum from a carbon-14 source was used. The measured responce of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreemant with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated response to electrons...

  4. Fostering a culture of interprofessional education for radiation therapy and medical dosimetry students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, Charlotte, E-mail: charlavender@gmail.com; Miller, Seth; Church, Jessica; Chen, Ronald C.; Muresan, Petronella A.; Adams, Robert D.

    2014-04-01

    A less-studied aspect of radiation therapy and medical dosimetry education is experiential learning through attendance at interprofessional conferences. University of North Carolina radiation therapy and medical dosimetry students regularly attended morning conferences and daily pretreatment peer review, including approximately 145 hours of direct interaction with medical attending physicians and residents, medical physicists, and other faculty. We herein assessed the effect of their participation in these interprofessional conferences on knowledge and communication. The students who graduated from our radiation therapy and medical dosimetry programs who were exposed to the interprofessional education initiative were compared with those who graduated in the previous years. The groups were compared with regard to their knowledge (as assessed by grades on end-of-training examinations) and team communication (assessed via survey). The results for the 2 groups were compared via exact tests. There was a trend for the examination scores for the 2012 cohort to be higher than for the 2007 to 2011 groups. Survey results suggested that students who attended the interprofessional education sessions were more comfortable speaking with attending physicians, residents, physicists, and faculty compared with earlier students who did not attend these educational sessions. Interprofessional education, particularly vertical integration, appears to provide an enhanced educational experience both in regard to knowledge (per the examination scores) and in building a sense of communication (via the survey results). Integration of interprofessional education into radiation therapy and medical dosimetry educational programs may represent an opportunity to enrich the learning experience in multiple ways and merits further study.

  5. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara C, A.; Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Osorio V, M. [ISSSTE, Centro Medico Nacional 20 de Noviembre, Felix Cuevas 540, Col. del Valle, 03100 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Hernandez O, O., E-mail: armando_lara_cam@yahoo.com.mx [Hospital General de Mexico, Dr. Balmis 148, Col. Doctores, 06726 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    In this work we studied the dosimetry performed on CT scan in two different equipment, SOMATOM and Phillips, with 16 and 64 slice respectively. We used 51 pellets of lithium fluoride doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF: Mg, Ti) also knows as TLD-100 due to its physical properties and its easy of use, in this study, first analysis a batch of 56 pellets, but only 53 pellets were optimal for this study, cesium-137 was used as source irradiation, then proceeded to calibrate the batch with X-rays source, measuring the corresponding dose in a Farmers ionization chamber, then, we obtained a calibration curve, and we used as reference to calculation of the applied dose, finally designing ergonomic mesh, were it was deposited a TLD 100, placed in a regions of interest were made to each scan type. Once characterized our material proceeded to testing in 30 patients, which were irradiated with X-ray tube, whose operation was performed at 80, 120 kV with a current of 100, 300 and 400 m A according to scanning protocol. Overall we measured dose of 5 mGy to 53 mGy, these measurements reflect significant dose to can induced cancer, due previous reports published, that doses greater than 20 mGy there is a risk of developing cancer in the long term, but in practice when it assigned a medical diagnosis, there are no dose limits due to benefits patients, however, IAEA publish recommendations that allow us to carry out optimum handling of ionizing radiation, among these is the quality control of the tomography equipment that helps greatly reduce patient dose. (Author)

  6. Kinetics model for lutate dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, M.F.; Mesquita, C.H., E-mail: mflima@ipen.br, E-mail: chmesqui@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    The use of compartmental analysis to predict the behavior of drugs in the organism is considered the better option among numerous methods employed in pharmacodynamics. A six compartments model was developed to determinate the kinetic constants of 177Lu-DOTATATO biodistribution using data from one published study with 67 patients treated by PRRT (Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy) and followed by CT during 68,25 hours. The compartmental analysis was made using the software AnaComp Registered-Sign . The influence of the time pos-injection over the dose assessment was studied taking into account the renal excretion management by aminoacid coinfusion, whose direct effects persist in the first day. The biodistribution curve was split in five sectors: 0-0.25h; 0-3.25h; 3.25-24.25h; 24.25-68.25h and 3.25-68.25h. After the examination of that influence, the study was concentrated in separate the biodistribution curve in two phases. Phase 1: governed by uptake from the blood, considering the time pos-injection until 3.25h and phase 2: governed by renal excretion, considering the time pos-injection from 3.25h to 68.25h. The model considered the organs and tissues superposition in the CT image acquisition by sampling parameters as the contribution of the the activity concentration in blood and relation between the sizes of the whole body and measured organs. The kinetic constants obtained from each phase (1 and 2) were used in dose assessment to patients in 26 organs and tissues described by MIRD. Dosimetry results were in agreement with the available results from literature, restrict to whole body, kidneys, bone marrow, spleen and liver. The advantage of the proposed model is the compartmental method quickness and power to estimate dose in organs and tissues, including tumor that, in the most part, were not discriminate by voxels of phantoms built using CT images. (author)

  7. Applications of Cherenkov Light Emission for Dosimetry in Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Adam Kenneth

    Since its discovery in the 1930's, the Cherenkov effect has been paramount in the development of high-energy physics research. It results in light emission from charged particles traveling faster than the local speed of light in a dielectric medium. The ability of this emitted light to describe a charged particle's trajectory, energy, velocity, and mass has allowed scientists to study subatomic particles, detect neutrinos, and explore the properties of interstellar matter. However, only recently has the phenomenon been considered in the practical context of medical physics and radiation therapy dosimetry, where Cherenkov light is induced by clinical x-ray photon, electron, and proton beams. To investigate the relationship between this phenomenon and dose deposition, a Monte Carlo plug-in was developed within the Geant4 architecture for medically-oriented simulations (GAMOS) to simulate radiation-induced optical emission in biological media. Using this simulation framework, it was determined that Cherenkov light emission may be well suited for radiation dosimetry of clinically used x-ray photon beams. To advance this application, several novel techniques were implemented to realize the maximum potential of the signal, such as time-gating for maximizing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and Cherenkov-excited fluorescence for generating isotropic light release in water. Proof of concept experiments were conducted in water tanks to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method for two-dimensional (2D) projection imaging, three-dimensional (3D) parallel beam tomography, large field of view 3D cone beam tomography, and video-rate dynamic imaging of treatment plans for a number of common radiotherapy applications. The proposed dosimetry method was found to have a number of unique advantages, including but not limited to its non-invasive nature, water-equivalence, speed, high-resolution, ability to provide full 3D data, and potential to yield data in-vivo. Based on

  8. Traffic Accident Analysis Using Decision Trees and Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Miao M.; Abraham, Ajith; Paprzycki, Marcin

    2004-01-01

    The costs of fatalities and injuries due to traffic accident have a great impact on society. This paper presents our research to model the severity of injury resulting from traffic accidents using artificial neural networks and decision trees. We have applied them to an actual data set obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) General Estimates System (GES). Experiment results reveal that in all the cases the decision tree outperforms the neural network. Our research analys...

  9. Radiation accident grips Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, L.

    1987-11-20

    On 13 September two young scavengers in Goiania, Brazil, removed a stainless steel cylinder from a cancer therapy machine in an abandoned clinic, touching off a radiation accident second only to Chernobyl in its severity. On 18 September they sold the cylinder, the size of a 1-gallon paint can, to a scrap dealer for $25. At the junk yard an employee dismantled the cylinder and pried open the platinum capsule inside to reveal a glowing blue salt-like substance - 1400 curies of cesium-137. Fascinated by the luminescent powder, several people took it home with them. Some children reportedly rubbed in on their bodies like carnival glitter - an eerie image of how wrong things can go when vigilance over radioactive materials lapses. In all, 244 people in Goiania, a city of 1 million in central Brazil, were contaminated. The eventual toll, in terms of cancer or genetic defects, cannot yet be estimated. Parts of the city are cordoned off as radiation teams continue washing down buildings and scooping up radioactive soil. The government is also grappling with the political fallout from the accident.

  10. Ensemble-based simultaneous emission estimates and improved forecast of radioactive pollution from nuclear power plant accidents: application to ETEX tracer experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X L; Li, Q B; Su, G F; Yuan, M Q

    2015-04-01

    The accidental release of radioactive materials from nuclear power plant leads to radioactive pollution. We apply an augmented ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) with a chemical transport model to jointly estimate the emissions of Perfluoromethylcyclohexane (PMCH), a tracer substitute for radionuclides, from a point source during the European Tracer Experiment, and to improve the forecast of its dispersion downwind. We perturb wind fields to account for meteorological uncertainties. We expand the state vector of PMCH concentrations through continuously adding an a priori emission rate for each succeeding assimilation cycle. We adopt a time-correlated red noise to simulate the temporal emission fluctuation. The improved EnKF system rapidly updates (and reduces) the excessively large initial first-guess emissions, thereby significantly improves subsequent forecasts (r = 0.83, p 80% average reduction of the normalized mean square error).

  11. Experience and lessons learned from emergency disposal of Fukushima nuclear power station accident%日本福岛核电站核事故应急处置的经验和教训

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐卸古; 甄蓓; 杨晓明; 陈肖华

    2012-01-01

    After Fukushima nuclear accident , we visited the related medical aid agencies for nuclear accidents and con -ducted investigations in disaster-affected areas in Japan. This article summarizes the problems with emergency disposal of Fukushima nuclear accident while disclosing problems that should be solved during the emergency force construction for nu -clear accidents.%日本福岛核事故后,应日本同行的邀请,我们访问了日本核医学应急的相关单位,并到相关地区进行了考察.本文探讨了日本福岛核事故应急处置过程中存在的问题,提出了我国核应急力量建设过程中应注意的问题及相关对策.

  12. Dosimetry implant for treating restenosis and hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Suresh; Gonzales, Gilbert R; Howell, Roger W; Bolch, Wesley E; Adzic, Radoslav

    2014-09-16

    The present invention discloses a method of selectively providing radiation dosimetry to a subject in need of such treatment. The radiation is applied by an implant comprising a body member and .sup.117mSn electroplated at selected locations of the body member, emitting conversion electrons absorbed immediately adjacent selected locations while not affecting surrounding tissue outside of the immediately adjacent area.

  13. Development of A-bomb survivor dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    An all important datum in risk assessment is the radiation dose to individual survivors of the bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first set of dose estimates for survivors was based on a dosimetry system developed in 1957 by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These Tentative 1957 Doses (T57D) were later replaced by a more extensive and refined set of Tentative 1965 Doses (T65D). The T65D system of dose estimation for survivors was also developed at ORNL and served as a basis for risk assessment throughout the 1970s. In the late 1970s, it was suggested that there were serious inadequacies with the T65D system, and these inadequacies were the topic of discussion at two symposia held in 1981. In early 1983, joint US- Japan research programs were established to conduct a thorough review of all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. A number of important contributions to this review were made by ORNL staff members. The review was completed in 1986 and a new Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) was adopted for use. This paper discusses the development of the various systems of A-bomb survivor dosimetry, and the status of the current DS86 system as it is being applied in the medical follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors and their offspring.

  14. Computational Techniques of Electromagnetic Dosimetry for Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Fujiwara, Osamu

    There has been increasing public concern about the adverse health effects of human exposure to electromagnetic fields. This paper reviews the rationale of international safety guidelines for human protection against electromagnetic fields. Then, this paper also presents computational techniques to conduct dosimetry in anatomically-based human body models. Computational examples and remaining problems are also described briefly.

  15. Thermoluminescence Dosimetry Applied to Radiation Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Majborn, Benny

    1982-01-01

    This is a general review of the present state of the development and application of thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) for radiation protection purposes. A description is given of commonly used thermoluminescent dosimeters and their main dosimetric properties, e.g. energy response, dose range...

  16. Dosimetry implant for treating restenosis and hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Suresh; Gonzales, Gilbert R; Howell, Roger W; Bolch, Wesley E; Adzic, Radoslav

    2014-09-16

    The present invention discloses a method of selectively providing radiation dosimetry to a subject in need of such treatment. The radiation is applied by an implant comprising a body member and .sup.117mSn electroplated at selected locations of the body member, emitting conversion electrons absorbed immediately adjacent selected locations while not affecting surrounding tissue outside of the immediately adjacent area.

  17. Intra-Operative Dosimetry in Prostate Brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    CT-based post-implant dosimetry. Figure 1: System concept for TRUS and C-arm fusion B BODY B.1 Brief System Concept The system concept for...C-arm calibration - is it really necessary?,” MICCAI, pp. 639–646, 2005. 10. Brainlab, Inc., Heimstetten, Germany, Vector Vision. 11. Medtronic

  18. Advances in reference and transfer dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desrosiers, M.F. [Ionizing Radiation Division, Physics Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    1999-07-01

    All prerequisites are now in place to create a fundamentally and radically different type of calibration service for the radiation processing industry. Advancements in dosimetry and information technology can be combined to provide industry with on-line calibrations, on demand at a low cost. The remote calibration service will serve as a basis for other areas of metrology. (Author)

  19. Ex Vessel neutron dosimetry analysis of Korea standard nuclear plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Mi Joung; Kim, Byoung Chul; Kim, Kyung Sik; Jeon, Young Kyou; Maeng, Young Jae [Korea Reactor Integrity Surveillance Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Choon Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs), Title 10, Part 50, Appendix H, requires that neutron dosimetry be present to monitor the reactor vessel throughout plant life and that material specimens be used to measure damage associated with the end-of-life fast neutron exposure of the reactor vessel. Currently, Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry (EVND) sets are installed in 16 operating pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in Korea, and of which Yonggwang (YG) Units 3, 4, 5, and 6 and UlChin (UC) Units 3, 4, 5, and 6 are Korea Standard Nuclear Plants (KSNPs). The EVND Program has been designed primarily to meet the code and provide a long term monitoring of fast neutron exposure distributions within the reactor vessel wall that could experience significant radiation induced increases in reference nil ductility transition temperature (RT{sub NDT}) over the service lifetime of the plant. The EVND sets installed have been analyzed regularly according to the plant specification, which is a part of the comprehensive EVND surveillance programs, in all 16 operating PWRs.

  20. Total lymphoid irradiation in the Wistar rat: technique and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; de Jong, J.

    1983-01-01

    The technical and dosimetric aspects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in the Wistar rat were evaluated as part of a set-up to develop a new model for tumor xenotransplantation. Information obtained from anatomical dissections, radionuclide imaging of the spleen, lymphography and chromolymphography was used to standardize the localization portals cut out in a lead plate. The two portals encompassed the lymphoid tissue above and below the diaphragm. A specially designed masonite phantom was used to measure the dose distribution in the simulated target volumes. Ionization chamber dosimetery, thermoluminescence dosimetry and film densitometry were used for measuring exposure and absorbed dose. Irradiation was performed with 250 kV X rays (HVL 3.1 mm Cu). The dose rate was regulated by adjusting the treatment distance. The dose inhomogeneity measured in the target volumes varied between 80-100%. The side scatter dose to non target tissues under the shielded area between the two portals ranged between 20-30%. The technique and dosimetry of total lymphoid irradiation in Wistar rats are now standardized and validated and pave the way for tumor xenotransplantation experiments.

  1. Emergency Management of Maritime Accidents in the Yangtze River: Problems, Practice and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ping Yan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Maritime accidents have received considerable attentions due to the enormous property damage, casualties and serious environmental pollution. This paper first makes statistical analysis of the different types of maritime accidents in the period of 2012 to 2014 in the Yangtze River. Second, the problems of emergency management of maritime accidents are also proposed from the analysis of the major accident “Eastern Star”.. Afterwards, four practice cases, including decision support for maritime accidents, emergency resource allocation, emergency simulation system and effectiveness of emergency management, are introduced to present the insights gained from these practices. Last, in order to address these problems, this paper proposes that an artificial societies, Computational experiments, and Parallel execution (ACP approach should be introduced to establish an improved management system for maritime accidents in the future, and an ACP based maritime accident emergency management framework is proposed.

  2. Factors associated with the severity of construction accidents: The case of South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantanee Dumrak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While the causes of accidents in the construction industry have been extensively studied, severity remains an understudied area. In order to provide more evidence for the currently limited number of empirical investigations on severity, this study analysed 24,764 construction accidents reported during 2002-11 in South Australia. A conceptual model developed through literature uses personal characteristics such as age, experience, gender and language. It also employs work-related factors such as size of organization, project size and location, mechanism of accident and body location of the injury. These were shown to discriminate why some accidents result in only a minor severity while others are fatal. Factors such as time of accident, day of the week and season were not strongly associated with accident severity. When the factors affecting severity of an accident are well understood, preventive measures could be developed specifically to those factors that are at high risk.

