WorldWideScience

Sample records for accident and emergency services

  1. Accident and emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing potential for severe accidents as the industrial development tends towards large, centralised production units. In several industries this has led to the formation of large organisations which are prepared for accidents fighting and for emergency management. The functioning of these organisations critically depends upon efficient decision making and exchange of information. This project is aimed at securing and possibly improving the functionality and efficiency of the accident and emergency management by verifying, demonstrating, and validating the possible use of advanced information technology in the organisations mentioned above. With the nuclear industry in focus the project consists of five main activities: 1) The study and detailed analysis of accident and emergency scenarios based on records from incidents and rills in nuclear installations. 2) Development of a conceptual understanding of accident and emergency management with emphasis on distributed decision making, information flow, and control structure sthat are involved. 3) Development of a general experimental methodology for evaluating the effects of different kinds of decision aids and forms of organisation for emergency management systems with distributed decision making. 4) Development and test of a prototype system for a limited part of an accident and emergency organisation to demonstrate the potential use of computer and communication systems, data-base and knowledge base technology, and applications of expert systems and methods used in artificial intelligence. 5) Production of guidelines for the introduction of advanced information technology in the organisations based on evaluation and validation of the prototype system. (author)

  2. The Sheffield experiment: the effects of centralising accident and emergency services in a large urban setting

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, A; Wardrope, J.; Burke, D

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To assess the effects of centralisation of accident and emergency (A&E) services in a large urban setting. The end points were the quality of patient care judged by time to see a doctor or nurse practitioner, time to admission and the cost of the A&E service as a whole.

  3. Relation of out of hours activity by general practice and accident and emergency services with deprivation in Nottingham: longitudinal survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Carlisle, R; Groom, L. M.; Avery, A J; Boot, D; Earwicker, S.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relation between out of hours activity of general practice and accident and emergency services with deprivation and distance from accident and emergency department. DESIGN: Six month longitudinal study. SETTING: Six general practices and the sole accident and emergency department in Nottingham. SUBJECTS: 4745 out of hours contacts generated by 45,182 patients from 23 electoral wards registered with six practices. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of out of hours cont...

  4. Elderly patients attended in emergency health services in Brazil: a study for victims of falls and traffic accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Gonçalves de Freitas; Palmira de Fátima Bonolo; Edgar Nunes de Moraes; Carla Jorge Machado

    2015-01-01

    The article aims to describe the profile of elderly victims of falls and traffic accidents from the data of the Surveillance Survey of Violence and Accidents (VIVA). The VIVA Survey was conducted in the emergency health-services of the Unified Health System in the capitals of Brazil in 2011. The sample of elderly by type of accident was subjected to the two-step cluster procedure. Of the 2463 elderly persons in question, 79.8% suffered falls and 20.2% were the victims of traffic accidents. Th...

  5. Use of the emergency ambulance service to an inner city accident and emergency department--a comparison of general practitioner and '999' calls.

    OpenAIRE

    Pennycook, A. G.; Makower, R M; Morrison, W G

    1991-01-01

    Over a 2-week period a prospective study was undertaken of patients brought to an inner city accident and emergency department by the emergency ambulance service. Criteria for assessing the appropriateness of use of the emergency ambulance service are not well defined and at worst entirely subjective. The author's finding that, of patients attending after a '999' call, 49.8% were discharged with no follow-up suggests that many of these journeys represented inappropriate use of the emergency a...

  6. Socioeconomic deprivation and accident and emergency attendances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scantlebury, Rachel; Rowlands, Gillian; Durbaba, Stevo;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Demand for England's accident and emergency (A&E) services is increasing and is particularly concentrated in areas of high deprivation. The extent to which primary care services, relative to population characteristics, can impact on A&E is not fully understood. AIM: To conduct...

  7. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, B.; Groenberg, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs.

  8. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs

  9. Elderly patients attended in emergency health services in Brazil: a study for victims of falls and traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Mariana Gonçalves; Bonolo, Palmira de Fátima; de Moraes, Edgar Nunes; Machado, Carla Jorge

    2015-03-01

    The article aims to describe the profile of elderly victims of falls and traffic accidents from the data of the Surveillance Survey of Violence and Accidents (VIVA). The VIVA Survey was conducted in the emergency health-services of the Unified Health System in the capitals of Brazil in 2011. The sample of elderly by type of accident was subjected to the two-step cluster procedure. Of the 2463 elderly persons in question, 79.8% suffered falls and 20.2% were the victims of traffic accidents. The 1812 elderly who fell were grouped together into 4 clusters: Cluster 1, in which all had disabilities; Cluster 2, all were non-white and falls took place in the home; Cluster 3, younger and active seniors; and Cluster 4, with a higher proportion of seniors 80 years old or above who were white. Among cases of traffic accidents, 446 seniors were grouped into two clusters: Cluster 1 of younger elderly, drivers or passengers; Cluster 2, with higher age seniors, mostly pedestrians. The main victims of falls were women with low schooling and unemployed; traffic accident victims were mostly younger and male. Complications were similar in victims of falls and traffic accidents. Clusters allow adoption of targeted measures of care, prevention and health promotion. PMID:25760111

  10. Elderly patients attended in emergency health services in Brazil: a study for victims of falls and traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gonçalves de Freitas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to describe the profile of elderly victims of falls and traffic accidents from the data of the Surveillance Survey of Violence and Accidents (VIVA. The VIVA Survey was conducted in the emergency health-services of the Unified Health System in the capitals of Brazil in 2011. The sample of elderly by type of accident was subjected to the two-step cluster procedure. Of the 2463 elderly persons in question, 79.8% suffered falls and 20.2% were the victims of traffic accidents. The 1812 elderly who fell were grouped together into 4 clusters: Cluster 1, in which all had disabilities; Cluster 2, all were non-white and falls took place in the home; Cluster 3, younger and active seniors; and Cluster 4, with a higher proportion of seniors 80 years old or above who were white. Among cases of traffic accidents, 446 seniors were grouped into two clusters: Cluster 1 of younger elderly, drivers or passengers; Cluster 2, with higher age seniors, mostly pedestrians. The main victims of falls were women with low schooling and unemployed; traffic accident victims were mostly younger and male. Complications were similar in victims of falls and traffic accidents. Clusters allow adoption of targeted measures of care, prevention and health promotion.

  11. Attitudes of Dublin accident and emergency department doctors and nurses towards the services offered by local general practitioners.

    OpenAIRE

    Gibney, D; Murphy, A W; Smith, M.; Bury, G; Plunkett, P K

    1995-01-01

    Good communication at the accident and emergency (A&E)-general practice interface is important. Such communication will be affected by the attitudes of A&E staff towards local general practitioners (GPs). The objectives of this study were to establish and compare, using a questionnaire, the attitudes of Dublin A&E doctors and nurses towards the services offered by local GPs. A questionnaire was sent to all nurses and non-consultant doctors working in four of the six Dublin A&E departments. Co...

  12. Guidelines for accident prevention and emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Morris, S.C.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1993-05-01

    This report reviews recent developments in the guidelines on chemical accident prevention, risk assessment, and management of chemical emergencies, principally in the United States and Europe, and discusses aspects of their application to developing countries. Such guidelines are either in the form of laws or regulations promulgated by governments, or of recommendations from international, professional, or non governmental organizations. In many cases, these guidelines specify lists of materials of concern and methods for evaluating safe usage of these materials and recommend areas of responsibility for different organizations; procedures to be included in planning, evaluation, and response; and appropriate levels of training for different classes of workers. Guidelines frequently address the right of communities to be informed of potential hazards and address ways for them to participate in planning and decision making.

  13. Acidentes e violências entre mulheres atendidas em Serviços de Emergência Sentinela - Brasil, 2009 Accidents and violence among women attended in Sentinel Emergency Services - Brazil, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste de Souza Rodrigues

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As causas externas afetam de maneira desigual as populações humanas. O presente artigo tem como objetivo analisar os atendimentos de emergência em mulheres vítimas de acidentes e violências. Foram analisados dados do inquérito de Vigilância de Violências e Acidentes em 74 Unidades de Emergência de 23 capitais e no Distrito Federal em 2009. Analisaram-se 6.965 atendimentos de mulheres adultas comparando-se as faixas de 20-39 e 40-59 anos, em relação a ocorrência de acidentes e violências. Os acidentes foram mais frequentes em mulheres jovens (20 a 39 anos, de cor negra e com escolaridade maior que 9 anos de estudo. A ocorrência de violência também foi predominante em mulheres jovens e negras, porém com menor escolaridade. Entre os acidentes predominaram as quedas (38,6%, seguidas de acidentes de transporte. As violências foram mais frequentes no domicílio (p Accidents from external causes affect the human population in different ways. This article seeks to analyze emergency care for women who are victims of accidents and violence. Data from the Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents were analyzed. This study was carried out in 74 emergency units of 23 state capitals and the Federal District in 2009 and included 6,965 women aged from 20-59 years. The age groups of 20-39 and 40-59 years were compared for the occurrence of accidents and violence. Accidents were more frequent among young black women (20-39 years with more than nine years of schooling. The occurrence of violence was also prevalent in young black women but with less schooling. Falls were the most frequent accidents (38.6%, followed by traffic accidents. The occurrence of violence was more frequent in the home (p <0.000 and the mention of alcohol abuse among victims of violence was predominant. The most frequent type of violence was aggression (84.6%, in which the aggressor was male (79.1% and identified as an intimate partner (44.1%. It is increasingly

  14. Pain in young children attending an accident and emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, C.; Hewitt, S; Choonara, I.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To assess pain in young children presenting to an accident and emergency (A&E) department. To evaluate the use of the toddler-preschooler postoperative pain scale (TPPPS) and the use of analgesia in these children.

  15. Diphtheria presenting in the accident and emergency department.

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, R F

    1987-01-01

    A case of diphtheria encountered in the accident and emergency department is described. In addition, 38 cases of diphtheria have been analysed, and demonstrate that, although now rare in this country, the disease still exists and its clinical features remain unchanged. It presents almost as often in the accident and emergency department as it does to the general practitioner and remains overwhelmingly a disease of children. Diphtheria is still a notifiable disease. The diagnosis must be made ...

  16. Accident and emergency nursing – clinical audit

    OpenAIRE

    Kitching, Holly

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this audit is to measure current practice in minor head injury management in an emergency department against the recommendations stated in the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2007) guidelines for Head injury: Triage, assessment, investigation and early management of head injury in infants, children and adults. Objectives Is to determine the impact on workload in the emergency department in-relation to the implementation of the NICE head injur...

  17. Reconstruction of the Chernobyl emergency and accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1986 the most serious civil technological accident in the history of mankind occurred of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the former Soviet Union. As a direct result of the accident, the reactor was severely destroyed and large quantities of radionuclides were released. Some 800000 persons, also called 'liquidators' - including plant operators, fire-fighters, scientists, technicians, construction workers, emergency managers, volunteers, as well as medical and military personnel - were part of emergency measurements and accident management efforts. Activities included measures to prevent the escalation of the accident, mitigation actions, help for victims as well as activities in order to provide a basic infrastructure for this unprecedented and overwhelming task. The overall goal of the 'Project Chernobyl' of the Institute of Risk Research of the University of Vienna was to preserve for mankind the experience and knowledge of the experts among the 'liquidators' before it is lost forever. One method used to reconstruct the emergency measures of Chernobyl was the direct cooperation with liquidators. Simple questionnaires were distributed among liquidators and a database of leading accident managers, engineers, medical experts etc. was established. During an initial struggle with a number of difficulties, the response was sparse. However, after an official permit had been issued, the questionnaires delivered a wealth of data. Furthermore a documentary archive was established, which provided additional information. The multidimensional problem in connection with the severe accident of Chernobyl, the clarification of the causes of the accident, as well as failures and successes and lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl emergency measures and accident management are discussed. (authors)

  18. The impact of nationally distributed guidelines on the management of paracetamol poisoning in accident and emergency departments. National Poison Information Service.

    OpenAIRE

    Bialas, M. C.; Evans, R J; Hutchings, A D; Alldridge, G; Routledge, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the treatment guidelines on the management of paracetamol self poisoning in accident and emergency (A&E) departments. METHODS: 24 A&E departments in Wales and England provided details of their management of paracetamol poisoning before and after the distribution of national treatment guidelines to all A&E departments in the United Kingdom. RESULTS: Significant increases were seen in the availability of formal written policies, the display of treatment nomogr...

  19. Emergency planning and preparedness for a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on current regulations, FEMA approves each site-specific plan of state and local governments for each power reactor site after 1) formal review offsite preparedness, 2) holding a public meeting at which the preparedness status has been reviewed, and 3) a satisfactory joint exercise has been conducted with both utility and local participation. Annually, each state, within any position of the 10-mile emergency planning zone, must conduct a joint exercise with the utility to demonstrate its preparedness for a nuclear accident. While it is unlikely that these extreme measures will be needed as a result of an accident at a nuclear power station, the fact that these plans have been well thought out and implemented have already proven their benefit to society. The preparedness for a nuclear accident can be of great advantage in other types of emergencies. For example, on December 11, 1982, a non-nuclear chemical storage tank exploded at a Union Carbide plant in Louisiana shortly after midnight. More than 20,000 people were evacuated from their homes. They were evacuated under the emergency response plan formulated for use in the event of a nuclear accident at the nearby Waterford Nuclear plants. Clearly, this illustrates how a plan conceived for one purpose is appropriate to handle other types of accidents that occur in a modern industrial society

  20. Measuring patients' experiences in the Accident and Emergency department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, N.

    2013-01-01

    Two questionnaires were used to measure patients’ experiences in the Accident and Emergency department (A&E). First, the English A&E department questionnaire used in the English National Survey Programme, and after translation in Dutch used in the Netherlands. The second questionnaire concerned the

  1. ANS-8.23: Criticality accident emergency planning and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study group has been formed under the auspices of ANS-8 to examine the need for a standard on nuclear criticality accident emergency planning and response. This standard would be ANS-8.23. ANSI/ANS-8.19-1984, Administrative Practices for Nuclear Criticality Safety, provides some guidance on the subject in Section 10 titled -- Planned Response to Nuclear Criticality Accidents. However, the study group has formed a consensus that Section 10 is inadequate in that technical guidance in addition to administrative guidance is needed. The group believes that a new standard which specifically addresses emergency planning and response to a perceived criticality accident is needed. Plans for underway to request the study group be designated a writing group to create a draft of such a new standard. The proposed standard will divide responsibility between management and technical staff. Generally, management will be charged with providing the necessary elements of emergency planning such as a criticality detection and alarm system, training, safe evacuation routes and assembly areas, a system for timely accountability of personnel, and an effective emergency response organization. The technical staff, on the other hand, will be made responsible for establishing specific items such as safe and clearly posted evacuation evacuation routes and dose criteria for personnel assembly areas. The key to the question of responsibilities is that management must provide the resources for the technical staff to establish the elements of an emergency response effort

  2. Privatization and emergency medical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissman, S G

    1997-01-01

    Osborne and Gaebler's Reinventing Government has sparked discussion amongst elected officials, civil servants, the media, and the general public regarding advantages of privatizing government services. Its support stems from an effort to provide services to municipalities while reducing taxpayer expenditure. Many echo the sentiment of former New York Governor Mario Cuomo, who said, "It is not government's obligation to provide services, but to see that they're provided." Even in the area of public safety, privatization has found a "market." In many localities, privatizing Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is a popular and successful method for providing ambulance services. Privately owned ambulance services staff and respond to medical emergencies in a given community as part of the 9-1-1 emergency response system. Regulations for acceptable response times, equipment, and other essential components of EMS systems are specified by contract. This allows the municipality oversight of the service provided, but it does not provide the service directly. As will be discussed, this "contracting-out" model has many benefits. Privatizing EMS services is a decision based not only on cost-savings, but on accountability. A thorough evaluation must be utilized in the selection process. Issues of efficiency, effectiveness, quality, customer service, responsiveness, and equity must be considered by the government, in addition to cost of service. The uncertain future of health care in the United States has led those in EMS to look beyond the field's internal market to explore additional opportunities for expanding and redefining its roles beyond emergency care. It is important, however, to consider how emergency medical care, the original role of EMS, can be best delivered. Responding to emergencies is not just one of the functions involved in this field, it is the principal function from which public perception of EMS is formed, and from which support for entering other markets can

  3. Use of an accident and emergency department by hospital staff.

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, C J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the number of attendances by hospital staff at an accident and emergency (A&E) department, and reasons for their attendance. METHODS: A&E attendances by hospital staff were studied for a 12 month period. Comparison was made with attendances by non-hospital staff in full or part time employment. Differences between the observed and expected numbers of attendances were analysed using chi 2 analysis. RESULTS: 560 staff attendances were recorded out of 78,103 total attendance...

  4. Redundancy in the accident and emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durcan, T

    1994-04-01

    Whilst this article was being written, the Government announced that the pay of nurses will be based on productivity. The Trade Unions have announced that they have made a claim to the independent pay review body for a payment of 10% as a pay award, but the RCN indicated that up to 50,000 nursing jobs have been lost between 1992 and 1993. This gives an indication that the future is not so bright for nurses. Under this cloud of uncertainty nurses may deduce that there is a clear message that their job is no longer a job for life. Market forces, contracts, targets and flexibility are the jargon of today's care. Nursing is under threat and attack.

  5. Accident Emergency Response And Routing Software (AERARS using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Ramachandran,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available AERARS is a response and routing software for accident emergency requirement. A method has been proposed in this project for using a genetic algorithm to find the shortest route between a source and adestination. It make use of genetic algorithms ability to search the opt solution from the population helping to solve spatially addressed problem. The numbers of accident spots are plotted in ArcGISenvironment and ten major accident spots are identified. The software package is designed with closest facility estimation and shortest route generation along with other basic software facilities in Visual Basic environment. Genetic algorithm provided a great optimality to the solutions. The closest facility tool helps to estimate the nearest hospital, ambulance, police station and fire station. The shortest route estimation tool generates shortest path between a locations to the hospital or ambulance spot. The various risk zonesare assessed and more safety measures can be taken to reduce the frequency of accident. The software efficiency can be further increased by incorporating GPS and satellite technology.

  6. Administration of medicines by emergency nurse practitioners according to protocols in an accident and emergency department.

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, J.; Edwards, C; Lambert, M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present the legal and professional issues related to nurse administration of drugs according to protocols, and describe the implementation and initial audit findings of such a scheme. SETTING: Accident and emergency (A&E) department of a district general hospital. METHODS: Analysis of legal and professional opinion. Protocols acceptable to the medical, nursing, and pharmacy professions were developed across a wide range of drugs appropriate for administration by accident and eme...

  7. NKS Seminar on the Fukushima accident and perspectives for Nordic reactor safety and emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    The seminar was organized in 5 sessions: 1) The Fukushima accident and international perspectives; 2) Fukushima accident - Nordic emergency response; 3) Fukushima accident - implications for nuclear safety; 4) Way forward - assessments and communication - learning from the past; 5) The future for Nordic nuclear safety and emergency preparedness. 25 presentations from the sessions (PowerPoint presentations) are available from nks.org. (LN)

  8. Financial Services and Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Karreman (Bas)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis study addresses the organization and strategy of firms in emerging markets with an explicit application to financial services. Given the relevance of a well-functioning financial system for economic growth, understanding the organization and strategy of firms contributing to the dev

  9. Emergency plans for nuclear power accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents an evaluation of an exercise of emergency services during a simulated accident at the nuclear power plant of Barsebaeck, Sweden. The aim of the exercise was to test Swedish and Danish organizations and various collaborative co-ordinations. Recommendations for future exercises are given. (G.B.)

  10. Emergency response planning and preparedness for transport accidents involving radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Guide is to provide assistance to public authorities and others (including consignors and carriers of radioactive materials) who are responsible for ensuring safety in establishing and developing emergency response arrangements for responding effectively to transport accidents involving radioactive materials. This Guide is concerned mainly with the preparation of emergency response plans. It provides information which will assist those countries whose involvement with radioactive materials is just beginning and those which have already developed their industries involving radioactive materials and attendant emergency plans, but may need to review and improve these plans. The need for emergency response plans and the ways in which they are implemented vary from country to country. In each country, the responsible authorities must decide how best to apply this Guide, taking into account the actual shipments and associated hazards. In this Guide the emergency response planning and response philosophy are outlined, including identification of emergency response organizations and emergency services that would be required during a transport accident. General consequences which could prevail during an accident are described taking into account the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 43 refs, figs and tabs

  11. Patterns of presentation of abused children to the accident and emergency department.

    OpenAIRE

    Olney, D B

    1988-01-01

    A search of accident and emergency department records showed that 61% of 85 children registered as being physically or sexually abused by the Department of Community Paediatrics at St James's University Hospital, Leeds, England, were found to have visited the accident and emergency department an average of 2.9 times before the diagnosis was made. Fifty-two per cent of the attendances were because of problems other than injuries. Staff of accident and emergency departments should be aware that...

  12. What do we really know about infants who attend Accident and Emergency departments?

    OpenAIRE

    Heys, M; Kwong, H-M; Reed, J.; Blair, M

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Accident and Emergency attendances continue to rise. Infants are disproportionately represented. This study examines the clinical reasons infants attend UK Accident and Emergency departments. Methods: A retrospective review of 6,667 infants aged less than one year attending Accident and Emergency at two district general hospitals in London from 1st April 2009 to 30th March 2010. All infants had been assigned to a diagnostic category by the medical coding department according to Natio...

  13. Rural Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... View more Rural Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and Trauma Emergency medical services (EMS) providers care for individuals ... hospital be part of the regional and statewide trauma system? Yes. According to Safety in Numbers: Are ...

  14. Scoping accident(s) for emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the Conference of State Radiation Control Program Director's (CRCPD), in November 1976 the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission formed a joint Task Force with representatives of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to answer a number of questions posed by the States regarding emergency planning. This Task Force held monthly meetings through November 1977. In December 1977 a draft report was prepared for limited distribution for review and comment by selected State and local organizations. The NRC/EPA Task Force deliberations centered on the CRCPD request for '... a determination of the most severe accident basis for which radiological emergency response plans should be developed by offsite agencies...' in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. Federal Interagency guidance to the States in this regard has been that the scoping accident should be the most serious conservatively analyzed accident considered for siting purposes, as exemplified in the Commission's Regulations at 10 CFR Part 100 and the NRC staffs Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4, and as presented in license applicant's Safety Analysis Reports and the USNRC Staffs Safety Evaluation Reports. The draft report of the Task Force amplifies on this recommendation: to present a clearer picture of its import and introduces the concept of protective action zones (PAZs) within which detailed emergency plans should be developed; one zone for the plume exposure pathway and a second, larger zone for contamination pathways. The time dependence of potential releases and atmospheric transport, and important radionuclide groups of possible import are also discussed in the draft Task Force report. A status report regarding this effort, as of June 1978, will be presented. (author)

  15. Emergency Responses and Health Consequences after the Fukushima Accident; Evacuation and Relocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, A; Ohira, T; Maeda, M; Yasumura, S; Tanigawa, K

    2016-04-01

    The Fukushima accident was a compounding disaster following the strong earthquake and huge tsunami. The direct health effects of radiation were relatively well controlled considering the severity of the accident, not only among emergency workers but also residents. Other serious health issues include deaths during evacuation, collapse of the radiation emergency medical system, increased mortality among displaced elderly people and public healthcare issues in Fukushima residents. The Fukushima mental health and lifestyle survey disclosed that the Fukushima accident caused severe psychological distress in the residents from evacuation zones. In addition to psychiatric and mental health problems, there are lifestyle-related problems such as an increase proportion of those overweight, an increased prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia and changes in health-related behaviours among evacuees; all of which may lead to an increased cardiovascular disease risk in the future. The effects of a major nuclear accident on societies are diverse and enduring. The countermeasures should include disaster management, long-term general public health services, mental and psychological care, behavioural and societal support, in addition to efforts to mitigate the health effects attributable to radiation. PMID:26876459

  16. Emergency Responses and Health Consequences after the Fukushima Accident; Evacuation and Relocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, A; Ohira, T; Maeda, M; Yasumura, S; Tanigawa, K

    2016-04-01

    The Fukushima accident was a compounding disaster following the strong earthquake and huge tsunami. The direct health effects of radiation were relatively well controlled considering the severity of the accident, not only among emergency workers but also residents. Other serious health issues include deaths during evacuation, collapse of the radiation emergency medical system, increased mortality among displaced elderly people and public healthcare issues in Fukushima residents. The Fukushima mental health and lifestyle survey disclosed that the Fukushima accident caused severe psychological distress in the residents from evacuation zones. In addition to psychiatric and mental health problems, there are lifestyle-related problems such as an increase proportion of those overweight, an increased prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia and changes in health-related behaviours among evacuees; all of which may lead to an increased cardiovascular disease risk in the future. The effects of a major nuclear accident on societies are diverse and enduring. The countermeasures should include disaster management, long-term general public health services, mental and psychological care, behavioural and societal support, in addition to efforts to mitigate the health effects attributable to radiation.

  17. Saliva alcohol concentrations in accident and emergency attendances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, T; Murphy, N; Peck, D

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—Although alcohol is known to play a key part in accidents, no UK study has assessed alcohol concentrations in a comprehensive sample of accident and emergency (A&E) attenders. This study set out to do this, and examine the relation between alcohol concentrations and the severity, type and circumstances of presentation, and the sociodemographic characteristics of patients. Methods—A survey was conducted of all new A&E attenders (aged 10 years or over). Two 24 hour periods for each day of the week were covered in 6, 7 or 11 hour sessions over a two month period. Alcohol concentrations were assessed from saliva samples using a disposable device. Data were collected from 638 attenders, of whom 544 provided saliva samples; the remainder refused or were unable to participate. Results—Positive saliva alcohol readings were obtained in 22% of attenders (95%CI 19% to 26%); this increased to 25% if others were included (for example, those who refused to participate but were judged to be intoxicated). Alcohol was associated with 94% of incidents of self harm, 54% of non-specific/multiple complaints, 47% of collapses, 50% of assaults, and 50% of patients admitted to hospital. Higher concentrations of alcohol were found from Friday to Sunday, between midnight and 0900, and in patients aged 41 to 60. Among people with positive alcohol results, those attending with a companion had higher concentrations than those attending alone. There were no significant differences between men and women in alcohol concentrations. Discussion—These findings show that alcohol use is an important factor in A&E attendance, but it should not be assumed that there is a causal relation between alcohol use and injury. Several accident related and sociodemographic variables were predictive of alcohol use before attending. The overall level of prediction was too weak to permit accurate identification of drinkers for screening purposes, but routine alcohol concentration assessments may be

  18. Transport accidents among children and adolescents at the emergency service of a teaching hospital in the southern zone of the city of São Paulo☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorios, Carlos; de Souza, Renata Maia; Gerolla, Viviane; Maso, Bruno; Rodrigues, Cintia Leci; Armond, Jane de Eston

    2014-01-01

    Objective to describe the victim profile and circumstances of transport accidents involving children and adolescents who were attended at a teaching hospital in the southern zone of the city of São Paulo. Methods this was an individual observational case series study among patients up to the age of 19 years who were attended at a hospital in the southern zone of the city of São Paulo, state of São Paulo, Brazil, due to traffic accidents. The files notifying suspected or confirmed cases of violence and accidents (SIVVA files) covering January to December 2012 were analyzed. Results among the 149 cases notified, 64.4% related to males and 35.6% to females. The transport accidents were predominantly among males, irrespective of age. The main injury diagnoses were superficial head trauma (24.8%) followed by multiple non-specified trauma (36.4%), in both sexes. Conclusion transport accidents among children and adolescents occurred more often among males. The main transport accidents among the children and adolescents attended as emergency cases were caused by motor vehicles and motorcycles. Among the accident victims, the largest proportion was attended because of being run over. PMID:26229833

  19. A radioactive waste transportation package monitoring system for normal transport and accident emergency response conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses spent fuel and high level waste transportation history and prospects, discusses accident histories of radioactive material transport, discusses emergency responder needs and provides a general description of the Transportation Intelligent Monitoring System (TRANSIMS) design. The key objectives of the monitoring system are twofold: (1) to facilitate effective emergency response to accidents involving a radioactive waste transportation package, while minimizing risk to the public and emergency first-response personnel, and (2) to allow remote monitoring of transportation vehicle and payload conditions to enable research into radioactive material transportation for normal and accident conditions. (J.P.N.)

  20. Emergency drinking water treatment during source water pollution accidents in China: origin analysis, framework and technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Chen, Chao; Lin, Peng-Fei; Hou, Ai-Xin; Niu, Zhang-Bin; Wang, Jun

    2011-01-01

    China has suffered frequent source water contamination accidents in the past decade, which has resulted in severe consequences to the water supply of millions of residents. The origins of typical cases of contamination are discussed in this paper as well as the emergency response to these accidents. In general, excessive pursuit of rapid industrialization and the unreasonable location of factories are responsible for the increasing frequency of accidental pollution events. Moreover, insufficient attention to environmental protection and rudimentary emergency response capability has exacerbated the consequences of such accidents. These environmental accidents triggered or accelerated the promulgation of stricter environmental protection policy and the shift from economic development mode to a more sustainable direction, which should be regarded as the turning point of environmental protection in China. To guarantee water security, China is trying to establish a rapid and effective emergency response framework, build up the capability of early accident detection, and develop efficient technologies to remove contaminants from water. PMID:21133359

  1. Emergency care of the elderly in the short-stay ward of the accident and emergency department.

    OpenAIRE

    Harrop, S.N.; Morgan, W J

    1985-01-01

    Review of a consecutive series of the elderly patients who presented unheralded to the Accident and Emergency Department of the Royal Gwent Hospital showed that a relative minority (11%) were difficult to manage because they had no obvious acute medical condition or injury which qualified them for admission by the firms to whom they were first referred. The difficulty was compounded by the shortage of geriatric beds. Judicious use of short-stay ward beds in the accident and emergency departme...

  2. Survey of the use of rapid sequence induction in the accident and emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, A.; Brenchley, J

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To determine the current position regarding the use of rapid sequence induction (RSI) by accident and emergency (A&E) medical staff and the attitudes of consultants in A&E and anaesthetics towards this.

  3. Biological tissue adhesive for multiple use in the accident and emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    Gerrard, C.; S. Moore; Ryan, B

    2000-01-01

    Objective—To assess the strength of the glue and microbial contamination over 28 days from opening a vial of tissue adhesive in the accident and emergency setting, and to quantify cost savings of repeated use of the vials.

  4. EMERGENCY RESPONSE OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE FEDERAL SERVICE FOR SURVEILLANCE ON CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION AND HUMAN WELL-BEING IN SAKHALIN REGION TO THE FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Darizhapov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the experience of the Administration of the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being in Sakhalin Region in organizing prevention of conditions that endanger the public radiation safety related to the nuclear accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The authors present results of the measurements of the radiation situation in the Sakhalin region and propose ways to improve organizational and sanitary-hygienic measures aimed on ensuring public protectiony in events of radiation accidents.

  5. Referral to the accident and emergency department following the use of community alarms

    OpenAIRE

    Youssef, G.; Underhill, T; Tovey, C

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To assess the degree of appropriate referral to the accident and emergency (A&E) department following the use of a community alarm where a mobile warden works in conjunction with the community alarm control centre.

  6. Impacts of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident on emergency medical service times in Soma District, Japan: a retrospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomohiro; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Nomura, Shuhei; Leppold, Claire; Takahara, Kazuhiro; Shimada, Yuki; Fujioka, Sho; Kami, Masahiro; Kato, Shigeaki; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the influence of the 3.11 triple disaster (earthquake, tsunami and nuclear accident) on the emergency medical service (EMS) system in Fukushima. Methods Total EMS time (from EMS call to arrival at a hospital) was assessed in the EMS system of Soma district, located 10–40 km north of the nuclear plant, from 11 March to 31 December 2011. We defined the affected period as when total EMS time was significantly extended after the disasters compared with the historical control data from 1 January 2009 to 10 March 2011. To identify risk factors associated with the extension of total EMS time after the disasters, we investigated trends in 3 time segments of total EMS time; response time, defined as time from an EMS call to arrival at the location, on-scene time, defined as time from arrival at the location to departure, and transport time, defined as time from departure from the location to arrival at a hospital. Results For the affected period from week 0 to week 11, the median total EMS time was 36 (IQR 27–52) minutes, while that in the predisaster control period was 31 (IQR 24–40) min. The percentage of transports exceeding 60 min in total EMS time increased from 8.2% (584/7087) in the control period to 22.2% (151/679) in the affected period. Among the 3 time segments, there was the most change in transport time (standardised mean difference: 0.41 vs 0.13–0.17). Conclusions EMS transport was significantly delayed for ∼3 months, from week 1 to 11 after the 3.11 triple disaster. This delay may be attributed to malfunctioning emergency hospitals after the triple disaster. PMID:27683521

  7. ANS [American Nuclear Society] topical meeting on radiological accidents: Perspectives and emergency planning: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing use of radioactive materials and the increasing public concern about possible accidents involving these materials has led to greater emphasis on preparing for such emergencies. The ANS Topical Meeting on Radiological Accidents - Perspectives and Emergency Planning provided a review of experiences with radiological accidents. The meeting covered some of the most important aspects of radiological accidents. Papers were presented which dealt with radiological accident experience. Technical response to accidents is of primary interest to many in the nuclear community; most of the papers submitted fell into this area. So many of these papers dealt with the use of computers in response that a session on that topic was arranged. A very significant impact of most radiological accidents is the cost, especially the cost of cleanup. There were papers on what is known about costs and associated current topics, such as modification and extension of the Price-Anderson Act. At least as important as the technical response to accidents is how society attempts to deal with them. A session on institutional issues was included to discuss how governments and other organizations respond to and deal with accidents. Medical effects of accidents are of great concern to the public. Invited papers to review the effects of high doses of radiation as well as very low doses were included in that session. Although the nuclear industry has an excellent safety record, this fact often does not agree with the public perception of the industry. The final session explored the public response to and perception of radiological emergencies and accidents. This subject will ultimately determine the future use of radioactive materials in this country

  8. Community emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents: A selected and partially annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngen, G.

    1988-10-01

    The role of responding to emergencies at nuclear power plants is often considered the responsibility of the personnel onsite. This is true for most, if not all, of the incidents that may happen during the course of the plant`s operating lifetime. There is however, the possibility of a major accident occurring at anytime. Major nuclear accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island have taught their respective countries and communities a significant lesson in local emergency preparedness and response. Through these accidents, the rest of the world can also learn a great deal about planning, preparing and responding to the emergencies unique to nuclear power. This bibliography contains books, journal articles, conference papers and government reports on emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents. It does not contain citations for ``onsite`` response or planning, nor does it cover the areas of radiation releases from transportation accidents. The compiler has attempted to bring together a sampling of the world`s collective written experience on dealing with nuclear reactor accidents on the sate, local and community levels. Since the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, that written experience has grown enormously.

  9. Community emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents: A selected and partially annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of responding to emergencies at nuclear power plants is often considered the responsibility of the personnel onsite. This is true for most, if not all, of the incidents that may happen during the course of the plant's operating lifetime. There is however, the possibility of a major accident occurring at anytime. Major nuclear accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island have taught their respective countries and communities a significant lesson in local emergency preparedness and response. Through these accidents, the rest of the world can also learn a great deal about planning, preparing and responding to the emergencies unique to nuclear power. This bibliography contains books, journal articles, conference papers and government reports on emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents. It does not contain citations for ''onsite'' response or planning, nor does it cover the areas of radiation releases from transportation accidents. The compiler has attempted to bring together a sampling of the world's collective written experience on dealing with nuclear reactor accidents on the sate, local and community levels. Since the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, that written experience has grown enormously

  10. Review and assessment of package requirements (yellowcake) and emergency response to transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of an accident involving a truck shipment of yellowcake, a joint NRC--DOT study was undertaken to review and assess the regulations and practices related to package integrity and to emergency response to transportation accidents involving low specific activity radioactive materials. Recommendations are made regarding the responsibilities of state and local agencies, carriers, and shippers, and the DOT and NRC regulations

  11. Bibliography for nuclear criticality accident experience, alarm systems, and emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics, detection, and emergency management of nuclear criticality accidents outside reactors has been an important component of criticality safety for as long as the need for this specialized safety discipline has been recognized. The general interest and importance of such topics receives special emphasis because of the potentially lethal, albeit highly localized, effects of criticality accidents and because of heightened public and regulatory concerns for any undesirable event in nuclear and radiological fields. This bibliography lists references which are potentially applicable to or interesting for criticality alarm, detection, and warning systems; criticality accident emergency management; and their associated programs. The lists are annotated to assist bibliography users in identifying applicable: industry and regulatory guidance and requirements, with historical development information and comments; criticality accident characteristics, consequences, experiences, and responses; hazard-, risk-, or safety-analysis criteria; CAS design and qualification criteria; CAS calibration, maintenance, repair, and testing criteria; experiences of CAS designers and maintainers; criticality accident emergency management (planning, preparedness, response, and recovery) requirements and guidance; criticality accident emergency management experience, plans, and techniques; methods and tools for analysis; and additional bibliographies

  12. Bibliography for nuclear criticality accident experience, alarm systems, and emergency management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putman, V.L.

    1995-09-01

    The characteristics, detection, and emergency management of nuclear criticality accidents outside reactors has been an important component of criticality safety for as long as the need for this specialized safety discipline has been recognized. The general interest and importance of such topics receives special emphasis because of the potentially lethal, albeit highly localized, effects of criticality accidents and because of heightened public and regulatory concerns for any undesirable event in nuclear and radiological fields. This bibliography lists references which are potentially applicable to or interesting for criticality alarm, detection, and warning systems; criticality accident emergency management; and their associated programs. The lists are annotated to assist bibliography users in identifying applicable: industry and regulatory guidance and requirements, with historical development information and comments; criticality accident characteristics, consequences, experiences, and responses; hazard-, risk-, or safety-analysis criteria; CAS design and qualification criteria; CAS calibration, maintenance, repair, and testing criteria; experiences of CAS designers and maintainers; criticality accident emergency management (planning, preparedness, response, and recovery) requirements and guidance; criticality accident emergency management experience, plans, and techniques; methods and tools for analysis; and additional bibliographies.

  13. Characterization of motorcycle accident victims attended by the mobile emergency service (SAMU-192, Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil - 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v34ispec.11524

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betise Mery Alencar Sousa Macau Furtado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study described the epidemiological characteristics of victims of accidents involving motorcycles, attended by the Mobile Emergency Service (SAMU-192 in the city of Recife (PE in 2006. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study that analyzed a sample of 703 cases. The results showed that 81.8% were male, aged 20 to 29 years. It was noted that 406 of them were wearing a helmet at the time of the accident. The accidents occurred most frequently on Sundays (19.3% between 18:00 and 24:00 hours (0.28%. The extremities were the most affected body segment, with 341 occurrences. Regarding the severity of injuries, it was found that 37.6% were superficial or mild (scrapes, cuts and bruises. These results demonstrate the need for educational campaigns to encourage the use of personal protective equipment among motorcyclists. The best way to reduce the risks and damages from motorcycle accidents is through primary prevention. For this, are needed integrated intersectoral actions aimed at reducing the incidence and severity of injuries.  

  14. Help guides for post-accident consequence management: farm activities and exiting the emergency phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having recalled the main actions foreseen in the PPIs (plans particuliers d'intervention, intervention specific plans) in case of radionuclide release in the environment after a nuclear accident, i.e. sheltering and ingestion of steady iodine, and also indicated the different phases of consequence management (preparation, emergency and post-accident phases), this report describes and comments the contents of two guides published by the IRSN (the French Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Institute) and dealing with the management of post-accident consequences. The first one is a guide to aid to decision-making for the management of the agricultural sector in case of nuclear accident, and the second one is a guide for the preparation of the end of the emergency phase in which actions to be performed during the first week after the end of accidental releases are described

  15. Populations protection and territories management in nuclear emergency and post-accident situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during these conference days. Twenty seven presentations out of 29 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - radiological and dosimetric consequences in nuclear accident situation: impact on the safety approach and protection stakes (E. Cogez); 2 - organisation of public authorities in case of emergency and in post-event situation (in case of nuclear accident or radiological terror attack in France and abroad), (O. Kayser); 3 - ORSEC plan and 'nuclear' particular intervention plan (PPI), (C. Guenon); 4 - thyroid protection by stable iodine ingestion: European perspective (J.R. Jourdain); 5 - preventive distribution of stable iodine: presentation of the 2009/2010 public information campaign (E. Bouchot); 6 - 2009/2010 iodine campaign: presentation and status (O. Godino); 7 - populations protection in emergency and post-accident situation in Switzerland (C. Murith); 8 - CIPR's recommendations on the management of emergency and post-accident situations (J. Lochard); 9 - nuclear exercises in France - status and perspectives (B. Verhaeghe); 10 - the accidental rejection of uranium at the Socatri plant: lessons learnt from crisis management (D. Champion); 11 - IRE's radiological accident of August 22, 2008 (C. Vandecasteele); 12 - presentation of the CEA's crisis national organisation: coordination centre in case of crisis, technical teams, intervention means (X. Pectorin); 13 - coordination and realisation of environmental radioactivity measurement programs, exploitation and presentation of results: status of IRSN's actions and perspectives (P. Dubiau); 14 - M2IRAGE - measurements management in the framework of geographically-assisted radiological interventions in the environment (O. Gerphagnon and H. Roche); 15 - post-accident management of a nuclear accident - the CODIRPA works (I. Mehl-Auget); 16 - nuclear post-accident: new challenges of crisis expertise (D. Champion); 17 - aid guidebooks

  16. Emergency Medical Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and need help right away, you should use emergency medical services. These services use specially trained people ... facilities. You may need care in the hospital emergency room (ER). Doctors and nurses there treat emergencies, ...

  17. Experience of domestic violence by women attending an inner city accident and emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    Sethi, D; Watts, S.; Zwi, A.; Watson, J; McCarthy, C.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the prevalence of domestic violence (DV) (defined as physical abuse perpetrated by intimate partners) in women attending an inner city accident and emergency department and to elicit women's response about being asked routinely about domestic violence in this setting.

  18. National emergency plan for nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The national emergency plan for nuclear accidents is a plan of action designed to provide a response to accidents involving the release or potential release of radioactive substances into the environment, which could give rise to radiation exposure to the public. The plan outlines the measures which are in place to assess and mitigate the effects of nuclear accidents which might pose a radiological hazard in ireland. It shows how accident management will operate, how technical information and monitoring data will be collected, how public information will be provided and what measures may be taken for the protection of the public in the short and long term. The plan can be integrated with the Department of Defence arrangements for wartime emergencies

  19. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident. Technical Volume 3/5. Emergency Preparedness and Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume describes the key events and response actions from the onset of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP), operated by the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), on 11 March 2011. It also describes the national emergency preparedness and response (EPR) system in place in Japan and the international EPR framework prior to the accident. It is divided into five sections. Section 3.1 describes the initial actions taken by Japan in response to the accident, involving: identification of the accident, notification of off-site authorities and activation of the response; mitigatory actions taken on-site; and initial off-site response. Section 3.2 describes the protective measures taken for personnel in response to the natural disaster, protection of emergency workers, medical management of emergency workers and the voluntary involvement of members of the public in the emergency response. Section 3.3 describes the protective actions and other response actions taken by Japan to protect the public. It addresses urgent and early protective actions; the use of a dose projection model, the System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information (SPEEDI), as a basis for decisions on protective actions during the accident; environmental monitoring; provision of information to the public and international community; and issues related to international trade and waste management. Section 3.4 describes the transition from the emergency phase to the recovery phase. It also addresses the national analysis of the accident and the emergency response. Section 3.5 describes the response by the IAEA, other international organizations within the Inter- Agency Committee on Radiological and Nuclear Emergencies (IACRNE), the actions of IAEA Member States with regard to protective actions recommended to their nationals in Japan and the provision of international assistance. A summary, observations and lessons conclude each section. There are three

  20. Emergency planning and preparedness for accidents involving radioactive materials used in medicine, industry, research and teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Series book should be considered as a technical guide aimed at the users of radioactive materials and the appropriate local and national authorities. It does not represent a single solution to the problems involved but rather draws the outlines of the plans and procedures that have to be developed in order to mitigate the consequences of an accident, should one occur. The preparation of local and national plans should follow the technical recommendations provided in this publication, with due consideration given to local factors which might vary from country to country (e.g. governmental systems, local legislation, quantities of radioactive materials involved). Several types of accidents are described, together with their possible radiological consequences. The basic principles of the protective measures that should be applied are discussed, and the principles of emergency planning and the measures needed to maintain preparedness for an operational response to an accident are outlined

  1. Emergency response and nuclear risk governance. Nuclear safety at nuclear power plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study entitled ''Emergency Response and Nuclear Risk Governance: nuclear safety at nuclear power plant accidents'' deals with issues of the protection of the population and the environment against hazardous radiation (the hazards of nuclear energy) and the harmful effects of radioactivity during nuclear power plant accidents. The aim of this study is to contribute to both the identification and remediation of shortcomings and deficits in the management of severe nuclear accidents like those that occurred at Chernobyl in 1986 and at Fukushima in 2011 as well as to the improvement and harmonization of plans and measures taken on an international level in nuclear emergency management. This thesis is divided into a theoretical part and an empirical part. The theoretical part focuses on embedding the subject in a specifically global governance concept, which includes, as far as Nuclear Risk Governance is concerned, the global governance of nuclear risks. Due to their characteristic features the following governance concepts can be assigned to these risks: Nuclear Safety Governance is related to safety, Nuclear Security Governance to security and NonProliferation Governance to safeguards. The subject of investigation of the present study is as a special case of the Nuclear Safety Governance, the Nuclear Emergency governance, which refers to off-site emergency response. The global impact of nuclear accidents and the concepts of security, safety culture and residual risk are contemplated in this context. The findings (accident sequences, their consequences and implications) from the analyses of two reactor accidents prior to Fukushima (Three Mile Iceland in 1979, Chernobyl in 1986) are examined from a historical analytical perspective and the state of the Nuclear Emergency governance and international cooperation aimed at improving nuclear safety after Chernobyl is portrayed by discussing, among other topics, examples of &apos

  2. Outline of emergency care in a radiation accident and topics for further discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical management in a criticality accident is described based on the authors' experiences, and some suggestions are made. The JCO criticality accident occurred in Tokai-mura on September 30, 1999, and the Ministry of Health and Welfare dispatched the authors to the site. They consulted with other experts and carried out medical examinations on people living within 350 m of the JCO site. They explained the gamma-radiation survey and about health hazards. Then they framed a public health plan of action before leaving Tokai-mura. At the time, there was no adequate system for interpreting the situation of for preparing for accidents. Based on these experiences, the authors concluded that good training, a care manual, and a system for the emergency phase and the follow-up phase are necessary. (K.H.)

  3. Ecological safety during radiological accidents. Analysis and evaluation of emergency situations at radiologically dangerous objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of radiological accidents at dangerous objects is minimal when with the help of technical and organizational means it is guaranteed that indoor and outdoor radiation doses are not exceeded. Also, it is necessary to ensure that the quantity of radiological products in the environment doesn't exceed allowed levels both at a normal exploitation of an object and during an accident. In regions with high radiological loads it is necessary to pay enough attention to the safety of dangerous objects in the situations of accidents. An example given in the paper on how to deal with accidents is based on a situation in the Archangelsk region. Analysis was implemented at 23 radiologically dangerous objects. The results of the analysis allowed to determine objects that are dangerous in an ecological sense. Relying on that, methodology of evaluating the situation in the region was created. The main thing is that evaluation of an ecological situation is judged relying on an emergency situation at a radiologically dangerous object. The first step of the methodology preparation is identification of particularly dangerous objects, and modeling of radiological load on an investigated area. The second step of the work is to review the second stage of the methodology which would be dedicated to the analysis and evaluation of emergency situations at radiologically dangerous objects. (author)

  4. ANSI/ANS-8.23-1997: nuclear criticality accident emergency planning and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    American National Standard ANSUANS-8.23 was developed to expand upon the basic emergency response guidance given in American National Standard, 'Administrative Practices for Nuclear Criticality Safety' ANSI/ANS-8.19-1996 (Ref. 1). This standard provides guidance for minimizing risks to personnel during emergency response to a nuclear criticality accident outside reactors. This standard is intended to apply to those facilities for which a criticality accident alarm system, as specified in American National Standard, 'Criticality Accident Alarm System', ANSI/ANS-8.3-1997 (Ref. 2) is in use. The Working Group was established in 1990, with Norman L. Pruvost as chairman. The Working Group had up to twenty-three members representing a broad range of the nuclear industry, and has included members from Canada, Japan and the United Kingdom. The initial edition of ANSI/ANS-8.23 was approved by the American National Standards Institute on December 30, 1997. It provides guidance for the following topics: (1) Management and technical staff responsibilities; (2) Evaluation of a potential criticality accident; (3) Emergency plan provisions; (4) Evacuation; (5) Re-entry, rescue and stabilization; and (6) Classroom training, exercises and evacuation drills. This guidance is not for generic emergency planning issues, but is specific to nuclear criticality accidents. For example, it assumes that an Emergency Plan is already established at facilities that implement the standard. During the development of the initial edition of ANSI/ANS-8.23, each Working Group member evaluated potential use of the standard at a facility with which the member was familiar. This revealed areas where a facility could have difficulty complying with the standard. These reviews helped identify and eliminate many potential problems and ambiguities with the guidance. The Working Group has received very limited feedback from the user community since the first edition of the standard was published. Suggestions

  5. Emergency planning practices and criteria in the OECD countries after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This critical review has been prepared at the request of the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH), on the basis of information collected from Member countries on their emergency planning practices and criteria, and on changes being considered as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. This information was officially provided to the Secretariat in response to a questionnaire. Other material has also been used, such as official papers describing national practices and reports presented at meetings organised by the NEA. In these cases the sources are given in the list of references. The information in this report reflects the situation in the Member countries at the end of 1987 and it might well be that additional changes were introduced in the emergency planning practices and criteria of several countries after the answers were sent to the Secretariat. It should also be noted that several of the questions were mainly relevant to nuclear power reactor operations. However, the basic philosophy for emergency planning is general, i.e. radiological criteria, emergency organisation, medical assistance, information to the public, etc., and applies in similar ways to different emergencies. Therefore, the information in the report should be valid for different types of radiological emergencies, although emphasis is placed in the report is on nuclear power reactor emergencies. For non-nuclear power Member countries the information refers mainly to plans to cope with other types of radiation emergencies, and to emergencies of a transboundary origin. Finally, the information covers only the off-site part of emergency planning, apart from some reflections in Chapter 1 on on-site emergency planning and the measures taken at nuclear facilities to prevent an accident or mitigate its consequences

  6. The first aid management of epistaxis by accident and emergency department staff.

    OpenAIRE

    McGarry, G W; Moulton, C

    1993-01-01

    Most nose bleeds can be controlled by compressing the ala nasi, thus applying direct pressure over Little's area. The ability to demonstrate the correct position for this manoeuvre was assessed in 115 members of the staff of the accident and emergency (A&E) department of a major teaching hospital. Overall, the correct response rate was only 33% and even trained medical and nursing staff achieved less than a 50% success rate. Increased awareness of this simple and effective technique is recomm...

  7. Consent to treatment by minors attending accident and emergency departments: guidelines.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, L; Harris, A.; Thompson, M.; Brayshaw, A

    1997-01-01

    The absolute right to refuse medical treatment, even if the reasons are irrational, is confined to competent adults. Children under 16 years can give legal consent to treatment in the absence of consent from those with parental responsibility. Children under 18 years do not, however, have an absolute right to consent, or refuse to consent, to treatment. The views of children assume increasing importance with age and maturity. Accident and emergency medical and nursing staff may face difficult...

  8. Deliberate self harm assessment by accident and emergency staff--an intervention study.

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, M J; Turnbull, G; Wessely, S

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of specific training for accident and emergency (A&E) staff on the quality of psychosocial assessment of deliberate self harm patients. METHODS: A non-randomised intervention study that compared the psychosocial assessment of deliberate self harm patients before and after a one hour teaching session for the A&E departments nursing and junior medical staff. Adequacy of psychosocial assessment was judged by examining A&E case notes. The records of the hospital's...

  9. An examination of the accident and emergency management of deliberate self harm.

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, M; BEACH, M; Evans, P A; Winston, A.; Friedman, T.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the adequacy of assessment and management of deliberate self harm (DSH) undertaken by accident and emergency (A&E) medical staff. METHODS: The records for attendances to the Leicester Royal Infirmary A&E department with a diagnosis of "self inflicted" injury for the 12 month period April 1994 to March 1995 were scrutinised. If the episode was identified as DSH, then assessment and management were examined, using an instrument based on the Royal College of Psychiatrists' ...

  10. The diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy in an accident and emergency department.

    OpenAIRE

    Clancy, M J; Illingworth, R N

    1989-01-01

    The correct diagnosis was initially suspected in 32 (53%) of 60 patients with ectopic pregnancy who attended an accident and emergency department. Incorrect diagnoses were made because ectopic pregnancy was not considered or because relevant symptoms and signs were missed or misinterpreted. Three patients had been 'sterilized'. Twenty-four patients (40%) had abdominal pain or vaginal bleeding for more than 1 week before attending. Fever and leucocytosis were wrongly attributed to pelvic infec...

  11. Organ donation in the accident and emergency department: a study of relatives' views.

    OpenAIRE

    Wellesley, A.; Glucksman, E.; Crouch, R

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether recently bereaved people would object to being asked about organ donation immediately after the death of their relative. METHODS: A telephone interview of 78 recently bereaved relatives of people who had died in an inner city accident and emergency (A&E) department; 68 (87%) agreed to participate in the study and were sent a questionnaire. Outcome measures were views on being asked about organ donation in the A&E department immediately after the death of a rela...