  3. Fatal motorcycle accidents and alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M

    1987-01-01

    A series of fatal motorcycle accidents from a 7-year period (1977-1983) has been analyzed. Of the fatalities 30 were operators of the motorcycle, 11 pillion passengers and 8 counterparts. Of 41 operators 37% were sober at the time of accident, 66% had measurable blood alcohol concentration (BAC...

  4. Learning from incidents and accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drupsteen, L.; Kampen, J. van

    2014-01-01

    There are many different definitions for what constitutes an incident or an accident, however the focus is always on unintended and often unforeseen events that cause unintended consequences. This article is focused on the process of learning from incidents and accidents. The focus is on making sure

  5. [Practical management of CPB accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depoix, J-P; Fenet, L; Provenchere, S

    2012-05-01

    Accident of CPB is a reality. It is important to be prepared for discussion with the family, with the hospital administration, eventually with the justice. But we have also to support perfusionnist and anesthetic team in charge of the patient during accident.

  6. Learning from incidents and accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drupsteen, L.; Kampen, J. van

    2014-01-01

    There are many different definitions for what constitutes an incident or an accident, however the focus is always on unintended and often unforeseen events that cause unintended consequences. This article is focused on the process of learning from incidents and accidents. The focus is on making sure

  7. Recent developments of optically stimulated luminescence materials and techniques for radiation dosimetry and clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last 10 years, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL has emerged as a formidable competitor not only to thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD but also to several other dosimetry systems. Though a large number of materials have been synthesized and studied for OSL, Al 2 O 3 :C continues to dominate the dosimetric applications. Re-investigations of OSL in BeOindicate that this material might provide an alternative to Al 2 O 3 :C. Study of OSL of electronic components of mobile phones and ID cards appears to have opened up a feasibility of dosimetry and dose reconstruction using the electronic components of gadgets of everyday use in the events of unforeseen situations of radiological accidents, including the event of a dirty bomb by terrorist groups. Among the newly reported materials, a very recent development of NaMgF 3 :Eu 2+ appears fascinating because of its high OSL sensitivity and tolerable tissue equivalence. In clinical dosimetry, an OSL as a passive dosimeter could do all that TLD can do, much faster with a better or at least the same efficiency; and in addition, it provides a possibility of repeated readout unlike TLD, in which all the dose information is lost in a single readout. Of late, OSL has also emerged as a practical real-time dosimeter for in vivo measurements in radiation therapy (for both external beams and brachytherapy and in various diagnostic radiological examinations including mammography and CT dosimetry. For in vivo measurements, a probe of Al 2 O 3 :C of size of a fraction of a millimeter provides the information on both the dose rate and the total dose from the readout of radioluminescence and OSL signals respectively, from the same probe. The availability of OSL dosimeters in various sizes and shapes and their performance characteristics as compared to established dosimeters such as plastic scintillation dosimeters, diode detectors, MOSFET detectors, radiochromic films, etc., shows that OSL may soon become

  8. Film dosimetry in conformal radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danciu, C.; Proimos, B.S. [Patras Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Medical Physics

    1995-12-01

    Dosimetry, through a film sandwiched in a transverse cross-section of a solid phantom, is a method of choice in Conformal Radiotherapy because: (a) the blackness (density) of the film at each point offers a measure of the total dose received at that point, and (b) the film is easily calibrated by exposing a film strip in the same cross-section, through a stationary field. The film must therefore have the following properties: (a) it must be slow, in order not to be overexposed, even at a therapeutic dose of 200 cGy, and (b) the response of the film (density versus dose curve) must be independent of the photon energy spectrum. A few slow films were compared. It was found that the Kodak X-Omat V for therapy verification was the best choice. To investigate whether the film response was independent of the photon energy, response curves for six depths, starting from the depth of maximum dose to the depth of 25 cm, in solid phantom were derived. The vertical beam was perpendicular to the anterior surface of the phantom, which was at the distance of 100 cm from the source and the field was 15x15 cm at that distance. This procedure was repeated for photon beams emitted by a Cobalt-60 unit, two 6 MV and 15 MV Linear Accelerators, as well as a 45 MV Betatron. For each of those four different beams the film response was the same for all six depths. The results, as shown in the diagrams, are very satisfactory. The response curve under a geometry similar to that actually applied, when the film is irradiated in a transverse cross-section of the phantom, was derived. The horizontal beam was almost parallel (angle of 85) to the plane of the film. The same was repeated with the central ray parallel to the film (angle 90) and at a distance of 1.5 cm from the horizontal film. The field size was again 15x15 at the lateral entrance surface of the beam. The response curves remained the same, as when the beam was perpendicular to the films.

  9. Neutron dosimetry; Dosimetria de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratin, Luciano

    1993-12-31

    A neutron irradiation facility was designed and built in order to establish a procedure for calibrating neutron monitors and dosemeters. A 185 GBq {sup 241} Am Be source of known is used as a reference source. The irradiation facility using this source in the air provides neutron dose rates between 9 nSv s{sup -1} and 0,5 {sup {mu}}Sv s{sup -1}. A calibrated 50 nSv s{sup -1} thermal neutron field is obtained by using a specially designed paraffin block in conjunction with the {sup 241} Am Be source. A Bonner multisphere spectrometer was calibrated, using a procedure based on three methods proposed by international standards. The unfold {sup 241} Am Be neutron spectrum was determined from the Bonner spheres data and resulted in a good agreement with expected values for fluence rate, dose rate and mean energy. A dosimetric system based on the electrochemical etching of CR-39 was developed for personal dosimetry. The dosemeter badge using a (n,{alpha}) converter, the etching chamber and high frequency power supply were designed and built specially for this project. The electrochemical etching (ECE) parameters used were: a 6N KOH solution, 59 deg C, 20 kV{sub pp} cm{sup -1}, 2,0 kHz, 3 hours of ECE for thermal and intermediate neutrons and 6 hours for fast neutrons. The calibration factors for thermal, intermediate and fast neutrons were determined for this personal dosemeter. The sensitivities determined for the developed dosimetric system were (1,46{+-} 0,09) 10{sup 4} tracks cm{sup -2} mSv{sup -1} for thermal neutrons, (9{+-}3) 10{sup 2} tracks cm{sup -2} mSV{sup -1} for intermediate neutrons and (26{+-}4) tracks cm{sup -2} mSv{sup -1} for fast neutrons. The lower and upper limits of detection were respectively 0,002 mSv and 0,6 mSv for thermal neutrons, 0,04 mSv and 8 mSv for intermediate neutrons and 1 mSv and 12 mSv for fast neutrons. In view of the 1990`s ICRP recommendations, it is possible to conclude that the personal dosemeter described in this work is

  10. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...... of accidents in normally Danish winter seasons are remarkable alike the amount of salt used in praxis in the winter 2011/2012. • 2.7 ton NaCl/km when using brine spread with nozzles • 5 ton NaCl/km when using pre wetted salt. • 5.7 ton NaCl/km when using kombi spreaders The explanation is that spreading...

  11. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.

    2004-01-01

    method could be used in all of the companies without revisions. The evaluation of accident cost showed that 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in the Danish corporate accounting systems reviewed while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents......The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...... occupational costs of companies for use by occupational health and safety professionals. The method was tested in nine Danish companies within three different industry sectors and the costs of 27 selected occupational accidents in these companies were calculated. One of the main conclusions is that the SACA...

  12. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents.

  13. Evaluation of correlation between chemical dosimetry and subharmonic spectrum analysis to examine the acoustic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Hadi; Mokhtari-Dizaji, Manijhe; Bathaie, S Zahra; Hassan, Zuhair M

    2010-06-01

    Currently several therapeutic applications of ultrasound in cancer treatment are under progress which uses cavitation phenomena to deliver their effects. There are several methods to evaluate cavitation activity such as chemical dosimetry and measurement of subharmonic signals. In this study, the cavitation activity induced by the ultrasound irradiation on exposure parameters has been measured by terephthalic acid chemical dosimetry and subharmonic analysis. Experiments were performed in the near 1 MHz fields in the progressive wave mode and effect of duty cycles changes with 2 W/cm(2) intensity (I(SATA)) and acoustic intensity changes in continuous mode on both fluorescence intensity and subharmonic intensity were measured. The dependence between fluorescence intensity of terephthalic acid chemical dosimetry and subharmonic intensity analysis were analyzed by Pearson correlation (p-value subharmonic intensity and the fluorescence intensity for continuous mode is higher than for pulsing mode (p-value subharmonic intensity and the fluorescence intensity with sonication intensity (p-value subharmonic intensity at different duty cycles (R=0.997, p-value subharmonic intensity (microW/cm(2)) significantly correlated with the fluorescence intensity (count) (R=0.901; psubharmonic intensity due to subharmonic spectrum analysis. It is concluded that there is dependence between terephthalic acid chemical dosimetry and subharmonic spectrum analysis to examine the acoustic cavitation activity.

  14. The MCART radiation physics core: the quest for radiation dosimetry standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Abdul M; MacVittie, Thomas J; Lasio, Giovanni; Lu, Wei; Prado, Karl L

    2014-01-01

    Dose-related radiobiological research results can only be compared meaningfully when radiation dosimetry is standardized. To this purpose, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)-sponsored Medical Countermeasures Against Radiological Threats (MCART) consortium recently created a Radiation Physics Core (RPC) as an entity to assume responsibility of standardizing radiation dosimetry practices among its member laboratories. The animal research activities in these laboratories use a variety of ionizing photon beams from several irradiators such as 250-320 kVp x-ray generators, Cs irradiators, Co teletherapy machines, and medical linear accelerators (LINACs). In addition to this variety of sources, these centers use a range of irradiation techniques and make use of different dose calculation schemes to conduct their experiments. An extremely important objective in these research activities is to obtain a Dose Response Relationship (DRR) appropriate to their respective organ-specific models of acute and delayed radiation effects. A clear and unambiguous definition of the DRR is essential for the development of medical countermeasures. It is imperative that these DRRs are transparent between centers. The MCART RPC has initiated the establishment of standard dosimetry practices among member centers and is introducing a Remote Dosimetry Monitoring Service (RDMS) to ascertain ongoing quality assurance. This paper will describe the initial activities of the MCART RPC toward implementing these standardization goals. It is appropriate to report a summary of initial activities with the intent of reporting the full implementation at a later date.

  15. Application of luminescence techniques in retrospective dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Jungner, H.

    1999-01-01

    Luminescence signals measured from minerals within bricks or ceramic samples can provide information about the absorbed radiation dose. This feature has for several years been used in dating archaeological and geological samples and recently luminescence techniques have been intensively used far...... retrospective assessment of accident doses received by the population after a nuclear accident. The development of new luminescence techniques after the Chernobyl accident has considerably improved the sensitivity and precision in the evaluation of accident doses. This paper reviews the development work......, especially on optically stimulated luminescence methods for retrospective assessment of accident doses carried out at Riso National Laboratory in collaboration with the University of Helsinki as part bf a joint European Union research project. We demonstrate that doses lower than 100 mGy can be measured from...

  16. Typologie des Accidents Cyclistes

    OpenAIRE

    Amoros, Emmanuelle; BILLOT-GRASSET, Alice; Hours, Martine

    2015-01-01

    L'usage du vélo est en hausse en ville ; cette pratique est encouragée dans le cadre du développement durable et de la lutte contre la sédentarité. Pour accompagner cela, il faut réduire les risques d'accident, et pour ce faire, mieux les connaître. Nous utilisons le Registre des victimes de la circulation routière du Rhône, basé sur les services hospitaliers (dont les urgences) ; il est quasi-exhaustif : env. 1100 blessés à vélo/an versus 120 dans les données officielles. L'ensemble des cycl...

  17. Estimating the frequency of nuclear accidents

    CERN Document Server

    Raju, Suvrat

    2016-01-01

    We used Bayesian methods to compare the predictions of probabilistic risk assessment -- the theoretical tool used by the nuclear industry to predict the frequency of nuclear accidents -- with empirical data. The existing record of accidents with some simplifying assumptions regarding their probability distribution is sufficient to rule out the validity of the industry's analyses at a very high confidence level. We show that this conclusion is robust against any reasonable assumed variation of safety standards over time, and across regions. The debate on nuclear liability indicates that the industry has independently arrived at this conclusion. We pay special attention to the Indian situation, where we show that the existing operating experience provides insufficient data to make any reliable claims about the safety of future reactors. We briefly discuss some policy implications.

  18. An international intercomparison of national network systems used to provide early warning of a nuclear accident having transboundary implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, I.M.G.; Andersen, C.E.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    2000-01-01

    Since the Chernobyl accident many countries now operate large national networks of radiation detectors that continuously monitor radiation levels in order to give early warning of nuclear accidents having transboundary implications. The networks are used to provide data to assist in determining...... be harmonised so that it can be accurately interpreted by other countries and by international organisations. To assist with such harmonisation an intercomparison was held during May/June 1999 at the Riso Natural Environmental Radiation Measurement Station in Denmark and at the PTB underground laboratory...... for dosimetry and spectrometry (UDO) in Germany. The main aim of the intercomparison was to help ensure that results reported by different countries during a nuclear accident will be consistent and comparable. It is important that during an emergency the measurements of the plume doses or contamination levels...

  19. Thermoluminescence in medical dosimetry; Termoluminiscencia en dosimetria medica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, T., E-mail: trivera@ipn.mx [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    The dosimetry by thermoluminescence (Tl) is applied in the entire world for the dosimetry of ionizing radiations specially to personal and medical dosimetry. This dosimetry method has been very interesting for measures in vivo because the Tl dosimeters have the advantage of being very sensitive in a very small volume and they are also equivalent to tissue and they do not need additional accessories (for example, cable, electrometer, etc.) The main characteristics of the diverse Tl materials to be used in the radiation measures and practical applications are: the Tl curve, the share homogeneity, the signal stability after the irradiation, precision and exactitude, the response in function with the dose and the energy influence. In this work a brief summary of the advances of the radiations dosimetry is presented by means of the thermally stimulated luminescence and its application to the dosimetry in radiotherapy. (Author)

  20. LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE EURADOS SURVEY ON INDIVIDUAL MONITORING DATA AND INTERNAL DOSE ASSESSMENTS OF FOREIGNERS EXPOSED IN JAPAN FOLLOWING THE FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NPP ACCIDENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, M A; Fojtik, P; Franck, D; Osko, J; Gerstmann, U; Scholl, C; Lebacq, A L; Breustedt, B; Del Risco Norrlid, L

    2016-09-01

    European Radiation Dosimetry Group e.V. (EURADOS) survey on individual monitoring data and dose assessment has been carried out for 550 foreigners returning home after being exposed in Japan to intakes of radionuclides (mainly (131)I, (132)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs and (137)Cs) as a consequence of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. In vivo and in vitro measurements were performed in their respective countries at an early stage after that accident. Intakes of radionuclides were detected in 208 persons from Europe and Canada, but the committed effective dose E(50) was below the annual dose limit for the public (<1 mSv) in all the cases. Lessons learned from this EURADOS survey are presented here regarding not only internal dosimetry issues, but also the management of the emergency situation, the perception of the risk of health effects due to radiation and the communication with exposed persons who showed anxiety and lack of trust in monitoring data and dose assessments.