  12. A review of 7 years of complaints in an inner-city accident and emergency department.

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, M T; Glucksman, M E

    1991-01-01

    In 7 years between 1982-88, 122 complaints were lodged against the Accident and Emergency department of King's College Hospital. A high percentage mentioned more than one aspect per complaint. Commonest were those regarding attitude (37.7%), missed diagnosis (36.6%), waiting time (32.8%), cursory examination (14.7%) and poor communication (11.5%). These causes of complaint are amenable to improvement. Training in interpersonal skills may reduce complaints of attitude. A high index of suspicio...

  13. Report of an audit of nurse triage in an accident and emergency department.

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, T W; Tseng, G; Lee, L W

    1994-01-01

    The nurse triage process in an accident and emergency (A&E) department was audited as part of the nursing quality assurance programme. It was found that in most cases documentation was adequate and guidelines had been adhered to. Triage decisions were accurate in most cases using the discharge diagnosis as a bench-mark. Waiting time improvements were also seen. Triage audit was a useful tool in the continuous quality improvement effort.

  14. Notification of infectious diseases by junior doctors in accident and emergency departments.

    OpenAIRE

    Spedding, R L; Jenkins, M G; O'Reilly, S A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge about notifiable infectious diseases by accident and emergency (A&E) senior house officers. METHODS: A telephone questionnaire of senior house officers was carried out over a one week period at the end of their six month attachment in A&E departments in Northern Ireland. RESULTS: 81 (91%) of the senior house officers participated in the study; 23 (29%) realised that the doctor diagnosing the notifiable disease had a statutory duty to notify that disease; nin...

  15. Tissue donation after death in the accident and emergency department: an opportunity wasted?

    OpenAIRE

    Magrath, H P; Boulstridge, L J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the accident and emergency department (A&E) is a potential source of tissues for donation, from non-heart beating donors (NHBDs). METHODS: A telephone survey of 30 A&E departments was conducted to determine current tissue harvesting practices from NHBDs. The potential number of tissue donors in our own medium sized district general hospital A&E department was estimated. Senior nursing staff were asked to complete a questionnaire to establish their knowledge, ...

  16. The use of music therapy in reducing anxiety on patients attending accident and emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    So, Wing-hong; 蘇永康

    2013-01-01

    In Hong Kong, there has about 70% patients who attend Accident and Emergency Department (AED) is categorized as semi- or non-urgent cases. The medical conditions with the relative longer waiting time provoke the anxiety level. Furthermore the anxiety is worsen by the noisy waiting environment. These phenomena not only affect the psychological but also the physiological changes of patients. Therefore, there is a need to develop an evidence-based intervention that can effectively reduce the anx...

  17. Decision making process and emergency management in different phases of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EVATECH, Information Requirements and Countermeasure Evaluation Techniques in Nuclear Emergency Management, was a research project in the key action 'Nuclear Fission' of the fifth EURATOM Framework Programme (FP5). The overall objective of the project was to enhance the quality and coherence of response to nuclear emergencies in Europe by improving the decision support methods, models and processes in ways that take into account the expectations and concern of the many different parties involved - stake holders both in managing the emergency response and those who are affected by the consequences of nuclear emergencies. The project had ten partners from seven European countries. The development of the real-time online decision support system RODOS has been one of the major items in the area of radiation protection within the European Commission's Framework Programmes. The main objectives of the RODOS project have been to develop a comprehensive and integrated decision support system that is generally applicable across Europe and to provide a common framework for incorporating the best features of existing decision support systems and future developments. Furthermore the objective has been to provide greater transparency in the decision process to: improve public understanding and acceptance of off-site emergency measures, to facilitate improved communication between countries of monitoring data, predictions of consequences, etc., in the event of any future accident, and to promote, through the development and use of the system, a more coherent, consistent and harmonised response to any future accident that may affect Europe. (authors)

  18. Medical assistance in the management of nuclear power plant accidents. Guide for: medical personnel of emergency preparedness services, doctors of emergency departments, doctors for out-patient or in-patient treatment. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guide explains the medical tasks and activities in the context of the emergency preparedness programmes and provisions established by the Laender. The medical expert for radiation injuries is a particularly important function in the radiologial accident management services. The provisions for medical care have been determined on the basis of knowledge drawn among other sources from the German Nuclear Power Plant Risk Study, Phase B. In addition, the guide's provisions are based on international knowledge about the consequences of enhanced radiation exposure, and the medical tasks and the required organisational infrastructure have been determined accordingly. A further source of reference for planning the activities are the data accumulated during emergency preparedness training activities in the various Laender. (orig./MG). 3 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Emergency preparedness and response to 'not-in-a-facility' radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper provides an overview of lessons learned from the past radiological accidents, which have not occurred in an operating facility, i.e. 'not-in-a-facility' radiological emergencies. A method to analyze status of prevention of accidents is proposed taking into account the experiences and findings from the past events. The main emergency planning items are discussed, which would render effective response in case of such emergencies. Although the IAEA has published many documents about establishing an adequate emergency response capability, it is not an easy task to bring these recommendations into life. This paper gives some hints how to overcome the most obvious difficulties while users of these documents trying to adapt the guidance to their own needs. The special cases of alpha emitters and radiological dispersal devices were considered separately. The balanced approach to emergency response is promoted throughout the text, which means that a level of preparedness should be commensurate to the threat and the existing resources should be used to the extent possible. (author)

  20. Emergency preparedness and response to 'Not-in-a-Facility' radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper provides an overview of lessons learned from the past radiological accidents, which have not occurred in an operating facility, i.e. 'not-in-a-facility' radiological emergencies. A method to analyze status of prevention of accidents is proposed taking into account the experiences and findings from the past events. The main emergency planning items are discussed, which would render effective response in case of such emergencies. Although the IAEA has published many documents about establishing an adequate emergency response capability, it is not an easy task to bring these recommendations into life. This paper gives some hints how to overcome the most obvious difficulties while users of these documents trying to adapt the guidance to their own needs. The special cases of alpha emitters and radiological dispersal devices were considered separately. The balanced approach to emergency response is promoted throughout the text, which means that a level of preparedness should be commensurate to the threat and the existing resources should be used to the extent possible. (author)

  1. Pediatric emergency medical services and their drawbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Foraih Al-Anazi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To survey the literature on Pediatric Emergency Medical Services (PEMS with an aim to focus its drawbacks and emphasize the means of improvement. Materials and Methods: Published articles selected for inclusion were based on the significance and understanding of literature search on different aspects of PEMS. To meet this criterion, PubMed, PubMed Central, Science Direct, Uptodate, Med Line, comprehensive databases, Cochrane library and the Internet (Google, Yahoo were thoroughly searched. Results: PEMS provide out-of-hospital medical care and/or transport the patients to definitive care. The task force represents specialties of ambulance transport, first aid, emergency medical care, life saving, trauma, emergency medicine, water rescue, and extrication. Preliminary care is undertaken to save the patients from different medical exigencies. The techniques and procedures of basic and advanced life-support are employed. A large number of weaknesses are recorded in PEMS system, such as ambulance transport irregularities, deficit equipment, lack of expertise, and ignorance of the pre-hospital care providers. These are discussed with special reference to a few examples of medical exigencies. Conclusions: The appointments in PEMS should be regularized with specific qualifications, experience, and expertise in different areas. Responsibility of PEMS should not be left to pre-hospital care providers, who are non clinicians and lack proper education and training. Pediatricians should be adequately trained to play an active role in PEMS. Meetings should be convened to discuss the lapses and means of improvement. Networks of co-operation between pre-hospital providers and experts in the emergency department should be established.

  2. Emergency response to a nuclear facility accident: preplanning and preparedness by off-site organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction ('defence-in-depth' concept); accident assessment (prompt notification of off-site authorities); time factors associated with accidents leading to radiological releases off-site; radiological characteristics of releases; emergency communications; an adequate planning basis; training. (U.K.)

  3. The role of the United States Food Safety and Inspection Service after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) inspects domestic and imported meat and poultry food products to assure the public that they are safe, wholesome, not economically adulterated and properly labeled. The Service also monitors the activities of meat and poultry plants and related activities in allied industries, and establishes standards and approves labels for meat and poultry products. As part of its responsibility, shortly after the Chernobyl accident occurred, FSIS developed a plan to assess this accident's impact on domestically produced and imported meat and poultry

  4. Regulatory requirements on accident management and emergency preparedness - concept of nuclear and radiation safety during beyond-design-basis accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actual practice the and proposals for further activities in the field of Accident Management (AM) in the member countries of the Co-operation Forum of WWER regulators and in Western countries have been assessed. Further the results of the last working group on AM , the overview of interactions of severe accident research and the regulatory positions in various countries, IAEA reports, practice in Switzerland and Finland, were taken into consideration. From this information, the working group derived recommendations on Accident Management. The general proposals correspond to the present state of the art on AM. They do not describe the whole spectra of recommendations on AM for NPPs with WWER reactors. A basis for the implementation of an AM program is given, which could be extended in a follow-up working group. The developments and research concerning AM have to be continued. The positions of various countries with regard to the 'Interactions of severe accident research and the regulatory positions' are given. On the basis of the working group proposals, the WWER regulators could set regulatory requirements and support further developments of AM strategies, making use of the benefits of common features of NPPs with WWER reactors. Concerted actions in the field of AM between the WWER regulators would bundle the development of a unified concept of recommendations and speed up the implementation of AM measures in order to minimise the risks involved in nuclear power generation

  5. Use of anti-D in an accident and emergency department.

    OpenAIRE

    Huggon, A M; Watson, D P

    1993-01-01

    A retrospective study was made of the use of anti-D in an accident and emergency (A&E) department in 1 month. Patients who are discharged home with a diagnosis of threatened miscarriage should have their blood group determined and anti-D should be given to those who are rhesus negative. We found that only 8/29 patients discharged from the department had their blood group determined and none of the rhesus negative patients was given anti-D. We have introduced a practical method of reminding me...

  6. Telephone advice in the accident and emergency department: a survey of current practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, R J; McCabe, M; Allen, H.; Rainer, T; Richmond, P. W.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the standard of advice given by telephone by accident and emergency (A&E) departments following patients' enquiries. In order to do this patient enquiries were simulated and a telephone questionnaire was carried out. The study was carried out in 18 major and 16 minor A&E departments in Wales. Results achieved were that overall, correct telephone advice was given to 72 of 97 simulated patients (74%). Sixty calls were dealt with by the nursing staff (62...

  7. The emergency medical programs of japan and foreign countries for radiation accidents in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our country, the medical emergency programs for the people living near nuclear power stations are well organized, however, preparation of medical staffs who are well trained is considered to be not sufficient. In the USA, on call 24 hours response to a radiological emergency is provided and funded by Department of Energy(DOE) or electric companies. Especially, REAC/TS is a part of DOE response network, in which there are provided well-trained physicians, nurses, health physicists, coordinators and support personnels. In United Kingdom, National Radiological Protection Board(NRPB) is responsible to a radiological emergency program. Each nuclear power station has its own emergency program consisting of a team of physicians, nurses and health physicists. In France, French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) is a responsible agency for a radiological emergency program. On call 24 hours response to a radiological emergency is provided in Fontenay-aux Roses Institute and Curie Institute. Curie Institute also responds to radiological emergencies in other countries at the request of WHO. In Germany(West Germany), compulsory assurance system covers a radiological emergency program and a radiological protection. There are seven centers in West Germany, in which well-trained medical staffs are provided against radiological injuries. In this report, I tried to propose a new concept about emergency medical programs for nuclear power station accidents in Japan. I think it is a very urgent theme to provide on call 24 hours radiological emergency program, in which patients suffered from acute radiation sickness with internal contamination or contaminated radiation burns will be treated without any trouble. We have to make our best efforts to complete basic or clinical research about radiation injuries including bone marrow transplantation, radioprotectors, chelating agents and radiation burns etc. (J.P.N.)

  8. The cost of overseas visitors to an inner city accident and emergency department.

    OpenAIRE

    Colville, J.; Burgess, A; Kermani, C; Touquet, R; Fothergill, J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate, in a metropolitan accident and emergency (A&E) department, the annual cost of treating overseas visitors whose countries of origin do not have reciprocal arrangements with Britain. METHODS: The study was retrospective. A 24 h period (00.01 h to 24.00 h inclusive) on consecutive days in consecutive weeks (that is, Monday in week 1, Tuesday in week 2, etc) was costed over 52 weeks (1.8.92-31.7.93 inclusive) and extrapolated to 365 days. All visitors between those dates w...

  9. An analysis of telephone calls to an inner-city accident and emergency department.

    OpenAIRE

    Crouch, R; Patel, A; Williams, S.; Dale, J

    1996-01-01

    The general public in the UK often telephone accident and emergency (A&E) departments for medical advice. Such calls are usually dealt with by nursing staff in an informal manner (often with no written record of the call being made). The specific questions addressed in this study are who was calling for advice, when did they call, what were their presenting complaints, and what was the outcome of the call? In addition, the study provided an opportunity to test the implementation of a new syst...

  10. Audit of telephone advice in a paediatric accident and emergency department.

    OpenAIRE

    Molyneux, E; Jones, N.; Aldom, G; Molyneux, B

    1994-01-01

    This paper audits the telephone requests for advice to a paediatric accident and emergency (A&E) Department over a 4-week period. All calls were answered by senior nurses. Most calls were received in the early evenings when the A&E department was busy. Parents were the most frequent callers and the majority of calls were for children under 5 years of age. The problems presented were wide ranging but advice over the telephone meant that many unnecessary visits to hospital were prevented. The p...

  11. Idling Reduction for Emergency and Other Service Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-07

    This is a fact sheet about reducing idling for emergency and service vehicles. Emergency vehicles, such as police cars, ambulances, and fire trucks, along with other service vehicles such as armored cars, are often exempt from laws that limit engine idling. However, these vehicles can save fuel and reduce emissions with technologies that allow them to perform vital services without idling.

  12. Mutual emergency assistance for radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A revised document on ''Mutual Emergency Assistance for Radiation Accidents'' jointly prepared by the Agency with the participation of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and the Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Co-ordinator (UNDRO) was issued in 1980 as TECDOC-237. The present document lists the additional information received after publication of the 1980 edition and is issued as a Supplement to TECDOC-237 (1980 Edition). Some useful information contained in TECDOC-237 such as the IAEA arrangement and the WHO Collaborating Centres for Radiation Emergency Assistance are reprinted for ready reference

  13. Utilization of the atmospheric release advisory capability (ARAC) services during and after the Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At 0820 PST on 28 March 1979, the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center advised the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) that the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, had experienced an accident some four hours earlier, resulting in the atmospheric release of xenon-133 and krypton-88. This report describes ARAC's response to the Three Mile Island accident, including the role ARAC played throughout the 20 days that real-time assessments were made available to the Department of Energy on-scene commander. It also describes the follow-up population-dose calculations performed for the President's Commission on Three Mile Island. At the request of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a questionnaire addressing the usefulness of ARAC products during the accident was sent to ARAC-product users. A summary of the findings from this questionnaire, along with recommendations for improving ARAC service, is also presented. The accident at Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, is discussed in the context of a well-planned emergency response by local and Federal officials

  14. Utilization of the atmospheric release advisory capability (ARAC) services during and after the Three Mile Island accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, J.B.; Dickerson, M.H.; Greenly, G.D.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1980-07-01

    At 0820 PST on 28 March 1979, the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center advised the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) that the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, had experienced an accident some four hours earlier, resulting in the atmospheric release of xenon-133 and krypton-88. This report describes ARAC's response to the Three Mile Island accident, including the role ARAC played throughout the 20 days that real-time assessments were made available to the Department of Energy on-scene commander. It also describes the follow-up population-dose calculations performed for the President's Commission on Three Mile Island. At the request of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a questionnaire addressing the usefulness of ARAC products during the accident was sent to ARAC-product users. A summary of the findings from this questionnaire, along with recommendations for improving ARAC service, is also presented. The accident at Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, is discussed in the context of a well-planned emergency response by local and Federal officials.

  15. Are mental health problems associated with use of Accident and Emergency and health-related harm?

    OpenAIRE

    Keene, Jan; Rodriguez, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Background: Previous findings indicate that mental health problems are common in Emergency departments; however, there are few studies of the extent of health-related problems and emergency service use in mental health populations as a whole. Methods: Record linkage methods were used to map the association between mental health, age, gender, and health-related harm across total health and mental health care populations in one geographical area, over three years. By examining patterns of healt...

  16. Diagnostic characterization of services providing care to victims of accidents and violence in five Brazilian state capitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Ferreira Deslandes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article characterizes the services providing care to victims in five Brazilian regions with high violence and accident rates. It analyzes care activities and strategies, the profile of the teams, the conditions of installations, equipment and supplies, integrated care and registration services and the opinion of health managers with respect to the needs and requirements for a better care to the victims. The sample is composed by 103 services: 34 from Recife, 25 from Rio de Janeiro, 18 from Manaus, 18 from Curitiba and 8 from Brasília. The still preliminary results indicate: lower number of services focusing on the elderly; scarce investment in preventive actions; the principal actions carried out are social assistance, ambulatory and hospital care and psychological assistance; patients received from Basic Health Units require attention of the communities and families; need for investment in capacity building programs for professionals; precarious registries, data handled manually. The wording of the National Policy for Reduction of Morbidity and Mortality from Accidents and Violence is not well-known and there is a lack of articulation among and inside sectors and between prehospital and emergency care services. Rehabilitation services are insufficient in all cities.

  17. A digest of the nuclear safety division report on the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident seminar (5). Lessons learned on emergency preparedness and response and related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant Accident, the lessons learned on the correspondence to emergency are explained from the view point of the radiation protection. The lessons on the INES evaluation, the cooperation and connection in the accident, and the renewal of accident information are mentioned. (M.H.)

  18. Do accident and emergency senior house officers know the British guidelines on the management of acute asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulahannan, T; Hardern, R D; Hamer, D W

    1996-03-01

    Avoidable deaths from asthma continue, even in hospital. Since the management of acute severe asthma is often initiated in the Accident and Emergency department, it is crucial that staff there have adequate knowledge. An anonymous questionnaire, containing items based on chart 6 of the UK guidelines, was completed by 66 Accident and Emergency Senior House Officers from the Yorkshire region. The study aim was to establish these doctors' levels of knowledge about the recommended management of acute asthma in Accident and Emergency. The median score was 10 (out of a possible 24) and the interquartile range 8-13. Further efforts are required to implement these guidelines so that the best patient outcomes can be achieved.

  19. Construction of a technique plan repository and evaluation system based on AHP group decision-making for emergency treatment and disposal in chemical pollution accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Shenggang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); College of Chemistry, Baotou Teachers’ College, Baotou 014030 (China); Cao, Jingcan; Feng, Li; Liang, Wenyan [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Liqiu, E-mail: zhangliqiu@163.com [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Different chemical pollution accidents were simplified using the event tree analysis. • Emergency disposal technique plan repository of chemicals accidents was constructed. • The technique evaluation index system of chemicals accidents disposal was developed. • A combination of group decision and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was employed. • Group decision introducing similarity and diversity factor was used for data analysis. - Abstract: The environmental pollution resulting from chemical accidents has caused increasingly serious concerns. Therefore, it is very important to be able to determine in advance the appropriate emergency treatment and disposal technology for different types of chemical accidents. However, the formulation of an emergency plan for chemical pollution accidents is considerably difficult due to the substantial uncertainty and complexity of such accidents. This paper explains how the event tree method was used to create 54 different scenarios for chemical pollution accidents, based on the polluted medium, dangerous characteristics and properties of chemicals involved. For each type of chemical accident, feasible emergency treatment and disposal technology schemes were established, considering the areas of pollution source control, pollutant non-proliferation, contaminant elimination and waste disposal. Meanwhile, in order to obtain the optimum emergency disposal technology schemes as soon as the chemical pollution accident occurs from the plan repository, the technique evaluation index system was developed based on group decision-improved analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and has been tested by using a sudden aniline pollution accident that occurred in a river in December 2012.

  20. The use of a new design irrigator for the emergency treatment of chemical eye injuries in an accident and emergency department.

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, M T; Mulira, A

    1989-01-01

    The introduction of a hand-held drench hose into a district general hospital accident and emergency department, for the emergency irrigation of chemically injured eyes is reported. The hose is described, together with the technique of irrigation. The advantages that a high-flow, low pressure system affords over conventional irrigation methods are discussed. The system appears to offer a simple, immediately available, effective tool for emergency eye care, which is suitable for use by a variet...

  1. Development of Educational and Training Simulator for Emergency Response to Chinese Nuclear Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the lessons in the emergency response category is that information on the nuclear power plants of neighboring countries should be organized and the consequence can be assessed. In addition, many reactors have been constructed and are under construction on the eastern coast of China recently. Korea might be directly affected by an accident of Chinese nuclear power plant since Korea is located in the westerly belt. performed with the PCTRAN/CPR-1000 module. The result showed that normal operation and DBA conditions were simulated swiftly with the speed of 16 times faster than real time. Thus, it would be a good source term estimation module for the educational and training simulator

  2. Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with (UF6) packages tracking Suez Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt has a unique problem - the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passing regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. Moreover there are also about 1000 metric tons of uranium hexaflouride (UF6) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all precautions taken in the transportation, accidents with packages containing (UF6) and shipped through the Suez Canal, accidents may arise even though the probability is minimal. These accidents, may be accompanied by injuries or death of persons and damage to property. Due to the radiation and criticality hazards of (UF6) and its high risk of chemical toxicity. The probability of a fire accident with a cargo carrying (UF6) during its crossing the Suez Canal can cause serious chemical toxic and radiological hazards, particularly if the accident occurred close or near to one of the three densely populated cities (Port-Said, Ismailia, and Suez), which are located along the Suez Canal, west bank. The government of Egypt has elaborated a national radiological emergency plan inorder to face probable radiological accidents, which may be arised inside the country. Arrangements have been also elaborated for the medical care of any persons who, might be injured or contaminated, or who, have been exposed to severe radiation doses. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to visualize a fire accident scenario occurring in industrial packages containing UF6 on board of a Cargo crossing the Suez Canal near Port-Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are going to be presented and discussed. The proposed emergency response actions taken to face the accident are going to be also presented. The work presented had revealed the importance of public awareness will be needed for populations located in densely populated areas along Suez Canal bank inorder to react timely and effectively to avoid the toxic and radiological hazards araised in

  3. Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with (UF{sub 6}) packages tracking Suez Canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salama, M. [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NCNSRC), Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2004-07-01

    Egypt has a unique problem - the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passing regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. Moreover there are also about 1000 metric tons of uranium hexaflouride (UF6) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all precautions taken in the transportation, accidents with packages containing (UF{sub 6}) and shipped through the Suez Canal, accidents may arise even though the probability is minimal. These accidents, may be accompanied by injuries or death of persons and damage to property. Due to the radiation and criticality hazards of (UF{sub 6}) and its high risk of chemical toxicity. The probability of a fire accident with a cargo carrying (UF{sub 6}) during its crossing the Suez Canal can cause serious chemical toxic and radiological hazards, particularly if the accident occurred close or near to one of the three densely populated cities (Port-Said, Ismailia, and Suez), which are located along the Suez Canal, west bank. The government of Egypt has elaborated a national radiological emergency plan inorder to face probable radiological accidents, which may be arised inside the country. Arrangements have been also elaborated for the medical care of any persons who, might be injured or contaminated, or who, have been exposed to severe radiation doses. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to visualize a fire accident scenario occurring in industrial packages containing UF6 on board of a Cargo crossing the Suez Canal near Port-Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are going to be presented and discussed. The proposed emergency response actions taken to face the accident are going to be also presented. The work presented had revealed the importance of public awareness will be needed for populations located in densely populated areas along Suez Canal bank inorder to react timely and effectively to avoid the toxic and radiological

  4. Making the journey safe: recognising and responding to severe sepsis in accident and emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnington, Sarah; Atterton, Brigid; Ingleby, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Severe sepsis is a clinical emergency. Despite the nationwide recognition of the sepsis six treatment bundle as the first line emergency treatment for this presentation, compliance in sepsis six provision remains inadequately low. The project goals were to improve compliance with the implementation of the Sepsis Six in patients with severe sepsis and/or septic shock. In improving timely care delivery it was anticipated improvements would be made in relation to patient safety and experience, and reductions in length of stay (LoS) and mortality. The project intended to make the pathway for those presenting with sepsis safe and consistent, where sepsis is recognised and treated in a timely manner according to best practice. The aim of the project was to understand the what the barriers where to providing safe effective care for the patient presenting with severe sepsis in A&E. Using the Safer Clinical Systems (SCS) tools developed byte Health Foundation and Warwick University, the project team identified the hazards and associated risks in the septic patient pathway. The level of analysis employed enabled the project team to identify the major risks, themes, and factors of influence within this pathway. The analysis identified twenty nine possible interventions, of which six were chosen following option appraisal. Further interventions were recommended to the accident and emergency as part of a business case and further changes in process. Audits identified all severely septic patients presenting to A&E in October 2014 (n=67) and post intervention in September 2015 (n=93). Compared analysis demonstrated an increase in compliance with the implementation of the sepsis six care bundle from 7% to 41%, a reduction in LoS by 1.9 days and a decrease in 30 day mortality by 50%. Additional audit reviewed the management of 10 septic patients per week for the duration of the project to assess the real time impact of the selected interventions.

  5. Brief interventions for hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption in accident and emergency departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin eWojnar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of alcohol abuse among patients treated in accident and emergency departments (A&E is considered substantial. This paper is a narrative review of studies investigating the effectiveness of brief interventions (BI for hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption in A&E. A&E departments in hospitals (and other health care infrastructures are commonly the place where serious consequences of alcohol drinking are seen and need to be tackled, supporting the suggested theoretical usefulness of delivering brief interventions in this environment. Available research shows that brief interventions (BI may be considered a valuable technique for dealing with alcohol-related problems. However, it is suggested that the usefulness of BI may depend significantly on the target population to be dealt with. BI have proved to be beneficial for male individuals and those patients who do not abuse other psychoactive substances. In contrast, evidence indicates that brief interventions in A&E settings are not effective at all when dealing with men admitted as a consequence of a violence-related event. In addition, some studies were unable to confirm the effectiveness of BI in female population, in emergency setting. Studies investigating the association between drinking patterns and the effectiveness of brief interventions also present inconsistent results. Most studies assessing the effectiveness of BI in A&E settings only adopted a short perspective (looking at the impact up to a maximum of twelve months after the BI was delivered. When assessing the effects of BI, both the amount of alcohol consumed as well as expected reductions in alcohol consequences, such as injuries, can be taken into account. Evidence on the implementation of brief intervention in emergency departments remains inconclusive as to whether there are clear benefits. A variety of outcome measures and assessing procedures were used in the different studies, which have investigated this

  6. Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with UF6 packages traversing the Suez Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt has a unique problem, the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passes regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. There are also about 1000 metric tonnes of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all the precautions taken in the transport, accidents with packages containing UF6 shipped through the Suez Canal may arise, even though the probability is minimal. Such accidents may be accompanied by injuries to or death of persons and damage to property including radiation and criticality hazards and high chemical toxicity, particularly if the accident occurred close to one of the three densely populated cities (Port Said, Ismailia and Suez), which are located along the west bank of the Suez Canal. The government of Egypt has established a national radiological emergency plan in order to deal with any radiological accidents which may arise inside the country. This paper considers the effect of a fire accident to industrial packages containing UF6 on board a cargo ship passing along the Suez Canal near Port Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are presented and discussed. The paper highlights the importance of public awareness for populations located in densely populated areas along the bank of the Suez Canal, in order to react in a timely and effective way to avoid the toxic and radiological hazards resulting from such a type of accident. The possibility of upgrading the capabilities of civil defence and fire-fighting personnel is also discussed (author)

  7. Child and adolescent mental health emergency services in Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Releva, M; Boskovska, M; Apceva, A; Polazarevska, M; Novotni, A; Bonevski, D; Sargent, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of child and adolescent mental health emergency services in Macedonia since 1993. The evolution of services through the Mental Crisis Centre for Children and Adolescents, funded by the Open Society Institute, and located in six cities is outlined. The paper also defines traditional services, the nature of child mental health emergencies, the evaluation process, follow-up care and training and supervision. It concludes with concern that the mental health emergency system is not sufficient to meet the needs of the child and adolescent population, particularly in the face of the Kosovar refugee crisis. Recommendations for the future are made. PMID:11508566

  8. Development and application of a random walk model of atmospheric diffusion in the emergency response of nuclear accidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Bing; LI Hong; FANG Dong

    2007-01-01

    Plume concentration prediction is one of the main contents of radioactive consequence assessment for early emergency response to nuclear accidents. Random characteristics of atmospheric diffusion itself was described, a random walk model of atmospheric diffusion (Random Walk) was introduced and compared with the Lagrangian puff model (RIMPUFF) in the nuclear emergency decision support system (RODOS) developed by the European Community for verification. The results show the concentrations calculated by the two models are quite close except that the plume area calculated by Random Walk is a little smaller than that by RIMPUFF. The random walk model for atmospheric diffusion can simulate the atmospheric diffusion in case of nuclear accidents, and provide more actual information for early emergency and consequence assessment as one of the atmospheric diffusion module of the nuclear emergency decision support system.

  9. How do patients come to the Accident and Emergency Department of RIPAS Hospital?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Thaw DA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The mode and speed of transportation to the Accident and Emergency Department (AED of hospitals is very important for critically ill patients. This study looked at the mode of transportation to the AED at the Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha (RIPAS Hospital. Materials and Methods: Three different time periods: Period A from 15th May to 31st May 2004, (17 days, n=2,170 without prioritising, Period B from 1st January 2004 to 31st July 2006 (31 months, n=235 dead on arrival and resuscitation cases, and Period C from 20th to 26th November 2006 (7 days, all Priority Cases 1 to 3 were reviewed. Data on mode of transportation and triage categories were extracted from the ambulance response sheets. Results: During Period A, the main mode of transportation to the AED was private vehicles (90.7% followed by ambulance (7.9%, and other transportation (1.4%. During study Period B, the main mode of transportation was also private transports (50.2% followed closely by ambulance (48.5% and other transportation (1.3%. During Period C, Priority 1 cases (life-threatening conditions, n=7, most were transported with private transport (71.4% followed by ambulance (28.6%; Priority 2 (n=232 cases, majority were transported with private transport (89.2%, followed by ambulance (10.3%, and one case used police transportation; and in Priority 3 cases (non-life threatening conditions, n=1,010, almost all were transported with private transport (98.7%, followed by police (0.9% and ambulance (0.4% respectively. Conclusion: Utilisation of designated emergency transportation is low especially for the moderate to seriously ill (Priority 1 and 2 patients when compared to other well developed countries. More needs to be done to improve the usage of emergency transportations especially for the seriously ill cases.

  10. Radiographers and radiologists reporting plain radiograph requests from accident and emergency and general practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To assess selectively trained radiographers and consultant radiologists reporting plain radiographs for the Accident and Emergency Department (A and E) and general practitioners (GPs) within a typical hospital setting. METHODS: Two radiographers, a group of eight consultant radiologists, and a reference standard radiologist independently reported under controlled conditions a retrospectively selected, random, stratified sample of 400 A and E and 400 GP plain radiographs. An independent consultant radiologist judged whether the radiographer and radiologist reports agreed with the reference standard report. Clinicians then assessed whether radiographer and radiologist incorrect reports affected confidence in their diagnosis and treatment plans, and patient outcome. RESULTS: For A and E and GP plain radiographs, respectively, there was a 1% (95% confidence interval (CI) -2 to 5) and 4% (95% CI -1 to 8) difference in reporting accuracy between the two professional groups. For both A and E and GP cases there was an 8% difference in the clinicians' confidence in their diagnosis based on radiographer or radiologist incorrect reports. For A and E and GP cases, respectively, there was a 2% and 8% difference in the clinicians' confidence in their management plans based on radiographer or radiologist incorrect reports. For A and E and GP cases, respectively, there was a 1% and 11% difference in effect on patient outcome of radiographer or radiologist incorrect reports. CONCLUSION: There is the potential to extend the reporting role of selectively trained radiographers to include plain radiographs for all A and E and GP patients. Further research conducted during clinical practice at a number of sites is recommended

  11. The use and abuse of the emergency ambulance service: some of the factors affecting the decision whether to call an emergency ambulance.

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, G J

    1990-01-01

    Over a 1-month period all patients arriving in the accident and emergency department by ambulance following a '999' call were questioned using a standard proforma. They were assessed as to whether their medical condition warranted ambulance transfer. A number of social and practical points were analyzed to see whether they would identify any group of patients who used the emergency service without medical need. Overall 289 patients were questioned. Of these 178 (62%) were considered to have m...

  12. Psychosocial service needs of pediatric transport accident survivors: Using clinical data-mining to establish demographic and service usage characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manguy, Alys-Marie; Joubert, Lynette; Bansemer, Leah

    2016-09-01

    The objectives in this article are the exploration of demographic and service usage data gained through clinical data mining audit and suggesting recommendations for social work service delivery model and future research. The method is clinical data-mining audit of 100 sequentially sampled cases gathering quantitative demographic and service usage data. Descriptive analysis of file audit data raised interesting trends with potential to inform service delivery and usage; the key areas of the results included patient demographics, family involvement and impact, and child safety and risk issues. Transport accidents involving children often include other family members. Care planning must take into account psychosocial issues including patient and family emotional responses, availability of primary carers, and other practical needs that may impact on recovery and discharge planning. This study provides evidence to plan for further research and development of more integrated models of care.

  13. Psychosocial service needs of pediatric transport accident survivors: Using clinical data-mining to establish demographic and service usage characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manguy, Alys-Marie; Joubert, Lynette; Bansemer, Leah

    2016-09-01

    The objectives in this article are the exploration of demographic and service usage data gained through clinical data mining audit and suggesting recommendations for social work service delivery model and future research. The method is clinical data-mining audit of 100 sequentially sampled cases gathering quantitative demographic and service usage data. Descriptive analysis of file audit data raised interesting trends with potential to inform service delivery and usage; the key areas of the results included patient demographics, family involvement and impact, and child safety and risk issues. Transport accidents involving children often include other family members. Care planning must take into account psychosocial issues including patient and family emotional responses, availability of primary carers, and other practical needs that may impact on recovery and discharge planning. This study provides evidence to plan for further research and development of more integrated models of care. PMID:27586428

  14. Adolescents and Dual Diagnosis in a Psychiatric Emergency Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matali, José Luis; Andión, Oscar; Pardo, Marta; Iniesta, Raquel; Serrano, Eduard; San, Luis

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, both the prevalence of drug use and related child and adolescent psychiatric emergencies have risen sharply. There are few studies about the impact on child and adolescent emergency services. This study has a twofold aim. The first is to describe the prevalence of substance use disorders, mental disorders and dual diagnosis (substance use problems plus mental disorder) in adolescents in psychiatric emergency service. The second is to analyze clinical and healthcare differences between patients with dual diagnosis and patients with a mental disorder without substance use disorder.We retrospectively reviewed 4012 discharge forms for emergencies treated at the psychiatric emergency department during the period 2007-2009. We obtained a sample of 1795 visits. This sample was divided into two groups: the dual diagnosis group (n = 477) and the psychiatric disorder group (n = 1318).The dual diagnosis group accounted for 26.5% of psychiatric emergencies analyzed. Compared to the psychiatric disorder group,the dual diagnosis group had significantly more conduct disorders, social problems, involuntariness in the visit, less hospital admissions and less connection with the healthcare network.Adolescents with a dual diagnosis account for a high percentage of visits at child and adolescent psychiatric emergency services. This patient group requires specialized care both at emergency services and in specific units. Accordingly, these units should play a triple role when handling dual diagnosis: detection, brief treatment and referral to a specialised unit. PMID:26990268

  15. Emergency monitoring strategy and radiation measurements document of the NKS project emergency management and radiation monitoring in nuclear and radiological accidents (EMARAD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, J. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) (Finland)

    2006-04-15

    This report is one of the deliverables of the NKS Project Emergency management and radiation monitoring in nuclear and radiological accidents (EMARAD) (20022005). The project and the overall results are briefly described in the NKS publication 'Emergency Management and Radiation Monitoring in Nuclear and Radiological Accidents. Summary Report on the NKS Project EMARAD' (NKS-137, April 2006). In a nuclear or radiological emergency, all radiation measurements must be performed efficiently and the results interpreted correctly in order to provide the decision-makers with adequate data needed in analysing the situation and carrying out countermeasures. Managing measurements in different situations in a proper way requires the existence of pre-prepared emergency monitoring strategies. Preparing a comprehensive yet versatile strategy is not an easy task to perform because there are lots of different factors that have to be taken into account. The primary objective of this study was to discuss the general problematics concerning emergency monitoring strategies and to describe a few important features of an efficient emergency monitoring system as well as factors affecting measurement activities in practise. Some information concerning the current situation in the Nordic countries has also been included. (au)

  16. Review of off-site emergency preparedness and response plan of Indian NPPs based on experience of Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants in India are designed, constructed and operated based on the principle of the highest priority to nuclear safety. To deal with any unlikely situation of radiological emergency, the emergency preparedness and response plans are ensured to be in place at all NPPs prior to their commissioning. These plans are periodically reviewed and tested by conducting emergency exercise with the participation of various agencies such as Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, NDMA, district authorities, regulatory body and general public. On March 11, 2011 an earthquake of magnitude 9.0 hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi and Dai-ni followed by tsunami waves of height 15 meters above reference sea level. This resulted in large scale release of radioactive material from Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS. This led to the evacuation of a large number of people from the areas surrounding the affected nuclear power plants. The event was rated as level 7 event in International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). The event also revealed the challenges in handling radiological emergency situation in adverse environmental conditions, The experience of managing radiological emergency situation during Fukushima nuclear accident provides opportunities to review and improve emergency preparedness and response programme. The present paper presents the chronology of the emergency situation, challenges faced and handled in Fukushima. Even though the possibility of a Fukushima type nuclear accident in India is very remote due to the low probability of a high intensity earthquake followed by tsunami at NPP sites, the efforts needs to be initiated from the regulatory point of view for an effective Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Preparedness and Response Plans. The Emergency Preparedness and Response Plans of NPP sites were reviewed in the light of unique challenges of accident at Fukushima. It is realized that multi unit events are the realities that must be addressed as part of Emergency

  17. Needlestick injury among medical personnel in Accident and Emergency Department of two teaching hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Y W; Hassim, I Noor

    2007-03-01

    Needlestick injury has been recognized as one of the occupational hazards which results in transmission of bloodborne pathogens. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 136 health care workers in the Accident and Emergency Department of two teaching hospitals from August to November 2003 to determine the prevalence of cases and episodes of needlestick injury. In addition, this study also assessed the level of knowledge of blood-borne diseases and Universal Precautions, risk perception on the practice of Universal Precautions and to find out factors contributing to needlestick injury. Prevalence of needlestick injury among the health care workers in the two hospitals were found to be 31.6% (N = 43) and 52.9% (N = 87) respectively. Among different job categories, medical assistants appeared to face the highest risk of needlestick injury. Factors associated with needlestick injury included shorter tenure in one's job (p risk of needlestick injury while performing procedures on patients. Therefore, comprehensive infection control strategies should be applied to effectively reduce the risk of needlestick injury. PMID:17682562

  18. [Structure, organization and capacity problems in emergency medical services, emergency admission and intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, W

    1994-01-01

    clinical pictures. Cost effectiveness is clearly in favor of emergency medicine. Future developments will be characterized by the consequences of new health care legislation and by effects of financial stringencies on the emergency medical services. PMID:7801705

  19. Accident at Three Mile Island: the contribution of the social sciences to the evaluation of emergency preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At 4:00 A.M. on 28 March 1979, a serious accident occurred in the nuclear-power plant at Three Mile Island near Middletown, Pennsylvania. It was caused by mechanical malfunctions in the plant, and for the next four days the extent and severity of the accident were not clear. Because it raised serious concerns about the safety of nuclear power, on 11 April President Carter established a commission to study and investigate the accident. Several aspects of the formation and evolution of the commission are particularly relevant to the social sciences. One was the way the original problem was defined for the commission by the presidential executive order. A second was the commission's own definition of the problem that evolved as the investigation progressed. As that definition became more inclusive, the body of social science literature relating to emergencies became increasingly relevant

  20. Mutual emergency assistance for radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1963 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) issued a document, WP.35, dated 23 November 1963, based on information provided by a number of its Member States on the type of radiological assistance that they might be able to make available in the event of a radiation emergency in another country at the request of that country. The document was subsequently revised in 1968 and 1971 with the participation of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Labour Organisation (ILO). In 1979, an expanded questionnaire to ascertain what could be required by the State in the event of a major radiation accident, was sent jointly by these organizations with the participation of the Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Co-ordinator (UNDRO), to all their Member States. The text of the expanded questionnaire is reproduced. The present document lists all the information, received up to mid 1980, that contains offers of assistance made by a State. It also lists information on the assistance that might be required by the State. In general, the replies have been reproduced in the form in which they were received, although a few changes in presentation have been introduced in the interest of brevity and clarity. Some countries have pointed out that their replies are necessarily of a general character and that the full extent of the assistance they would be capable of providing could be determined only after a specific request had been received. The information given in this document should therefore be regarded only as a guide to the type of radiological assistance that might be available and/or needed. Other available international assistance includes that provided by the Agency through the IAEA Radiation (Emergency) Assistance Procedures, by WHO through its system of Collaborating Centres on human radiation pathology, and by various States via regional or inter-countries' agreements on

  1. An exploration of nurses experience of alcohol related violence and caring for intoxicated patients in Accident and Emergency

    OpenAIRE

    Locker, Emily

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to explore the violence that Accident and Emergency nurses encounter. Current literature and health policies emphasis the seriousness and prevalence of violent attacks on nurses in A&E. There is also a push towards a new Government agenda based on Zero-tolerance. The study adopted a qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews. It contained six participants who were asked about their experiences of violence encountered in the A&E department. They were also asked to lo...

  2. Applications of nano-fluids to enhance LWR accidents management in in-vessel retention and emergency core cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water-based nano-fluid, colloidal dispersions of nano-particles in water; have been shown experimentally to increase the critical heat flux and surface wettability at very low concentrations. The use of nano-fluids to enhance accidents management would allow either to increase the safe margins in case of severe accidents or to upgrade the power of an existing power plant with constant margins. Building on the initial work, computational fluid dynamics simulations of the nano-fluid injection system have been performed to evaluate the feasibility of a nano-fluid injection system for in-vessel retention application. A preliminary assessment was also conducted on the emergency core cooling system of the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) to implement a nano-fluid injection system for improving the management of loss of coolant accidents. Several design options were compared/or their respective merits and disadvantages based on criteria including time to injection, safety impact, and materials compatibility. (authors)

  3. Emergency Medical Services Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide contains the standard emergency medical services curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum encompasses the minimum competencies required for entry-level workers in the emergency medical services field, and includes job skills in six emergency medical services divisions outlined in the national curriculum:…

  4. ETH-RISKMONITOR: Linking plant on-line monitoring to rule-based assessment and emergency planning for nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ETH-RISKMONITOR is a DSS designed to assist real case on-line remote monitoring of nuclear power plants for abnormal event categorizing based on plant condition, and its evolvement, issuing of recommended alert grades, prompt determination of endangered/exposed sectors in a territory and on dose and health effects mapping. It is an application on linking plant on-line monitoring to rule-based assessment and emergency planning for nuclear accidents

  5. Haematoma block or Bier's block for Colles' fracture reduction in the accident and emergency department--which is best?

    OpenAIRE

    Kendall, J. M.; Allen, P.; Younge, P.; Meek, S M; McCabe, S E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To offer clear guidance on the anaesthetic management of Colles' fractures in the accident and emergency (A&E) department in the light of the conflict between existing reports and current trends, and to address the issue of alkalinisation of haematoma blocks. METHODS: This was a two centre, prospective, randomised clinical trial with consecutive recruitment of adult patients with Colles' fractures requiring manipulation to receive either Bier's block or haematoma block. There was s...

  6. A local perspective to asthma management in the accident and emergency department in Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Gouder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was performed to assess the management of adult patients presenting to the Mater Dei Hospital Accident and Emergency (A&E department with acute asthma. Subjects and Methods: Asthmatic patients age 14 or older who presented to A&E department between January and October 2010 with asthma exacerbations were included. Data were collected from the clinical notes and analyzed. Results: A total of 244 patients (67.2% females were included, 126 (51.6% were admitted, 97 (39.8% discharged and 21 (8.6% discharged themselves against medical advice. There was a decline in the presentations between January and July, followed by an upward trend until October (P = 0.42. Pulse oximetry was performed in 207 patients (84.8%, arterial blood gases in 133 (54.5%, peak expiratory flow rate in 106 (43.4% and chest radiography in 206 (84.4% patients. The respiratory rate was documented in 151 (61.8%, heart rate in 204 (83.6% and ability to complete sentences in 123 (50.4% patients. One hundred and ninety six patients (80.3% were given nebulized bronchodilators, 103 (42.2% intravenous corticosteroids, 7 (2.87% oral corticosteroids, 109 (44.7% oxygen, 28 (11.5% antibiotics and 9 (3.69% magnesium. Systemic corticosteroids and antibiotics were more commonly prescribed to patients admitted (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Management of acute asthma in Malta requires optimization in order to compare with international guidelines.

  7. Construction of a technique plan repository and evaluation system based on AHP group decision-making for emergency treatment and disposal in chemical pollution accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shenggang; Cao, Jingcan; Feng, Li; Liang, Wenyan; Zhang, Liqiu

    2014-07-15

    The environmental pollution resulting from chemical accidents has caused increasingly serious concerns. Therefore, it is very important to be able to determine in advance the appropriate emergency treatment and disposal technology for different types of chemical accidents. However, the formulation of an emergency plan for chemical pollution accidents is considerably difficult due to the substantial uncertainty and complexity of such accidents. This paper explains how the event tree method was used to create 54 different scenarios for chemical pollution accidents, based on the polluted medium, dangerous characteristics and properties of chemicals involved. For each type of chemical accident, feasible emergency treatment and disposal technology schemes were established, considering the areas of pollution source control, pollutant non-proliferation, contaminant elimination and waste disposal. Meanwhile, in order to obtain the optimum emergency disposal technology schemes as soon as the chemical pollution accident occurs from the plan repository, the technique evaluation index system was developed based on group decision-improved analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and has been tested by using a sudden aniline pollution accident that occurred in a river in December 2012. PMID:24887122

  8. Use of anti-D immunoglobulin in the treatment of threatened miscarriage in the accident and emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberg, L

    2001-01-01

    Background—The UK guidelines for the use of anti-D immunoglobulin for rhesus prophylaxis have been revised. Anti-D immunoglobulin is no longer recommended for Rh D negative women after a threatened miscarriage less than 12 weeks gestation. These patients are at risk of rhesus immunisation, and there should be a policy for their treatment in the accident and emergency (A&E) department.

  9. New directions in emergency service operations and planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilm, Frank; Crane, Jody; Roche, Kevin T

    2010-01-01

    Emergency services continue to evolve new operational and facility concepts in response to increasing demand for care and pressures for efficient, and safe, patient management. This article describes new models for "intake" of patients and for responding to peak demand that are radically changing the traditional emergency service. Application of Six Sigma and "Lean" analysis techniques are demonstrating dramatic improvements in throughput times and in the utilization of treatment spaces. This article provides an overview of the application of Lean concepts to emergency services. Case studies of Mary Washington Hospital and Banner Health Corporation illustrate the result of application of these tools. Implication for the required patient care areas and design concepts are also discussed. PMID:20838109

  10. Differences between attendance in emergency care of male and female victims of traffic accidents in Porto alegre, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Forgiarini Saldanha; Flavio Pechansky; Daniela Benzano; Carlos Alberto Sampaio Martins de Barros; Raquel Brandini De Boni

    2014-01-01

    Driving under the influence of alcohol/ drugs (DUI) is a well-established risk factor for traffic accidents, and men and women have different consumption patterns. The scope of this paper is to analyze differences in alcohol and drug consumption, as well as on behavior associated with traffic accidents among men and women. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 609 sequential traffic accident victims attended in emergency care from Porto Alegre. Subjects gave a structured interview, were ...

  11. Criticality accident in uranium fuel processing plant. Emergency medical care and dose estimation for the severely overexposed patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akashi, Makoto; Ishigure, Nobuhito [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    A criticality accident occurred in JCO, a plant for nuclear fuel production in 1999 and three workers were exposed to extremely high-level radiation (neutron and {gamma}-ray). This report describes outlines of the clinical courses and the medical cares for the patients of this accident and the emergent medical system for radiation accident in Japan. One (A) of the three workers of JCO had vomiting and diarrhea within several minutes after the accident and another one (B) had also vomiting within one hour after. Based on these evidences, the exposure dose of A and B were estimated to be more than 8 and 4 GyEq, respectively. Generally, acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is assigned into three phases; prodromal phase, critical or manifestation phase and recovery phase or death. In the prodromal phase, anorexia, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea often develop, whereas the second phase is asymptotic. In the third phase, various syndromes including infection, hemorrhage, dehydration shock and neurotic syndromes are apt to occur. It is known that radiation exposure at 1 Gy or more might induce such acute radiation syndromes. Based on the clinical findings of Chernobyl accident, it has been thought that exposure at 0.5 Gy or more causes a lowering of lymphocyte level and a decrease in immunological activities within 48 hours. Lymphocyte count is available as an indicator for the evaluation of exposure dose in early phase, but not in later phase The three workers of JCO underwent chemical analysis of blood components, chromosomal analysis and analysis of blood {sup 24}Na immediately after the arrival at National Institute of Radiological Sciences via National Mito Hospital specified as the third and the second facility for the emergency medical care system in Japan, respectively. (M.N.)

  12. Multi-objective evolutionary emergency response optimization for major accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emergency response planning in case of a major accident (hazardous material event, nuclear accident) is very important for the protection of the public and workers' safety and health. In this context, several protective actions can be performed, such as, evacuation of an area; protection of the population in buildings; and use of personal protective equipment. The best solution is not unique when multiple criteria are taken into consideration (e.g. health consequences, social disruption, economic cost). This paper presents a methodology for multi-objective optimization of emergency response planning in case of a major accident. The emergency policy with regards to protective actions to be implemented is optimized. An evolutionary algorithm has been used as the optimization tool. Case studies demonstrating the methodology and its application in emergency response decision-making in case of accidents related to hazardous materials installations are presented. However, the methodology with appropriate modification is suitable for supporting decisions in assessing emergency response procedures in other cases (nuclear accidents, transportation of hazardous materials) or for land-use planning issues.

  13. Emergency response planning for transport accidents involving radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document presents a basic discussion of the various aspects and philosophies of emergency planning and preparedness along with a consideration of the problems which might be encountered in a transportation accident involving a release of radioactive materials. Readers who are responsible for preparing emergency plans and procedures will have to decide on how best to apply this guidance to their own organizational structures and will also have to decide on an emergency planning and preparedness philosophy suitable to their own situations

  14. Emergency healthcare process automation using mobile computing and cloud services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulymenopoulou, M; Malamateniou, F; Vassilacopoulos, G

    2012-10-01

    Emergency care is basically concerned with the provision of pre-hospital and in-hospital medical and/or paramedical services and it typically involves a wide variety of interdependent and distributed activities that can be interconnected to form emergency care processes within and between Emergency Medical Service (EMS) agencies and hospitals. Hence, in developing an information system for emergency care processes, it is essential to support individual process activities and to satisfy collaboration and coordination needs by providing readily access to patient and operational information regardless of location and time. Filling this information gap by enabling the provision of the right information, to the right people, at the right time fosters new challenges, including the specification of a common information format, the interoperability among heterogeneous institutional information systems or the development of new, ubiquitous trans-institutional systems. This paper is concerned with the development of an integrated computer support to emergency care processes by evolving and cross-linking institutional healthcare systems. To this end, an integrated EMS cloud-based architecture has been developed that allows authorized users to access emergency case information in standardized document form, as proposed by the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) profile, uses the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) standard Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) Hospital Availability Exchange (HAVE) for exchanging operational data with hospitals and incorporates an intelligent module that supports triaging and selecting the most appropriate ambulances and hospitals for each case. PMID:22205383

  15. Emergency planning and the Control of Major Accident Hazards (COMAH/Seveso II) Directive: An approach to determine the public safety zone for toxic cloud releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EU Control of Major Accidents Hazards Directive (Seveso II) requires an external emergency plan for each top tier site. This paper sets out a method to build the protection of public health into emergency planning for Seveso sites in the EU. The method involves the review of Seveso site details prescribed under the directive. The site safety report sets out the potential accident scenarios. The safety report's worst-case scenario, and chemical involved, is used as the basis for the external emergency plan. A decision was needed on the appropriate threshold value to use as the level of concern to protect public health. The definitions of the regulatory standards (air quality standards and occupational standards) in use were studied, how they are derived and for what purpose. The 10 min acute exposure guideline level (AEGL) for a chemical is recommended as the threshold value to inform decisions taken to protect public health from toxic cloud releases. The area delimited by AEGL 1 defines the population who may be concerned about being exposed. They need information based on comprehensive risk assessment. The area delimited by AEGL 2 defines the population for long-term surveillance when indicated and may include first responders. The area delimited by AEGL 3 defines the population who may present acutely to the medical services. It ensures that the emergency responders site themselves safely. A standard methodology facilitates discussions with plant operators and concerned public. Examples show how the methodology can be adapted to suit explosive risk and response to fire

  16. A model national emergency plan for radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has supported several projects for the development of a national response plan for radiological emergencies. As a result, the IAEA has developed a model National Emergency Response Plan for Radiological Accidents (RAD PLAN), particularly for countries that have no nuclear power plants. This plan can be adapted for use by countries interested in developing their own national radiological emergency response plan, and the IAEA will supply the latest version of the RAD PLAN on computer diskette upon request

  17. TRACE - a time-dependent and realistic accident consequence evaluation module for use in emergency response planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the identification of an off-normal condition at nuclear power plant, the plant operators have one over-riding responsibility: protection of the offsite population. In discharging this responsibility, the operators utilize a set of emergency operating procdedures. A. Immediately following the identification of the off-normal condition, the operators primary actions are focused on establishing a safe, stable shutdown condition for the reactor. B. The plant condition is categorized according to the perceived severity of the event based on a broad overview of the plant conditions, and the information is transmitted to appropriate governmental authorities. C. Estimations of potential environmental releases of radioactivity, based on design basis accident results, are performed and transmitted to the governmental authorities. The TRACE package was developed to provide the operators with the tools to make realistic predictions of the range of possible releases of radioactivity to the environment during all phases of an off-normal condition, including severe accident situations. The TRACE package provides a means to project, during the early stages of an accident, the potential range of possible fission product releases on a realistic and time-dependent basis. The TRACE package also provides a means to update previous evaluations of the potential range of radioactivity releases as plant conditions change or a new information (on accident sequence or plant parameters) becomes available. (orig./HSCH)

  18. Accidents, risks and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the accident at Chernobyl can be considered as the worst accident in the world, it could have been worse. Other far worse situations are considered, such as a nuclear weapon hitting a nuclear reactor. Indeed the accident at Chernobyl is compared to a nuclear weapon. The consequences of Chernobyl in terms of radiation levels are discussed. Although it is believed that a similar accident could not occur in the United Kingdom, that possibility is considered. It is suggested that emergency plans should be made for just such an eventuality. Even if Chernobyl could not happen in the UK, the effects of accidents are international. The way in which nuclear reactor accidents happen is explored, taking the 1957 Windscale fire, Three Mile Island and Chernobyl as examples. Reactor designs and accident scenarios are considered. The different reactor designs are listed. As well as the Chernobyl RBMK design it is suggested that the light water reactors also have undesirable features from the point of view of safety. (U.K.)

  19. Identification and evaluation of competencies of health professionals in the hospital emergency management of the radiation accident victim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary list of ten competency and forty-six sub-competency statements derived from literature and consultation with experts and based on the general areas of clinical performance defined by the National Board of Medical Examiners were the concern of Phase I of this study. Forty-eight experts in nuclear medicine, radiology, radiotherapy, health physics, medical physics, radiation biology, public and occupational health, surgery, and emergency medicine and nursing considered this preliminary list of competencies and sub-competencies to determine which were essential for health professionals who may be caring for radiation accident victims in hospital emergency departments. Eight competencies and thirty-three sub-competencies were rated as Essential competencies. Competencies dealing with establishing priorities in patient care and initiating treatment, assessment, contamination control, and decontamination were highly rated. In the second part of this study, the Essential competencies were utilized in the development of an original evaluation instrument designed to identify deficiencies and continuing education needs during radiation accident drills or exercises. The instrument was designed for use in sixteen possible patient care situations in which the radiation accident victims have varying medical and radiological conditions. Development of the evaluation instrument was described

  20. Helicopter Emergency Medical Services: effects, costs and benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.N. Ringburg (Akkie)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAdvanced prehospital medical care with air transport was introduced in the Netherlands in May 1995. The fi rst helicopter Mobile Medical Team, also called Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) was a joint venture initiative of the VU Medical Center in Amsterdam and the Algemene Ned

  1. Human Mobility and Accident and Emergency (A&E) Department: A contribution to the knowledge of invisible flows

    OpenAIRE

    Bertazzoni, Beatrice; Bertazzoni, Giuliano; Montanari, Armando

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a full report of the results of a feasibility study for a project based on the combination of clinical figures with socio-economic data on human mobility within the metropolitan area of Rome. Acknowledging that Accident and Emergency (A&E) Departments represent privileged observatories of health issues of a given territory, the point of departure of this study is the patient register dataset of the A&E Department of the Policlinico Umberto I for the period 2000-2013. The...

  2. Development of emergency response support system for accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific measures for the accident management (AM) are proposed to prevent the severe accident and to mitigate their effects in order to upgrade the safety of nuclear power plants even further. To ensure accident management effective, it is essential to grasp the plant status accurately. In consideration of the above mentioned background, the Emergency Response Support System (ERSS) was developed as a computer assisted prototype system by a joint study of Japanese BWR group. This system judges and predicts the plant status at the emergency condition in a nuclear power plant. This system displays the results of judgment and prediction. The effectiveness of the system was verified through the test and good prospects for applying the system to a plant was obtained. 7 refs., 10 figs

  3. Organization structure and the performance of hospital emergency services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, B S

    1985-07-01

    A comparative study of 30 hospital emergency departments (EDs) and nearly 1,500 individuals associated with them was conducted. Data were obtained from institutional records, physicians, patients, and other sources. The object was to investigate the relationship between the organization and performance of these health service systems. The study assessed the quality of medical care, the quality of nursing care, and the economic efficiency of hospital EDs. The results show substantial interinstitutional differences in these criteria. They also show a significant relationship between medical and nursing care, but not between the quality of care and economic efficiency. Differences in ED performance are related to medical staffing patterns, medical teaching affiliation, personnel training, scope of emergency services, number of patient visits processed, and hospital size and complexity. Not all of these variables, however, correlate positively with all three criteria of performance, nor are they equally important to each.

  4. Pattern of Sexual Offences Attended at Accident and Emergency Department of HUSM from Year 2000 to 2003: A Retrospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Mohammed Nasimul; See, Khoo Lay; Ting, Lai Chin; Khan, Jesmine

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the pattern of sexual offence cases attended at the One Stop Crisis Center (OSCC) of the Accident and Emergency Department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan. A total of 439 reported sexual offence cases were examined over a period of 4 years from 2000 to 2003. Sexual offence constituted by male partner or boyfriend in 18.9%, by relatives in 27.3% and by “others” in 53.8% of cases. Only 0.7% of victims did not attempt to lodge a police report. There i...

  5. Towards integration of general practitioner posts and accident and emergency departments: a case study of two integrated emergency posts in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamphuis Helen CM

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accident and emergency (A&E departments and general practitioner (GP posts are often used inappropriately, leading to overcrowding. In the Netherlands, increasingly more integrated emergency posts (IEPs are being created, integrating the care provided by GP posts and A&E departments, in order to improve the provision of the emergency care. Methods This explorative study compares the efficiency and patient and employee satisfaction in IEPs with those in two GP posts and two A&E departments. To this end, information was retrieved from hospital and GP patient records for the first quarter of the year before and of the year after the creation of IEPs. Patients and employees were sent a questionnaire to measure their satisfaction. Lastly, groups of hospital doctors, GPs, GP assistants, and nurses were interviewed. Results After the creation of IEPs, there was a shift of more than fifteen percent from secondary care to primary care for emergency consultations and waiting/consultation times were shortened by more than ten percent. Compared with the control settings, patients were more satisfied about telephone contact with an IEP, but professionals working at the IEP were less satisfied with several aspects of their work. Conclusion IEPs could be a promising innovation to organize emergency care more efficiently; however, it might take time to convince professionals of the possible advantages. Studies involving more IEPs and longer follow-up times are needed to determine whether such integration should be stimulated.

  6. Development of supporting system for emergency response to maritime transport accidents involving radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Maritime Research Institute has developed a supporting system for emergency response of competent authority to maritime transport accidents involving radioactive material. The supporting system for emergency response has functions of radiation shielding calculation, marine diffusion simulation, air diffusion simulation and radiological impact evaluation to grasp potential hazard of radiation. Loss of shielding performance accident and loss of sealing ability accident were postulated and impact of the accidents was evaluated based on the postulated accident scenario. Procedures for responding to emergency were examined by the present simulation results

  7. Emergency preparedness for newborn screening and genetic services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pass, Kenneth A; Thoene, Jess; Watson, Michael S

    2009-06-01

    Patients identified in newborn screening programs can be among the most vulnerable during a disaster due to their need to have prompt diagnosis and medical management. Recent disasters have challenged the ability of newborn screening programs to maintain the needed continuity during emergency situations. This has significant implications for the newborn screening laboratories, the diagnostic confirmation providers, and the patients who either require diagnosis or maintenance of their therapeutic interventions. In 2007, the National Coordinating Center (NCC) for the Regional Genetics and Newborn Screening Collaboratives (RCs) sponsored a meeting involving representatives of the Regional Genetics and Newborn Screening Collaborative Groups, state newborn screening programs, providers of diagnosis and confirmation services, manufacturers of equipment, medical foods, and other treatments used in patients identified in newborn screening programs, and individuals from agencies involved in disaster response including the National Disaster Medical Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Emergency Management Assistance Compact, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and others. In addition to developing contingency plans for newborn screening, we have considered other uses of genetics as it is used in DNA-based kinship identification of mass casualties. The meeting resulted in the description of a wide range of issues facing newborn screening programs, provider groups, and patients for which emergency preparedness development is needed in order that appropriate response is enabled. PMID:19444127

  8. Cancer patients, emergencies service and provision of palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Miranda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Objective: To describe the clinical and sociodemographic profile of cancer patients admitted to the Emergency Center for High Complexity Oncologic Assistance, observing the coverage of palliative and home care. Method: Cross sectional study including adult cancer patients admitted to the emergency service (September-December/2011 with a minimum length of hospital stay of two hours. Student’s t-test and Pearson chi-square test were used to compare the means. Results: 191 patients were enrolled, 47.6% elderly, 64.4% women, 75.4% from the city of Recife and greater area. The symptom prevalent at admission was pain (46.6%. 4.2% of patients were linked to palliative care and 2.1% to home care. The most prevalent cancers: cervix (18.3%, breast (13.6% and prostate (10.5%; 70.7% were in advanced stages (IV, 47.1%; 39.4% without any cancer therapy. Conclusion: Patients sought the emergency service on account of pain, probably due to the incipient coverage of palliative and home care. These actions should be included to oncologic therapy as soon as possible to minimize the suffering of the patient/family and integrate the skills of oncologists and emergency professionals.

  9. Radiation safety for the emergency situation of the power plant accident. Radiation safety in society and its education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunamis, and following Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Accident brought about great impact on society in Japan. Accident analysis of inside reactor was studied by reactor physics or reactor engineering knowledge, while dissipation of a large amount of radioactive materials outside reactor facilities, and radiation and radioactivity effects on people by way of atmosphere, water and soil were dealt with radiation safety or radiation protection. Due to extremely low frequency and experience of an emergency, there occurred a great confusion in the response of electric power company concerned, relevant regulating competent authorities, local government and media, and related scholars and researchers, which caused great anxieties amount affected residents and people. This article described radiation safety in the society and its education. Referring to actual examples, how radiation safety or radiation protection knowledge should be dealt with emergency risk management in the society was discussed as well as problem of education related with nuclear power, radiation and prevention of disaster and fostering of personnel for relevant people. (T. Tanaka)

  10. Dementia and Traffic Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jindong Ding; Siersma, Volkert; Nielsen, Connie Thurøe;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic...... Central Research Register, and/or (2) at least one dementia diagnosis-related drug prescription registration in the Danish National Prescription Registry. Police-, hospital-, and emergency room-reported road traffic-related accidents occurred within the study follow-up are defined as the study outcome...... selection bias due to nonparticipation and loss to follow-up. Furthermore, this ensures that the study results are reliable and generalizable. However, underreporting of traffic-related accidents may occur, which will limit estimation of absolute risks....

  11. GIS-based emergency response system for sudden water pollution accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yikang; Shen, Dingtao; Khalid, Shoaib; Yang, Zaigui; Wang, Jiechen

    The frequent occurrence of sudden water pollution accidents brings enormous risks to water environment safety. Therefore, there is great need for the modeling and development of early warning systems and rapid response procedures for current water pollution situation in China. This paper proposes an emergency response system based on the integration of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology and a hydraulic/water-quality model. Using the spatial analysis and three-dimensional visualization capabilities of GIS technology, we calculated pollutant diffusion measures, and visualized and analyzed the simulation results, in order to provide the services of early warning and emergency response for sudden water pollution accidents in the Xiangjia Dam area on the Yangtze River. The results show that the proposed system offers reliable technological support for emergency response to sudden water pollution events, and it shows good potential for wide applications in various aspects of water resources protection.

  12. Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência: um observatório dos acidentes de transportes terrestre em nível local Mobile Emergency Care Service: a survey of local land transportation accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Priscila de Santana Cabral

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Conhecer a epidemiologia dos acidentes de transportes terrestres é fundamental para definir políticas de prevenção desse agravo e das mortes por ele causados. Objetivou-se caracterizar o perfil epidemiológico das vítimas do trânsito e a distribuição dos atendimentos por acidentes de transporte a partir de técnica de análise espacial. Estudo descritivo, utilizou como fonte de dados o banco de atendimentos do Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência do município de Olinda, Pernambuco, entre julho de 2006 a junho de 2007. A distribuição geográfica das ocorrências foi analisada por meio do Índice de Moran. Pedestres, ocupantes de motocicleta e ciclistas concentraram 78% dos atendimentos; houve predomínio do sexo masculino (79% e da faixa etária 20-39 anos (65%. Os finais de semana concentraram a maioria dos atendimentos (56,1%; χ² = 123,7; p Understanding the occurrence of land transportation accidents and describing the victims is fundamental for the definition of prevention and control policies regarding these events and the deaths they cause. The aim of the present study was to characterize the epidemiological profile of land transportation victims and the distribution of emergency care for land transportation accidents using spatial analysis. A descriptive study was carried out using the Mobile Emergency Care Service database of the city of Olinda (Pernambuco, Brazil for occurrences between July 2006 and June 2007. The geographic distribution was analyzed using the Moran Index. Pedestrians, motorcyclists and bicyclists concentrated 78% of the emergency care; there was a predominance of male victims (79% and victims between 20 and 39 years of age (65%. A greater concentration of occurrences was found on weekends (56%; χ² = 123.7; p < 0.001. Between Monday and Thursday, 52% of occurrences were concentrated between 6 am and 5:59 pm; on weekends, 57% of the occurrences were concentrated between 6 pm and 5:59 am. Motorcycles

  13. Use of a virtual learning environment for training in maxillofacial emergencies: impact on the knowledge and attitudes of staff in accident and emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, Ross; McAleer, Sean; Thakar, Meera; Begum, Fathema; Singhota, Sanjeet; Grew, Nicholas

    2016-02-01

    Many graduates will take up junior roles in accident and emergency (A&E) departments to which a large proportion of patients present with facial injuries caused by interpersonal violence. However, it is widely recognised that undergraduates and postgraduates have few opportunities for training in oral and maxillofacial surgery. We aimed to assess the impact of a specifically designed maxillofacial emergencies virtual learning environment (VLE) on the knowledge and confidence of junior doctors in two A&E departments. They were given free access to the VLE for one month, and were asked to complete multiple choice questions and to rate their confidence to deal with 10 common situations on visual analogue scales (VAS) at baseline and one month after training. A total of 29 doctors agreed to pilot the website, 21 (72%) completed both sets of questions, and 18 (62%) completed both VAS assessments. The mean (SD) multiple choice score improved from 10 (2.52) to 13 (3.56) out of a maximum of 20 (p=0.004) and the mean (SD) VAS improved from 29.2 (19.2) mm to 45.7 (16.6) mm out of a maximum of 100 mm (p=0.007). This was a small pilot study with limited numbers, but it showed improvements in the knowledge of maxillofacial emergencies and in confidence, although the latter remained low. Further work is needed to examine how these brief educational interventions affect the attitudes of frontline staff to maxillofacial emergencies.

  14. Use of a virtual learning environment for training in maxillofacial emergencies: impact on the knowledge and attitudes of staff in accident and emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, Ross; McAleer, Sean; Thakar, Meera; Begum, Fathema; Singhota, Sanjeet; Grew, Nicholas

    2016-02-01

    Many graduates will take up junior roles in accident and emergency (A&E) departments to which a large proportion of patients present with facial injuries caused by interpersonal violence. However, it is widely recognised that undergraduates and postgraduates have few opportunities for training in oral and maxillofacial surgery. We aimed to assess the impact of a specifically designed maxillofacial emergencies virtual learning environment (VLE) on the knowledge and confidence of junior doctors in two A&E departments. They were given free access to the VLE for one month, and were asked to complete multiple choice questions and to rate their confidence to deal with 10 common situations on visual analogue scales (VAS) at baseline and one month after training. A total of 29 doctors agreed to pilot the website, 21 (72%) completed both sets of questions, and 18 (62%) completed both VAS assessments. The mean (SD) multiple choice score improved from 10 (2.52) to 13 (3.56) out of a maximum of 20 (p=0.004) and the mean (SD) VAS improved from 29.2 (19.2) mm to 45.7 (16.6) mm out of a maximum of 100 mm (p=0.007). This was a small pilot study with limited numbers, but it showed improvements in the knowledge of maxillofacial emergencies and in confidence, although the latter remained low. Further work is needed to examine how these brief educational interventions affect the attitudes of frontline staff to maxillofacial emergencies. PMID:26725011

  15. Guidelines for mutual emergency assistance arrangements in connection with a nuclear accident or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document contains the recommendations of a group of experts from 22 Member States and three international organizations which met in April 1983. These recommendations may serve as guidelines for use by states for the negotiation of bilateral or regional agreements relating to emergency assistance in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency

  16. Short-term associations between outdoor air pollution and visits to accident and emergency departments in London for respiratory complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, R W; Anderson, H R; Strachan, D P; Bland, J M; Bremner, S A; Ponce de Leon, A

    1999-02-01

    Many epidemiological studies have shown positive short-term associations between health and current levels of outdoor air pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between air pollution and the number of visits to accident and emergency (A&E) departments in London for respiratory complaints. A&E visits include the less severe cases of acute respiratory disease and are unrestricted by bed availability. Daily counts of visits to 12 London A&E departments for asthma, other respiratory complaints, and both combined for a number of age groups were constructed from manual registers of visits for the period 1992-1994. A Poisson regression allowing for seasonal patterns, meteorological conditions and influenza epidemics was used to assess the associations between the number of visits and six pollutants: nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particles measured as black smoke (BS) and particles with a median aerodynamic diameter of <10 microm (PM10). After making an allowance for the multiplicity of tests, there remained strong associations between visits for all respiratory complaints and increases in SO2: a 2.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-4.9) increase in the number of visits for a 18 microg x (-3) increase (10th-90th percentile range) and a 3.0% (95% CI 0.8-5.2) increase for a 31 microg x m(-3) increase in PM10. There were also significant associations between visits for asthma and SO2, NO2 and PM10. No significant associations between O3 and any of the respiratory complaints investigated were found. Because of the strong correlation between pollutants, it was difficult to identify a single pollutant responsible for the associations found in the analyses. This study suggests that the levels of air pollution currently experienced in London are linked to short-term increases in the number of people visiting accident and emergency departments with respiratory complaints. PMID:10065665

  17. Incident and emergency medical services management from a regional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisiopiku, Virginia P; Cavusoglu, Ozge

    2012-07-01

    Traffic crashes and other emergencies have impacts on traffic operations in transportation networks, often resulting in non-recurring congestion. Congestion, in turn, may impede the ability of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) to provide timely response to those in need of medical attention. The work in this paper investigated the impact of incidents of varying severity and duration on transportation network performance in the Birmingham (AL, USA) area. The intensity and extent of the impact over space and time were assessed on the basis of average speeds. The analysis of incident scenarios was performed using the Visual Interactive System for Transport Algorithms (VISTA) platform. Moreover, first responders' travel times to the scene of the incident were collected to identify best units for responding, in an effort to improve current dispatching practices. Finally, a secondary incident on the EMS to the hospital was considered to further demonstrate the superiority of Dynamic Traffic Assignment (DTA) over traditional static assignment methods in capturing dynamically changing traffic conditions. The study findings are expected to benefit local transportation planners, traffic engineers, emergency responders, and policy makers by allowing them to assess various response strategies to major incidents and emergencies and select the ones that minimize their potential impacts. PMID:22851940

  18. Incident and Emergency Medical Services Management from a Regional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Cavusoglu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic crashes and other emergencies have impacts on traffic operations in transportation networks, often resulting in non-recurring congestion. Congestion, in turn, may impede the ability of Emergency Medical Services (EMS to provide timely response to those in need of medical attention. The work in this paper investigated the impact of incidents of varying severity and duration on transportation network performance in the Birmingham (AL, USA area. The intensity and extent of the impact over space and time were assessed on the basis of average speeds. The analysis of incident scenarios was performed using the Visual Interactive System for Transport Algorithms (VISTA platform. Moreover, first responders’ travel times to the scene of the incident were collected to identify best units for responding, in an effort to improve current dispatching practices. Finally, a secondary incident on the EMS to the hospital was considered to further demonstrate the superiority of Dynamic Traffic Assignment (DTA over traditional static assignment methods in capturing dynamically changing traffic conditions. The study findings are expected to benefit local transportation planners, traffic engineers, emergency responders, and policy makers by allowing them to assess various response strategies to major incidents and emergencies and select the ones that minimize their potential impacts.

  19. Road Accident Prevention with Instant Emergency Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    P. Gokulakrishnan; Ganeshkumar, P.

    2015-01-01

    A Road Accident Prevention (RAP) scheme based on Vehicular Backbone Network (VBN) structure is proposed in this paper for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET). The RAP scheme attempts to prevent vehicles from highway road traffic accidents and thereby reduces death and injury rates. Once the possibility of an emergency situation (i.e. an accident) is predicted in advance, instantly RAP initiates a highway road traffic accident prevention scheme. The RAP scheme constitutes the following activities...

  20. 我国事故灾难应急处置对策研析%Research and Analysis on the Emergency Disposal of Catastrophic Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春艳

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the concept of emergency disposal of catastrophic accident,and the principles and processes of the emergency disposal of catastrophic accident.The article is aimed at our country′s emergency disposal of catastrophic accident and proposes suggestion including that accident disaster plan compilation should be added to risk management,vulnerability analysis and capacity evaluation,as well as emergency education,propaganda,training and drills about catastrophic accident.%本文就事故灾难应急处置的相关概念以及事故灾难应急处置应遵循的原则和流程进行了阐述,并对我国事故灾难应急处置提出了事故灾难的预案编制应加入风险管理、脆弱性分析和能力评估分析的内容以及事故灾难的应急教育、宣传、培训和演练等方面的对策。

  1. Intentional Poisoning as a Cause of Admission to Accident and Emergency in a Tertiary Care Hospital within a Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niveditha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Poisoning is a common medico social problem nowadays and is often distressing for both family members and medical staff. The present study aims to evaluate the pattern of self poisoning with special preference to psychoactive drugs. Methodology: Study sample comprised of all episodes of self poisoning that had resulted in admission between January to December 2008.Pateints taking any toxic/pharmacological substance by accident or ignorance were excluded. Results: Out of 1206 patients admitted to accident and emergency during the study period, 140 were due to intentional poisoning (11.6% Age of the patients varied from 16-65 years. The maximum incidence was between 21-30 years. The male: female ratio was 1.18:1.Most common substance used was organophosphate compound (OPC (31.7% followed by benzodiazepines (BZD (20.7% and household articles comprised of 18.5%. Multiple drug combinations with alcohol was 30%.Around 13.5% had history of mental illness. Conclusion: At present due to vast development in all fields of life like industries, medicine and agriculture, a significant number of new compounds have appeared as new poisonous substances, which have led to more number of poisoning cases. Although there are restrictions on sale of drugs in India, vulnerability to insecticide cannot be ignored.

  2. Explanation of procedure on site medical emergency response for nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National occupational health standard-Procedure on Site Medical Emergency Response for Nuclear Accident has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. This standard is formulated according to the Emergency Response Law of the People's Republic of China, Law of the People 's Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Occupational Diseases, Regulations on Emergency Measures for Nuclear Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants, and Health Emergency Plans for Nuclear and Radiological Accidents of Ministry of Health, supporting the use of On-site Medical Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Nuclear Accidents and Off-site Medical Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Nuclear Accidents. Nuclear accident on-site medical response procedure is a part of the on-site emergency plan. The standard specifies the basic content and requirements of the nuclear accident on-site medical emergency response procedures of nuclear facilities operating units to guide and regulate the work of nuclear accident on-site medical emergency response of nuclear facilities operating units. The criteria-related contents were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  3. Uncertainties under emergency conditions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 and Bikini accident in 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiwaki, Y. [Universitaet Wien, Institut fuer Medizinische Physik, Vienna (Austria); Kawai, H. [Atomic Energy Research Institute of Kinki Univ., Osaka (Japan); Shono, N. [Hiroshima Jogakuin Univ., Hiroshima (Japan); Fujita, S. [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Department of Statistics, Hiroshima (Japan); Matsuoka, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Earth Simulator Research and Development Center, Tokyo (Japan); Fujiwara, S. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Hosoda, T. [Chiyoda Technol Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    who were trained at Narashino Chemical School were assigned, at least one, to each unit (brigade and higher) of the Japanese Army. Chemical Weapons Control unit was organised at the headquarters in the centre of Hiroshima. After atomic bombing some vessels of mustard gas stored underground were found cracked and leaked. Judging from these findings it may be possible that some chemical weapons were released to the environment from the military facilities on ground at the time they were destroyed by the atomic bombing and the survivors were exposed to poison gases to a smaller or larger extent. There was no drinking water and they had to drink rain water which fell heavily soon after the atomic bombing. It is highly possible that the rainwater was also contaminated by various toxic substances including chemical weapons. These effects combined with the irradiation by atomic radiation are difficult to quantify accurately at present, many years after atomic bombings. But if all these adverse effects were ascribed solely to the ionizing radiation, the effects of radiation may be overestimated in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In using the Hiroshima and Nagasaki data for establishing radiation safety standard in peaceful uses of atomic energy, we should keep these possibilities of overestimation in mind. At the Bikini accident, where Japanese fishing boat was showered by strongly radioactive ash due to thermonuclear test on March 1, 1954 in the Pacific, some crew tested the ash to see what it is. The amount of intake is uncertain. Depending on the assumption, a widely different result would be obtained. (author)

  4. Uncertainties under emergency conditions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 and Bikini accident in 1954

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    who were trained at Narashino Chemical School were assigned, at least one, to each unit (brigade and higher) of the Japanese Army. Chemical Weapons Control unit was organised at the headquarters in the centre of Hiroshima. After atomic bombing some vessels of mustard gas stored underground were found cracked and leaked. Judging from these findings it may be possible that some chemical weapons were released to the environment from the military facilities on ground at the time they were destroyed by the atomic bombing and the survivors were exposed to poison gases to a smaller or larger extent. There was no drinking water and they had to drink rain water which fell heavily soon after the atomic bombing. It is highly possible that the rainwater was also contaminated by various toxic substances including chemical weapons. These effects combined with the irradiation by atomic radiation are difficult to quantify accurately at present, many years after atomic bombings. But if all these adverse effects were ascribed solely to the ionizing radiation, the effects of radiation may be overestimated in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In using the Hiroshima and Nagasaki data for establishing radiation safety standard in peaceful uses of atomic energy, we should keep these possibilities of overestimation in mind. At the Bikini accident, where Japanese fishing boat was showered by strongly radioactive ash due to thermonuclear test on March 1, 1954 in the Pacific, some crew tested the ash to see what it is. The amount of intake is uncertain. Depending on the assumption, a widely different result would be obtained. (author)

  5. Radiological accidents: education for prevention and confrontation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to train and inform on radiological accidents as a preventive measure to improve the people life quality. Radiological accidents are part of the events of technological origin which are composed of nuclear and radiological accidents. As a notable figure is determined that there have been 423 radiological accidents from 1944 to 2005 and among the causes prevail industrial accidents, by irradiations, medical accidents and of laboratories, among others. Latin American countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Peru are some where most accidents have occurred by radioactivity. The radiological accidents can have sociological, environmental, economic, social and political consequences. In addition, there are scenarios of potential nuclear accidents and in them the potential human consequences. Also, the importance of the organization and planning in a nuclear emergency is highlighted. Finally, the experience that Cuba has lived on the subject of radiological accidents is described

  6. Build-up forces at Military Institute of Medical Radiology and Oncology for emergency medical response to some eventualities of radiological accidents - some suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, the use of various nuclear sources in some fields of the life has brought many practical advantages in general; especially in the next several years, our country will begin construction of the first nuclear plant. However, if there were user carelessness or objective disadvantageous factors (earthquake, tsunami, etc.), that disadvantages could lead to a radiation accident or nuclear accident which causes damages not only for economy but also for public health. Therefore, the emergency response to radiation accident, especially the emergency medical response that has a great important position. To satisfy this real demand, in 1996, Vietnam Ministry of Defence made the decision to establish Center for Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Protecting (now becomes Military Institute of Medical Radiology and Oncology) with the main missions are research, applying radiation protecting methods and organizing treatments to radiation injured victims. To fulfill above main missions, with the help of Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute (VAEI), Vietnam Agency for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (VARANS), the doctors and staffs of our Institute have been participated in the international training courses and workshops that organized in Vietnam or in regional countries about emergency medical response to radiation accidents, they get valuable information, knowledge and documents from these courses and workshops. Depending on the principles of radiation emergency medical response to nuclear/ radiation accidents that International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) guided, and with the experience learned from other countries in Asia region, our Institute have been gradually improving on organization and curing processes for the radiation victims and also setting the preparedness for emergency medical response to radiation accidents if maybe they could occur. (author)

  7. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  8. Mobile Integrated Health Care and Community Paramedicine: An Emerging Emergency Medical Services Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bryan Y; Blumberg, Charles; Williams, Kenneth

    2016-03-01

    Mobile integrated health care and community paramedicine are models of health care delivery that use emergency medical services (EMS) personnel to fill gaps in local health care infrastructure. Community paramedics may perform in an expanded role and require additional training in the management of chronic disease, communication skills, and cultural sensitivity, whereas other models use all levels of EMS personnel without additional training. Currently, there are few studies of the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of mobile integrated health care and community paramedicine programs. Observations from existing program data suggest that these systems may prevent congestive heart failure readmissions, reduce EMS frequent-user transports, and reduce emergency department visits. Additional studies are needed to support the clinical and economic benefit of mobile integrated health care and community paramedicine. PMID:26169927

  9. Short-term associations between outdoor air pollution and visits to accident and emergency departments in London for respiratory complaints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, R.W.; Anderson, H.R.; Strachan, D.P.; Bland, J.M.; Bremner, S.A. [St. George`s Hospital Medical School, Dept. of Public Health Sciences, London (United Kingdom); Ponce de Leon, A. [IME/UERJ Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, Dept. de Estatistica, Maracana Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1999-02-01

    Many epidemiological studies have shown positive short-term associations between health and current levels of outdoor air pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between air pollution and the number of visits to accident and emergency (A and E) departments in London for respiratory complaints. A and E visits include the less severe cases of acute respiratory disease and are unrestricted by bed availability. Daily counts of visits to 12 London A and E departments for asthma, other respiratory complaints, and both combined for a number of age groups were constructed from manual registers of visits for the period 1992-1994. A poison regression allowing for seasonal patterns meteorological conditions and influenza epidemics was used to assess the associations between the number of visits and six pollutants: nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particles measured as black smoke (BS) and particles with a median aerodynamic diameter of <10 {mu}m (PM10). After making an allowance for the multiplicity of tests, there remained strong associations between visits for all respiratory complaints and increases in SO{sub 2}: a 2.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-4.9) increase in the number of visits for a 18 {mu}g{sup .}m{sup -3} increase (10th-90th percentile range) and a 3.0% (95% Cl 0.8-5.2) increase for a 31 {mu}g{sup .}m{sup -3} increase in PM10. There were also significant associations between visits for asthma and SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and PM10. No significant associations between O{sub 3} and any of the respiratory complaints investigated were found. Because of the strong correlation between pollutants, it was difficult to identify a single pollutant responsible for the associations found in the analyses. This study suggests that the levels of air pollution currently experienced in London are linked to short-term increases in the number of people visiting accident and emergency departments with respiratory complaints

  10. Short-term associations between outdoor air pollution and visits to accident and emergency departments in London for respiratory complaints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, R.W.; Anderson, H.R.; Strachan, D.P.; Bland, J.M.; Bremner, S.A. [St. George' s Hospital Medical School, Dept. of Public Health Sciences, London (United Kingdom); Ponce de Loen, A. [IME/UERJ Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, Dept. de Estatistica, Maracana Rio de Janeiro , RJ (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    Many epidemiological studies have shown positive short-term associations between health and current levels of outdoor air pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between air pollution and the number of visits to accident and emergency (A and E) departments in London for respiratory complaints. A and E visits include the less severe cases of acute respiratory disease and are unrestricted by bed availability. Daily counts of visits to 12 London A and E departments for asthma, other respiratory complaints, and both combined for a number of age groups were constructed from manual registers of visits for the period 1992-1994. A Poisson regression allowing for seasonal patterns, meteorological conditions and influenza epidemics was used to assess the associations between the number of visits and six pollutants: nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particles measured as black smoke (BS) and particles with a median aerodynamic diameter of <10 {mu}m (PM10). After making an allowance for the multiplicity of tests, there remained strong associations between visits for all respiratory complaints and increases in SO{sub 2}: a 2.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-4.9) increase in the number of visits for a 18 {mu}g{sup .}m{sup -3} increase (10th-90th percentile range) and a 3.0% (95% CI 0.8-5.2) increase for a 31 {mu}g{sup .}m{sup -3} increase in PM10. There were also significant associations between visits for asthma and SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and PM10. No significant associations between O{sub 3} and any of the respiratory complaints investigated were found. Because of the strong correlation between pollutants, it was difficult to identify a single pollutant responsible for the associations found in the analyses. This study suggests that the levels of air pollution currently experineced in London are linked to short-term increases in the number of people visiting accident and emergency departments with respiratory

  11. 42 CFR 422.113 - Special rules for ambulance services, emergency and urgently needed services, and maintenance and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... representative instructs an enrollee to seek emergency services within or outside the plan; and (v) With a limit... pre-approved ends when— (i) A plan physician with privileges at the treating hospital assumes... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special rules for ambulance services, emergency...

  12. LIVINGSTON COUNTY EMERGENCY SERVICES ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, William H.; Harvey, Lynn R.

    2001-01-01

    Rapid population growth challenges the ability of local government to keep pace with increasing and changing demand for public services. These challenges may be physical or organizational in nature. Physical challenges arise from the need to upgrade public infrastructure such as water and sewer service, roads, schools, and emergency services. Although installation of new infrastructure is always expensive, growth-related increases in the tax base provide new revenue for installation of new se...

  13. Loss of coolant accident analysis and evolution of emergency core cooling system for an inpile irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) analysis of an inpile facility using RELAP4/MOD6 computer code. The present study is the culmination of a three part LOCA analysis done earlier by the authors. Blowdown analysis had been extended to include reflood part of the transient. Based on the analysis an Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) has been evolved. (author). 5 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Violence and verbal abuse against staff in accident and emergency departments: a survey of consultants in the UK and the Republic of Ireland.

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, M. G.; Rocke, L G; McNicholl, B P; Hughes, D M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of verbal abuse and physical violence in accident and emergency (A&E) departments and to discover the extent of provision of security measures and instructions for staff on how to deal with these problems. DESIGN: A postal questionnaire. SETTING: A&E departments in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and seventy three consultants named in charge of 310 departments. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Frequency of physical violence and verbal abu...

  15. Emergency response and nuclear risk governance. Nuclear safety at nuclear power plant accidents; Notfallschutz und Risk Governance. Zur nuklearen Sicherheit bei Kernkraftwerksunfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlen, Johannes

    2014-07-01

    The present study entitled ''Emergency Response and Nuclear Risk Governance: nuclear safety at nuclear power plant accidents'' deals with issues of the protection of the population and the environment against hazardous radiation (the hazards of nuclear energy) and the harmful effects of radioactivity during nuclear power plant accidents. The aim of this study is to contribute to both the identification and remediation of shortcomings and deficits in the management of severe nuclear accidents like those that occurred at Chernobyl in 1986 and at Fukushima in 2011 as well as to the improvement and harmonization of plans and measures taken on an international level in nuclear emergency management. This thesis is divided into a theoretical part and an empirical part. The theoretical part focuses on embedding the subject in a specifically global governance concept, which includes, as far as Nuclear Risk Governance is concerned, the global governance of nuclear risks. Due to their characteristic features the following governance concepts can be assigned to these risks: Nuclear Safety Governance is related to safety, Nuclear Security Governance to security and NonProliferation Governance to safeguards. The subject of investigation of the present study is as a special case of the Nuclear Safety Governance, the Nuclear Emergency governance, which refers to off-site emergency response. The global impact of nuclear accidents and the concepts of security, safety culture and residual risk are contemplated in this context. The findings (accident sequences, their consequences and implications) from the analyses of two reactor accidents prior to Fukushima (Three Mile Iceland in 1979, Chernobyl in 1986) are examined from a historical analytical perspective and the state of the Nuclear Emergency governance and international cooperation aimed at improving nuclear safety after Chernobyl is portrayed by discussing, among other topics, examples of &apos

  16. MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY AMONG EMERGENCY WORKERS OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT: ASSESSMENT OF RADIATION RISKS FOR THE FOLLOW-UP PERIOD OF 1992-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Ivanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Morbidity and mortality among emergency workers of the Chernobyl accident for the follow- up period of 199Morbidity and mortality among the emergency workers of the Chernobyl accident for the follow-up period of 1992-2008 is analyzed in the article. The cohort consists of 47141 emergency workers of 1986-1987. Radiation risks for cancer morbidity (ERR/Gy is 0.76; 95% CI: 0.19; 1.42, p-value=0008 and cancer mortality (ERR/Gy is 0.95; 95% CI: 0.19; 1.89, p-value=0.01 are statistically significant. Radiation risk for vascular diseases is assessed as well.

  17. The accident analysis in the framework of emergency provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the report describes the demands on and bases of a reactor emergency plan and outlines the technical characteristics of a nuclear power plant with light-water moderated pressurized-water reactor with special regard to reactor safety. In the second part the failure and risk potentials of a pressurized-water plant are described and discussed. The third part is dedicated to a representation of the analytical method in a stricter sense, according to the current state of technology. Finally the current degree of effectiveness of the reactor accident analysis method is critically discussed and perspectives of future development are pointed out. (orig.)

  18. The 2012 derecho: emergency medical services and hospital response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Randy D; Wigal, Mark S; Fernandez, Antonio; Tucker, March A; Zuidgeest, Ginger R; Mills, Michael R; Cairns, Bruce A; Cairns, Charles B

    2014-10-01

    During the early afternoon of June 29, 2012, a line of destructive thunderstorms producing straight line winds known as a derecho developed near Chicago (Illinois, USA). The storm moved southeast with wind speeds recorded from 100 to 160 kilometers per hour (kph, 60 to 100 miles per hour [mph]). The storm swept across much of West Virginia (USA) later that evening. Power outage was substantial as an estimated 1,300,000 West Virginians (more than half) were without power in the aftermath of the storm and approximately 600,000 citizens were still without power a week later. This was one of the worst storms to strike this area and occurred as residents were enduring a prolonged heat wave. The wind damage left much of the community without electricity and the crippling effect compromised or destroyed critical infrastructure including communications, air conditioning, refrigeration, and water and sewer pumps. This report describes utilization of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and hospital resources in West Virginia in response to the storm. Also reported is a review of the weather phenomena and the findings and discussion of the disaster and implications. PMID:25231139

  19. The 2012 derecho: emergency medical services and hospital response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Randy D; Wigal, Mark S; Fernandez, Antonio; Tucker, March A; Zuidgeest, Ginger R; Mills, Michael R; Cairns, Bruce A; Cairns, Charles B

    2014-10-01

    During the early afternoon of June 29, 2012, a line of destructive thunderstorms producing straight line winds known as a derecho developed near Chicago (Illinois, USA). The storm moved southeast with wind speeds recorded from 100 to 160 kilometers per hour (kph, 60 to 100 miles per hour [mph]). The storm swept across much of West Virginia (USA) later that evening. Power outage was substantial as an estimated 1,300,000 West Virginians (more than half) were without power in the aftermath of the storm and approximately 600,000 citizens were still without power a week later. This was one of the worst storms to strike this area and occurred as residents were enduring a prolonged heat wave. The wind damage left much of the community without electricity and the crippling effect compromised or destroyed critical infrastructure including communications, air conditioning, refrigeration, and water and sewer pumps. This report describes utilization of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and hospital resources in West Virginia in response to the storm. Also reported is a review of the weather phenomena and the findings and discussion of the disaster and implications.

  20. Synthesis of public authorities organisation in case of emergency and in a post-event situation (following a nuclear accident or a radiological attack) in France and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having briefly recalled how an emergency situation (notably in case of nuclear accident or radiological attack) is taken into account in the organisation of public authorities through specific plans (PPI or plans particuliers d'intervention, intervention specific plans), this report also describes how the situation is handled by these authorities after the end of the emergency situation (i.e. when the risk of new radioactive releases is over). This post-event stage is split into two phases: a transition phase which lasts several weeks or months, and a long term consequence management phase (over months or years). The author first describes the specificities of a nuclear or radiological event (accident or attack). He recalls the global public organisation and the involved actors. For the post-event period, he indicates the various actions, describes the interdepartmental coordination and the various aspects of the program designed to manage accident consequences on the long term. He also describes the roles of permanent bodies, agencies and institutes (ASN, ASND, MSNR, IRSN, INVS, ADEME, AFSSA, Meteo France, CEA, ANDRA, AREVA, EDF, ministries). The last part describes the action of public authorities in case of a nuclear accident occurring abroad. This includes relationship with European and international bodies

  1. Modeling and assessment of accident consequences; development of RODOS, a real-time on-line decision support system for nuclear emergencies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In cooperation with NRPB (UK), the first version 1.0 of PC COSYMA for use on advanced PCs has been released; during a training course in mid 1993, future users were educated in operating the software. The main frame version of the program package COSYMA has been up-dated with new dose conversion factors and fodd-chain data and was distributed to some 20 institutes in Europe and abroad. The comparative calculations performed within the international OECD(NEA)/CEC intercomparison of accident consequence assessment codes were analysed and documented in three reports. Furtheron, consequence assessments have been performed for the research reactor BER II (two source terms) and documented; the influence on individual doses and emergency actions of inplant accident management measures in future EPRs was quantified; within th scope of a EC/US-study on the external costs of the energy cycle, accident consequences were assessed for three source terms. (orig.)

  2. Risk analysis of emergent water pollution accidents based on a Bayesian Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To guarantee the security of water quality in water transfer channels, especially in open channels, analysis of potential emergent pollution sources in the water transfer process is critical. It is also indispensable for forewarnings and protection from emergent pollution accidents. Bridges above open channels with large amounts of truck traffic are the main locations where emergent accidents could occur. A Bayesian Network model, which consists of six root nodes and three middle layer nodes, was developed in this paper, and was employed to identify the possibility of potential pollution risk. Dianbei Bridge is reviewed as a typical bridge on an open channel of the Middle Route of the South to North Water Transfer Project where emergent traffic accidents could occur. Risk of water pollutions caused by leakage of pollutants into water is focused in this study. The risk for potential traffic accidents at the Dianbei Bridge implies a risk for water pollution in the canal. Based on survey data, statistical analysis, and domain specialist knowledge, a Bayesian Network model was established. The human factor of emergent accidents has been considered in this model. Additionally, this model has been employed to describe the probability of accidents and the risk level. The sensitive reasons for pollution accidents have been deduced. The case has also been simulated that sensitive factors are in a state of most likely to lead to accidents.

  3. Risk analysis of emergent water pollution accidents based on a Bayesian Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To guarantee the security of water quality in water transfer channels, especially in open channels, analysis of potential emergent pollution sources in the water transfer process is critical. It is also indispensable for forewarnings and protection from emergent pollution accidents. Bridges above open channels with large amounts of truck traffic are the main locations where emergent accidents could occur. A Bayesian Network model, which consists of six root nodes and three middle layer nodes, was developed in this paper, and was employed to identify the possibility of potential pollution risk. Dianbei Bridge is reviewed as a typical bridge on an open channel of the Middle Route of the South to North Water Transfer Project where emergent traffic accidents could occur. Risk of water pollutions caused by leakage of pollutants into water is focused in this study. The risk for potential traffic accidents at the Dianbei Bridge implies a risk for water pollution in the canal. Based on survey data, statistical analysis, and domain specialist knowledge, a Bayesian Network model was established. The human factor of emergent accidents has been considered in this model. Additionally, this model has been employed to describe the probability of accidents and the risk level. The sensitive reasons for pollution accidents have been deduced. The case has also been simulated that sensitive factors are in a state of most likely to lead to accidents. PMID:26433361

  4. 核或辐射事故应急威胁评估兼论其它%On Nuclear or Radiological Accident Emergency Threat Assessment and Related Aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢盛甲

    2013-01-01

    It was presented for object of nuclear or radiological accident emergency, according to national regulations of nuclear or radiological emergency, and base on IAEA Safety Standards for requirement for preparedness of a nuclear or radiological emergency in the paper. To avoid empty in nuclear or radiological accident emergency arrangement, propose to set up regions arrangement for nuclear or radiological accidents emergency in on threat I or II of provinces according to IAEA threat category IV exist situation in Sino.%  本文根据国家核或辐射应急相关法规,参照国际子能机构有关安全出版物对核或辐射应急准备与响应的要求,提出国内核或辐射事故应急准备和应急响应的目标。鉴国际子能机构划分的核或辐射威胁类型 IV 各国和地区都存在的事实,建议我国在无威胁类型 I 和 II 的省份,考虑区应急管理,避免部分省或地区核或辐射事故应急管理出现盲区。

  5. Leukaemia and thyroid cancer in emergency workers of the Chernobyl accident:. Estimation of radiation risks (1986-1995)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, V.K. [Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Tsyb, A.F. [Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Gorsky, A.I. [Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Maksyutov, M.A. [Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Rastopchin, E.M. [Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Konogorov, A.P. [Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Korelo, A.M. [Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Biryukov, A.P. [Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Matyash, V.A. [Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-02-01

    This work focuses on the direct epidemiological assessment of the risks of radiation-induced leukaemia and thyroid cancer in emergency workers (EW) after the Chernobyl accident. The Russian National Medical Dosimetric Registry (RNMDR) contains data for 168 000 EW as of January 1, 1996. The analysis relates to 48 leukaemias and 47 thyroid cancers, diagnosed and verified. Radiation risks are estimated by comparing the EW data with national data for a male population of the same age distribution. For leukaemia, an excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy) of 4.30 (95% CI: 0.83, 7.75) is obtained, while the excess absolute risk per 10{sup 4} person-years (PY) Gy (EAR/10{sup 4} PY Gy) is found to be 1.31 (95% CI: 0.23, 2.39); for thyroid cancer an ERR/Gy of 5.31 (95% CI: 0.04, 10.58) is obtained, and an EAR/10{sup 4} PY Gy of 1.15 (95% CI: 0.08, 2.22). (orig.). With 9 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Decision support system for emergency management of oil spill accidents in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubartseva, Svitlana; Coppini, Giovanni; Pinardi, Nadia; De Dominicis, Michela; Lecci, Rita; Turrisi, Giuseppe; Cretì, Sergio; Martinelli, Sara; Agostini, Paola; Marra, Palmalisa; Palermo, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an innovative web-based decision support system to facilitate emergency management in the case of oil spill accidents, called WITOIL (Where Is The Oil). The system can be applied to create a forecast of oil spill events, evaluate uncertainty of the predictions, and calculate hazards based on historical meteo-oceanographic datasets. To compute the oil transport and transformation, WITOIL uses the MEDSLIK-II oil spill model forced by operational meteo-oceanographic services. Results of the modeling are visualized through Google Maps. A special application for Android is designed to provide mobile access for competent authorities, technical and scientific institutions, and citizens.

  7. ACCIDENT AT «FUKUSHIMA-I» NPP: FIRST RESULTS OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE. REPORT 1: GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE ACCIDENT AND RADIATION SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents preliminary assessment of the accident scale, level of its radiation effect on the population and response of national authorities of various countries for the population radiation protection provisions. High levels of the environmental radioactive contamination demanded the application of complex measures for the radiation protection of the population from adjacent territories of Japan. Radionuclides from the region of damaged NPP can get to the other countries by means of the long-distant air and sea water mass transfer. Specific activity of cesium radionuclides in the sea biota can reach the level recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission as the safe level for the international trade or exceed it. Significant radioactive contamination of the territories of other countries resulting from the «Fukushima-I» NPP accident did not occur. Many world countries applied measures of the Japanese food products import control on the base of the radiation monitoring data. These prohibitions are consequently remitted following the radiation situation improvement.

  8. Emergency response to a highway accident in Springfield, Massachusetts, on December 16, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On December 16, 1991, a truck carrying unirradiated (fresh) nuclear fuel was involved in an accident on US Interstate 91, in Springfield, Massachusetts. This report describes the emergency response measures undertaken by local, State, Federal, and private parties. The report also discusses ''lessons learned'' from the response to the accident and suggests areas where improvements might be made

  9. Emergency response to a highway accident in Springfield, Massachusetts, on December 16, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    On December 16, 1991, a truck carrying unirradiated (fresh) nuclear fuel was involved in an accident on US Interstate 91, in Springfield, Massachusetts. This report describes the emergency response measures undertaken by local, State, Federal, and private parties. The report also discusses lessons learned'' from the response to the accident and suggests areas where improvements might be made.

  10. Emergency response to a highway accident in Springfield, Massachusetts, on December 16, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    On December 16, 1991, a truck carrying unirradiated (fresh) nuclear fuel was involved in an accident on US Interstate 91, in Springfield, Massachusetts. This report describes the emergency response measures undertaken by local, State, Federal, and private parties. The report also discusses ``lessons learned`` from the response to the accident and suggests areas where improvements might be made.

  11. Influence of radiation accident on human being health and its medical emergency%核事件对人类健康的影响及医学应急

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏虹

    2011-01-01

    核电站已成为解决能源问题的重要途径之一,但核事件的发生则会给人类带来深重灾难,如何针对核事件的危害而采取有效预防和应急,已成为全球发展面临的重要公共卫生问题.本文将从世界重大核事件的回顾、核事件对人类健康的影响,以及核事件的医学应急和公众防护方面进行综述.%Nuclear power plant is one of the important way to solve the energy problem, but nuclear accident could bring the extremely serious disaster onto the human being. It has been the key for taking the effective actions promptly to meet the hazards resulted from nuclear accident. In order to prevent the accident and protect the human being health, we would sum up the messages as follows, review of serious nuclear accidents in the world, analysis on influence of radiation accident on human being health and its medical emergency.

  12. Elements of a national emergency response system for nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest elements for a general emergency response system, employed at a national level, to detect, evaluate and assess the consequences of a radiological atmospheric release occurring within or outside of national boundaries. These elements are focused on the total aspect of emergency response ranging from providing an initial alarm to a total assessment of the environmental and health effects. Elements of the emergency response system are described in such a way that existing resources can be directly applied if appropriate; if not, newly developed or an expansion of existing resources can be employed. The major thrust of this paper is toward a philosophical discussion and general description of resources that would be required to implementation. If the major features of this proposal system are judged desirable for implementation, then the next level of detail can be added. The philosophy underlying this paper is preparedness - preparedness through planning, awareness and the application of technology. More specifically, it is establishment of reasonable guidelines including the definition of reference and protective action levels for public exposure to accidents involving nuclear material; education of the public, government officials and the news media; and the application of models and measurements coupled to computer systems to address a series of questions related to emergency planning, response and assessment. It is the role of a proven national emergency response system to provide reliable, quality-controlled information to decision makers for the management of environmental crises

  13. Communication and industrial accidents

    OpenAIRE

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the concept of role distance, which emphasizes the organizational characteristics. The general hypothesis is that communication failures are a main cause of role distance and accident-proneness within orga...

  14. The use of action research as an appropriate method of introducing and evaluating change in nursing care in an accident & emergency unit in Durban – Part 2

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, D.

    1996-01-01

    This 2-part article discussed firstly in Curationis 19.3 this year, the general characteristics of action research, compares several strategies of approach and describes the author's chosen method of applying action research to particular aspects of nursing care in an Accident & Emergency Unit in a Durban hospital. This second part describes identification of problems within the unit, the implementation of change and the limitations and potential of such study to nursing practice.

  15. Nuclear accidents and epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consultation on epidemiology related to the Chernobyl accident was held in Copenhagen in May 1987 as a basis for concerted action. This was followed by a joint IAEA/WHO workshop in Vienna, which reviewed appropriate methodologies for possible long-term effects of radiation following nuclear accidents. The reports of these two meetings are included in this volume, and cover the subjects: 1) Epidemiology related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident. 2) Appropriate methodologies for studying possible long-term effects of radiation on individuals exposed in a nuclear accident. Figs and tabs

  16. RaCon: a software tool serving to predict radiological consequences of various types of accident in support of emergency management and radiation monitoring management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RaCon software system, developed by the Nuclear Research Institute Rez, is described and its application when addressing various tasks in the domain of radiation accidents and nuclear safety (accidents at nuclear facilities, transport of radioactive material, terrorist attacks) are outlined. RaCon is intended for the prediction and evaluation of radiological consequences to population and rescue teams and for optimization of monitoring actions. The system provides support to emergency management when evaluating and devising actions to mitigate the consequences of radiation accidents. The deployment of RaCon within the system of radiation monitoring by mobile emergency teams or remote controlled UAV is an important application. Based on a prediction of the radiological situation, RaCon facilitates decision-making and control of the radiation monitoring system, and in turn, refines the prediction based on observed values. Furthermore, the system can perform simulations of evacuation patterns at the Dukovany NPP and at schools in the vicinity of the power plant and can provide support to emergency management should any such situation arise. (orig.)