  1. Evaluation Metrics Applied to Accident Tolerant Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton; Jon Carmack; Frank Goldner

    2014-10-01

    The safe, reliable, and economic operation of the nation’s nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the United States’ nuclear industry. Continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels, remains central to the industry’s success. Decades of research combined with continual operation have produced steady advancements in technology and have yielded an extensive base of data, experience, and knowledge on light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance under both normal and accident conditions. One of the current missions of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is to develop nuclear fuels and claddings with enhanced accident tolerance for use in the current fleet of commercial LWRs or in reactor concepts with design certifications (GEN-III+). Accident tolerance became a focus within advanced LWR research upon direction from Congress following the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex. The overall goal of ATF development is to identify alternative fuel system technologies to further enhance the safety, competitiveness and economics of commercial nuclear power. Enhanced accident tolerant fuels would endure loss of active cooling in the reactor core for a considerably longer period of time than the current fuel system while maintaining or improving performance during normal operations. The U.S. DOE is supporting multiple teams to investigate a number of technologies that may improve fuel system response and behavior in accident conditions, with team leadership provided by DOE national laboratories, universities, and the nuclear industry. Concepts under consideration offer both evolutionary and revolutionary changes to the current nuclear fuel system. Mature concepts will be tested in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory beginning in Summer 2014 with additional concepts being

  2. Calibration curves for biological dosimetry; Curvas de calibracion para dosimetria biologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero C, C.; Brena V, M. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail cgc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    The generated information by the investigations in different laboratories of the world, included the ININ, in which settles down that certain class of chromosomal leisure it increases in function of the dose and radiation type, has given by result the obtaining of calibrated curves that are applied in the well-known technique as biological dosimetry. In this work is presented a summary of the work made in the laboratory that includes the calibrated curves for gamma radiation of {sup 60} Cobalt and X rays of 250 k Vp, examples of presumed exposure to ionizing radiation, resolved by means of aberration analysis and the corresponding dose estimate through the equations of the respective curves and finally a comparison among the dose calculations in those people affected by the accident of Ciudad Juarez, carried out by the group of Oak Ridge, USA and those obtained in this laboratory. (Author)

  3. TU-F-201-00: Radiochromic Film Dosimetry Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Since the introduction of radiochromic films (RCF) for radiation dosimetry, the scope of RCF dosimetry has expanded steadily to include many medical applications, such as radiation therapy and diagnostic radiology. The AAPM Task Group (TG) 55 published a report on the recommendations for RCF dosimetry in 1998. As the technology is advancing rapidly, and its routine clinical use is expanding, TG 235 has been formed to provide an update to TG-55 on radiochromic film dosimetry. RCF dosimetry applications in clinical radiotherapy have become even more widespread, expanding from primarily brachytherapy and radiosurgery applications, and gravitating towards (but not limited to) external beam therapy (photon, electron and protons), such as quality assurance for IMRT, VMAT, Tomotherapy, SRS/SRT, and SBRT. In addition, RCF applications now extend to measurements of radiation dose in particle beams and patients undergoing medical exams, especially fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures and CT. The densitometers/scanners used for RCF dosimetry have also evolved from the He-Ne laser scanner to CCD-based scanners, including roller-based scanner, light box-based digital camera, and flatbed color scanner. More recently, multichannel RCF dosimetry introduced a new paradigm for external beam dose QA for its high accuracy and efficiency. This course covers in detail the recent advancements in RCF dosimetry. Learning Objectives: Introduce the paradigm shift on multichannel film dosimetry Outline the procedures to achieve accurate dosimetry with a RCF dosimetry system Provide comprehensive guidelines on RCF dosimetry for various clinical applications One of the speakers has a research agreement from Ashland Inc., the manufacturer of Gafchromic film.

  4. Proceedings of the workshop on severe accident research held in Japan (SARJ-97)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Jun [ed.

    1998-05-01

    The Workshop on Severe Accident Research held in Japan (SARJ-97) was taken place at Pacifico Yokohama on October 6 - 8, 1997, and attended by 180 participants from 15 countries and one international organizations. The 59 papers, which cover wide areas of severe accident research both in experiments and analysis, such as in-vessel melt retention, fuel-coolant interaction, fission products behavior, structural integrity, containment behavior, computer simulations, and accident management, are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  5. Proceedings of the workshop on severe accident research held in Japan (SARJ-98)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Jun [ed.

    1999-07-01

    The Workshop on Severe Accident Research held in Japan (SARJ-98) was taken place at Hotel Lungwood on November 4-6, 1998, and attended by 181 participants from 13 countries. The 63 papers, which cover wide areas of severe accident research both in experiments and analyses, such as in-vessel melt retention, fuel-coolant interaction, fission products behavior, structural integrity, containment behavior, computer simulations, and accident management, are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  6. An analysis of accident data for franchised public buses in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W A; Courtney, A J

    1985-10-01

    This paper analyses data on accidents involving franchised public buses operating in Hong Kong. The data were obtained from the Royal Hong Kong Police, the Hong Kong Government Transport Department, the two major franchised bus operators and international sources. The analysis includes an international comparison of accidents with emphasis on the situation in Hong Kong compared to urban areas in the United Kingdom. An attempt has been made to identify the characteristics of bus accidents; accident incidence has been related to time of day, day of the week, time of year, weather conditions, driver's age and experience, hours on duty and policy-reported cause. The results indicate that Hong Kong has a high accident rate compared to Japan, the U.K. and the U.S.A., with particularly high pedestrian involvement rates. Bus accidents peak at around 9:00 AM and 4:00 PM but the accident rate is high throughout the day. Monday and Saturday appear to have a higher than average accident rate. The variability of accident rate throughout the year does not seem to be significant and the accident rate does not appear to be influenced by weather conditions. Older, more experienced drivers generally have a safer driving record than their younger, less experienced colleagues. Accident occurrence is related to the time the driver has been on duty. The paper questions the reliability of police-reported accident causation data and suggests improvements in the design of the accident report form and in the training of police investigators. The relevance of the Hong Kong study for accident research in general is also discussed.

  7. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  8. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2005-02-25

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. Rev. 0 marks the first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database.

  9. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Raffaele, L.; Randazzo, N.; Romano, F.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Marchetto, F.; Sacchi, R.; Giordanengo, S.; Monaco, V.

    2013-07-01

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  10. Trigeminal neuralgia treatment dosimetry of the Cyberknife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Anthony [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Lo, Anthony T., E-mail: tonyho22003@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Dieterich, Sonja; Soltys, Scott G.; Gibbs, Iris C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Chang, Steve G.; Adler, John R. [Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    There are 2 Cyberknife units at Stanford University. The robot of 1 Cyberknife is positioned on the patient's right, whereas the second is on the patient's left. The present study examines whether there is any difference in dosimetry when we are treating patients with trigeminal neuralgia when the target is on the right side or the left side of the patient. In addition, we also study whether Monte Carlo dose calculation has any effect on the dosimetry. We concluded that the clinical and dosimetric outcomes of CyberKnife treatment for trigeminal neuralgia are independent of the robot position. Monte Carlo calculation algorithm may be useful in deriving the dose necessary for trigeminal neuralgia treatments.

  11. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics Czech Academy of Science, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Carpinelli, M. [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Leonora, E.; Randazzo, N. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Presti, D. Lo [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Raffaele, L. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Tramontana, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino, Italy and Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy); Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2013-07-26

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  12. Technical basis document for internal dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, D P

    1991-01-01

    This document provides the technical basis for the Chem-Nuclear Geotech (Geotech) internal dosimetry program. Geotech policy describes the intentions of the company in complying with radiation protection standards and the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) program. It uses this policy and applicable protection standards to derive acceptable methods and levels of bioassay to assure compliance. The models and computational methods used are described in detail within this document. FR-om these models, dose- conversion factors and derived limits are computed. These computations are then verified using existing documentation and verification information or by demonstration of the calculations used to obtain the dose-conversion factors and derived limits. Recommendations for methods of optimizing the internal dosimetry program to provide effective monitoring and dose assessment for workers are provided in the last section of this document. This document is intended to be used in establishing an accredited dosi...

  13. Luminescence characterization of dental ceramics for individual retrospective dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correcher, V.; Gomesdarocha, R. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garcia G, J. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Rivera M, T., E-mail: v.correcher@ciemat.es [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Ceramic materials in general and dental crowns in particular exhibit thermoluminescence (Tl) properties and are of interest in the field of individual retrospective dosimetry. This property could be potentially employed to provide a means of determining cumulative exposure to external gamma radiation arising from accidents or large-scale incidents (radiological terrorism) involving population groups where conventional monitoring has not been established. The thermal stability and dose effect of the UV-blue Tl emission of a well characterized Spanish samples (by means of cathodoluminescence and electron-probe microanalysis) are here reported. It displays (i) an excellent linearity in the range of 0.12 - 9.6 Gy, (II) good stability of the Tl signal of 0.6, 1.2 and 2.4 Gy irradiated samples after 6 months of storage showing an initial rapid decay (ca. 30%) maintaining the stability from 30 days onwards. It means that the electron population decreases asymptotically by the X - axis and the involved electrons are located in deeper traps at room temperature. (III) The reusability performed on the dental ceramic, involving successive cycles of irradiation (1.2 Gy) followed by readout (up to 500 degrees C), exhibited a negligible variation in the Tl response, when measured six times. (IV) The tests of thermal stability at different temperatures (in the range of 100-240 degrees C) confirms a continuum in the trap distribution with progressive changes in the glow curve shape, intensity and temperature position of the maximum peak. Therefore, these preliminary results suggest that dental ceramics could be used as suitable dosimeters in retrospective conditions. (Author)

  14. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  15. Thermocurrent dosimetry with high purity aluminum oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullerton, G.D.; Cameron, J.R.; Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    The application of thermocurrent (TC) to ionizing radiation dosimetry was studied. It was shown that TC in alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) has properties that are suited to personnel dosimetry and environmental monitoring. TC dosimeters were made from thin disks of alumina. Aluminum electrodes were evaporated on each side: on one face a high voltage electrode and on the opposite face a measuring electrode encircled by a guard ring. Exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in stored electrons and holes in metastable trapping sites. The signal was read-out by heating the dosimeter with a voltage source and picnometer connected in series between the opposite electrodes. The thermally remobilized charge caused a transient TC. The thermogram, TC versus time or temperature, is similar to a TL glow curve. Either the peak current or the integrated current is a measure of absorbed dose. Six grades of alumina were studied from a total of four commercial suppliers. All six materials displayed radiation induced TC signals. Sapphire of uv-grade quality from the Adolf Meller Co. (AM) had the best dosimetry properties of those investigated. Sources of interference were studied. Thermal fading, residual signal and radiation damage do not limit TC dosimetry. Ultraviolet light can induce a TC response but it is readily excluded with uv-opaque cladding. Improper surface preparation prior to electrode evaporation was shown to cause interference. A spurious TC signal resulted from polarization of surface contaminants. Spurious TC was reduced by improved cleaning prior to electrode application. Polished surfaces resulted in blocking electrodes and caused a sensitivity shift due to radiation induced thermally activated polarization. This was not observed with rough cut surfaces.

  16. Energy absorption buildup factors, exposure buildup factors and Kerma for optically stimulated luminescence materials and their tissue equivalence for radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishwanath P.; Badiger, N. M.

    2014-11-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) materials are sensitive dosimetric materials used for precise and accurate dose measurement for low-energy ionizing radiation. Low dose measurement capability with improved sensitivity makes these dosimeters very useful for diagnostic imaging, personnel monitoring and environmental radiation dosimetry. Gamma ray energy absorption buildup factors and exposure build factors were computed for OSL materials using the five-parameter Geometric Progression (G-P) fitting method in the energy range 0.015-15 MeV for penetration depths up to 40 mean free path. The computed energy absorption buildup factor and exposure buildup factor values were studied as a function of penetration depth and incident photon energy. Effective atomic numbers and Kerma relative to air of the selected OSL materials and tissue equivalence were computed and compared with that of water, PMMA and ICRU standard tissues. The buildup factors and kerma relative to air were found dependent upon effective atomic numbers. Buildup factors determined in the present work should be useful in radiation dosimetry, medical diagnostics and therapy, space dosimetry, accident dosimetry and personnel monitoring.

  17. Report: dosimetry of diagnostic exams in nuclear medicine; Rapport: dosimetrie des explorations diagnostiques en medecine nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touzery, C. [Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer de Bourgogne, Centre Georges-Francois Leclerc, 21 - Dijon (France); Aubert, B. [Institut Gustave Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Caselles, O. [Centre Claudius-Regaud, 31 - Toulouse (France); Gardin, I. [Centre Henri Becquerel, 76 - Rouen (France); Guilhem, M.Th. [Centre Hospitalier Regional de la Source, 45 - Orleans (France); Laffont, S. [Centre Eugene-Marquis, 35 - Rennes (France); Lisbona, A. [Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer Rene-Gauducheau, 44 - Nantes (France)

    2002-07-01

    A compilation about dosimetry of diagnosis explorations in nuclear medicine is presented in this issue. Dosimetry tables of the different radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine give indications on absorbed and efficient doses according the patients age from one year to adult age. The doses received by a fetus during a lung scintigraphy realized for the pregnant woman susceptible to suffer of pulmonary emboli is presented. A table of efficient doses for the infants until the age of six months for the principal scintigraphy explorations realized in nuclear medicine are given. A chapter of theoretical headlines is devoted to dosimetry and the calculations methods of absorbed and efficient doses in function of patients age. A short chapter concerns the recommendations to explore nursing mothers by scintigraphy. A last chapter treats the efficient doses received during explorations using ionizing radiations in radiology and their place in annual natural irradiation scale. (N.C.)

  18. The willingness to pay of parties to traffic accidents for loss of productivity and consolation compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Rong-Chang; Chen, Tzu-Ying

    2015-12-01

    In this study, willingness to pay (WTP) for loss of productivity and consolation compensation by parties to traffic accidents is investigated using the Tobit model. In addition, WTP is compared to compensation determined by Taiwanese courts. The modelling results showed that variables such as education, average individual monthly income, traffic accident history, past experience of severe traffic accident injuries, the number of working days lost due to a traffic accident, past experience of accepting compensation for traffic accident-caused productivity loss and past experience of accepting consolation compensation caused by traffic accidents have a positive impact on WTP. In addition, average WTP for these two accident costs were obtained. We found that parties to traffic accidents were willing to pay more than 90% of the compensation determined by the court in the scenario of minor and moderate injuries. Parties were willing to pay approximately 80% of the compensation determined by the court for severe injuries, disability and fatality. Therefore, related agencies can use our study findings as the basis for determining the compensation that parties should pay for productivity losses caused by traffic accidents of different types. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. DRDC Ottawa Participation in the SILENE Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison Exercise. June 10-21, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    The expected background of chromosomal aberrations in a normal (unexposed population) is generally accepted to be in the order of 1 dicentric per 1000...acentric terminal or interstitial chromosome fragment of varying size. When it is formed independently of a dicentric or centric ring chromosome aberration...variation). dicentric chromosome aberration resulting from annealing of the centromeric pieces of two broken chromosomes (accompanied by an acentric

  20. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayer, J E; Clark, A T; Loysen, P; Ballinger, M Y; Mishima, J; Owczarski, P C; Gregory, W S; Nichols, B D

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH.

  1. Memory effects and systematic errors in the RL signal from fiber coupled Al2O3:C for medical dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Sidsel Marie Skov; Andersen, Claus Erik

    2010-01-01

    This review describes 40 years of experience gained at Risø The radioluminescence (RL) signal from fiber coupled Al2O3:C can be used for real-time in vivo dosimetry during radiotherapy. RL generally provides measurements with a reproducibility of 2% (one standard deviation). However, we have obse...

  2. Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project manual. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.; MacLellan, J.A.; Long, M.P.

    1994-07-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project, as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy and its Hanford contractors. Project services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessment of potential intakes and internal dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. Specific chapters deal with the following subjects: practices of the project, including interpretation of applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for assessment, documentation, and reporting of doses; assessment of internal dose, including summary explanations of when and how assessments are performed; recording and reporting practices for internal dose; selection of workers for bioassay monitoring and establishment of type and frequency of bioassay measurements; capability and scheduling of bioassay monitoring services; recommended dosimetry response to potential internal exposure incidents; quality control and quality assurance provisions of the program.

  3. Electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry using synthetic hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kwon; Kim, Hwi Young; Ye, Sung Joon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hirata, Hiroshi [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Park, Jong Min [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    The victims exposed doses under 3.5-4.0 Gy have chance to survive if treated urgently. To determine the priority of treatment among a large number of victims, the triage – distinguishing patients who need an urgent treatment from who may not be urgent – is necessary based on radiation biodosimetry. A current gold standard for radiation biodosimetry is the chromosomal assay using human lymphocytes. But this method requires too much time and skilled labors to cover the mass victims in radiation emergencies. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been known for its capability of quantifying radicals in matters. EPR dosimetry is based on the measurement of stable radiation-induced radicals in tooth enamel. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) contained in tooth enamel is a major probe for radiation dose reconstruction. This HAP dosimetry study was performed using a novel EPR spectrometer in Hokkaido University, Japan. The EPR dose-response curve was made using HAP samples. The blind test using 250 cGy samples showed the feasibility of EPR dosimetry for the triage purpose.