  17. Pattern of Sexual Offences Attended at Accident and Emergency Department of HUSM from Year 2000 to 2003: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed Nasimul; See, Khoo Lay; Ting, Lai Chin; Khan, Jesmine

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the pattern of sexual offence cases attended at the One Stop Crisis Center (OSCC) of the Accident and Emergency Department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan. A total of 439 reported sexual offence cases were examined over a period of 4 years from 2000 to 2003. Sexual offence constituted by male partner or boyfriend in 18.9%, by relatives in 27.3% and by "others" in 53.8% of cases. Only 0.7% of victims did not attempt to lodge a police report. There is a significant relationship between occupation and the risk of experiencing sexual violence. Students were mostly targeted by the perpetrator throughout the study period. Among the offences, rape cases were the highest in number, among those who attended at the OSCC, HUSM with a total of 72.7%; followed by 27.3% of incest; 26.4% of child sexual abuse; 4.8% of sodomy and lastly 1.6% of gerontophilia cases. Only 70% of the specimens obtained from sexual offences victims were sent for laboratory analysis. The result remained negative in 82.4% specimens and thus the laboratory analysis result is merely functioning as a supportive evidence for sexual offence cases attended at OSCC. The studies showed that most of the sexual assault perpetrators were known to the victims. The place of crime was also known to the perpetrators. Health sectors of various levels should be working in conjunction to promote a societal changes to improve more of the women's right and thus to reduce the violence crime. PMID:22589588

  18. Video and Cable: Emerging Forms of Library Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, B. K. L.

    1979-01-01

    Sketches the history of video and cable communications use in libraries, current library activities in video collection and production, problems with some library video projects, trends in video services, and plans for future video uses within libraries. (FM)

  19. [A guide to successful public relations for hospitals and emergency medical services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausserer, J; Schwamberger, J; Preloznik, R; Klimek, M; Paal, P; Wenzel, V

    2014-04-01

    Tragic accidents, e.g. involving celebrity patients or severe incidents in hospital occur suddenly without any advance warning, often produce substantial interest by the media and quickly overburden management personnel involved in both hospitals and emergency medical services. While doctors, hospitals and emergency medical services desire objective media reports, the media promote emotionalized and dramatized reports to ensure maximum attention and circulation. When briefing the media, the scales may quickly tilt from professional, well-deliberated information to unfortunate, often unintended disinformation. Such phenomena may result in continuing exaggerated reports in the tabloid press, which in the presence of aggressive lawyers and a competitive hospital environment can turn into image and legal problems. In this article, several aspects are discussed in order to achieve successful public relations.Interviews should be given only after consultation with the responsible press officer and the director of the respective department or hospital director. Requests for information by the media should always be answered as otherwise one-sided, unintentional publications can result that are extremely difficult to correct later. One should be available to be contacted easily by journalists, regular press conferences should be held and critics should be taken seriously and not be brushed off. Questions by journalists should be answered in a timely manner as journalists are continuously under time pressure and do not understand unnecessary delays. Information for the media should always be provided at the same time, no publication should be given preference and an absolutely current list of E-mail contacts is required. When facing big events a press conference is preferred as many questions can be answered at once. Always be well prepared for an interview or even for just a statement. Each interview should be regarded as an opportunity to put a story forward which you

  20. [A guide to successful public relations for hospitals and emergency medical services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausserer, J; Schwamberger, J; Preloznik, R; Klimek, M; Paal, P; Wenzel, V

    2014-04-01

    Tragic accidents, e.g. involving celebrity patients or severe incidents in hospital occur suddenly without any advance warning, often produce substantial interest by the media and quickly overburden management personnel involved in both hospitals and emergency medical services. While doctors, hospitals and emergency medical services desire objective media reports, the media promote emotionalized and dramatized reports to ensure maximum attention and circulation. When briefing the media, the scales may quickly tilt from professional, well-deliberated information to unfortunate, often unintended disinformation. Such phenomena may result in continuing exaggerated reports in the tabloid press, which in the presence of aggressive lawyers and a competitive hospital environment can turn into image and legal problems. In this article, several aspects are discussed in order to achieve successful public relations.Interviews should be given only after consultation with the responsible press officer and the director of the respective department or hospital director. Requests for information by the media should always be answered as otherwise one-sided, unintentional publications can result that are extremely difficult to correct later. One should be available to be contacted easily by journalists, regular press conferences should be held and critics should be taken seriously and not be brushed off. Questions by journalists should be answered in a timely manner as journalists are continuously under time pressure and do not understand unnecessary delays. Information for the media should always be provided at the same time, no publication should be given preference and an absolutely current list of E-mail contacts is required. When facing big events a press conference is preferred as many questions can be answered at once. Always be well prepared for an interview or even for just a statement. Each interview should be regarded as an opportunity to put a story forward which you

  1. Axillary brachial plexus block--an underused technique in the accident and emergency department.

    OpenAIRE

    MacKay, C A; Bowden, D F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare axillary brachial plexus block and Bier's block as methods of providing upper limb anaesthesia. METHODS: Axillary brachial plexus or Bier's blocks were performed on all patients requiring upper limb anaesthesia in a three month period. For Bier's block, a single cuff tourniquet and 3 mg/kg 0.5% prilocaine were used. For axillary plexus block, 40 ml 1% lignocaine with adrenaline (1:200,000) were used, given by perivascular or transarterial technique. Prospective analysis ...

  2. The Milch technique for reduction of anterior shoulder dislocations in an accident and emergency department.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, G; Hulse, W; Mcgowan, A.

    1992-01-01

    Following the introduction of the Milch technique as the preferred method of reduction of anterior shoulder dislocations in an A&E department, a retrospective study of the technique was carried out. A total of 187 patients with anterior shoulder dislocations were included. The Milch technique was attempted in 142 cases with a success rate of 86%. There was no statistical difference in the success rates of junior and senior staff. In 73% of the Milch cases either no analgesia or sedation or En...

  3. Accident investigation and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, J. van; Drupsteen, L.

    2013-01-01

    Many organisations and companies take extensive proactive measures to identify, evaluate and reduce occupational risks. However, despite these efforts things still go wrong and unintended events occur. After a major incident or accident, conducting an accident investigation is generally the next ste

  4. Nuclear power plant accident handbook: a CNSC emergency operations centre tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to the Fukushima Nuclear Emergency and the subsequent Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) response, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) Fukushima Task Force recommended that hardcopy and electronic version reference packages for all Canadian nuclear reactor sites are readily available to the Technical Support Team. CNSC staff, in a cooperative agreement with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at Chalk River Laboratories (AECL-CRL), has begun implementing this recommendation through the development of the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Accident Handbook. The NPP Accident Handbook will provide readily available reference material for technical staff involved in EOC operations. The NPP Accident Handbook will assist technical staff in finding site-specific and accident-specific details that will help them provide expert advice to the EOC team during a nuclear power plant accident. (author)

  5. National radiological emergency response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident occurred on March 11, 2011, when two natural disasters of unprecedented strengths, an earthquake with magnitude 9 followed one hour later by a powerful tsunami struck northeastern Japan and felled the external power supply and the emergency diesel generators of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, resulting in a loss of coolant accident. There were core meltdowns in three nuclear reactors with the release of radioactivity estimated to be 1/10 of what was released to the environment during the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in April 1986. The Fukushima nuclear accident tested the capability of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) and the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC) in responding to such radiological emergency as a nuclear power plant accident. The PNRI and NDRRMC activated the RADPLAN for possible radiological emergency. The emergency response was calibrated to the status of the nuclear reactors on site and the environmental monitoring undertaken around the site and off-site, including the marine environment. This orchestrated effort enabled the PNRI and the national agencies concerned to reassure the public that the nuclear accident does not have a significant impact on the Philippines, both on the health and safety of the people and on the safety of the environment. National actions taken during the accident will be presented. The role played by the International Atomic Energy Agency as the central UN agency for nuclear matters will be discussed. (author)

  6. Communication and industrial accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the conc

  7. Paciente vítima de violência no trânsito: análise do perfil socioeconômico, características do acidente e intervenção do Serviço Social na emergência A patient victim of car traffic violence: an analysis of socioeconomic profile, accident characteristics and Social Services intervention in the emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Campos dos Anjos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar e analisar o perfil dos pacientes; o meio de transporte que causou o acidente; as normas do Código de Trânsito Brasileiro, se foram ou não seguidas; a rede de apoio e as intervenções do Serviço Social. MÉTODO: A pesquisa foi realizada com 100% dos pacientes internados nesta Instituição no período de 15/08/04 a 19/11/04, que foram vítimas de acidente no trânsito. Entrevistamos: 37 condutores de motocicletas, 26 pedestres, 15 condutores de veículo a motor e 06 passageiros, totalizando 84 pacientes. Foram utilizados formulários com questões abertas e fechadas de abordagem quantitativa e qualitativa. Resultado: A maior demanda foi de motociclistas, sendo que 83% são do sexo masculino, jovens com escolaridade até o ensino médio e renda mensal de dois salários mínimos. 62% residem em São Paulo e somente 36,5% possuem vínculo formal de trabalho. A maior parte das fraturas ocorreu nos membros inferiores (54%. Todos os pacientes necessitaram de cuidados após alta hospitalar, sendo que 98% contaram com o apoio familiar. CONCLUSÃO: Os elevados números de acidentes nos indicam que a violência no trânsito pode ser considerada um problema de saúde pública e estudos devem ser realizados para subsidiar as políticas públicas nesta área.OBJECTIVE: To identify and analyze patients' profile; the means of transportation that caused the accident; whether the rules of the Brazilian Traffic Code were respected or not; and the support network and actions of social services. METHODS: A survey was conducted with 100% of the patients admitted in this institution between August 15th and November 19th, 2004, who were victims of car accidents. We interviewed 37 motorcycle riders, 26 pedestrians, 15 drivers and 6 passengers, totaling 84 patients. Forms with open and closed questions, adopting both a quantitative and a qualitative approach were used. RESULTS: The greatest demand was from motorcyclists, of whom 83% were male

  8. Crisis Nurseries: Emergency Services for Children and Families in Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes-Lawrence, Darbi

    2009-01-01

    All parents face stressors. For parents with resources, the stressors can be minimal. For parents without resources, a most basic stressor can have a "pile-up" effect, and become a crisis situation (McCubbin & Patterson, 1983). For parents with limited resources--or for those whose resources are not available during an emergency--there is help.…

  9. Differences between attendance in emergency care of male and female victims of traffic accidents in Porto alegre, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Forgiarini Saldanha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Driving under the influence of alcohol/ drugs (DUI is a well-established risk factor for traffic accidents, and men and women have different consumption patterns. The scope of this paper is to analyze differences in alcohol and drug consumption, as well as on behavior associated with traffic accidents among men and women. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 609 sequential traffic accident victims attended in emergency care from Porto Alegre. Subjects gave a structured interview, were breathalyzed and had a saliva test for alcohol/drug screening. Results showed that women were mainly passengers or pedestrians (p < 0.001. There was no significant difference in positive blood alcohol concentration. However, men reported more binge drinking and THC use, while women had more benzodiazepine in their saliva (p<0.05. This is the first Brazilian study to compare alcohol and drug use among men and women who were the victims of traffic accidents. Results point to differences in the pattern of substance abuse, as well on risk behavior. Data may be useful for specific prevention strategies that take gender differences into consideration.

  10. Acidentes e violência na infância: evidências do inquérito sobre atendimentos de emergência por causas externas - Brasil, 2009 Accidents and violence in childhood: survey evidence of emergency care for external causes - Brazil, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Compreender as características e a magnitude das causas externas (acidentes e violência em crianças de 0 a 9 anos de idade torna-se cada vez mais importante em Saúde Pública. O objetivo do presente artigo foi analisar os atendimentos de emergência por causas externas em crianças. Utilizaram-se dados do Sistema de Vigilância de Violências e Acidentes em Serviços Sentinelas de Urgência e Emergência (Inquérito VIVA, realizado em 74 serviços de urgência do Distrito Federal e 23 capitais no ano 2009. Analisaram-se dados de 7.123 crianças: 6.897 (96,7% vítimas de acidentes e 226 (3,3% de violência. Em comparação às vítimas de violência, os atendimentos por acidentes foram mais frequentes entre crianças de 2 a 5 anos, de pele branca e ocorridos no domicílio (p Understanding the characteristics and magnitude of accidents and violence due to external causes in children from 0 to 9 years of age is becoming ever more important in Public Health. The scope of this paper was to analyze emergency care for accidents due to external causes in children. The Sentinel Urgency and Emergency Services of the Violence and Accident Vigilance System (VIVA Survey, performed in 74 urgency services in the Federal District and 23 State capitals in 2009 was used. Data of 7,123 children were analyzed: 6,897 (96.7% victims of accidents and 226 (3.3% of violence. In comparison with victims of violence, the visits for accidents were more frequent among white children from 2 to 5 years old occurring in the home (p < 0.05. Among the accidents, falls and burns predominated in the 0 to 1group, while traffic accidents were most frequent in the 6 to 9-year-old age group (p < 0.001. With respect to violence, the visits for neglect and physical assault predominated, respectively, in extreme age groups, with someone in the family being the perpetrator (p < 0.001. Information on the occurrence of external causes in children may support health promotion policies

  11. Emergency treatment and nursing management of group patients of traffic accident%成批车祸事故患者的急救与护理管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宁静

    2015-01-01

    目的 分析成批车祸事故患者的急救与护理.方法 采取2013年7月份至2014年10月份本院收治的4批车祸事故患者共94例,回顾性分析这94例患者的临床资料,总结患者的急救与护理措施.结果 通过采取相应的急救与护理管理后,94例患者中,88例抢救脱险,2例现场死亡,4例抢救无效死亡,死亡率为6.4%.结论 有效的急救与护理管理能有效地降低成批车祸事故中的死亡率,提高车祸事故患者的生存率.%Objective analyze emergency treatment and nursing of group patients of trafifc accident.Method review and analyze 94 patients treated in our hospital from July 2013 to October 2014, 4 groups of patients with trafifc accidents. Summarize their clinical data and emergency treatment and nursing measures.Result after taking corresponding measures of emergency treatment and nursing management, 88 cases of 94 patients survived, 2 cases died on the spot, 4 cases died after emergency treatment, mortality was 6.4%.Conclusion effective emergency management and nursing management can effectively reduce mortality and improve survival rate of patients with trafifc accident.

  12. Being first on the scene of an accident--experiences of 'doing' prehospital emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmqvist, Carina; Brunt, David; Fridlund, Bengt; Ekebergh, Margaretha

    2010-06-01

    Prehospital emergency care includes the care and treatment of patients prior to them reaching hospital. This is generally a field for the ambulance services, but in many cases firemen or police can be the ones to provide the first responses. The aim of this study was to describe and understand experiences of being the first responder on the scene of an accident, as described by policemen, firemen and ambulance staff. A lifeworld perspective was used in four different traumatic situations from southern Sweden. The data consisted of 13 unstructured interviews with first responders. The phenomenological analysis showed that experiences of being the first responder on the scene of an accident is expectations of doing a systematic course of action, dressed in the role of a hero, and at the same time being genuine in an interpersonal encounter. This entails a continuous movement between 'being' and 'doing'. It is not a question of either - or, instead everything is to be understood in relation to each other at the same time. Five constituents further described the variations of the phenomenon; a feeling of security in the uncertainty, a distanced closeness to the injured person, one moment in an eternity, cross-border cooperation within distinct borders and a need to make the implicit explicit. This finding highlights the importance of using policemen and firemen in doing life support measures while waiting for the ambulance staff, and would in turn increase the importance of the relationship between the different professionals on the scene of an accident. PMID:19732398

  13. Safety and Response-Time Analysis of an Automotive Accident Assistance Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argent-Katwala, Ashok; Clark, Allan; Foster, Howard; Gilmore, Stephen; Mayer, Philip; Tribastone, Mirco

    In the present paper we assess both the safety properties and the response-time profile of a subscription service which provides medical assistance to drivers who are injured in vehicular collisions. We use both timed and untimed process calculi cooperatively to perform the required analysis. The formal analysis tools used are hosted on a high-level modelling platform with support for scripting and orchestration which enables users to build custom analysis processes from the general-purpose analysers which are hosted as services on the platform.

  14. Retirement Policies and Support for Emergency Service Personnel: The Transition to Retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken-Scally, Mairéad; McGilloway, Sinéad; Mitchell, Jeffrey T

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore policies and procedures to support employees who retire from the emergency services. Interviews were conducted with participants who were familiar with existing policies and procedures in a large ambulance (n = 8) and fire (n = 6) service in Ireland. Four key themes were identified: (1) "I don't think it's a job at 65 to be running out on an emergency ambulance"; (2) "They do genuinely feel a wee bit isolated"; (3) improving the "cultural shock"; and (4) "I just keep going and hope for the best". Findings point towards retirement as a major life change and highlight a need for more structured, effective pre-retirement preparation. Factors unique to emergency service personnel include the physical and emotional stress involved in emergency service; a strong identification with the service; and a lack of clarity about rules and entitlements, requiring better information and preparation. PMID:27112913

  15. Climate Change Consequences for Iowa'S Economy, Infrastructure, and Emergency Services

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, David A.

    2011-01-01

    This is Chapter 6 in the state-mandated Regent's institution collaborative report, "Climate Change Impacts on Iowa, 2010: Report to the Governor and the Iowa General Assembly."Iowa's climate is changing, and that means Iowa's economy is changing. A changing Iowa economy will have consequences for agriculture, food production, Iowa's vaunted insurance agency, general energy use, Iowa's households, Iowa governments, and disaster services. This chapter profiles near and longer term consequences ...

  16. Emergency medical management of radiation accident. Lessons learned from the JCO criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A criticality accident occurred at the JCO nuclear fuel processing plant in Tokai-mura, Japan at 10:35 am on September 30, 1999. Three workers while working nearby were exposed to high doses of radiation, especially rich in neutron. They suffered from the acute radiation syndrome and two of them were still under medical treatment. This criticality accident taught us significant lessons of radiation protection for the personnels, e.g. physicians, nurses and firemen who are expected to rescue radiation-exposed patients in radiation accidents. In this article, medical management of radiation accident, e.g. treatment of patient, with high-dosed radiation-exposure and with internal contamination of radioactive nuclides and estimation of individual radiation dose, were briefly explained. The Japanese Association for Medical Management of Radiation Accident was founded on August 29, 1997, in order to promote the mutual communication of physicians who have to be engaged in treatment of radiation-exposed patients. (author)

  17. Objective standards for the emergency services: emergency admission to hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    West, R.

    2001-01-01

    The primary objectives of the emergency services are to minimize early mortality and complications, although longer-term morbidity, quality of life and late mortality may also be influenced by early actions. Evaluation of the emergency services and demonstration of quality need to reflect these objectives by appropriate choice of outcome measures. This brief review of leading measures of quality in emergency admissions discusses population-based 30-day mortality, after examining some limitati...

  18. Emerging trends in the evolution of service-oriented and enterprise architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Alfred; Jain, Lakhmi

    2016-01-01

    This book presents emerging trends in the evolution of service-oriented and enterprise architectures. New architectures and methods of both business and IT are integrating services to support mobility systems, Internet of Things, Ubiquitous Computing, collaborative and adaptive business processes, Big Data, and Cloud ecosystems. They inspire current and future digital strategies and create new opportunities for the digital transformation of next digital products and services. Services Oriented Architectures (SOA) and Enterprise Architectures (EA) have emerged as a useful framework for developing interoperable, large-scale systems, typically implementing various standards, like Web Services, REST, and Microservices. Managing the adaptation and evolution of such systems presents a great challenge. Service-Oriented Architecture enables flexibility through loose coupling, both between the services themselves and between the IT organizations that manage them. Enterprises evolve continuously by transforming and ext...

  19. Courses on emergency preparedness and medical procedures in case of a nuclear accident organised in Zagreb, Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the postgraduate education at the Medical School of the University of Zagreb, different short courses are offered. It has been realised that the knowledge about radiation and its uses among the Croatian doctors is more than insufficient, especially if any action for treatment of radiation victims will ever be needed. The specialised courses of the I. category, offered and described bellow, are meant to provide the sufficient theoretical knowledge about ionising radiations as well as practical workshops and exercises in treatment of persons accidentally injured in a nuclear power plant or similar accident. (author)

  20. Psychological emergency attendance as a psychological service in educational psychology: limits and possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson do Nascimento Bezerra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The School Psychology Emergency Practices differs from others School Psychology practices, is more than type of psychology service and should have more institutional visibility. This paper reflects on these references from both the practice of the author and the currently literature in school psychology. To this purpose, we use as reference the concept of Extended Clinic and its relation with Psychology Emergency Service area. We discuss the opportunity of the school psychologist has, among other things, to be able to listen and to welcome spontaneously anyone in the school community seeking for support in case of emergency. In so doing, the author reflects on the condition of psychological emergency service as service and as a type of treatment at school, and school psychology as an area of expertise inserted in this complex environment different of views and perspectives.

  1. Survival benefit of physician-staffed Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) assistance for severely injured patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. den Hartog (Dennis); J. Romeo (Jamie); A.N. Ringburg (Akkie); M.H.J. Verhofstad (Michiel); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractBackground: Physician-staffed Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) provide specialist medical care to the accident scene and aim to improve survival of severely injured patients. Previous studies were often underpowered and showed heterogeneous results, leaving the subject at

  2. Aftercare services for international sex trafficking survivors: informing U.S. service and program development in an emerging practice area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Rebecca J; Johns, Natalie

    2011-04-01

    International sex trafficking into the United States appears to be a serious and growing problem, although the evidence regarding prevalence, risk, and consequences is incomplete. Nonetheless, human service providers are increasingly being asked to offer services to sex trafficking survivors. Consequently, providers need information to guide services and program development in this emerging practice area. To address this knowledge need, we systematically reviewed and synthesized 20 documents addressing the needs of and services for international survivors of sex trafficking into the United States. The main finding from the review shows the importance of a continuum of aftercare services to address survivors' changing needs as they move from initial freedom to recovery and independence. Based on our synthesis of the reviewed literature, we present a service delivery framework to guide providers' development of services for survivors. PMID:21196435

  3. Accident management in the case of serious emergencies in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On-site emergency planning comprises all action taken in a nuclear power station to identify beyond-design base accidents at an early stage and reliably, to keep it under control and overcome it with the minimum of damage. The individual papers set out the basic terminology, the thermohydraulic processes in the cooling circuits during severe incidents, action to maintain the integrity of the containment, the potential of expert systems, simulator training and new developments for simulating accident conditions. (DG)

  4. Updated tool for nuclear criticality accident emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some 20 yr ago a hand-held slide rule was developed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to aid in the response to several postulated nuclear criticality accidents. These assumed accidents involved highly enriched uranium in either a bare metal or a uranyl nitrate system. The slide rule consisted of a sliding scale based on the total fission yield and four corresponding dose indicators: (1) a prompt radiation dose relationship as a function of distance; (2) a delayed fission product gamma dose rate relationship as a function of time and distance; (3) the total dose relationship with time and distance; and (4) the I-min integrated dose relationship with time and distance. The original slide rule was generated assuming very simplistic numerical procedures such as the inverse-square relationship of dose with distance and the Way-Wigner relationship to express the time dependence of the dose. The simple prescriptions were tied to actual dose measurements from similar systems to yield a meaningful, yet simple approach to emergency planning and response needs. This paper describes the application of an advanced procedure to the updating of the original slide rule for five critical systems. These five systems include (a) an unreflected sphere of 93.2 wt% enriched uranium metal, (b) an unreflected sphere of 93.2 wt% enriched uranyl nitrate solution with a H/235U ratio of 500, (c) an unreflected sphere of damp 93.2 wt% enriched uranium oxide with a H/235U ratio of 10, (d) an unreflected sphere of 4.95 wt% enriched uranyl fluoride solution having a H/235U ratio of 410, and (e) an unreflected sphere of damp 5 wt% enriched uranium dioxide having a H/235U ratio of 200

  5. Trauma-related dispatch criteria for Helicopter Emergency Medical Services in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.D. Wigman (Laura); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther); G. de Ronde (Gijs); P. Patka (Peter); I.B. Schipper (Inger)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) are used worldwide in order to provide potentially life-saving pre-hospital medical support to trauma patients at the accident scene. It is currently unclear how much overlap exists regarding the number and type of dispatch crite

  6. Emerging new services for the gas and electricity economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reports on a postgraduate study at the Swiss Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne, Switzerland, addressing the prospects for new energy technologies and their development, according to bankers, industry managers and international organisations. The study merges macro-economic, financial and technological views and focusses especially on electricity and natural gas including cogeneration and decentralised, small and middle-size energy production units. The world energy market is changing pace, moving from various monopolies to a dynamic system, with growing decentralisation and networking. The study reveals that constraints are changing due to the economy globalization as well as to the growing internet-based economy, and that new prospects for the development of promising energy technologies are emerging. The demand for more specific energy products like for example uninterruptible power supplies will stimulate new sectors in the energy economy. Growing environmental concern will also be an important factor for the energy market remodelling. For the gas and electricity markets, a considerable rise in sales is expected

  7. Status of the Real-time On-line Decision Support (RODOS) system for off-site emergency management after nuclear and radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the auspices of its EURATOM Research Framework Programmes, the European Commission (EC) has supported the development of the comprehensive decision support system RODOS (Real-time On-line Decision Support) for off-site emergency management after nuclear accidents for more than a decade. Many national research programmes, research institutes and industrial collaborators contributed to the project, in particular the German Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (B MU). The RODOS system can be applied to accidental releases into the atmosphere and various aquatic environments within and across Europe. It provides coherent support before, during and after such a release to assist analysis of the situation and decision making about short and long-term countermeasures for mitigating the consequences with respect to health, the environment, and the economy. Appropriate interfaces exist with local and national radiological monitoring data systems, meteorological measurements and forecasts, and for the adaptation to local, regional and national conditions in Europe. Within the European Integrated Project EURANOS of the sixth Framework Programme, the RODOS system is being enhanced, among others, for radiological emergencies such as dirty bombs attacks, transport accidents and satellite crashes by extensions of the nuclide list, the source term characteristics and the atmospheric dispersion model

  8. Evaluation and Prediction present of radionuclide for surface wipe sample in Emergency Related with Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface wipe samples of aircraft and container from Japan that were exposed to radioactive dust fallout due to Fukushima nuclear accident has been analysed using gamma spectrometry systems. The samples were analysed to determine their contamination levels. The surface of aircraft and container might be exposed to short and long lived fission and activation products. Thus, good evaluations, as well as a reliable and reasonable judgment were needed in order to determine the presence of fission and activation products. A work procedure has been developed to evaluate and predict the presence of fission and activation products in surface wipe samples. Good references, skilled and experienced level in analysis, a well calibrated and validated detector system were the important factors in determining the presence of fission and activation products in surface wipe samples. (author)

  9. Medical emergency planning in case of severe nuclear power plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is an attempt to discuss a three-step-plan on medical emergency planning in case of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the basis of own experiences in the regional area as well as on the basis of recommendations of the Federal Minister of the Interior. The medical considerations take account of the severity and extension of an accident whereby the current definitions used in nuclear engineering for accident situations are taken as basis. A comparison between obligatory and actual state is made on the possibilities of medical emergency planning, taking all capacities of staff, facilities, and equipment available in the Federal Republic of Germany into account. To assure a useful and quick utilization of the existing infra-structure as well as nation-wide uniform training of physicians and medical assistants in the field of medical emergency in case of a nuclear catastrophe, a federal law for health protection is regarded urgently necessary. (orig.)

  10. Interpreter services in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yu-Feng; Alagappan, Kumar; Rella, Joseph; Bentley, Suzanne; Soto-Greene, Marie; Martin, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    Emergency physicians are routinely confronted with problems associated with language barriers. It is important for emergency health care providers and the health system to strive for cultural competency when communicating with members of an increasingly diverse society. Possible solutions that can be implemented include appropriate staffing, use of new technology, and efforts to develop new kinds of ties to the community served. Linguistically specific solutions include professional interpretation, telephone interpretation, the use of multilingual staff members, the use of ad hoc interpreters, and, more recently, the use of mobile computer technology at the bedside. Each of these methods carries a specific set of advantages and disadvantages. Although professionally trained medical interpreters offer improved communication, improved patient satisfaction, and overall cost savings, they are often underutilized due to their perceived inefficiency and the inconclusive results of their effect on patient care outcomes. Ultimately, the best solution for each emergency department will vary depending on the population served and available resources. Access to the multiple interpretation options outlined above and solid support and commitment from hospital institutions are necessary to provide proper and culturally competent care for patients. Appropriate communications inclusive of interpreter services are essential for culturally and linguistically competent provider/health systems and overall improved patient care and satisfaction. PMID:18571358

  11. Medical procedures in the event of nuclear power plant accidents. Guidelines for: Medical consultants for emergency response commander; physicians in emergency care centres; physicians in outpatient and inpatient care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on medical procedures in the event of nuclear power plant accidents. This contribution consists of the following sections: protective measures, tasks of radiation protection physicians, emergency care centres. It has been pointed out that differentiation of the hospitals is acquired which accept radiation accident patients. However, only a small number of hospitals will be able to professionally treat patients with suspected gastrointestinal or pronounced (muco)cutaneous type of hospitals with haemotological-oncological departments. Thus they should be able to treat patients who have been exposed to radiation doses between 1 and 6 Gy without any difficulties. Even larger is the number of hospitals which can accept patients who were exposed to a radiation dose of less than 1 Gy, but suffer from other complicating diseases (injuries, general diseases)

  12. Developing and implementing a computer assisted emergency facility for assessing off-site consequences due to accidents in UK nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines considerations in the development of the RAD computer code as used in the Emergency Room at HM NII for assessing off-site consequences of accidents in UK civil nuclear power reactors. A wide range of requirements have been accommodated within the facility, particularly the need of HM NII to meet its responsibilities by producing realistic and timely estimates of a suitably high quality for propagating advice. The development of the computer code has required the balancing of many competing factors. Valuable experience has been gained by using the code during emergency exercises. Importance is laid on the feedback of field measurements to enhance the accuracy of estimated radiological consequences. (author)

  13. Help guides for post-accident consequence management: farm activities and exiting the emergency phase; Les guides d'aide a la gestion des consequences post-accidentelles: activites agricoles et sortie de la phase d'urgence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cessac, B.; Reales, N. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, BP 17 - 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Mehl-Auget, I. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire - 6, place du Colonel Bourgoin - 75012 Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    After having recalled the main actions foreseen in the PPIs (plans particuliers d'intervention, intervention specific plans) in case of radionuclide release in the environment after a nuclear accident, i.e. sheltering and ingestion of steady iodine, and also indicated the different phases of consequence management (preparation, emergency and post-accident phases), this report describes and comments the contents of two guides published by the IRSN (the French Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Institute) and dealing with the management of post-accident consequences. The first one is a guide to aid to decision-making for the management of the agricultural sector in case of nuclear accident, and the second one is a guide for the preparation of the end of the emergency phase in which actions to be performed during the first week after the end of accidental releases are described

  14. Recovery operations in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much progress has been made over the last decade in the field of emergency planning and preparedness, including the development of guidance, criteria, training programmes, regulations and comprehensive plans in the support of nuclear facilities. To provide a forum for international review and discussion of actual experiences gained and lessons learned from the different aspects of recovery techniques and operations in response to serious accidents at nuclear facilities and accidents associated with radioactive materials, the IAEA organized the International Symposium on Recovery Operations in the Event of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. The symposium was held from 6 to 10 November 1989 in Vienna, Austria, and was attended by over 250 experts from 35 Member State and 7 international organizations. Although the prime focus was on on-site and off-site recovery from nuclear reactor accidents and on recovery from radiological accidents unrelated to nuclear power plants, development of emergency planning and preparedness resources was covered as well. From the experiences reported, lessons learned were identified. While further work remains to be done to improve concepts, plans, materials, communications and mechanisms to assemble quickly all the special resources needed in the event of an accident, there was general agreement that worldwide preparations to handle any possible future radiological emergencies had vastly improved. A special feature of the symposium programme was the inclusion of a full session on an accident involving a chemical explosion in a high level waste tank a a plutonium extraction plant in the Southern Urals in the USSR in 1957. Information was presented on the radioactive release, its dissemination and deposition, the resultant radiation situation, dose estimates, health effects follow-up, and the rehabilitation of contaminated land. This volume contains the full text of the 49 papers presented at the symposium together with a

  15. Organization of fire protection services and fire fighting tactics in nuclear power plants taking into account conclusions from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the problems of organizing fire services to protect nuclear power plants, and gives an overview of their structure and the basic tasks they perform. Operational documentation on the extinguishing of fires and the elimination of the consequences of accidents is examined, as are the principles governing co-operation between plant operating personnel and other services drawn on for such work (dosimetric, health, etc.). The problems of training firemen to combat fires under conditions specific to nuclear power plants are reviewed, as are those relating to the organization and carrying out of joint fire fighting training work with plant service personnel, and to the psychological aspects of firemen's training. The paper discusses the most characteristic types of fire, where they occur and how they develop, together with fire fighting conditions under high levels of radiation. In the light of the experience gained while extinguishing the fire and eliminating the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, a description is given of the special technical equipment and resources used for the personal monitoring of firemen and for their protection against the effects of radioactive substances. The fire extinguishing techniques and methods used at the Chernobyl plant are described, as well as the measures which have been implemented in fire service as a result of the experience accumulated during this accident. (author). 5 figs, 1 tab

  16. Experience and lessons learned from emergency disposal of Fukushima nuclear power station accident%日本福岛核电站核事故应急处置的经验和教训

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐卸古; 甄蓓; 杨晓明; 陈肖华

    2012-01-01

    After Fukushima nuclear accident , we visited the related medical aid agencies for nuclear accidents and con -ducted investigations in disaster-affected areas in Japan. This article summarizes the problems with emergency disposal of Fukushima nuclear accident while disclosing problems that should be solved during the emergency force construction for nu -clear accidents.%日本福岛核事故后,应日本同行的邀请,我们访问了日本核医学应急的相关单位,并到相关地区进行了考察.本文探讨了日本福岛核事故应急处置过程中存在的问题,提出了我国核应急力量建设过程中应注意的问题及相关对策.

  17. Acidentes e violências: caracterização dos atendimentos no pronto-socorro de um hospital universitário Accidents and violence: characteristics of the medical cares in the emergency room's university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luís Guedes dos Santos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo, de caráter exploratório-descritivo, tem como objetivo caracterizar os atendimentos por acidentes e violências realizados no pronto-socorro de um hospital universitário localizado no interior do Rio Grande do Sul (RS. Os dados foram obtidos a partir dos registros de um sistema de vigilância, denominado "Observatório de Acidentes e Violência", existente nos serviços de urgência e emergência no RS, que atuam como sentinela desses agravos. Os resultados mostraram que os adultos jovens, com baixo nível de instrução e não-trabalhadores são as principais vítimas de acidentes e violências. Quanto ao tipo de ocorrência, destacaram-se os acidentes de trânsito e acidentes domésticos, gerando como agravos mais constantes ferimentos na cabeça e fraturas de fêmur. Com relação ao sexo, embora para alguns tipos de acidentes e violências a predominância tenha variado entre eles, o conjunto dos dados mostrou maior vulnerabilidade masculina, em especial nos casos de violência interpessoal. Nesse sentido, as consequências dos acidentes e violências para o sistema de saúde e para a sociedade apontam a necessidade de aprimoramento dos sistemas de informações de morbimortalidade por causas externas, visando subsidiar políticas públicas de prevenção e melhoria no atendimento às vítimas.This article, of an exploratory-descriptive character, aims to characterize the medical care provided in cases of accidents and violence in the emergency room of a university hospital, located in the interior of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS. The data were obtained from the registers of a monitoring system called "Observatório de Acidentes e Violência" (Observatory of Accidents and Violence, which exists in the urgency and emergency services in RS and acts as a sentry of these injuries. The results showed that young adults who are non-workers and have low schooling are the main victims of accidents and violence. The most frequent

  18. Social Networking and eDating: Charting the Boundaries of an Emerging Self-Service Arena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romm, Celia T.; Oliver, Dave

    This chapter focuses on social networking and eDating as emerging areas of self-service. Following an overview of the theoretical aspects of self-service, two models or typologies for categorizing business models in the two areas are presented, namely, one typology for social networking services and another for eDating services. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the psychological, social, legal, and other implications from the models, as well as suggestions for future research that emanate from the issues presented in the chapter.

  19. Evaluating the Linkage Between Emergency Medical Services and the Provision of Scarce Resources Through Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Klafehn, Keith A.; Owens, Deborah L.; Felter, Robert A.; Vonneman, Nancy; McKinnon, Carla J.

    1989-01-01

    A simulation model of the flow of patients in the emergency room of a pediatric hospital was used to investigate the linkage between the emergency medical services provided and the efficient mix of scarce resources. Specific attention was given to the results of the patient flows as they were affected by whether there was one or two triage nurses, the nurse complement for non-urgent patients, and the number of orthopedic groups available for diagnosis and prescription.

  20. [The emergence of China's Railway Health Services and its motivation in the late Qing Dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huaping

    2014-03-01

    In the late Qing Dynasty, the railway authority of China commenced establishing their self-run medical institutions, setting up the hygienic standards of railway system, and opening a new prospects of railway health services and epidemic prevention, reflecting the emergence of China's Railway Health Services. The motivations of all these approaches were related to three factors, that is,"the eastward dissemination of western medicine","the medical requirement of railway employees", and"the emergent situation of railway health and epidemic prevention".

  1. [The emergence of China's Railway Health Services and its motivation in the late Qing Dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huaping

    2014-03-01

    In the late Qing Dynasty, the railway authority of China commenced establishing their self-run medical institutions, setting up the hygienic standards of railway system, and opening a new prospects of railway health services and epidemic prevention, reflecting the emergence of China's Railway Health Services. The motivations of all these approaches were related to three factors, that is,"the eastward dissemination of western medicine","the medical requirement of railway employees", and"the emergent situation of railway health and epidemic prevention". PMID:24989806

  2. Emergency preparation and maneuver of HFETR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the emergency document formation, emergency organization establishment, emergency facilities preparation and emergency accident maneuver onsite of High Flux Engineering Test Reactor (HFETR). The result of emergency preparations and maneuver is summarized. (authors)

  3. The system of emergency cards for primary actions in accident at radioactive material transport in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananiev, V.V. [Div. of the Decommission of Nuclear and Radiation-Hazardous Object of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ermakov, S.V.; Ershov, V.N.; Stovbur, V.I. [FGUP ' ' Emergency Response Centre of Minatom of Russia' ' , St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shvedov, M.O. [Div. of Nuclear and Radiation Safety of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In the paper are reviewed the current and new designed system of the emergency cards for consignments of radioactive materials in Russian Federation, within the framework of a uniform state system of warning and liquidation of consequences of extraordinary situations and functional subsystem of warning and liquidation of accident situations of Federal Agency for Atomic Energy.

  4. Chernobylsk accident (Causes and Consequences)- Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The causes and consequences of the nuclear accident at Chernobylsk-4 reactor are shortly described. The informations were provided by Russian during the specialist meeting, carried out at seat of IAEA. The Russian nuclear panorama; the site, nuclear power plant characteristics and sequence of events; the immediate measurements after accident; monitoring/radioactive releases; environmental contamination and ecological consequences; measurements of emergency; recommendations to increase the nuclear safety; and recommendations of work groups, are presented. (M.C.K.)

  5. Implementation Research in Mental Health Services: an Emerging Science with Conceptual, Methodological, and Training challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Proctor, Enola K; LANDSVERK, JOHN; Aarons, Gregory; Chambers, David; Glisson, Charles; Mittman, Brian

    2008-01-01

    One of the most critical issues in mental health services research is the gap between what is known about effective treatment and what is provided to consumers in routine care. Concerted efforts are required to advance implementation science and produce skilled implementation researchers. This paper seeks to advance implementation science in mental health services by over viewing the emergence of implementation as an issue for research, by addressing key issues of language and conceptualizati...

  6. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China

    OpenAIRE

    Weili Duan; Bin He

    2015-01-01

    In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS) was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the ...

  7. Frequent users of emergency services: associated factors and reasons for seeking care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Marques Acosta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to identify the profile of frequent users of emergency services, to verify the associated factors and to analyze the reasons for the frequent use of the services. METHOD: An explanatory sequential type mixed method was adopted. Quantitative data were collected from the electronic medical records, with a sample of 385 users attended four or more times in an emergency service, during the year 2011. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 18 users, intentionally selected from the results of the quantitative stage. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and qualitative data using thematic analysis. RESULTS: It was found that 42.9% were elderly, 84.9% had chronic diseases, 63.5% were classified as urgent, 42.1% stayed for more than 24 hours in the service and 46.5% were discharged. Scheduled follow-up appointment, risk classification, length of stay and outcome were factors associated with frequent use. The reasons for seeking the services were mainly related to the exacerbation of chronic diseases, to easier access and concentration of technology, to the bond, and to the scheduled appointments. CONCLUSIONS: The results contribute to comprehending the repeated use of emergency services and provide additional data to plan alternatives to reduce frequent use.

  8. Radiological accidents, scenarios, planning and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological accidents, scenarios and the importance of a good planning to prevent and control these types of accidents are presented. The radiation can be only one of the risks in an accident, most of dominant radiological risks are not radiological (fire, toxic gases, etc.). The common causes of radiological accidents, potential risks such as external irradiation, internal contamination and the environment pollution are highlighted. In addition, why accidents happen and how they evolve is explained. It describes some incidents with the radiation occurred in Costa Rica from 1993 to 2007. The coordination of emergency management in Costa Rica in relation to a radiological accident, and some mechanisms of action that have practiced in other places are focuses. Among the final considerations are the need to finalize the national plan for radiological emergencies as a tool of empowerment for the teams of emergency care and the availability of information. Likewise the processes of communication, coordination and cooperation to avoid chaos, confusion and crisis are also highlighted

  9. Development of emergency plans for accidents at civil nuclear sites in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is about the management of the off-site consequences of an accident at a UK civil nuclear installation. It describes the measures that would be taken to protect the public in the vicinity of an installation after an emergency had been declared; and it sets out the respective responsibilities of the operator and the various authorities who would be involved in the emergency. (author)

  10. A time and motion study of patients presenting at the accident and emergency department at Mater Dei Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellul Robert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To carry out a time and motion study of patients presenting at the Emergency Department (ED by measuring waiting times at the ED dept throughout the day. The objectives were: • to determine whether waiting times are prolonged, and • if prolonged, at which station(s bottlenecks occur most often in terms of duration and frequency. Results will be compared to the United Kingdom guidelines of stay at the emergency department. Methods A group of 11 medical students monitored all patients who attended ED between 0600 hours on the 25th August and 0600 hours on the 1st September 2008. For each 24 hour period, students were assigned to the triage room and the 3 priority areas where they monitored all patient-related activity, movement and waiting times so that length of stay (LOS could be recorded. The key data recorded included patient characteristics, waiting times at various ED process stages, tests performed, specialist consultations and follow up until admitted, discharged, or referred to another hospital area. Average waiting times were calculated for each priority area. Bottle-necks and major limiting factors were identified. Results were compared against the United Kingdom benchmarks - i.e. 1 hour until first assessment, and 4 hours before admitting/discharge. Results 1779 patients presented to the ED in the week monitored. As expected, patients in the lesser priority areas (i.e. 2 & 3 waited longer before being assessed by staff. Patients requiring laboratory and imaging investigations had a prolonged length of stay, which varied depending on specific tests ordered. Specialty consultation was associated with longer waiting times. A major bottleneck identified was waiting times for inpatient admission. Conclusions In conclusion, it was found that 30.3% of priority 1 patients, 86.3% of priority 2 patients and 76.8% of priority 3 patients waited more than 1 hour for first assessment. We conclude by proposing several changes

  11. Development of severe accident management advisory and training simulator (SAMAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most operator support systems including the training simulator have been developed to assist the operator and they cover from normal operation to emergency operation. For the severe accident, the overall architecture for severe accident management is being developed in some developed countries according to the development of severe accident management guidelines which are the skeleton of severe accident management architecture. In Korea, the severe accident management guideline for KSNP was recently developed and it is expected to be a central axis of logical flow for severe accident management. There are a lot of uncertainties in the severe accident phenomena and scenarios and one of the major issues for developing a operator support system for a severe accident is the reduction of these uncertainties. In this paper, the severe accident management advisory system with training simulator, SAMAT, is developed as all available information for a severe accident are re-organized and provided to the management staff in order to reduce the uncertainties. The developed system includes the graphical display for plant and equipment status, the previous research results by knowledge-base technique, and the expected plant behavior using the severe accident training simulator. The plant model used in this paper is oriented to severe accident phenomena and thus can simulate the plant behavior for a severe accident. Therefore, the developed system may make a central role of the information source for decision-making for a severe accident management, and will be used as the training simulator for severe accident management

  12. Post-war Kosovo: Part 3. Development and rehabilitation of emergency services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, J; Eliades, M J; Benishi, D; Koci, B; Gettle, D; VanRooyen, M J

    2001-01-01

    The recent crisis in Kosovo led to nearly complete destruction of a healthcare system serving the needs of approximately 2 million people. Even prior to the crisis, the pre-existing healthcare system had inadequate provisions for the delivery of Emergency Medical Services. More than 440 diverse governmental and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) arrived to assist (and often compete) in the rehabilitation of Kosovo's healthcare needs. Each brought with them individual biases and strategies for how this rehabilitation should occur, and each faced numerous unforeseen barriers to the implementation of its programs. The authors used a four-step, multi-modal, needs assessment to gather information on the needs and potential barriers to the implementation of a program to rehabilitate emergency services as discussed in Part II. This paper chronicles the phases of the Emergency Medicine program development and the process of responding to barriers and changing needs. The program's successes and failures are noted, and the actual barriers encountered are reviewed. Overall, the needs assessment tool employed in this program was useful in the implementation of a program to restore and rehabilitate Emergency Services in Kosovo. The authors recommend the use of combined quantitative and qualitative methods for developing priorities for interventions in post-conflict settings following complex emergencies. PMID:12090210

  13. Development, testing and implementation of an emergency services methodology in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasoph, H; Ashdown, C

    1995-01-01

    Alberta was the first province in Canada to mandate reporting of hospital-based emergency services. This reporting is based on a workload measurement system that groups emergency visits into five discreet workload levels/classes driven by ICD-9-CM diagnoses. Other related workload measurement variables are incorporated, including admissions, transfers, maintenance monitoring, nursing and non-nursing patient support activities, trips, staff replacement, and personal fatigue and delay. The methodology used to design the reporting system has been subjected to extensive testing, auditing and refinement. The results of one year of province-wide data collection yielded approximately 1.5 million emergency visits. These data reveal consistent patterns/trends of workload that vary by hospital size and type. Although this information can assist in utilization management efforts to predict and compare workload and staffing levels, the impetus for establishing this system derived from its potential for funding hospital-based emergency services. This would be the first time that such services would be funded on a systemic, system-wide basis whereby hospitals would be reimbursed in relation to workload. This proposed funding system would distribute available funding in a consistent, fair and equitable manner across all hospitals providing a similar set of services, thus achieving one of the key goals of the Alberta Acute Care Funding Plan. Ultimately, this proposed funding methodology would be integrated into a broader Ambulatory Care Funding system currently being developed in Alberta.

  14. Dementia and Traffic Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jindong Ding; Siersma, Volkert; Nielsen, Connie Thurøe;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic......-related accidents for people aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of dementia in Denmark. METHODS: We will conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study consisting of Danish people aged 65 or older living in Denmark as of January 1, 2008. The cohort is followed for 7 years (2008-2014). Individual's personal...... data are available in Danish registers and can be linked using a unique personal identification number. A person is identified with dementia if the person meets at least one of the following criteria: (1) a diagnosis of the disease in the Danish National Patient Register or in the Danish Psychiatric...

  15. Service-Learning and Emergent Communities of Practice: A Teacher Education Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschak, Jennifer Cutsforth; Letwinsky, Karim Medico

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the unexpected emergence of a community of practice in a middle level mathematics and science methods course. The authors describe how preservice teacher participation in a collaborative, project-based service-learning experience resulted in the formation of a community of practice characterized by teamwork, meaningful…

  16. Accidents and human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the TMI accident occurred it was 4 a.m., an hour when the error potential of the operators would have been very high. The frequency of car and train accidents in Japan is also highest between 4 a.m. and 6 a.m. The error potential may be classified into five phases corresponding to the electroencephalogramic pattern (EEG). At phase 0, when the delta wave appears, a person is unconscious and in deep sleep; at phase I, when the theta wave appears, he is very tired, sleepy and subnormal; at phase II, when the alpha wave appears, he is normal, relaxed and passive; at phase III, when the beta wave appears, he is normal, clear-minded and active; at phase IV, when the strong beta or epileptic wave appears, he is hypernormal, excited and incapable of normal judgement. Should an accident occur at phase II, the brain condition may jump to phase IV. At this phase the error or accident potential is maximum. The response of the human brain to different types of noises and signals may vary somewhat for different individuals and for different groups of people. Therefore, the possibility that such differences in brain functions may influence the mental structure would be worthy of consideration in human factors and in the design of man-machine systems. Human reliability and performance would be affected by many factors: medical, physiological and psychological, etc. The uncertainty involved in human factors may not necessarily be probabilistic, but fuzzy. Therefore, it would be important to develop a theory by which both non-probabilistic uncertainties, or fuzziness, of human factors and the probabilistic properties of machines can be treated consistently. From the mathematical point of view, probabilistic measure is considered a special case of fuzzy measure. Therefore, fuzzy set theory seems to be an effective tool for analysing man-machine systems. To minimize human error and the possibility of accidents, new safety systems should not only back up man and make up for his

  17. Compassion Fatigue among Healthcare, Emergency and Community Service Workers: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Cocker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Compassion fatigue (CF is stress resulting from exposure to a traumatized individual. CF has been described as the convergence of secondary traumatic stress (STS and cumulative burnout (BO, a state of physical and mental exhaustion caused by a depleted ability to cope with one’s everyday environment. Professionals regularly exposed to the traumatic experiences of the people they service, such as healthcare, emergency and community service workers, are particularly susceptible to developing CF. This can impact standards of patient care, relationships with colleagues, or lead to more serious mental health conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, anxiety or depression. A systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce CF in healthcare, emergency and community service workers was conducted. Thirteen relevant studies were identified, the majority of which were conducted on nurses (n = 10. Three included studies focused on community service workers (social workers, disability sector workers, while no studies targeting emergency service workers were identified. Seven studies reported a significant difference post-intervention in BO (n = 4 or STS (n = 3. This review revealed that evidence of the effectiveness of CF interventions in at-risk health and social care professions is relatively recent. Therefore, we recommend more research to determine how best to protect vulnerable workers at work to prevent not only CF, but also the health and economic consequences related to the ensuing, and more disabling, physical and mental health outcomes.

  18. Compassion Fatigue among Healthcare, Emergency and Community Service Workers: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocker, Fiona; Joss, Nerida

    2016-01-01

    Compassion fatigue (CF) is stress resulting from exposure to a traumatized individual. CF has been described as the convergence of secondary traumatic stress (STS) and cumulative burnout (BO), a state of physical and mental exhaustion caused by a depleted ability to cope with one's everyday environment. Professionals regularly exposed to the traumatic experiences of the people they service, such as healthcare, emergency and community service workers, are particularly susceptible to developing CF. This can impact standards of patient care, relationships with colleagues, or lead to more serious mental health conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety or depression. A systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce CF in healthcare, emergency and community service workers was conducted. Thirteen relevant studies were identified, the majority of which were conducted on nurses (n = 10). Three included studies focused on community service workers (social workers, disability sector workers), while no studies targeting emergency service workers were identified. Seven studies reported a significant difference post-intervention in BO (n = 4) or STS (n = 3). This review revealed that evidence of the effectiveness of CF interventions in at-risk health and social care professions is relatively recent. Therefore, we recommend more research to determine how best to protect vulnerable workers at work to prevent not only CF, but also the health and economic consequences related to the ensuing, and more disabling, physical and mental health outcomes. PMID:27338436

  19. Compassion Fatigue among Healthcare, Emergency and Community Service Workers: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocker, Fiona; Joss, Nerida

    2016-01-01

    Compassion fatigue (CF) is stress resulting from exposure to a traumatized individual. CF has been described as the convergence of secondary traumatic stress (STS) and cumulative burnout (BO), a state of physical and mental exhaustion caused by a depleted ability to cope with one’s everyday environment. Professionals regularly exposed to the traumatic experiences of the people they service, such as healthcare, emergency and community service workers, are particularly susceptible to developing CF. This can impact standards of patient care, relationships with colleagues, or lead to more serious mental health conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety or depression. A systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce CF in healthcare, emergency and community service workers was conducted. Thirteen relevant studies were identified, the majority of which were conducted on nurses (n = 10). Three included studies focused on community service workers (social workers, disability sector workers), while no studies targeting emergency service workers were identified. Seven studies reported a significant difference post-intervention in BO (n = 4) or STS (n = 3). This review revealed that evidence of the effectiveness of CF interventions in at-risk health and social care professions is relatively recent. Therefore, we recommend more research to determine how best to protect vulnerable workers at work to prevent not only CF, but also the health and economic consequences related to the ensuing, and more disabling, physical and mental health outcomes. PMID:27338436

  20. Characterization of motorcycle accident victims attended by the mobile emergency service (SAMU-192, Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil = Caracterização das vítimas de acidentes de motocicleta atendidas pelo serviço de atendimento móvel de urgência (SAMU-192, Recife, Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Gomes Medeiros Fernandes da Costa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study described the epidemiological characteristics of victims of accidents involving motorcycles, attended by the Mobile Emergency Service (SAMU-192 in the city of Recife (PE in 2006. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study that analyzed a sample of 703 cases. The results showed that 81.8% were male, aged 20 to 29 years. It was noted that 406 of them were wearing a helmet at the time of the accident. The accidents occurred most frequently on Sundays (19.3% between 18:00 and 24:00 hours (0.28%. The extremities were the most affected body segment, with 341 occurrences. Regarding the severity of injuries, it was found that 37.6% were superficial or mild (scrapes, cuts and bruises. These results demonstrate the need for educational campaigns to encourage the use of personal protective equipment among motorcyclists. The best way to reduce the risks and damages from motorcycle accidents is through primary prevention. For this, are needed integrated intersectoral actions aimed at reducing the incidence and severity of injuries.Descrevem-se as características epidemiológicas das vítimas de acidentes envolvendo motocicletas atendidas pelo Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência (SAMU-192, da cidade do Recife (PE, no ano de 2006. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo de corte transversal, no qual foi analisada uma amostra de 703 atendimentos. Os resultados mostraram que 81,8% eram do sexo masculino, na faixa etária entre 20 e 29 anos. Observou-se que 406 motociclistas utilizavam o capacete no momento do acidente. Os acidentes ocorreram com maior frequência no domingo (19,3%, no horário compreendido entre as 18h e 24h (0,28%. As extremidades foram o segmento do corpo mais atingidos com 341 ocorrências. Quanto à gravidade das lesões, verificou-se que 37,6% eram superficiais ou de baixa gravidade (escoriações, cortes e contusões. Esses resultados são importantes para demonstrar a necessidade de campanhas educativas incentivando o uso

  1. Frequent visitors to psychiatric emergency services: staff attitudes and temporal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia; Zeman, Lori Lackman; Yeager, Lindsay; Mischel, Edward; Amirsadri, Alireza

    2002-11-01

    Providing quality psychiatric emergency services is becoming more difficult as utilization rates soar, especially by individuals who are frequent visitors. To address this issue, a staff survey and analysis of admission patterns were conducted. Staff were more likely to believe that frequent visitors sought care because they had difficulty accessing alternative services, had basic needs unmet, were substance abusers, wanted inpatient admission, and were noncompliant with treatment plans. The 1999 temporal admission pattern documented that frequent visitors' admissions were higher during the first week of the month and inclement weather. Surprisingly, the infrequent visitors' admissions also were higher during the first week of the month. Together, these findings suggest that, in this urban location, frequent visitors are disadvantaged individuals lacking support and alternative treatment settings who use psychiatric emergency services to meet basic needs. PMID:12404943

  2. Frequent visitors to psychiatric emergency services: staff attitudes and temporal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia; Zeman, Lori Lackman; Yeager, Lindsay; Mischel, Edward; Amirsadri, Alireza

    2002-11-01

    Providing quality psychiatric emergency services is becoming more difficult as utilization rates soar, especially by individuals who are frequent visitors. To address this issue, a staff survey and analysis of admission patterns were conducted. Staff were more likely to believe that frequent visitors sought care because they had difficulty accessing alternative services, had basic needs unmet, were substance abusers, wanted inpatient admission, and were noncompliant with treatment plans. The 1999 temporal admission pattern documented that frequent visitors' admissions were higher during the first week of the month and inclement weather. Surprisingly, the infrequent visitors' admissions also were higher during the first week of the month. Together, these findings suggest that, in this urban location, frequent visitors are disadvantaged individuals lacking support and alternative treatment settings who use psychiatric emergency services to meet basic needs.

  3. European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management - Status and project highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Guerr, Torsten; Adrian, Jäggi; Meyer, Ulrich; Jean, Yoomin; Susnik, Andreja; Weigelt, Matthias; van Dam, Tonie; Flechtner, Frank; Gruber, Christian; Güntner, Andreas; Gouweleeuw, Ben; Kvas, Andreas; Klinger, Beate; Flury, Jakob; Bruinsma, Sean; Lemoine, Jean-Michel; Zwenzner, Hendrik; Bourgogne, Stephane; Bandikova, Tamara

    2016-04-01

    The European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM) is a project of the Horizon 2020 Framework Programme for Research and Innovation of the European Commission. EGSIEM shall demonstrate that observations of the redistribution of water and ice mass derived from the current GRACE mission, the future GRACE-FO mission, and additional data provide critical and complementary information to more traditional Earth Observation products and open the door for innovative approaches to flood and drought monitoring and forecasting. In the frame of EGSIEM three key services should established: 1) a scientific combination service to deliver the best gravity products for applications in Earth and environmental science research based on the unified knowledge of the European GRACE community, 2) a near real-time and regional service to reduce the latency and increase the temporal resolution of the mass redistribution products, and 3) a hydrological and early warning service to develop gravity-based indicators for extreme hydrological events and to demonstrate their value for flood and drought forecasting and monitoring services. All of these services shall be tailored to the various needs of the respective communities. Significant efforts shall also be devoted to transform the service products into user-friendly and easy-to-interpret data sets and the development of visualization tools. In this talk the status of the ongoing project is presented and selected results are discussed.

  4. Mutual emergency assistance in the event of accident during transport of radioactive materials within the member states of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study consist of a compilation of information on the relevant emergency response plans that are at present in existence in the ten countries of the European Community. Consideration is given to the development of proposals for facilitating co-operation between the emergency services in different countries, particularly with regard to accidents that might occur near national boundaries or in countries in which all the necessary resources might not be available. The particular items of interest covered in this study are: compilation of information on existing organizational emergency response arrangements within each Member State relating to accidents in the transport of radioactive materials by all modes, including road, rail, inland waterways, air and compilation of information on existing arrangements for receiving or providing assistance from or to other Member States. Identification of any avoidable incompatibilities on an international scale. Recommendations for improving the existing arrangements and for encouraging the development of adequate systems of mutual emergency notification, liaison and assistance as required by the circumstances, recommendations should be compatible with the broader framework of emergency response for all types of accidents developed within Member States and envisaged in the IAEA system for mutual emergency assistance

  5. Road traffic accident: An emerging public health problem in Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranab Jyoti Bhuyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the northern states, there is hardly any scientific study except road traffic accidents (RTAs statistics obtained by the Ministry of Home whereas the main way of transportation is by road. There is the increasing load of motor vehicles on the already dilapidated roadways which has resulted in the increasing trend of RTAs in Assam. Objectives: To find out the prevalence, probable epidemiological factors and morbidity and mortality pattern due to RTAs in Dibrugarh district. Materials and Methods: Descriptive study was carried out in Dibrugarh district from September 1998 to August 1999 under the department of Community Medicine. The information was collected from Assam Medical College and Hospital and cross checked with the police report. A medical investigation including interview, clinical and radiological investigation was carried out; in case of fatality, post-mortem examination was examined in details. An on the spot investigation was carried out in accessible RTAs to collect the probable epidemiological factors. Results: RTAs affected mainly the people of productive age group which were predominantly male. Majority of the RTAs were single vehicle accidents and half of the victims were passengers. Accident rate was maximum in twilight and winter season demanding high morbidity and mortality. Head and neck, U.limb and L.limb were commonly involved. Conclusion: RTAs is a major public health problem in Assam which needs more scientific study.

  6. Nurses' attitudes towards suicidal behaviour--a comparative study of community mental health nurses and nurses working in an accidents and emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and compare the attitudes towards suicidal behaviour of community mental health nurses (CMHNs) and registered nurses working in an accidents and emergency (A&E) department. The sample consisted of 80 nurses working in the same locality. An instrument was designed using statements from Domino's 'Suicide Opinion Questionnaire' (SOQ) and new statements based on a comprehensive survey of research in this area. The instrument contained four attitudinal categories consisting of; acceptability; morality and mental illness; professional role, work and care; and communication and attention. Results reveal that both groups of nurses held generally positive attitudes towards suicidal behaviour, contrasting with previous studies where more negative attitudes amongst nurses were found. A t-test showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups of nurses in any of the four attitudinal categories. Attitudes were significantly different in accordance with nurses' length of experience and age within both groups. Further research is needed in this area if nurses are to develop their role alongside other professionals working towards the objectives of suicide prevention policies.

  7. European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management - Project Overview and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeggi, A.; Jean, Y.; Weigelt, M. L. B.; Flechtner, F.; Gruber, C.; Guntner, A.; Gouweleeuw, B.; Mayer-Gürr, T.; Kvas, A.; Martinis, S.; Zwenzer, H.; Bruinsma, S.; Lemoine, J. M.; Flury, J.; Bourgogne, S.

    2015-12-01

    The project European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM) of the Horizon 2020 Framework Programme for Research and Innovation of the European Commission has started in January 2015. EGSIEM shall demonstrate that observations of the redistribution of water and ice mass derived from the current GRACE mission, the future GRACE-FO mission, and additional data provide critical and complementary information to more traditional Earth Observation products and open the door for innovative approaches to flood and drought monitoring and forecasting. We give an overview of the project and present first results from the three key objectives that EGSIEM shall address: 1) to establish a scientific combination service to deliver the best gravity products for applications in Earth and environmental science research based on the unified knowledge of the European GRACE community, 2) to establish a near real-time and regional service to reduce the latency and increase the temporal resolution of the mass redistribution products, and 3) to establish a hydrological and early warning service to develop gravity-based indicators for extreme hydrological events and to demonstrate their value for flood and drought forecasting and monitoring services. All of these services shall be tailored to the various needs of the respective communities. Significant efforts shall also be devoted to transform the service products into user-friendly and easy-to-interpret data sets and the development of visualization tools.

  8. Challenges to the provision of emergency services and critical care in resource-constrained settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Renae E; Morrison, Catherine A; Godfrey, Godwin; Mahalu, William

    2014-09-01

    The practice of intensive care unit (ICU) care in Sub-Saharan Africa is challenging and can have a significant impact on the lives of people in the region. Sub-Saharan Africa bears a disproportionate global burden of disease compared with the rest of the world. Inadequate emergency care services and transportation infrastructure; long lead times to hospital admission, evaluation, treatment and transfer to ICU; inadequate ICU and hospital infrastructure and, unreliable consumable and medical equipment supply chains all present significant challenges to the provision of ICU care in Sub-Saharan Africa. These challenges, coupled with an inadequate supply of trained healthcare workers and biomedical technicians and a lack of formal ICU-related research in Sub-Saharan Africa, would seem to be insurmountable. However, ICU care is being provided in district and regional hospitals throughout the region. We describe some of the challenges to the provision of emergency services and critical care in Tanzania. PMID:25667183

  9. Nuclear accident and medical staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described is the commentary concerning normative action of medical staff at radiation emergency and actual actions taken/to be taken for the Nuclear Power Plant Accident (NPPA) in Fukushima. The normative medical staff's action at radiation emergency is essentially based on rules defined by such international authorities as United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Basic Safety Standard (BSS) and by network in IAEA, World Health Organization (WHO) and so on. The rules stand on past atomic events like those in Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Three Mile Isl., Chernobyl, and in Japanese Tokai JCO accident. The action above is required as a medical teamwork over specialized doctors. At Fukushima NPPA, medicare flowed from the on-site first-aid station (doctors for industry and labors), then the base for patient transfer (doctors of Japanese Association of Acute Medicine and Tokyo Electric Power Comp.), to the primary hospital for acute exposure (Iwaki Kyoritsu Hos.), from which patients were further transported to the secondary (contamination detected or severe trauma, Fukushima Medical Univ.) and/or tertiary facilities (serious contamination or acute radiation injury, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) and Hiroshima Univ.). The flow was built up by the previous lead of national official guidance and by urgent spontaneous network among medical facilities; exempli gratia (e.g.), Fukushima Medical Univ. rapidly specialized in coping with the radiation medicare by partial discontinuance of daily clinical practice. Specialists of acute radiation medicare are generally rare, for which measures for it are more desirable along with health risk communication in facilities concerned. The professional function and endowment required for medical staff at emergency are concluded to be their guts and devotion as well as medical

  10. Internet protocol-based emergency services

    CERN Document Server

    Schulzrinne, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Written by international experts in the field, this book covers the standards, architecture and deployment issues related to IP-based emergency services This book brings together contributions from experts on technical and operational aspects within the international standardisation and regulatory processes relating to routing and handling of IP-based emergency calls.  Readers will learn how these standards work, how various standardization organizations contributed to them and about pilot projects, early deployment and current regulatory situation. Key Featur

  11. Road Accident Prevention with Instant Emergency Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokulakrishnan, P; Ganeshkumar, P

    2015-01-01

    A Road Accident Prevention (RAP) scheme based on Vehicular Backbone Network (VBN) structure is proposed in this paper for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET). The RAP scheme attempts to prevent vehicles from highway road traffic accidents and thereby reduces death and injury rates. Once the possibility of an emergency situation (i.e. an accident) is predicted in advance, instantly RAP initiates a highway road traffic accident prevention scheme. The RAP scheme constitutes the following activities: (i) the Road Side Unit (RSU) constructs a Prediction Report (PR) based on the status of the vehicles and traffic in the highway roads, (ii) the RSU generates an Emergency Warning Message (EWM) based on an abnormal PR, (iii) the RSU forms a VBN structure and (iv) the RSU disseminates the EWM to the vehicles that holds the high Risk Factor (RF) and travels in High Risk Zone (HRZ). These vehicles might reside either within the RSU's coverage area or outside RSU's coverage area (reached using VBN structure). The RAP scheme improves the performance of EWM dissemination in terms of increase in notification and decrease in end-to-end delay. The RAP scheme also reduces infrastructure cost (number of RSUs) by formulating and deploying the VBN structure. The RAP scheme with VBN structure improves notification by 19 percent and end-to-end delay by 14.38 percent for a vehicle density of 160 vehicles. It is also proved from the simulation experiment that the performance of RAP scheme is promising in 4-lane highway roads.

  12. Authority structure and industrial accidents

    OpenAIRE

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational characteristics on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. The general hypothesis is that the authority structure is a main cause of accident-proneness within organizations. On one side, the most obvious model for a safe organization would be the ideal-typical bureaucracy. On the other side, potential problems are little flexibility and control is ba...

  13. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....

  14. 76 FR 63353 - Proposed Information Collection (Payment and Reimbursement for Emergency Services for Non Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ....harvey- pryor@va.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0620'' in any correspondence. During the...-Connected Conditions in Non-VA Facilities); Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration... reimbursement or payment for emergency medical treatment at a non-VA facility. DATES: Written comments...

  15. Barriers to Accessing Emergency Medical Services in Accra, Ghana: Development of a Survey Instrument and Initial Application in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Mould-Millman, Nee-Kofi; Rominski, Sarah D; Bogus, Joshua; Ginde, Adit A; Ahmed N. Zakariah; Boatemaah, Christiana A; Yancey, Arthur H; Akoriyea, Samuel Kaba; Thomas B. Campbell

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emergency medical services (EMS) systems provide professional prehospital emergency medical care and transportation to help improve outcomes from emergency conditions. Ghana’s national ambulance service has relatively low public utilization in comparison with the large burden of acute disease. Methods: A survey instrument was developed using Pechansky and Thomas’s model of access covering 5 dimensions of availability, accessibility, accommodation, affordability, and acceptability....

  16. Predictors of unintentional childhood injuries seen at the Accident and Emergency Units of three tertiary health care centres in Jos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulus J

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unintentional childhood injuries pose a major health challenge especially in developing countries. Aim: This study sought to determine the predictors of unintentional childhood injuries in the three tertiary health centres studied. Methods: The study was a cross- sectional study. Sociodemographic data, history and physical examination, type of injury and the outcomes were obtained using structured questionnaire. Results: A total of 174 children were enrolled, 108 (62.1% were males and 66 (37.9% were females; 63 (36.2% were 10 years. Of the injuries observed; 99 (56.9% were by vehicular objects, 15 (8.6% were burns, 41 (23.6% were from falls and 19 (10.9% poisoning. Those who were treated as outpatients were 141 (81.0% and 25 (14.4% were admitted for inpatient care. About ninety four percent (94.3% of the children had no significant effect or disability, 3.4% had short-term disability while 2.3% had long term disabilities or died post-injury. There was no statistically significant relationship between the age of the subjects, gender, duration of the injury prior to presentation and the educational status of their care givers with the pattern of the injury. Conclusion: This study showed that 81% (141 of the children studied were treated as outpatients, 56.9% were by vehicular objects, 62.1% were in males and the pattern of injuries were not related to age, gender, educational status of care givers, place or time of injuries. There is need to incorporate these findings in the provision of preventive messages in school health services and in the interventions targeting the safety of children against injuries. Further studies to identify risk factors and plan necessary interventions will also be necessary.

  17. [Emergency medical services for the elderly: present fact and future challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruga, Yuichiro

    2013-06-01

    The Tokyo Fire Department (TFD) ambulance units are transporting more people than ever before with elderly patients on the increase. The TFD then set up the Emergency Telephone Consultation Center in 2007 to help citizens properly use EMS services, asking non-emergency cases to go to the hospital by themselves or sending the ambulance to serious cases. Transportation of all "home patients" (receiving medical services at home, not in the hospital) by fire department ambulances would leave really serious patients behind. Consequently, it is important to make the most of private sector ambulances and hospital ones. For community life safety, making the most of local resources, as well as the fire department-hospital cooperation, is much more needed now. PMID:23855196

  18. The Impacts of Payments for Watershed Services in Ecuador: Emerging lessons from Pimampiro and Cuenca

    OpenAIRE

    Echavarria, M.; Vogel, J.; Albán, M.; Meneses, F.

    2004-01-01

    Payments for environmental services (PES) is a topic of increasing interest in Ecuador, particularly as a way to leverage funding for environmental protection. Payments systems are emerging, but as Ecuador's experience of PES is only recent, the implications for national and local welfare are not yet clear. Thus, the objective of this study was to provide guidance in order to ensure that policies support payments systems that are beneficial to the poor, as well as to the environment. This rep...

  19. Composition of emergency medical services teams and the problem of specialisation of emergency medical services physicians in the opinions of occupationally active paramedics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Rębak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Emergency medicine includes prevention, prehospital care, specialised treatment, rehabilitation, and education. Aim of the research: The objective of the analysis was to determine the opinions of paramedics concerning the problem of the composition of emergency medical services (EMS teams and specialisation of EMS system physicians according to their education level and sense of coherence. Material and methods: The study was conducted among 336 occupationally active paramedics working in EMS teams delivering prehospital care in selected units in Poland. The study was conducted at Ambulance Stations and in Hospital Emergency Departments, which within their structure had an out-of-hospital EMS team. The study was conducted by the method of a diagnostic survey, and the research instrument was the Orientation to Life Questionnaire SOC-29 and a questionnaire designed by the author. Results: The respondents who had licentiate education relatively more frequently indicated paramedics with licentiate education level as persons most suitable to undertake medical actions (26.32% rather than physicians (21.05%. Paramedics with 2-year post-secondary school education relatively more often mentioned physicians (33.07% than those with licentiate education (17.32%. As many as 89.58% of the paramedics reported the need for a physician in the composition of the EMS team delivering prehospital care, while only 10.42% of them expressed an opinion that there should be teams composed of paramedics only. According to 30.65% of respondents, EMS team delivering prehospital care should include a physician with the specialty in emergency medicine, whereas 8.04% of respondents reported the need for a physician, irrespective of specialisation. However, 42.56% of the paramedics expressed an opinion that a physician is needed only in a specialist team with a specialisation in emergency medicine. The opinions of the paramedics concerning the need for a

  20. Using Participatory and Service Design to Identify Emerging Needs and Perceptions of Library Services among Science and Engineering Researchers Based at a Satellite Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew; Kuglitsch, Rebecca; Bresnahan, Megan

    2015-01-01

    This study used participatory and service design methods to identify emerging research needs and existing perceptions of library services among science and engineering faculty, post-graduate, and graduate student researchers based at a satellite campus at the University of Colorado Boulder. These methods, and the results of the study, allowed us…

  1. Emergency control system based on the analytical hierarchy process and coordinated development degree model for sudden water pollution accidents in the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yan; Xu, Guobin; Ma, Chao; Chen, Liang

    2016-06-01

    Water transfer projects are important for realizing reasonable allocation of water resources, but once a water pollution accident occurs during such a project, the water environment is exposed to enormous risks. Therefore, it is critical to determine an appropriate emergency control system (ECS) for sudden water pollution accidents that occur in water transfer projects. In this study, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) integrated with the coordinated development degree model (CDDM) was used to develop the ECS. This ECS was developed into two parts, including the emergency risk assessment and the emergency control. Feasible emergency control targets and control technology were also proposed for different sudden water pollution accidents. A demonstrative project was conducted in the Fangshui to Puyang channel, which is part of the Beijing-Shijiazhuang Emergency Water Supply Project (BSP) in the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (MR-SNWTP) in China. However, we could not use an actual toxic soluble pollutant to validate our ECS, so we performed the experiment with sucrose to test the ECS based on its concentration variation. The relative error of peak sucrose concentration was less than 20 %. PMID:26979314

  2. Emergency control system based on the analytical hierarchy process and coordinated development degree model for sudden water pollution accidents in the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yan; Xu, Guobin; Ma, Chao; Chen, Liang

    2016-06-01

    Water transfer projects are important for realizing reasonable allocation of water resources, but once a water pollution accident occurs during such a project, the water environment is exposed to enormous risks. Therefore, it is critical to determine an appropriate emergency control system (ECS) for sudden water pollution accidents that occur in water transfer projects. In this study, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) integrated with the coordinated development degree model (CDDM) was used to develop the ECS. This ECS was developed into two parts, including the emergency risk assessment and the emergency control. Feasible emergency control targets and control technology were also proposed for different sudden water pollution accidents. A demonstrative project was conducted in the Fangshui to Puyang channel, which is part of the Beijing-Shijiazhuang Emergency Water Supply Project (BSP) in the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (MR-SNWTP) in China. However, we could not use an actual toxic soluble pollutant to validate our ECS, so we performed the experiment with sucrose to test the ECS based on its concentration variation. The relative error of peak sucrose concentration was less than 20 %.

  3. The Nuclear Emergency Assistance Team, a mobile intervention facility for nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear emergency assistance team consisting of a vehicle pool and a stock of technical equipment was set up for operation in case of major reactor accidents. The equipment is kept in 6 containers which can be shipped on trucks, by rail or by helicopter or plane. Technical equipment and tasks of each container are briefly explained. Special transport vehicles for remote handling of contaminated material are described. (ORU)

  4. Emergency Treatment and Prevention Measures of Chlorine Gas Accidents%氯气事故的处置措施与预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱亚菲

    2012-01-01

    主要介绍氯气的制备发展史,及其物理、化学性质。通过实例说明氯气泄漏事故给人民的生命、财产造成极大的损失和对环境造成的严重污染和破坏。对氯气泄漏后的应急处置方法和泄漏预防措施进行简要概述。%Introduced the history of the development of the preparation of chlorine, the physical and chemical property of chlorine. Through several examples that the leakage accidents of chlorine gas threat people's life , brought a great loss of property and cause serious pollution and destruction to the environment. A brief overview was taken in this thesis that the disposal method and the leakage prevention measures of chlorine for the consequence of the chlorine leaking emergency.

  5. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Weili; He, Bin

    2015-07-10

    In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS) was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP) was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency.

  6. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Duan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency.

  7. Promoting Science Literacy through Research Service-Learning--An Emerging Pedagogy with Significant Benefits for Students, Faculty, Universities, and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Julie A.; Ahern-Dodson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Research service-learning (RSL) is an emerging pedagogy in which students engage in research within a service-learning context. This approach has great potential to promote science literacy because it teaches students how to use scientific knowledge and scientific ways of thinking in the service of society and helps them to better appreciate the…

  8. A two-stage optimization model for emergency material reserve layout planning under uncertainty in response to environmental accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Guo, Liang; Jiang, Jiping; Jiang, Dexun; Liu, Rentao; Wang, Peng

    2016-06-01

    In the emergency management relevant to pollution accidents, efficiency emergency rescues can be deeply influenced by a reasonable assignment of the available emergency materials to the related risk sources. In this study, a two-stage optimization framework is developed for emergency material reserve layout planning under uncertainty to identify material warehouse locations and emergency material reserve schemes in pre-accident phase coping with potential environmental accidents. This framework is based on an integration of Hierarchical clustering analysis - improved center of gravity (HCA-ICG) model and material warehouse location - emergency material allocation (MWL-EMA) model. First, decision alternatives are generated using HCA-ICG to identify newly-built emergency material warehouses for risk sources which cannot be satisfied by existing ones with a time-effective manner. Second, emergency material reserve planning is obtained using MWL-EMA to make emergency materials be prepared in advance with a cost-effective manner. The optimization framework is then applied to emergency management system planning in Jiangsu province, China. The results demonstrate that the developed framework not only could facilitate material warehouse selection but also effectively provide emergency material for emergency operations in a quick response.

  9. Crisis Reliability Indicators Supporting Emergency Services (CRISES): A Framework for Developing Performance Measures for Behavioral Health Crisis and Psychiatric Emergency Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Margaret E; Tanner, Kathleen; Jurica, Paul J; Rhoads, Richard; Carson, Chris A

    2016-01-01

    Crisis and emergency psychiatric services are an integral part of the healthcare system, yet there are no standardized measures for programs providing these services. We developed the Crisis Reliability Indicators Supporting Emergency Services (CRISES) framework to create measures that inform internal performance improvement initiatives and allow comparison across programs. The framework consists of two components-the CRISES domains (timely, safe, accessible, least-restrictive, effective, consumer/family centered, and partnership) and the measures supporting each domain. The CRISES framework provides a foundation for development of standardized measures for the crisis field. This will become increasingly important as pay-for-performance initiatives expand with healthcare reform.

  10. ARAC: a computer-based emergency dose-assessment service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 15 years, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) has developed and evolved a computer-based, real-time, radiological-dose-assessment service for the United States Departments of Energy and Defense. This service is built on the integrated components of real-time computer-acquired meteorological data, extensive computer databases, numerical atmospheric-dispersion models, graphical displays, and operational-assessment-staff expertise. The focus of ARAC is the off-site problem where regional meteorology and topography are dominant influences on transport and dispersion. Through application to numerous radiological accidents/releases on scales from small accidental ventings to the Chernobyl reactor disaster, ARAC has developed methods to provide emergency dose assessments from the local to the hemispheric scale. As the power of computers has evolved inversely with respect to cost and size, ARAC has expanded its service and reduced the response time from hours to minutes for an accident within the United States. Concurrently the quality of the assessments has improved as more advanced models have been developed and incorporated into the ARAC system. Over the past six years, the number of directly connected facilities has increased from 6 to 73. All major U.S. Federal agencies now have access to ARAC via the Department of Energy. This assures a level of consistency as well as experience. ARAC maintains its real-time skills by participation in approximately 150 exercises per year; ARAC also continuously validates its modeling systems by application to all available tracer experiments and data sets

  11. PREPARE: innovative integrated tools and platforms for radiological emergency preparedness and post-accident response in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PREPARE project that started in February 2013 and will end at the beginning of 2016 aims to close gaps that have been identified in nuclear and radiological preparedness in Europe following the first evaluation of the Fukushima disaster. Among others, the project will address the review of existing operational procedures for dealing with long-lasting releases and cross-border problems in radiation monitoring and food safety and further develop missing functionalities in decision support systems (DSS) ranging from improved source-term estimation and dispersion modelling to the inclusion of hydrological pathways for European water bodies. In addition, a so-called Analytical Platform will be developed exploring the scientific and operational means to improve information collection, information exchange and the evaluation of such types of disasters. The tools developed within the project will be partly integrated into the two DSS ARGOS and RODOS. (authors)

  12. Septic and non-septic olecranon bursitis in the accident and emergency department--an approach to management.

    OpenAIRE

    Stell, I M

    1996-01-01

    Olecranon bursitis is relatively common. One third of episodes are septic. Most of the remainder are non-septic, with occasional rheumatological causes. Trauma can cause both septic and non-septic olecranon bursitis. Clinical features are helpful in separating septic from non-septic olecranon bursitis, but there may be local erythema in both. Aspiration should be carried out in all cases, and if the presence of infection is still in doubt, microscopy, Gram staining, and culture of the aspirat...

  13. Comparative analysis on emergency management for leakage explosion accidents of urban oil and gas pipeline%城市油气管道泄漏爆炸重大案例应急管理对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶晶; 朱渊; 陈国明; 李修峰

    2014-01-01

    The extraordinary serious accident of Dongying-Huangdao oil pipeline leakage explosion in Qingdao , Shandong, has aroused public concern nationwide about urban oil and gas pipeline safety .In recent years, acci-dents in urban oil and gas pipeline frequently occurred , which seriously indicate the major problems existed in se-curity management .Comparative analysis was carried out based on similar accident investigation , between sewer network explosion in Guadalajara Mexico and Dongying-Huangdao oil pipeline leakage explosion in Qingdao Shang-dong .According to the accident-causing theory , the developing trend of accident was explored and chain model was established .Combined the concept of emergency management , common issues were analyzed during the process from pre-warning and pre-control , emergency disposal , assessment and recovery .Control measures were proposed in each stage of emergency management , by learning from the lessons of accidents , in order to reduce the probabili-ty of accidents and enhance the capability of emergency manage .%青岛东黄输油管道泄漏爆炸特别重大事故,引起公众对城市油气管道安全的普遍关注。近年来,城市油气管道事故频繁发生,反映出我国在城市地下管道安全管理方面存在较大问题。基于国内外管道相似事故调研,选取墨西哥瓜达拉哈拉管道泄漏爆炸事故和青岛东黄输油管道泄漏爆炸事故进行对比分析。基于事故致因理论,探究事故发展模式,建立事故链模型。结合应急管理思想,从预警预控、应急处置、评估恢复角度分析事故应急管理过程的共性失误。最后,针对应急管理各阶段共性失误提出防范措施,对提高类似事故的应急管理能力具有一定的参考意义。

  14. 核事故后果评价与应急决策支持系统研究%Study on Nuclear Accident Consequence Assessment and Emergency Decision Support System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王川; 周昌; 郑谦

    2013-01-01

    The research and development of Nuclear Accident Consequence Assessment System(NACAS)and Nuclear Accident Emergency Decision Support System(NAEDSS)is analyzed all over the world,the paper especially describes the exploitation situation and main features of NARAC(USA),the WSPEEDI(Japan)and RODOS(European Communities).In the paper,development of NAEDSS is discussed through introducing development of nuclear accident emergency decision support system and existing problems all over the world.With more and more attention to nuclear energy in society,we still have a long road to improve our nuclear accident consequence assessment and NAEDSS in recent years.%对比分析了国内外在核事故后果评价/应急决策支持系统领域开展的研究进展与成果,重点介绍了美国的NARAC系统、日本的WSPEEDI系统以及欧共体的RODOS系统的开发情况及主要性能.通过回顾我国核事故决策支持系统的发展概况,以及国内外现有核事故应急决策支持系统亟待解决的问题,讨论了下一代核事故应急决策支持系统的发展方向.

  15. Sociological and medical aspects of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sociological survey data, the results of the state of health service in some districts of Gomel and Mogilev regions as well as of the completeness of the fulfillment of state resolutions concerning the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident after effects are given

  16. Research on emergency service practical platform of science and technology in high-risk industry%高危行业事故应急科技服务实用性平台研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫; 刘彦伟; 曹鑫; 孙明义

    2013-01-01

    In the background of the technology platform project for public service-“ Jiangsu provincial emergency service platform of of science and technology in high-risk industry”, the general construction framework was pro-posed with respect to the current defect of the weak decision for accident emergencies and the poor service capabili -ty for emergency rescue in China .Then based on the general framework , six sub-platforms were constructed , such as the sharing platform for emergency information , the visualizing and deducing platform for counterplan , the analy-zing platform for accident result , the decision support platform for accident emergencies , the platform for emergency consultation, training, evaluation, and the on-site monitoring platform for accident scene , which can improve the construction content of emergency service platform of of science and technology in high -risk industry from function , system, architecture by using VR, GIS, AI.The decision support and technology service of emergency can be pro-vided for the government department , corporation and public .%针对当前我国高危行业应急平台建设中存在事故应急救援决策支撑弱、应急救援服务能力差的缺陷,以“江苏省高危行业事故应急科技服务平台”项目为背景,提出高危行业事故应急科技服务平台的总体建设架构;并以此为基础提出建立应急信息共享,预案可视化与推演,事故后果分析模拟,应急救援决策支持,应急咨询、培训、评估,事故现场快速监测六大子平台。以期利用VR、GIS、人工智能等先进技术,从功能、系统、体系三个层面完善高危行业事故应急科技服务平台建设内容,从而为政府门提供应急决策支持、为企业和社会公众提供应急科技服务。

  17. MDCT findings in sports and recreational accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Sports and recreational accidents involving critical areas of the body occur commonly in the general population. Reports on their demographics and recommendations for screening procedures are, however, few. Purpose. To assess injuries of the craniofacial area, spine, and torso resulting from sports and recreational accidents with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as primary imaging method in a Level I trauma center. Material and Methods. All emergency room CT requests over a time span of 105 months were reviewed retrospectively for trauma mechanism and injury. Patients were identified using an electronic picture archiving and communications system (PACS), and MDCT studies interpreted by two radiologists independently. Results. Of a total of 5898 patients, 492 patients (301 boys/men, 191 girls/women, age range 2-76 years, mean 33.5 years, median 29.5 years) with sports or recreational accidents emerged. A total of 102 traumatic findings were diagnosed, thereof 72 (71%) serious. The three most commonly encountered serious injuries were intracranial injury, fractures of facial bones, and vertebral injuries. The three most common injury mechanisms were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. Patients from recreational activities were on average significantly younger (29.2 years) than those from sports accidents (36.9 years; P < 0.001). Only age groups <21 years and 41-50 years differed in injury severity from the other age groups (P = 0.004 and P = 0.063, respectively). Of all trauma mechanisms, only bicycling had a significantly increased risk of injury (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Injuries in sports and recreational accidents presented with an overall incidence of 21%, of which 71% are serious. The most common mechanisms of injury were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. The largest incidence of serious injury involved bicycling. Because of the high probability of a serious injury and the high energies that are often involved

  18. MDCT findings in sports and recreational accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensch, Frank V; Koivikko, Mika P; Koskinen, Seppo K (Dept. of Radiology, Toeoeloe Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)), email: frank.bensch@hus.fi

    2011-12-15

    Background. Sports and recreational accidents involving critical areas of the body occur commonly in the general population. Reports on their demographics and recommendations for screening procedures are, however, few. Purpose. To assess injuries of the craniofacial area, spine, and torso resulting from sports and recreational accidents with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as primary imaging method in a Level I trauma center. Material and Methods. All emergency room CT requests over a time span of 105 months were reviewed retrospectively for trauma mechanism and injury. Patients were identified using an electronic picture archiving and communications system (PACS), and MDCT studies interpreted by two radiologists independently. Results. Of a total of 5898 patients, 492 patients (301 boys/men, 191 girls/women, age range 2-76 years, mean 33.5 years, median 29.5 years) with sports or recreational accidents emerged. A total of 102 traumatic findings were diagnosed, thereof 72 (71%) serious. The three most commonly encountered serious injuries were intracranial injury, fractures of facial bones, and vertebral injuries. The three most common injury mechanisms were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. Patients from recreational activities were on average significantly younger (29.2 years) than those from sports accidents (36.9 years; P < 0.001). Only age groups <21 years and 41-50 years differed in injury severity from the other age groups (P = 0.004 and P = 0.063, respectively). Of all trauma mechanisms, only bicycling had a significantly increased risk of injury (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Injuries in sports and recreational accidents presented with an overall incidence of 21%, of which 71% are serious. The most common mechanisms of injury were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. The largest incidence of serious injury involved bicycling. Because of the high probability of a serious injury and the high energies that are often involved

  19. Identifying Frequent Users of an Urban Emergency Medical Service Using Descriptive Statistics and Regression Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Chenelle Norman, MPH; Michael Mello, MD, MPH; Bryan Choi, MD, MPH

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study provides a descriptive analysis of a population that frequently uses an urban emergency medical service (EMS) and identifies factors that contribute to use among all frequent users. For purposes of this study we divided frequent users into the following groups: low- frequent users (4 EMS transports in 2012), medium-frequent users (5 to 6 EMS transports in 2012), high-frequent users (7 to 10 EMS transports in 2012) and super-frequent users (11 or more EMS transp...

  20. Improvements in emergency management in nuclear power plants after the Fukushima accident: ORE, CAE and CAGE; Mejoras en la gestion de emergencias en centrales nucleares tras el accidente de Fukushima: ORE, CAE y CAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimenez Gonzalez, S.; Sanchez Lombardia, A.; Martin Calvarro, J. M.; Calvin Cuartero, M.

    2016-08-01

    After Fukushima accident European NPP safety was checked by means of homogenous stress test promoted by European council. At Spain CSN issued Technical instructions to confirm safety NPP margins were appropriate . As a result of this assessment licensees promoted improving NPP safety by strengthen ERO; a new Support Emergency center (CAE) and construction of a new alternative management centre (CAGE) at each site. European countries have been improving and reinforced NPP safety in a similar way to Spain. (Author)

  1. 42 CFR 410.66 - Emergency outpatient services furnished by a nonparticipating hospital and services furnished in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... services furnished by a nonparticipating hospital and services furnished in a foreign country. Conditions... nonparticipating hospital and services furnished in a foreign country. 410.66 Section 410.66 Public Health CENTERS... services furnished in a foreign country are set forth in subparts G and H of part 424 of this chapter....

  2. Medical emergency provisions in case of large-scale radiation accidents (literature review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems of planning population protection in case of severe radiation accidents are considered. Attention is paid to the state of these problems in the USSR and other contries as well as to IAEA directives. The Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents are used for illustration purposes. Organization of medical help during radiation accidents, provided for in national regulations and experience gained during Chernobyl NPP accident are considered. Conclusion is made on the necessity of forcasting accident consequences with regard to local, social, economical, geographic and other conditions. Availability of medical provision plans, related to elimination of accident aftereffects and skill training, is obligatory

  3. Improving service quality by understanding emergency department flow: a White Paper and position statement prepared for the American Academy of Emergency Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitel, Dave R; Rudkin, Scott E; Malvehy, M Albert; Killeen, James P; Pines, Jesse M

    2010-01-01

    Emergency Department (ED) crowding is a common problem in the United States and around the world. Process reengineering methods can be used to understand factors that contribute to crowding and provide tools to help alleviate crowding by improving service quality and patient flow. In this article, we describe the ED as a service business and then discuss specific methods to improve the ED quality and flow. Methods discussed include demand management, critical pathways, process-mapping, Emergency Severity Index triage, bedside registration, Lean and Six Sigma management methods, statistical forecasting, queuing systems, discrete event simulation modeling and balanced scorecards. The purpose of this review is to serve as a background for emergency physicians and managers interested in applying process reengineering methods to improving ED flow, reducing waiting times, and maximizing patient satisfaction. Finally, we present a position statement on behalf of the American Academy of Emergency Medicine addressing these issues.

  4. Epidemiologic Profile of an Otolaryngologic Emergency Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prestes, Luciano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction According to current research, the number of patients seen in the emergency room is progressively increasing. There are few studies on the characteristics of ear, nose, and throat diseases treated in the emergency room. Objectives (1 To establish the epidemiologic profile of patients with these complaints treated at a referral emergency hospital in locoregional city Curitiba, and (2 to evaluate the calls that truly required emergency care. Methods This is a contemporary cross-study of urgent and emergency referrals to a hospital with otolaryngologic services during the year 2012. Data were collected and epidemiologic characteristics analyzed. Results We analyzed 1,067 patients: 312 presented in spring, 255 in summer, 253 in autumn, and 247 in winter. We found 17 diseases that were common during the year, with 244 (23.99% upper respiratory tract infections being the most frequent disease. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of diseases, except that acute otitis media was most common during the summer (p = 0.02; distribution between the sexes was balanced. The predominant age group was adults. We found 9.27% cases were true emergencies. Conclusion Patients were 20 to 40 years, with upper respiratory tract infection the most incident disease; 9.27% of cases were emergencies.

  5. Improving quality measures in the emergency services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, M; Flanagan, D

    2001-01-01

    A large and continuing increase in medical emergency admissions has coincided with a reduction in hospital beds, putting the acute medical services under great pressure. Increasing specialization among physicians creates a conflict between the need to cover acute unselected medical emergencies and the pressure to offer specialist care. The shortage of trained nursing staff and changes in the training of junior doctors and the fall in their working hours contribute to the changing role of the consultant physician. The organization of the acute medical service is of paramount importance and requires multi-disciplinary teamwork on an admissions unit with full support services. Excellent bed management is essential. There must be guidelines for all the common medical emergencies and all units must undertake specific audits of the acute medical service. Continuing professional development (CPD) and continuing medical education (CME) should reflect the workload of the physician; that is, it must include time specifically focused on acute medicine and general (internal) medicine, as well as the specialty interest. PMID:11383434

  6. ACTIVITIES OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF FEDERAL SERVICE FOR SURVEILLANCE ON CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION AND HUMAN WELL-BEING IN KHABAROVSKY KRAI IN CONDITIONS OF THE FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT AND MEASURES UNDERTAKEN TO PROTECT THE TERRITORY AND POPULATION THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ott

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes activities of the Administration of Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being in Khabarovsky Krai and the Federal Health Organization "Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology in Khabarovsky Krai" in the situation related to the Fukushima accident in Japan

  7. 77 FR 31143 - Emergency Medical Services Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... sectors--from the first responders, emergency medical technicians, and paramedics who arrive at the scene... May 24, 2012 Part III The President Proclamation 8824--Emergency Medical Services Week, 2012..., in communities across our country, men and women providing emergency medical services (EMS) stand...

  8. An evidence-based guideline in preventing hypothermia for adult trauma patients in accident and emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Lai-hung; 黃麗虹

    2013-01-01

    Hypothermia is commonly found in injured victims who suffer from central nervous system injury, hypovolemic shock, exposure to environment, administration of anesthetic drugs and cold intravenous fluid. All these factors decrease the abilities of trauma victims to maintain normothermia and conserve body heat. Hypothermia in injured victim is a significant contributor to a well known cycle—triad of death and associated with increased mortality, morbidity and length of hospital stay. Hypothermi...

  9. Counterregulatory hormones in insulin-treated diabetic patients admitted to an accident and emergency department with hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, A; Christensen, N J; Hilsted, Jannik

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was (1) to describe hormone responses in insulin-induced hypoglycaemia and (2) to investigate if a combined treatment with intravenous glucose and intramuscular glucagon (group A) would improve glucose recovery as compared to treatment with intravenous glucose alone (group B...

  10. Severe accident management. Optimized guidelines and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the accident progression in near future, to identify the currently most critical tasks as well as upcoming tasks, and to qualify the emergency response team to make informed decisions for the severe accident mitigation based on state-of-the-art knowledge. In this paper, this severe accident management concept is introduced and explained. It is also shown that AREVA is able to apply this methodology to other (including non-OEM) plant types, thus providing a comprehensive safety analysis of the existing plant state with already available safety systems and instrumentation. In addition, the possible need and potential for hardware refitting can be assessed as well. Finally, the severe accident management procedures are then established or updated accordingly. (author)

  11. Elderly and Nonelderly Use of a Dedicated Ambulance Corps’ Emergency Medical Services in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chia Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds and Aim. Taiwan’s population is gradually aging; however, there are no comparative data on emergency medical services (EMS use between the elderly and nonelderly. Methods. We analyzed the emergency calls dealt with between January 1 and April 4, 2014, by EMS in one city in Taiwan. All calls were divided into two groups: elderly (≥65 years and nonelderly (<65 years. Nontransport and transport calls were compared between the groups for demographic characteristics, transport time, reasons for calling EMS, vital signs, and emergency management. Results. There were 1,001 EMS calls: 226 nontransport and 775 transport calls. The elderly accounted for significantly (P<0.05 fewer (28 (9.2% nontransport calls than did the nonelderly (136 (21.4%. In the transport calls, 276 (35.6% were the elderly. The elderly had a higher proportion of histories for cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, end-stage renal disease, cancer, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, the elderly had significantly longer total transport time, more nontrauma reasons, and poorer consciousness levels and lower oxygen saturation and needed more respiratory management and more frequent resuscitation during transport than did the nonelderly. Conclusion. The elderly have more specific needs than do the nonelderly. Adapting EMS training, operations, and government policies to aging societies is mandatory and should begin now.

  12. 75 FR 27917 - Emergency Medical Services Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... medical education, train themselves on the latest life-saving techniques, and maintain vital emergency... Proclamation 8519--Emergency Medical Services Week, 2010 Executive Order 13542--Providing an Order of... President ] Proclamation 8519 of May 13, 2010 Emergency Medical Services Week, 2010 By the President of...

  13. 76 FR 29131 - Emergency Medical Services Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... death. Emergency medical technicians (EMTs), paramedics, and first responders serve on the front lines... May 19, 2011 Part V The President Proclamation 8674--Emergency Medical Services Week, 2011..., Americans rely on emergency medical service (EMS) systems to help them in their hour of greatest need....

  14. A Cloud Robotics Based Service for Managing RPAS in Emergency, Rescue and Hazardous Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvagni, Mario; Chiaberge, Marcello; Sanguedolce, Claudio; Dara, Gianluca

    2016-04-01

    Cloud robotics and cloud services are revolutionizing not only the ICT world but also the robotics industry, giving robots more computing capabilities, storage and connection bandwidth while opening new scenarios that blend the physical to the digital world. In this vision, new IT architectures are required to manage robots, retrieve data from them and create services to interact with users. Among all the robots this work is mainly focused on flying robots, better known as drones, UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) or RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems). The cloud robotics approach shifts the concept of having a single local "intelligence" for every single UAV, as a unique device that carries out onboard all the computation and storage processes, to a more powerful "centralized brain" located in the cloud. This breakthrough opens new scenarios where UAVs are agents, relying on remote servers for most of their computational load and data storage, creating a network of devices where they can share knowledge and information. Many applications, using UAVs, are growing as interesting and suitable devices for environment monitoring. Many services can be build fetching data from UAVs, such as telemetry, video streaming, pictures or sensors data; once. These services, part of the IT architecture, can be accessed via web by other devices or shared with other UAVs. As test cases of the proposed architecture, two examples are reported. In the first one a search and rescue or emergency management, where UAVs are required for monitoring intervention, is shown. In case of emergency or aggression, the user requests the emergency service from the IT architecture, providing GPS coordinates and an identification number. The IT architecture uses a UAV (choosing among the available one according to distance, service status, etc.) to reach him/her for monitoring and support operations. In the meantime, an officer will use the service to see the current position of the UAV, its

  15. Road Accident Prevention with Instant Emergency Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Gokulakrishnan

    Full Text Available A Road Accident Prevention (RAP scheme based on Vehicular Backbone Network (VBN structure is proposed in this paper for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET. The RAP scheme attempts to prevent vehicles from highway road traffic accidents and thereby reduces death and injury rates. Once the possibility of an emergency situation (i.e. an accident is predicted in advance, instantly RAP initiates a highway road traffic accident prevention scheme. The RAP scheme constitutes the following activities: (i the Road Side Unit (RSU constructs a Prediction Report (PR based on the status of the vehicles and traffic in the highway roads, (ii the RSU generates an Emergency Warning Message (EWM based on an abnormal PR, (iii the RSU forms a VBN structure and (iv the RSU disseminates the EWM to the vehicles that holds the high Risk Factor (RF and travels in High Risk Zone (HRZ. These vehicles might reside either within the RSU's coverage area or outside RSU's coverage area (reached using VBN structure. The RAP scheme improves the performance of EWM dissemination in terms of increase in notification and decrease in end-to-end delay. The RAP scheme also reduces infrastructure cost (number of RSUs by formulating and deploying the VBN structure. The RAP scheme with VBN structure improves notification by 19 percent and end-to-end delay by 14.38 percent for a vehicle density of 160 vehicles. It is also proved from the simulation experiment that the performance of RAP scheme is promising in 4-lane highway roads.

  16. Road Accident Prevention with Instant Emergency Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokulakrishnan, P; Ganeshkumar, P

    2015-01-01

    A Road Accident Prevention (RAP) scheme based on Vehicular Backbone Network (VBN) structure is proposed in this paper for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET). The RAP scheme attempts to prevent vehicles from highway road traffic accidents and thereby reduces death and injury rates. Once the possibility of an emergency situation (i.e. an accident) is predicted in advance, instantly RAP initiates a highway road traffic accident prevention scheme. The RAP scheme constitutes the following activities: (i) the Road Side Unit (RSU) constructs a Prediction Report (PR) based on the status of the vehicles and traffic in the highway roads, (ii) the RSU generates an Emergency Warning Message (EWM) based on an abnormal PR, (iii) the RSU forms a VBN structure and (iv) the RSU disseminates the EWM to the vehicles that holds the high Risk Factor (RF) and travels in High Risk Zone (HRZ). These vehicles might reside either within the RSU's coverage area or outside RSU's coverage area (reached using VBN structure). The RAP scheme improves the performance of EWM dissemination in terms of increase in notification and decrease in end-to-end delay. The RAP scheme also reduces infrastructure cost (number of RSUs) by formulating and deploying the VBN structure. The RAP scheme with VBN structure improves notification by 19 percent and end-to-end delay by 14.38 percent for a vehicle density of 160 vehicles. It is also proved from the simulation experiment that the performance of RAP scheme is promising in 4-lane highway roads. PMID:26636576

  17. 50 CFR 401.17 - Safety and accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety and accident prevention. 401.17 Section 401.17 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... FISHERIES CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.17 Safety and accident prevention. In...

  18. Aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Chaput

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Yves Chaput1, Lucie Beaulieu2, Michel Paradis3, Edith Labonté41Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal (presently in private practice; 2Department of Psychiatry, Haut Richelieu Hospital, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Montreal, Montreal; 4Department of Psychiatry, Laval University, Quebec, CanadaIntroduction: Studies of aggressive behaviors in a nonforensic mental health setting have focused primarily on the inpatient ward and, on event prediction, using behavior-based clinical rating scales. Few studies have specifically targeted aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service or determined whether assessing the demographic and clinical characteristics of such patients might prove useful for their more rapid identification.Methods: We used a prospectively acquired database of over 20,900 visits to four services in the province of Quebec, Canada, over a two-year period from September 2002 onwards. A maximum of 72 variables could be acquired per visit. Visits with aggression (any verbally or physically intimidating behavior, both present and past, were tagged. Binary logistic regressions and cross-tabulations were used to determine whether the profile of a variable differed in visits with aggression from those without aggression.Results: About 7% of visits were marked by current aggression (verbal 49%, physical 12%, verbal and physical 39%. Including visits with a “past only” history of aggression increased this number to 20%. Variables associated with aggression were gender (male, marital status (single/separated, education (high school or less, employment (none, judicial history (any type, substance abuse (prior or active, medication compliance (poor, type of arrival to psychiatric emergency services (involuntary, police, judiciary, landlord, reason for referral (behavioral dyscontrol, diagnosis (less frequent in anxiety disorders, and outcome (more frequently placed under

  19. The Role of Emergency Medical Services in Geriatrics: Bridging the Gap between Primary and Acute Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Judah; McVey, Jennifer; Ackroyd-Stolarz, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    Caring for older adults is a major function of emergency medical services (EMS). Traditional EMS systems were designed to treat single acute conditions; this approach contrasts with best practices for the care of frail older adults. Care might be improved by the early identification of those who are frail and at highest risk for adverse outcomes. Paramedics are well positioned to play an important role via a more thorough evaluation of frailty (or vulnerability). These findings may inform both pre-hospital and subsequent emergency department (ED) based decisions. Innovative programs involving EMS, the ED, and primary care could reduce the workload on EDs while improving patient access to care, and ultimately patient outcomes. Some frail older adults will benefit from the resources and specialized knowledge provided by the ED, while others may be better helped in alternative ways, usually in coordination with primary care. Discerning between these groups is a challenge worthy of further inquiry. In either case, care should be timely, with a focus on identifying emergent or acute care needs, frailty evaluation, mobility assessments, identifying appropriate goals for treatment, promoting functional independence, and striving to have the patient return to their usual place of residence if this can be done safely. Paramedics are uniquely positioned to play a larger role in the care of our aging population. Improving paramedic education as it pertains to geriatrics is a critical next step. PMID:26282932

  20. Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients Injured in Road Traffic Crashes and Transported by Emergency Medical Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ying Huang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the injury characteristics and mortality of patients transported by emergency medical services (EMS and hospitalized for trauma following a road traffic crash, data obtained from the Trauma Registry System were retrospectively reviewed for trauma admissions between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013 in a Level I trauma center. Of 16,548 registered patients, 3978 and 1440 patients injured in road traffic crashes were transported to the emergency department by EMS and non-EMS, respectively. Patients transported by EMS had lower Glasgow coma scale (GCS scores and worse hemodynamic measures. Compared to patients transported by non-EMS, more patients transported by EMS required procedures (intubation, chest tube insertion, and blood transfusion at the emergency department. They also sustained a higher injury severity, as measured by the injury severity score (ISS and the new injury severity score (NISS. Lastly, in-hospital mortality was higher among the EMS than the non-EMS group (1.8% vs. 0.3%, respectively; p < 0.001. However, we found no statistically significant difference in the adjusted odds ratio (AOR for mortality among patients transported by EMS after adjustment for ISS (AOR 4.9, 95% CI 0.33–2.26, indicating that the higher incidence of mortality was likely attributed to the patients’ higher injury severity. In addition, after propensity score matching, logistic regression of 58 well-matched pairs did not show a significant influence of transportation by EMS on mortality (OR: 0.578, 95% CI: 0.132–2.541 p = 0.468.

  1. Barriers to emergency obstetric care services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Echoka, Elizabeth; Makokha, Anselimo; Dubourg, Dominique;

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Pregnancy-related mortality and morbidity in most low and middle income countries can be reduced through early recognition of complications, prompt access to care and appropriate medical interventions following obstetric emergencies. We used the three delays framework to explore...... barriers to emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services by women who experienced life threatening obstetric complications in Malindi District, Kenya. Methods: A facility-based qualitative study was conducted between November and December 2010. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 women who experienced...... obstetric "near miss" at the only public hospital with capacity to provide comprehensive EmOC services in the district. Elizabeth Echoka1,&, Anselimo Makokha2, Dominique Dubourg3, Yeri Kombe1, Lillian Nyandieka1, Jens Byskov4 Results: Findings indicate that pregnant women experienced delays in making...

  2. Psychical and social effects related to post-accident situations: some training of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some preliminary considerations on the psychic and societal dimensions related to post-accident situations connected to large scale and heavy land contamination are presented. This is done with the objective of exploring the role that these dimensions could play in the elaboration of new radiological protection principles and concepts in order to restore confidence among affected populations after a nuclear accident. It is important to facilitate the return to normal or, at least, acceptable living conditions, as soon as reasonably achievable, and to prevent the possible emergence of a post-accident crisis. A scheme is proposed for understanding the dynamics of the various phases after an accident, taking into account the collective response to the consequences as well as, the response to the countermeasures. (Author)

  3. Emergency/disaster medical support in the restoration project for the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimura, Naoto; Asari, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Asanuma, Kazunari; Tase, Choichiro; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Aruga, Tohru

    2013-12-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F) suffered a series of radiation accidents after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. In a situation where halting or delaying restoration work was thought to translate directly into a very serious risk for the entire country, it was of the utmost importance to strengthen the emergency and disaster medical system in addition to radiation emergency medical care for staff at the frontlines working in an environment that posed a risk of radiation exposure and a large-scale secondary disaster. The Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) launched the 'Emergency Task Force on the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident' and sent physicians to the local response headquarters. Thirty-four physicians were dispatched as disaster medical advisors, response guidelines in the event of multitudinous injury victims were created and revised and, along with execution of drills, coordination and advice was given on transport of patients. Forty-nine physicians acted as directing physicians, taking on the tasks of triage, initial treatment and decontamination. A total of 261 patients were attended to by the dispatched physicians. None of the eight patients with external contamination developed acute radiation syndrome. In an environment where the collaboration between organisations in the framework of a vertically bound government and multiple agencies and institutions was certainly not seamless, the participation of the JAAM as the medical academic organisation in the local system presented the opportunity to laterally integrate the physicians affiliated with the respective organisations from the perspective of specialisation.