  4. Software tool for portal dosimetry research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, P; Hunt, P; Greer, P B; Oliver, L; Baldock, C

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes a software tool developed for research into the use of an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) to verify dose for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) beams. A portal dose image prediction (PDIP) model that predicts the EPID response to IMRT beams has been implemented into a commercially available treatment planning system (TPS). The software tool described in this work was developed to modify the TPS PDIP model by incorporating correction factors into the predicted EPID image to account for the difference in EPID response to open beam radiation and multileaf collimator (MLC) transmitted radiation. The processes performed by the software tool include; i) read the MLC file and the PDIP from the TPS, ii) calculate the fraction of beam-on time that each point in the IMRT beam is shielded by MLC leaves, iii) interpolate correction factors from look-up tables, iv) create a corrected PDIP image from the product of the original PDIP and the correction factors and write the corrected image to file, v) display, analyse, and export various image datasets. The software tool was developed using the Microsoft Visual Studio.NET framework with the C# compiler. The operation of the software tool was validated. This software provided useful tools for EPID dosimetry research, and it is being utilised and further developed in ongoing EPID dosimetry and IMRT dosimetry projects.

  5. Diagnostic radiology dosimetry: status and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera M, T., E-mail: trivera@ipn.mx [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Medical radiation is by far the largest man-made source of public exposure to ionizing radiation. Since 1970 the expression of protection standards shifted from a dose- to a risk-based approach, with dose limits established to yield risks to radiation workers comparable with those for workers in other safe industries. Another hand, worldwide interest in patient dose measurement was stimulated by the publication of Patient Dose Reduction in Diagnostic Radiology by the UK National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). In response to heightened awareness of the importance of patient dose contributed by radiology procedures, there has been a general trend to effect control of patient doses by applying the principles of optimization coupled with an increase in regulatory enforcement. In this sense, thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) has been actively proposed in the last 3 decades thanks to their successful applications in diagnostic radiology. At the same time, it is emerged as the best radiation dosimetry method. The present work presents advantages of thermoluminescent dosimetry for X-ray beams measurements and its optimization. (Author)

  6. Methodological aspects of EPR dosimetry with teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholom, S.; Chumak, V. [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2001-07-01

    EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel is known today as one of the most reliable and accurate methods of retrospective dosimetry. In the present study a comprehensive analysis of influence of the major confounding factors (solar UV exposure and dental X-ray diagnostic procedures) on the accuracy of accidental dose reconstruction is given. In this analysis, the facts known from literature as well as own authors' results were considered. Among the latter it is worth to mention study of doses in enamel caused by X-ray diagnostic procedures as well as investigation of dose profiles in front teeth, which are most affected to solar radiation. As a main result, the variant of dosimetric technique is proposed. It comprises the optimal combination of strongest sides of existing techniques which allows to conduct routine reconstruction of accidental doses as low as few tens of mGy with errors of the same order of magnitude. The proposed technique is primarily destined for dosimetry of Chernobyl liquidators, but could be used for reconstruction of doses of other over-exposed categories. (orig.)

  7. External dosimetry for ionising radiation. From the national standard to the users in radiotherapy and radiation protection; La dosimetrie externe des rayonnements ionisants de la reference nationale aux utilisateurs en radiotherapie et en radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordy, J.M

    2009-07-01

    This report presents a review of the external dosimetry of the ionising radiations for the protection of the human being. Looking at this topic, at first we are confronted with its diversity: the protection of the workers and the public against radiations, the medical exposures for radiotherapy, diagnosis and surgery, and the accidental situations. These aspects are often artificially separated so that the global comprehension becomes more difficult. We underline the points of convergence and the bonds which exist between the concepts of dosimetry adopted to deal with its different aspects. It also appeared useful to avoid proposing a dictionary of definitions copied in the reports of the international commissions, and adopting the formalism of the ICRU reports. This is why the definitions, when they are essential, are put in appendix. This text presents the reasons which led to the adoption of the system of quantity used today for the external dosimetry of the ionising radiations. After an introduction dealing with the general principle, the first chapter deals with the 'physical' quantities and the methods used for the determination of the national references. The second chapter, through the protection against radiation of the workers and the public, describes the bonds between the measurable 'operational' quantities and the non measurable 'protections' quantities which allow establishing the radiation protection limits and check that they are respected. The third chapter deals with the difficulties encountered for the measurements in area and personal dosimetry. The fourth chapter deals with the specificities of the medical exposures with the 'practical' quantities, the principle of optimisation and how radiotherapy is implemented. The fifth chapter briefly describes the case of the concerted exposures and of the accident. In conclusion, we analyse the needs and some potential new avenues of work for the metrology of the

  8. Patient dosimetry in classical radiology;Dosimetrie patient en radiologie classique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, M. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, 75 Paris (France); Sirinelli, D. [Tours Univ., 37 (France); Chateil, J.F. [CHU Bordeaux, 33 (France)

    2009-10-15

    The objective is to give to the participants the means to determine, by simple methods, the dose delivered to skin during a radiological examination (conventional or numerical). The message to remember is: the use of a numerical detector does not lead systematically to reduce the dose at the patient. The dose.length product is a risk indicator. It is important to compare our practices to the procedures written in the guide of procedures and to note and to send to I.R.S.N. the dosimetry data relative to the dosimetry reference levels. (N.C.)

  9. Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakobyan, Aram P.

    In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order based on the expert judgments. The main objective of this PhD dissertation was to develop a software tool (ADAPT) for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. As implied by the name, in dynamic event trees the order and timing of events are determined by the progression of the accident. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. The function of a dynamic APET developed includes prediction of the conditions, timing, and location of containment failure or bypass leading to the release of radioactive material, and calculation of probabilities of those failures. Thus, scenarios that can potentially lead to early containment failure or bypass, such as through accident induced failure of steam generator tubes, are of particular interest. Also, the work is focused on treatment of uncertainties in severe accident phenomena such as creep rupture of major RCS components, hydrogen burn, containment failure, timing of power recovery, etc. Although the ADAPT methodology (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) could be applied to any severe accident analysis code, in this dissertation the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the MELCOR code [1]. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a

  10. Incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder after traffic accidents in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Stephan; Otte, Dietmar; Petri, Maximilian; Decker, Sebastian; Stübig, Timo; Krettek, Christian; Müller, Christian W

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is possibly an overlooked diagnosis of victims suffering from traffic accidents sustaining serious to severe injuries. This paper investigates the incidence of PTSD after traffic accidents in Germany. Data from an accident research unit were analyzed in regard to collision details, and preclinical and clinical data. Preclinical data included details on crash circumstances and estimated injury severity as well as data on victims' conditions (e.g. heart rate, blood pressure, consciousness, breath rate). Clinical data included initial assessment in the emergency department, radiographic diagnoses, and basic life parameters comparable to the preclinical data as well as follow-up data on the daily ward. Data were collected in the German-In-Depth Accident Research study, and included gender, type of accident (e.g. type of vehicle, road conditions, rural or urban area), mental disorder, and AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale) head score. AIS represent a scoring system to measure the injury severity of traffic accident victims. A total 258 out of 32807 data sets were included in this analysis. Data on accident and victims was collected on scene by specialized teams following established algorithms. Besides higher AIS Head scores for male motorcyclists compared to all other subgroups, no significant correlation was found between the mean maximum AIS score and the occurrence of PTSD. Furthermore, there was no correlation between higher AIS head scores, gender, or involvement in road traffic accidents and PTSD. In our study the overall incidence of PTSD after road traffic accidents was very low (0.78% in a total of 32.807 collected data sets) when compared to other published studies. The reason for this very low incidence of PTSD in our patient sample could be seen in an underestimation of the psychophysiological impact of traffic accidents on patients. Patients suffering from direct experiences of traumatic events such as a traffic accident

  11. Cytogenetic study in lymphocytes from children exposed to ionizing radiation after Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padovani, L.; Mauro, F. [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Area Energia Ambiente e Salute; Caporossi, D.; Tedeschi, B.; Vernole, P.; Nicoletti, B. [Rome-2 Univ. (Italy)

    1993-12-31

    This study concerns the monitoring of children from the Byelorussian, Ukrainian and Russian republics exposed to the fall-out of the Chernobyl accident. Cytogenetic analyses were performed on 41 children coming from different areas and exhibiting varying amounts of {sup 137}Cs internal contamination, as evaluated by whole body counter (WBC) analysis. It was found that on a total of 28,670 metaphases scored, radiation-induced chromosome damage is still present, although at a very low frequency. Due to the very low fraction of dicentrics, because of the time elapsed from the accident and the relatively low doses of exposure, radiobiological dosimetry is not possible for these children. However, considering that the WBC data indicate that the children are still exposed to {sup 137}Cs contamination, the observed occurrence of stable chromosome rearrangements and breaks may represent the persisting effect of continuous low doses of radiation. The study also indicates that the parallel use of internal contamination dosimetry and cytogenetics could be usefully employed to monitor individual exposure to radiation and to define further management measures.

  12. Dosimetry tools and techniques for IMRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Daniel A; Moran, Jean M; Dempsey, James F; Dong, Lei; Oldham, Mark

    2011-03-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) poses a number of challenges for properly measuring commissioning data and quality assurance (QA) radiation dose distributions. This report provides a comprehensive overview of how dosimeters, phantoms, and dose distribution analysis techniques should be used to support the commissioning and quality assurance requirements of an IMRT program. The proper applications of each dosimeter are described along with the limitations of each system. Point detectors, arrays, film, and electronic portal imagers are discussed with respect to their proper use, along with potential applications of 3D dosimetry. Regardless of the IMRT technique utilized, some situations require the use of multiple detectors for the acquisition of accurate commissioning data. The overall goal of this task group report is to provide a document that aids the physicist in the proper selection and use of the dosimetry tools available for IMRT QA and to provide a resource for physicists that describes dosimetry measurement techniques for purposes of IMRT commissioning and measurement-based characterization or verification of IMRT treatment plans. This report is not intended to provide a comprehensive review of commissioning and QA procedures for IMRT. Instead, this report focuses on the aspects of metrology, particularly the practical aspects of measurements that are unique to IMRT. The metrology of IMRT concerns the application of measurement instruments and their suitability, calibration, and quality control of measurements. Each of the dosimetry measurement tools has limitations that need to be considered when incorporating them into a commissioning process or a comprehensive QA program. For example, routine quality assurance procedures require the use of robust field dosimetry systems. These often exhibit limitations with respect to spatial resolution or energy response and need to themselves be commissioned against more established dosimeters. A chain of

  13. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Laboratory; Chichester, Heather [Idaho National Laboratory; Johns, Jesse [Texas A& M University; Teague, Melissa [Idaho National Laboratory; Tonks, Michael Idaho National Laboratory; Youngblood, Robert [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant

  14. [Accidents of fulguration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virenque, C; Laguerre, J

    1976-01-01

    Fulguration, first electric accident in which the man was a victim, is to day better known. A clap of thunder is decomposed in two elements: lightning, and thunder. Lightning is caused by an electrical discharge, either within a cloud, or between two clouds, or, above all, between a cloud and the surface of the ground. Experimental equipments owned by the French Electricity Company and by the Atomic Energy Commission, have allowed to photograph lightnings and to measure certain physical characteristics (Intensity variable between 25 to 100 kA, voltage variable between 20 to 1 000 kV). The frequency of storms was learned: the isokeraunic level, in France, is about 20, meaning that thunder is heard twenty days during one year. Man may be stricken by thunder by direct hit, by sudden bursting, by earth current, or through various conductors. The electric charge which reached him may go to the earth directly by contact with the ground or may dissipate in the air through a bony promontory (elbow). The total number of victims, "wounded" or deceased, is not now known by statistics. Death comes by insulation breakdown of one of several anatomic cephalic formations: skull, meninx, brain. Many various lesions may happen in survivors: loss of consciousness, more or less long, sensorial or motion deficiencies. All these signs are momentary and generally reversible. Besides one may observe much more intense lesions on the skin: burns and, over all, characteristic aborescence (skin effect by high frequency current). The heart is protected, contrarily to what happens with industrial electrocution. The curative treatment is merely symptomatic : reanimation, surgery for burns or associated traumatic lesions. A prevention is researched to help the lonely man, in the country or in the mountains in the houses (lightning conductor, Faraday cage), in vehicles (aircraft, cars, ships). The mysterious and unforseeable character of lightning still stays, leaving a door opened for numerous

  15. Accident Tolerant Fuel Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Smith; Heather Chichester; Jesse Johns; Melissa Teague; Michael Tonks; Robert Youngblood

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional “accident-tolerant” (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  16. Key Parameters for Operator Diagnosis of BWR Plant Condition during a Severe Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the key information needed from nuclear power plant instrumentation to guide severe accident management and mitigation for boiling water reactor (BWR) designs (specifically, a BWR/4-Mark I), estimate environmental conditions that the instrumentation will experience during a severe accident, and identify potential gaps in existing instrumentation that may require further research and development. This report notes the key parameters that instrumentation needs to measure to help operators respond to severe accidents. A follow-up report will assess severe accident environmental conditions as estimated by severe accident simulation model analysis for a specific US BWR/4-Mark I plant for those instrumentation systems considered most important for accident management purposes.

  17. Dosimetry intercomparisons in European medical device sterilization plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.; Sharpe, P.H.G.

    2000-01-01

    Dosimetry intercomparisons have been carried out involving two-thirds of all European radiation sterilization facilities. Dosimeters for the intercomparisons were supplied by two accredited calibration laboratories. The results show good agreement, and indicate overall dosimetry accuracy of the o...... of the order of +/-5% (1 sigma) for both Co-60 and electron beam plants. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  18. [Instrumental radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation dosimetry: general principals and modern methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perov, S Iu; Kudriashov, Iu B; Rubtsova, N B

    2012-01-01

    The modern experimental radiofrequency electromagnetic field dosimetry approach has been considered. The main principles of specific absorbed rate measurement are analyzed for electromagnetic field biological effect assessment. The general methodology of specific absorbed rate automated dosimetry system applied to establish the compliance of radiation sources with the safety standard requirements (maximum permissible levels and base restrictions) is described.

  19. Neutron dosimetry and radiation damage calculations for HFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, L.R.; Ratner, R.T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Neutron dosimetry measurements have been conducted for various positions of the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in order to measure the neutron flux and energy spectra. Neutron dosimetry results and radiation damage calculations are presented for positions V10, V14, and V15.

  20. Use of the GATE Monte Carlo package for dosimetry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visvikis, D. [INSERM U650, LaTIM, University Hospital Medical School, F 29609 Brest (France)]. E-mail: Visvikis.Dimitris@univ-brest.fr; Bardies, M. [INSERM U601, CHU Nantes, F 44093 Nantes (France); Chiavassa, S. [INSERM U601, CHU Nantes, F 44093 Nantes (France); Danford, C. [Department of Medical Physics, MSKCC, New York (United States); Kirov, A. [Department of Medical Physics, MSKCC, New York (United States); Lamare, F. [INSERM U650, LaTIM, University Hospital Medical School, F 29609 Brest (France); Maigne, L. [Departement de Curietherapie-Radiotherapie, Centre Jean Perrin, F 63000 Clemont-Ferrand (France); Staelens, S. [UGent-ELIS, St-Pietersnieuwstraat, 41, B 9000 Gent (Belgium); Taschereau, R. [CRUMP Institute for Molecular Imaging, UCLA, Los Angeles (United States)

    2006-12-20

    One of the roles for Monte Carlo (MC) simulation studies is in the area of dosimetry. A number of different codes dedicated to dosimetry applications are available and widely used today, such as MCNP, EGSnrc and PTRAN. However, such codes do not easily facilitate the description of complicated 3D sources or emission tomography systems and associated data flow, which may be useful in different dosimetry application domains. Such problems can be overcome by the use of specific MC codes such as GATE (GEANT4 Application to Tomographic Emission), which is based on Geant4 libraries, providing a scripting interface with a number of advantages for the simulation of SPECT and PET systems. Despite this potential, its major disadvantage is in terms of efficiency involving long execution times for applications such as dosimetry. The strong points and disadvantages of GATE in comparison to other dosimetry specific codes are discussed and illustrated in terms of accuracy, efficiency and flexibility. A number of features, such as the use of voxelised and moving sources, as well as developments such as advanced visualization tools and the development of dose estimation maps allowing GATE to be used for dosimetry applications are presented. In addition, different examples from dosimetry applications with GATE are given. Finally, future directions with respect to the use of GATE for dosimetry applications are outlined.