  4. Electricity-caused deathly accidents in households and their misinterpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkrath, K.D.; Weiler, G.

    1982-12-17

    In this report results are presented which indicate the problems which are connected with the primary diagnosis and to which the emergency physician finds himself confronted. Comparable with a wrong diagnosis in the case of a fatal CO intoxication, the source of danger remains also in case of an undetected fatal accidents due to electricity which occured in the household, and consequently the physician might one day be accused of manslaughter caused by criminal negligence, if another fatal accident occurs. This article gives five selected examples which shall help the emergency physician and the coroner to consider the death due to electric shock as a possible cause of death when a fatal accident occurs in a household. Between 1974 and 1981 autopsy was made in 40 persons, who had died in accidents due to electric shock, in the Institut fuer Rechtsmedizin des Universitaetsklinikums Essen. Of these cases 26 were identified as accidents which had occurred in the household.

  5. Statistical modelling of the frequency and severity of road accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira Hyldekær

    management tool.Initially models were built by using existing traffic accident data collected by the police and emergency rooms in Denmark. The data registered by the police was collected on traffic accidents occurred on Danish roads in the period between 2002 and 2008. The emergency room data were collected...... to be the most relevant factor related to the lack of intention to report future cycling accidents. Secondly, the factors: concerns about family distress and social image and preference to allocate time to other activities are both associated with non-reporting intentions (Paper 3). 5) New information about...

  6. Evaluation of overweight and obesity in Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS worker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gałązkowski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available [b][/b]Introduction. Obesity now affects people from all walks of life, including those who work in the field of medical aid provision on a daily basis. So far, there has been no research assessing the nutrition status of Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS crews. Objectives. To evaluate the degree to which overweight and obesity prevail among Helicopter Emergency Medical Service Air Ambulances (HEMS LPR crew members, and determine the overall excess body fat and fatty tissue distribution in the subjects. Material and methods. In order to evaluate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in HEMS crew members, the following anthropometric measurements were used: height, body mass, waist and hip circumferences. Assessment of their nutritional status was made by using some generally used indicators, i.e. calculating the subjects’ BMI, WHR and WHtR. Results. Pilots were older than the paramedics in a statistically significant way. On the basis of using the BMI indicator, it was shown that only 36% of HEMS crew members had normal body weight. Analysis of the percentage of body fat determined that 61.5% of the paramedics and 39.4% of the pilots had normal weight. 26.2% paramedics and 28.8% pilots were diagnosed as overweight. Obesity characterised 12.3% of paramedics and 31.8% of pilots. The above were statistically significant differences (p= 0.0117. Waist circumference exceeded 102 cm in 25.9% of the subjects and WHR>1 characterised 20.6% of those examined. Conclusions. Analysis of the results obtained revealed that an alarmingly high percentage of crew members suffer from excessive body mass and fat, particularly in the group of pilots. Immediate action should be taken in order to reduce the body mass and introduce preventive measures among the subjects.

  7. Spatial Access to Emergency Services in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A GIS-Based Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Tansley

    Full Text Available Injury is a leading cause of the global disease burden, accounting for 10 percent of all deaths worldwide. Despite 90 percent of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs, the majority of trauma research and infrastructure development has taken place in high-income settings. Furthermore, although accessible services are of central importance to a mature trauma system, there remains a paucity of literature describing the spatial accessibility of emergency services in LMICs. Using data from the Service Provision Assessment component of the Demographic and Health Surveys of Namibia and Haiti we defined the capabilities of healthcare facilities in each country in terms of their preparedness to provide emergency services. A Geographic Information System-based network analysis method was used to define 5- 10- and 50-kilometer catchment areas for all facilities capable of providing 24-hour care, higher-level resuscitative services or tertiary care. The proportion of a country's population with access to each level of service was obtained by amalgamating the catchment areas with a population layer. A significant proportion of the population of both countries had poor spatial access to lower level services with 25% of the population of Haiti and 51% of the population of Namibia living further than 50 kilometers from a facility capable of providing 24-hour care. Spatial access to tertiary care was considerably lower with 51% of Haitians and 72% of Namibians having no access to these higher-level services within 50 kilometers. These results demonstrate a significant disparity in potential spatial access to emergency services in two LMICs compared to analogous estimates from high-income settings, and suggest that strengthening the capabilities of existing facilities may improve the equity of emergency services in these countries. Routine collection of georeferenced patient and facility data in LMICs will be important to understanding

  8. Medical direction of wilderness and other operational emergency medical services programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Craig R; Millin, Michael G; Hawkins, Seth C; Bradley, Richard N

    2012-03-01

    Within a healthcare system, operational emergency medical services (EMS) programs provide prehospital emergency care to patients in austere and resource-limited settings. Some of these programs are additionally considered to be wilderness EMS programs, a specialized type of operational EMS program, as they primarily function in a wilderness setting (eg, wilderness search and rescue, ski patrols, water rescue, beach patrols, and cave rescue). Other operational EMS programs include urban search and rescue, air medical support, and tactical law enforcement response. The medical director will help to ensure that the care provided follows protocols that are in accordance with local and state prehospital standards, while accounting for the unique demands and needs of the environment. The operational EMS medical director should be as qualified as possible for the specific team that is being supervised. The medical director should train and operate with the team frequently to be effective. Adequate provision for compensation, liability, and equipment needs to be addressed for an optimal relationship between the medical director and the team. PMID:22441087

  9. Who killed Rambhor?: The state of emergency medical services in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh H Garg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, the healthcare delivery system starts up from the sub-center at the village level and reaches up to super specialty medical centers providing state of the art emergency medical services (EMS. These highest centers, located in big cities, are considered the last referral points for the patients from nearby cities and states. As the incidents of rail and road accidents have increased in recent years, the role of EMS becomes critical in saving precious lives. But when the facilities and management of these emergency centers succumbs before the patient, then the question arises regarding the adequate availability and quality of EMS. The death of an unknown common man, Rambhor, for want of EMS in three big hospitals in the national capital of India put a big question on the "health" of the emergency health services in India. The emergency services infrastructure seems inadequate and quality and timely provision of EMS to critical patients appears unsatisfactory. There is lack of emergency medicine (EM specialists in India and also the postgraduation courses in EM have not gained foot in our medical education system. Creation of a Centralized Medical Emergency Body, implementation of management techniques, modification of medical curriculum, and fixing accountability are some of the few steps which are required to improve the EMS in India.

  10. Compilation and response key points of emergency plan for dangerous chemical poisoning accident attention and response points%危险化学品中毒事故应急预案编制与响应关注要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢娟娟

    2011-01-01

    大工业的发展导致各类职业中毒事件的发生日益严重,除人员伤亡等影响外,也会对于社会公众安全带来影响.应急预案编制中强调应急准备的重要性和针对性.职业危害事故识别和分类分级处理以及对于社会公共安全影响的危机处理能力是应急工作中应该关注的重要内容.应急响应中强调第一目击者的处理能力的培养、现场的实时监测、事故报告与事态演变的持续预警、有效应急资源应对危机处理的能力.%The development of great industry lead to the occurrence of all kinds of occupational poisoning event, in addition to the increasingly serious casualties, the social public security will also be affected. Emergency plancom-pilation stressed in the the importance and relevance of emergency preparedness. Occupational hazard accidents I-dentification, classification and grading disposal, and the ability of handling crisis for public safety influence were the important content that should be focused on in emergency work. Emergency response stressed in the training of first witnesses processing ability that should be focused on in emergency work, on-site real-time monitoring, the accident report and the early warning of evolution, and the ability to effectively deal with crisis disposal of emergency resources.

  11. 急诊护理常见纠纷原因探析及防范对策%Investigation and precaution measure on the common causes of emergency medical accidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅清华

    2012-01-01

      Emergency treatment is the high risk area for medical accidents and disputes, ease to mistakes and accidents. In this paper, the reason was analyzed and the corresponding improvement measures were proposed. The purpose is to improve nurses' awareness and reduce nursing disputes.%  急诊是医疗事故和纠纷的高风险区,容易发生差错事故。现对其原因进行分析并提出相应改进措施,目的在于提高护士的认识,减少护理纠纷的发生。

  12. Relating aviation service difficulty reports to accident data for safety trend prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullwood, R.; Hall, R.; Martinez, G.; Uryasev, S.

    1996-03-13

    This work explores the hypothesis that Service Difficulty Reports (SDR - primarily inspection reports) are related to Accident Incident Data System (AIDS - reports primarily compiled from National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident investigations). This work sought and found relations between equipment operability reported in the SDR and aviation safety reported in AIDS. Equipment is not the only factor in aviation accidents, but it is the factor reported in the SDR. Two approaches to risk analysis were used: (1) The conventional method, in which reporting frequencies are taken from a data base (SDR), and used with an aircraft reliability block diagram model of the critical systems to predict aircraft failure, and (2) Shape analysis that uses the magnitude and shape of the SDR distribution compared with the AIDS distribution to predict aircraft failure.

  13. National Trends in the Utilization of Emergency Medical Services for Acute Myocardial Infarction and Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Tataris

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The emergency medical services (EMS system plays a crucial role in the chain of survival for acute myocardial infarction (AMI and stroke. While regional studies have shown underutilization of the 911 system for these time-sensitive conditions, national trends have not been studied. Our objective was to describe the national prevalence of EMS use for AMI and stroke, examine trends over a six-year period, and identify patient factors that may contribute to utilization. Methods: Using the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey-ED (NHAMCS dataset from 2003-2009, we looked at patients with a discharge diagnosis of AMI or stroke who arrived to the emergency department (ED by ambulance. We used a survey-weighted χ2 test for trend and logistic regression analysis. Results: In the study, there were 442 actual AMI patients and 220 (49.8% presented via EMS. There were 1,324 actual stroke patients and 666 (50.3% presented via EMS. There was no significant change in EMS usage for AMI or stroke over the six-year period. Factors independently associated with EMS use for AMI and stroke included age (OR 1.21; 95% CI 1.12-1.31, Non-Hispanic black race (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.16-2.29, and nursing home residence (OR 11.50; 95% CI 6.19-21.36. Conclusion: In a nationally representative sample of ED visits from 20003-2009, there were no trends of increasing EMS use for AMI and stroke. Efforts to improve access to care could focus on patient groups that underutilize the EMS system for such conditions. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:–0.

  14. CBR in the service of accident cases evaluating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassaâd Mejri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a research aiming at the development of a decision support system concerning the approval of automated railway transportation systems. The objective is to implement a valuation method for the degree of compliance of the automated transportation system in-group of safety standards by the analysis of the scenarios of accident. To reach this target, we envisaged an approach Rex (Return of experience who draws the lessons of accidents / incidents lived and/or imagined by the experts of the analysis of security in the IFSTAAR. Our approach consists in offering a decision support in the side of the experts of the certification based on a reuse of the scenarios of accidents already validated historically on other approved transportation systems. This approach Rex is very useful since it provides to the experts a class of scenarios of accidents similar to the new case treated and getting closer to the context of new case. The Case-based reasoning is then exploited as a mode of reasoning by analogy allowing to choose and to recollect one under group of historical cases that can help in the resolution of the new case introduced by the experts. Process-Oriented Case-Based Reasoning (PO-CBR is a growing application area in which CBR is used to address problems involving process data in a variety of specialized domains. PO-CBR systems often use structured cases. Our approach is characterized by a two-phased retrieval strategy. A first phase consists in retrieving a set of cases to be considered (a class of cases most similar to a problem to resolve. In a second phase, a more fine grained strategy is then applied to the pool of candidate cases already selected by the mean of similarity measures. This approach can enhance the process of retrieving cases compared to an exhaustive case-by-case comparison.

  15. Responses of Emergency Unit Physicians and Administrators to Q-Statements Regarding Quality of Medical Services at Emergency Unit at Al Kindy Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujain A. Al-Khazragy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of medical services applied at the emergency unit at Al-kindy teaching hospital. Data were collected during one month duration through a survey using special form of questioner; the total number of studied sample was 51, which includes all the resident doctors working in the emergency unit including the post graduate residency doctors. The first part of the study shows lack of organization in many fields of the emergency unit including the arrival of patients and classification of severity of the injuries. absence of defined protocol for management of emergency cases in addition to lack of enough staff and supplies, yet other fields like the availability of functioning unit along 24 h a day and availability of radio communication with the ambulance and other departments of hospital shows good organization.

  16. Nuclear law and radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear activities in Brazil, and particularly the radiological accident of Goiania, are examined in the light of the environmental and nuclear laws of Brazil and the issue of responsibility. The absence of legislation covering radioactive wastes as well as the restrictions on Brazilian States to issue regulations covering nuclear activities are reviewed. The radiological accident and its consequences, including the protection and compensation of the victims, the responsibility of the shareholders of the Instituto Goiano de Radioterapia, operator of the radioactive source, the provisional storage and the final disposal at Abadia de Goias of the radioactive waste generated by the accident are reviewed. Finally, nuclear responsibility, the inapplicability of the Law 6453/77 which deals with nuclear damages, and the state liability regime are analysed in accordance with the principles of the Brazilian Federal Constitution. (author)

  17. Assessment of Spatial Unevenness of Road Accidents Severity as Instrument of Preventive Protection from Emergency Situations in Road Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, A.; Petrova, D.

    2016-08-01

    Emergency situations in road complex are road traffic accidents (RA) with severe consequences. These are incidents connected with the death and injury of large number of people. The most common reasons for this are the collision of three or more cars, the collision of buses with trains at railroad crossings, the fall of the buses in the mountain gorge, and other similar cases. Is it possible to predict such events? How to build a preventive protection against such emergencies? We have to understand that emergencies in a road complex are qualitative expression of the quantitative processes that characterize the general state of road safety in the region. In this regard, at the level of state monitoring of emergency situations it is important to understand in general - in which region the situation is more complicated and in which is more favorable. This knowledge helps to more efficiently reallocate resources intended to solve the problems of road safety provision. The consequence of this is improvement of the quality of preventive protection from the emergencies in the road complex. The article presents quantitative values of severity of accidents in the Russian Federation regions and the Pareto chart distribution of cumulates of the accident severity for the Russian Federation. On the basis of the complex assessment of the spatial non-uniformity of the accident severity results it offers two important recommendations, implementation of which will alleviate the issue of formation of emergency situations in the road of the Russian Federation on the basis of the complex assessment of the spatial nonuniformity of the accident severity results.

  18. Road characteristics and bicycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, P; Björnstig, U; Bygren, L O

    1996-12-01

    In Umeå, Sweden, defects in the physical road surface contributed to nearly half of the single bicycle accidents. The total social cost of these injuries to people amount to at least SEK 20 million (SEK 60,000 or about USD 8,500 per accident), which corresponds to the estimated loss of "eight life equivalents a year". Improved winter maintenance seems to have the greatest injury prevention potential and would probably reduce the number of injuries considerably, whereas improved road quality and modification of kerbs would reduce the most severe injuries. A local traffic safety program should try to prevent road accidents instead of handling the consequences of them. In accordance with Parliament decisions on traffic we would like to see increased investment in measures favoring bicycle traffic, where cycling is seen as a solution, not as a problem.

  19. 46 CFR 108.141 - Boundary bulkheads and decks between the emergency power source and service generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boundary bulkheads and decks between the emergency power source and service generators. 108.141 Section 108.141 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.141...

  20. Study on generic intervention levels for protecting the public in a nuclear accident or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, several social and economical factors shall be considered for the actions to protect the public and to recover the environment. The application of the radiological protection principles on practices in intervention situations may lead to adoption of protective measures disproportional to the involved risk, compromising the resources available to more effective actions. This causes a negative impact on the population and may conduct to discredit about the protective measures and the lost of confidence on the authorities. In this context, the principles of radiological protection for interventions should be studied and analyzed for being adequately applied in accident situations or radiological emergencies that involves the country. These principles are constantly improved and the concept of generic intervention level plays an important role in the decision-making to protect the public. The costs involved to the protective measures for the public in Brazil were studied and cost benefit analysis techniques were applied to estimate the generic intervention levels for public protection applicable in the country. These results were compared to those values internationally recommended, as well to values obtained in a similar study accomplished for Japan. It was also performed a sensibility analysis of the results regarding a value and a simple analysis of the results considering the costs of the several protective measures. (author)

  1. Fatal motorcycle accidents and alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M

    1987-01-01

    A series of fatal motorcycle accidents from a 7-year period (1977-1983) has been analyzed. Of the fatalities 30 were operators of the motorcycle, 11 pillion passengers and 8 counterparts. Of 41 operators 37% were sober at the time of accident, 66% had measurable blood alcohol concentration (BAC......); 59% above 0.08%. In all cases where a pillion passenger was killed, the operator of the motorcycle had a BAC greater than 0.08%. Of the killed counterparts 2 were non-intoxicated, 2 had a BAC greater than 0.08%, and 4 were not tested. The results advocate that the law should restrict alcohol...

  2. How to operate a university institute as a radiological emergency service?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute of Radiation Physics (IRA) is attached to the Department of Medical Radiology at the Vaud University Hospital Center (CHUV) in Lausanne. The Institute's main tasks are strongly linked to the medical activities of the Department: radiotherapy, radiodiagnostics, interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The Institute also works in the fields of operational radiation protection, radiation metrology and radioecology. In the case of an accident involving radioactive materials, the emergency services are able to call on the assistance of radiation protection specialists. In order to avoid having to create and maintain a specific structure, both burdensome and rarely needed, Switzerland decided to unite all existing emergency services for such events. Thus, the IRA was invited to participate in this network. The challenge is therefore to integrate a university structure, used to academic collaborations and the scientific approach, to an interventional organization accustomed to strict policies, a military-style command structure and 'drilled' procedures. The IRA's solution entails mobilizing existing resources and the expertise developed through professional experience. The main asset of this solution is that it involves the participation of committed collaborators who remain in a familiar environment, and are able to use proven materials and mastered procedures, even if the atmosphere of an accident situation differs greatly from regular laboratory routines. However, this solution requires both a commitment to education and training in emergency situations, and a commitment in terms of discipline by each collaborator in order to be integrated into a response plan supervised by an operational command center. (authors)

  3. Prototype for Integrating Internet of Things and Emergency Service in an IP Multimedia Subsystem for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KaiDi Chang; JiannLiang Chen; HanChieh Chao

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the application of the Internet of Things (IoT) has become an emerging business. The most important concept of next-generation network for providing a common global IT platform is combining seamless networks and networked things, objects or sensors. Also, wireless body area networks (WBANs) are becoming mature with the widespread usage of the IoT. In order to support WBAN, the platform, scenario and emergency service are necessary due to the sensors in WBAN being related to wearer's life. The sensors on the body detect a lot of information about bioinformatics and medical signals, such as heartbeat and blood. Thus, the integration of IoT and network communication in daily life is important. However, there is not only a lack of common fabric for integrating IoT with current Internet and but also no emergency call process in the current network communication envi-ronment. To overcome such situations, the prototype of integrating IoT and emergency call process is discussed. A simulated boot-strap platform to provide the discussion of open challenges and solutions for deploying IoT in Internet and the emergency commu-nication system are analyzed by using a service of 3GPP IP multimedia subsystem. Finally, the prototype for supporting WBAN with emergence service is also addressed and the performance results are useful to service providers and network operators that they can estimate their migration to IoT by referring to this experience and experiment results. Furthermore, the queuing model used to achieve the performance of emergency service in IMS and the delay time of the proposed model is analyzed.

  4. A Review of the Courses on Emergency Preparedness and Medical Procedures in Case of a Nuclear Accident Organised in Zagreb, Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the postgraduate education at the Medical School of the University of Zagreb different short courses are offered. It has been realised that the knowledge about radiation and its uses among the doctors is more than insufficient, especially if any action for treatment of radiation victims will ever be needed. The specialized courses of the I. category offered and described bellow are meant to provide the sufficient theoretical knowledge about ionising radiations as well as practical workshops and exercises in treatment of persons accidentally injured in a nuclear power plant or similar accident. (author)

  5. Emergency preparedness: medical management of nuclear accidents involving large groups of victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment of overexposed individuals implies hospitalisation in a specialized unit applying hematological intense care. If the accident results in a small number of casualties, the medical management does not raise major problems in most of the countries, where specialized units exist, as roughly 7% of the beds are available at any time. But an accident which would involved tens or hundreds of people raises much more problems for hospitalization. Such problems are also completely different and will involve steps in the medical handling, mainly triage, (combined injuries), determination of whole body dose levels, transient hospitalization. In this case, preplanning is necessary, adapted to the system of medical care in case of a catastrophic event in the given Country, with the main basic principles : emergency concerns essentially the classical injuries (burns and trauma) - and contamination problems in some cases - treatment of radiation syndrome is not an emergency during the first days but some essential actions have to be taken such as early blood sampling for biological dosimetry and for HLa typing

  6. A Rare and Serious Syndrome That Requires Attention in Emergency Service: Traumatic Asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gultekin Gulbahar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic asphyxia is a rare syndrome caused by blunt thoracoabdominal trauma and characterized by cyanosis, edema, and subconjunctival and petechial hemorrhage on the face, neck, upper extremities, and the upper parts of the thorax. Traumatic asphyxia is usually diagnosed by history and inspection; however, the patient should be monitored more closely due to probable complications of thoracoabdominal injuries. Treatment is conservative, but the prognosis depends on the severity of the associated injuries. Herein we present a traumatic asphyxia due to an elevator accident in a 32-year-old male patient and discuss the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis by reviewing the relevant literature.

  7. 'Present nuclear emergency responses in India: tracing requirements and guidelines suggested after Fukushima accident in regards to public and plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this poster the primary initiative is to educate the public at large and instill confidence about the present Emergency Response Systems of DAE and the imminent agencies in India. Poster attempts to analyse present regulatory and safety systems, mechanisms like plant and site emergency response plans are in place to handle radiation emergencies and how public will not be affected in any manner. In India also we needed some supplementary provisions to cope up with major disasters in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) apart from the existing one. Some of the NPPs are not under the UN safeguards, which can not import Uranium also need extra care and protection. Regulatory and safety functions of Atomic Energy in India are carried out by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (Atomic Energy Regulatory Board), the poster attempts to explain the present regulatory and safety mechanism under Atomic Energy Regulatory Board. We have the plant and site emergency response plans in place. The well planned functioning of these is demonstrated here. India is equipped with detail plans of emergency response system, to handle the radiation emergencies in public domain even at the locations where DAE facility is not available

  8. Road Accident Trends in Africa and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N O

    1997-01-01

    The paper decribes trends and suggests prediction models for accident risks in African and European countries......The paper decribes trends and suggests prediction models for accident risks in African and European countries...

  9. Frequent users of emergency department services: gaps in knowledge and a proposed research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Jesse M; Asplin, Brent R; Kaji, Amy H; Lowe, Robert A; Magid, David J; Raven, Maria; Weber, Ellen J; Yealy, Donald M

    2011-06-01

    Frequent use of emergency department (ED) services is often perceived to be a potentially preventable misuse of resources. The underlying assumption is that similar and more appropriate care can be delivered outside of EDs at a lower cost. To reduce costs and incentivize more appropriate use of services, there have been efforts to design interventions to transition health care utilization of frequent users from EDs to other settings such as outpatient clinics. Many of these efforts have succeeded in smaller trials, but wider use remains elusive for varying reasons. There are also some fundamental problems with the assumption that all or even the majority of frequent ED use is misuse and invoking reasons for that excessive use. These tenuous assumptions become evident when frequent users as a group are compared to less frequent users. Specifically, frequent users tend to have high levels of frequent ED use, have a higher severity of illness, be older, have fewer personal resources, be chronically ill, present for pain-related complaints, and have government insurance (Medicare or Medicaid). Because of the unique characteristics of the population of frequent users, we propose a research agenda that aims to increase the understanding of frequent ED use, by: 1) creating an accepted categorization system for frequent users, 2) predicting which patients are at risk for becoming or remaining frequent users, 3) implementing both ED- and non-ED-based interventions, and 4) conducting qualitative studies of frequent ED users to explore reasons and identify factors that are subject to intervention and explore specific differences among populations by condition, such as mental illness and heart failure. PMID:21676051

  10. Wireless Reporting System for Accident Detection at Higher Speeds u

    OpenAIRE

    Peddi Anudeep; K. Hari Bab

    2014-01-01

    Speed is one of the basic reasons for vehicle accident. Many lives could have been saved if emergency service could get accident information and reach in time. Nowadays, GPS has become an integral part of a vehicle system. This paper proposes to utilize the capability of a GPS receiver to monitor speed of a vehicle and detect accident basing on monitored speed and send accident location to an Alert Service Center. The GPS will monitor speed of a vehicle and compare with the pr...

  11. Essential basic and emergency obstetric and newborn care: from education and training to service delivery and quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otolorin, Emmanuel; Gomez, Patricia; Currie, Sheena; Thapa, Kusum; Dao, Blami

    2015-06-01

    Approximately 15% of expected births worldwide will result in life-threatening complications during pregnancy, delivery, or the postpartum period. Providers skilled in emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmONC) services are essential, particularly in countries with a high burden of maternal and newborn mortality. Jhpiego and its consortia partners have implemented three global programs to build provider capacity to provide comprehensive EmONC services to women and newborns in these resource-poor settings. Providers have been educated to deliver high-impact maternal and newborn health interventions, such as prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia and management of birth asphyxia, within the broader context of quality health services. This article describes Jhpiego's programming efforts within the framework of the basic and expanded signal functions that serve as indicators of high-quality basic and emergency care services. Lessons learned include the importance of health facility strengthening, competency-based provider education, global leadership, and strong government ownership and coordination as essential precursors to scale-up of high impact evidence-based maternal and newborn interventions in low-resource settings. PMID:26115858

  12. Militarised violence in the service of state-imposed emergencies over Palestine and Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Pfingst

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available States of Emergency are declared against the disorder-ing of state sovereign power by acts of resistance, rebellion and revolt and are characterised by the technologies of control, containment and punishment. Through spatial, archival and visual encounters with emergency landscapes and the geographies of resistance, the essay considers the historic and contemporary operations, provisions, regulations and practices authorised under state-imposed emergencies. It does so in order firstly, to bring attention to the practices authorised through state-imposed emergencies and the currency and saliency of their ongoing effects, and secondly to re-frame the militarised violence of settlement/occupation as an integral part of state-imposed emergencies in which all that is necessary will be done to protect the sovereign state from the resistance of the colonised/occupied and to effect a return to ‘order’.     Through encounters with the archival record, and the architectures, remnants and territorial arrangements found in post-colonial Kenya and across the multiple geographies of Palestine, the essay draws out seven clusters of state imposed emergency practices and effects. The work grapples with a number of questions: what is it that a declared state of emergency performs for the state? Does a state of emergency enable particular forms of militarised violence? Are there common practices to be found across different modes of state-imposed emergencies? What is the genealogy to the states of emergency across Palestine and Kenya? Does our excavation of the practices of state-imposed emergency shed light on the ways we apprehend state violence in colonial, post-colonial and neo-colonial geographies?

  13. The Transforming Self: Service Narratives and Identity Change in Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Keith; McAdams, Dan P.

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the extent to which a service trip to Nicaragua affected college students' narrative understanding of themselves and their commitment to volunteer service. College students who went on a spring break service trip to work with poor citizens of Nicaragua wrote narrative accounts of three important experiences on the trip shortly…

  14. Intelligent emergency service system based on wireless sensor and actuator networks%基于无线传感执行网络的智能应急服务系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 张军; 宋光明; 乔贵方; 宋爱国

    2016-01-01

    An intelligent emergency service IES system is designed for indoor environments based on a wireless sensor and actuator network WSAN composed of a gateway sensor nodes and a multi-robot system MRS .If the MRS receives accident alarm information the group of robots will navigate to the accident sites and provide corresponding emergency services.According to the characteristics of the MRS a distributed consensus formation protocol is designed which can assure that the multiple robots arrive at the accident site in a specified formation.The prototype emergency service system was designed and implemented and some relevant simulations and experiments were carried out. The results show that the MRS can successfully provide emergency lighting and failure node replacement services when accidents happen.The effectiveness of the algorithm and the feasibility of the system are verified.%基于由网关、静态传感器节点和多移动机器人系统组成的无线传感和执行网络,设计了一种用于室内环境的应急服务系统。当网络中多机器人系统接收到事故报警信息时,多机器人将导航至事故地点并提供相应的应急服务。根据网络中多移动机器人系统的特点,设计了一种分布式一致性编队算法,使得多机器人系统能够保持队形到达目标位置。最后设计并实现了这种应急服务系统,并进行了仿真和实验测试。结果表明当发生事故时,多机器人系统可以成功提供应急照明和故障检测节点的替换服务。算法的有效性和系统的可行性得到了验证。

  15. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira; Andy Petroianu; Dafne Maria Villar Gonçalves; Gisele Araújo Pereira; Luiz Ronaldo Alberti

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the regio...

  16. Wireless Reporting System for Accident Detection at Higher Speeds u

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peddi Anudeep

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Speed is one of the basic reasons for vehicle accident. Many lives could have been saved if emergency service could get accident information and reach in time. Nowadays, GPS has become an integral part of a vehicle system. This paper proposes to utilize the capability of a GPS receiver to monitor speed of a vehicle and detect accident basing on monitored speed and send accident location to an Alert Service Center. The GPS will monitor speed of a vehicle and compare with the previous speed in every second through a Microcontroller Unit. Whenever the speed will be below the specified speed, it will assume that an accident has occurred. The system will then send the accident location acquired from the GPS along with the time and the speed by utilizing the GSM network. This will help to reach the rescue service in time and save the valuable human life.

  17. Knowledge and attitude regarding standard precautions in a Brazilian public emergency service: a cross-sectional study Conocimiento y actitud sobre las precauciones estándar en un servicio público de emergencia brasileño: un estudio transversal Conhecimento e atitude sobre precauções-padrão em um serviço público de emergência brasileiro: um estudo transversal

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Cristina de Oliveira; Maria Helena Palucci Marziale; Maria Henriqueta Rocha Siqueira Paiva; Aline Cristine Souza Lopes

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of health care professionals regarding their use of universal precaution measures at a public emergency service. The study also aimed to assess the rates of occupational accidents involving biological substances among those workers. This study was performed with 238 workers, from June to November 2006, using univariate and multivariate analysis. The chance of not adopting precaution measures was 20.7 (95% CI: 5.68 - 75.14) tim...

  18. Emergency Medical Services Public Health Implications and Interim Guidance for the Ebola Virus in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E. McCoy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The 25th known outbreak of the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD is now a global public health emergency and the World Health Organization (WHO has declared the epidemic to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC. Since the first cases of the West African epidemic were reported in March 2014, there has been an increase in infection rates of over 13,000% over a 6-month period. The Ebola virus has now arrived in the United States and public health professionals, doctors, hospitals, Emergency Medial Services Administrators, Medical Directors, and policy makers have been working with haste to develop strategies to prevent the disease from reaching epidemic proportions. Prehospital care providers (emergency medical technicians and paramedics and medical first responders (including but not limited to firefighters and law enforcement are the healthcare systems front lines when it comes to first medical contact with patients outside of the hospital setting. Risk of contracting Ebola can be particularly high in this population of first responders if the appropriate precautions are not implemented. This article provides a brief clinical overview of the Ebola Virus Disease and provides a comprehensive summary of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s Interim Guidance for Emergency Medical Services (EMS Systems and 9-1-1 Public Safety Answering Points (PSAPS for Management of Patients with Known of Suspected Ebola Virus Disease in the United States. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:-0.

  19. 47 CFR Appendix B to Part 64 - Priority Access Service (PAS) for National Security and Emergency Preparedness (NSEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... decision to the parties of record. Until a decision is made, the service will remain status quo. 5. PAS... FCC on the status of PAS. 10. Disclose content of the NSEP PAS database only as may be required by law... telecommunications management and response functions during emergency/disaster situations. 3. Initiate PAS...

  20. The evaluation of time performance in the emergency response center to provide pre-hospital emergency services in Kermanshah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohsen; Nasiripour, Amir Ashkan; Fakhri, Mahmood; Bakhtiari, Ahad; Azari, Samad; Akbarzadeh, Arash; Goli, Ali; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2014-09-28

    This study evaluated the time performance in the emergency response center to provide pre-hospital emergency services in Kermanshah. This study was a descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. In this study 500 cases of patients from Shahrivar (September) 2012 to the end of Shahrivar (September) 2013 were selected and studied by the non-probability quota method. The measuring tool included a preset cases record sheet and sampling method was completing the cases record sheet by referring to the patients' cases. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 18 and the concepts of descriptive and inferential statistics (Kruskal-Wallis test, benchmark Eta (Eta), Games-Howell post hoc test). The results showed that the interval mean between receiving the mission to reaching the scene, between reaching the scene to moving from the scene, and between moving from the scene to a health center was 7.28, 16.73 and 7.28 minutes. The overall mean of time performance from the scene to the health center was 11.34 minutes. Any intervention in order to speed up service delivery, reduce response times, ambulance equipment and facilities required for accuracy, validity and reliability of the data recorded in the emergency dispatch department, Continuing Education of ambulance staffs, the use of manpower with higher specialize levels such as nurses, supply the job satisfaction, and increase the coordination with other departments that are somehow involved in this process can provide the ground for reducing the loss and disability resulting from traffic accidents.

  1. Análise dos serviços hospitalares clínicos aos idosos vítimas de acidentes e violências Analysis of hospital clinical services to elderly victims of accidents and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Carvalho de Lima

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O aumento de idosos na população e a vida mais ativa permitem maior exposição a acidentes e violências nessa população. Realizou-se uma análise diagnóstica dos serviços hospitalares de atendimento às urgências e emergências às vítimas de acidentes e violências na população idosa de cinco capitais do Brasil. A investigação foi fundamentada nos princípios da triangulação de métodos, integrando as abordagens quantitativa, com a aplicação de questionários aos gestores e profissionais de serviços de atenção hospitalar, e qualitativa, em que foram realizadas entrevistas com gestores e profissionais. Com base nas diretrizes das políticas estudadas, observou-se que nenhuma das capitais cumpriu todos os requisitos, apresentando um atendimento deficiente caracterizado pela falta de estrutura para manter um acompanhante para o idoso, encaminhamentos para serviços de referência, protocolos clínicos específicos, fichas de notificação, suporte aos idosos, capacitação profissional e definição do fluxo para tal população. Os resultados demonstraram que os serviços de saúde selecionados não apresentam o perfil adequado e integral necessário ao atendimento aos idosos, demonstrando a necessidade de adequação desses serviços para o cumprimento das diretrizes das políticas analisadas.The increase of elderly population and more active life allow a greater exposure to accidents and violence in this population. A diagnostic analysis of hospital services for emergency and urgent care to victims of accidents and violence in the elderly population was carried out in five capitals of Brazil. The research was based on the principles of triangulation of methods, including quantitative approaches, through the application of questionnaires to managers and pre-hospital, hospital and rehabilitation service professionals, as well as qualitative, in which interviews were made with managers and professionals and with those in

  2. Evaluation of an accident management strategy of emergency water injection using fire engines in a typical pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Yong; Ahn, Kwang Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Following the Fukushima accident, a special safety inspection was conducted in Korea. The inspection results show that Korean nuclear power plants have no imminent risk for expected maximum potential earthquake or coastal flooding. However long- and short-term safety improvements do need to be implemented. One of the measures to increase the mitigation capability during a prolonged station blackout (SBO) accident is installing injection flow paths to provide emergency cooling water of external sources using fire engines to the steam generators or reactor cooling systems. This paper illustrates an evaluation of the effectiveness of external cooling water injection strategies using fire trucks during a potential extended SBO accident in a 1,000 MWe pressurized water reactor. With regard to the effectiveness of external cooling water injection strategies using fire engines, the strategies are judged to be very feasible for a long-term SBO, but are not likely to be effective for a short-term SBO.

  3. Occupational Burnout and Its Determinants among Personnel of Emergency Medical Services in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiban, Mahnaz; Hosseini, Saboor; Bikmoradi, Ali; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Karampourian, Arezou

    2015-11-01

    Several observations have addressed high rates of occupational burnout among personnel of emergency medical services (EMSs) centers. Occupational burnout influences EMS personnel's well-being and quality of life. The main objective of this study was to assess burnout and its determinants among Iranian EMS personnel. This study was carried out at all EMS centers in two provinces of Kermanshah and Hamadan located at the west of Iran. The sample consists of 260 personnel (110 in Hamadan and 150 in Kermanshah) that were consecutively entered. The information was collected by researcher attendance at their workplaces using a self-administered questionnaire. Occupational-burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. An average of 46.54% of personnel displayed high frequency in the subscale emotional exhaustion, 38.85% displayed high frequency in the subscale depersonalization, and only 2.69% of them displayed high frequency in the subscale incompetence/lack of personal accomplishment. Regarding the severity of burnout, severe emotional exhaustion and depersonalization were detected in an average of 25.39% and 37.69 of the personnel, respectively; while, an average of 97.31% expressed a low level of the lack of personal accomplishment. Frequency and severity of burnout were adversely affected by younger age, single status, history of smoking, lower income, higher work experience, longer shifts, and even work status of the spouse. Iranian EMSs personnel considerably suffered from emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. This should be effectively managed and improved by organizational supports, psychological consultations, and effective management aimed to improve determinants of appearing occupation-related burnout.

  4. Occupational Burnout and Its Determinants among Personnel of Emergency Medical Services in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiban, Mahnaz; Hosseini, Saboor; Bikmoradi, Ali; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Karampourian, Arezou

    2015-11-01

    Several observations have addressed high rates of occupational burnout among personnel of emergency medical services (EMSs) centers. Occupational burnout influences EMS personnel's well-being and quality of life. The main objective of this study was to assess burnout and its determinants among Iranian EMS personnel. This study was carried out at all EMS centers in two provinces of Kermanshah and Hamadan located at the west of Iran. The sample consists of 260 personnel (110 in Hamadan and 150 in Kermanshah) that were consecutively entered. The information was collected by researcher attendance at their workplaces using a self-administered questionnaire. Occupational-burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. An average of 46.54% of personnel displayed high frequency in the subscale emotional exhaustion, 38.85% displayed high frequency in the subscale depersonalization, and only 2.69% of them displayed high frequency in the subscale incompetence/lack of personal accomplishment. Regarding the severity of burnout, severe emotional exhaustion and depersonalization were detected in an average of 25.39% and 37.69 of the personnel, respectively; while, an average of 97.31% expressed a low level of the lack of personal accomplishment. Frequency and severity of burnout were adversely affected by younger age, single status, history of smoking, lower income, higher work experience, longer shifts, and even work status of the spouse. Iranian EMSs personnel considerably suffered from emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. This should be effectively managed and improved by organizational supports, psychological consultations, and effective management aimed to improve determinants of appearing occupation-related burnout. PMID:26786993

  5. Accident Simulation: Design and Results

    OpenAIRE

    Idasiak, Vincent; David, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    International audience The French legislation regulates the functioning of factories that may be dangerous towards their environment. This legislation imposes the creation of an Internal Operation Plan (P.O.I.) on the plant managers. Those plans describe the proceedings that have to be implemented in case of an accident. Within a framework involving our laboratory and a gas company we have designed a software to create, maintain and execute P.O.I.s . In this paper, in addition to the softw...

  6. Organization of the French emergency teams in the event of a radiological accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumon, F. [Faculte de Pharmacie, 13 - Marseille (France); Pizzocaro, Y. [CSP, Risques Technologiques, 83 - Toulon (France)

    2001-07-01

    Nowadays, the intervention in ionizing environment is increasingly probable. It is still rare, but with the development of the nuclear programme of electricity production which was held in the french past and the significant rise in the use of the radioelements, as well in the medical field as industrial, the radioactive risk cannot be neglected. Technical and human resources, brought by mobile emergency teams called CMIR, were thus implemented to ensure either the safety of only hard-working exposed to the ionizing radiations, but also that of the population. In France, the organization of the public authorities in the event of nuclear accident, fixed by Directives of the Prime Minister which relate to nuclear safety, protection against radiation, the law and order and the civil safety, is described in Particular Plan for Intervention (PPI). (author)

  7. Accident analysis and DOE criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In analyzing the radiological consequences of major accidents at DOE facilities one finds that many facilities fall so far below the limits of DOE Order 6430 that compliance is easily demonstrated by simple analysis. For those cases where the amount of radioactive material and the dispersive energy available are enough for accident consequences to approach the limits, the models and assumptions used become critical. In some cases the models themselves are the difference between meeting the criteria or not meeting them. Further, in one case, we found that not only did the selection of models determine compliance but the selection of applicable criteria from different chapters of Order 6430 also made the difference. DOE has recognized the problem of different criteria in different chapters applying to one facility, and has proceeded to make changes for the sake of consistency. We have proposed to outline the specific steps needed in an accident analysis and suggest appropriate models, parameters, and assumptions. As a result we feed DOE siting and design criteria will be more fairly and consistently applied

  8. Modeling, simulation and emergency response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) has been developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to provide a national capability in emergency response to radiological accidents. For the past two years the system has been undergoing a complete redesign and upgrade in software and hardware. Communications, geophysical databases, atmospheric transport and diffusion models and experienced staff form the core of this rapid response capability. The ARAC system has been used to support DOE commitments to radiological accidents including the Three Mile Island accident, the COSMOS satellite reentries, the TITAN II missile accident and several others. This paper describes the major components of the ARAC system, presents example calculations and discusses the interactive process of the man-machine environment in an emergency response system.

  9. Hazard perception in emergency medical service responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, K A; Scialfa, C T

    2016-10-01

    The perception of on-road hazards is critically important to emergency medical services (EMS) professionals, the patients they transport and the general public. This study compared hazard perception in EMS and civilian drivers of similar age and personal driving experience. Twenty-nine EMS professionals and 24 non-professional drivers were given a dynamic hazard perception test (HPT). The EMS group demonstrated an advantage in HPT that was independent of simple reaction time, another indication of the validity of the test. These results are also consistent with the view that professional driving experience results in changes in the ability to identify and respond to on-road hazards. Directions for future research include the development of a profession-specific hazard perception tool for both assessment and training purposes.

  10. Hazard perception in emergency medical service responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, K A; Scialfa, C T

    2016-10-01

    The perception of on-road hazards is critically important to emergency medical services (EMS) professionals, the patients they transport and the general public. This study compared hazard perception in EMS and civilian drivers of similar age and personal driving experience. Twenty-nine EMS professionals and 24 non-professional drivers were given a dynamic hazard perception test (HPT). The EMS group demonstrated an advantage in HPT that was independent of simple reaction time, another indication of the validity of the test. These results are also consistent with the view that professional driving experience results in changes in the ability to identify and respond to on-road hazards. Directions for future research include the development of a profession-specific hazard perception tool for both assessment and training purposes. PMID:27415813

  11. Emergence of Mobility Services in Urban China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-Francois Doulet

    2010-01-01

    This article points out the limits of top-down strategies in China rooted in the construction of large-scale transportation facilities, primarily road networks. It helps to identify emerging trends that show a shift from a "hardware" approach, which focuses mainly on heavy in- frastructure investments, to a "software" approach, which rather relies on improving travel conditions. Based on the description of three existing mobility services that won awards in the 2010 "Better Mobility, Better Life" Prize for Innovative Urban Mobility Solutions, this article assesses these bottom-up, multi-participation strategies, and the effects of these "soft strategies" on improving travel conditions, reducing car dependency, building communities, etc. Finally, it concludes that these soft measures can contribute to the building of a harmonious society and low-carbon cities, and should receive more attention and support.

  12. An Entry Point of the Emergency Response Robot for Management of Severe Accident of the Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jaiwan; Jeong, Kyungmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    In this paper, from the view point of DID (defense-in depth), we discuss the entry point of the nuclear emergency response robot to cope with a nuclear disaster. A Japanese nuclear disaster preparedness robot system was developed, after the JCO criticality accident in 1999, to cope with INES (International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale) Level 3 serious incidents. INES Level 3 means the loss of DID (defense-in-depth) functions. It also indicates that ESF (engineered safety features) and ECCS (emergency core cooling system) resources, which are used to prevent serious incidents from escalating to severe accidents (core melt-down), have been almost exhausted. In the unit 1 reactor accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, escalation from INES Level 1 (Out of Limiting Condition for Operation) to INES Level 5 (serious core melting-down) took less than two hours. Major facts are briefly described here in based on data gathered immediately after the tsunami over Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Ο 15:35 on March 11, 2nd tsunami arrived. - 15:37, SBO (station black out) Ο 15:42, Interprets as a SBO (INES Level 1) - Loss of DC power for Instrumentation (Unknown of reactor water level) Ο 16:36, Loss of ECCS function (INELS Level 5) (Entry into a BDBA status) The Moni ROBO-A robot of the Japan Nuclear Safety Technology Center (NUSTEC) was a nuclear disaster preparedness robot developed after the JCO criticality accident. It was the only robot that had been steadily maintained and was available at the time of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. However, it was not helpful in mitigating the accident because it is assumed to have arrived at J-Village after the accident had been escalated to INES Level 5 or higher. Based on the paper by S. Kawatsuma of JAEA and response data gathered immediately after the tsunami, it is estimated that the NUSTEC's Moni ROBO-A arrived at J-Village after the designed entry point for INES Level 3

  13. An Entry Point of the Emergency Response Robot for Management of Severe Accident of the Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, from the view point of DID (defense-in depth), we discuss the entry point of the nuclear emergency response robot to cope with a nuclear disaster. A Japanese nuclear disaster preparedness robot system was developed, after the JCO criticality accident in 1999, to cope with INES (International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale) Level 3 serious incidents. INES Level 3 means the loss of DID (defense-in-depth) functions. It also indicates that ESF (engineered safety features) and ECCS (emergency core cooling system) resources, which are used to prevent serious incidents from escalating to severe accidents (core melt-down), have been almost exhausted. In the unit 1 reactor accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, escalation from INES Level 1 (Out of Limiting Condition for Operation) to INES Level 5 (serious core melting-down) took less than two hours. Major facts are briefly described here in based on data gathered immediately after the tsunami over Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Ο 15:35 on March 11, 2nd tsunami arrived. - 15:37, SBO (station black out) Ο 15:42, Interprets as a SBO (INES Level 1) - Loss of DC power for Instrumentation (Unknown of reactor water level) Ο 16:36, Loss of ECCS function (INELS Level 5) (Entry into a BDBA status) The Moni ROBO-A robot of the Japan Nuclear Safety Technology Center (NUSTEC) was a nuclear disaster preparedness robot developed after the JCO criticality accident. It was the only robot that had been steadily maintained and was available at the time of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. However, it was not helpful in mitigating the accident because it is assumed to have arrived at J-Village after the accident had been escalated to INES Level 5 or higher. Based on the paper by S. Kawatsuma of JAEA and response data gathered immediately after the tsunami, it is estimated that the NUSTEC's Moni ROBO-A arrived at J-Village after the designed entry point for INES Level 3. According to

  14. Study on Emergency Disposal of Fire and Explosion Accident of Oil Depot and Gas Station%石油库站着火爆炸事故的应急处置研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蜀海

    2012-01-01

    由于油料特殊的物化性质,在库站储存、收发过程中极易造成火灾、爆炸事故,从而导致重大人员伤亡及财产损失。论文针对油罐火灾、罐(槽)车火灾、输油管线破裂火灾、加油站火灾及电器火灾五种事故形式,在深入分析其各自特点的基础上,提出了切实可行的应急处置方案,为石油库站火灾事故应急抢险方案制定、具体实施提供了重要参考。%Because of special physical and chemical property of oil, in the process of oil storage and transportation, fire and explosion accidents incidentally were led to cause severe casualty and loss. Focusing on the characteristic and dangerous degree of main types of oil accident, feasible emergency disposal measure was put forward. The work done laid the solid foundation on the operation of first aid repair of gasoline transportation and storage.

  15. The experiences of emergency department use by street-involved youth: Perspectives of health care and community service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, David B; Newton, Amanda S; Kilmer, Christopher; Calhoun, Avery; deJong-Berg, Margaret A; Dong, Kathryn; Hamilton, Faye; McLaughlin, Anne Marie; Shankar, Janki; Smyth, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Street-involved (SI) youth represent a significant proportion of urban homeless populations. While previous research has identified SI youth as substantial users of emergency department (ED) services and has examined their experiences of ED care, little is known about the experiences and perceptions of the service providers who assist these youth with health care related issues. Using grounded theory, individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with 20 community agency staff serving SI youth, 17 health service providers, two hospital administrators, and two hospital security personnel regarding their experiences in providing or facilitating ED care for SI youth. Results identify differences in expectations between SI youth and hospital staff, along with service issues and gaps, including relational barriers and resource constraints. Implications for practice and policy development are offered. PMID:27351791

  16. The Linked Response: Lessons Emerging from Integration of HIV and Reproductive Health Services in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna White

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative assessment was made of service provider and user perceptions of the quality of integrated reproductive health services established through a pilot intervention in Cambodia. The intervention aimed to promote pregnant women's HIV testing and general utilization of reproductive health facilities as well as improve the follow-up of HIV-positive women and exposed infants through strengthened referral and operational linkages amongst health facilities/services and community-based support interventions for PLHIV. The study was conducted in one operational district where the intervention was piloted and for comparative purposes in a district where integrated services had yet to be implemented. Service providers in the pilot district reported improved collaboration and coordination of services, more effective referral, and the positive impact of improved proximity of HIV testing through integrated local level facilities. Community-based support teams for PLHIV embraced their expanded role, were valued by families receiving their assistance, and were understood to have had an important role in referral, PMTCT follow-up and countering PLHIV stigmatization; findings which underscore the potential role of community support in integrated service provision. Challenges identified included stigmatization of PLHIV by health staff at district hospital level and a lack of confidence amongst non-specialized health staff when managing deliveries by HIV-positive women, partly due to fear of HIV transmission.

  17. Authority structure and industrial accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational characteristics on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. The general hypothesis is that the authority structure is a main cause of accident-proneness wit

  18. Nuclear emergency plan and preparedness in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japanese nuclear emergency plan and preparedness has been reinforced on the basis of lessons learned from the accident at the Three Mile Island-2 nuclear power plant in March 1079 and the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The framework for measures against a nuclear emergency, currently in place is briefly presented. In Japan, the responsibility for the population's protection in case of accidents lies upon prefectural governments. The national government is providing financial and technical support to prefectural governments. To facilitate the technical support for emergency situations, a significant effort has been made to develop computerized support systems: a radiological dose prediction code system SPEEDI and an accident evaluation code COSTA. This enables the prefectural governments to prepare their local emergency response systems by establishing communication networks, emergency medical treatment organizations and radiation monitoring schemes, and also nuclear emergency education, training and exercises. 2 tab., 2 figs., 2 refs

  19. Balancing Academic Teaching, Research, and Service: a Paradigm Emerging from NSF-TUES Sponsored Project Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paor, D. G.

    2012-12-01

    training. Our policy has lead to the emergence of a paradigm for academic inquiry. We develop and test learning resources to cover the gamut of earth and planetary sciences, which we view as the science of four-dimensional place-time. Our learning objects emphasize the role of visualization in promoting understanding. If these resources fail to achieve desired outcomes, we look into their design but also examine our own understanding of topics, since instructor misconceptions are an obvious hindrance to learning. Redesign of visualizations may improve outcomes but sometimes the problem lies not with presentation or content knowledge, but rather with gaps in the science itself. Thus teaching and public outreach can become vehicles for the discovery of fertile research questions. Dissemination of a policy that eastablishes teaching and service as bridges leading to research products has the potential to generate transformative changes in the education that graduate students deliver and thus the education that undergraduate students receive.

  20. [Systematization of nursing care in urgency and emergency services: feasibility of implementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Monica Antonio; Quadros, Fátima Alice Aguiar; Grassi, Maria de Fátima Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the feasibility of implementing the Nursing Care Systematization in an emergency and urgency hospital department. This is a field study, descriptive, qualitative structured according to the content analysis described by Bardin (2009). It was performed in a hospital specialized in emergency care. The sample consisted of eight practical nurses, five nurses and two assistants, all of them with experience of at least six months in the emergency room. The difficulties referred to the implementation of the NCS are: complexity in their steps; disinterest of the institution; theoretical unpreparedness of nursing, its devaluation by other professionals, inadequate sizing of employees and inadequacy of the hospital physical structure. In this context, it was note that the nurse loses representation in the health team and the application of SAE turns out to be often underestimated.

  1. Identifying Frequent Users of an Urban Emergency Medical Service Using Descriptive Statistics and Regression Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenelle Norman, MPH

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective cohort study provides a descriptive analysis of a population that frequently uses an urban emergency medical service (EMS and identifies factors that contribute to use among all frequent users. For purposes of this study we divided frequent users into the following groups: low- frequent users (4 EMS transports in 2012, medium-frequent users (5 to 6 EMS transports in 2012, high-frequent users (7 to 10 EMS transports in 2012 and super-frequent users (11 or more EMS transports in 2012. Overall, we identified 539 individuals as frequent users. For all groups of EMS frequent users (i.e. low, medium, high and super one or more hospital admissions, receiving a referral for follow-up care upon discharge, and having no insurance were found to be statistically significant with frequent EMS use (P<0.05. Within the diagnostic categories, 41.61% of super-frequent users had a diagnosis of “primarily substance abuse/misuse” and among low-frequent users a majority, 53.33%, were identified as having a “reoccurring (medical diagnosis.” Lastly, relative risk ratios for the highest group of users, super-frequent users, were 3.34 (95% CI [1.90-5.87] for obtaining at least one referral for follow-up care, 13.67 (95% CI [5.60-33.34] for having four or more hospital admissions and 5.95 (95% CI [1.80-19.63] for having a diagnoses of primarily substance abuse/misuse. Findings from this study demonstrate that among low- and medium-frequent users a majority of patients are using EMS for reoccurring medical conditions. This could potentially be avoided with better care management. In addition, this study adds to the current literature that illustrates a strong correlation between substance abuse/misuse and high/super-frequent EMS use. For the subgroup analysis among individuals 65 years of age and older, we did not find any of the independent variables included in our model to be statistically significant with frequent EMS use.