  1. The Consumer Quality Index in an accident and emergency department : Internal consistency, validity and discriminative capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Nanne; Sturms, Leontien M.; Stellato, Rebecca K.; Schrijvers, Augustinus J P; van Stel, Henk F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients' experiences are an indicator of health-care performance in the accident and emergency department (A&E). The Consumer Quality Index for the Accident and Emergency department (CQI A&E), a questionnaire to assess the quality of care as experienced by patients, was investigated. Th

  2. 高校辅导员处理大学生意外伤害事故的经验探究与思考%The Exploration and Consideration on College Counselors’ Experience in Dealing with the College Students’ Accidental Injury Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕利珊

    2015-01-01

    高校校园人口密集,突发事件屡见不鲜,特别是校园意外伤害事故几乎是每所高校都存在的隐性问题,由于它的偶然性和不可控性,及时正确的处理好校园意外伤害,是保证学生生命安全的首要条件。高校辅导员是学生学习、生活、人生的导师,是处理一切学生事务的一线工作者,处理好学生意外伤害事故,是高校辅导员面临的重大课题。文章通过文献资料法并结合亲身经历尝试对高校辅导员处理学生意外事故中的经验作出归纳总结,并对研究主题做出深入思考,以期为此类事故的发生提供处理意见和经验借鉴,并对辅导员日常学生工作提供理论指导。%The campus is densely populated and there are a lot of emergency happened now and then. Especially the accidental injury accident in campus is almost the hidden problems exist in all the colleges and universities. Because of its accidental and uncontrollable nature, to handle timely and correctly the campus accident harm to students is the first condition of life safety. College counselors are the mentors of students learning, living and life, and they are also the first line workers dealing with all the affairs of students. To handle student injury accidents is a major task faced by college counselors. From the literature material method and personal experience, the paper tries to collect the experience dealing with student accident of college counselors, and make deep thinking on research topics, so as to provide this kind of accident handling opinions and experience for reference, and theoretical guidance of student’s daily work as well.

  3. Consequences of severe nuclear accidents in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Petra; Arnold, Delia; Mraz, Gabriele; Arnold, Nikolaus; Gufler, Klaus; Kromp-Kolb, Helga; Kromp, Wolfgang; Sutter, Philipp

    2013-04-01

    agreement with Chernobyl experiences. However, emergency planning presently is still often focussing on too small areas. In reality, almost all of Europe should be prepared for nuclear disaster. The project investigated also the effect of a simple phase-out scenario. A regional phase-out policy is effective for reducing or even eliminating high damage in the respective regions. It should also be mentioned that risk distribution depends strongly on accident frequency, but this parameter is highly uncertain. The work in flexRISK was funded by the Austrian Climate and Energy Fund (KLI.EN).

  4. Sandia National Laboratories Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (Rev 4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goke, Sarah Hayes [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Elliott, Nathan Ryan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories’ Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual is intended to provide extended technical discussion and justification of the internal dosimetry program at SNL. It serves to record the approach to evaluating internal doses from radiobioassay data, and where appropriate, from workplace monitoring data per the Department of Energy Internal Dosimetry Program Guide DOE G 441.1C. The discussion contained herein is directed primarily to current and future SNL internal dosimetrists. In an effort to conserve space in the TBM and avoid duplication, it contains numerous references providing an entry point into the internal dosimetry literature relevant to this program. The TBM is not intended to act as a policy or procedure statement, but will supplement the information normally found in procedures or policy documents. The internal dosimetry program outlined in this manual is intended to meet the requirements of Federal Rule 10CFR835 for monitoring the workplace and for assessing internal radiation doses to workers.

  5. Development of an accident sequence precursor methodology and its application to significant accident precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seung Hyun; Park, Sung Hyun; Jae, Moo Sung [Dept. of of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The systematic management of plant risk is crucial for enhancing the safety of nuclear power plants and for designing new nuclear power plants. Accident sequence precursor (ASP) analysis may be able to provide risk significance of operational experience by using probabilistic risk assessment to evaluate an operational event quantitatively in terms of its impact on core damage. In this study, an ASP methodology for two operation mode, full power and low power/shutdown operation, has been developed and applied to significant accident precursors that may occur during the operation of nuclear power plants. Two operational events, loss of feedwater and steam generator tube rupture, are identified as ASPs. Therefore, the ASP methodology developed in this study may contribute to identifying plant risk significance as well as to enhancing the safety of nuclear power plants by applying this methodology systematically.

  6. The child accident repeater: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J G

    1980-04-01

    The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.

  7. Hindsight Bias in Cause Analysis of Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atsuo Murata; Yasunari Matsushita

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that hindsight becomes an obstacle to the objective investigation of an accident, and that the proper countermeasures for the prevention of such an accident is impossible if we view the accident with hindsight. Therefore, it is important for organizational managers to prevent hindsight from occurring so that hindsight does not hinder objective and proper measures to be taken and this does not lead to a serious accident. In this study, a basic phenomenon potentially related to accidents, that is, hindsight was taken up, and an attempt was made to explore the phenomenon in order to get basically insights into the prevention of accidents caused by such a cognitive bias.

  8. Severe accident simulation at Olkiuoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirkkonen, H.; Saarenpaeae, T. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), Olkiluoto (Finland); Cliff Po, L.C. [Micro-Simulation Technology, Montville, NJ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A personal computer-based simulator was developed for the Olkiluoto nuclear plant in Finland for training in severe accident management. The generic software PCTRAN was expanded to model the plant-specific features of the ABB Atom designed BWR including its containment over-pressure protection and filtered vent systems. Scenarios including core heat-up, hydrogen generation, core melt and vessel penetration were developed in this work. Radiation leakage paths and dose rate distribution are presented graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an 486 DX2-66, PCTRAN-TVO achieves a speed about 15 times faster than real-time. A convenient and user-friendly graphic interface allows full interactive control. In this paper a review of the component models and verification runs are presented.

  9. Road characteristics and bicycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, P; Björnstig, U; Bygren, L O

    1996-12-01

    In Umeå, Sweden, defects in the physical road surface contributed to nearly half of the single bicycle accidents. The total social cost of these injuries to people amount to at least SEK 20 million (SEK 60,000 or about USD 8,500 per accident), which corresponds to the estimated loss of "eight life equivalents a year". Improved winter maintenance seems to have the greatest injury prevention potential and would probably reduce the number of injuries considerably, whereas improved road quality and modification of kerbs would reduce the most severe injuries. A local traffic safety program should try to prevent road accidents instead of handling the consequences of them. In accordance with Parliament decisions on traffic we would like to see increased investment in measures favoring bicycle traffic, where cycling is seen as a solution, not as a problem.

  10. Bathtub immersion accidents involving children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, J; Nixon, J

    1977-02-12

    A review of 19 consecutive serious bathtub immersion accidents (11 survivals, 8 fatalities) is presented. In all instances, consciousness was lost in the water. Unlike other childhood accidents which usually show a male predominance, the sexes are equally affected. The modal age is 11 months. Six separate causes of bath drownings and near-drownings have been identified, and in 14 of the 19 accidents, two or more causes were operating concurrently. Median estimated immersion time for survivals was four minutes, and five minutes for fatalities. The median depth of water was eight inches. An 'at risk' profile for home bathtub drownings is presented; this includes the youngest or second youngest child of a large family, a family of grade 4 to 7 sociooccupational status (congalton) and a family in which routine is temporarily broken.

  11. Internal Accident Report on EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Department

    2006-01-01

    The A2 Safety Code requires that, the Internal Accident Report form must be filled in by the person concerned or any witness to ensure that all the relevant services are informed. Please note that an electronic version of this form has been elaborated in collaboration with SC-IE, HR-OPS-OP and IT-AIS. Whenever possible, the electronic form shall be used. The relative icon is available on the EDH Desktop, Other tasks page, under the Safety heading, or directly here: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Accident/. If you have any questions, please contact the SC Secretariat, tel. 75097 Please notice that the Internal Accident Report is an integral part of the Safety Code A2 and does not replace the HS50.

  12. Fukushima accident study using MELCOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Randall O Gauntt

    2013-01-01

    The accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station stunned the world as the sequences played out over severals days and videos of hydrogen explosions were televised as they took place.The accidents all resulted in severe damage to the reactor cores and releases of radioactivity to the environment despite heroic measures had taken by the operating personnel.The following paper provides some background into the development of these accidents and their root causes,chief among them,the prolonged station blackout conditions that isolated the reactors from their ultimate heat sink — the ocean.The interpretations given in this paper are summarized from a recently completed report funded by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE).

  13. Neutron dosimetry for low dose rate Cf-252 AT sources and adherence to recent clinical dosimetry protocol for brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, M.J.; Wierzbicki, J.G.; Van den Heuvel, F. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Martin, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1997-12-01

    In 1995, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 43 (AAPM TG-43) published a protocol obsoleting all mixed-field radiation dosimetry for Cf-252. Recommendations for a new brachytherapy dosimetry formalism made by this Task Group favor quantification of source strength in terms of air kerma rather than apparent Curies or other radiation units. Additionally, representation of this dosimetry data in terms of radial dose functions, anisotropy functions, geometric factors, and dose rate constants are in an angular and radial (spherical) coordinate system as recommended, rather than the along-away dosimetry data (Cartesian coordinate system) currently available. This paper presents the initial results of calculated neutron dosimetry in a water phantom for a Cf-252 applicator tube (AT) type medical source soon available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  14. Dosimetry applications in GATE Monte Carlo toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis

    2017-02-21

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are a well-established method for studying physical processes in medical physics. The purpose of this review is to present GATE dosimetry applications on diagnostic and therapeutic simulated protocols. There is a significant need for accurate quantification of the absorbed dose in several specific applications such as preclinical and pediatric studies. GATE is an open-source MC toolkit for simulating imaging, radiotherapy (RT) and dosimetry applications in a user-friendly environment, which is well validated and widely accepted by the scientific community. In RT applications, during treatment planning, it is essential to accurately assess the deposited energy and the absorbed dose per tissue/organ of interest, as well as the local statistical uncertainty. Several types of realistic dosimetric applications are described including: molecular imaging, radio-immunotherapy, radiotherapy and brachytherapy. GATE has been efficiently used in several applications, such as Dose Point Kernels, S-values, Brachytherapy parameters, and has been compared against various MC codes which are considered as standard tools for decades. Furthermore, the presented studies show reliable modeling of particle beams when comparing experimental with simulated data. Examples of different dosimetric protocols are reported for individualized dosimetry and simulations combining imaging and therapy dose monitoring, with the use of modern computational phantoms. Personalization of medical protocols can be achieved by combining GATE MC simulations with anthropomorphic computational models and clinical anatomical data. This is a review study, covering several dosimetric applications of GATE, and the different tools used for modeling realistic clinical acquisitions with accurate dose assessment. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. In vivo light dosimetry for pleural PDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimofte, Andreea; Zhu, Timothy C.; Finlay, Jarod C.; Culligan, Melissa; Edmonds, Christine E.; Friedberg, Joseph S.; Cengel, Keith; Hahn, Stephen M.

    2009-02-01

    In-vivo light Dosimetry for patients undergoing photodynamic therapy (PDT) is one of the important dosimetry quantities critical for predicting PDT outcome. This study examines the light fluence (rate) delivered to patients undergoing pleural PDT as a function of treatment time, treatment volume and surface area, and its accuracy as a function of the calibration accuracies of each isotropic detector and the calibration integrating sphere. The patients studied here were enrolled in Phase II clinical trial of Photofrin-mediated PDT for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with pleural effusion. The ages of the patients studied varied from 34 to 69 year old. All patients were administered 2mg per kg body weight Photoprin 24 hours before the surgery. Patients undergoing photodynamic therapy (PDT) are treated with laser light with a light fluence of 60 J/cm^2 at 630nm. Fluence rate (mW/cm^2) and cumulative fluence (J/cm^2) was monitored at 7 different sites during the entire light treatment delivery. Isotropic detectors were used for in-vivo light dosimetry. The anisotropy of each isotropic detector was found to be within 30%. The mean fluence rate delivery varied from 37.84 to 94.05 mW/cm^2 and treatment time varied from 1762 to 5232s. We have established a correlation between the treatment time and the treatment volume. The results are discussed using an integrating sphere theory and the measured tissue optical properties. The result can be used as a clinical guideline for future pleural PDT treatment.

  16. Neutron spectrometry and dosimetry with ANNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R.; Hernandez D, V. M. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Gallego, E.; Lorente, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], e-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com

    2009-10-15

    Artificial neural networks technology has been applied to unfold the neutron spectra and to calculate the effective dose, the ambient equivalent dose, and the personal dose equivalent for {sup 252}Cf and {sup 241}AmBe neutron sources. A Bonner sphere spectrometry with a {sup 6}LiI(Eu) scintillator was utilized to measure the count rates of the spheres that were utilized as input in two artificial neural networks, one for spectrometry and another for dosimetry. Spectra and the ambient dose equivalent were also obtained with BUNKIUT code and the UTA4 response matrix. With both procedures spectra and ambient dose equivalent agrees in less than 10%. (author)

  17. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratory at INFLPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlat, F.; Minea, R.; Scarisoreanu, A.; Badita, E.; Sima, E.; Dumitrascu, M.; Stancu, E.; Vancea, C., E-mail: scarlat.f@gmail.com [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics - INFLPR, Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-07-01

    National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics (INFLPR) has constructed a High Energy Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory SSDL-STARDOOR - for performing dosimetric calibrations according to ISO IEC SR/EN 17025:2005 standards. This is outfitted with UNIDOS Secondary Standard Dosimeter from PTW (Freiburg Physikalisch-Technische Werksttaten) calibrated at the PTB-Braunschweig (German Federal Institute of Physics and Metrology). A radiation beam of the quality of Q used by our laboratory as calibration source are provided by INFLPR 7 MeV electron beam linear accelerator mounted in our facility. (author)

  18. Eurados trial performance test for photon dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, H.; Bordy, J.M.; Ambrosi, P.

    2001-01-01

    Within the framework of the EURADOS Action entitled Harmonisation and Dosimetric Quality Assurance in Individual Monitoring for External Radiation, trial performance tests for whole-body and extremity personal dosemeters were carried out. Photon, beta and neutron dosemeters were considered....... This paper summarises the results of the whole-body photon dosemeter test. Twenty-six dosimetry services from all EU Member States and Switzerland participated. Twelve different radiation fields were used to simulate various workplace irradiation fields. Dose values from 0.4 mSv to 80 mSv were chosen. From...

  19. Characterization of brazilian wollastonite for radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, D.N. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sao Cristovao/SE (Brazil); Melo, A.P.; Gazano, V.S.O.; Caldas, L.V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: dnsouza@fisca.ufs.br

    2006-07-01

    In these work preliminary results of the characterization analyses of Brazilian Wollastonite for radiation dosimetry are presented. Wollastonite is a silicate of calcium, Ca(SiO{sub 3}), and it was acquired in the form of rude mineral with Andradite inclusions. The sample was cleaned and prepared for obtained selected grains of Wollastonite. The analyses of chemical and mineralogical compositions were obtained using the neutron activation and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. The thermoluminescent (TL) glow curve of the material shows a prominent peak at about 200 C. TL emission spectra, and photoinduced emission spectra were also obtained. (Author)

  20. Effectiveness of electronic stability control on single-vehicle accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2015-01-01

    the following were significant. For the driver: Age, gender, driving experience, valid driving license, and seat belt use. For the vehicle: Year of registration, weight, and ESC. For the accident surroundings: Visibility, light, and location. Finally, for the road: Speed limit, surface, and section...

  1. Incidence of road traffic accidents and pattern of injury among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... but few community-based studies have investigated the problem in Nigeria. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the incidence of accidents and patterns of non-fatal ... in the year preceding the study, type of injury sustained, motorcycle riding experience, ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  2. How mobile robots have helped at Chernobyl and other accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meieran, H.B.

    1988-04-01

    The use of mobile robots at several recent accidents including Chernobyl is described. The robots assumed, with varying degrees of success, many of the tasks and missions that are normally conducted by the emergency response team. Lessons learned from the experiences, together with operational and performance problems are discussed. (U.K.).