  2. Identifying Frequent Users of an Urban Emergency Medical Service Using Descriptive Statistics and Regression Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Chenelle; Mello, Michael; Choi, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study provides a descriptive analysis of a population that frequently uses an urban emergency medical service (EMS) and identifies factors that contribute to use among all frequent users. For purposes of this study we divided frequent users into the following groups: low- frequent users (4 EMS transports in 2012), medium-frequent users (5 to 6 EMS transports in 2012), high-frequent users (7 to 10 EMS transports in 2012) and super-frequent users (11 or more EMS transports in 2012). Overall, we identified 539 individuals as frequent users. For all groups of EMS frequent users (i.e. low, medium, high and super) one or more hospital admissions, receiving a referral for follow-up care upon discharge, and having no insurance were found to be statistically significant with frequent EMS use (P<0.05). Within the diagnostic categories, 41.61% of super-frequent users had a diagnosis of “primarily substance abuse/misuse” and among low-frequent users a majority, 53.33%, were identified as having a “reoccurring (medical) diagnosis.” Lastly, relative risk ratios for the highest group of users, super-frequent users, were 3.34 (95% CI [1.90–5.87]) for obtaining at least one referral for follow-up care, 13.67 (95% CI [5.60–33.34]) for having four or more hospital admissions and 5.95 (95% CI [1.80–19.63]) for having a diagnoses of primarily substance abuse/misuse. Findings from this study demonstrate that among low- and medium-frequent users a majority of patients are using EMS for reoccurring medical conditions. This could potentially be avoided with better care management. In addition, this study adds to the current literature that illustrates a strong correlation between substance abuse/misuse and high/super-frequent EMS use. For the subgroup analysis among individuals 65 years of age and older, we did not find any of the independent variables included in our model to be statistically significant with frequent EMS use. PMID:26823929

  3. The evolution of Earth Observation satellites in Europe and its impact on the performance of emergency response services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Gil; de Boissezon, Hélène; Hosford, Steven; Pasco, Xavier; Montfort, Bruno; Ranera, Franck

    2016-10-01

    The paper reviews the evolution of Earth Observation systems in Europe and Worldwide and analyses the potential impact of their performance in support of emergency response services. Earth Observation satellites play already a significant role in supporting the action of first responders in case of major disasters. The main principle is the coordinated use of satellites in order to ensure a rapid response and the timely delivery of images and geospatial information of the area affected by the event.

  4. Access to health services in Western Newfoundland, Canada: Issues, barriers and recommendations emerging from a community-engaged research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle Hippe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that people living in rural and remote areas of Canada face challenges to accessing health services. This article reports on a community-engaged research project conducted by investigators at Memorial University of Newfoundland in collaboration with the Rural Secretariat Regional Councils and Regional Partnership Planners for the Corner Brook–Rocky Harbour and Stephenville–Port aux Basques Rural Secretariat Regions of Newfoundland and Labrador. The aim of this research was to gather information on barriers to accessing health services, to identify solutions to health services’ access issues and to inform policy advice to government on enhancing access to health services. Data was collected through: (1 targeted distribution of a survey to communities throughout the region, and (2 informal ‘kitchen table’ discussions to discuss health services’ access issues. A total of 1049 surveys were collected and 10 kitchen table discussions were held. Overall, the main barriers to care listed in the survey included long wait times, services not available in the area and services not available at time required. Other barriers noted by survey respondents included transportation problems, financial concerns, no medical insurance coverage, distance to travel and weather conditions. Some respondents reported poorer access to maternal/child health and breast and cervical screening services and a lack of access to general practitioners, pharmacy services, dentists and nurse practitioners. Recommendations that emerged from this research included improving the recruitment of rural physicians, exploring the use of nurse practitioners, assisting individuals with travel costs,  developing specialist outreach services, increasing use of telehealth services and initiating additional rural and remote health research. Keywords: rural, remote, healthcare, health services, social determinants of health

  5. International seminar on Post nuclear accident from May 5 and 6, 2011 - The CODIRPA progresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the seminar is the anticipation of the radiological emergency situations to limit the consequences of nuclear accidents. The Steering Committee to manage the post-accident of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (CODIRPA) was started in June 2005 by the French nuclear safety authority (ASN), and was charged with developing French policy for the management of the post-accident phase of a nuclear or radiological accident situation. An ambitious program mobilising more than 200 people was put in place, including representatives of relevant national administrations and their local representatives, utility and industrial representatives, technical service organisations, nuclear safety authorities from bordering countries to France, NGOs and local elected officials. On December 2007, the previous seminar had constructively challenged the work of CODIRPA with international experiences and analysis. The 2011 seminar, organized by ASN with the support of the Parliamentary Office for the Evaluation of Scientific Choices and Technologies (OPECST), reports on the progress of the national doctrine's construction. The National Preparedness Guide for Exiting the Emergency Phase and drawn lessons concerning its local adaptation by regional and local community governmental organizations was presented at this occasion. The parliamentary mission headed by OPECST on the safety of nuclear installations holds its first public hearing on May 5, 2011. The seminar provides an opportunity for members of the parliamentary mission to learn about crisis management and post-accident of the major nuclear accident occurred in Japan at Fukushima. This document comprises a complete FR/EN detailed synthesis of the seminar followed by the recommendations of CODIRPA (in French) and by the slides of the available presentations for each session: Opening of the meeting; Session 1: National Preparedness Guide for Exiting the Emergency Phase; Session 2: Development of the

  6. A Model for Emergency Service of VoIP Through Certification and Labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas Sicker; Tom Lookabaugh

    2004-01-01

    Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) will transform many aspects of traditional telephony service including technology, the business models and the regulatory constructs that govern such service. This transformation is generating a host of technical, business, social and policy problems. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) could attempt to mandate obligations or specific solutions to the policy issues around VoIP, but is instead looking first to industry initiatives focused on key func...

  7. Risk and protection factors in fatal accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Emmanuelle; Martensen, Heike; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2010-03-01

    This paper aims at addressing the interest and appropriateness of performing accident severity analyses that are limited to fatal accident data. Two methodological issues are specifically discussed, namely the accident-size factors (the number of vehicles in the accident and their level of occupancy) and the comparability of the baseline risk. It is argued that - although these two issues are generally at play in accident severity analyses - their effects on, e.g., the estimation of survival probability, are exacerbated if the analysis is limited to fatal accident data. As a solution, it is recommended to control for these effects by (1) including accident-size indicators in the model, (2) focusing on different sub-groups of road-users while specifying the type of opponent in the model, so as to ensure that comparable baseline risks are worked with. These recommendations are applied in order to investigate risk and protection factors of car occupants involved in fatal accidents using data from a recently set up European Fatal Accident Investigation database (Reed and Morris, 2009). The results confirm that the estimated survival probability is affected by accident-size factors and by type of opponent. The car occupants' survival chances are negatively associated with their own age and that of their vehicle. The survival chances are also lower when seatbelt is not used. Front damage, as compared to other damaged car areas, appears to be associated with increased survival probability, but mostly in the case in which the accident opponent was another car. The interest of further investigating accident-size factors and opponent effects in fatal accidents is discussed. PMID:20159090

  8. Study on the radiological assessor's responsibility in radiological accident and emergency response%辐射事故应急情况下放射评估者的职责

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建峰; 苏旭; 李文红; 拓飞

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨放射评估者在辐射事故应急现场中承担的任务和职责.方法:根据国际原子能机构技术报告中提出的相关建议以及我国的具体情况,分析放射评估者在辐射事故应急中所担负的任务和职责.结果:明确放射评估者在不同辐射应急中的任务和职责.结论:通过对放射评估者的任务和职责讨论,以便在实际工作中更好地履行职责,从而减轻辐射事故对人体和环境造成的损害.%Objective:To discuss the radiological assessor's tasks and responsibility when the radiological emergency and accident occurred.Methods:According to the technical reports from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and specific circumstances in China,it analyzed the task and responsibility which radiological assessor should take.Results:It defined the tasks and responsibility of radiological assessor.Conclusion:Radiological assessor will carry out their task and responsibility well in practice to reduce the damage to personnel and environmental in radiological accident.

  9. A retrospective quality assessment of pre-hospital emergency medical documentation in motor vehicle accidents in south-eastern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staff Trine

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have evaluated pre-hospital documentation quality. We retrospectively assessed emergency medical service (EMS documentation of key logistic, physiologic, and mechanistic variables in motor vehicle accidents (MVAs. Methods Records from police, Emergency Medical Communication Centers (EMCC, ground and air ambulances were retrospectively collected for 189 MVAs involving 392 patients. Documentation of Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, respiratory rate (RR, and systolic blood pressure (SBP was classified as exact values, RTS categories, clinical descriptions enabling post-hoc inference of RTS categories, or missing. The distribution of values of exact versus inferred RTS categories were compared (Chi-square test for trend. Results 25% of ground and 11% of air ambulance records were unretrieveable. Patient name, birth date, and transport destination was documented in >96% of ambulance records and 81% of EMCC reports. Only 54% of patient encounter times were transmitted to the EMCC, but 77% were documented in ground and 96% in air ambulance records. Ground ambulance records documented exact values of GCS in 48% and SBP in 53% of cases, exact RR in 10%, and RR RTS categories in 54%. Clinical descriptions made post-hoc inference of RTS categories possible in another 49% of cases for GCS, 26% for RR, and 20% for SBP. Air ambulance records documented exact values of GCS in 89% and SBP in 84% of cases, exact RR in 7% and RR RTS categories in 80%. Overall, for lower RTS categories of GCS, RR and SBP the proportion of actual documented values to inferred values increased (All: p Conclusion EMS documentation of logistic and mechanistic variables was adequate. Patient physiology was frequently documented only as descriptive text. Our finding indicates a need for improved procedures, training, and tools for EMS documentation. Documentation is in itself a quality criterion for appropriate care and is crucial to trauma research.

  10. 深水钻井井喷事故情景构建及应急能力评估%Scenario design of blowout accidents in deepwater drilling and emergency capacity assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷志明; 张红生; 周建良; 李迅科

    2015-01-01

    Deepwater oil and gas development faces enormous risks and challenges. Especially when blowout out of control ac-cident occurs in the development process, the emergency rescue will be very dififcult. Scenario design approach for major accidents is used to build blowout scenarios in the drilling of a deepwater exploratory well in the South China Sea, covering the whole process from overlfow to blowout out of control, ifre and explosion of platform, platform overturn and sinking, underwater emergency well shut-in and relief well digging, spilled oil recycling and ecological restoration. The demands for engineering technology, equipment and staff for the emergency rescue are analyzed and evaluated and suggestions on the research of emergency rescue technology in the next stage in China are provided. The research results can be a reference for the independent building of emergency rescue engineering technique system in well control of deepwater drilling in China.%深水油气开发面临着巨大的风险和挑战,尤其是在油气开发过程中如果发生井喷失控事故,应急救援将十分困难。采用重大事故情景构建方法,建立南中国海某深水探井在钻井期间发生井喷失控事故情景,包括从溢流发生到井喷失控、平台发生火灾爆炸、平台倾覆沉没、水下应急封井及打救援井、溢油回收处理及生态恢复,并对应急救援必须的工程技术、设备、人员等需求进行分析和评估,对我国下一阶段开展应急救援技术研究提出建议。研究结果对我国自主建立深水钻井井控应急救援工程技术体系有一定参考意义。

  11. Synthesis of public authorities organisation in case of emergency and in a post-event situation (following a nuclear accident or a radiological attack) in France and abroad; Synthese sur l'organisation des pouvoirs publics en cas d'urgence et en situation post-evenementielle (suite a un accident nucleaire ou a un attentat radiologique) en france et a l'etranger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayser, O. [SGDSN/PSEIPPS, Bureau NRBC, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    After having briefly recalled how an emergency situation (notably in case of nuclear accident or radiological attack) is taken into account in the organisation of public authorities through specific plans (PPI or plans particuliers d'intervention, intervention specific plans), this report also describes how the situation is handled by these authorities after the end of the emergency situation (i.e. when the risk of new radioactive releases is over). This post-event stage is split into two phases: a transition phase which lasts several weeks or months, and a long term consequence management phase (over months or years). The author first describes the specificities of a nuclear or radiological event (accident or attack). He recalls the global public organisation and the involved actors. For the post-event period, he indicates the various actions, describes the interdepartmental coordination and the various aspects of the program designed to manage accident consequences on the long term. He also describes the roles of permanent bodies, agencies and institutes (ASN, ASND, MSNR, IRSN, INVS, ADEME, AFSSA, Meteo France, CEA, ANDRA, AREVA, EDF, ministries). The last part describes the action of public authorities in case of a nuclear accident occurring abroad. This includes relationship with European and international bodies

  12. Organisational Sustainability Modelling – an emerging service and analytics model for evaluating Cloud Computing adoption with two case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Victor; Walters, Robert; Wills, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing is an emerging technology which promises to bring with it great benefits to all types of computing activities including business support. However, the full commitment to Cloud computing necessary to gain the full benefit is a major project for any organisation, since it necessitates adoption of new business processes and attitudes to computing services in addition to the immediately obvious systems changes. Hence the evaluation of a Cloud computing project needs to consider th...

  13. International law problems for realisation of the IAEA conventions on notification and assistance in the case of a nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, M.M.

    1993-12-31

    The Chernobyl accident underscored the need for an early warning system and international assistance plan in case of a nuclear accident. Shortly after Chernobyl, two conventions were adopted under the auspices of the IAEA. The convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, in force since 1986, establishes an early warning system for all nuclear accidents whose effects might cross national boundaries. Under the convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear accident or radiological Emergency,in force since 1987, countries must facilitate prompt assistance in case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, to minimize it`s consequences. Issues with the conventions are described.

  14. Security Risks of Cloud Computing and Its Emergence as 5th Utility Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mushtaq

    Cloud Computing is being projected by the major cloud services provider IT companies such as IBM, Google, Yahoo, Amazon and others as fifth utility where clients will have access for processing those applications and or software projects which need very high processing speed for compute intensive and huge data capacity for scientific, engineering research problems and also e- business and data content network applications. These services for different types of clients are provided under DASM-Direct Access Service Management based on virtualization of hardware, software and very high bandwidth Internet (Web 2.0) communication. The paper reviews these developments for Cloud Computing and Hardware/Software configuration of the cloud paradigm. The paper also examines the vital aspects of security risks projected by IT Industry experts, cloud clients. The paper also highlights the cloud provider's response to cloud security risks.

  15. Integrating emergency services in an urban health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radloff, D; Blouin, A S; Larsen, L; Kripp, M E

    2000-03-01

    When planning for growth and management efficiency across urban health systems, economic and market factors present significant service line challenges and opportunities. This article describes the evolutionary integration of emergency services in St John Health System, a large, religious-sponsored health care system located in Detroit, Michigan. Critical business elements, including the System's vision, mission, and economic context, are defined as the framework for site-specific and System-wide planning. The impact of managed care and market changes prompted St John's clinicians and executives to explore how integrating emergency services could create a competitive market advantage.

  16. Investigation of epidemic characteristics and emergency nursing on patients suffered from traffic accidents%交通事故伤害患者流行病学特点及急救护理的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐灵芝; 陈由珠; 李云燕

    2008-01-01

    目的 了解交通伤患者的性别、年龄、受伤部位、车祸发生的时间等特征,为临床救护提供依据.方法 以2005年6月至2007年6月收治的2 955例交通事故伤害的急诊患者为研究对象,进行回顾性、描述性统计分析.结果 交通伤比例高的时间段为5~11月、双休日、每年3个长假,1 d内以11:00~13:00、16:00~19:00为多.交通伤患者男多于女,年龄以16~35岁的青年最多,伤害部位以头面部和四肢为主,需立即实施抢救措施者945例.结论 应加强节假日、双休日、中晚班急诊护理人员的配备,保证有足够的人力参与抢救;同时应加强护士急救意识、各种穿刺能力、抢救技能以及应急应变能力训练,进一步规范交通伤的救治.%Objective To understand the sex,age,injured portion,time of accident on patients suf-fered from traffic accidents in order to provide evidences for clinical emergency rescue.Methods For retrospective analysis and descriptive statistics,2955 patients who suffered from traffic accidents between Jun 2005 and Jun 2007 were as study objects.Results The periods with high traffic wounds were in May to September,weekends,three long holidays.Among a day,accidents happened more in 11Am to 13Pro,16Pm to 19Pm.Male patients were more than females.16 to 35 year old young people were at most.Injured portions were mainly in head,face and four limbs.945 patients needed emergency rescue immediately.Conclusion In order to have sufficient poople to take part in rescues,emergency nurses for holidays,weekends,mid and night duties should be prepared in-creasingly.Meanwhile,nurses'emergency consciousness,various kinds puncture techniques,rescuing and strin-gency skills should be strengthened.Remedy for traffic wounds should be further specified.

  17. National Weather Service, Emergency Medical Services, Scripps Institution of Oceanography/UCSD and California EPA Collaboration on Heat Health Impact and Public Notification for San Diego County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, A. O.; Corcus, I.; Guirguis, K.

    2015-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS) has issued official heat alerts in the form of either a heat advisory or excessive heat warning product to the public and core partners for many years. This information has traditionally been developed through the use of triggers for heat indices which combine humidity and temperature. The criteria typically used numeric thresholds and did not consider impact from a particular heat episode, nor did it factor seasonality or population acclimation. In 2013, the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego in collaboration with the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, of the California Environmental Protection Agency and the NWS completed a study of heat health impact in California, while the NWS San Diego office began modifying their criteria towards departure from climatological normal with much less dependence on humidity or heat index. The NWS changes were based on initial findings from the California Department of Public Health, EpiCenter California Injury Data Online system which documents heat health impacts. Results from the UCSD study were finalized and published in 2014; they supported the need for significant modification of the traditional criteria. In order to better understand the impacts of heat on community health, medical outcome data were provided by the County of San Diego Emergency Medical Services Branch, which is charged by the County's Public Health Officer to monitor heat-related illness and injury daily from June through September. The data were combined with UCSD research to inform the modification of local NWS heat criteria and establish trigger points to pilot new procedures for the issuance of heat alerts. Finally, practices and procedures were customized for each of the county health departments in the NWS area of responsibility across extreme southwest California counties in collaboration with their Office of Emergency Services. The end result of the

  18. Accidents in Children under ten: analysis of admittions at First Aid Emergency Public Centers in São Luis, MA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiane Maia MACIEL

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze accidents in children under ten admitted at First Aid Emergency Public Centers in São Luis, MA. Methods: Quantitative study with a sample of 166 children from August to November 2011. They were evaluated demographic, socio-economical and variable data related to the accident. In comparison to the main variable categorical, we used the Chi-square test. Results: The age categories included 51.8% of children aged 6-9, 35.5% between 2-5 and 12.7% were smaller or equal to one. It was predominant the male sex (69.9%; the countryside origin (53.6%; the children admitted had family income to 1 minimum wage (60.2%. The most frequent accidents were: falls (55.4%, transportation accidents (21.1% and burns (12.7%. The accidents occurred mainly at homes (63.3%, on weekends (39.2% and in the afternoon (53.6%. In relation to falls accidents, burns and strange body, there was some significance statistic at age (p = 0.001. Conclusions: We conclude that most of the accidents suffered by children in Sao Luis, MA who looked for First Aid Emergency Public Centers were low to the average seriousness at 82.0% of hospitalization for a period from 1 to 4 days.

  19. Emergency service organization in conditions of commission separation at subject and municipality levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchuk D.A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of stages of formation of the modern legislation, established kinds of medical aid and sources of their financing depending on levels of the power, structure of a network of organization of public health services concerning protection of constitutional laws of citizens on reception of timely, qualitative, highly technological and accessible medical aid is presented in the article. Aspects of formation of standard-legal base of service of the first aid, including specialized aid are considered in detail. The classification signs defining technologies of rendering of medical aid and the form of its organization are considered

  20. Nuclear emergency plan and preparedness in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T.; Nozawa, M.; Tajima, E.

    1994-12-31

    The Japanese nuclear emergency plan and preparedness has been reinforced on the basis of lessons learned from the accident at the TMI-2 nuclear power plant in March, 1979 and the Chernobyl Accident in 1986. Responsibility to protect the inhabitants in case of accidents lies upon prefectural governments. The national government is providing financial and technical support to prefectural governments. To facilitate technical support for emergency situations, a significant effort has been made to develop computerized support systems: a radiological dose prediction code system SPEEDI and an accident evolution code COSTA. Prefectural governments prepare their local emergency response systems by establishing communication networks, emergency medical treatment organizations and radiation monitoring schemes, and also nuclear emergency education, training and exercises.

  1. Production layout improvement in emergency services: a participatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Mateus; Amaral, Fernando Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    Volunteer fire department is a service that responds emergency situations in places where there are no military emergency services. These services need to respond quickly, because time is often responsible for the operation success besides work environment and setup time interfere with the prompt response to these calls and care efficiency. The layout design is one factor that interferes with the quick setup. In this case, the spaces arrangement can result in excessive or unnecessary movements; also the equipment provision may hinder the selection and collection of these or even create movement barriers for the workers. This work created a new layout for the emergency assistance service, considering the human factors related to work through the task analysis and workers participation on the alternatives of improvement. The results showed an alternate layout with corridors and minimization of unusable sites, allowing greater flexibility and new possibilities of requirements.

  2. Acidentes ocupacionais por exposição a material biológico entre a equipe multiprofissional do atendimento pré-hospitalar Accidentes ocupacionales por exposición a material biológico entre el equipo multiprofesional de atención pre hospitalaria Occupational accidents due to exposure to biological material in the multidisciplinary team of the emergency service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina Oliveira

    2009-09-01

    ñamiento serológico, 61,2%. Estuvieron asociados al accidente: tiempo en la institución, (Odds ratio-OR 2,84; Intervalo de confianza-IC 95% 1,22-6,62, asignado en la Unidad de Soporte Avanzado, (OR 4,18; IC 95% 1,64-10,64; interacción: tiempo en la institución y asignado en la Unidad de Soporte Básico, (OR 0,27; IC 95% 0,07-1,00. Se sugiere: la implantación de protocolos después de accidentes, con el objetivo de reducirlos; la subnotificación y el aumento del acompañamiento después del accidente.This transversal, survey-based research was carried out with a multiprofessional emergency care team in Belo Horizonte, between June and December 2006. The study aimed at estimating the incidence of occupational accidents by exposure to biological material, post-accidents conducts and demographic determinant factors. The study applied a structured questionnaire and descriptive analyses, as well as incidence calculations and logistic regression. The incidence of accidents with biological material reached 20.6%, being 40.8% by sharp materials and 49.0% by body fluids; 35.3% of the accidents took place among physicians and 24.0% among nurses. Post-accidents procedures: no medical assessment, 63.3%; under-notification, 81.6%; no conduct, 55.0%; and no serological follow-up, 61.2%. Factors associated with accidents: working time in the institution (Odds Ratio - OR, 2.84; Credible Interval - CI 95% - 1.22-6.62; working in advanced support units (OR=4.18; CI 95% - 1.64-10.64; and interaction between working time in the institution and working in Basic Support Unit (OR 0.27; CI 95% - 0.07-1.00. In order to reduce accidents, the implementation of post-accident protocols and follow-up, as well as under-notification norms, are suggested.

  3. Advanced payload concepts and system architecture for emerging services in Indian National Satellite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, E. P.; Rao, N. Prahlad; Sarkar, S.; Singh, D. K.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past two decades Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has developed and operationalized satellites to generate a large capacity of transponders for telecommunication service use in INSAT system. More powerful on-board transmitters are built to usher-in direct-to-home broadcast services. These have transformed the Satcom application scenario in the country. With the proliferation of satellite technology, a shift in the Indian market is witnessed today in terms of demand for new services like Broadband Internet, Interactive Multimedia, etc. While it is imperative to pay attention to market trends, ISRO is also committed towards taking the benefits of technological advancement to all round growth of our population, 70% of which dwell in rural areas. The initiatives already taken in space application related to telemedicine, tele-education and Village Resource Centres are required to be taken to a greater height of efficiency. These targets pose technological challenges to build a large capacity and cost-effective satellite system. This paper addresses advanced payload concepts and system architecture along with the trade-off analysis on design parameters in proposing a new generation satellite system capable of extending the reach of the Indian broadband structure to individual users, educational and medical institutions and enterprises for interactive services. This will be a strategic step in the evolution of INSAT system to employ advanced technology to touch every human face of our population.

  4. How mobile robots have helped at Chernobyl and other accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meieran, H.B.

    1988-04-01

    The use of mobile robots at several recent accidents including Chernobyl is described. The robots assumed, with varying degrees of success, many of the tasks and missions that are normally conducted by the emergency response team. Lessons learned from the experiences, together with operational and performance problems are discussed. (U.K.).

  5. Improvement of Severe Accident Analysis Computer Code and Development of Accident Management Guidance for Heavy Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Yong; Kim, Ko Ryu; Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, See Darl; Song, Yong Mann; Choi, Young; Jin, Young Ho

    2005-03-15

    The objective of the project is to develop a generic severe accident management guidance(SAMG) applicable to Korean PHWR and the objective of this 3 year continued phase is to construct a base of the generic SAMG. Another objective is to improve a domestic computer code, ISAAC (Integrated Severe Accident Analysis code for CANDU), which still has many deficiencies to be improved in order to apply for the SAMG development. The scope and contents performed in this Phase-2 are as follows: The characteristics of major design and operation for the domestic Wolsong NPP are analyzed from the severe accident aspects. On the basis, preliminary strategies for SAM of PHWR are selected. The information needed for SAM and the methods to get that information are analyzed. Both the individual strategies applicable for accident mitigation under PHWR severe accident conditions and the technical background for those strategies are developed. A new version of ISAAC 2.0 has been developed after analyzing and modifying the existing models of ISAAC 1.0. The general SAMG applicable for PHWRs confirms severe accident management techniques for emergencies, provides the base technique to develop the plant specific SAMG by utility company and finally contributes to the public safety enhancement as a NPP safety assuring step. The ISAAC code will be used inevitably for the PSA, living PSA, severe accident analysis, SAM program development and operator training in PHWR.

  6. National preparedness guide for exiting the emergency phase subsequent to a nuclear accident causing moderate, short-term release on French soil - working document, version 0, May 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This National Guide provides basic explanations and methods to assist in drawing up a local plan for the emergency phase way-out, subsequent to a nuclear accident of moderate magnitude causing short-term (under 24 hours) radioactive release, which could possibly occur in France. The accident situations considered in this Guide have little likelihood of arising and are representative of environmental contamination accidents that might occur at French nuclear facilities covered by a special intervention plan (plan particulier d'intervention, PPI). Such accidents may cause environmental contamination warranting action for post-accident impact management within a range of ten to fifty kilometres from the accident site. To provide some perspective, the accidents considered here would be classified Levels 3, 4 or 5 (incidents or accidents causing release into the environment) on the INES scale customarily used to help the public and media to immediately understand the severity of an incident or accident in the nuclear field. This Guide was drawn up subsequently to the work carried out by the Steering Committee on Post- Accident Phase Management in the Event of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency Situation (CODIRPA), instituted by the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) in June 2005, and in charge of setting out the basic principles underlying the management of nuclear post-accident situations. This version of the Guide shall be updated on the basis of the operating experience feedback received on its use. The Guide is a planning tool, intended for the Prefectures of department where a basic nuclear facility PPI has been instituted. Its purpose is to enable Prefects to plan and effectively conduct preparedness measures at the local level with the aim of winding down the emergency phase, actively involving all of the relevant actors for this purpose. The exit period from the emergency phase is defined as extending approximately one week from the end of the

  7. [Diagnosis and treatment of diving accidents. New German guidelines for diving accidents 2014-2017].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jüttner, B; Wölfel, C; Liedtke, H; Meyne, K; Werr, H; Bräuer, T; Kemmerer, M; Schmeißer, G; Piepho, T; Müller, O; Schöppenthau, H

    2015-06-01

    In 2015 the German Society for Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine (GTÜM) and the Swiss Underwater and Hyperbaric Medical Society (SUHMS) published the updated guidelines on diving accidents 2014-2017. These multidisciplinary guidelines were developed within a structured consensus process by members of the German Interdisciplinary Association for Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine (DIVI), the Sports Divers Association (VDST), the Naval Medical Institute (SchiffMedInst), the Social Accident Insurance Institution for the Building Trade (BG BAU), the Association of Hyperbaric Treatment Centers (VDD) and the Society of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (DGAUM). This consensus-based guidelines project (development grade S2k) with a representative group of developers was conducted by the Association of Scientific Medical Societies in Germany. It provides information and instructions according to up to date evidence to all divers and other lay persons for first aid recommendations to physician first responders and emergency physicians as well as paramedics and all physicians at therapeutic hyperbaric chambers for the diagnostics and treatment of diving accidents. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose and the following key action statements: on-site 100% oxygen first aid treatment, still patient positioning and fluid administration are recommended. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) recompression remains unchanged the established treatment in severe cases with no therapeutic alternatives. The basic treatment scheme recommended for diving accidents is hyperbaric oxygenation at 280 kPa. For quality management purposes there is a need in the future for a nationwide register of hyperbaric therapy.

  8. A Comparative Study of Compression Methods and the Development of CODEC Program of Biological Signal for Emergency Telemedicine Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, T.S.; Kim, J.S. [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea); Lim, Y.H. [Visionite Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea); Yoo, S.K. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    2003-05-01

    In an emergency telemedicine system such as the High-quality Multimedia based Real-time Emergency Telemedicine(HMRET) service, it is very important to examine the status of the patient continuously using the multimedia data including the biological signals(ECG, BP, Respiration, S{sub p}O{sub 2}) of the patient. In order to transmit these data real time through the communication means which have the limited transmission capacity, it is also necessary to compress the biological data besides other multimedia data. For this purpose, we investigate and compare the ECG compression techniques in the time domain and in the wavelet transform domain, and present an effective lossless compression method of the biological signals using JPEG Huffman table for an emergency telemedicine system. And, for the HMRET service, we developed the lossless compression and reconstruction program of the biological signals in MSVC++ 6.0 using DPCM method and JPEG Huffman table, and tested in an internet environment. (author). 15 refs., 17 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Characteristics and determinants of adult patients with acute poisoning attending the accident and emergency department of a teaching hospital in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudair, I F; Jassim, Z; Hanssens, Y; Alsaad, W A

    2013-09-01

    Data about etiologic and demographic characteristics of acute poisoning in adults in Qatar are lacking. This prospective observational study was undertaken to analyze characteristics and possible determinants of acute poisoning in adults in Qatar. During 2010, 18,073 patients attended the emergency department of Hamad General Hospital, a teaching hospital in Qatar. Out of them, 599 (3.3%) patients were diagnosed as "poisoning case" with either chemical or pharmaceutical substances. The prevalence rate of poisoning incidence was 35.3/100,000 population. Seven patients died, corresponding with a case-fatality rate of 0.39/1000. The majority were male (65%) and the mean age was 34 years. The poisons involved were mainly chemicals (61.6%) and pharmaceuticals (38.4%). Female, mainly single, suffered more intentional poisoning compared to male. Of the patients aged 60 years and above (7.2%), the majority (95.3%) suffered unintentional poisoning with pharmaceuticals; 56% with warfarin, 12% with digoxin and 7% with insulin. Multivariate analysis shows that female gender, single status, younger than 35 years of age, being poisoned by pharmaceutical products, and the need for hospitalization are significant determinants for acute intentional poisoning after adjusting all other possible covariates. The findings of this study can be used to establish awareness and prophylactic campaigns in Qatar.

  10. The role of the emergency services in the optimisation of primary angioplasty: experience from London and the Heart Attack Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, Miles; Whitbread, Mark

    2013-08-22

    Early ambulance services often confined their activities to a "scoop and run" approach, conveying sick patients quickly to the nearest emergency department. With the advent of modern ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) management and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), the role of the emergency medical service (EMS) has expanded significantly. This review discusses the critical and evolving collaboration between the EMS and the heart attack centre. Speed of reperfusion is a major determinant of outcome in STEMI and, whilst the patient delay (symptom to call time) has a central role in this, system delay (first medical contact to balloon time) is linked to mortality and is used to measure the response of a PPCI programme and is a key element of contemporary guidelines. In addition to rapid diagnosis and transfer to the heart attack centre, the EMS has to deliver a growing number of established treatments including resuscitation and drug therapy. EMS also continually needs to develop expertise in new techniques such as advanced management of cardiac arrest patients, including automated cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and will need to deliver newer therapies if trials support their use, including cooling and preconditioning. Ultimately, the EMS has a central role in the management of STEMI patients which needs to be fully aligned with the heart attack centres. This integration of services is perhaps best regarded as the Heart Attack Team.

  11. Ensuring good governance to address emerging and re-emerging animal disease threats: supporting the veterinary services of developing countries to meet OIE international standards on quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, B; Mallet, E

    2006-04-01

    As an effect of increased globalisation, animal diseases, in particular those transmissible to man, have an immediate global economic and social impact. This fact, dramatically illustrated by the current avian influenza epizootic in South-East Asia and Eastern Europe, clearly demonstrates the crucial importance of the national Veterinary Services (VS) for the prevention, early detection and response for the efficient control of animal diseases. Complying with this mission for the VS presupposes the existence of appropriate governance and legislation and of an official system to control their quality and reliability- an obvious weakness in many developing and in transition countries. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has therefore developed a project aiming at strengthening the VS in those countries facing the greatest animal health threats and to bring them into line with OIE international standards already adopted by the same countries. Based on the evaluation of the VS and subsequent actions at the global, regional and national levels, the project will have a significant beneficial impact on the targeted countries as well as the international community as a whole, not only in the fields of agriculture, food security and production, and food safety, but also for the local and global prevention of emerging and re-emerging diseases of veterinary and public health importance. The project will be implemented in strong collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization. The actions proposed must be considered eligible for the concept of International Public Good. PMID:16796063

  12. The computer aided education and training system for accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under severe accident conditions of a nuclear power plant, plant operators and technical support center (TSC) staffs will be under a amount of stress. Therefore, those individuals responsible for managing the plant should promote their understanding about the accident management and operations. Moreover, it is also important to train in ordinary times, so that they can carry out accident management operations effectively on severe accidents. Therefore, the education and training system which works on personal computers was developed by Japanese BWR group (Tokyo Electric Power Co.,Inc., Tohoku Electric Power Co. ,Inc., Chubu Electric Power Co. ,Inc., Hokuriku Electric Power Co.,Inc., Chugoku Electric Power Co.,Inc., Japan Atomic Power Co.,Inc.), and Hitachi, Ltd. The education and training system is composed of two systems. One is computer aided instruction (CAI) education system and the other is education and training system with a computer simulation. Both systems are designed to execute on MS-Windows(R) platform of personal computers. These systems provide plant operators and technical support center staffs with an effective education and training tool for accident management. TEPCO used the simulation system for the emergency exercise assuming the occurrence of hypothetical severe accident, and have performed an effective exercise in March, 2000. (author)

  13. Emerging Tools for Evaluating Digital Library Services: Conceptual Adaptations of LibQUAL+ and CAPM

    OpenAIRE

    Heath, Fred; Kyrillidou, Martha; Webster, Duane; Choudhury, Sayeed; Hobbs, Ben; Lorie, Mark; Flores, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes ways to examine how digital libraries are valued by their users, and explores ways of permitting the allocation of resources to areas of user-identified need. Pertinent models from marketing, economics, and library assessment and evaluation are reviewed, focussing on the application of the LibQUAL+TM and CAPM methodologies. Each methodology, which was developed independently, provides a useful framework for evaluating digital library services. The paper discusses the benef...

  14. Ambulance emergency services for patients with coronary heart disease in Lancashire: achieving standards and improving performance

    OpenAIRE

    Stoykova, B; Dowie, R; Bastow, P; Rowsell, K; GREGORY, R.

    2004-01-01

    Methods: Audit datasets on two cohorts of patients with chest pain and suspected AMI were assembled by the Lancashire Ambulance Service NHS Trust in north west England: 3706 patients during 1996/97 and 3423 in 2001. They were transported to four hospitals. The analyses covered journey timings, role of rapid response vehicles (RRV), and clinical procedures and the results were compared with prevailing national standards.

  15. Procedural and Organizational Measures to Assist Operations During an Accident in a Nuclear Power Plant in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, D.; Lathrop, J.W.; Linnerooth, J.; Sinclair, C

    1980-01-01

    This paper is concerned with aspects of organization and procedure in nuclear accident management. Because all accidents can be argued to have common characteristics, a comparative approach is taken here for the discussion of emergency planning for nuclear accidents. This approach reveals several deficiencies in selected European emergency plans, the most important concerning formal and informal communication channels. The most important principle which emerges from this discussion, and which...

  16. 44 CFR 19.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 19.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance...

  17. The accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and its consequences. Pt. 1. General material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains a presentation of the Chernobyl' nuclear power station and of the RBMK-1000 reactor, including its principal physical characteristics, the safety systems and a description of the site and of the surrounding region. After a chronological account of the events which led to the accident and an analysis of the accident using a mathematical model it is concluded that the prime cause of the accident was an extremely improbable combination of violations of instructions and operating rules committed by the staff of the unit. Technical and organizational measures for improving the safety of nuclear power plants with RBMK reactors have been taken. A detailed description of the actions taken to contain the accident and to alleviate its consequences is given and includes the fire fighting at the nuclear power station, the evaluation of the state of the fuel after the accident, the actions taken to limit the consequences of the accident in the core, the measures taken at units 1, 2 and 3 of the nuclear power station, the monitoring and diagnosis of the state of the damaged unit, the decontamination of the site and of the 30 km zone and the long-term entombment of the damaged unit. The measures taken for environmental radioactive contamination monitoring, starting by the assessment of the quantity, composition and dynamics of fission products release from the damaged reactor are described, including the main characteristics of the radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and of the ground, the possible ecological consequences and data on the exposure of plant and emergency service personnel and of the population in the 30 km zone around the plant. The last part of the report presents some recommendations for improving nuclear power safety, including scientific, technical and organizational aspects and international measures. Finally, an overview of the development of nuclear power in the USSR is given

  18. ABUSE OF INTERNET SERVICES IN THE WORKPLACE AND THE EMERGENCE OF ADDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Gorenc

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Employees who abuse Internet privileges have become a major concern among today's employers. Employees misuse Internet at the workplace due to the overcrowded schedule, pressures at work, etc. Internet for private purposes is also used as a release or escape from work, escape from the reality of the workplace or due to poor organizational climate; it can be used as an efficient use of time at work but it can also be excessively used when the employees are not monitored. The survey results show that there is a correlation between Internet addiction and misuse of the Internet in the workplace. Electronic monitoring has a strong impact on the abuse of the Internet. More electronic monitoring will decrease the abuse of the internet services in the workplace and vice versa. Organizational climate, relations in the working organization, the Internet policy and demographic factors do not affect the abuse of Internet services in the workplace.

  19. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The questionnaires included demographic information (age, gender, skin color, education level, profession and questions about years of licensed driving practice, how often they would drive an automobile, how long they had had a motorcycle driver’s license, how often they would ride a motorcycle, the number of prior accidents involving a car, and the number of prior accidents not involving a car. Results: of the 100 consecutive accidents studied, 91 occurred with men and 9 with women, aged between 16 and 79 (m = 29 ± 11 years. Regarding their reason for using a motorcycle, 83% reported using it for transport, 7% for work, and 10% for leisure. Most of these accident victims had secondary or higher education (47%. Of the motorcyclists who held a car driver’s license, 68.3% drove the vehicle daily or weekly and held the license for more than one year. Sixty-seven percent of the accident victims used a motorcycle daily and had a motorcycle driver’s license for at least one year. Conclusion: among the motorcyclists injured, most were men aged 20 years or older, with complete secondary education, and experienced in driving both motorcycles and cars, indicating that recklessness while driving the motorcycle is the main cause of traffic accidents.

  20. Existence and functionality of emergency obstetric care services at district level in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Echoka, Elizabeth; Kombe, Yeri; Dubourg, Dominique;

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge on emergency obstetric care (EmOC) is limited in Kenya, where only partial data from sub-national studies exist. The EmOC process indicators have also not been integrated into routine health management information system to monitor progress in safe motherhood interventions both...... at national and lower levels of the health system. In a country with a high maternal mortality burden, the implication is that decision makers are unaware of the extent of need for life-saving care and, therefore, where to intervene. The objective of the study was to assess the actual existence...

  1. Structural and containment response to LMFBR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adequacy of the containment of fast reactors has been traditionally evaluated by analyzing the response of the containment to a spectrum of core disruptive accidents. The current approach in the U.S. is to consider fast reactor response to accidents in terms of four lines of assurance (LOAs). Thus, LOA-1 is to prevent accidents, LOA-2 is to limit core damage, LOA-3 is to control accident progression and LOA-4 is to attenuate radiological consequences. Thus, the programs on the adequacy of containment response fall into LOA-3. Significant programs to evaluate the response of the containment to core disruptive accidents and, thereby, to assure control of accident progression are in progress. These include evaluating the mechanical response of the primary system to core disruptive accidents and evaluating the thermal response of the reactor structures to core melting, including the effects this causes on the secondary containment. The analysis of structural response employs calculated pressure-volume-time loading functions. The results of the analyses establish the response of the containment to the prescribed loadings. The analysis of thermal response requires an assessment of the distribution and state of the fuel, fission products and activated materials from accident initiation to final disposition in a stable configuration

  2. 47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency Call Center Service. 25.284 Section... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.284 Emergency Call Center Service. (a) Providers of mobile satellite service to end-user customers (part 25, subparts A-D) must provide Emergency Call...

  3. Mental Disorders among Children and Adolescents Admitted to a French Psychiatric Emergency Service

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent Boyer; Jean-Marc Henry; Jean-Claude Samuelian; Raoul Belzeaux; Pascal Auquier; Christophe Lancon; David Da Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of children and adolescents admitted to the psychiatric emergency department (ED) of a French public teaching hospital over a six-year study period (2001–2006). Data for all episodes of care in the psychiatric ED from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2006, delivered to adolescents aged less than 18 years were retrospectively analyzed. During the six-year study period, 335 episodes of care in the psychiatric ED were experienced by 264 d...

  4. Decision support system for the response to infectious disease emergencies based on WebGIS and mobile services in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-pin Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For years, emerging infectious diseases have appeared worldwide and threatened the health of people. The emergence and spread of an infectious-disease outbreak are usually unforeseen, and have the features of suddenness and uncertainty. Timely understanding of basic information in the field, and the collection and analysis of epidemiological information, is helpful in making rapid decisions and responding to an infectious-disease emergency. Therefore, it is necessary to have an unobstructed channel and convenient tool for the collection and analysis of epidemiologic information in the field. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Baseline information for each county in mainland China was collected and a database was established by geo-coding information on a digital map of county boundaries throughout the country. Google Maps was used to display geographic information and to conduct calculations related to maps, and the 3G wireless network was used to transmit information collected in the field to the server. This study established a decision support system for the response to infectious-disease emergencies based on WebGIS and mobile services (DSSRIDE. The DSSRIDE provides functions including data collection, communication and analyses in real time, epidemiological detection, the provision of customized epidemiological questionnaires and guides for handling infectious disease emergencies, and the querying of professional knowledge in the field. These functions of the DSSRIDE could be helpful for epidemiological investigations in the field and the handling of infectious-disease emergencies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The DSSRIDE provides a geographic information platform based on the Google Maps application programming interface to display information of infectious disease emergencies, and transfers information between workers in the field and decision makers through wireless transmission based on personal computers, mobile phones and

  5. Relating aviation service difficulty reports to accident data for safety trend prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullwood, R.R.; Hall, R.E.; Martinez-Guridi, G.; Uryasev, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Sampath, S.G. [Federal Aviation Administration, Atlantic City, NJ (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A synthetic model of scheduled-commercial U.S. aviation fatalities was constructed from linear combinations of the time-spectra of critical systems reporting using 5.5 years of Service Difficulty Reports (SDR){sup 2} and Accident Incident Data System (AIDS) records{sup 3}. This model, used to predict near-future trends in aviation accidents, was tested by using the first 36 months of data to construct the synthetic model which was used to predict fatalities during the following eight months. These predictions were tested by comparison with the fatality data. A reliability block diagram (RBD) and third-order extrapolations also were used as predictive models and compared with actuality. The synthetic model was the best predictor because of its use of systems data. Other results of the study are a database of service difficulties for major aviation systems, and a rank ordering of systems according to their contribution to the synthesis. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Rural-Urban Inequity in Unmet Obstetric Needs and Functionality of Emergency Obstetric Care Services in a Zambian District.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selia Ng'anjo Phiri

    Full Text Available Zambia has a high maternal mortality ratio, 398/100,000 live births. Few pregnant women access emergency obstetric care services to handle complications at childbirth. We aimed to assess the deficit in life-saving obstetric services in the rural and urban areas of Kapiri Mposhi district.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 as part of the 'Response to Accountable priority setting for Trust in health systems' (REACT project. Data on all childbirths that occurred in emergency obstetric care facilities in 2010 were obtained retrospectively. Sources of information included registers from maternity ward admission, delivery and operation theatre, and case records. Data included age, parity, mode of delivery, obstetric complications, and outcome of mother and the newborn. An approach using estimated major obstetric interventions expected but not done in health facilities was used to assess deficit of life-saving interventions in urban and rural areas.A total of 2114 urban and 1226 rural childbirths occurring in emergency obstetric care facilities (excluding abortions were analysed. Facility childbirth constituted 81% of expected births in urban and 16% in rural areas. Based on the reference estimate that 1.4% of childbearing women were expected to need major obstetric intervention, unmet obstetric need was 77 of 106 women, thus 73% (95% CI 71-75% in rural areas whereas urban areas had no deficit. Major obstetric interventions for absolute maternal indications were higher in urban 2.1% (95% CI 1.60-2.71% than in rural areas 0.4% (95% CI 0.27-0.55%, with an urban to rural rate ratio of 5.5 (95% CI 3.55-8.76.Women in rural areas had deficient obstetric care. The likelihood of under-going a life-saving intervention was 5.5 times higher for women in urban than rural areas. Targeting rural women with life-saving services could substantially reduce this inequity and preventable deaths.

  7. Appraisals and Cognitive Coping Styles Associated with Chronic Post-Traumatic Symptoms in Child Road Traffic Accident Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Paul; Smith, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Background: Comparatively little is known about the cognitive appraisals and coping styles of child road traffic accident (RTA) survivors that are associated with chronic post-traumatic reactions. Methods: Seventy-five children and young people aged 7-18 who were involved in a road traffic accident and attended an accident and emergency department…

  8. Evaluation of publicly financed and privately delivered model of emergency referral services for maternal and child health care in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Prinja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emergency referral services (ERS are being strengthened in India to improve access for institutional delivery. We evaluated a publicly financed and privately delivered model of ERS in Punjab state, India, to assess its extent and pattern of utilization, impact on institutional delivery, quality and unit cost. METHODS: Data for almost 0.4 million calls received from April 2012 to March 2013 was analysed to assess the extent and pattern of utilization. Segmented linear regression was used to analyse month-wise data on number of institutional deliveries in public sector health facilities from 2008 to 2013. We inspected ambulances in 2 districts against the Basic Life Support (BLS standards. Timeliness of ERS was assessed for determining quality. Finally, we computed economic cost of implementing ERS from a health system perspective. RESULTS: On an average, an ambulance transported 3-4 patients per day. Poor and those farther away from the health facility had a higher likelihood of using the ambulance. Although the ERS had an abrupt positive effect on increasing the institutional deliveries in the unadjusted model, there was no effect on institutional delivery after adjustment for autocorrelation. Cost of operating the ambulance service was INR 1361 (USD 22.7 per patient transported or INR 21 (USD 0.35 per km travelled. CONCLUSION: Emergency referral services in Punjab did not result in a significant change in public sector institutional deliveries. This could be due to high baseline coverage of institutional delivery and low barriers to physical access. Choice of interventions for reduction in Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR should be context-specific to have high value for resources spent. The ERS in Punjab needs improvement in terms of quality and reduction of cost to health system.

  9. Security: Detection, Emergency System, Guard Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Three short articles describe (respectively) a student security advisory council at one high school that involves students in security work, emergency telephone systems on two university campuses, and tips for hiring security guards for colleges. (Author/DN)

  10. Fitness for accident management through NPP personnel training, simulators and technical support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contributions within the context of accident management of the Siemens A G-Power Generation Group Crisis Centre and the Siemens A G Training Centre are described. The Crisis Centre provides direct technical consulting to NPPs from experts in design and engineering. Training of NPP personnel is here outlined with particular emphasis on the use of simulators in getting practice of emergency handling and on development of documentation and operating procedures. It is pointed to projects to the introduction of these services in Eastern NPPs and training facilities

  11. Research on Emergency Disposal of Oil Accident in Oil Reservoir%石油库站油品事故应急处置研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 许志龙

    2014-01-01

    确保油料在收发、储存作业中的油品安全具有重要意义。油料库站的油品事故主要有油品流失事故与混油事故,论文采用事故原因模型剖析了油品事故的成因;针对主要油品事故提出了应急处置措施,构建了以油品泄漏检测技术及带压堵漏技术为核心的油品安全应急处置技术,为油库站的安全管理提供了参考。%Ensuring the safety in the operation of oil storage an d oil transceiver was of great significance .Oil accident in oil depot was composed mainly of oil drain accident and oil mixed accident.The causes of oil accident based on accident model were analyzed.According to the main oil accident , emergency measures were proposed and oil safety emergency disposal technologies were constructed as the core of oil leakage detection technology and pressure seal technology , which provided reference for safe management of oil depot station.

  12. Automated personnel-assets-consumables-drug tracking in ambulance services for more effective and efficient medical emergency interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utku, Semih; Özcanhan, Mehmet Hilal; Unluturk, Mehmet Suleyman

    2016-04-01

    Patient delivery time is no longer considered as the only critical factor, in ambulatory services. Presently, five clinical performance indicators are used to decide patient satisfaction. Unfortunately, the emergency ambulance services in rapidly growing metropolitan areas do not meet current satisfaction expectations; because of human errors in the management of the objects onboard the ambulances. But, human involvement in the information management of emergency interventions can be reduced by electronic tracking of personnel, assets, consumables and drugs (PACD) carried in the ambulances. Electronic tracking needs the support of automation software, which should be integrated to the overall hospital information system. Our work presents a complete solution based on a centralized database supported by radio frequency identification (RFID) and bluetooth low energy (BLE) identification and tracking technologies. Each object in an ambulance is identified and tracked by the best suited technology. The automated identification and tracking reduces manual paper documentation and frees the personnel to better focus on medical activities. The presence and amounts of the PACD are automatically monitored, warning about their depletion, non-presence or maintenance dates. The computerized two way hospital-ambulance communication link provides information sharing and instantaneous feedback for better and faster diagnosis decisions. A fully implemented system is presented, with detailed hardware and software descriptions. The benefits and the clinical outcomes of the proposed system are discussed, which lead to improved personnel efficiency and more effective interventions. PMID:26777434

  13. Ophidic accident and twin pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saavedra-Orozco Héctor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: around of 3000 types of snakes are known, from which just 15% arevenomous. Depending of the environmental, geographical and socio-demographiccharacteristics, there are significant differences in the incidence of cases of ophidicaccidents. Colombia reports 6 by each 100.000 habitants, 2.300 cases/year, with amortality of 5.6%. In a pregnant woman it is a rare event, between 1.4% and 4%, andit usually complicates seriously to the mother and to the product of the gestation. Theprevious thing will depend of the opportunity with which the suitable management isfulfilled and of the severity of the poisoning. Nowadays it isn´t clear the security of theantiophidic serum for the product, it has been related with miscarriage in early stagesof pregnancy and fetal death at the end of the pregnancy. Nevertheless, its appropriateadministration is the unique effective measure to avoid serious consequences andmaternal death.Clinical case: patient of 16 years old, G2 C1, with diagnosis of diamniotic dichorionic twinpregnancy of 36 weeks and ophidic accident of bothropic type of 16 hours of evolution.Right inferior limb with pain, edema grade III, blush, heat, formation of flictenas andecchymosis in its distal third. Laboratory tests indicate prolongation of the clotting time,elevated transaminases and elevated creatinine. It is considered the presence of severepoisoning and management with antiophidic serum is initiated. The pregnancy is finishedby cesarean as a result of maternal renal and hepatic dysfunction, and postoperativecare in UCI. The products are born with severe respiratory depression; they are carriedto neonatal intensive care unit with good evolution and hospital expenditure to thefive days. Next day to the cesarean, the patient presents compartment syndrome,for which fasciotomy is fulfilled. When the patient gets adequate recovery, it is donea cutaneous hanging tatter and after 27 days of hospitalization one gives exit withadequate

  14. Emergencies and Emergent Selves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Felicity

    2005-01-01

    Marshall's (1999 ) article used Wittgenstein to argue that self functions as an explanation for a name rather than a referent. This brief response tries to rescue Marshall from an apparent reduction of self to material body without returning him to the mind/body dualism that he, with Wittgenstein and Dennett, seeks to avoid. It treats "I" as an…

  15. Supervisor's accident investigation handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This pamphlet was prepared by the Environmental Health and Safety Department (EH and S) of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to provide LBL supervisors with a handy reference to LBL's accident investigation program. The publication supplements the Accident and Emergencies section of LBL's Regulations and Procedures Manual, Pub. 201. The present guide discusses only accidents that are to be investigated by the supervisor. These accidents are classified as Type C by the Department of Energy (DOE) and include most occupational injuries and illnesses, government motor-vehicle accidents, and property damages of less than $50,000

  16. Barriers to Accessing Emergency Medical Services in Accra, Ghana: Development of a Survey Instrument and Initial Application in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mould-Millman, Nee-Kofi; Rominski, Sarah D; Bogus, Joshua; Ginde, Adit A; Zakariah, Ahmed N; Boatemaah, Christiana A; Yancey, Arthur H; Akoriyea, Samuel Kaba; Campbell, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emergency medical services (EMS) systems provide professional prehospital emergency medical care and transportation to help improve outcomes from emergency conditions. Ghana’s national ambulance service has relatively low public utilization in comparison with the large burden of acute disease. Methods: A survey instrument was developed using Pechansky and Thomas’s model of access covering 5 dimensions of availability, accessibility, accommodation, affordability, and acceptability. The instrument was used in a cross-sectional survey in 2013 in Accra, Ghana; eligible participants were those 18 years and older who spoke English, French, or Twi. Although the analysis was mainly descriptive, logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with reported intention to call for an ambulance in the case of a medical emergency. Results: 468 participants completed surveys, with a response rate of 78.4%. Few (4.5%) respondents had ever used an ambulance in prior emergency situations. A substantial proportion (43.8%) knew about the public access medical emergency telephone number, but of those only 37.1% knew it was a toll-free call. Most (54.7%) respondents believed EMTs offered high-quality care, but 78.0% believed taxis were faster than ambulances and 69.2% thought the number of ambulances in Accra insufficient. Many (23.4%) thought using ambulances to transport corpses would be appropriate. In two hypothetical emergency scenarios, respondents most commonly reported taxis as the preferred transportation (63.6% if a family member were burned in a house fire, 64.7% if a pedestrian were struck by a vehicle). About 1 in 5 respondents said they would call an ambulance in either scenario (20.7% if a family member were burned in a house fire, 23.3% if a pedestrian were struck by a vehicle) while 15.5% and 10.2%, respectively, would use any available vehicle. Those aged 18–35 years were more likely than older respondents to prefer an ambulance (odds

  17. Importance of risk communication during and after a nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, Tanja

    2011-07-01

    Past nuclear accidents highlight communication as one of the most important challenges in emergency management. In the early phase, communication increases awareness and understanding of protective actions and improves the population response. In the medium and long term, risk communication can facilitate the remediation process and the return to normal life. Mass media play a central role in risk communication. The recent nuclear accident in Japan, as expected, induced massive media coverage. Media were employed to communicate with the public during the contamination phase, and they will play the same important role in the clean-up and recovery phases. However, media also have to fulfill the economic aspects of publishing or broadcasting, with the "bad news is good news" slogan that is a well-known phenomenon in journalism. This article addresses the main communication challenges and suggests possible risk communication approaches to adopt in the case of a nuclear accident. PMID:21612010

  18. Accidents in Canada: mortality and hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, R; Paddon, P

    1989-01-01

    For Canadians under 45, accidents are the leading cause of both death and hospitalization. For the Canadian population as a whole, accidents rank fourth as a cause of death, after cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and respiratory disease. This article analyzes accident mortality and hospitalization in Canada using age-specific rates, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), and potential years of life lost (PYLL). The six major causes of accidental death for men are motor vehicle traffic accidents (MVTA), falls, drowning, fires, suffocation and poisoning. For women, the order is slightly different: MVTA, falls, fires, suffocation, poisoning and drowning. From 1971 to 1986, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for accidents decreased by 44% for men and 39% for women. The largest decrease occurred in the under 15 age group. Accidents accounted for 11.5% of total hospital days in 1985, and 8% of hospital discharges. Because young people have the highest rates of accidental death, potential years of life lost (PYLL) are almost as high for accidents as for cardiovascular disease, although CVD deaths outnumbered accidental deaths by almost five to one in 1985.

  19. Adjusting ability and sensibility for an accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adjusting ability (technical competence) and sensibility (consciousness) are the two most important priorities any staff member of any organization should bear in mind while acting during a nuclear or radiological emergency. The discussion is aimed at the national authorities of states which do not have a major nuclear power reactor programme, and especially at the IAEA and WHO: although a decade has gone by, the lessons from the radiological accident in Goiania have not been fully learned. The events which unravelled in the fall of 1987 took the population of the city of Goiania completely by surprise: they did not comprehend what had happened and failed to grasp what measures needed to be taken, a situation which precipitated a very complex psychological reaction, coupled with discrimination. To ensure the safety of radiation sources and nuclear installations, national and international organizations should direct their efforts towards educating and training staff in developing countries who work with ionizing radiation and promoting organizational capacity. This should be done first, by improving safety qualitatively so as to better control the uses of radioactive materials in medicine, agriculture, industry and research, and secondly, by assisting countries without a major nuclear power reactor programme to develop an objective and realistic emergency response training programme. (author)

  20. Medical emergencies in Goa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddichha Sahoo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most emergencies in Goa arise due to road traffic accidents and drowning, which have been compounded by the rise in number of recorded accidents in 2007 to be above 4000. It is believed that 11 people meet with an accident on Goa′s roads every day and this is expected to rise by 10% by next year. Similar is the case with drownings and other medical emergencies. We therefore aimed to conduct a cross-sectional survey of medical emergencies and identify various types of emergencies presenting to emergency departments. Materials and Methods: Using a stratified random sampling design, all emergencies presenting to the three government hospitals in Goa, which handle 90% of all emergencies currently, were studied on specially designed data sheets in order to collect data. Emergency medical technicians (ETs were placed in the Casualty Ward of the medical colleges and they recorded all emergencies on the data sheet. The collected data were then analyzed for stratification and mapping of emergencies. Results: GMC Hospital attended to majority of emergencies (62%, which were mainly of the nature of accidents or assaults (17% and fever related (17%. Most emergencies were noncritical and about 1% expired. Maximum emergencies also presented from Salcette and Bardez, and occurred among young males in the age group of 19-45 years. Males were also more prone to accidents while females had pregnancies as emergencies. Conclusion: Potential emergency services need to target young males with higher concentrations required in Salcette in South Goa and Bardez in North Goa.

  1. Road accidents and business cycles in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties.

  2. Chernobyl nuclear accident hydrologic analysis and emergency evaluation of radionuclide distributions in the Dnieper River, Ukraine, during the 1993 summer flood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voitsekhovitch, O.V. [Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Inst., Kiev (Ukraine); Zheleznyak, M.J. [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine). Cybernetics Center; Onishi, Y. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This report describes joint activities of Program 7.1.F, ``Radionuclide Transport in Water and Soil Systems,`` of the USA/Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Joint Coordinating Committee of Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety to study the hydrogeochemical behavior of radionuclides released to the Pripyat and Dnieper rivers from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine. These joint activities included rapid evaluation of radionuclide distributions in the Pripyat and Dnieper river system and field data evaluation and modeling for the 1993 summer flood to assist the Ukrainian government in their emergency response during the flood. In July-August 1993, heavy rainfall over the Pripyat River Catchment in Belarus and Ukraine caused severe flooding, significantly raising {sup 90}Sr concentrations in the river. Near the Chernobyl area, the maximum {sup 90}Sr concentration in the Pripyat River reached 20--25 PCi/L in early August; near the Pripyat River mouth, the concentration rose to 35 pCi/L. The peak {sup 90}Sr concentration in the Kiev Reservoir (a major source of drinking water for Kiev) was 12 pCi/L. Based on these measured radionuclide levels, additional modeling results and the assumption of water purification in a water treatment station, {sup 90}Sr concentrations in Kiev`s drinking water were estimated to be less than 8 pCi/L. Unlike {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs concentrations in the Pripyat River during the flood did not rise significantly to the pre-flood levels. Estimated {sup 137}Cs concentrations for the Kiev drinking water were two orders of magnitude lower than the drinking water standard of 500 pCi/L for {sup 137}Cs.

  3. Chernobyl nuclear accident hydrologic analysis and emergency evaluation of radionuclide distributions in the Dnieper River, Ukraine, during the 1993 summer flood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes joint activities of Program 7.1.F, ''Radionuclide Transport in Water and Soil Systems,'' of the USA/Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Joint Coordinating Committee of Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety to study the hydrogeochemical behavior of radionuclides released to the Pripyat and Dnieper rivers from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine. These joint activities included rapid evaluation of radionuclide distributions in the Pripyat and Dnieper river system and field data evaluation and modeling for the 1993 summer flood to assist the Ukrainian government in their emergency response during the flood. In July-August 1993, heavy rainfall over the Pripyat River Catchment in Belarus and Ukraine caused severe flooding, significantly raising 90Sr concentrations in the river. Near the Chernobyl area, the maximum 90Sr concentration in the Pripyat River reached 20--25 PCi/L in early August; near the Pripyat River mouth, the concentration rose to 35 pCi/L. The peak 90Sr concentration in the Kiev Reservoir (a major source of drinking water for Kiev) was 12 pCi/L. Based on these measured radionuclide levels, additional modeling results and the assumption of water purification in a water treatment station, 90Sr concentrations in Kiev's drinking water were estimated to be less than 8 pCi/L. Unlike 90Sr, 137Cs concentrations in the Pripyat River during the flood did not rise significantly to the pre-flood levels. Estimated 137Cs concentrations for the Kiev drinking water were two orders of magnitude lower than the drinking water standard of 500 pCi/L for 137Cs

  4. Severe accident research and management in Nordic Countries - A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the status of severe accident research and accident management development in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark. The emphasis is on severe accident phenomena and issues of special importance for the severe accident management strategies implemented in Sweden and in Finland. The main objective of the research has been to verify the protection provided by the accident mitigation measures and to reduce the uncertainties in risk dominant accident phenomena. Another objective has been to support validation and improvements of accident management strategies and procedures as well as to contribute to the development of level 2 PSA, computerised operator aids for accident management and certain aspects of emergency preparedness. Severe accident research addresses both the in-vessel and the ex-vessel accident progression phenomena and issues. Even though there are differences between Sweden and Finland as to the scope and content of the research programs, the focus of the research in both countries is on in-vessel coolability, integrity of the reactor vessel lower head and core melt behaviour in the containment, in particular the issues of core debris coolability and steam explosions. Notwithstanding that our understanding of these issues has significantly improved, and that experimental data base has been largely expanded, there are still important uncertainties which motivate continued research. Other important areas are thermal-hydraulic phenomena during reflooding of an overheated partially degraded core, fission product chemistry, in particular formation of organic iodine, and hydrogen transport and combustion phenomena. The development of severe accident management has embraced, among other things, improvements of accident mitigating procedures and strategies, further work at IFE Halden on Computerised Accident Management Support (CAMS) system, as well as plant modifications, including new instrumentation. Recent efforts in Sweden in this area

  5. Severe accident research and management in Nordic Countries - A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, W. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI (Sweden)] (ed.)

    2002-01-01

    The report describes the status of severe accident research and accident management development in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark. The emphasis is on severe accident phenomena and issues of special importance for the severe accident management strategies implemented in Sweden and in Finland. The main objective of the research has been to verify the protection provided by the accident mitigation measures and to reduce the uncertainties in risk dominant accident phenomena. Another objective has been to support validation and improvements of accident management strategies and procedures as well as to contribute to the development of level 2 PSA, computerised operator aids for accident management and certain aspects of emergency preparedness. Severe accident research addresses both the in-vessel and the ex-vessel accident progression phenomena and issues. Even though there are differences between Sweden and Finland as to the scope and content of the research programs, the focus of the research in both countries is on in-vessel coolability, integrity of the reactor vessel lower head and core melt behaviour in the containment, in particular the issues of core debris coolability and steam explosions. Notwithstanding that our understanding of these issues has significantly improved, and that experimental data base has been largely expanded, there are still important uncertainties which motivate continued research. Other important areas are thermal-hydraulic phenomena during reflooding of an overheated partially degraded core, fission product chemistry, in particular formation of organic iodine, and hydrogen transport and combustion phenomena. The development of severe accident management has embraced, among other things, improvements of accident mitigating procedures and strategies, further work at IFE Halden on Computerised Accident Management Support (CAMS) system, as well as plant modifications, including new instrumentation. Recent efforts in Sweden in this area

  6. Barriers to formal emergency obstetric care services' utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essendi, Hildah; Mills, Samuel; Fotso, Jean-Christophe

    2011-06-01

    Access to appropriate health care including skilled birth attendance at delivery and timely referrals to emergency obstetric care services can greatly reduce maternal deaths and disabilities, yet women in sub-Saharan Africa continue to face limited access to skilled delivery services. This study relies on qualitative data collected from residents of two slums in Nairobi, Kenya in 2006 to investigate views surrounding barriers to the uptake of formal obstetric services. Data indicate that slum dwellers prefer formal to informal obstetric services. However, their efforts to utilize formal emergency obstetric care services are constrained by various factors including ineffective health decision making at the family level, inadequate transport facilities to formal care facilities and insecurity at night, high cost of health services, and inhospitable formal service providers and poorly equipped health facilities in the slums. As a result, a majority of slum dwellers opt for delivery services offered by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) who lack essential skills and equipment, thereby increasing the risk of death and disability. Based on these findings, we maintain that urban poor women face barriers to access of formal obstetric services at family, community, and health facility levels, and efforts to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality among the urban poor must tackle the barriers, which operate at these different levels to hinder women's access to formal obstetric care services. We recommend continuous community education on symptoms of complications related to pregnancy and timely referral. A focus on training of health personnel on "public relations" could also restore confidence in the health-care system with this populace. Further, we recommend improving the health facilities in the slums, improving the services provided by TBAs through capacity building as well as involving TBAs in referral processes to make access to services timely. Measures can also be

  7. Analysis of causes and sequences of the accident on Fukushima NPP as a factor of sever accidents prevention in the vessel reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this monograph, the provisional analysis of the causes and sequences of the sever accidents on the Fukushima NPP is presented. The analysis of the possibility of the origin of extreme events connected with the flooding of Zaporizhzhia NPP industrial site, emergency of the steam-gas explosions on NPPs with WWER and other phenomena occurred under sever accidents was carried out. It was presented the authors original working-out on symptom-oriented approaches of sever accident initiating event list identification, on criteria substantiation of explosion safety and optimization of processes management at sever accidents, as well as on the methodological support of the accident beyond the design basis management at the WWER for prevention of their transition in the stage of sever accidents.

  8. Emergency Service Restoration and Load Balancing in Distribution Networks Using Feeder Loadings Balance Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sang Yule [Anyang University, Anyang (Korea); Jung, Ho Sung; Shin, Myong Chul [Natural Sciences Campus, Suwon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents an algorithm to obtain an approximate optimal solution for the service restoration and load balancing of large scale radial distribution system in a real-time operation environment. Since the problem is formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem, it is difficult to solve a large-scale combinatorial optimization problem accurately within the reasonable computation time. Therefore, in order to find an approximate optimal solution quickly, the authors proposed an algorithm which combines optimization called cyclic best-first search with heuristic based feeder loadings balance index for computational efficiency and robust performance. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm, numerical calculations are carried out the KEPCO's 108 bus distribution system. (author). 14 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Mental Disorders among Children and Adolescents Admitted to a French Psychiatric Emergency Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Boyer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of children and adolescents admitted to the psychiatric emergency department (ED of a French public teaching hospital over a six-year study period (2001–2006. Data for all episodes of care in the psychiatric ED from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2006, delivered to adolescents aged less than 18 years were retrospectively analyzed. During the six-year study period, 335 episodes of care in the psychiatric ED were experienced by 264 different adolescents. They accounted for 2.0% of the 16,754 care episodes of the ED; 164 patients (62.1 were female and the average age was 16.5 (SD = 1.6. The neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders were the most frequent (25.4% and concerned mainly anxiety disorders (15.2%. The frequency of the absence of psychiatric diagnosis (22.7% was high. A total of 48 children and adolescents (18.2% benefited from more than one episode of care. Several factors were associated to a higher number of visits to the ED: substance use, schizophrenia, disorders of adult personality and behaviour, disorders occurring in childhood and adolescence, and dual diagnosis. In conclusion, mental health disorders in children and adolescents are a serious problem associated with several potentially modifiable factors.

  10. Evaluation of an evidence based quality improvement innovation for patients with musculoskeletal low back pain in an accident and emergency setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potier, Tara; Tims, Emily; Kilbride, Cherry; Rantell, Khadija

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a five stage pilot study which initially consisted of a review of 75 case notes of people attending an emergency department (ED) in an inner London Teaching Hospital with musculoskeletal (MSK) low back pain (LBP). This review highlighted inconsistencies in how they were assessed and managed across and within different staff groups. We found patient documentation was often incomplete and that a biomedical model approach to the management of these patients was common. As a result, four further stages in the project were conducted. Our primary aim was to evaluate the impact of implementing a locally developed quality improvement intervention for the assessment and treatment of MSK LBP in this ED. Secondary aims were to explore the user experience of the new pathway, measured by the patient experience questionnaire (PEQ), and any associated health economic costs of changes in practice. The quality improvement intervention consisted of an evidence based low back pain pathway (EBLBPP), a staff educational program, and a patient education booklet. We undertook a retrospective baseline audit of 100 clinical records of patients was undertaken prior to the instigation of the quality improvement intervention, and four months post implementation. The pre-defined variables of interest were: documentation of the case history, examination, classification of back pain (and if correct), prescribed management and if the documentation was compliant with medico-legal standards. All patients in the study were sent a PEQ to complete and return in a self-addressed envelope. Estimated health costs associated with each patient episode of care were calculated including re-attendance episodes for any people presenting with MSK LBP within a four week period. There was a significant improvement in all areas evaluated post implementation in all groups (simple, referred and simple, referred and serious spinal pathology combined). In particular; screening for red flags (22%) and

  11. Evaluation of an evidence based quality improvement innovation for patients with musculoskeletal low back pain in an accident and emergency setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potier, Tara; Tims, Emily; Kilbride, Cherry; Rantell, Khadija

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a five stage pilot study which initially consisted of a review of 75 case notes of people attending an emergency department (ED) in an inner London Teaching Hospital with musculoskeletal (MSK) low back pain (LBP). This review highlighted inconsistencies in how they were assessed and managed across and within different staff groups. We found patient documentation was often incomplete and that a biomedical model approach to the management of these patients was common. As a result, four further stages in the project were conducted. Our primary aim was to evaluate the impact of implementing a locally developed quality improvement intervention for the assessment and treatment of MSK LBP in this ED. Secondary aims were to explore the user experience of the new pathway, measured by the patient experience questionnaire (PEQ), and any associated health economic costs of changes in practice. The quality improvement intervention consisted of an evidence based low back pain pathway (EBLBPP), a staff educational program, and a patient education booklet. We undertook a retrospective baseline audit of 100 clinical records of patients was undertaken prior to the instigation of the quality improvement intervention, and four months post implementation. The pre-defined variables of interest were: documentation of the case history, examination, classification of back pain (and if correct), prescribed management and if the documentation was compliant with medico-legal standards. All patients in the study were sent a PEQ to complete and return in a self-addressed envelope. Estimated health costs associated with each patient episode of care were calculated including re-attendance episodes for any people presenting with MSK LBP within a four week period. There was a significant improvement in all areas evaluated post implementation in all groups (simple, referred and simple, referred and serious spinal pathology combined). In particular; screening for red flags (22%) and

  12. Planning and modalities of intervention in case of transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accident occurring during the transportation of radioactive materials may entail various consequences for the population and the environment. Intervention handling in case of an accident may involve a previsional aspect of assessment of the possible consequences and an operational phase of application of conservation measures. Following a transportation accident it is very important to quickly localize the place of the accident and to make a rapid assessment of the probable consequences. This is the role of the intervention teams. First of all, they should be able to arrive as quickly as possible on the spot and to limit the consequences, so the intervention teams should be located in centers not too far away from the frequented itineraries and have a perimeter or operating radius well defined. Second, they should dispose of adequate equipment as remote handling equipment for hostile environment if required. Terrestrial transportation (rail and road) represent the major part of radioactive transportations. The consequences of an accident have been quickly evaluated in the case of spent fuels transportation. It shall be noticed that some provisions of the international regulations may be interpreted in a more or less restrictive manner and that results in various evaluations of the risk. In the case of an accident occurring during sea transportation, it seems that the accidental conditions should be different and sometimes more severe than those usually considered for the testing and certification of the casks. It is the case for the duration of a fire and temperature attained during a fire. Thus the intervention may be more difficult and necessitate more important means and international coordination. Borderline accidents will need previous concertation between potential concerned countries and coordination of emergency places

  13. Serviços de emergência psiquiátrica e suas relações com a rede de saúde mental Brasileira Psychiatric emergency services and their relationships with mental health network in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Eric Maia Barros

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisão de dados da literatura relativos ao papel e à inserção de serviços de emergências psiquiátricas em redes de saúde mental. MÉTODO: Foi realizada uma busca em banco de dados (PubMed e SciELO de artigos empíricos e revisões sobre serviços de emergências psiquiátricas e rede de serviços de saúde mental. RESULTADOS: Serviços de emergências psiquiátricas constituem unidade central para o funcionamento adequado de redes de saúde mental, tanto pelo manejo de situações de emergências, como pela regulação da rede em que se insere. Os serviços de emergências psiquiátricas relacionam-se com todos os serviços hospitalares e extra-hospitalares, possibilitando a organização do fluxo das internações e evitando sobrecarga da rede de saúde mental. As funções dos serviços de emergências psiquiátricas são amplas e extrapolam o simples encaminhamento para internação integral, pois estabilização clínica e suporte psicossocial podem ser alcançados em serviços de emergências psiquiátricas bem estruturados. No Brasil, estas funções foram ampliadas após a Reforma da Assistência à Saúde Mental e a sobrecarga das redes de saúde mental provocadas pelas dificuldades e limitações dos serviços hospitalares e extra-hospitalares. CONCLUSÃO: Serviços de emergências psiquiátricas devem ser valorizados e ampliados, principalmente aqueles localizados em hospitais gerais. Recomenda-se que o investimento em emergências psiquiátricas seja prioridade das políticas de saúde pública brasileiras para o aprimoramento da atenção na saúde mentalOBJECTIVE: To review the literature concerning the role and the inclusion of emergency psychiatric services in mental health networks. METHOD: We performed a search in online databases (PubMed and SciELO of empirical articles and reviews about emergency psychiatric services and networks of mental health services. RESULTS: Emergency psychiatric services are a core

  14. Use of Primary Care Emergency Services in Norway: Impact of Birth Country and Duration of Residence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Småland Goth

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In Norway, the General Practitioner Scheme was established in 2001. Satisfaction with the system is generally high. However, people often choose to visit community-based emergency wards (EW for routine care instead. The aim of this paper is to describe which factors influence the choice of seeking care at the EW.Design, setting, and patients: Prior national research on utilization patterns has been based mostly on surveys showing a low response rate. By using merged register data, we analyzed the choice of the EW as a care provider in Oslo (Norway for 2006 and 2007. Applying 1,934,248 observations of 279,531 different individuals, we estimated the probability of choosing the emergency ward for the Norwegian-born population as well as for the14-largest immigrant groups. Substantial variation between groups was identified.Main outcome: The proportion of EW visits was highest among patients from Somalia (11.7 percent while the lowest proportion of EW users was among immigrants from Germany and Vietnam (5.3 percent. The results vary substantially within individual migrant groups; gender, age, and the duration of residence each influence the probability of visiting an EW.Conclusions: We found large differences in the probability of using an EW between individuals from immigrant populations, presumably because of barriers in access to primary care. Continuity in the physician–patient relationship is an important policy goal. A suggestion for policy is thus to improve communication about the organization of the Norwegian health-care sector to newly arrived immigrants, as well as to patients at the EW.  For Appendix klick on "Supplementary Files" in the right hand menu 96 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE

  15. Radioactive contamination of the service water in Niigata City due to the Chernobyl nuclear accident and the experiment of radioactivity removal with active carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of radioactive contamination in the waterworks of Niigata City due to the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described, and also the 131I removal with active carbon powder made experimentally. Following are the results (1) Radioactive nuclides detected-determined in airborne dust, rainwater and Shinano River water in Niigata City are total of 11 in number. In the filtered water, the contaminant is only 131I. (2) Even in this contamination state, i.e., of short duration, low radioactive concentration, etc., radioactive contamination of the source water (river surface water) can be estimated from radioactive concentration of the rainwater and the amount of precipitation. (3) In this level of radioactive contamination, the soluble 131I can be removed about 40% with the injection of active carbon powder 30 mg-l. (Mori, K.)

  16. Review of Severe Accident Phenomena in LWR and Related Severe Accident Analysis Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hashim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, importance of severe accident provision is highlighted in view of Fukushima Daiichi accident. Then, extensive review of the past researches on severe accident phenomena in LWR is presented within this study. Various complexes, physicochemical and radiological phenomena take place during various stages of the severe accidents of Light Water Reactor (LWR plants. The review deals with progression of the severe accidents phenomena by dividing into core degradation phenomena in reactor vessel and post core melt phenomena in the containment. The development of various computer codes to analyze these severe accidents phenomena is also summarized in the review. Lastly, the need of international activity is stressed to assemble various severe accidents related knowledge systematically from research organs and compile them on the open knowledge base via the internet to be available worldwide.

  17. 76 FR 36174 - Federal Interagency Committee on Emergency Medical Services; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... Services Administration of the Department of Health and Human Services and the Director of the Preparedness... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Federal Interagency Committee on Emergency Medical Services...--Federal Interagency Committee on Emergency Medical Services. SUMMARY: NHTSA announces a meeting of...

  18. Case Study – Idling Reduction Technologies for Emergency Service Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Owens, Russell J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This case study explores the use of idle reduction technologies (IRTs) on emergency service vehicles in police, fire, and ambulance applications. Various commercially available IRT systems and approaches can decrease, or ultimately eliminate, engine idling. Fleets will thus save money on fuel, and will also decrease their criteria pollutant emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise.

  19. Radiation accidents and defence of population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Development of nuclear physics, the fundamental and the applied researches in the field of radioactive insured wide possibility for application of radionuclides and ionizing radiation source in the different fields of national economy. Application of radionuclides in chemical, metallurgical, food industry, in agriculture and etc. Fields provide a large economic profit. It's hard to apprise significance of ionizing radiation source using in medicine for diagnostics and treatment of different disease. Nuclear power engineering and nuclear industry are developing intensively. At same time nuclear power, ionizing radiation sources incur potential treat for surroundings and health of population. As even that stage of protective measure development: there is no possibility of that happening of radiation accidents. A radiation accident qualifies as loss of ionizing radiation sources direction, which provoked by disrepair equipment, natural calamity or other causes which could bring to unplanned irradiation of population or radioactive pollution of surroundings. At present some following typical cases connected with radiation accident have been chosen: Contentious using or keeping of ionizing radiation source with breach of established requires; Loss, theft of ionizing radiation sources or radiation plants, instruments; Leaving the sources of ionizing radiation in the holes; Refusal radiation technic exploited in industry, medicine, SRI and etc; Disrepair in nuclear transport means of conveyance; Crashes and accidents at NPP and at other enterprises of nuclear industry. The radiation accidents according to character, degree and scales have been divided into two groups: Radiation accidents not connected with NPP; Accidents in the nuclear engineering and industry; The radiation accidents not connected with NPP according their consequence divide into 5 groups; accidents which do not come to irradiation of personal, persons from population (more PN-permissible norm

  20. Validation and verification of accident consequence assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, T.; Togawa, O. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Takahashi, T. [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst; Arkhipov, A.N. [Chernobyl Science and Technology Centre for International Research (Ukraine)

    2001-03-01

    An accident consequence assessment code, OSCAAR, primarily designed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) for use in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of nuclear reactors in Japan, was applied to use for siting, emergency planning, and development of design criteria, and in the comparative risk studies of different energy systems. After verifying the code system through the international code comparison organized by CEC and OECD/NEA, the validation and improvements of the individual models and the verification of the whole OSCAAR code system were made. The cooperative research between Chernobyl Science and Technology Center for International Research (CHESCIR) and JAERI provided a valuable opportunity to test the performance of the accident consequence assessment models by comparing the model predictions with data obtained in the Chernobyl accidents. The predictive capabilities of OSCAAR were demonstrated using the accident source term and meteorological data for estimating the early exposure to the public occurred during and shortly after plume passage. The calculations indicated that ground-shine dose and inhalation dose, particularly from large nonvolatile particulates were the main contributors in the early stage of the accident. (S. Ohno)

  1. Adolescents taken care of in a public service of urgency and emergency: profile of morbidade and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islaine Fernandes Dubuc

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available One is about a transversal descriptive inquiry in the characterize causes of morbidade and mortality between adolescents taken care of in the urgency and emergency service of a public hospital. The collection of data was carried through the attendance fiches, in the January, February and March months of 2003, totalizing 2722. The population consisted of adolescents of 10 the 19 years of age, residents in the city. The morbi-mortality causes had been classified in accordance with the International Classification of Desease (CID-10. More than the half of the taken care is for the feminine population (54.1%. The predominant causes of morbidade had been the infectious and parasitic illnesses in the feminine sex (26.5% and injuries and poisoning and some other consequences of external causes in the masculine sex (30.5%. The month of bigger attendance was March (38.4%. The period of the night was of bigger prevalence (37.6%. The medical clinic took care of 63.9% of the adolescents. They had received high, 84.6% of the cases and had not been detected deaths. The results contribute for the aiming of writ of prevention public politics the specific action, of control and reduction of the main causes of morbidade that take the adolescent population to look the service of ready aid.

  2. Consideration of Command and Control Performance during Accident Management Process at the Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Nisrene M. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sok Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants shifted the nuclear safety paradigm from risk management to on-site management capability during a severe accident. The kernel of on-site management capability during an accident at a nuclear power plant is situation awareness and agility of command and control. However, little consideration has been given to accident management. After the events of September 11, 2001 and the catastrophic Fukushima nuclear disaster, agility of command and control has emerged as a significant element for effective and efficient accident management, with many studies emphasizing accident management strategies, particularly man-machine interface, which is considered a key role in ensuring nuclear power plant safety during severe accident conditions. This paper proposes a conceptual model for evaluating command and control performance during the accident management process at a nuclear power plant. Communication and information processing while responding to an accident is one of the key issues needed to mitigate the accident. This model will give guidelines for accurate and fast communication response during accident conditions.

  3. The state of emergency obstetric care services in Nairobi informal settlements and environs: Results from a maternity health facility survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliku Teresa

    2009-03-01

    of morbidity and mortality was a challenge due to poor and incomplete medical records. Conclusion The quality of emergency obstetric care services in Nairobi slums is poor and needs improvement. Specific areas that require attention include supervision, regulation of maternity facilities; and ensuring that basic equipment, supplies, and trained personnel are available in order to handle obstetric complications in both public and private facilities.

  4. Child, Caregiver, and Family Characteristics Associated with Emergency Department Use by Children Who Remain at Home after a Child Protective Services Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Leslie, Laurel K.; Zhang, Jinjin; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine emergency department (ED) use among children involved with child protective services (CPS) in the US but who remain at home, and to determine if ED use is related to child, caregiver and family characteristics as well as receipt of CPS services. Method: We analyzed data on 4,001 children in the National Survey of Child and…

  5. The art of rejection: Comparative analysis between Computed Radiography (CR) and Digital Radiography (DR) workstations in the Accident & Emergency and General radiology departments at a district general hospital using customised and standardised reject criteria over a three year period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: Reject analysis continues to play an integral part of a Quality Assurance (QA) program. This study aims to show how Computed Radiography (CR) and Digital Radiography (DR) reject analysis data can be customised by the user to aid in the interpretation of exported data and identify trends and issues relating to technique and training. Materials and methods: Reject analysis was reviewed for the period of 2011–2014 using exported data from CR and DR systems in the Accident and Emergency (A&E) and General radiology departments at a district general hospital. Reject criteria was customised to departmental needs and standardised across all workstation's with monthly data collection for amalgamation onto a central spreadsheet. Results: Analysis by workstation and department was performed with regards to total number of exposure events, rejects and reject ratios (%) and reasons for film rejection (positional and exposure) were reviewed. Annual overall reject ratios (%) were shown to be on average within levels acceptable by the World Health Organisation (WHO)1 with some variability on monthly basis according to workloads experienced. Conclusions: A number of improvements have been suggested to improve data reliability for future analysis and the continuation of a review of the physical rejected image is recommended as this can highlight problematic areas and help to reveal trends which pure data cannot show. - Highlights: • Retrospective analysis of three years CR/DR rejects using customised QA program. • Reviewed data by individual workstations and departments. • Highlighted trends between workstations and departments. • Overall annual reject rates shown to be within WHO recommendations. • Recommendations for future improvements for reject analysis within department and continued review of JPEG images

  6. Spatial-Temporal dynamics of surface water flooding and consequences for emergency services accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Ian; Green, Daniel; Yu, Dapeng; Bosher, Lee; Wilby, Rob; Yang, Lili; Ryley, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Urban areas are increasingly susceptible to surface water flooding, with more intense precipitation and intensification of land development. Flooding has both direct impacts i.e. locations inundated with water, and indirect impacts i.e. transport networks, utility e.g. electricity/water services etc. The direct areas flooded evolve in space through the event, and are predicted by standard inundation models. However, the wider indirect impacts and the spatial-temporal patterns are less constrained and it is these that are needed to manage the impacts in real-time. This paper focusses on the Category One responders of the Fire and Rescue and Ambulance Services in the City of Leicester, East Midlands, UK. Leicester is ranked 16th out of 4215 settlements at risk of surface water flooding in the UK based upon the population at risk (15,200 people) (DEFRA, 2009). The analysis undertaken involved overlaying the flood extent with the Integrated Transport Network (ITN) data within a GIS framework. Then a simple transport routing algorithm was used to predict the travel time from specific nodes representing ambulance or fire stations to different parts of the city. Flood magnitudes with 1:20, 1:100 and 1:1000 return periods have been investigated. Under a scenario of no flooding, 100% of the city is accessible by the six fire stations in the city. However, in the 1 in 20 year surface water flood event the peak inundation results in 66.5% being accessible in the 10 minute permitted time and 6% is totally inaccessible. This falls to 40% and 13% respectively for the 1 in 100 year event. Maps show the area of the city that are accessible by two or more stations within the permitted response time, which shows these areas are the most resilient to surface water flooding. However, it isn't just the peak water depths at every location which impacts accessibility within the city but the spatial-temporal patterns of the inundation. The areas within the 10 minute response time expand

  7. Feasibility and Acceptability of Screening and Brief Interventions to Address Alcohol and Other Drug Use among Patients Presenting for Emergency Services in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Myers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence from high income countries, it is not known whether screening and brief interventions (SBI for alcohol and other drug (AOD use are feasible to implement in low and middle income countries. This paper describes the feasibility and acceptability of a peer-led SBI for AOD-using patients presenting with injuries at emergency services in Cape Town, South Africa. Data were extracted from program records on the number of eligible patients screened and the number of program refusals. A questionnaire examined preliminary responses to the intervention for 30 patients who had completed the program and 10 emergency personnel. Peer counselors were also interviewed to identify barriers to implementation. Of the 1458 patients screened, 21% (305 met inclusion criteria, of which 74% (225 were enrolled in the intervention. Of the 30 patients interviewed, most (83% found the program useful. Emergency personnel were supportive of the program but felt that visibility and reach could improve. Peer counselors identified the need for better integration of the program into emergency services and for additional training and support. In conclusion, with limited additional resources, peer-led SBIs for AOD use are feasible to conduct in South African emergency services and are acceptable to patients and emergency personnel.

  8. Medical Planning and Care in Radiation Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a broad effort intended to mitigate the consequences of radiation accidents, the United States Atomic Energy Commission has developed a program to train physicians and to orient hospital staffs in the treatment of accident victims. Seminars have been conducted to date for approximately 120 physicians on medical planning and care in radiation accidents. This paper presents the scope and specific topics covered in the seminars, together with an analysis of. experience gained during development and presentation of the seminars. More recently the program has been expanded to encompass orientation of hospital administrators and other para-medical personnel on the handling and admittance of victims of radiation accidents. The latter problem is the subject of a new color film premiered at the Symposium. (author)

  9. A simulation model for emergency medical services call centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, M. van; Kommer, G.J.; Mei, R.D. van der; Bhulai, S.

    2015-01-01

    In pre-hospital health care the call center plays an important role in the coordination of emergency medical services (EMS). An EMS call center handles inbound requests for EMS and dispatches an ambulance if necessary. The time needed for triage and dispatch is part of the total response time to the

  10. Expanding Global Production Networks: The emergence, evolution and the developmental impact of the offshore service sector in the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Kleibert

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary globalisation is characterised by an expansion of global production networks in services. Developments in information and communications technology have enabled the relocation of services across national borders, or, the offshoring of services. This has had profound implications for whe

  11. Sudden Environmental Pollution Accident Emergency Monitoring of Thinking%突发性环境污染事故应急监测的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈继明

    2014-01-01

    Based on the sudden environmental pollution accident emergency monitoring scheme is analyzed, from five aspects elaborated the emergency monitoring programme content, and summarizes common emergency monitoring technology and method, the sudden pollution accident emergency measures are put forward.%通过对突发性的环境污染事故应急监测方案进行分析,从五个方面阐述了应急监测方案的内容,并对目前常用的应急监测技术和方法进行总结,提出突发性污染事故的应急措施。

  12. Accident evolution and barrier function and accident evolution management modeling of nuclear power plant incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every analysis of an accident or an incident is founded on a more or less explicit model of what an accident is. On a general level, the current approach models an incident or accident in a nuclear power plant as a failure to maintain a stable state with all variables within their ranges of stability. There are two main sets of subsystems in continuous interaction making up the analyzed system, namely the human-organizational and the technical subsystems. Several different but related approaches can be chosen to model an accident. However, two important difficulties accompany such modeling: the high level of system complexity and the very infrequent occurrence of accidents. The current approach acknowledges these problems and focuses on modeling reported incidents/accidents or scenarios selected in probabilistic risk assessment analyses to be of critical importance for the safety of a plant

  13. Research of the improvement of the process, organization, etc. related to the emergency correspondence of JNES based on the cause analysis about emergency correspondence of JNES in case of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the time of the occurrence of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident, JNES implemented various emergency correspondences. On the other hand, various organizations published the report about the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. In them, the problems about the regulatory body's regulatory process, regulatory organization, etc. are also pointed out. JNES is a designated public institution. JNES is required to improve process, organization, etc. related to emergency correspondence continuously based on the lessons learned obtained from the emergency corresponding experience about the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. Specifically, the following activities will be implemented in the 2014 and 2015 fiscal year. 1. Collect systematically and comprehensively the information about emergency correspondence of JNES in case of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident, and create the timeline of the event. 2. Specify problems and analyze human factors and organizational factors. 3. Specify the requirements for establishing a designated public institution's emergency correspondence based on the viewpoint of a human and an organization. 4. Publish the report which indicates collected information, the contents of analysis, proposals of improvement, etc. (author)

  14. Understanding accident investigators : a study of the required skills and behaviours for effective UK inspectors of accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Flaherty, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    In the UK, accidents associated with maritime, aviation and rail transport are conducted by the Inspectors of Accidents at the Marine, Air and Rail Accident Investigation Branches. A review of current academic literature provides little insight into the qualities and attributes essential for the role of accident investigator. A wealth of material exists about accidents themselves but as yet, a study into the profile of the accident investigator has not been conducted. This research soug...

  15. Investigation of Qom Rural Area Water Network Accident in 2010 and Minimization Approaches of Accident Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study : Accidents in water networks can lead to increase the uncounted water, costs of repair, maintenance, restoration and enter water contaminants to water network. The aim of this study is to survey the accidents of Qom rural water network and choose the right approaches to reduce the number of accidents. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, four sector of Qom province (Markazi, Dastjerd, Kahak and Qahan, were assessed over a period of 8 months (July – January 2010. This study was conducted through questionnaire of Ministry of Energy. Results: The total number of accidents was 763. The highest number of accidents in the four sectors was related to Markazi sector with 228 accidents. According to the time of the accident, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to September (19.7% and November (6.8%, respectively. According to the location of the accident on network, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to distribution network (64% and connections (17.5% and transmission pipe (18.34%, respectively. According to the type of the accident, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to breaking (47.8% and gasket failure (1.2%, respectively. Considering with the pipes’ material, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to polyethylene pipes (93% and steel and cast iron pipes (0.5%, 0.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Due to the high break rate of Polyethylene pipes, it is recommended to be placed in priority of leak detection and rehabilitation.   .

  16. Assessment methods and minimization of radiological consequences of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with the program system COSYMA for assessing the radiological consequences of nuclear accidents, performed since 1997 in close co-operation with the University of Delft, NL, and the NRPB, UK, have been terminated and fully documented. Work on the real-time on-line decision support system RODOS for off-site emergency management after nuclear accidents has concentrated on the preparation of the operational version PV 4.0; it will be released by mid 2000. It has been developed and customised to the various regions of Europe in close co-operation with some 40 contract partners in East and West Europe. The operational use of the RODOS system at a central place in Germany and in emergency centres of other West and East European countries is in progress. (orig.)

  17. President's Commission and the normal accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter incorporates the major points of an analysis of the accident at Three Mile Island that I prepared in September 1979. In contrast to the findings of the President's Commission (1979), I did not view the accident as the result of operator error, an inept utility, or a negligent Nuclear Regulatory Commission but as a consequence of the complexity and interdependence that characterize the system itself. I argued that the accident was inevitable-that is, that it could not have been prevented, foreseen, or quickly terminated, because it was incomprehensible. It resembled other accidents in nuclear plants and in other high risk, complex and highly interdependent operator-machine systems; none of the accidents were caused by management or operator ineptness or by poor government regulation, though these characteristics existed and should have been expected. I maintained that the accident was normal, because in complex systems there are bound to be multiple faults that cannot be avoided by planning and that operators cannot immediately comprehend

  18. An Introduction to Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Pre-Hospital Phase. Emergency Medical Services Orientation, Lesson Plan No. 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Derrick P.

    Designed for use with interested students at high schools, community colleges, and four-year colleges, this lesson plan was developed to provide an introduction to the pre-hospital phase of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and to serve as a recruitment tool for the EMS Program at Kapiolani Community College (KCC) in Hawaii. The objectives of the…

  19. National registration of accidents in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsson, O; Axelsson, J

    1992-01-01

    Community based registration of accidents has been employed in Iceland from 1987. A form developed in the emergency ward at the city Hospital of Reykjavik has been used for the registration. The following issues have been registered: the type and the seriousness of the injury, treatment, place of accident and time of accident. Health centres in Iceland have been computerized from 1976. At the time being about half of the health centres participate in the registration with the information included in the form as the source. Every health center has its well defined district. The accidents among the inhabitants in each district is registered, while accidents among other people, e.g. tourists, is registered separately. At this moment 183,000 out of a total number of 259,000 inhabitants are covered by the registration, i.e. 71% of the population. In 1989 the frequency of accidents was 198 per 100,000 inhabitants. 26% of the accidents occurred at home, 11% at work, 9% during physical activity, 6% was traffic accidents, whereas the same proportion occurred at school. This registration system has been created as a result of annual conferences on accidents arranged by the Director General of public health since 1984. Representatives for the following parties have been invited; medical doctors working in hospitals and health centres, clinical nurses, physiotherapists, the National Insurance Service, other insurance companies, rescue and ambulance personal, fire departments, the Automobile Association, the communication Council. Local communities members of the parliament, voluntary organizations, e.g. Red Cross, the Sea Rescue Service and the Aviation Board. This activity has stimulated measures aiming at preventing accidents in several local communities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1285816

  20. [Practice report: Structured training to improve quality of care in emergency medical service. On-scene supervision: A new approach to emergency medical service training in Wiesbaden and Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häske, David; Kreinest, Michael; Wölfl, Christoph G; Frank, Christian; Brodermann, Götz; Horter, Johannes; Suda, Arnold J; Gliwitzky, Bernhard; Beckers, Stefan K; Stöckle, Ulrich; Münzberg, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the emergency medical services in Wiesbaden and the Rheingau-Taunus district made great efforts to standardise structures. Since there are only few established procedures in the annual examinations for paramedics, there is reason to assume that treatment procedures for patients have not been standardised either. Materials and equipment are not handled uniformly, and employee satisfaction has significantly decreased over the last few years. To solve these problems, all paramedics undergo standardised and structured trainings. These training courses make use of the internationally accepted PHTLS (Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support) and AMLS (Advanced Life Support Medial) programmes. In addition, practising skills and handling the equipment as well as on-scene supervision is to be established in practical training sessions.

  1. Emerging Patterns of Service for Citizen Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrance, Joan C.

    1979-01-01

    Focuses on the role that citizen groups--both grass roots and nationally affiliated--play in local communities, examines the history of these groups, describes their activities, presents research findings, and sketches library service trends in several communities. References are included. (FM)

  2. Epidemiology of Emergency Medical Services-Assessed Mass Casualty Incidents according to Causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju Ok; Shin, Sang Do; Song, Kyoung Jun; Hong, Ki Jeong; Kim, Jungeun

    2016-03-01

    To effectively mitigate and reduce the burden of mass casualty incidents (MCIs), preparedness measures should be based on MCIs' epidemiological characteristics. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics and outcomes of emergency medical services (EMS)-assessed MCIs from multiple areas according to cause. Therefore, we extracted the records of all MCIs that involved ≥ 6 patients from an EMS database. All patients involved in EMS-assessed MCIs from six areas were eligible for this study, and their prehospital and hospital records were reviewed for a 1-year period. The EMS-assessed MCIs were categorized as being caused by fire accidents (FAs), road traffic accidents (RTAs), chemical and biological agents (CBs), and other mechanical causes (MECHs). A total of 362 EMS-assessed MCIs were identified, with a crude incidence rate of 0.6-5.0/100,000 population. Among these MCIs, 322 were caused by RTAs. The MCIs involved 2,578 patients, and 54.3% of these patients were women. We observed that the most common mechanism of injury varied according to MCI cause, and that a higher number of patients per incident was associated with a longer prehospital time. The highest hospital admission rate was observed for CBs (16 patients, 55.2%), and most patients in RTAs and MECHs experienced non-severe injuries. The total number of deaths was 32 (1.2%). An EMS-assessed MCI database was established using the EMS database and medical records review. Our findings indicate that RTA MCIs create a burden on EMS and emergency department resources, although CB MCIs create a burden on hospitals' resources. PMID:26955248

  3. Effects of work-related sleep restriction on acute physiological and psychological stress responses and their interactions: A review among emergency service personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Wolkow; Sally Ferguson; Brad Aisbett; Luana Main

    2015-01-01

    Emergency work can expose personnel to sleep restriction. Inadequate amounts of sleep can negatively affect physiological and psychological stress responses. This review critiqued the emergency service literature (e.g., firefighting, police/law enforcement, defense forces, ambulance/paramedic personnel) that has investigated the effect of sleep restriction on hormonal, inflammatory and psychological responses. Furthermore, it investigated if a psycho-physiological approach can help contextual...

  4. Development and Application of Lagrangian Particle Tracking Method in Emergency Response of Nuclear Accidents%拉格朗日粒子模型在核事故应急中的开发与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晔; 曹博; 陈义学

    2013-01-01

    A large amount of radioactive materials from nuclear power station were released in Fukushima nuclear accident ,leading to huge damage on the human health neighbor to the station .Simulating the dispersion of the radionuclide in the atmosphere is significant for decision makers to take steps to control the pollution .A Lagrangian particle tracking method was vividly created to simulate the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclide around the world ,and the result was compared with HotSpot’s result .The results show the concentrations calculated by the two models are similarity ,however , the concentrations calculated by Lagrangian particle tracking method change more quickly than HotSpot’s results ,fit the truth better .The Lagrangian particle tracking method can simulate the diffusion process of the nuclear power station accident ,and the result of simulation can provide more actual information for early emergency and consequence assessment .%福岛核电站事故中,大量放射性核素泄漏到空气中,对周围居民健康造成了严重威胁。准确模拟计算事故后放射性核素的弥散分布,有利于提出有效且可行的污染控制方法。本文通过自行开发的拉格朗日粒子模拟程序,真实直观地描述了核事故情况下放射性核素的扩散规律,并与HotSpot高斯烟羽程序进行了对比。结果表明,两者计算结果具有一定的相似性,但利用拉格朗日粒子模型计算求出的浓度变化速度更快,较符合实际情况。说明拉格朗日粒子模型能较好地模拟核事故发生条件下的大气扩散程度,可为早期应急和后果评价提供较精确的信息。

  5. Radiation dose in lungs and gonads due to radiographic exams in patients at an emergency hospital service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrantes, Marcos E.S.; Heeren, Arno [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Curso de Mestrado em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares]. E-mail: marcosabrantes2003@yahoo.com.br; heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br; Silva, Teogenes Augusto da; Lacerda, Marco A.S.; Guedes, E. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: silvata@cdtn.br; masl@cdtn.br; ecg@cdtn.br

    2007-07-01

    Radiographic exams for diagnostic purposes of patients undergoing emergence attendance situations are done at technique and geometrical conditions very difficult to be standardized. Exposure parameters like entrance skin air-kerma, skin-focus distance, irradiated area sizes, total filtration and others vary from patient to patient accordingly to their biotype and they cause large variations in the radiation dose. Radiographic exposure conditions observed in an emergency hospital service were simulated in the PCXMC software to evaluate organ doses in lung and gonads for a 1.74 m height, 71.1 kg weigh adult patient. Exposure parameters were varied within determined ranges and respective variations of the organ doses were evaluated. As an example, for the pelvis radiation exposure under determined conditions results showed that the uterus, the ovaries or the testicles would get, respectively, 1.05, 0.65 or 2.96 mGy. Doses in the same organs would be reduced at 22%, 32.3% or 7%, if the field sizes were reduced 1 cm. For the trunk radiation exposure, the lung dose was 47% lower than 0.25 mGy for the same 1 cm field size reduction. Results show that optimization can be suggested to achieve organ dose reduction without any prejudice to the diagnostic exam. (author)

  6. Method for the development of emergency response preparedness for nuclear or radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report supplements IAEA emergency preparedness guidance published in the 1980s, and is consistent with the new international guidance. It provides practical advice for the development of an emergency response capability based on the potential nature and magnitude of the risk. In order to apply this method, emergency planners should have a good understanding of the basic radiological emergency response principles. Therefore, other applicable international guidance should be reviewed before using this report. This report provides a practical step-by-step method for developing integrated user, local and national emergency response capabilities. It can also be used as the basis for conducting an audit of an existing emergency response capability

  7. 武警部队反恐处突车载手术检验方舱车的研制%Research of Surgery and Inspection Shelter Vehicle for Dealing with Emergency and Phobic Accident by Armed Police Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范斌; 卢明; 樊毫军; 侯世科

    2012-01-01

    Objective To research surgery and inspection shelter vehicle with characteristics of high integration, high mobility, full treatment function, and easy to be operated, focused on how to carry out medical safeguard task of dealing with emergency and phobic accident. Methods The vehicle was modified using the field operation vehicle assessed by general logistics department of the PLA as the basic form of technology, which was divided into surgery shelter and medical techniques inspection shelter. Results Two functions including surgery and inspection could be realized at the same time. There was no need to set up tents and load and unload the relevant medical equipment. The functions including air-conditioning, electric heating, disinfection and sterilization that did not possess in the original tent were added, and the operation time of the vehicle by two operators took only 20 min. Conclusion Surgery and inspection shelter vehicle has the characteristics of high integration, high mobility, fast response ability, which can replace the storehouse in the usual time, and also can start at the first time and carry out the on-site treatment when dealing with emergencies and natural disasters. [Chinese Medical Equipment Journal,2011,33(3):79-80]%目的:围绕如何展开“反恐处突、抢险救灾”医疗保障任务,研制车载手术检验方舱车,具有集成度高、机动性强、救治功能齐备、操作方便等特点.方法:以总后定型野战手术车为基本技术形式进行改装,将车载方舱划分为外科手术和医技检验2个舱.结果:可同时实现手术和检验2种功能,无需再搭建帐篷和装卸展开相关医疗装备,增加了原帐篷内手术和检验不具备的空调、电暖、消毒灭菌功能,2人展收作业只需20 min.结论:手术检验方舱车集成度高、机动性强、反应速度快,在平时可以车代库;应对突发事件、自然灾害时,可在第一时间出发,展开现场救治.

  8. Investigation of Qom Rural Area Water Network Accident in 2010 and Minimization Approaches of Accident Frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian; Ahmad Reza Yari; Mohsen Ansari; Shahram Nazari; Mohamad Saberi Bidgoli; Gharib Majidi

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims of the Study : Accidents in water networks can lead to increase the uncounted water, costs of repair, maintenance, restoration and enter water contaminants to water network. The aim of this study is to survey the accidents of Qom rural water network and choose the right approaches to reduce the number of accidents. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, four sector of Qom province (Markazi, Dastjerd, Kahak and Qahan), were assessed over a period of 8 mon...

  9. Principles for establishing intervention levels for the protection of the public in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide is based on the report of an Advisory Group which met in Vienna in October 1984 in order to develop guidance on the radiation protection principles concerning emergency response planning and the establishment of intervention levels to be applied for the protection of the public in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency. It considers the relationship between emergency response planning and various accident sequences, examines the pathways for radiation exposure and the sources of advice to decision makers during each of the three main accident phases, and specifies the dosimetric quantities that apply. The relevant pathological effects that must be protected against are summarized and the measures that may need to be implemented to provide protection with respect to each of the exposure pathways are discussed. It sets out the principles which underline decisions on intervention planning for each of the accident phases, gives guidance on dose values for the introduction of relevant protective measures and considers the application of cost-benefit analysis and the determination of the optimum dose level at which to withdraw protective measures

  10. Introduction to the constructive idea of Guangdong command center for nuclear accident emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article introduced the constructive idea of Guangdong Command Center for Nuclear Accident briefly through the general design program and thoughts, functional demand, elements of the agency and each functional department, the network design and the requirement of system integraty. The functional requirement