  3. An integrated graphic–taxonomic–associative approach to analyze human factors in aviation accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Lei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human factors are critical causes of modern aviation accidents. However, existing accident analysis methods encounter limitations in addressing aviation human factors, especially in complex accident scenarios. The existing graphic approaches are effective for describing accident mechanisms within various categories of human factors, but cannot simultaneously describe inadequate human–aircraft–environment interactions and organizational deficiencies effectively, and highly depend on analysts’ skills and experiences. Moreover, the existing methods do not emphasize latent unsafe factors outside accidents. This paper focuses on the above three limitations and proposes an integrated graphic–taxonomic–associative approach. A new graphic model named accident tree (AcciTree, with a two-mode structure and a reaction-based concept, is developed for accident modeling and safety defense identification. The AcciTree model is then integrated with the well-established human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS to enhance both reliability of the graphic part and logicality of the taxonomic part for improving completeness of analysis. An associative hazard analysis technique is further put forward to extend analysis to factors outside accidents, to form extended safety requirements for proactive accident prevention. Two crash examples, a research flight demonstrator by our team and an industrial unmanned aircraft, illustrate that the integrated approach is effective for identifying more unsafe factors and safety requirements.

  4. Accidental knowledge: Using accidents and other project failures to inform research in systems engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Diane C.

    Projects experience cost overruns, late deliveries, quality issues, cancellation, and accidents despite the best efforts of the systems engineering community. There is relatively little research on why systems engineering failures in general happen, but a substantial body of work on accident causation. Here, we investigate whether systems failures in general exhibit the same patterns of causation as accidents. We conducted a review of existing accident models to develop a model that could be applied to all types of project failures. Our model helped us to classify where the factors occur during the system development/system operation phases and which entity was involved in each factor. We analyzed 58 failure case studies. The failure cases span non-accidents, accidents, and dual failures. The sources for each subset had varying depth and scope of investigation. We developed a coding method to compare the factors between failure cases that broke each factor down into an "actor-action-object" structure. We further generalized the actions from the "actor-action-object" strings into control flaws so that we could analyze the failure cases at a high level. We analyzed the control flaws, actions, and actors for each failure case and compared the results for accidents and non-accidents. Of our results that we could not attribute to study biases, we found similarities and differences between project failure causation. We also identified which control flaws, actions, and actors were the most prevalent in the different types of project failures. Of all the actions, "failure to consider factor in system development" contributed most to non-accidents, while "failure to consider step in risk management" contributed the most to accidents. Of all the actors, "company management" contributed the most to non-accidents and accidents.

  5. Retrospective dosimetry: Preliminary use of the single aliquot regeneration (SAR) protocol for the measurement of quartz dose in young house bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, D.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    In retrospective dosimetry, the total dose absorbed by some pre-existing dosemeters, such as house bricks or tiles, is used to derive the dose to the population arising from a nuclear accident. This paper uses the newly developed SAR protocol to determine the total dose in young house bricks from...... the vicinity of the Chernobyl reactor site and from Roskilde, Denmark. For these samples, it is shown that high precision (similar to 1%) on the mean estimates of total dose can be achieved with similar to 20 independent measurements. The SAR total dose estimates of two Danish house bricks agree...

  6. Fatal motorcycle accidents in the county of Funen (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M

    1988-01-01

    A study of motorcycle fatalities in the period 1977-1983 in the county of Funen, Denmark was compared with an analysis of data obtained from the Accident Register at the Odense University Hospital. Among the operators killed one fifth were illegally operating the motorcycle. A remarkable statisti......A study of motorcycle fatalities in the period 1977-1983 in the county of Funen, Denmark was compared with an analysis of data obtained from the Accident Register at the Odense University Hospital. Among the operators killed one fifth were illegally operating the motorcycle. A remarkable...... statistical difference in distribution of accidents involved motorcycles and the total distribution of motorcycles in the county was reported, thus finding an over-representation of heavy motorcycles in the present study. No important differences were found in the distribution of type of accidents compared...... to other studies. In the present study all but one victim were tested for blood-alcohol concentration (BAC). The results differ from previous studies in as much as 50% of the killed operators of an accident involving motorcycles had a BAC above 0.08%. The reported distribution by age, licensing experience...

  7. [Paragliding accidents--a prospective analysis in Swiss mountain regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, S; Karli, U; Matter, P

    1993-01-01

    During the period from 1.1 to 31.12.90, 86 injuries associated with paragliding were analysed in a prospective study in 12 different Swiss hospitals with reference to causes, patterns, and frequencies. Spine injuries (36%) and lesions of the lower extremities (35%) were diagnosed most frequently. Surprisingly no neurological complications occurred, which is possibly explained by the solitary axial trauma. In 15 cases very severe malleolar fractures required surgical intervention. One accident was fatal due to a lung rupture. 60% of all accidents happened during the landing phase, 26% at launching and 14% at flight. Half of the pilots were affected in their primary training course. Most accidents were due to an in-flight error of judgement, such as incorrect estimation of wind conditions and a choice of unfavourable landing sites. In contrast to early reports of hang-gliding injuries, only one accident was due to an equipment failure, namely a ruptured steering line. In more than a third of all accidents, the used paraglider was not in correct correlation with the pilot's weight and experience. Inspired by the desire for a long flight, gliders of too large surface-areas were often used, leading to a more unstable flight. To reduce the frequency of paragliding injuries, an accurate choice of equipment and increased attention to environmental factors is mandatory. Furthermore education-programs should focus more on intensifying the pilot's mental and practical skills.

  8. Dosimetry of ionising radiation in modern radiation oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, Tomas; Lehmann, Joerg; Greer, Peter B.

    2016-07-01

    Dosimetry of ionising radiation is a well-established and mature branch of physical sciences with many applications in medicine and biology. In particular radiotherapy relies on dosimetry for optimisation of cancer treatment and avoidance of severe toxicity for patients. Several novel developments in radiotherapy have introduced new challenges for dosimetry with small and dynamically changing radiation fields being central to many of these applications such as stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy. There is also an increasing awareness of low doses given to structures not in the target region and the associated risk of secondary cancer induction. Here accurate dosimetry is important not only for treatment optimisation but also for the generation of data that can inform radiation protection approaches in the future. The article introduces some of the challenges and highlights the interdependence of dosimetric calculations and measurements. Dosimetric concepts are explored in the context of six application fields: reference dosimetry, small fields, low dose out of field, in vivo dosimetry, brachytherapy and auditing of radiotherapy practice. Recent developments of dosimeters that can be used for these purposes are discussed using spatial resolution and number of dimensions for measurement as sorting criteria. While dosimetry is ever evolving to address the needs of advancing applications of radiation in medicine two fundamental issues remain: the accuracy of the measurement from a scientific perspective and the importance to link the measurement to a clinically relevant question. This review aims to provide an update on both of these.

  9. Development of optically stimulated luminescence techniques using natural minerals and ceramics, and their application to retrospective dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boetter-Jensen, L

    2000-09-01

    This thesis summarises research and development of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and its applications by the author at Risoe National Laboratory, up to 1999. These developments have been directed primarily at retrospective accident dosimetry and luminescence dating. Experimental investigations include the studies of OSL properties of the natural minerals quartz and feldspars and the artificial materials porcelain and aluminium oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Blue light emitting diodes and infrared laser diodes are shown to provide simple and practical alternatives to broad-band light and visible laser stimulation. The development of OSL apparatus designed for the rapid measurement of single grains of phosphors also opens up a new area of luminescence measurement, allowing the detailed examination of dose distributions within a multiple-grain sample. This is of particular importance to the studies of incompletely reset geological sediments, and to accident dosimetry measurements using unheated materials. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C single crystals are tested as environmental OSL dosemeters for assessing both the natural background photon radiation dose rates in the field and the natural dose rates inside bricks collected for accident dose evaluation. Environmental doses of the order of few {mu}Gy are measured with high precision. UV photo-stimulated luminescence spectra obtained from porcelain samples are used to confirm that the main component responsible for the OSL signal from porcelain is Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. OSL single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) techniques are used with quartz extracted from Chernobyl bricks to determine the accrued dose after the accident. This has improved the measurement precision significantly, from about 5-6 % using traditional methods to now less than 2 %. Depth-dose profiles measured in Chernobyl bricks are compared with those obtained in the laboratory using different gamma sources and these comparisons show that the average energy of

  10. Towards Establishing Capacity for Biological Dosimetry at Ghana Atomic Energy Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achel, Daniel Gyingiri; Achoribo, Elom; Agbenyegah, Sandra; Adaboro, Rudolph M.; Donkor, Shadrack; Adu-Bobi, Nana A. K.; Agyekum, Akwasi A.; Akuamoa, Felicia; Tagoe, Samuel N.; Kyei, Kofi A.; Yarney, Joel; Serafin, Antonio; Akudugu, John M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was not only to obtain basic technical prerequisites for the establishment of capacity of biological dosimetry at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) but also to stimulate interest in biological dosimetry research in Ghana and Sub-Saharan Africa. Peripheral blood from four healthy donors was exposed to different doses (0–6 Gy) of gamma rays from a radiotherapy machine and lymphocytes were subsequently stimulated, cultured, and processed according to standard protocols for 48–50 h. Processed cells were analyzed for the frequencies of dicentric and centric ring chromosomes. Radiation dose delivered to the experimental model was verified using GafChromic® EBT films in parallel experiments. Basic technical prerequisites for the establishment of capacity of biological dosimetry in the GAEC have been realized and expertise in the dicentric chromosome assay consolidated. We successfully obtained preliminary cytogenetic data for a dose-response relationship of the irradiated blood lymphocytes. The data strongly indicate the existence of significant linear (α) and quadratic (β) components and are consistent with those published for the production of chromosome aberrations in comparable absorbed dose ranges. PMID:28217279

  11. Jules Horowitz Reactor, a new irradiation facility: Improving dosimetry for the future of nuclear experimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoire, G.; Beretz, D.; Destouches, C. [CEA, DEN, DER/SPEX, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2011-07-01

    Document available in abstract form only, full text of document follows: The Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) is an experimental reactor under construction at the French Nuclear Energy and Alternative Energies Commission (CEA) facility at Cadarache. It will achieve its first criticality by the end of 2014. Experiments that will be conducted at JHR will deal with fuel, cladding, and material behavior. The JHR will also produce medical radio-isotopes and doped silicon for the electronic industry. As a new irradiation facility, its instrumentation will benefit from recent improvements. Nuclear instrumentation will include reactor dosimetry, as it is a reference technique to determine neutron fluence in experimental devices or characterize irradiation locations. Reactor dosimetry has been improved with the progress of simulation tools and nuclear data, but at the same time the customer needs have increased: Experimental results must have reduced and assessed uncertainties. This is now a necessary condition to perform an experimental irradiation in a test reactor. Items improved, in the framework of a general upgrading of the dosimetry process based on uncertainty minimization, will include dosimeter, nuclear data, and modelling scheme. (authors)

  12. Monte Carlo simulations for heavy ion dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geithner, O.

    2006-07-26

    Water-to-air stopping power ratio (s{sub w,air}) calculations for the ionization chamber dosimetry of clinically relevant ion beams with initial energies from 50 to 450 MeV/u have been performed using the Monte Carlo technique. To simulate the transport of a particle in water the computer code SHIELD-HIT v2 was used which is a substantially modified version of its predecessor SHIELD-HIT v1. The code was partially rewritten, replacing formerly used single precision variables with double precision variables. The lowest particle transport specific energy was decreased from 1 MeV/u down to 10 keV/u by modifying the Bethe- Bloch formula, thus widening its range for medical dosimetry applications. Optional MSTAR and ICRU-73 stopping power data were included. The fragmentation model was verified using all available experimental data and some parameters were adjusted. The present code version shows excellent agreement with experimental data. Additional to the calculations of stopping power ratios, s{sub w,air}, the influence of fragments and I-values on s{sub w,air} for carbon ion beams was investigated. The value of s{sub w,air} deviates as much as 2.3% at the Bragg peak from the recommended by TRS-398 constant value of 1.130 for an energy of 50 MeV/u. (orig.)

  13. Dosimetry of radium-223 and progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Sgouros, G. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived (11.4 d) alpha emitter with potential applications in radioimmunotherapy of cancer. Radium-223 can be complexed and linked to protein delivery molecules for specific tumor-cell targeting. It decays through a cascade of short-lived alpha- and beta-emitting daughters with emission of about 28 MeV of energy through complete decay. The first three alpha particles are essentially instantaneous. Photons associated with Ra-223 and progeny provide the means for tumor and normal-organ imaging and dosimetry. Two beta particles provide additional therapeutic value. Radium-223 may be produced economically and in sufficient amounts for widescale application. Many aspects of the chemistry of carrier-free isotope preparation, complexation, and linkage to the antibody have been developed and are being tested. The radiation dosimetry of a Ra-223-labeled antibody shows favorable tumor to normal tissue dose ratios for therapy. The 11.4-d half-life of Ra-223 allows sufficient time for immunoconjugate preparation, administration, and tumor localization by carrier antibodies before significant radiological decay takes place. If 0.01 percent of a 37 MBq (1 mCi) injection deposits in a one gram tumor mass, and if the activity is retained with a typical effective half-time (75 h), the absorbed dose will be 163 mGy MBq{sup {minus}1} (600 rad mCi{sup {minus}1}) administered. 49 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Eleventh DOE workshop on personnel neutron dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    Since its formation, the Office of Health (EH-40) has stressed the importance of the exchange of information related to and improvements in neutron dosimetry. This Workshop was the eleventh in the series sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). It provided a forum for operational personnel at DOE facilities to discuss current issues related to neutron dosimetry and for leading investigators in the field to discuss promising approaches for future research. A total of 26 papers were presented including the keynote address by Dr. Warren K. Sinclair, who spoke on, ``The 1990 Recommendations of the ICRP and their Biological Background.`` The first several papers discussed difficulties in measuring neutrons of different energies and ways of compensating or deriving correction factors at individual facilities. Presentations were also given by the US Navy and Air Force. Current research in neutron dosimeter development was the subject of the largest number of papers. These included a number on the development of neutron spectrometers. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. DRDC Ottawa working standard for biological dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura, T.M.; Prud' homme-Lalonde, L. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Thorleifson, E. [Health Canada, Gatineau, Quebec (Canada); Lachapelle, S.; Mullins, D. [JERA Consulting (Canada); Qutob, S. [Health Canada, Gatineau, Quebec (Canada); Wilkinson, D.

    2005-07-15

    This Standard provides quality assurance, quality control, and evaluation of the performance criteria for the purpose of accreditation of the Radiation Biology laboratory at Defence Research and Development Canada - Ottawa (DRDC Ottawa) using biological dosimetry to predict radiation exposure doses. The International Standard (ISO 19238) and the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Technical Report Series No. 405 are used as guiding documents in preparation of this working document specific to the DRDC Ottawa Radiation Biology Laboratory. This Standard addresses: 1. The confidentiality of personal information, for the customer and the service laboratory; 2. The laboratory safety requirements; 3. The calibration sources and calibration dose ranges useful for establishing the reference dose-effect curves allowing the dose estimation from chromosome aberration frequency, and the minimum detection levels; 4. Transportation criteria for shipping of test samples to the laboratory; 5. Preparation of samples for analysis; 6. The scoring procedure for unstable chromosome aberrations used for biological dosimetry; 7. The criteria for converting a measured aberration frequency into an estimate of absorbed dose; 8. The reporting of results; 9. The quality assurance and quality control plan for the laboratory; and 10. Informative annexes containing examples of a questionnaire, instructions for customers, a data sheet for recording aberrations, a sample report and other supportive documents. (author)

  16. Dosimetry methods in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G.; Artuso, E.; Felisi, M.; Regazzoni, V.; Giove, D. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Physics, Via Festa del Patrono 7, 20122 Milano (Italy); Agosteo, S.; Barcaglioni, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milano (Italy); Campi, F.; Garlati, L. [Politecnico di Milano, Energy Department, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); De Errico, F. [Universita degli Studi di Pisa, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Lungamo Pacinotti 43, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Borroni, M.; Carrara, M. [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Medical Physics Unit, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milano (Italy); Burian, J.; Klupak, V.; Viererbl, L.; Marek, M. [Research Centre Rez, Department of Neutron Physics, 250-68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-15

    Dosimetry studies have been carried out at thermal and epithermal columns of Lvr-15 research reactor for investigating the spatial distribution of gamma dose, fast neutron dose and thermal neutron fluence. Two different dosimetry methods, both based on solid state detectors, have been studied and applied and the accuracy and consistency of the results have been inspected. One method is based on Fricke gel dosimeters that are dilute water solutions and have good tissue equivalence for neutrons and also for all the secondary radiations produced by neutron interactions in tissue or water phantoms. Fricke gel dosimeters give the possibility of separating the various dose contributions, i.e. the gamma dose, the fast neutron dose and the dose due to charged particles generated during thermal neutron reactions by isotopes having high cross section, like 10-B. From this last dose, thermal neutron fluence can be obtained by means of the kerma factor. The second method is based on thermoluminescence dosimeters. In particular, the developed method draw advantage from the different heights of the peaks of the glow curve of such phosphors when irradiated with photons or with thermal neutrons. The results show that satisfactory results can be obtained with simple methods, in spite of the complexity of the subject. However, the more suitable dosimeters and principally their utilization and analysis modalities are different for the various neutron beams, mainly depending on the relative intensities of the three components of the neutron field, in particular are different for thermal and epithermal columns. (Author)

  17. Trismus: An unusual presentation following road accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Jagdeep

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Trismus due to trauma usually follows road accidents leading to massive faciomaxillary injury. In the literature there is no report of a foreign body causing trismus following a road accident, this rare case is an exception. We present a case of isolated presentation of trismus following a road accident. This case report stresses on the thorough evaluation of patients presenting with trismus following a road accident.

  18. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2009-08-28

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document.

  19. Retrospective assessment of personnel neutron dosimetry for workers at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, J.J.; Wilson, R.H.; Baumgartner, W.B.

    1996-09-01

    This report was prepared to examine the specific issue of the potential for unrecorded neutron dose for Hanford workers, particularly in comparison with the recorded whole body (neutron plus photon) dose. During the past several years, historical personnel dosimetry practices at Hanford have been documented in several technical reports. This documentation provides a detailed history of the technology, radiation fields, and administrative practices used to measure and record dose for Hanford workers. Importantly, documentation has been prepared by personnel whose collective experience spans nearly the entire history of Hanford operations beginning in the mid-1940s. Evaluations of selected Hanford radiation dose records have been conducted along with statistical profiles of the recorded dose data. The history of Hanford personnel dosimetry is complex, spanning substantial evolution in radiation protection technology, concepts, and standards. Epidemiologic assessments of Hanford worker mortality and radiation dose data were initiated in the early 1960s. In recent years, Hanford data have been included in combined analyses of worker cohorts from several Department of Energy (DOE) sites and from several countries through the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Hanford data have also been included in the DOE Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR). In the analysis of Hanford, and other site data, the question of comparability of recorded dose through time and across the respective sites has arisen. DOE formed a dosimetry working group composed of dosimetrists and epidemiologists to evaluate data and documentation requirements of CEDR. This working group included in its recommendations the high priority for documentation of site-specific radiation dosimetry practices used to measure and record worker dose by the respective DOE sites.

  20. The Physics of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Shows how physics can be used to analyze and prevent traffic accidents by determining critical speeds on curves, the behavior of motor cycles and stability of articulated vehicles, and the visibility that is needed to make a minor road junction safe. (MLH)

  1. Work Accidents and Professional Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Hauptmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The major accident is defined as “any event occurred, like an emission of dangerous materials or agents, which emerges from uncontrolled evolutions along the exploitation of any objective that leads to the immediate or delayed occurrence of serious dangers with impact over human health or over the environment, inside or outside the objective in which are involved one or more than one dangerous materials”.The dangerous phenomenon is a potential source of harms. In the ambit of industrial risks of accidental origins, this expression more frequently refers to physical phenomena like conflagrations, explosions, toxic gases dispersion, etc.Any accident scenario relates itself to the potential effects at the level of environmental “targets”. In the case of major accidents, we can distinguish the following categories of “targets”: human (employees of the objective, working or resident people in the nearby of the emplacement; the installation or equipments that may stay at the origin of the accidents (dangerous equipments; certain all-important equipments to ensure the safety level of the installation (critical security equipments: control rooms, civil fire brigade headquarters, etc; goods and structures situated in the installation’ environment (ground water, rivers, soil, flora, fauna.

  2. New technology for accident prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byne, P. [Shiftwork Solutions, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This power point presentation examined the effects of fatigue in the workplace and presented 3 technologies designed to prevent or monitor fatigue. The relationship between mental fatigue, circadian rhythms and cognitive performance was explored. Details of vigilance related degradations in the workplace were presented, as well as data on fatigue-related accidents and a time-line of meter-reading errors. It was noted that the direct cause of the Exxon Valdez disaster was sleep deprivation. Fatigue related accidents during the Gulf War were reviewed. The effects of fatigue on workplace performance include impaired logical reasoning and decision-making; impaired vigilance and attention; slowed mental operations; loss of situational awareness; slowed reaction time; and short cuts and lapses in optional or self-paced behaviours. New technologies to prevent fatigue-related accidents include (1) the driver fatigue monitor, an infra-red camera and computer that tracks a driver's slow eye-lid closures to prevent fatigue related accidents; (2) a fatigue avoidance scheduling tool (FAST) which collects actigraphs of sleep activity; and (3) SAFTE, a sleep, activity, fatigue and effectiveness model. refs., tabs., figs.

  3. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.

    2004-01-01

    The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...

  4. Crime, accidents and social control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junger, Marianne; Terlouw, Gert-Jan; van der Heijden, Peter G.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses to questions. (1) Is there a demonstrable relation between accidents and crime, does this relation hold for each type of crime and each means of transport, and does it subsist after controlling for age and gender? (2) Can social control theory explain involvements in both

  5. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures

  6. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures

  7. Intersection layout, traffic volumes and accidents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the accident research carried out as a part of a large project started in 1983. For this accident research an inventory was made of a large number of intersections.Recorded were layout features, accident data and estimates of traffic volumes. Attention will be given to the

  8. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the clause at FAR 52.236-13, Accident Prevention....

  9. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I....

  10. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause...

  11. Radiation Dosimetry for Quality Control of Food Preservation and Disinfestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, Arne; Uribe, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    In the use of x and gamma rays and scanned electron beams to extend the shelf life of food by delay of sprouting and ripening, killing of microbes, and control of insect population, quality assurance is provided by standardized radiation dosimetry. By strategic placement of calibrated dosimeters...... speed) to meet changes that occur in product and source parameters (e.g. bulk density and radiation spectrum). Routine dosimetry methods and certain corrections of dosimetry data may be selected for the radiations used in typical food processes....

  12. Dosimetry of Auger emitters: Physical and phenomenological approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, K.S.R.; Howell, R.W.; Rao, D.V.; Mylavarapu, V.B.; Kassis, A.I.; Adelstein, S.J.; Wright, H.A.; Hamm, R.N.; Turner, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Recent radiobiological studies have demonstrated that Auger cascades can cause severe biological damage contrary to expectations based on conventional dosimetry. Several determinants govern these effects, including the nature of the Auger electron spectrum; localized energy deposition; cellular geometry; chemical form of the carrier; cellular localization, concentration, and subcellular distribution of the radionuclide. Conventional dosimetry is inadequate in that these considerations are ignored. Our results provide the basis for biophysical approaches toward subcellular dosimetry of Auger emitters in vitro and in vivo. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Dosimetry in clinical static magnetic fields using plastic scintillation detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanowicz, S.; Latzel, H.; Lindvold, Lars René

    2013-01-01

    , however, not clear yet how dosimetry will be conducted as standard methods and might not be easily transferred to systems with clinical magnetic fields. For dosimetry in MRI accelerators, we have tested plastic scintillation detectors (PSD) coupled to optical fibers. They are suitable for real-time and in......-vivo dosimetry in radiation treatments and diagnostics and could be, being all-optical, promising candidates for this application. To study the basic feasibility of using PSDs with organic scintillators in magnetic fields, we measured the response of these dosimeters in presence of magnetic fields up to 1 T...

  14. Analysing truck position data to study roundabout accident risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kamla, Jwan Jameel Shekh Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce accident risk, highway authorities prioritise maintenance budgets partly based upon previous accident history. However, as accident rates have continued to fall in most contexts, this approach has become problematic as accident ‘black spots’ have been treated and the number of accidents at any individual site has fallen. Another way of identifying sites of higher accident risk might be to identify near-miss accidents (where an accident nearly happened, but was avoided), whi...

  15. Fukushima-Daiichi accident. News bulletin no. 4 from April 20; Accident de Fukushima-Daiichi. Bulletin d'information n. 4 du 20 avril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This news bulletin has been prepared by the French institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN) for the information of French residents in Japan. It presents, first, the situation at the date of the bulletin of the reactors at the power plant site, the accident management actions in progress, the radioactive contamination around the site, the evolution of ambient dose rates measured at Tokyo since March 18, the radioactive fallouts and the contamination of food products (vegetables, mushrooms, milk and meat) and drinking water, the contamination of seawater and of fishes and other marine species. Then, it gives some general recommendations to residents concerning food consumption and dwelling hygiene, in particular for the most impacted areas. Finally, some scientific information about radioactivity, biological radiation effects (external and internal exposure) and dosimetry are given. (J.S.)

  16. Fukushima-Daiichi accident. News bulletin no. 5 from April 29; Accident de Fukushima-Daiichi. Bulletin d'information n. 5 du 29 avril 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This news bulletin has been prepared by the French institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN) for the information of French residents in Japan. It presents, first, the situation at the date of the bulletin of the reactors at the power plant site, the accident management actions in progress, the radioactive contamination around the site, the evolution of ambient dose rates measured at Tokyo since March 18, the radioactive fallouts and the contamination of food products (vegetables, mushrooms, milk and meat) and drinking water, the contamination of seawater and of fishes and other marine species. Then, it gives some general recommendations to residents concerning food consumption and dwelling hygiene, in particular for the most impacted areas. Finally, some scientific information about radioactivity, biological radiation effects (external and internal exposure) and dosimetry are given. (J.S.)

  17. Caer en la trampa: el accidente por mina antipersonal. La experiencia de los sobrevivientes, Antioquia, Colombia, 2007 Caught in the trap: Survivors’ experiences after landmine accidents, Antioquia, Colombia, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Lucía Correa Restrepo

    2010-08-01

    >la educación en el riesgo de minas es una estrategia adecuada para asegurar que las personas y comunidades se sensibilicen sobre los riesgos, reduciéndolos a un nivel en el que puedan recrear un entorno libre de las limitaciones impuestas por su presencia.

     

    Objective: This report is the partial result of a survey carried out with the purpose of interpreting the process of reintegration to daily life of survivors after landmine accidents, through their testimonies when they recall their experiences.

    Methodology: A qualitative methodological approach and an ethnographic particularistic focus were employed. The techniques for gathering information were semistructured interviews to four participants, and observations during them.

    Results

  18. Biological dosimetry of ionizing radiation: Evaluation of the dose with cytogenetic methodologies by the construction of calibration curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafiropoulos, Demetre; Facco, E.; Sarchiapone, Lucia

    2016-09-01

    In case of a radiation accident, it is well known that in the absence of physical dosimetry biological dosimetry based on cytogenetic methods is a unique tool to estimate individual absorbed dose. Moreover, even when physical dosimetry indicates an overexposure, scoring chromosome aberrations (dicentrics and rings) in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) at metaphase is presently the most widely used method to confirm dose assessment. The analysis of dicentrics and rings in PBLs after Giemsa staining of metaphase cells is considered the most valid assay for radiation injury. This work shows that applying the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, using telomeric/centromeric peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes in metaphase chromosomes for radiation dosimetry, could become a fast scoring, reliable and precise method for biological dosimetry after accidental radiation exposures. In both in vitro methods described above, lymphocyte stimulation is needed, and this limits the application in radiation emergency medicine where speed is considered to be a high priority. Using premature chromosome condensation (PCC), irradiated human PBLs (non-stimulated) were fused with mitotic CHO cells, and the yield of excess PCC fragments in Giemsa stained cells was scored. To score dicentrics and rings under PCC conditions, the necessary centromere and telomere detection of the chromosomes was obtained using FISH and specific PNA probes. Of course, a prerequisite for dose assessment in all cases is a dose-effect calibration curve. This work illustrates the various methods used; dose response calibration curves, with 95% confidence limits used to estimate dose uncertainties, have been constructed for conventional metaphase analysis and FISH. We also compare the dose-response curve constructed after scoring of dicentrics and rings using PCC combined with FISH and PNA probes. Also reported are dose response curves showing scored dicentrics and rings per cell, combining

  19. Value of lymphocyte cryo-preservation after a radiological or nuclear accident; Interet de la congelation lymphocytaire. En cas d`accident a caractere radiologique ou nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laroche, P.; Lataillade, J.J. [Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees - Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France); Chambrette, V.; Voisin, Ph. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection de la Sante de l`Homme et de Dosimetrie

    1997-12-31

    The conventional cytogenetic method in biological dosimetry is most useful for the estimation of the received radiation dose. It shows resulting unstable chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics, centric rings and fragments) in peripheral blood lymphocytes. This method has been used over the past 30 years and is used in forensic medicine. Nevertheless, it is long and fastidious. Accordingly, the number of simultaneous analyses of blood samples is limited and depends on the capacity of specialized laboratories. This capacity may be insufficient in the case of large scale radiological or nuclear accidents. Cryo-preservation is the usual method to store cells before analysis or use, for instance for biological dosimetry purposes. Some investigations have shown that thawing following freezing may induce cell injury but few studies have been made on the effect of cryo-preservation on cells containing radiation-induced unstable chromosomal aberrations. In this work, lymphocytes were irradiated with 1 to 4 Gy gamma rays and stored in liquid nitrogen. The dicentric and centric ring yields were analysed after storage periods of 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 1 year. No difference in aberration frequency from control, unfrozen samples was observed over this period. Lymphocytes stored at -196 deg C for up to least 1 year may therefore be used for chromosome aberration scoring when overexposure to ionizing radiation is suspected. (author)

  20. An international intercomparison of national network systems used to provide early warning of a nuclear accident having transboundary implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, I.M.G.; Andersen, C.E.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    2000-01-01

    of these detectors are used. During an accident the data produced by such systems will be exchanged between countries within the European Communities, (EC) and as required by the IAEA's Early Warning Convention between the rest of the world and Europe. It is therefore important to ensure that such data should...... be harmonised so that it can be accurately interpreted by other countries and by international organisations. To assist with such harmonisation an intercomparison was held during May/June 1999 at the Riso Natural Environmental Radiation Measurement Station in Denmark and at the PTB underground laboratory...... for dosimetry and spectrometry (UDO) in Germany. The main aim of the intercomparison was to help ensure that results reported by different countries during a nuclear accident will be consistent and comparable. It is important that during an emergency the measurements of the plume doses or contamination levels...

  1. Lessons learnt from an international intercomparison of national network systems used to provide early warning of a nuclear accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez-Vergara, J.C.; Thompson, I.M.G.; Funck, E.;

    2003-01-01

    and at the Underground Laboratory for Dosimetry and Spectrometry (UDO) of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. The network systems are used continuously to monitor radiation levels throughout a country in order to give early warning of nuclear accidents having transboundary implications......As part of the European Research Council's Fourth Framework Programme, the EURADOS Action Group on Monitoring of External Exposures held an intercomparison of national network systems. This took place during May/June 1999 at the Riso Natural Environmental Radiation Measurement Station in Denmark....... The radiation levels measured are used to estimate the radiation risks to people arising from the accident. Seven European countries participated in the intercomparison with detector systems used in their national network systems as well as with detectors being developed for future use. Since different...

  2. [Hanggliding accidents. Distribution of injuries and accident analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmer, F T; Jakob, R P

    1989-12-01

    Paragliding--a relatively new sport to Switzerland--brought 23 patients with 48 injuries (38% lower limb and 29% spinal) within a period of 8 months to the Inselspital University hospital in Berne. The aim of the study in characterizing these injuries is to formulate some guidelines towards prevention. With over 90% of accidents occurring at either take off or landing, emphasis on better training for the beginner is proposed with strict guidelines for the more experienced pilot flying in unfavourable conditions.

  3. Preliminary Modeling of Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts under Accident Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, Kyle A.; Hales, Jason D.

    2016-12-01

    The catastrophic events that occurred at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011 have led to widespread interest in research of alternative fuels and claddings that are proposed to be accident tolerant. Thus, the United States Department of Energy through its NEAMS (Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation) program has funded an Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) High Impact Problem (HIP). The ATF HIP is funded for a three-year period. The purpose of the HIP is to perform research into two potential accident tolerant concepts and provide an in-depth report to the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) describing the behavior of the concepts, both of which are being considered for inclusion in a lead test assembly scheduled for placement into a commercial reactor in 2022. The initial focus of the HIP is on uranium silicide fuel and iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloy cladding. Utilizing the expertise of three national laboratory participants (INL, LANL, and ANL) a comprehensive mulitscale approach to modeling is being used including atomistic modeling, molecular dynamics, rate theory, phase-field, and fuel performance simulations. In this paper, we present simulations of two proposed accident tolerant fuel systems: U3Si2 fuel with Zircaloy-4 cladding, and UO2 fuel with FeCrAl cladding. The simulations investigate the fuel performance response of the proposed ATF systems under Loss of Coolant and Station Blackout conditions using the BISON code. Sensitivity analyses are completed using Sandia National Laboratories’ DAKOTA software to determine which input parameters (e.g., fuel specific heat) have the greatest influence on the output metrics of interest (e.g., fuel centerline temperature). Early results indicate that each concept has significant advantages as well as areas of concern. Further work is required prior to formulating the proposition report for the Advanced Fuels Campaign.

  4. Severe immune dysfunction after lethal neutron irradiation in a JCO nuclear facility accident victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Hitomi; Ooi, Jun; Tomonari, Akira; Iseki, Tohru; Tojo, Arinobu; Tani, Kenzaburo; Takahashi, Tsuneo A; Yamashita, Naohide; Shigetaka, Asano

    2002-08-01

    The optimal treatment for the hematological toxicity of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is not fully established, especially in cases of high-dose nonuniform irradiation by mixed neutrons and gamma-rays, because estimation of the irradiation dose (dosimetry) and prediction of autologous hematological recovery are complicated. For the treatment of ARS, we performed HLA-DRB1-mismatched unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation (CBT) for a nuclear accident victim who received 8 to 10 GyEq mixed neutron and gamma-ray irradiation at the JCO Co. Ltd. nuclear processing facility in Tokaimura, Japan. Donor/ recipient mixed chimerism was attained; thereafter rapid autologous hematopoietic recovery was achieved in concordance with the termination of immunosuppressants. Immune function examined in vitro showed recovery of the autologous immune system was severely impaired. Although the naive T-cell fraction and the helper T-cell subtype 1 fraction were increased, the mitogenic responses of T-cells and the allogeneic mixed leukocyte reaction were severely suppressed. Endogenous immunoglobulin production was also suppressed until 120 days after the accident. Although skin transplantation for ARS was successful, the patient died of infectious complications and subsequent acute respiratory distress syndrome 210 days after the accident. These results suggest that fast neutrons in doses higher than 8 to 10 Gy cause complete abrogation of the human immune system, which may lead to fatal outcome even if autologous hematopoiesis recovers. The roles of transplantation, autologous hematopoietic recovery, chimerism, immune suppression, and immune function are discussed.

  5. One click film (OCF) dosimetry system for routine QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, So Young; Yi, Byong Yong; Kim, Jong Hoon; Ahn, Seung Do; Lee, Sang Wook; Choi, Eun Kyoung [Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwan Sik [MyongJi University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    To develop a practical film dosimetry system for routine Quality Assurance (QA). An One Click Film (OCF) Dosimetry system was designed to perform swift routine QA with functions including automatic fog value elimination, angle adjustment, automatic symmetry calculation, and realtime profile generation with the ability to display realtime three-dimensional dose distributions. The most frequently used functions for routine QA, such as the elimination of the fog value, conversion into an H and D curve, symmetry, and isodose distribution, can be achieved with only one click. Reliable results were achieved with the OCF dosimetry with simpler steps than other commercially available film dosimetry systems for routine QA. More research on the refined user interface will make this system be clinically useful.

  6. Software for evaluation of EPR-dosimetry performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkina, E A; Timofeev, Yu S; Ivanov, D V

    2014-06-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with tooth enamel is a method extensively used for retrospective external dosimetry. Different research groups apply different equipment, sample preparation procedures and spectrum processing algorithms for EPR dosimetry. A uniform algorithm for description and comparison of performances was designed and implemented in a new computer code. The aim of the paper is to introduce the new software 'EPR-dosimetry performance'. The computer code is a user-friendly tool for providing a full description of method-specific capabilities of EPR tooth dosimetry, from metrological characteristics to practical limitations in applications. The software designed for scientists and engineers has several applications, including support of method calibration by evaluation of calibration parameters, evaluation of critical value and detection limit for registration of radiation-induced signal amplitude, estimation of critical value and detection limit for dose evaluation, estimation of minimal detectable value for anthropogenic dose assessment and description of method uncertainty.

  7. Retrospective dosimetry analyses of reactor vessel cladding samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, L. R.; Soderquist, C. Z. [Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Fero, A. H. [Westinghouse Electric Company, Cranberry Twp., PA 16066 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Reactor pressure vessel cladding samples for Ringhals Units 3 and 4 in Sweden were analyzed using retrospective reactor dosimetry techniques. The objective was to provide the best estimates of the neutron fluence for comparison with neutron transport calculations. A total of 51 stainless steel samples consisting of chips weighing approximately 100 to 200 mg were removed from selected locations around the pressure vessel and were sent to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for analysis. The samples were fully characterized and analyzed for radioactive isotopes, with special interest in the presence of Nb-93m. The RPV cladding retrospective dosimetry results will be combined with a re-evaluation of the surveillance capsule dosimetry and with ex-vessel neutron dosimetry results to form a comprehensive 3D comparison of measurements to calculations performed with 3D deterministic transport code. (authors)

  8. The dominance of accidents caused by banalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    . Nevertheless, the fact is that the simpler accidents normally caused by what might be regarded as banalities occur at a much higher frequencies and with many more fatalities and invalidities than any of what are usually regarded as the most dangerous kinds of accidents. In depth analysis of national statistics...... on accidents could reveal the kind of accidents we are talking about, where they happen, to whom, how, and what can be done about them. This would require a special registration system of the events leading up to the accident. The main results for the four most frequent types of accident will be described...... as an example of how much information such systems can offer in general for the work of accident prevention in more traditional and common enterprises....

  9. Traffic accident and emission reduction through intermittent release measures for heavy fog weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Tan, Jin-Hua

    2015-09-01

    Heavy fog weather can increase traffic accidents and lead to freeway closures which result in delays. This paper aims at exploring traffic accident and emission characteristics in heavy fog, as well as freeway intermittent release measures for heavy fog weather. A driving simulator experiment is conducted for obtaining driving behaviors in heavy fog. By proposing a multi-cell cellular automaton (CA) model based on the experimental data, the role of intermittent release measures on the reduction of traffic accidents and CO emissions is studied. The results show that, affected by heavy fog, when cellular occupancy ρ traffic accidents is much higher; and CO emissions increase significantly when ρ traffic accidents and level of CO emissions become reasonable. Obviously, the measure can enhance traffic safety and reduce emissions.

  10. The study of core melting phenomena in reactor severe accident of PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeun, Gyoo Dong; Cho, Sung Won; Bang, Kwang Hyun; Park, Shane; Park, Seong Yong; Kim, Jin Man; Lim, Jae Hyuck; Song, Myung Jin [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    TMI-2 accident is more valuable than the related experiments in the point of view that it is a real accident offering huge information about the late phase of severe accident. Therefore it gives out good standards for evaluation of code performance and inputs suitableness by comparing the accident data and simulated outputs. In this study SCDAP/REALAP5/MOD3.4 was selected for accident simulation. And sensitivity analysis was performed on varied cases to find out the most proper input variable about the late phase of core meting phenomena. Other plants and experimental facilities input deck were collected and analyzed for the sensitivity study and the shortcomings proposed by SCDAP/RELAP5 peer review were considered to the simulation. As a result gamma heating fraction in the input affect the progress of core melting phenomena. About this a study on the related model itself will be carried out.

  11. Proceedings of the workshop on severe accident research, Japan (SARJ-99)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Kazuichiro [ed.

    2000-11-01

    The Workshop on Severe Accident Research, Japan (SARJ-99) was taken place at Hotel Lungwood on November 8-10, 1999, and attended by 156 participants from 12 countries. A total of 46 papers, which covered wide areas of severe accident research both in experiments and analyses, such as fuel/coolant interaction, accident analysis and modeling, in-vessel phenomena, accident management, fission product behavior, research reactors, ex-vessel phenomena, and structural integrity, were presented. The panel discussion titled 'Link of Severe Accident Research Results to Regulation: Current Status and Future Perspective' was successfully conducted, and the wide variety of opinions and views were exchanged among panelists and experts. (J.P.N.)

  12. Severe accident natural circulation studies at the INEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayless, P.D.; Brownson, D.A.; Dobbe, C.A.; Jones, K.R.; O`Brien, J.E.; Pafford, D.J.; Schlenker, L.D.; Tung, V.X.

    1995-02-01

    Severe accident natural circulation flows have been investigated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to better understand these flows and their potential impacts on the progression of a pressurized water reactor severe accident. Parameters affecting natural circulation in the reactor vessel and hot legs were identified and ranked based on their perceived importance. Reviews of the scaling of the 1/7-scale experiments performed by Westinghouse were undertaken. RELAP5/MOD3 calculations of two of the experiments showed generally good agreement between the calculated and observed behavior. Analyses of hydrogen behavior in the reactor vessel showed that hydrogen stratification is not likely to occur, and that an initially stratified layer of hydrogen would quickly mix with a recirculating steam flow. An analysis of the upper plenum behavior in the Three Mile Island, Unit 2 reactor concluded that vapor temperatures could have been significantly higher than the temperatures seen by the control rod drive lead screws, supporting the premise that a strong natural circulation flow was likely present during the accident. SCDAP/RELAP5 calculations of a commercial pressurized water reactor severe accident without operator actions showed that the natural circulation flows enhance the likelihood of ex-vessel piping failures long before failure of the reactor vessel lower head.

  13. Fatal diving accidents in western Norway 1983-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnefjell, M P; Morild, I; Mørk, S J; Lilleng, P K

    2012-11-30

    Despite efforts to reduce their number, fatal diving accidents still occur. The circumstances and post-mortem findings in 40 fatal diving accidents in western Norway from 1983 through 2007 were investigated. Diving experience, medical history and toxicology reports were retrieved. The material consisted of recreational divers, professional saturation divers and professional divers without experience with saturation. In 33 cases the diving equipment was examined as part of the forensic investigation. In 27 cases defects in the diving equipment were found. For six divers such defects were responsible for the fatal accidents. Eighteen divers died on the surface or less than 10 m below surface. Five divers reached below 100 msw, and two of them died at this depth. The fatalities were not season-dependent. However, wave-height and strength of currents were influential factors in some cases. Twelve divers were diving alone. Twenty divers had one buddy, 9 of these divers were alone at the time of death. The cause of death was drowning in 31 out of 40 divers; one of them had a high blood-ethanol concentration, in two other divers ethanol was found in the urine, indicating previous ethanol consumption. Nine divers died from sudden decompression, pulmonary barotraumas, underwater trauma and natural causes. The study shows that most of the fatal diving accidents could be avoided if adequate diving safety procedures had been followed.

  14. Dosimetry in Thermal Neutron Irradiation Facility at BMRR

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) has been performed since 1959 at Thermal Neutron Irradiation Facility (TNIF) of the three-megawatt light-water cooled Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). In the early 1990s when more effective drug carriers were developed for NCT, in which the eye melanoma and brain tumors in rats were irradiated in situ, extensive clinical trials of small animals began using a focused thermal neutron beam. To improve the dosimetry at irradiation f...

  15. Why is a high accuracy needed in dosimetry. [Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzl, L.H.

    1976-01-01

    Dose and exposure intercomparisons on a national or international basis have become an important component of quality assurance in the practice of good radiotherapy. A high degree of accuracy of ..gamma.. and x radiation dosimetry is essential in our international society, where medical information is so readily exchanged and used. The value of accurate dosimetry lies mainly in the avoidance of complications in normal tissue and an optimal degree of tumor control.

  16. EPID dosimetry for pretreatment quality assurance with two commercial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Daniel W; Kumaraswamy, Lalith; Bakhtiari, Mohammad; Malhotra, Harish K; Podgorsak, Matthew B

    2012-07-05

    This study compares the EPID dosimetry algorithms of two commercial systems for pretreatment QA, and analyzes dosimetric measurements made with each system alongside the results obtained with a standard diode array. 126 IMRT fields are examined with both EPID dosimetry systems (EPIDose by Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne FL, and Portal Dosimetry by Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto CA) and the diode array, MapCHECK (also by Sun Nuclear Corporation). Twenty-six VMAT arcs of varying modulation complexity are examined with the EPIDose and MapCHECK systems. Optimization and commissioning testing of the EPIDose physics model is detailed. Each EPID IMRT QA system is tested for sensitivity to critical TPS beam model errors. Absolute dose gamma evaluation (3%, 3 mm, 10% threshold, global normalization to the maximum measured dose) yields similar results (within 1%-2%) for all three dosimetry modalities, except in the case of off-axis breast tangents. For these off-axis fields, the Portal Dosimetry system does not adequately model EPID response, though a previously-published correction algorithm improves performance. Both MapCHECK and EPIDose are found to yield good results for VMAT QA, though limitations are discussed. Both the Portal Dosimetry and EPIDose algorithms, though distinctly different, yield similar results for the majority of clinical IMRT cases, in close agreement with a standard diode array. Portal dose image prediction may overlook errors in beam modeling beyond the calculation of the actual fluence, while MapCHECK and EPIDose include verification of the dose calculation algorithm, albeit in simplified phantom conditions (and with limited data density in the case of the MapCHECK detector). Unlike the commercial Portal Dosimetry package, the EPIDose algorithm (when sufficiently optimized) allows accurate analysis of EPID response for off-axis, asymmetric fields, and for orthogonal VMAT QA. Other forms of QA are necessary to supplement the limitations of the

  17. Basic principles in the radiation dosimetry of nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabin, Michael; Xu, Xie George

    2014-05-01

    The basic principles of the use of radiation dosimetry in nuclear medicine are reviewed. The basic structure of the main mathematical equations are given and formal dosimetry systems are discussed. An extensive overview of the history and current status of anthropomorphic models (phantoms) is given. The sources and magnitudes of uncertainties in calculated internal dose estimates are reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A practical three-dimensional dosimetry system for radiation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Pengyi; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark

    2006-01-01

    There is a pressing need for a practical three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry system, convenient for clinical use, and with the accuracy and resolution to enable comprehensive verification of the complex dose distributions typical of modern radiation therapy. Here we introduce a dosimetry system that can achieve this challenge, consisting of a radiochromic dosimeter (PRESAGE™) and a commercial optical computed tomography (CT) scanning system (OCTOPUS™). PRESAGE™ is a transparent material with com...

  19. The radiation dosimetry of intrathecally administered radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stabin, M.G. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Evans, J.F. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The radiation dose to the spine, spinal cord, marrow, and other organs of the body from intrathecal administration of several radiopharmaceuticals was studied. Anatomic models were developed for the spine, spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), spinal cord, spinal skeleton, cranial skeleton, and cranial CSF. A kinetic model for the transport of CSF was used to determine residence times in the CSF; material leaving the CSF was thereafter assumed to enter the bloodstream and follow the kinetics of the radiopharmaceutical as if intravenously administered. The radiation transport codes MCNP and ALGAMP were used to model the electron and photon transport and energy deposition. The dosimetry of Tc-99m DTPA and HSA, In-111 DTPA, I-131 HSA, and Yb-169 DTPA was studied. Radiation dose profiles for the spinal cord and marrow in the spine were developed and average doses to all other organs were estimated, including dose distributions within the bone and marrow.

  20. Dosimetry for radiocolloid therapy of cystic craniopharyngiomas

    CERN Document Server

    Rojas, E L; Lallena, A M; Bodineau, C; Galan, P; Al-Dweri, Feras M.O.; Lallena, Antonio M.; Bodineau, Coral; Galan, Pedro

    2003-01-01

    The dosimetry for radiocolloid therapy of cystic craniopharyngiomas is investigated. Analytical calculations based on the Loevinger and the Berger formulae for electrons and photons, respectively, are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The role of the material of which the colloid introduced inside the craniopharyngioma is made of as well as that forming the cyst wall is analyzed. It is found that the analytical approaches provide a very good description of the simulated data in the conditions where they can be applied (i.e., in the case of a uniform and infinite homogeneous medium). However, the consideration of the different materials and interfaces produces a strong reduction of the dose delivered to the cyst wall in relation to that predicted by the Loevinger and the Berger formulae.